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Sample records for laying hen model

  1. Prediction of feather damage in laying hens using optical flows and Markov models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoung-joo; Roberts, Stephen J; Drake, Kelly A; Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2011-04-06

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a major welfare and production problem for commercial egg producers, resulting in mortality, loss of production as well as welfare issues for the damaged birds. Damaging outbreaks of feather pecking are currently impossible to control, despite a number of proposed interventions. However, the ability to predict feather damage in advance would be a valuable research tool for identifying which management or environmental factors could be the most effective interventions at different ages. This paper proposes a framework for forecasting the damage caused by injurious pecking based on automated image processing and statistical analysis. By frame-by-frame analysis of video recordings of laying hen flocks, optical flow measures are calculated as indicators of the movement of the birds. From the optical flow datasets, measures of disturbance are extracted using hidden Markov models. Based on these disturbance measures and age-related variables, the levels of feather damage in flocks in future weeks is predicted. Applying the proposed method to real-world datasets, it is shown that the disturbance measures offer improved predictive values for feather damage thus enabling an identification of flocks with probable prevalence of damage and injury later in lay.

  2. Physiological stress in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mumma, J Odihambo; Thaxton, J P; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Dodson, W L

    2006-04-01

    Stress responses in laying hens were mediated by continuous infusion of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) via osmotic pumps. The ACTH was dissolved in saline solution (0.85%), and each pump delivered 8 IU of ACTH per kilogram of BW per day at the rate of 1 microL/h for 7 d. Control hens received pumps loaded with saline. Measurements were made at 6 d postpump implantation, unless otherwise indicated. The ACTH-treatment increased BW and total carcass, rear half of carcass, intestinal, and liver weights. Proximate analyses of liver showed increases in dry weight, moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and ash content. Weights of the front half of the carcass, as well as weights of the abdominal fat pad, heart, head, feet, and skin were unaffected by ACTH-treatment. Plasma corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins were increased by ACTH, whereas triglycerides were decreased. Feed and water intake, total excreta, and excretory DM were all increased in ACTH-treated hens. The ACTH decreased carbohydrate in excreta, whereas ash, protein, fiber, and gross energy of excreta were unaffected. The ACTH did not affect digestibility of dry matter, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, or gross energy; however, absorption of ash, protein, carbohydrates, and gross energy were increased by ACTH. Antibody levels to sheep red blood cells, cell-mediated immunity (wattle index to phytohemagglutinin-phosphate), and relative spleen weight were reduced by ACTH, whereas heterophil:lymphocyte ratio was increased. Reproduction in hens was negatively affected by ACTH treatment, as measured by cessation of laying on the third day of treatment, atretic follicles, and decreased oviduct weight.

  3. Laying hens learn to avoid feathers.

    PubMed

    Harlander-Matauschek, A; Wassermann, F; Zentek, J; Bessei, W

    2008-09-01

    Previous work demonstrated an association between feather pecking and feather eating in laying hens. This raised the question if digestive feedback affects feather eating or feather pecking in laying hens. We hypothesized that feathers enriched with sugar form a positive feedback and feathers enriched with quinine sulfate form a negative feedback. Forty-eight laying hens were kept in individual cages and fed a pelleted diet ad libitum. Twenty-four birds were offered feathers on a daily basis; 12 of these birds were offered feathers soaked in 4% quinine sulfate solution (Q), and the other 12 were offered feathers soaked in 4% sucrose solution (S). The other 24 birds were kept as a control (C) without access to feathers. After a 10-d feather feeding period, 3 groups of 4 S and 4 C birds each and 3 groups of 4 Q and 4 C birds each were assembled. Feather-pecking behavior was recorded over a period of 8 d. The number of Q feathers eaten was significantly lower than the number of S feathers. Birds that were offered Q feathers in the feather feeding phase showed significantly less severe feather pecking than S and C birds. The results clearly show that Q as an unpalatable substance was the signal the animal used to avoid damaging the feather cover in laying hens.

  4. Demand for nest boxes in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J J; Appleby, M C

    1996-04-01

    Domestic hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from commercial laying strains have been selected for high egg yield and may lay over 300 eggs in their working lives. In conventional wire cages, there is little opportunity to perform either nest seeking or nest building activities, which may lead to frustration each time an egg is laid. To measure the demand for a well-defined nest-site, which may act as a consummatory stimulus for nest seeking behaviour and an appetitive stimulus for nest building behaviour, 16 hens were allowed to work to gain access to a pen containing two littered, enclosed nest boxes. The cost of access to the nest boxes was varied by changing the width of the vertical gap, which divided a home pen containing food, water and a perch from the pen containing the nest boxes (gaps of 220, 140, 125, 110 and 95 mm, compared with mean body width of 117 mm). The number of entries to the nest pen declined with narrowing gap, whilst the number of failed attempts to enter rose, but all 16 hens persevered with entering the nest pen prior to oviposition and laid in the nest boxes. Between 120 and 30 min to oviposition hens made many entries with the 220 mm gap (27.6), but this declined to no entries with 95 mm gap. Hens made few entries in the last half hour prior to ovipositoin (1.3) but there was no significant decline in entries as the gap narrowed (1.1 with 95 mm gap). The number of nest inspections and nest entries also declined with width of gap, but there was no effect on time spent in the nest boxes. Hens passed gaps of 220, and 140 mm to return to the nest pen following oviposition, but did not pass gaps of 125, 110 or 95 mm. We therefore conclude that the narrow gap width can be used to assess the demand for environmental requirements. Hens were willing to pay a high cost to gain access to a nest box prior to oviposition, so prelaying behaviour may be frustrated in hens without a well-defined, littered nest site.

  5. Effects of repeated oral corticosterone administration on performance and stress parameters of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of repeated stress during rearing on performance and physiology of laying hens was studied using a corticosterone (Cort) model. 240 Hisex laying hens were reared in environmentally controlled battery cages. At 7, 11, and 15 wk of age they were exposed for 1 wk to the following treatments...

  6. VEGFR2-Targeted Ultrasound Imaging Agent Enhances the Detection of Ovarian Tumors at Early Stage in Laying Hens, a Preclinical Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barua, Animesh; Yellapa, Aparna; Bahr, Janice M; Machado, Sergio A; Bitterman, Pincas; Basu, Sanjib; Sharma, Sameer; Abramowicz, Jacques S

    2015-07-01

    Tumor-associated neoangiogenesis (TAN) is an early event in ovarian cancer (OVCA) development. Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by TAN vessels presents a potential target for early detection by ultrasound imaging. The goal of this study was to examine the suitability of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound contrast agents in detecting spontaneous OVCA in laying hens. Effects of VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents in enhancing the intensity of ultrasound imaging from spontaneous ovarian tumors in hens were examined in a cross-sectional study. Enhancement in the intensity of ultrasound imaging was determined before and after injection of VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents. All ultrasound images were digitally stored and analyzed off-line. Following scanning, ovarian tissues were collected and processed for histology and detection of VEGFR2-expressing microvessels. Enhancement in visualization of ovarian morphology was detected by gray-scale imaging following injection of VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents. Compared with pre-contrast, contrast imaging enhanced the intensities of ultrasound imaging significantly (p < 0.0001) irrespective of the pathological status of ovaries. In contrast to normal hens, the intensity of ultrasound imaging was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in hens with early stage OVCA and increased further in hens with late stage OVCA. Higher intensities of ultrasound imaging in hens with OVCA were positively correlated with increased (p < 0.0001) frequencies of VEGFR2-expressing microvessels. The results of this study suggest that VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents enhance the visualization of spontaneous ovarian tumors in hens at early and late stages of OVCA. The laying hen may be a suitable model to test new imaging agents and develop targeted therapeutics.

  7. Heterosis in normal versus dwarf laying hens.

    PubMed

    Merat, P; Minvielle, F; Bordas, A; Coquerelle, G

    1994-01-01

    The effect of genotype at the sex-linked dwarf locus on heterosis in crosses between a White Leghorn and a brown egg line for body weight, egg production, and related traits was studied. Heterozygous Dw/dw males were used to produce normal and dwarf pullets in each of the pure lines and their reciprocal crosses (eight genotype-line combinations). There were 54 pullets per combination. Line differences were significant for shank length, body weights at 8, 17, and 52 wk, age at first egg, egg number, clutch length, rate of lay, and egg weight. Heterosis was observed for all of these traits. Body weight as a covariate was not important in analyses of egg number, clutch length, and egg weight. The egg production reduction associated with the dw gene in pure lines was smaller in F1 hens. This discovery may be adequate to warrant use of dwarf crossbred hens for egg production.

  8. Perch use by laying hens in a commercial aviary1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D. L. M.; Makagon, M. M.; Swanson, J. C.; Siegford, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-cage housing systems, such as the aviary, are being implemented by the laying hen industry, including in North America, in an attempt to improve the welfare of hens. Perches are a resource that is consistently included in aviaries. Hens are strongly motivated to perch, and perching can improve leg bone strength. However, hens may prefer elevated perches, particularly at night, and thus simply providing perches is not enough to improve welfare; they must be provided in a way that allows all hens to access them. Observations of laying hens using perches and ledges (flat, solid metal shelves to assist hens’ movement between tiers) in a commercial aviary revealed variation in where hens roosted within the tiered aviary enclosure across the flock cycle (peak, mid and end of lay; P < 0.001 for all age points). Hens most often preferred roosting in the highest enclosure levels, leading to crowding on upper perches and ledges while perch space remained available on lower levels. Restricted access to preferable perches may cause frustration in hens, leading to welfare issues. Hens roosted more on perches at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001) but roosted less on ledges at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001). Additionally, more hens roosted on both perches and ledges in the ‘dark’ observation period compared with the number of hens roosting during the ‘light’ observation period (P < 0.001). Further research should look at all structural elements within the system that are used by hens for roosting, such as edges of tiers and upper wire floors, to evaluate how changes in perching preferences across the lay cycle may correlate with system design and bird-based parameters. PMID:26994206

  9. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  10. Expression of Leukocyte Inhibitory Immunoglobulin-like Transcript 3 Receptors by Ovarian Tumors in Laying Hen Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Faisal; Bahr, Janice M; Yellapa, Aparna; Bitterman, Pincas; Abramowicz, Jacques S; Edassery, Seby L; Basu, Sanjib; Rotmensch, Jacob; Barua, Animesh

    2012-04-01

    Attempts to enhance a patient's immune response and ameliorate the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer (OVCA) have largely been unsuccessful owing to the suppressive tumor microenvironment. Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 (ILT3) inhibitory receptors have been implicated in immunosuppression in several malignancies. The expression and role of ILT3 in the progression of ovarian tumors are unknown. This study examined the expression and association of ILT3 in ovarian tumors in laying hens, a spontaneous preclinical model of human OVCA. White Leghorn laying hens were selected by transvaginal ultrasound scanning. Serum and normal ovaries or ovarian tumors were collected. The presence of tumors and the expression of ILT3 were examined by routine histology, immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition to stromal immune cell-like cells, the epithelium of the ovarian tumors also expressed ILT3 with significantly high intensity than normal ovaries. Among different subtypes of ovarian carcinomas, serous OVCA showed the highest ILT3 staining intensity, whereas endometrioid OVCA had the lowest intensity. Similar to humans, an immunoreactive protein band of approximately 55 kDa for ILT3 was detected in the ovarian tumors in hens. The patterns of ILT3 protein and messenger RNA expression by ovarian tumors in different subtypes and stages were similar to those of immunohistochemical staining. The results of this study suggest that laying hens may be useful to generate information on ILT3-associated immunosuppression in OVCA. This animal model also offers the opportunity to develop and test anti-ILT3 immunotherapy to enhance antitumor immunity against OVCA in humans.

  11. [Fatty liver syndrome in laying hens].

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, A; Antonov, S; Stoianov, P; Petrova, L; Aleksandrova, E

    1980-01-01

    Pathomorphological and biochemical investigations on liver and blood serum laying hens affected by the liver obesity syndrome were carried out. It was established that the mortality due to the liver obesity syndrome varies within the range of 3.1 and 3.7% for the entire period of exploitation. A rise in mortality is observed in case fodder mixtures with higher peroxide and aldehyde number are prepared. Besides the typical changes in the liver, the pathologo-anatomical investigation established varying in its expression duodenitis of rupture of the liver and hemorrhage. In hens suffering from advanced liver obesity an increased content of total protein in the blood serum was observed. The relative and absolute content of prealbumens and albumens was also higher, while the content of globulins was relatively lower. The content of beta-lipoproteins was raised and total lipids in the blood serum were considerably increased. The investigation on total lipids and lipid fractions in the liver established a correlation between the extent of obesity and the content of total lipids. A trend toward increasing the total and particularly the esterificated holesterin was evident in affected birds. The chemical investigation of various lots of fodder mixtures established often cases of rancid fats, which was manifested by high values of the peroxide and aldehyde number. The aminoacid composition of fodder also varied too much. It is assumed that besides the genetic control of liver obesity rancid fats and insufficient content of essential amino acids in the fodder mixtures also lead to an increased mortality percentage in the affected birds.

  12. Interleukin 16- (IL-16-) Targeted Ultrasound Imaging Agent Improves Detection of Ovarian Tumors in Laying Hens, a Preclinical Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barua, Animesh; Yellapa, Aparna; Bahr, Janice M; Adur, Malavika K; Utterback, Chet W; Bitterman, Pincas; Basu, Sanjib; Sharma, Sameer; Abramowicz, Jacques S

    2015-01-01

    Limited resolution of transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) scanning is a significant barrier to early detection of ovarian cancer (OVCA). Contrast agents have been suggested to improve the resolution of TVUS scanning. Emerging evidence suggests that expression of interleukin 16 (IL-16) by the tumor epithelium and microvessels increases in association with OVCA development and offers a potential target for early OVCA detection. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility of IL-16-targeted contrast agents in enhancing the intensity of ultrasound imaging from ovarian tumors in hens, a model of spontaneous OVCA. Contrast agents were developed by conjugating biotinylated anti-IL-16 antibodies with streptavidin coated microbubbles. Enhancement of ultrasound signal intensity was determined before and after injection of contrast agents. Following scanning, ovarian tissues were processed for the detection of IL-16 expressing cells and microvessels. Compared with precontrast, contrast imaging enhanced ultrasound signal intensity significantly in OVCA hens at early (P < 0.05) and late stages (P < 0.001). Higher intensities of ultrasound signals in OVCA hens were associated with increased frequencies of IL-16 expressing cells and microvessels. These results suggest that IL-16-targeted contrast agents improve the visualization of ovarian tumors. The laying hen may be a suitable model to test new imaging agents and develop targeted anti-OVCA therapeutics.

  13. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  14. Functional characterization of folic acid transport in the intestine of the laying hen using the everted intestinal sac model.

    PubMed

    Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Karmin, O; House, J D

    2011-01-01

    Absorption at the level of the intestine is likely a primary regulatory mechanism for the deposition of dietary supplemented folic acid into the chicken egg. Therefore, factors affecting the intestinal transport of folic acid in the laying hen may influence the level of egg folate concentrations. To this end, a series of experiments using intestinal everted sacs were conducted to characterize intestinal folic acid absorption processes in laying hens. Effects of naturally occurring folate derivatives (5-methyl and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate) as well as heme on folic acid absorption were also investigated. Folic acid absorption was measured based on the rate of uptake of (3)H-labeled folic acid in the everted sac from various segments of the small and large intestines. Folic acid concentration, incubation length, and pH condition were optimized before the performance of uptake experiments. The distribution profile of folic acid transport along the intestine was highest in the upper half of the small intestine. Maximum uptake rate (nmol·100 g tissue(-1)·min(-1)) was observed in the duodenum (20.6 ± 1.9) and jejunum (22.3 ± 2.0) and decreased significantly in the ileum (15.3 ± 1.1) and cecum (9.3 ± 0.9). Transport increased proportionately (P < 0.05) between 0.0001 and 0.1 µM folic acid. Above 0.1 µM, the slope of the regression line was not significantly different from zero (P < 0.137). Folic acid uptake in the jejunum showed a maximum rate of transport at pH 6.0, but was lowest at pH 7.5. The presence of 5-methyl and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate as well as heme impeded folic acid uptake, reducing intestinal folic acid absorption when added at concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 µM. Overall, these data indicated the presence of a folic acid transport system in the entire intestine of the laying hen. Uptake of folic acid in the cecum raises the likelihood of absorption of bacterial-derived folate.

  15. Determination of space use by laying hens using kinematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mench, Joy A; Blatchford, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Two states in the United States now have legislation requiring that laying hens be provided with sufficient space to perform particular behaviors. To provide a framework for translating these performance standards into a space requirement, kinematic analysis was used to measure the amount of space needed for White Leghorn hens to stand, turn around 180°, lie down, and wing flap. Hyline W-36 hens (n = 9) were marked on the tops of their heads and the tips of both wings and 3 toes with black livestock marker. Each hen was then placed in a floor pen (91.4 × 91.4 cm) and filmed using 2 high-speed cameras. The resulting images were processed using a software program that generated 3-dimensional space use for each behavior. Because none of the hens lay down in the test pen, the 2-dimensional space required for lying was determined by superimposing a grid over videos of the hens lying down in their home cages. On average, hens required a mean area of 563 (± 8) cm(2) to stand, 1,316 (± 23) cm(2) to turn around, 318 (± 6) cm(2) to lie down, and 1,693 (± 136) cm(2) to wing flap. The mean heights used were 34.8 (± 1.3) cm for standing, 38.6 (± 2.3) cm for turning, and 49.5 (± 1.8) cm for wing flapping. However, space requirements for hens housed in multiple-hen groups in cage or noncage systems cannot be based simply on information about the space required for local movement by a single hen. It must also incorporate consideration of the tendency of hens in a flock to synchronize their behaviors. In addition, it must include not just local movement space but also the space that hens may need to use for longer-distance movements to access resources such as food, water, perches, and nest boxes.

  16. Comparison of the coagulation profile of fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome-susceptible laying hens and normal laying hens.

    PubMed

    Thomson, A E; Gentry, P A; Squires, E J

    2003-09-01

    1. The rate of thrombin generation in plasma from Fatty Liver Haemorrhagic Syndrome-susceptible laying hens (FLHS, UCD-003) is more rapid than in plasma from age-matched normal Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) laying hens. 2. The rate of thrombin generation in plasma was determined by measuring the biological activity of the specific coagulation proteins, Factors V, VII, VIII, IX and X. 3. The higher activity of Factors V, VII and X in FLHS-susceptible laying hens compared with normal SCWL hens remained consistent after plasma lipid concentrations were reduced. 4. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids showed that in normal SCWL laying hens phosphatidylethanolamine contained C18:3n3 whereas it contained C20:3n3 in FLHS-susceptible laying hens. 5. The results suggest that alterations in the composition of the phospholipids that are essential cofactors in the biochemical reactions involved in thrombin generation may be a contributing factor in the development of FLHS.

  17. Genetic improvement of laying hens viability using survival analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ducrocq, Vincent; Besbes, Badi; Protais, Michel

    2000-01-01

    The survival of about eight generations of a large strain of laying hens was analysed separating the rearing period (RP) from the production period (PP), after hens were housed. For RP (respectively PP), 97.8% (resp., 94.1% ) of the 109 160 (resp., 100 665) female records were censored after 106 days (resp., 313 days) on the average. A Cox proportional hazards model stratified by flock (= season) and including a hatch-within-flock (HWF) fixed effect seemed to reasonably fit the RP data. For PP, this model could be further simplified to a non-stratified Weibull model. The extension of these models to sire-dam frailty (mixed) models permitted the estimation of the sire genetic variances at 0.261 ± 0.026 and 0.088 ± 0.010 for RP and PP, respectively. Heritabilities on the log scale were equal to 0.48 and 0.19. Non-additive genetic effects could not be detected. Selection was simulated by evaluating all sires and dams, after excluding all records from the last generation. Then, actual parents of this last generation were distributed into four groups according to their own pedigree index. Raw survivor curves of the progeny of extreme parental groups substantially differed (e.g., by 1.7% at 300 days for PP), suggesting that selection based on solutions from the frailty models could be efficient, despite the very large proportion of censored records. PMID:14736405

  18. Serological detection of experimental Salmonella enteritidis infections in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gast, R K; Beard, C W

    1990-01-01

    The antibody response of laying hens to experimental Salmonella enteritidis infection was evaluated in microagglutination, tube agglutination, and rapid whole-blood plate agglutination assays. Hens of three different ages were infected by either oral inoculation or horizontal contact transmission. Blood was collected at weekly intervals, and the presence of specific antibodies was assessed by reaction with antigens prepared from strains of S. enteritidis and S. pullorum. The sensitivity of detection of infected hens did not vary significantly between the assays, as all three tests effectively identified most exposed hens as seropositive. Within each test, however, variation was observed in the detection sensitivity when different antigens were used. The microagglutination titers of serum samples were determined by serial dilution. Antibody titers peaked at 1 to 2 weeks postinoculation and declined steadily, although most birds were still identified as seropositive at 10 weeks postinoculation. The mean microtest titers obtained with S. enteritidis antigens were higher than with an S. pullorum antigen, indicating greater test sensitivity. However, use of the S. pullorum antigen resulted in fewer false positives when sera from uninfected control hens were tested. The titers of contact-exposed hens peaked later and at lower values than did those of inoculated hens, but these two groups of hens had similar antibody titers after the third week postinoculation.

  19. Differential abundance of egg white proteins in laying hens treated with corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimin; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2014-12-24

    Stressful environments can affect not only egg production and quality but also gene and protein abundance in the ovary and oviduct in laying hens. The oviductal magnum of laying hens is the organ responsible for the synthesis and secretion of egg white proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone as a stress model on the abundance of proteins in the egg white and of mRNA and proteins in the magnum in laying hens. After a 14-day acclimation, 40 laying hens were divided into two groups which were provided for the next 14 days with either control (Control) or corticosterone (Stress) diet containing at 30 mg/kg. Corticosterone treatment resulted in increased feed intake (P ≤ 0.05) and decreased egg production. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS using eggs obtained on days 0 and 5 revealed differential abundance of egg white proteins by Stress: transiently expressed in neural precursors (TENP), hemopexin (HPX), IgY-Fcυ3-4, and extracellular fatty acid-binding protein (Ex-FABP) were decreased while ovoinhibitor and ovalbumin-related protein X (OVAX) were increased on days 5 vs 0 (P ≤ 0.05). Expression of mRNAs and proteins was also significantly modulated in the magnum of hens in Stress on day 14 (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the current study provides the first evidence showing that dietary corticosterone modulates protein abundance in the egg white in laying hens, and it suggests that environmental stress can differentially modify expression of egg white proteins in laying hens.

  20. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  1. Dietary safflower phospholipid reduces liver lipids in laying hens.

    PubMed

    An, B K; Nishiyama, H; Tanaka, K; Ohtani, S; Iwata, T; Tsutsumi, K; Kasai, M

    1997-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary safflower phospholipids (crude safflower phospholipid and purified safflower phospholipid) on performance and lipid metabolism of laying hens. Sixty-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were divided into four groups of seven birds each, and were given one of four experimental diets containing 5% beef tallow (served as a control, tallow), a mixture of safflower oil and palm oil (SP-oil), crude safflower phospholipid (Saf-PLcrude), or purified safflower phospholipid (Saf-PL) for 7 wk. Egg production ratio and daily egg mass were significantly higher in hens fed Saf-PLcrude diets than in hens of the other diet groups. There were no significant differences in egg weight among groups. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride contents were significantly decreased in all treated groups as compared with the control. The activity of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was the highest in hens fed the Saf-PLcrude diet. Serum esterified cholesterol concentration was decreased by feeding of SP-oil, Saf-PLcrude, or Saf-PL diets. Serum lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity was highest in hens fed the tallow diet. Excreta neutral steroid excretion was significantly increased in the Saf-PLcrude or Saf-PL diet groups, although acidic steroid excretion was not affected by dietary treatments. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid contents in egg yolks were not different for any dietary treatments. The fatty acid compositions of egg yolks from hens fed Saf-PLcrude diets were not different with those fed the SP-oil diet, although eggs of hens fed the Saf-PL diet showed lower total polyunsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that dietary safflower phospholipids may be a valuable ingredient to layers for reducing liver triglycerides and serum cholesterol without any adverse effects.

  2. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: radio-frequency identification of impacts on range use.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Dyall, T R; Warin, L; Little, B A; Lee, C

    2017-01-01

    The number and size of free-range laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) production systems are increasing within Australia in response to consumer demand for perceived improvement in hen welfare. However, variation in outdoor stocking density has generated consumer dissatisfaction leading to the development of a national information standard on free-range egg labelling by the Australian Consumer Affairs Ministers. The current Australian Model Code of Practice for Domestic Poultry states a guideline of 1500 hens/ha, but no maximum density is set. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tracking technology was used to measure daily range usage by individual ISA Brown hens housed in six small flocks (150 hens/flock - 50% of hens tagged), each with access to one of three outdoor stocking density treatments (two replicates per treatment: 2000, 10 000, 20 000 hens/ha), from 22 to 26, 27 to 31 and 32 to 36 weeks of age. There was some variation in range usage across the sampling periods and by weeks 32 to 36 individual hens from the lowest stocking density on average used the range for longer each day (P<0.001), with fewer visits and longer maximum durations per visit (P<0.001). Individual hens within all stocking densities varied in the percentage of days they accessed the range with 2% of tagged hens in each treatment never venturing outdoors and a large proportion that accessed the range daily (2000 hens/ha: 80.5%; 10 000 hens/ha: 66.5%; 20 000 hens/ha: 71.4%). On average, 38% to 48% of hens were seen on the range simultaneously and used all available areas of all ranges. These results of experimental-sized flocks have implications for determining optimal outdoor stocking densities for commercial free-range laying hens but further research would be needed to determine the effects of increased range usage on hen welfare.

  3. Effects of organic selenium and zinc on the aging process of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to determine whether supplementing the diets of post-molted hens with organic selenium (Se) (Sel-Plex®) and/or organic Zinc (Zn) (Bio-Plex®) could improve laying hen performance. Prior to molting, 120-78 wk old laying hens were separated into four treatment groups of ...

  4. [Food value of spiruline algae for the laying hen].

    PubMed

    Blum, J C; Guillaumin, S; Calet, C

    1975-01-01

    The three diets (composition in table I) were isonitrogenous (16,4 p. 100 crude protein), similar in their content of lysine and sulfur amino acids, but with different levels of spiruline algae : 0 (control); 7.5 or 15 p. 100. Each diet was used for the feeding of 48 hybrid pullets of medium size during a 24-week test period (32 to 56 weeks). Egg production (table II) was slightly better (47.1 g/hen/day) with 7.5 p. 100 of spirulines, compared to the control (45.3 g/hen/day), the difference being significant (P less than 0.01). With 15 p. 100 of spirulines egg production was similar to that observed in the control, but the average egg weight was reduced (58.5 vs 60.5 g) as a result of a lower albumen content. The colour of the egg yolk (table IV) was very light in the controls, but was a deep orange (above the maximum in the Roch scale) with 7.5 or 15 p. 100 of spirulines in the laying hen diet. The diet consumption, feed conversion and live weight variations (table III) show that the energy level is no higher in laying hens (about 2 500 kcal M.E./kg spirulines) than in the broiler.

  5. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  6. Behavioral Differences of Laying Hens with Fractured Keel Bones within Furnished Cages

    PubMed Central

    Casey-Trott, Teresa M.; Widowski, Tina M.

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens is reported in all housing systems. Keel fractures have been associated with pain and restricted mobility in hens in loose housing. The objective was to determine whether keel fractures were associated with activity of hens in furnished cages. Thirty-six pairs of LSL-Lite hens (72 weeks) were enrolled in the study. One hen with a fractured keel and one hen without were identified by palpation in each of 36 groups of hens housed in either 30- or 60-bird cages stocked at 750 cm2/hen. Behavioral activity of each hen was recorded by four observers blind to keel status using focal animal sampling for 10 min within a 2-h period in the morning (08:00–10:00), afternoon (12:00–14:00), and evening (17:00–19:00). All hens were observed during each of the three sample periods for 3 days totaling 90 min, and individual hen data were summed for analysis. Hens were euthanized 48 h after final observations, dissected, and classified by keel status: F0 (no fracture, N = 24), F1 (single fracture, N = 17), and F2 (multiple fractures, N = 31). The percentages of time hens performed each behavior were analyzed using a mixed procedure in SAS with fracture severity, body weight, cage size, rearing environment, and tier in the model. Fracture severity affected the duration of perching (P = 0.04) and standing (P = 0.001), bout length of standing (P < 0.0001), and location (floor vs. perch) of resting behaviors (P = 0.01). F2 hens perched longer than F0 hens, 20.0 ± 2.9 and 11.6 ± 3.2%. F2 hens spent less time standing, 15.2 ± 1.5%, than F0 and F1 hens, 20.7 ± 1.6 and 21.6 ± 1.8%. F2 hens had shorter standing bouts (22.0 ± 4.2 s) than both F0 and F1 hens, 33.1 ± 4.3 and 27.4 ± 4.4 s. Non-fractured hens spent 80.0 ± 6.9% of total resting time on the floor, whereas F1 and F2 hens spent 56.9 ± 12.4 and 51.5 ± 7.7% resting on the floor

  7. Association of Immunosuppression with DR6 Expression during the Development and Progression of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer in Laying Hen Model

    PubMed Central

    McNeal, Sa'Rah; Bitterman, Pincas; Bahr, Janice M.; Edassery, Seby L.; Abramowicz, Jacques S.; Basu, Sanjib

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OVCA) mainly disseminates in the peritoneal cavity. Immune functions are important to prevent OVCA progression and recurrence. The mechanism of immunosuppression, a hallmark of tumor progression, is not well understood. The goal of this study was to determine the immune system's responses and its suppression during OVCA development and progression in hens. Frequencies of CD8+ T cells and IgY-containing cells and expression of immunosuppressors including IRG1 and DR6 in OVCA at early and late stages in hens were examined. Frequencies of stromal but not the intratumoral CD+8 T cells and IgY-containing cells increased significantly (P < 0.01) during OVCA development and progression. Tumor progression was associated with increased expression of IRG1 and DR6 and decreased infiltration of immune cells into the tumor. Frequency of stromal but not intratumoral immune cells increases during OVCA development and progression. Tumor-induced IRG1 and DR6 may prevent immune cells from invading the tumor. PMID:27579331

  8. Association of Immunosuppression with DR6 Expression during the Development and Progression of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer in Laying Hen Model.

    PubMed

    McNeal, Sa'Rah; Bitterman, Pincas; Bahr, Janice M; Edassery, Seby L; Abramowicz, Jacques S; Basu, Sanjib; Barua, Animesh

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OVCA) mainly disseminates in the peritoneal cavity. Immune functions are important to prevent OVCA progression and recurrence. The mechanism of immunosuppression, a hallmark of tumor progression, is not well understood. The goal of this study was to determine the immune system's responses and its suppression during OVCA development and progression in hens. Frequencies of CD8+ T cells and IgY-containing cells and expression of immunosuppressors including IRG1 and DR6 in OVCA at early and late stages in hens were examined. Frequencies of stromal but not the intratumoral CD+8 T cells and IgY-containing cells increased significantly (P < 0.01) during OVCA development and progression. Tumor progression was associated with increased expression of IRG1 and DR6 and decreased infiltration of immune cells into the tumor. Frequency of stromal but not intratumoral immune cells increases during OVCA development and progression. Tumor-induced IRG1 and DR6 may prevent immune cells from invading the tumor.

  9. Air samplings in a Campylobacter jejuni positive laying hen flock.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Marwa Fawzy El Metwaly; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The air in laying hen houses contains high concentrations of airborne bacteria. The numbers of these bacteria can be influenced by the efficiency of the chosen sampling method. In the presented study, AGI-30 Impingers and the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler were compared in terms of their efficiency in sampling aerobic mesophilic bacteria in a laying hen house. Measurements were conducted in a laying hen flock with high prevalences of C. jejuni in order to investigate if culturable cells of this organism can also be detected by the applied methods. Airborne dust was also analyzed for the presence of C. jejuni specific DNA to assess the possible occurrence of non-culturable C. jejuni in the hen house air. The numbers of mesophilic airborne bacteria ranged from 8 × 10(4) - 2 × 10(6) CFU/m(-3) when sampled using AGI-30 Impingers, and from 2 × 10(5) - 4 × 10(6) CFU/m -3 when sampled using a Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler. The concentrations detected simultaneously by both devices correlated well (rPearson = 0.755), but the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler showed a significantly higher sampling efficiency (p<0.001). Although, the within flock prevalence of C. jejuni was high during the experiments (between 70-93%), neither of the air sampling methods could detect culturable C. jejuni from the air. However, C. jejuni specific DNA was detected in 15 out of 18 airborne dust samples by mapA PCR. Based on the results, it can be concluded that airborne culturable C. jejuni were not detectable, even with an efficient air sampler, because of their low concentration. Therefore, the risk of airborne infection to poultry workers on inhaling airborne C. jejuni seems negligible. Also, the transmission of culturable C. jejuni to neighboring farms by the airborne route is unlikely. Otherwise, the detection of airborne C. jejuni specific DNA suggests that non-culturable cells could appear in the hen house air, and in future it should be verified whether sampling stress of the air sampling methods

  10. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

    2011-11-01

    The dopaminergic system is involved in the regulation of aggression in many species, especially via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways. To investigate heritable differences in this regulation, 2 high aggressive strains [Dekalb XL (DXL) and low group egg productivity and survivability (LGPS)] and one low aggressive strain (low group egg productivity and survivability; HGPS) of laying hens were used in the study. The HGPS and LGPS lines were diversely selected using group selection for high and low group production and survivability. The DXL line is a commercial line selected through individual selection based on egg production. Heritable differences in aggressive propensity between the strains have been previously assessed. The birds were pair housed within the same strain and labeled as dominant or subordinate based on behavioral observation. For both experiments 1 and 2, behavioral analysis was performed on all 3 strains whereas neurotransmitter analysis was performed only on the most aggressive (DXL) and least aggressive (HGPS) strains. In experiment 1, the subordinate birds were treated with D1 agonist, D2 agonist, or saline controls (n = 12). In experiment 2, the dominant birds from a separate flock were treated with D1 antagonist, D2 antagonist, or saline controls (n = 12). Treatment-associated changes in aggressive behaviors and central neurotransmitters were measured. Aggression was increased in all strains in response to D1 agonism but increased only in the less aggressive HGPS birds with D2 agonism. Aggression was decreased and hypothalamic serotonin and epinephrine were increased in birds from all strains treated with D2 receptor antagonist. The D1 receptor antagonism elicited different behavioral and neurotransmitter responses based on the aggressive phenotype of the genetic strains. Aggressive strains DXL and LGPS but not the HGPS strain decreased aggressiveness following antagonism of the D1 receptor. The data show evidence for distinct

  11. Analysis on differential expressed genes of ovarian tissue between high- and low-yield laying hen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Song, Ling-Jun; Zeng, Yong-Qing; Yang, Yun; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate molecular genetic mechanism of laying hen reproduction at the transcriptional level and the structure of significantly differential genes, the mRNA differential display and reverse northern dot-blot were used to detect the differential expression of genes in the ovary tissue of low-yield laying hens and high-yield laying hens in the present study. Sixteen 32-week-old CAU-pink laying hens divided into two groups were used and the laying performance was measured. The results showed that only the egg numbers were significantly different between the two groups; and from 15 primer pairs, a total of 336 bands were displayed of which 59 cDNA bands were found to be differentially expressed in both high-yield and low-yield laying hen. The sequence analysis indicated that the expression of such bands as H-AP5, H-P5, and H-P4 was significantly potentiated in high-yield laying hen using primer pairs AP5/HT11G, P5/HT11G and P4/HT11G and these transcripts had high homology (98%) to HoxDb, HoxCa, and HoxBa, respectively. The differentially expressed gene fragments may be relevant to the progression of the high-yield hens to the egg-laying stage. And further study is required to elucidate the molecular function to improve the productivity of laying hens.

  12. The dynamics of Salmonella occurrence in commercial laying hen flocks throughout a laying period.

    PubMed

    Schulz, J; Van Hoorebeke, S; Hald, B; Hartung, J; Van Immerseel, F; Radtke, I; Kabell, S; Dewulf, J

    2011-06-01

    Contaminated eggs and egg products have been recognized for many years as an important source of Salmonella infections in humans in the European Union and in the United States. Longitudinal studies can help to increase our knowledge about the dynamics of the occurrence of Salmonella in the course of a laying period. The total of 41 laying hen flocks-18 in Belgium, six in Denmark and 17 in Germany-were followed during an entire laying period. Samples taken from the empty cleaned and disinfected poultry houses were all negative for Salmonella. After hens arrived on the farms, five pooled faecal samples, one pooled dust sample and 40 cloacal swabs (Belgium and Germany) or 40 swabs from fresh droppings (Denmark) were taken four times from 18 flocks, three times from 21 flocks and two times from two flocks in the course of the laying period. Ten flocks (two Belgian and eight German flocks) tested up to three times positive for Salmonella. Forty-three out of 50 positive samples contained Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (29 isolates) or phage type 8 (14 isolates). The probability of subsequent Salmonella-positive findings increased significantly in Salmonella-positive flocks (P<0.05, odds ratio = 6.4). However, the probability of finding Salmonella did not depend on the time of sampling in the laying period or the season.

  13. Effect of excess dietary fluoride on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Miao, L P; Zhou, M Y; Zhang, X Y; Yuan, C; Dong, X Y; Zou, X T

    2017-03-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of excess dietary fluoride (F) on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of laying hens. A total of 576 laying hens, 51 wk old, was randomly divided into 6 groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 16 hens. Graded amounts of sodium fluoride (NaF) were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 16 (control), 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg F, respectively. Dietary F at 1,000 mg/kg significantly decreased ADFI, laying rate, and average egg weight, and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level or catalase (CAT) concentration among all the treatments, while hens fed F at 800 and 1,000 mg/kg had higher activity of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05) as compared to the control group. Compared with the control group, dietary F at 400 mg/kg increased liver MDA concentration (P < 0.001), and decreased CAT concentration of liver (P < 0.001); 600 mg/kg F decreased liver T-AOC levels (P < 0.001); and 800 mg/kg of F decreased liver total superoxide dismutases (T-SOD) activity (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, feeding F at 600 mg/kg decreased kidney T-AOC levels and T-SOD activity (P < 0.001), and increased MDA concentration of kidney (P < 0.001), while dietary 1,000 mg/kg of F decreased kidney GSH-PX activity (P < 0.05) and CAT concentration (P < 0.001). In conclusion, these results indicated that excessive F ingestion had an adverse effect on laying performance by inducing oxidative stress and impairing the antioxidant system of laying hens.

  14. Effects of dietary L-isoleucine on laying performance and immunomodulation of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dong, X Y; Azzam, M M M; Zou, X T

    2016-10-01

    Isoleucine may be a limiting amino acid for laying hens fed diets with a lowered protein level. An experiment was conducted to examine laying performance and the immune function of laying hens provided diets varying in digestible isoleucine levels during the peak production period. A total number of 400 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 28 wk of age, were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 5 replicates of 16 hens per replicate (4 cages / replicate; 80 hens / treatment). L-isoleucine was added to the experimental diet (14% CP) containing synthetic amino (methionine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine) by zero, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 g/kg, corresponding to 0.54%, 0.64%, 0.74%, 0.84, and 0.94% digestible isoleucine, respectively. At the end of the experiment (wk 40), dietary isoleucine did not affect laying performance or egg quality. Serum albumin concentration increased quadratically (P < 0.05) in response to digestible dietary isoleucine at 0.74%. Serum free isoleucine and lysine increased (P < 0.05) in response to digestible dietary isoleucine at 0.74%. Digestible dietary isoleucine levels did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD). There was no significant (P > 0.05) response of excess digestible isoleucine level on the serum level of IgG, IgA, or IgM. In addition, dietary isoleucine levels did not affect the concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), or interleukin (IL-2 and IL-6) in the ileum. Also, expressions of ileal MUC2 mRNA, sIgA mRNA, and IL-1β mRNA were not changed (P > 0.05) by excess digestible isoleucine level. Furthermore, excess digestible isoleucine level did not change mRNA expression of ileal tight junction protein (claudin-1 and occludin). No effect occurred when isoleucine was supplemented, suggesting that it is

  15. Influence of commercial laying hen housing systems on the incidence and identification of Salmonella and Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The housing of laying hens is important for social, industrial, and regulatory aspects. Many studies have compared hen housing systems on the research farm, but few have fully examined commercial housing systems and management strategies. The current study compared hens housed in commercial cage-f...

  16. Effects of dietary antioxidant on performance and physiological responses following heat stress in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress (HS) causes oxidative damage, increasing mortality and reducing productivity in chickens. The objective of this study was to determine the benefits of antioxidant supplementation in laying hens during HS. Eighty 32-wk-old W-36 White Leghorn hens were used in this study. Hens were randoml...

  17. Litter use by laying hens in a commercial aviary: dust bathing and piling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    The laying hen industry, including in the United States, is responding to social concerns about hen welfare by implementing alternative housing systems such as the aviary, to provide more space and resources to large groups of hens. Data detailing the behavior of hens in commercial aviaries is needed to determine hens' use of the resources in order to understand their impact on hen welfare. The open litter area of aviaries provides additional space for hens during the day. Litter is also a substrate for dust bathing which is a strongly motivated natural behavior. Hens are often synchronous in their performance of dust bathing, which may lead to overcrowding in the litter area. Additionally, the open litter area can facilitate expression of unusual behavior such as flock piling (defined as the occurrence of densely grouped clusters of hens, resulting from no obvious cause and occurring randomly throughout the day and flock cycle) which may be a welfare concern. Therefore, we conducted observations of hen occupancy of the open litter area and the performance of dust bathing and flock piling across 3 production points (peak lay, mid lay and end of lay) for two flocks of Lohmann White laying hens housed in a commercial aviary. All areas of the open litter area were occupied to the same degree. Hens performed dust bathing throughout the day but showed peak dust bathing activity in the afternoon for Flock 1 (all P < 0.001) and in the late morning for Flock 2 (all P < 0.001). Overall, 174 incidents of piling behavior were observed between the 2 flocks, with piles varying in size, duration, and time of occurrence; however, no smothering was detected. Crowding on the open litter area sometimes occurred during peak periods of synchronous dust bathing and when hens piled. Further research is needed to understand the welfare implications of individual hen use of the open litter area and the causes and welfare implications of hen piling.

  18. Evaluation of Dietary Multiple Enzyme Preparation (Natuzyme) in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. W.; Choi, Y. I.; Moon, E. J.; Oh, S. T.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers’ diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  19. GENETIC CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSES AND PERFORMANCE TRAITS IN LAYING HENS.

    PubMed

    Rozempolska-Rucińska, Iwona; Zięba, Grzegorz; Kibała, Lucyna; Próchniak, Tomasz Paweł; Łukaszewicz, Marek

    2017-02-23

    The aim of the study was to evaluate genetic correlations between the behavioural profile and performance in laying hens as an indirect answer to the question whether the observed behavioural responses are associated with increased levels of stress in these birds. The assessment of birds' temperament was carried out using the Novel Objects Test. The behavioural test was conducted in two successive generations comprising 9483 Rhode Island White birds (approx. 4700 individuals per generation) and 4326 Rhode Island Red birds (approx. 2100 individuals per generation). Based on the recorded responses, the birds were divided into two groups: a fearful profile (1418 RIW hens and 580 RIR hens) and a brave/curious profile (8065 RIW hens and 3746 RIR hens). The birds were subjected to standard assessment of their performance traits, including SM- age at sexual maturity, ST - shell thickness, SG - egg specific gravity, EW - mean egg weight, IP - initial egg production, and PW/HC - number of hatched chicks. The lineage comprised a three-generation population of birds. Estimation of the components of variance of the behavioural traits was performed with Gibbs sampling (300000 rounds with 100000 burn-in rounds) based on the multi-trait animal model. The analyses revealed negative correlations between the performance traits of the laying hens and the behavioural profile defined as fearful. In the group of fearful RIW birds, delayed sexual maturation (0,22) as well as a decrease in the initial egg production (-0,30), egg weight (-0,54), egg specific gravity (-0,331), shell thickness (-0,11), and the number of hatched chicks (-0,24) could be expected. These correlations were less pronounced in the RIR breed, in which the fearful birds exhibited a decline in hatchability (-0,37), egg specific gravity (-0,11), and the number of hatched chicks (-0,18). There were no correlations in the case of the other traits or they were positive but exhibited a substantial standard error, as for

  20. Tocopherol and annatto tocotrienols distribution in laying-hen body.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Wang, T; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    The impact of supplementing laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols (T3s) and alpha-tocopherol on the distribution of various forms of vitamin E and cholesterol throughout the hen's body was evaluated. A total of 18 organs or tissues (skin, fat pad, liver and gall bladder, heart, oviduct, forming yolk, laid yolk, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, gizzard, digestive tract, brain, thigh, breast, manure, and blood) were collected after 7 wk of feeding on diets enriched with various levels of alpha-tocopherol and annatto extract that contained gamma-T3 and delta-T3. Tissue weights, contents of lipid, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-T3, delta-T3, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of extracted lipids from the collected organs and tissues were determined. Tissue weight and lipid content did not change significantly with feed supplementation treatments, except that the liver became heavier with increased levels of supplementation. Overall, the main organs that accumulated the supplemented vitamin E were fat pad, liver and gall bladder, oviduct, forming yolks, laid yolks, kidney, brain, thigh, and breast. Much of annatto gamma-T3 and delta-T3 (> 90%) was found in the manure, indicating poor uptake. In some tissues (brain and oviduct,) a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen with increased supplementation. Alpha-tocopherol impacted the transfer of gamma-T3 to forming and laid yolks, but did not impact delta-T3 transfer. No significant differences were found in most of the tissues in cholesterol, except a reduction in heart, based on tissue as-is. Blood samples showed large variations in individual hens with no significant differences in total and HDL cholesterol, or total triacylglycerols. Supplementing feed with annatto T3s and alpha-tocopherol showed that the vitamin E profile and distribution of the laying-hen body can be altered, but to different extents depending on tissue. The result of this research has significance in enhancing meat nutrient

  1. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2016-01-01

    compared to previously published studies. The findings of current study demonstrated intermittent but persistent fecal shedding of Salmonella after oral infection for up to 15 weeks p.i. Further, egg shell contamination, with lack of internal egg content contamination and the low frequency of reproductive organ infection suggested that horizontal infection through contaminated feces is the main route of egg contamination with S. Typhimurium in laying hens. PMID:26941727

  2. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Pande, Vivek V; Devon, Rebecca L; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2016-01-01

    compared to previously published studies. The findings of current study demonstrated intermittent but persistent fecal shedding of Salmonella after oral infection for up to 15 weeks p.i. Further, egg shell contamination, with lack of internal egg content contamination and the low frequency of reproductive organ infection suggested that horizontal infection through contaminated feces is the main route of egg contamination with S. Typhimurium in laying hens.

  3. [Discussion of actual legal minimum requirements for feeder space and perch length in laying hen husbandry in the light of the body widths measured in Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown laying hens].

    PubMed

    Briese, Andreas; Spindler, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Legal requirements on space and dimensions regarding furnished cages and alternative systems in laying hen husbandry are subject of constant discussion. Further knowledge about basic measures of the hens might help to come to reasonable results in the future. Digital images of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens, housed at the Lehr- und Forschungsgut Ruthe, University for Veterinary Medicine Hanover, Foundation, in Big Dutchman Eurovent laying hen cages, were made at three stages (19th, 36th and 58th week) of production. All hens had been taken out of their cages by night and set on a perch in a special cage used to photograph the hens frontally under controlled conditions. Body widths were calculated by a python application Cdisto.py0 2009 Andreas Briese) to mark and measure the body width in the digital images of a total of 156 hens. Mean body widths of 133.77 mm in Lohmann-LSL hens (SD = 9.71; N = 64; mean weight: 1.73 kg) and of 152.55 mm in Lohmann-LB hens (SD = 10.31; N = 92; mean weight: 1.93 kg) respectively were found. Even slight changes in body weights had no effect on the body width. Nonetheless the differences between both hybrids were always statistically significant (Mann-Whitney p < 0,001). Using these preliminary results on body width in a mathematical model simultanious feeding behaviour becomes only possible if the number of animals is reduced by 10.3% to 89.7% in LSL and by 21.3% to 78.7% in LB breeds in relation to a calculated maximum on base of the minimum space requirements for furnished cages in the EU-Dir 74/1999/EC.

  4. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-10-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, egg albumen height, Haugh unit and eggshell strength on d 42, but decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

  5. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-01-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, egg albumen height, Haugh unit and eggshell strength on d 42, but decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens. PMID:27282970

  6. Experimentally induced "fatty liver syndrome" condition in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Harms, R H; Roland, D A; Simpson, C F

    1977-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted with aged laying hens to determine the influence of feeding 5,000 p.p.m. of iodine as potassium iodine (KI) and/or injecting 12 mg. of estradiol upon fat accumulation in the liver and serum cholesterol levels. The KI was fed for 8 days before making liver and blood determinations, and the estradiol was injected 3 days prior to making the determinations. The feeding of KI or injection of estradiol resulted in significantly increased liver weight. When the two treatments were combined a further significant increase in liver weights was obtained. The percent of fat in the liver was significantly increased by the injection of estradiol. However, the feeding of KI in the presence or absence of estradiol did not affect the percentage of fat in the liver. Neither of the treatments significantly affected the fatty acid composition of the liver fat. Feeding of KI or injection of estradiol significantly increased total serum cholesterol levels. When the two treatments were combined a further increase in serum cholesterol level was observed. Histological changes of the livers of hens treated with KI and estradiol were similar to those previously described for the "fatty liver syndrome."

  7. CYP1B1 expression in ovarian cancer in the laying hen Gallus domesticus

    PubMed Central

    Zhuge, Yan; Lagman, Jo Ann J.; Ansenberger, Kristine; Mahon, Cassandra J.; Daikoku, Takiko; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Bahr, Janice M.; Hales, Dale B.

    2009-01-01

    expression of CYP1B1 in the hen ovary is associated with ovarian cancer and our data suggest that CYP1B1 may play an important role in the initiation of ovarian cancer and may prove to be a target for intervention. Moreover, the results of this study further confirm that the laying hen is a good model to study human ovarian cancer. PMID:18973935

  8. Effects of photoperiod on broodiness, egg-laying and endocrine responses in native laying hens.

    PubMed

    Geng, A L; Xu, S F; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Chu, Q; Liu, H G

    2014-01-01

    1. The effects of photoperiod on broodiness, egg-laying and endocrine responses in native laying hens were investigated. A total of 648, 18-week-old native laying hens (Beijing You Chicken, BYC) were randomly allocated to 6 groups with 3 replicates. The birds were exposed to 1 of 6 different photoperiods, including 16L:8D (06:00 to 22:00 h) for group 1; 12L:2D:4L:6D for group 2; 8L:4D:4L:8D for group 3; 16L:8D (03:00 to 19:00 h) for group 4; 14L:10D for group 5; and 18L:6D for group 6. 2. The broodiness rate and egg-laying rate for weeks 20-26, 27-33, 34-40, 41-47, 48-54 and 55-61 were calculated, and serum prolactin (PRL), luteinising hormone (LH), 17-beta-oestradiol (E2), melatonin (Mel) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured at the end of each stage. 3. Significant effects were observed on the rate of broodiness by the photoperiod and stage, but the interaction of photoperiod and stage was not significant. The rate of broodiness for group 3 (5.9%) was significantly higher than other groups, with group 2 being the lowest (2.8%). Broodiness rate was the highest for weeks 41-47 (9.9%). Significant effects were observed on average egg-laying rate by photoperiod and stage: the rate of egg-laying of groups 2 and 5 were significantly higher than groups 1, 4 and 6. 4. There were no significant effects of photoperiod on PRL, LH and Mel concentrations at 26, 33, 40 and 54 weeks of age (P > 0.05), but at 47 weeks of age, PRL and LH concentrations of group 1 were significantly lower than those in other groups. 5. The study suggests that the photoperiod of group 2 (12L:2D:4L:6D) is optimal for the birds' performance to give the lowest broodiness rate and the highest egg-laying rate during the whole laying period, and 41-47 weeks may be a key stage for the photomodulation of broodiness.

  9. Litter lipid content affects dustbathing behavior in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Scholz, B; Kjaer, J B; Urselmans, S; Schrader, L

    2011-11-01

    Within the European Union, the provision of dustbathing material in layer housing systems will be compulsory beginning in 2012. In cage systems, food particles are mainly used as litter material and are provided on scratching mats by an automatic transporting system. However, because dustbathing is a means for hens to remove stale lipids from their plumage, lipid content of a substrate may be an important asset with regard to its adequacy. This study analyzes dustbathing behavior as affected by lipid content of feed used as litter material. A total of 72 laying hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Selected Leghorn, Lohmann Brown) were kept in 12 compartments (6 hens each). Compartments were equipped with a plastic grid floor (G) and additionally contained 3 different dustbathing trays (each 1,000 cm(2)/hen) holding low-lipid (0.82%; L), normal-lipid (4.2%; N), and high-lipid (15.7%; H) food particles. The experiment began at 20 wk of life, and video recordings were done at wk 23, 26, and 29. Number of dustbaths, time spent dustbathing, average dustbath duration, foraging, and single behaviors within dustbaths were analyzed during the light period over 2 d in each observation week. Dustbaths occurred most frequently in the L compared with the N, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). Total time spent dustbathing was longest in the L treatment compared with the N and H treatments (P < 0.001). No difference in the average duration of single dustbaths was found between the L, N, and H treatments. However, when dustbath interruptions (less than 10 min) were excluded, the duration of single dustbaths was longer in the H compared with the L (P = 0.009) and N (P = 0.024) treatments. Foraging was most frequently observed in the N compared with the L, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). More body wing shakes occurred in the L compared with the N treatment, and the number of vertical wing shakes was higher in the N compared with the H treatment (all P ≤ 0.05). Our results showed

  10. Use of guar by-products in high-production laying hen diets.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, O; Zhang, C; Cartwright, A L; Carey, J B; Bailey, C A

    2007-06-01

    A 5x5 Latin square experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding low concentrations of guar germ or a combination of guar germ and hull (guar meal) in high-production laying hen diets. A total of 125 Lohmann laying hens (21 wk old) of similar BW were randomly assigned to 5 blocks. Each block was divided into 5 experimental units, consisting of 5 hens per unit. Hens were fed either a nonguar control diet, or 1 of 4 diets containing either 2.5 or 5% guar germ, or 2.5 or 5% guar meal over a 20-wk trial period (five 4-wk periods). No significant differences were observed when feeding either 2.5 or 5% guar germ or meal (P>0.05) on hen-day egg production or feed consumption. Significant differences in egg weight, total egg mass per hen, and feed conversion ratio were detected in hens fed 2.5% guar meal, whereas they remained unchanged for diets containing either level of guar germ or 5% guar meal. Feeding either level of guar germ or guar meal did not affect shell quality (shell thickness, egg breaking force, and specific gravity), Haugh units, or egg yolk color (L*, a*, b*). The results showed that both guar germ and guar meal can be fed to high-production laying hens at up to 5% without adverse effects on laying hen performance.

  11. Failed landings after laying hen flight in a commercial aviary over two flock cycles.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Goodwin, S L; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    Many egg producers are adopting alternative housing systems such as aviaries that provide hens a tiered cage and a litter-covered open floor area. This larger, more complex environment permits expression of behaviors not seen in space-limited cages, such as flight. Flight is an exercise important for strengthening bones; but domestic hens might display imperfect flight landings due to poor flight control. To assess the potential implications of open space, we evaluated the landing success of Lohmann white laying hens in a commercial aviary. Video recordings of hens were taken from 4 aviary sections at peak lay, mid lay and end lay across two flock cycles. Observations were made in each focal section of all flights throughout the day noting flight origin and landing location (outer perch or litter) and landing success or failure. In Flock 1, 9.1% of all flights failed and 21% failed in Flock 2. The number of flights decreased across the laying cycle for both flocks. Proportionally more failed landings were observed in the double row sections in Flock 2. Collisions with other hens were more common than slipping on the ground or colliding with aviary structures across sections and flocks. More hens slipped on the ground and collided with physical structures at peak lay for Flock 2 than at other time points. More collisions with other hens were seen at mid and end lay than at peak lay for Flock 2. Landings ending on perches failed more often than landings on litter. These results indicate potential for flight-related hen injuries in aviary systems resulting from failed landings, which may have implications for hen welfare and optimal system design and management.

  12. Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Fossum, Oddvar; Jansson, Désirée S; Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Vågsholm, Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Background The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. Methods Based on results from routine necropsies of 914 laying hens performed at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) in Uppsala, Sweden between 2001 and 2004, a retrospective study on the occurrence of diseases and cannibalism, i.e., pecking leading to mortality, in different housing systems was carried out. Using the number of disease outbreaks in caged flocks as the baseline, the expected number of flocks with a certain category of disease in the other housing systems was estimated having regard to the total number of birds in the population. Whether the actual number of flocks significantly exceeded the expected number was determined using a Poisson distribution for the variance of the baseline number, a continuity correction and the exact value for the Poisson distribution function in Excel 2000. Results Common causes of mortality in necropsied laying hens included colibacillosis, erysipelas, coccidiosis, red mite infestation, lymphoid leukosis and cannibalism. Less common diagnoses were Newcastle Disease, pasteurellosis and botulism. Considering the size of the populations in the different housing systems, a larger proportion of laying hens than expected was submitted for necropsy from litter-based systems and free range production compared to hens in cages (P < 0.001). The study showed a significantly higher occurrence of bacterial and parasitic diseases and cannibalism in laying hens kept in litter-based housing systems and free-range systems than in hens kept in cages (P < 0.001). The occurrence of viral diseases was significantly higher in indoor litter-based housing systems than in cages (P < 0.001). Conclusion The results

  13. Equations of prediction for abdominal fat in brown egg-laying hens fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Souza, C; Jaimes, J J B; Gewehr, C E

    2016-12-03

    The objective was to use noninvasive measurements to formulate equations for predicting the abdominal fat weight of laying hens in a noninvasive manner. Hens were fed with different diets; the external body measurements of birds were used as regressors. We used 288 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement, submitted for 16 wk to 2 metabolizable energy levels (2,550 and 2,800 kcal/kg) and 3 levels of crude protein in the diet (150, 160, and 170 g/kg), totaling 6 treatments, with 48 hens each. Sixteen hens per treatment of 92 wk age were utilized to evaluate body weight, bird length, tarsus and sternum, greater and lesser diameter of the tarsus, and abdominal fat weight, after slaughter. The equations were obtained by using measures evaluated with regressors through simple and multiple linear regression with the stepwise method of indirect elimination (backward), with P < 0.10 for all variables remaining in the model. The weight of abdominal fat as predicted by the equations and observed values for each bird were subjected to Pearson's correlation analysis. The equations generated by energy levels showed coefficients of determination of 0.50 and 0.74 for 2,800 and 2,550 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, respectively, with correlation coefficients of 0.71 and 0.84, with a highly significant correlation between the calculated and observed values of abdominal fat. For protein levels of 150, 160, and 170 g/kg in the diet, it was possible to obtain coefficients of determination of 0.75, 0.57, and 0.61, with correlation coefficients of 0.86, 0.75, and 0.78, respectively. Regarding the general equation for predicting abdominal fat weight, the coefficient of determination was 0.62; the correlation coefficient was 0.79. The equations for predicting abdominal fat weight in laying hens, based on external measurements of the birds, showed positive coefficients of determination and correlation coefficients, thus

  14. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    PubMed

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities.

  15. Laying hen performance and well-being over two flock cycles on different litter substrates in an aviary housing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The momentum to move toward aviary housing has continued to increase in the past eight months. The pressure to find consistent bedding sources for meat birds may impact litter substrate for the laying hen industry as the number of cage-free hens increases in the next nine years. Molting laying hens ...

  16. Effect of light-emitting diode vs. fluorescent lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 1 - Operational characteristics of lights and production traits of hens.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Wang, T; Ning, Z; Xin, H

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) lights are becoming more affordable for agricultural applications. Despite many lab-scale studies concerning impact of LED on poultry, little research has been documented under field production conditions, especially for laying hens. This 15-month field study was carried out to evaluate the effects of LED vs. fluorescent (FL) lights on laying hens (Dekalb white breed) using 4 (2 pairs) aviary hen houses each at a nominal capacity of 50,000 hens. The evaluation was done regarding operational characteristics of the lights and hen production traits. The results show that spatial distribution of the LED light was less uniform than that of the FL light. Light intensity of the LED light decreased by 27% after 3,360 h use but remained quite steady from 3,360 to 5,760 h use. Eleven out of 762 (1.44%) LED lamps (new at onset of the study) in the 2 houses failed during the 15-month experiment period. The neck area of the LED lamp was hottest, presumably the primary reason for the lamp failure as cracks were noticed in the neck region of all failed LED lamps. No differences were observed in egg weight, hen-day egg production, feed use, and mortality rate between LED and FL regimens. However, hens under the FL had higher eggs per hen housed and better feed conversion than those under the LED during 20 to 70 wk production (P < 0.05). Hens under the LED tended to have less feather uniformity and insulation than those under the FL (P < 0.05). Moreover, hens under the LED showed a larger median avoidance distance than those under the FL at 36 wk age (P < 0.05), indicating that hens under the LED were more alert; but no difference at 60 wk age. More comparative research to quantify behavioral and production responses of different breeds of hens to LED vs. FL lighting seems warranted.

  17. Lack of response of laying hens to relative humidity at high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Yahav, S; Shinder, D; Razpakovski, V; Rusal, M; Bar, A

    2000-12-01

    1. The effects of relative humidity (rh=40% to 70%) at high ambient temperature (Ta) on the performance of laying hens at different ages (8 to 10 months, Trial 1; and 16 to 18 months, Trial 2) was evaluated. Laying hens were exposed to 25 degrees C (control) for 3 weeks and thereafter acclimated for 1 week to 35 degrees C and 4 different rh. 2. Body weight declined significantly in young and older hens exposed to 60% or 70% and 70% rh, respectively: Food intake declined with increasing Ta, except in the case of older hens exposed to 60% rh, for which it remained relatively constant. Water consumption, however, increased with increasing Ta but the increase was significant in young hens exposed to 70% rh only. 3. Egg production was not affected by the changes in Ta. However, a decrease in egg production was observed in older hens exposed to 60% rh. 4. Egg weight (EW), shell weight (SW) and shell thickness (ST) were significantly reduced by exposure to elevated Ta, whereas % breakage significantly increased. In young hens, a response to rh was exhibited in ST which was significantly higher in hens exposed to the low rh (40% to 45%) than in those exposed to the highest rh (70% to 75%). 5. It can be concluded that Ta is the main environmental factor affecting young and older laying hens while the effect of rh is minor.

  18. The development of sausage including meat from spent laying hen surimi.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Kim, I S; Jung, H J; Kim, D H; Choi, Y J; Hur, S J

    2007-12-01

    The sausage samples were made from pork with spent laying hen breast surimi. The samples were divided into 4 groups [sausage made from pork (control) and sausage made from pork with 20% (T1), 40% (T2), and 60% (T3) of spent laying hen breast surimi]. In proximate compositions, the moisture and ash contents of the control were higher than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples in all storage periods. The pH and cooking loss were higher in T3 compared with other sausage samples. However, there was no significant difference in water-holding capacity among the sausage samples, whereas shear force was significantly higher in T2. In meat color, sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples (T1, T2, and T3) have shown to have higher lightness (L) compared with control, and redness (a) was significantly higher in control and T1. Total amino acid content and essential amino acids were increased in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples at 0 d of storage. In fatty acid composition, saturated fatty acid was higher in control than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value was lower in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples than control at 2 and 4 wk of storage. Cholesterol content was lower in control compared with sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. In sensory evaluation, most test items were not significantly different among the sausage samples although tenderness was higher in T2 and T3 at 0 d of storage.

  19. The development of imitation crab sticks by substituting spent laying hen meat for Alaska pollack.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Hur, I C; Jeong, J Y; Choi, Y J; Choi, B D; Kim, B G; Hur, S J

    2011-08-01

    Imitation crab stick (ICS) samples were divided into 5 treatments, a control composed of commercial ICS containing no breast meat from spent laying hens, and treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, in which 5, 10, 15, and 20% batter from breast meat of whole spent laying hens was substituted for Alaska pollack surimi, respectively. Imitation crab stick samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher moisture levels than the control sample. However, the myoglobin and metmyoglobin levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among ICS samples. During storage, whiteness was greater in the control sample than in the ICS samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter. The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in response to substituting surimi with spent laying hen breast meat batter. The moisture content and pH were increased as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. The lipid oxidation value (TBA-reactive substances) and protein degradation value (volatile basic nitrogen) tended to increase during storage as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. None of the sensory evaluation items differed among ICS samples during storage, although the color of the final products, mechanical color (by colorimeter), and textural properties did differ among samples. These results indicate that substituting laying hen breast meat batter for Alaska pollack surimi is a very useful method for the production of ICS because it enables the use of a simple production process that does not require steps, such as washing or pH adjustment, for myofibrillar protein recovery.

  20. Laying hen movement in a commercial aviary: Enclosure to floor and back again.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    Many producers in the laying hen industry, including in North America, are phasing out conventional cages in response to consumer demands and sometimes subsequent legislation. Alternative housing systems such as aviaries are being implemented in an attempt to improve hen welfare. Aviaries provide additional space and resources to groups of hens, including a litter area on the floor. However, little is known about hen movement between tiered enclosures and floor litter areas in aviary systems. Diurnal rhythms and social attraction may result in peak times of movement that could lead to overcrowding of areas, or alternatively hen preferences may lead to some areas not being fully utilized. We monitored hen movement between tiered enclosures and litter areas, including movement on and off the outer perch, across the day at peak, mid and end of lay in a commercial aviary. Hens moved onto and off of the open litter area across the day, transitioning between tiered enclosures, outer perches, open litter areas, and litter areas under tiered enclosures. At certain times of day, there were periods of greater hen movement down to the open litter area and between litter areas. For example, more hens were typically observed exiting enclosures, jumping from perches to open litter, and traveling between open litter and litter under tiered enclosures in the morning (all P ≤ 0.001). In all but one instance, more hens were observed on open litter areas in the afternoon than at other times of day (all P ≤ 0.029). However, hen re-entry to tiered enclosures showed less circadian patterning. Hen movement was observed between areas of interest at all sampled time periods, indicating hens use all areas of the system. Further research should examine whether all individual hens do move between areas equally, including within levels of the tiered enclosure, or if crowding occurs on the outer perches or in the litter during times of peak movement.

  1. Enantioselective Characteristics and Montmorillonite-Mediated Removal Effects of α-Hexachlorocyclohexane in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueke; Shen, Zhigang; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chang; Yao, Guojun; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Donghui

    2016-06-07

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is a chiral organochlorine pesticide that is often ubiquitously detected in various environmental matrices and may be absorbed by the human body via food consumption, with serious detriments to human health. In this study, enantioselective degradation kinetics and residues of α-HCH in laying hens were investigated after a single dose of exposure to the pesticide, whereas enantioselectivity and residues of α-HCH in eggs, droppings, and various tissues were investigated after long-term exposure. Meanwhile, montmorillonite (MMT), a feed additive with high capacity of adsorption, was investigated for its ability to remove α-HCH from laying hens. Most non-brain tissues enantioselectively accumulated (-)-α-HCH, while (+)-α-HCH was preferentially accumulated in the brain. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) in most tissues gradually decreased, implying continuous depletion of (+)-α-HCH in laying hens. After 30 days of exposure and 31 days of elimination, the concentration of α-HCH in eggs and tissues of laying hens with MMT-containing feed was lower than that with MMT-free feed, indicating the removal effects of MMT for α-HCH in laying hens. The findings presented herein suggest that modified MMT may potentially be useful in reducing the enrichment of α-HCH in laying hens and eggs, thus lowering the risk of human intake of α-HCH.

  2. Effect of dietary fiber on egg yolk, liver, and plasma cholesterol concentrations of the laying hen.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J L

    1978-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary fiber source and level on egg yolk, liver, and plasma cholesterol concentrations of White Leghorn laying hens. Initially, dietary fiber levels of 2.05, 4.41, 6.68, and 8.79% furnished mainly by sunflower meal were fed to laying hens for 140 days. In the second experiment, alfalfa meal, ground whole oats, sunflower meal, rice mill feed, or wood shavings was added to a corn-soybean meal basal diet to furnish 2.00% added crude fiber and fed to laying hens for 84 days. Yolk cholesterol decreased 4.39, 10.38, and 13.29% by feeding crude dietary fiber levels of 4.41, 6.68, and 8.79%, respectively, to hens as compared to a corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 2.05% crude fiber. Egg yolk cholesterol was significantly decreased by feeding alfalfa meal, oats, sunflower meal, rice mill feed, or wood shavings to laying hens when compared to yolk cholesterol of hens fed the basal diet. The greatest reduction in egg yolk cholesterol was found by feeding either oats or wood shavings. No significant differences were found in plasma cholesterol due to dietary fiber level. Plasma triglycerides decreased and liver cholesterol increased as dietary fiber level increased in diets fed to laying hens. When laying hens were fed alfalfa meal, oats, rice mill feed, or wood shavings, plasma cholesterol significantly decreased. Liver cholesterol increased when hens were fed either alfalfa meal or rice mill feed as the primary fiber source.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in laying hens after intravenous and oral administration.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Si, H B; Wang, Y Q; Zhao, Z S; Zhou, B H; Hao, X Q

    2016-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in laying hens was investigated after a single intravenous (IV) or an oral (PO) dose at 20 mg/kg body weight. The concentrations of doxycycline in plasma samples were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a compartmental model method. The disposition of doxycycline after one single IV injection was best described by a two-compartment open model and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: volume of distribution (Vd) was 865.15 ± 127.64 ml/kg, distribution rate constant (α) was (2.28 ± 0.38) 1/h, elimination rate constant (β) was 0.08 ± 0.02 1/h and total body clearance (Cl) was104.11 ± 18.32 ml/h/kg, while after PO administration, the concentration versus time curve was best described by a one-compartment open model and absorption rate constant (Ka), peak concentration (Cmax), time to reach Cmax (tmax) and absolute bioavailability (F) were 2.55 ± 1.40 1/h, 5.88 ± 0.70 μg/ml, 1.73 ± 0.75 h and 52.33%, respectively. The profile of doxycycline exhibited favourable pharmacokinetic characteristics in laying hens, such as quick absorption and slow distribution and elimination, though oral bioavailability was relatively low. A multiple-dosing regimen (a dose of 20 mg/kg/d for 3 consecutive days) of doxycycline was recommended to treat infections in laying hens. But a further study should be conducted to determine the withdrawal time of doxycycline in eggs.

  4. Exogenous estradiol improves shell strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cracked shells, due to age related reduction of shell quality, are a costly problem for the industry. Parallel to reduced shell quality the skeleton becomes brittle resulting in bone fractures. Calcium, a main prerequisite for both eggshell and bone, is regulated by estrogen in a complex manner. The effects of estrogen, given in a low continuous dose, were studied regarding factors involved in age related changes in shell quality and bone strength of laying hens. A pellet containing 0.385 mg estradiol 3-benzoate (21-day-release) or placebo was inserted subcutaneously in 20 birds each of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) at 70 weeks of age. Eggs were collected before and during the experiment for shell quality measurements. Blood samples for analysis of total calcium were taken three days after the insertion and at sacrifice (72 weeks). Right femur was used for bone strength measurements and tissue samples from duodenum and shell gland were processed for morphology, immunohistochemical localization of estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ), plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and histochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Results Estrogen treatment increased shell thickness of both hybrids. In addition, shell weight and shell deformation improved in eggs from the brown hybrids. The more pronounced effect on eggs from the brown hybrid may be due to a change in sensitivity to estrogen, especially in surface epithelial cells of the shell gland, shown as an altered ratio between ERα and ERβ. A regulatory effect of estrogen on CA activity, but not PMCA, was seen in both duodenum and shell gland, and a possible connection to shell quality is discussed. Bone strength was unaffected by treatment, but femur was stronger in LSL birds suggesting that the hybrids differ in calcium allocation between shell and bone at the end of the laying period. Plasma calcium concentrations and egg production were unaffected. Conclusions A low

  5. Metformin regulates hepatic lipid metabolism through activating AMP-activated protein kinase and inducing ATGL in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Lu; Wei, Hen-Wei; Chiu, Wen-Zan; Kang, Ching-Hui; Lin, Ting-Han; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chen, Ming-Chun; Shieh, Ming-Song; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Lee, Horng-Mo

    2011-12-05

    Although many clinical trials have showed that metformin improves non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is a common liver disease associated with hepatic enzyme abnormalities, an animal model is required to investigate the effects of altered gene expression and post-translational processing (proteins) in mediating the observed responses. Laying hens appear to develop fatty livers, as in the case in human beings, when ingesting energy in excess of maintenance, and they can be used as an animal model for observing hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether metformin could improve the non-alcoholic fatty liver of laying hens and to examine the possible mechanisms of lipid-lowering effects. Forty-eight Leghorn laying hens of Hy-Line variety W-36 - 44 weeks with 64.8% hen-day egg production - were randomly assigned into 4 treatments, each receiving 0, 10, 30, or 100mg of metformin with saline per kg body weight by daily wing vein injection. Results showed that, compared with the control, significant decreases existed in the laying rates; plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and insulin levels; body weights; abdominal fat weights; hepatic lipid contents; and hepatic fatty acid synthase expression of layers receiving 30 or 100mg per kg body weight, whereas significant increases in their hepatic 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, acyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation, adipose triglyceride lipase, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 expression were observed. These data suggest that metformin could reduce lipid deposits in the liver and that the laying hen is a valuable animal model for studying hepatic steatosis.

  6. Effect of corticosterone and hen body mass on primary sex ratio in laying hen (Gallus gallus), using unincubated eggs.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Groothuis, Ton G G; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri

    2014-04-01

    In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated blood plasma corticosterone levels through corticosterone feeding (20 mg/kg feed) for 14 days using 30 chicken hens in each of treatment and control groups and studied the primary offspring sex ratio (here defined as the proportion of male fertile eggs determined in freshly laid eggs, i.e., without egg incubation). Mean plasma corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in the treatment group but were not associated with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate. Corticosterone treatment by itself did not affect egg sex but affected sex ratio as well as laying rate and fertility rate in interaction with hen body mass. Body mass had a negative association with sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate per hen in the corticosterone group, but a positive association with sex ratio in untreated hens. These interactions were already seen when taking the body mass at the beginning of the experiment, indicating intrinsic differences between light and heavy hens with regard to their reaction to corticosterone treatment. The effects on laying rate, fertility rate, and sex ratio suggest that some factor related to body mass act together with corticosterone to modulate ovarian functions. We propose that corticosterone treatment in conjunction with hen body mass can interfere with meiosis, which can lead to meiotic drive and to chromosomal aberrations resulting in postponed ovulation or infertile ova.

  7. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens.

  8. The effect of perch availability during pullet rearing and egg laying on the behavior of caged White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Hester, P Y; Garner, J P; Enneking, S A; Cheng, H W; Einstein, M E

    2014-10-01

    Enriched cages, compared with conventional cages, allow egg laying strains of chickens to meet some behavioral needs, including a high motivation to perch. The objective of this study was to determine if perch availability during rearing affected perch use as adults and if perch presence affected eating and drinking in caged White Leghorn hens. Chickens were assigned to 14 cages each with and without 2 round metal perches from hatch to 16.9 wk of age. At 17 wk of age, pullets were assigned to laying cages consisting of 1 of 4 treatments. Treatment 1 chickens never had access to perches (controls). Treatment 2 chickens only had access to 2 round metal perches during the laying phase (17 to 71 wk of age). Treatment 3 chickens only had access to 2 round perches during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens had access to the perches during both the pullet and laying phase. Each treatment during the adult phase consisted of 9 cages with 9 birds/cage for a total of 36 cages. Automatic infrared cameras were used to monitor behavior of hens in each cage for a 24-h period at 19, 24, 29, 34, 39, 44, 49, 54, 59, 64, and 69 wk of age. Behavior was also recorded twice weekly by an observer in the room where the hens were housed during photophase from 25 to 68 wk of age. Behavioral data were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures and the MIXED model procedure. A greater proportion of hens without perches as pullets used the rear perch more during both photophase and scotophase than hens with prior pullet perching experience. Eating and drinking activities of caged adult Leghorns were not impaired by their prior experience to perches as pullets or by the presence of perches in laying cages. It is concluded that providing perches in cages to White Leghorns during pullet rearing did not facilitate use of perches as adults.

  9. Evaporative cooling of ventral regions of the skin in heat-stressed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wolfenson, D; Bachrach, D; Maman, M; Graber, Y; Rozenboim, I

    2001-07-01

    Laying hens held in battery cages in naturally ventilated poultry houses in hot countries usually develop hyperthermia, which adversely affects their performance. The present means of cooling alleviate to some degree, but cannot eliminate, the stress imposed by heat. A new approach to cooling of laying hens was developed, based on wetting the skin and promoting evaporation of water from the ventral regions of the bird. The type of plumage in the ventral regions and the exposed skin of the apteria enable more efficient wetting than is possible with dorsal cooling. A ventral cooling regime, comprising an initial period of frequent wettings followed by intermittent wetting for 10 s every 30 min was able to maintain normothermia of laying hens subjected to a 10-h period of heat exposure. Dorsal cooling was less efficient; body temperature and respiration rate were higher and skin temperatures were lower than in ventrally cooled hens. During 10 d of heat exposure, ventrally cooled hens maintained egg weight and shell index (mg/cm2), whereas their food intake decreased moderately. In contrast, egg weight, shell index, and food intake all decreased markedly in uncooled or dorsally cooled hens. Transient alterations in plasma concentrations of corticosterone, progesterone, and estradiol were noted in uncooled and dorsally cooled hens but not in ventrally cooled hens. Results indicate that ventral cooling is an efficient method to alleviate heat stress in laying hens during summer. Successful implementation of ventral cooling in poultry houses will depend on optimal installation of sprinklers and on minimal wetting of manure.

  10. Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, mu...

  11. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively) different levels of aerobic organisms dependent on housing system. Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic contamination in relation to hen strain with Hy-Line Silver Brown having the greatest (4.57 log cfu/mL). Hy-Line Brown and Barred Plymouth Rock hens produced eggs with significantly different (P < 0.01) levels of Enterobacteriaceae among housing systems with conventional caged eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.

  12. Corticosterone metabolites in laying hen droppings-Effects of fiber enrichment, genotype, and daily variations.

    PubMed

    Alm, M; Holm, L; Tauson, R; Wall, H

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest and concern for animal welfare in commercial poultry production. To evaluate stress and welfare in an objective and noninvasive way, fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in droppings can be analyzed. However, the influence of diet, genotype, and daily variations in FCM and production of droppings in laying hens has been poorly investigated. This study examined the effect of insoluble fiber by adding 3% ground straw pellets to the feed to Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) hens housed in furnished cages between 20 and 40 wk of age. In total, 960 hens were included in the study. Droppings were collected 4 times per day for 3 consecutive days and analyzed by corticosterone immunoassay. Biological validation confirmed the ability of the assay to detect changes in FCM levels. Inclusion of straw pellets in the feed increased FCM concentration in both hen genotypes and increased excretion rate of FCM in LB hens. The LB hens also produced greater amounts of droppings than LSL hens. Both FCM levels and production of droppings varied during the day, although no distinct diurnal rhythm was found. These findings demonstrate that when using FCM to evaluate stress and welfare in laying hens, many factors (e.g., diet, genotype used, and so on) need to be taken into account to allow accurate interpretation of the results. In addition, under certain conditions, excretion rate of FCM might be more appropriate to use compared with FCM concentration.

  13. Housing conditions alter properties of the tibia and humerus during the laying phase in Lohmann white Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Regmi, P; Smith, N; Nelson, N; Haut, R C; Orth, M W; Karcher, D M

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis in caged hens is one driving factor for the United States egg industry to explore options regarding alternative housing systems for laying hens. The aim of our research was to study the influence of housing systems on tibiae and humeri of 77-week-old Lohmann White hens. Pullets raised in an aviary system were either continued in aviary hen systems (AV) or conventional cages (AC) whereas pullets reared in conventional cages continued in conventional hen cages (CC) or enriched colony cages (EN) at 19 weeks. From each group, 120 hens were randomly euthanized and right and left tibae and humeri were excised for structural and mechanical analysis. Volumetric density of the cortical bone was measured using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Aviary (AV) hens had greater cortical thickness and density but similar outer dimensions to AC hens (P < 0.05). Hens in EN system had humeri with similar cortical thickness and density but wider outer dimensions than the humeri of CC hens (P < 0.05). Cortical geometry of the tibiae was the same for the EN and CC hens, whereas EN hens had denser tibial cortex than CC hens (P < 0.05). Geometrical changes in the humeri suggest that hens in the AV system were better able to protect their structure from endosteal resorption during the laying phase. Humeri of AV and EN hens had increased second moment of area compared to the AC and CC hens; however, the changes were not observed in tibiae. Mechanical property differences were observed, with bones of AV hens having greater failure moment and stiffness than AC hens and the same difference was observed between the EN and CC hens, (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that movement limitation causes loss of bone mass and density whereas provision of moderate movement increases certain bone quality parameters during adulthood in laying hens.

  14. Assessment of the effect of housing on feather damage in laying hens using IR thermography.

    PubMed

    Pichová, K; Bilčík, B; Košt'ál, L'

    2017-04-01

    Plumage damage represents one of the animal-based measures of laying hens welfare. Damage occurs predominantly due to age, environment and damaging pecking. IR thermography, due to its non-invasiveness, objectivity and repeatability is a promising alternative to feather damage scoring systems such as the system included in the Welfare Quality ® assessment protocol for poultry. The aim of this study was to apply IR thermography for the assessment of feather damage in laying hens kept in two housing systems and to compare the results with feather scoring. At the start of the experiment, 16-week-old laying hens (n=30) were divided into two treatments such as deep litter pen and enriched cage. During 4 months, feather damage was assessed regularly in 2-week intervals. One more single assessment was done nine and a half months after the start of the experiment. The feather damage on four body regions was assessed by scoring and IR thermography: head and neck, back and rump, belly, and underneck and breast. Two variables obtained by IR thermography were used: the difference between the body surface temperature and ambient temperature (ΔTB) and the proportion of featherless areas, which were defined as areas with a temperature >33.5°C. Data were analyzed using a GLM model. The effects of housing, time, region and their interactions on feather damage, measured by the feather scoring and by both IR thermography measures, were all significant (P<0.001). The ΔTB in all assessed regions correlated positively with the feather score. Feather scoring revealed higher damage in enriched cages compared with deep litter pens starting from week 6 of the experiment on the belly and back and rump regions, whereas ΔTB from week 6 in the belly and from week 8 on the back and rump region. The proportion of featherless areas in the belly region differed significantly between the housings from week 8 of the experiment and on the back and rump region from week 12. The IR thermography

  15. Assessment of lighting needs by W-36 laying hens via preference test.

    PubMed

    Ma, H; Xin, H; Zhao, Y; Li, B; Shepherd, T A; Alvarez, I

    2016-04-01

    Light intensity, spectrum and pattern may affect laying hen behaviors and production performance. However, requirements of these lighting parameters from the hens' standpoint are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate hens' needs for light intensity and circadian rhythm using a light tunnel with five identical compartments each at a different fluorescent light intensity of <1, 5, 15, 30 or 100 lux. The hens were able to move freely among the respective compartments. A group of four W-36 laying hens (23 to 30 weeks of age) were tested each time, and six groups or replicates were conducted. Behaviors of the hens were continuously recorded, yielding data on daily time spent, daily feed intake, daily feeding time, and eggs laid under each light intensity and daily inter-compartment movement. The results show that the hens generally spent more time in lower light intensities. Specifically, the hens spent 6.4 h (45.4%) at 5 lux, 3.0 h (22.1%) at 15 lux, 3.1 h (22.2%) at 30 lux and 1.5 h (10.3%) at 100 lux under light condition; and an accumulation of 10.0 h in darkness (<1 lux) per day. The 10-h dark period was distributed intermittently throughout the day, averaging 25.0±0.4 min per hour. This hourly light-dark rhythm differs from the typical commercial practice of providing continuous dark period for certain part of the day (e.g. 8 h at night). Distributions of daily feed intake (87.3 g/hen) among the different light conditions mirrored the trend of time spent in the respective light intensity, that is, highest at 5 lux (28.4 g/hen, 32.5% daily total) and lowest at 100 lux (5.8 g/hen, 6.7%). Hen-day egg production rate was 96.0%. Most of the eggs were laid in <1 lux (61.9% of total) which was significantly higher than under other light intensities (P<0.05). Findings from this study offer insights into preference of fluorescent light intensity by the laying hens. Further studies to assess or verify welfare and performance responses of the hens to

  16. Use of infrared thermography to assess laying-hen feather coverage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Xin, H; Dong, B

    2013-02-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was compared with the traditional 4-scale feather scoring (FS, with 1 representing the worst feather coverage and 4 the best) method for assessing feather coverage of laying hens. The feather coverage of 6 body parts (head, dorsal neck, front neck and crop, back, breast, and belly), body surface temperature distribution, and relative change in sensible heat loss of 60 laying hens (Lohmann SL white breed) at 28, 56, or 73 wk of age (20 hens per age group) were compared by using IRT. For all the 6 body parts and the area-weighted overall, the area of excellent feather (EF) determined by IRT was positively correlated with the 4-scale scores determined by FS (P < 0.05), whereas the areas of fair feather (FF), no feather (NF), and body surface temperature were negatively correlated with FS scores (P < 0.05). Feather deterioration occurred for elder hens at all body parts. Feather coverage of the hens was classified as 98.7% EF, 1.3% FF, and 0% NF at 28 wk of age; 70.2% EF, 20.6% FF, and 9.2% NF at 56 wk of age; and 35.4% EF, 17.1% FF, and 49.5% NF at 73 wk of age. As a result of less feather coverage and higher surface temperature, sensible heat loss was speculated to be higher for 56- and 73-wk-old hens than for 28-wk-old hens, potentially leading to higher feed-to-egg conversion for the elder hens. It was concluded that IRT is a promising technique or tool that may provide a more objective and quantitative evaluation of laying-hen feather conditions and delineation of bird thermoregulation.

  17. Effects of taurine and housing density on renal function in laying hens*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zi-li; Gao, Yang; Ma, Hai-tian; Zheng, Liu-hai; Dai, Bin; Miao, Jin-feng; Zhang, Yuan-shu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the putative protective effects of supplemental 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (taurine) and reduced housing density on renal function in laying hens. We randomly assigned fifteen thousand green-shell laying hens into three groups: a free range group, a low-density caged group, and a high-density caged group. Each group was further divided equally into a control group (C) and a taurine treatment group (T). After 15 d, we analyzed histological changes in kidney cells, inflammatory mediator levels, oxidation and anti-oxidation levels. Experimental data revealed taurine supplementation, and rearing free range or in low-density housing can lessen morphological renal damage, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation levels and increase anti-oxidation levels. Our data demonstrate that taurine supplementation and a reduction in housing density can ameliorate renal impairment, increase productivity, enhance health, and promote welfare in laying hens. PMID:27921400

  18. Effects of taurine and housing density on renal function in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zi-Li; Gao, Yang; Ma, Hai-Tian; Zheng, Liu-Hai; Dai, Bin; Miao, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Shu

    This study investigated the putative protective effects of supplemental 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (taurine) and reduced housing density on renal function in laying hens. We randomly assigned fifteen thousand green-shell laying hens into three groups: a free range group, a low-density caged group, and a high-density caged group. Each group was further divided equally into a control group (C) and a taurine treatment group (T). After 15 d, we analyzed histological changes in kidney cells, inflammatory mediator levels, oxidation and anti-oxidation levels. Experimental data revealed taurine supplementation, and rearing free range or in low-density housing can lessen morphological renal damage, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation levels and increase anti-oxidation levels. Our data demonstrate that taurine supplementation and a reduction in housing density can ameliorate renal impairment, increase productivity, enhance health, and promote welfare in laying hens.

  19. Risk factors for Salmonella prevalence in laying-hen farms in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Y; Murakami, M; Maruyama, N; Tsujiyama, Y; Kusukawa, M; Asai, T; Yamada, Y

    2012-06-01

    Human salmonellosis cases, particularly those caused by Salmonella Enteritidis, have been closely linked to egg consumption. This epidemiological survey was conducted to determine the baseline Salmonella prevalence and identify the risk factors for Salmonella prevalence in laying-hen farms in Japan. Caecal excrement samples and dust samples were obtained from 400 flocks in 338 laying-hen farms. Salmonella was identified in 20.7% of the farms and 19.5% of the flocks. The prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in flocks reared in windowless houses than in those reared in open houses. In addition, the risk of Salmonella presence was significantly higher when the windowless house farms implemented induced moulting or in-line egg processing. Efforts to reduce human salmonellosis in Japan should continue to focus on the establishment of control measures in laying-hen farms, especially those with windowless houses implementing induced moulting and equipped with in-line egg processing.

  20. Melatonin implantation improved the egg-laying rate and quality in hens past their peak egg-laying age

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yaxiong; Yang, Minghui; Zhu, Kuanfeng; Wang, Liang; Song, Yukun; Wang, Jing; Qin, Wenxiang; Xu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Guoshi

    2016-01-01

    The egg-laying rates of hens approximately 470 days of age exhibited a positive correlation to blood melatonin levels. The hens with an egg-laying rate <30%, 30~90% and ≥90% had blood melatonin levels of 5.8 ± 2.6, 74.0 ± 32.9 and 445.9 ± 115.3 ng/ml, respectively. When 10 mg of melatonin was implanted into the hens at 300, 360, 470 and 550 days of age, the egg-laying rates increased 4.63 ± 0.46%, 8.38 ± 1.45%, 4.93 ± 0.85% and 7.93 ± 0.91%, respectively, compared to that of the controls. Melatonin implantation in hens at 300–470 days of age was observed to enhance egg production and reduce the rate of appearance of sharpei eggs. Melatonin (10 mg) implanted in hens 360 days of age did not influence the blood levels of progesterone (P4) or the gene expression levels of ovarian follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), oestradiol receptor alpha (ERα), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) or melatonin receptor 1 (MT1). In contrast, melatonin significantly elevated the serum oestradiol-17β (E2) content, down-regulated the gene expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor (GnIHR), and enhanced the expression of melatonin receptor 2 (MT2). This result indicates that the improved egg-laying rate by melatonin was the result of increased serum oestradiol and decreased ovarian GnIHR. These alterations may be mediated by MT2 activation. PMID:28008984

  1. Melatonin implantation improved the egg-laying rate and quality in hens past their peak egg-laying age.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yaxiong; Yang, Minghui; Zhu, Kuanfeng; Wang, Liang; Song, Yukun; Wang, Jing; Qin, Wenxiang; Xu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Guoshi

    2016-12-23

    The egg-laying rates of hens approximately 470 days of age exhibited a positive correlation to blood melatonin levels. The hens with an egg-laying rate <30%, 30~90% and ≥90% had blood melatonin levels of 5.8 ± 2.6, 74.0 ± 32.9 and 445.9 ± 115.3 ng/ml, respectively. When 10 mg of melatonin was implanted into the hens at 300, 360, 470 and 550 days of age, the egg-laying rates increased 4.63 ± 0.46%, 8.38 ± 1.45%, 4.93 ± 0.85% and 7.93 ± 0.91%, respectively, compared to that of the controls. Melatonin implantation in hens at 300-470 days of age was observed to enhance egg production and reduce the rate of appearance of sharpei eggs. Melatonin (10 mg) implanted in hens 360 days of age did not influence the blood levels of progesterone (P4) or the gene expression levels of ovarian follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), oestradiol receptor alpha (ERα), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) or melatonin receptor 1 (MT1). In contrast, melatonin significantly elevated the serum oestradiol-17β (E2) content, down-regulated the gene expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor (GnIHR), and enhanced the expression of melatonin receptor 2 (MT2). This result indicates that the improved egg-laying rate by melatonin was the result of increased serum oestradiol and decreased ovarian GnIHR. These alterations may be mediated by MT2 activation.

  2. Behavioural adaptation of laying hens to dilution of diets under mash and pellet form.

    PubMed

    Vilariño, M; Picard, M L; Melcion, J P; Faure, J M

    1996-12-01

    1. Two laying diets, control (A) and a low-energy (B) diet diluted by adding 450 g/kg wheat bran, were fed to semi-heavy hens in three different forms: mash, small pellets and large pellets. The behavioural adaptations and the production characteristics for these six regimens were studied on 72 individually caged hens, between 19 and 29 weeks of age, subjected to a lighting pattern of 14 h light/24 h. 2. Diet B, as mash, showed a lower apparent physical density than the others. The hardness and durability of the pelleted diets were similar. 3. Hens fed the mash diet B could not completely adjust their food intake to compensate for the dilution and showed reduced egg output and body weight gain compared to the other groups. 4. Video observation of each hen for 14 consecutive hours showed that mash-fed hens ate for longer periods than pellet-fed hens during the first 11 h (proportion of time spent eating: 41.3% mash B, 32.5% mash A and 20% to 25% for all the pelleted diets). These differences were less pronounced during the last 3 h of the photoperiod. 5. Trough-oriented stereotypies were noted in 14 out of 22 mash-fed hens and in 12 out of 47 pellet-fed hens. Dilution of the diet did not appear to exacerbate stereotyped behaviours under the conditions of the study. 6. This experiment demonstrates that the feeding behaviour of laying hens is affected by the physical characteristics of the diet and that this may lower their productivity. 7. Low-energy pelleted diets might be used to feed hens efficiently in tropical countries where cereal by-products are abundant.

  3. Effect of heat stress on production parameters and immune responses of commercial laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, M M; Hendricks, G L; Kalama, M A; Gehad, A E; Abbas, A O; Patterson, P H

    2004-06-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the adverse effects of high temperature and humidity not only on live performance and egg quality but also on immune function in commercial laying hens. One hundred eighty 31-wk-old laying hens at peak production were used in this study. Hens were housed in cages (15 cages of 4 birds/cage) in each of 3 environmental chambers and received 1 of 3 treatments. The 3 treatments were control (average temperature and relative humidity), cyclic (daily cyclic temperature and humidity), and heat stress (constant heat and humidity) for 5 wk. Different production and immune parameters were measured. Body weight and feed consumption were significantly reduced in hens in the heat stress group. Egg production, egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, and specific gravity were significantly inhibited among hens in the heat stress group. Likewise, total white blood cell (WBC) counts and antibody production were significantly inhibited in hens in the heat stress group. In addition, mortality was higher in the heat stress group compared to the cyclic and control groups. Even though T- and B-lymphocyte activities were not significantly affected by any of the treatments, lymphocytes from hens in the heat stress group had the least activity at 1 wk following treatment. These results indicate that heat stress not only adversely affects production performance but also inhibits immune function.

  4. Airborne bacterial reduction by spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water in a laying-hen house.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weichao; Kang, Runmin; Wang, Hongning; Li, Baoming; Xu, Changwen; Wang, Shuang

    2013-10-01

    Spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been considered as a potential approach to reduce airborne bacteria in laying-hen houses. In this study, the effects of spraying SAEW on airborne bacterial reduction were investigated in a laying-hen house as compared with using diluted didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB). Averaged air temperature reduced by approximate 1 degrees C and average relative humidity increased by 3% at a stable ventilation rate (about 2.5 m3 hr(-1) per bird) in the laying-hen house 30 min after spraying (120 mL m(-2)). Compared with the control without spraying, the airborne bacterial concentration was reduced by about 0.70 and 0.37 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3) in the 4 hr after spraying 120 mL m(-2) SAEW (available chlorine concentration [ACC] of 156 mg L(-1)) and diluted DDAB (active compound concentration of 167 mg L(-1)), respectively. Compared with spraying diluted DDAB, spraying SAEW was determined to be more effective for reducing airborne bacterial in laying-hen houses. The effects of spraying SAEW and diluted DDAB on airborne bacterial reduction in the laying-hen house increased with the increasing available chlorine concentrations for SAEW (156, 206, 262 mg L(-1)) and increasing active compound concentrations for diluted DDAB (167, 333, 500 mg L(-1)), respectively. Spraying SAEW and diluted DDAB with two levels of spraying volumes (120 and 90 mL m(-2)) both showed significant differences on airborne bacterial reduction in the laying-hen house (P < 0.05).

  5. Risk Factors Associated With Salmonella in Laying Hen Farms: Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Denagamage, Thomas; Jayarao, Bhushan; Patterson, Paul; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs is associated with various management and environmental factors. Foodborne outbreaks of human salmonellosis have been traced back to consumption of Salmonella-contaminated shell eggs. In the present study, a systematic literature review was conducted to identify and provide an evidence-based overview of potential risk factors of Salmonella contamination of laying hens, layer premises, and shell eggs. This systematic literature search was conducted using AGRICOLA, CAB Abstracts, and PubMed databases. Observational studies that identified risk factors for Salmonella contamination of layer flocks and shell eggs were selected, and best evidence was synthesized to summarize the results. Altogether, 13 cross-sectional studies and four longitudinal studies published in English were included in the review. Evidence scores were assigned based on the study design and quality of the study to grade the evidence level. The strength of association of a risk factor was determined according to the odds ratios. In this systematic review, the presence of previous Salmonella infection, absence of cleaning and disinfection, presence of rodents, induced molting, larger flock size (>30,000 hens), multiage management, cage housing systems, in-line egg processing, rearing pullets on the floor, pests with access to feed prior to movement to the feed trough, visitors allowed in the layer houses, and trucks near farms and air inlets were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of laying hen premises, whereas high level of manure contamination, middle and late phase of production, high degree of egg-handling equipment contamination, flock size of >30,000, and egg production rate of >96% were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of shell eggs. These risk factors demonstrated strong to moderate evidence of association with Salmonella contamination of laying hens and

  6. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are two linked disorders in humans. This study examined if excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. One hundred 63-week-old laying hens were randomly divided into two treatments, i.e., fed with a regular diet (control...

  7. Effect of snack food by-product inclusion on production of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Van Wyhe, R C; Fraley, S E; Szybisty, C A; Karcher, D M; Karcher, E L

    2012-06-01

    The increased interest in becoming green for consumers and companies is driving groups to develop innovative ways to become more efficient and reduce their waste. Foods past their expiration dates are large sources of waste and are causing food-manufacturing companies to develop waste disposal strategies. Integrating by-products from these companies into animal diets, specifically that of laying hens, could be significantly more cost effective for both the human food manufacturers and the agricultural producers. The study's objective is to evaluate laying hen diets containing snack food by-product, consisting mostly of expired potato chips, and the effect on hen performance. In total, 192 White Leghorn laying hens (45 wk old) were selected from the Michigan State University Poultry Farm. Hens were housed in conventional cages (3 birds/cage) and received 1 of 4 diets for 5 wk: 1) industry control corn-soybean meal, 2) control with 3% by-product, 3) control with 6% by-product, and 4) control with 9% by-product. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and balanced for sodium. Feed intake was measured for 3 consecutive days each week, and no overall differences between treatments were observed. However, during the first week, feed intake was significantly higher in birds fed the 6% and 9% diets compared with those fed control (P < 0.05). Birds fed the 6% had a higher feed intake than that of the control again during the fourth week (P < 0.01). Egg production, egg weight, and specific gravity were measured weekly. Hen BW was measured on d 1, 14, 28, and 35. Egg production, egg weight, specific gravity, and BW were not significantly affected by the addition of snack food by-products to the diet. In conclusion, the addition of expired snack food by-product into poultry diets does not significantly affect laying hen egg production and has the potential to be used as an alternative feed stuff in the future.

  8. Performance of commercial laying hen genotypes on free range and organic farms in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Leenstra, F; Maurer, V; Bestman, M; van Sambeek, F; Zeltner, E; Reuvekamp, B; Galea, F; van Niekerk, T

    2012-01-01

    1. A total of 257 farmers with free ranging laying hens (organic and conventional) in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands with 273 flocks were interviewed to determine the relationships between the genotype of the hens, management conditions and performance. 2. Almost 20 different genotypes (brands) were present on the farms. In France, all birds were brown feathered hens laying brown eggs. In Switzerland and The Netherlands, there were brown, white (white feathered hens laying white eggs) and silver (white feathered hens laying brown eggs) hens. In Switzerland, mixed flocks were also present. 3. The overall effect of system (organic vs. conventional free range) on egg production and mortality was significant, with higher mortality and lower egg production among organic hens. In pair wise comparisons within country, the difference was highly significant in The Netherlands, and showed a non-significant tendency in the same direction in Switzerland and France. 4. White hens tended to perform better than brown hens. Silver hens appeared to have a higher mortality and lower production per hen housed at 60 weeks of age. 5. There were no significant relationships between production, mortality, feather condition and use of outside run or with flock size. 6. There was more variation in mortality and egg production among farms with a small flock size than among farms with a large flock size.

  9. Outer membrane vesicles of Gallibacterium anatis induce protective immunity in egg-laying hens.

    PubMed

    Pors, Susanne E; Pedersen, Ida J; Skjerning, Ragnhild Bager; Thøfner, Ida C N; Persson, Gry; Bojesen, Anders M

    2016-11-15

    Gallibacterium anatis causes infections in the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens and induce increased mortality and decreased egg production. New prophylactic measures are needed in order to improve animal welfare and production efficiency. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have previously shown promising results in protection against infections and we hypothesized that OMVs could serve as an immunogen to protect egg-laying hens against G. anatis. To investigate the immunogenic potential of G. anatis OMVs, two in vivo studies in egg-laying hens were made. The trials assessedthe degree of protection provided by immunization with G. anatis OMV against challenge and the IgY responses in serum after immunization and challenge, respectively. A total of 64 egg-laying hens were included in the trials. OMVs for immunization were produced and purified from a high-producing G. anatis ΔtolR mutant. Challenge was done with G. anatis 12656-12 and evaluated by scoring lesions and bacterial re-isolation rates from peritoneum. Finally, levels of OMV-specific IgY in sera were assayed by ELISA. Immunization with OMVs decreased the lesions scores significantly, while the bacterial re-isolation remained unchanged. Furthermore, a high OMV-specific IgY response was induced by immunization and subsequent challenge of the hens. The results strongly indicate that immunization with G. anatis OMVs provides significant protection against G. anatis challenge and induces specific antibody responses with high titers of OMV-specific IgY in serum. The results therefore show great promise for OMV based vaccines aiming at providing protecting against G. anatis in egg-laying hens.

  10. Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Cox, N A; Guard, J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Gast, R K; Abdo, Z; Rigsby, L L; Plumblee, J R; Karcher, D M; Robison, C I; Blatchford, R A; Makagon, M M

    2015-03-01

    Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety, but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, multidisciplinary comparison of the diverse aspects of commercial conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary housing systems and focuses on environmental and egg microbiology. Environmental swabs and eggshell pools were collected from all housing systems during 4 production periods. Total aerobes and coliforms were enumerated, and the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. was determined. Environmental aerobic and coliform counts were highest for aviary drag swabs (7.5 and 4.0 log cfu/mL, respectively) and enriched colony cage scratch pad swabs (6.8 and 3.8 log cfu/mL, respectively). Aviary floor and system wire shell pools had the greatest levels of aerobic contamination for all eggshell pools (4.9 and 4.1 log cfu/mL, respectively). Hens from all housing systems were shedding Salmonella spp. (89-100% of manure belt scraper blade swabs). The dry belt litter removal processes for all housing systems appear to affect Campylobacter spp. detection (0-41% of manure belt scraper blade swabs) considering detection of Campylobacter spp. was much higher for other environmental samples. Aviary forage area drag swabs were 100% contaminated with Campylobacter spp., whereas enriched colony cage scratch pads had a 93% positive rate. There were no differences in pathogen detection in the shell pools from the 3 housing systems. Results indicate egg safety is enhanced when hens in alternative housing systems use nest boxes. Additionally, current outcomes indicate the use of scratch pads in hen housing systems needs to be more thoroughly investigated for effects on hen health and egg safety.

  11. Effects of fish oil and conjugated linoleic acids on carnitine homeostasis in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shibani, M; Keller, J; König, B; Kluge, H; Hirche, F; Stangl, G I; Ringseis, R; Eder, K

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on genes involved in carnitine homeostasis were compared in laying hens. Three groups of laying hens were fed on a control diet or a diet with either 3% of fish oil or CLA for 4 weeks. 2. Feed intake and egg production rate did not differ between the three groups. Diets with fish oil or CLA had only a weak effect on mRNA levels of PPARα target genes (ACO, CPT-I) in the liver and did not influence mRNA concentrations of the most important carnitine transporter OCTN2, enzymes of involved in carnitine synthesis (TMLD, TMABA-DH, BBD) or concentrations of carnitine in plasma, liver and total egg contents. 3. Hens fed the CLA diet had lower concentrations of free and total carnitine in egg yolk but higher concentrations of carnitine in albumen than control hens (P < 0·05), whereas the amount of free and total carnitine in whole egg did not differ. 4. In conclusion, the study showed that feeding fish oil or CLA causes only a weak activation of PPARα in tissues of laying hens that probably explained the lack of effect on carnitine homeostasis. The results contrast with those in humans and mice that show a significant effect of synthetic PPARα agonists on carnitine homeostasis in humans and mice.

  12. Rapid increase of carbonate in cortical bones of hens during laying period.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Li, Q; Wang, S-J; Zhang, L; Qiu, J-Y; Wu, Y; Zhou, Z-L

    2016-12-01

    The incorporation of carbonate has been recognized as an evident change in bone mineral (bioapatite) during aging. Laying hens (Gushi layer) at 4 stages of age (8 hens each stage) were studied by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray radiography to investigate the mineralogical changes and bone density, respectively. Cortical bones of the humerus and femur show a rapid increase of carbonate (∼1.9 wt.%) from sexual maturity to the peak of hens' laying period, while the densities of the cortical bones are relatively stable. Before sexual maturity, the density of the cortical bones increases considerably during aging. However, after the peak of the laying period, only femoral density continues elevating. Carbonate contents in the cortical bones reach the maximum at the peak of the laying period. Two pathways (halted growth of density and Ca-release due to the CO3 incorporation) could both contribute to the intense Ca requirement for egg laying. Crystallization, however, has no significant changes during aging and the laying period. This study could shed light on the mechanism of mineral losses due to CO3 incorporation, and also shows the advantages of Raman spectroscopy in tracking mineral loss in poultry bone.

  13. Safety evaluation of phytosterols in laying hens: effects on laying performance, clinical blood parameters, and organ development.

    PubMed

    Shi, S R; Shen, Y R; Chang, L L; Zhou, C J; Bo, Z; Wang, Z Y; Tong, H B; Zou, J M

    2014-03-01

    Phytosterols are intended for use as a novel food ingredient with plasma cholesterol-lowering activity. Although phytosterols are naturally present in the normal diet, daily consumption is insufficient to ensure plasma cholesterol-lowering levels. Therefore, phytosterols may be added to the diets to achieve the desired cholesterol-lowering activity. A subchronic laying hen safety study was conducted to examine if high-dose phytosterols could affect the safety of hens. Three hundred sixty 21-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 6 replicates of 12 birds each; after 3 wk, birds were fed diets supplemented with 0, 20, 80, 400, and 800 mg/kg of phytosterols for 12 wk. Throughout the study, clinical observations and laying performance were measured. At the end of the study, birds were subjected to a full postmortem examination: blood samples were taken for clinical pathology, selected organs were weighed, and specified tissues were taken for subsequent histological examination. No treatment-related changes that were considered to be of toxicological significance were observed. Therefore, a nominal phytosterol concentration of 800 mg/kg was considered to be the no-observed-adverse-effect level.

  14. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implication of alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth...

  15. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Veldkamp, T; Binnendijk, G P; de Veer, R

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP). Two PAP (Daka-58 and Sonac-60) were classified as meat meals, and the remaining 2 (Daka-40 and Sonac-50) were classified as meat and bone meals. First, fecal digestibility of nutrients in the PAP was determined in Lohmann Brown layers. Hens (n = 132) were housed in 22 cages (6 hens/cage) and allotted to 5 dietary treatments. In the PAP diets (4 replicates/treatment), 100 g/kg of CP of animal origin was added, replacing soybean meal and corn (Zea mays) in the basal diet (6 replicates/treatment). The PAP sources differed largely in chemical composition and digestibility coefficients. Energy content (AME(n)) varied from 1,817 (Daka-40) to 3,107 kcal/kg (Sonac-60), and digestible lysine varied from 15.4 (Daka-40) to 28.3 g/kg (Sonac-50). Subsequently, the effect of a control diet (without PAP) vs. 4 PAP diets (50 g/kg of CP of animal origin from the same batches as used in the digestibility study) on performance was determined. All diets were isocaloric (AME(n) = 2,825 kcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (digestible lysine = 6.8 g/kg). Hens were housed in 40 floor pens (12 hens/pen, 8 pens/treatment) from 20 to 40 wk of age. Feed intake levels of the hens fed the meat and bone meal diets were reduced compared with those of hens fed the meat meal diets, whereas the feed intake level of hens fed the control diet was intermediate. Laying hen performance differed between treatments, being was most favorable for the Sonac-50 treatment and most adverse for the Daka-40 treatment. Differences in laying hen performance seemed to be related partly to differences in feed intake and corresponding amino acid intake.

  16. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  17. Tissue colonization and circulating T lymphocytes in laying hens upon oral challenge with Salmonella enterica serovars.

    PubMed

    Balan, Kannan V; Bigley, Elmer C; Gaines, Dennis W; Babu, Uma S

    2016-12-01

    Evaluating the potential of Salmonella serovars for tissue colonization and egg contamination in laying hens is critical due to widespread consumption of poultry and egg-containing products. The 2009 FDA Egg Rule was implemented to target the eradication of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (SE) from layers; however, other Salmonella serovars, such as Heidelberg (SH) and Typhimurium (ST), have also been associated with poultry-related outbreaks. We conducted this study to see if serovars other than SE could colonize in laying hens, cause egg contamination, and modulate circulating T-cell populations. Laying hens were orally gavaged with 10(7) colony forming units (CFU) of SE, SH, or ST and assessed for colonization in spleen, ovaries, and oviduct 10 d postchallenge. Splenic colonization was similar for all the serovars; however, colonization of ovaries and oviducts was significantly higher with SH compared to SE and ST. Furthermore, SH challenge resulted in egg contamination, while SE and ST did not result in contaminated eggs. Phenotypic evaluation of peripheral blood lymphocytes showed significant reduction in CD4 cells in SH-challenged birds and lower CD8α and CD8β cells in SE-challenged birds compared to controls. Our data showed that non-SE serovars have equal or higher potential to colonize reproductive tissues of laying hens and may be accompanied by altered lymphocyte populations.

  18. Microbiological differences between laying hen strains housed in various production systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sister flocks of three strains of laying hens were housed in conventional cage, free range, and cage free production systems. All flocks were located on a single, commercial-style research facility and provided the same dietary and lighting regimens. Once a season, a sample of shell eggs was asept...

  19. Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Process...

  20. Influence of Protamone on fatty liver syndrome in commercial laying hens.

    PubMed

    Harms, R H; Arafa, A S; Simpson, C F; Miles, R D

    1982-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of Protamone on fatty liver syndrome in commercial laying hens. The addition of either 110 or 220 mg of protamone per kilogram of diet significantly lowered liver fat and also significantly reduced body weight. From histological examination of livers of hens fed Protamone it was found that the hepatocytes contained little or no lipid, whereas hepatocytes of hens fed the control diet were turgid with lipid. The addition of Protamone to the diet resulted in a significant reduction in egg production without effecting feed efficiency in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, egg production was significantly reduced and feed efficiency improved during Days 1 to 28. However, feed efficiency was poorer during Days 29 to 56 for hens receiving the Protamone.

  1. Salmonella enteritidis deposition in eggs after experimental infection of laying hens with different oral doses.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Guard, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The continuing attribution of human Salmonella Enteritidis infections to internally contaminated eggs has necessitated the commitment of substantial public and private resources to Salmonella Enteritidis testing and control programs in commercial laying flocks. Cost-effective risk-reduction requires a detailed and comprehensive understanding of how Salmonella Enteritidis infections in hens result in deposition of the pathogen inside eggs. The present study sought to resolve some incompletely defined aspects of the relationship between Salmonella Enteritidis oral-exposure dose levels in experimentally infected laying hens and the frequency and location of subsequent egg contamination. In two trials, groups of specific-pathogen-free hens were experimentally inoculated with oral doses of 10(4), 10(6), or 10(8) CFU of a phage type 4 Salmonella Enteritidis strain. Eggs were collected 5 to 23 days postinoculation, and the yolk and albumen of each egg were cultured separately to detect Salmonella Enteritidis contamination. Larger oral doses of Salmonella Enteritidis administered to hens were associated with significant increases in the frequencies of both yolk and albumen contamination. Moreover, Salmonella Enteritidis was found in the albumen of a far-higher proportion of contaminated eggs from hens given the largest dose than from the other two groups. Salmonella Enteritidis contamination was detected in 0.7% of yolk and 0.2% of albumen samples after inoculation of hens with 10(4) CFU, 4.0% of yolk and 1.7% of albumen samples after inoculation with 10(6) CFU, and 6.5% of yolk and 10.8% of albumen samples after inoculation with 10(8) CFU. These results demonstrate that oral-exposure doses of Salmonella Enteritidis for laying hens can significantly affect both the frequency and location of deposition of this pathogen inside eggs.

  2. Temporal and sequential structure of behavior and facility usage of laying hens in an enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A; Koene, P; Schouten, W; Spruijt, B; van Beek, P; Metz, J H M

    2005-07-01

    Improved housing for laying hens may start from the translation of their behavioral needs into welfare-based design parameters for laying hen houses. The objective of our research was to gain insights into the facility usage and behavioral needs of the hen over 24 h when there are no obvious restraints. Twenty ISA Brown commercial laying hens (Gallus domesticus) that were 18 wk old and not beak trimmed, were accommodated in a pen (4 x 6 m) at 19 + 2 degrees C on a light-dark cycle of 10L:14D. The pen providing nest boxes, drinkers, feeders, perches, sand, and wood shaving was designed to accommodate the hens for the experimental period. Video recordings were made for 10 d. Behavioral analyses were conducted on 5 birds for 5 d. Time spent on each behavior, log survivor analysis of events and inter-event intervals, bout analysis, diurnal pattern in events and bouts, occurrence of behavior in different segments and the corridor of the pen, and sequence analysis were performed to gain insights into the temporal and sequential structures of behavior. Hens spent 97% of the day on nest use, preening, drinking, feeding, still, walking, perching, and resting; 43% on commodity-dependent behavior; and 57% not on commodity-oriented behaviors. Behavioral events were short (around 70% event <2 min) and frequent (around 70% inter-event intervals <40s). The pen corridor was the preferred place for attack, escape, flying, resting, walking, and wing flapping. Feeding-drinking-feeding, preening-resting-preening, scratching-resting-scratching, dust bathing-resting-preening, or dust bathing-resting-wing stretching-dust bathing were the preferred sequences of behavior. Although hens interrupted ongoing behaviors and changed behaviors frequently, they nonetheless clustered behavioral events.

  3. Effects of Chinese herbal mixture on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; He, W L; Wang, Z B; Xu, T S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbal mixture (CHM) in laying hen diets on performance, egg quality and egg nutrition components, as well as selected blood biochemical parameters. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 24 week of age, were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments and fed for 6 week. The CHM was used at the levels of 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% in the diets of the control and two treatment groups respectively. Each dietary treatment was divided into five replicates, comprising of 18 hens each. Hens were housed in a 3-tier battery system. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Blood samples and eggs were collected at the end of the experiment. The results showed that dietary treatments did not affect egg weight, mortality, eggshell thickness, albumen height, Haugh units, eggshell-breaking strength and egg-shape index. Dietary supplementation of CHM significantly improved (p < 0.05) laying rate and the lowest feed conversion ratio were observed with 1.0% CHM supplementation diets. CHM supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) cracked-egg rate, egg yolk cholesterol, blood serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and increased blood serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). No differences in serum total protein, serum albumen, serum glucose and aspartate amino transferase (AST) were observed in hens fed CHM. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with CHM improved egg production and egg quality and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Dietary supplementation of 1.0% CHM in layer diets may be a feasible means of producing eggs with lower cholesterol and higher egg yolk phospholipid contents for health conscious consumers.

  4. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2014-12-01

    The majority of human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis are attributed to contaminated eggs, and the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial laying flocks has been identified as a leading epidemiologic risk factor. Flock housing and management systems can affect opportunities for the introduction, transmission, and persistence of foodborne pathogens in poultry. The animal welfare implications of different types of housing for laying hens have been widely discussed in recent years, but the food safety consequences of these production systems remain incompletely understood. The present study assessed the effects of 2 different housing systems (conventional cages and colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas) on the horizontal transmission of experimentally introduced Salmonella Enteritidis infection within groups of laying hens. In each of 2 trials, 136 hens were distributed among cages of both housing systems and approximately one-third of the hens in each cage were orally inoculated with doses of 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis (phage type 13a in one trial and phage type 4 in the other). At regular intervals through 23 d postinoculation, cloacal swabs were collected from all hens (inoculated and uninoculated) and cultured for Salmonella Enteritidis. Horizontal contact transmission of infection was observed for both Salmonella Enteritidis strains, reaching peak prevalence values of 27.1% of uninoculated hens in conventional cages and 22.7% in enriched cages. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the overall frequencies of horizontal Salmonella Enteritidis transmission were evident between the 2 types of housing. These results suggest that opportunities for Salmonella Enteritidis infection to spread horizontally throughout laying flocks may be similar in conventional and enriched cage-based production systems.

  5. In vitro penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis through yolk membranes of eggs from 6 genetically distinct commercial lines of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gast, R K; Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Guraya, R; Guard, J; Holt, P S

    2010-08-01

    Although deposition of Salmonella Enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in albumen or on the vitelline (yolk) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs laid by infected hens, bacterial migration into the yolk to reach its nutrient-rich contents could lead to extensive multiplication. The present study used an in vitro egg contamination model to assess the ability of small initial numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis to penetrate the vitelline membrane and multiply inside yolks of eggs laid by 6 genetically distinct commercial lines of hens during 24 h of storage at 30 degrees C. Eggs from each line were tested at 4 different hen ages by inoculation of approximately 100 cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis onto the outside of the vitelline membranes of intact yolks in plastic centrifuge tubes and then adding back the albumen into each tube before incubation. Overall, the frequency of penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis into the yolk contents of eggs from individual lines of hens ranged from 30 to 58% and the mean concentration of Salmonella Enteritidis in yolk contents after incubation ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 log(10) cfu/mL. For both of these parameters, values for one hen line were significantly higher than for 2 other lines, but no other differences were observed. Hen age did not have a significant effect on egg yolk penetration by Salmonella Enteritidis. These results indicate that opportunities for the migration and growth of small initial numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis to attain more dangerous levels inside contaminated eggs during storage at warm temperatures can sometimes vary between different lines of laying hens.

  6. Effect of dietary phytase transgenic corn on physiological characteristics and the fate of recombinant plant DNA in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunqi; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, p<0.01). Based on these results, it was concluded that the PTC had no deleterious effects on the organ weight or serum biochemical parameters of the laying hens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens.

  7. Effect of Dietary Phytase Transgenic Corn on Physiological Characteristics and the Fate of Recombinant Plant DNA in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunqi; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, p<0.01). Based on these results, it was concluded that the PTC had no deleterious effects on the organ weight or serum biochemical parameters of the laying hens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens. PMID:25049929

  8. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Andrew M; Riber, Anja B

    2015-07-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  9. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae contamination in the poultry house environment during erysipelas outbreaks in organic laying hen flocks.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Helena; Bagge, Elisabeth; Båverud, Viveca; Fellström, Claes; Jansson, Désirée S

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated organic laying hen farms for the presence of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in the house environment and from potential carriers (i.e. insects and mice) during ongoing erysipelas outbreaks, and compared the obtained isolates with those from laying hens. The samples were investigated by selective culture followed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction on cultures. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from the spleen, jejunal contents, manure, dust and swabs from water nipples. Three more samples from the house environment tested positive by polymerase chain reaction compared with selective culture alone. Selected isolates were investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). One farm was represented by isolates from laying hens only, and one of these isolates differed in one PFGE band from the others. Different banding patterns were observed for isolates from laying hens and manure on one farm. On the remaining two farms, the isolates from the house environment and laying hens were identical but differed between farms. Outbreaks reoccurred in the next flock on two of the farms, and different PFGE types were isolated from consecutive flocks. Our results suggest an external source of infection, which would explain the previously reported increased risk of outbreaks in free-range flocks. Contaminated manure and dust may represent sources of transmission. For the isolates, MALDI-TOF MS and biochemical typing results were in agreement but, since the type strain of Erysipelothrix tonsillarum was typed as E. rhusiopathiae using MALDI-TOF MS, further studies into this method are needed.

  10. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja B.

    2015-01-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  11. Effects of colored light-emitting diode illumination on behavior and performance of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Huber-Eicher, B; Suter, A; Spring-Stähli, P

    2013-04-01

    The best method for lighting poultry houses has been an issue for many decades, generating much interest in any new systems that become available. Poultry farmers are now increasingly using colored LED (light-emitting diodes) to illuminate hen houses (e.g., in Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, and England). In Switzerland all newly installed systems are now equipped with LED, preferably green ones. The LED give monochromatic light from different wavelengths and have several advantages over conventional illuminants, including high energy efficiency, long life, high reliability, and low maintenance costs. The following study examines the effects of illumination with white, red, and green LED on behavior and production parameters of laying hens. Light intensities in the 3 treatments were adjusted to be perceived by hens as equal. Twenty-four groups of 25 laying hens were kept in identical compartments (5.0 × 3.3 m) equipped with a litter area, raised perches, feed and drinking facilities, and nest boxes. Initially, they were kept under white LED for a 2-wk adaptation period. For the next 4 wk, 8 randomly chosen compartments were lit with red LED (640 nm) and 8 others with green LED (520 nm). Behavior was monitored during the last 2 wk of the trial. Additionally weight gain, feed consumption, onset of lay, and laying performance were recorded. The results showed minor effects of green light on explorative behavior, whereas red light reduced aggressiveness compared with white light. The accelerating effect of red light on sexual development of laying hens was confirmed, and the trial demonstrated that this effect was due to the specific wavelength and not the intensity of light. However, an additional effect of light intensity may exist and should not be excluded.

  12. Interaction of hen production type, age, and temperature on laying pattern and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Tumová, E; Gous, R M

    2012-05-01

    The effect of production type (layer vs. broiler breeder), age (onset and end of laying cycle), and temperature (20 and 28°C) on various aspects of the egg production process and quality was evaluated. Highly significant differences were detected between laying hens and broiler breeders (P ≤ 0.001) in all production parameters. Similarly, age significantly affected rate of lay (P ≤ 0.001; 75.4% for young vs. 62.6% for old), mean sequence length (P ≤ 0.001; 7.7 d for young vs. 2.6 d for old), and time of oviposition (P ≤ 0.001). However, there was no effect of temperature on rate of lay, sequence length, or feed intake. Significant interactions between hen type and age were apparent in rate of lay (P ≤ 0.001), sequence length (P ≤ 0.001), and time of oviposition (P ≤ 0.001). A significant interaction between production type and age (P ≤ 0.015) was evident in egg weight, but egg component proportions were dependent only on hen type. Egg shape index was significantly affected by age (P ≤ 0.004), by temperature (P ≤ 0.028), and an interaction between type and age (P ≤ 0.001). Specific gravity declined with age (P ≤ 0.035) and increasing temperature (P ≤ 0.013).

  13. Influence of commercial laying hen housing systems on the incidence and identification of Salmonella and Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Guard, J; Gast, R K; Buhr, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Abdo, Z; Plumblee, J R; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Rigsby, L L; Robison, C I; Regmi, P; Karcher, D M

    2016-05-01

    The housing of laying hens is important for social, industrial, and regulatory aspects. Many studies have compared hen housing systems on the research farm, but few have fully examined commercial housing systems and management strategies. The current study compared hens housed in commercial cage-free aviary, conventional cage, and enriched colony cage systems. Environmental and eggshell pool samples were collected from selected cages/segments of the housing systems throughout the production cycle and monitored for Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence. At 77 wk of age, 120 hens per housing system were examined for Salmonella and Campylobacter colonization in the: adrenal glands, spleen, ceca, follicles, and upper reproductive tract. All isolates detected from environmental swabs, eggshell pools, and tissues were identified for serotype. Two predominant Salmonella were detected in all samples:S.Braenderup andS.Kentucky.Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni were the only Campylobacter detected in the flocks. Across all housing systems, approximately 7% of hens were colonized with Salmonella, whereas >90% were colonized with Campylobacter Salmonella Braenderup was the isolate most frequently detected in environmental swabs (P<0.0001) and housing system impacted Salmonella spp. shedding (P<0.0001).Campylobacter jejuni was the isolate most frequently found in environmental swabs (P<0.01), while housing system impacted the prevalence of C. coli and jejuniin ceca (P<0.0001). The results of this study provide a greater understanding of the impact of hen housing systems on hen health and product safety. Additionally, producers and academia can utilize the findings to make informed decisions on hen housing and management strategies to enhance hen health and food safety.

  14. Nutrient digestibility and mass balance in laying hens fed a commercial or acidifying diet.

    PubMed

    Wu-Haan, W; Powers, W J; Angel, C R; Hale, C E; Applegate, T J

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of an acidifying diet (gypsum) combined with zeolite and slightly reduced crude protein (R) vs. a control diet (C) on nutrient retention in laying hens and compare 3 approaches to estimating nutrient excretion from hens: 1) mass balance calculation (feed nutrients - egg nutrient), 2) use of an indigestible marker with analyzed feed and excreta nutrient content, and 3) an environmental chamber that allowed for capturing all excreted and volatilized nutrients. Hens (n = 640) were allocated randomly to 8 environmental chambers for 3-wk periods. Excreta samples were collected at the end of each trial to estimate apparent retention of N, S, P, and Ca. No diet effects on apparent retention of N were observed (53.44%, P > 0.05). Apparent retention of S, P, and Ca decreased in hens fed R diet (18.7, - 11.4, and 22.6%, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (40.7, 0.3, and 28.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). Total N excretion from hens fed the C and R diet was not different (1.16 g/hen/d); however, mass of chamber N remaining in excreta following the 3-wk period was less from hens fed the C diet (1.27 kg) than from hens fed the R diet (1.43 kg). Gaseous emissions of NH(3) over the 3-wk period from hens fed the C diet (0.74 kg per chamber) were greater than emissions from hens fed the R diet (0.45 kg). The 3-wk S excretion mass (estimated using the calculation, indigestible marker, and environmental chamber methods, respectively) was greater from hens fed the R diet (1.85, 1.54, and 1.27 kg, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (0.24, 0.20, and 0.14 kg, respectively). The 3-wk P excretion was similar between diets (0.68 kg). Results demonstrate that feeding the acidified diet resulted in decreased N emissions, but because of the acidulant fed, greatly increased S excretion and emissions.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of a nest usage sensor to detect double nest occupations of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-26

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage "sensor", based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of a Nest Usage Sensor to Detect Double Nest Occupations of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage “sensor”, based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices. PMID:25629704

  17. E-cadherin Expression in Ovarian Cancer in the Laying Hen, Gallus Domesticus, compared to Human Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ansenberger, Kristine; Zhuge, Yan; Lagman, Jo Ann J.; Richards, Cassandra; Barua, Animesh; Bahr, Janice M.; Hales, Dale Buchanan

    2010-01-01

    that E-cadherin may prove to be an important target in the preventative treatment of metastatic ovarian cancer and further confirm that the laying hen is a good model for the study of human epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:19321195

  18. Effect of excess dietary sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus on excreta moisture of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Rose, S P; Wells, R G; Pirgozliev, V

    2000-12-01

    1. Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium or phosphate on the water intake and excreta moisture of laying hens. A fifth experiment examined the effect on these variables of increasing amounts of 2 different sodium salts (chloride or bicarbonate) and the interactions with 2 levels of dietary phosphorus. 2. All experiments involved individually caged laying hens fed on diets varying in 1 or 2 minerals in replacement for washed sand. The experimental diets contained mineral concentrations that either met or exceeded the expected requirement of the hens. The diets were given for a 7 or 8 d feeding period and food and water intakes were measured and excreta were collected for the last 48 h of each feeding period. These data were corrected for evaporative water loss to the environment during the collection period. 3. Increasing dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium or phosphorus gave linear increases (P<0.001) in the water intake of the laying hens and linear increases (P<0.01) in the moisture content of their excreta. Each 1 g/kg increase in dietary mineral increased the moisture content of the excreta by 9.04 (+/- 1.57), 11.95 (+/- 2.02) and 5.59 (+/- 0.31) g/kg (+/- standard error) for sodium, potassium and phosphorus, respectively. Increasing concentrations of dietary calcium did not significantly affect the water intakes or excreta moisture levels of the laying hens. 4. The fifth experiment showed that, although there was a sodium x phosphorus interaction (P<0.05), the effects of the 2 mineral additions were approximately additive. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in water intakes or excreta moisture contents due to the 2 different sodium salts (chloride or bicarbonate).

  19. Comparative histomorphometrical study of genital tract in adult laying hen and duck.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Ahmad-Ali; Zamanimoghadam, Abdolkarim; Heidari, Massoumeh

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the histomorphological structures of oviductal regions of the apparently healthy adult laying hens (Gallus gallus dometicus) and ducks (Ansa ansa domesticus). For this purpose, 20 hens and 20 female ducks aged between 1-1.5 years were used. After euthanasia, the oviducts were dissected out and all of the gross morphometrical parameters including length, width and thickness as well as weight and length of them were recorded. For histological studies, after tissue preparation and staining with H&E, histological layers of isthmus, uterus and vagina were recognized and the size of them with micrometry method were determined. Our data analyses indicated that, the mean weight, length of oviduct as well as weight of isthmus, uterus in hen were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than that of duck, whereas the vaginal thickness and weight were greater in duck than the hen. In histological studies, epithelium and cilia were well developed in duck and lamina propria was filled with glands in the regions of the isthmus and uterus. The length of primary mucosal folds of isthmus and uterus in duck was more than hen. The longest mucosal fold has been seen in uterus. Most of the parameters in duck were greater than hen except the length of secondary fold of three parts of oviduct including isthmus, uterus, and vagina.

  20. Performance, egg quality, and blood plasma chemistry of laying hens fed hempseed and hempseed oil.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Gakhar, N; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hens (feed intake, rate of lay, egg weight, and BW gain), egg quality and blood biochemistry (enzymes, electrolytes, proteins, and other plasma constituents) of laying hens fed diets containing hemp products. Forty-eight Lohmann LSL-Classic (white-egg layers; 19 wk of age) were individually caged and fed 1 of 6 wheat-barley-soybean-based diets for a period of 12 wk. The diets consisted of hempseed (HS; 10, 20, or 30%), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 or 9.0%), or a control diet (corn oil-based). All diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude fat (11%), energy (2,800 kcal/kg), and CP (17%). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the repeated measure analysis of the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. The results indicated that the inclusion of up to 30 and 9.0% HS and HO, respectively, to diets of laying hens had no significant effects on hen performance, egg quality, or plasma level of metabolites (proteins, glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol) and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P, and Ca). Overall plasma enzyme concentrations, particularly gamma-glutamyl transferase, were significantly (P < 0.01) lowest at the 10 and 20% levels of HS inclusion, or at the 4.5% HO level of inclusion of the hempseed products compared with the higher levels or control fed hens. Similar effects were also observed for plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels but with the HS enriched diets only (P < 0.05), particularly being lowest at the inclusion levels of 10 and 20% HS compared with the control. The results may imply a possible protective effect of HS- and HO-containing diets, particularly at 10% HS, 20% HS, and 4.5% HO levels, on liver damage/injury. In summary, both HO and HS appear to be well tolerated by laying hens as judged by markers of plasma clinical chemistry supporting the safety and efficacy of hemp products for use in laying hen rations.

  1. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period.

  2. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    PubMed Central

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  3. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. I: egg laying, and use of veranda and outdoor area.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on egg production, laying behaviour and use of veranda and outdoor area are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough and perch access at the lowest stocking density (treatment D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Laying percentage was significantly lower (P<0.05) in D12 compared with the other stocking densities (90.6% v. 94.3% (± 0.7)), most likely due to the concomitant reduction in nest space and drinker availability per hen. No systematic effects of density were found on other laying variables (egg weight, eggs laid outside nests, aviary side preferences). Number of hens using the veranda increased with stocking density. Hens primarily used the range near the house (within 50 m) and hens kept at the lowest stocking density and the smallest group size appeared to use the outdoor area more extensively, based on an assessment of vegetation cover (P<0.05). For the measures reported here, the welfare consequences of increased stocking density were assessed to be minor; additional results are reported in the associated article (Steenfeldt and Nielsen, 2015).

  4. Pop hole use by hens with different keel fracture status monitored throughout the laying period.

    PubMed

    Richards, G J; Wilkins, L J; Knowles, T G; Booth, F; Toscano, M J; Nicol, C J; Brown, S N

    2012-05-12

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of keel fractures on the extent to which free-range hens access the range through pop holes. Over two consecutive laying periods (two production years) a total of 1100 individual birds from one half of a house, divided into four separated flocks, were caught at 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 weeks, palpated to assess the prevalence and severity of keel fractures and tagged with RFID transponders. Their use of pop holes was subsequently monitored in some cases from week 25 to end of lay at 68 to 70 weeks. At regular intervals (every 10 weeks), the tagged birds were re-caught to assess changes in keel fracture prevalence and severity. The average percentage of birds with fractured keels at 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 and at end of lay (68 to 70 weeks of age) was 5.5, 25.5, 49, 63, 66.5 and 78.5, respectively, across both production years. The effect of keel score on pop hole use was modelled statistically, adjusting for weather conditions and age of the birds. There were significant effects of most of the weather variables recorded, as well as age of the bird, on use of pop holes and also a significant effect of keel score. Higher keel scores resulted in a reduction in pop hole use. A significant statistical interaction between keel score and ambient temperature revealed an accelerated reduction in use as the temperature decreased and keel score increased. It is concluded that the occurrence of keel fractures may affect the birds' ability or willingness to utilise the outdoor range provided by free-range housing systems, thereby reducing the potential welfare advantages of this type of housing.

  5. Environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp. in laying hen farms and associated health risks for farm workers.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Danesi, Patrizia; Favuzzi, Vincenza; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Pugliese, Nicola; Caroli, Anna; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-03-01

    Data on the occurrence and epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. in laying hens farms are scant. With the aims of determining levels of airborne contamination in laying hen farms and evaluating the potential risk of infection for workers and animals, 57 air samples from 19 sheds (Group I), 69 from faeces (Group II), 19 from poultry feedstuffs (Group III) and 60 from three anatomical sites (i.e. nostrils, pharynx, ears) of 20 farm workers (Group IV) were cultured. The Aspergillus spp. prevalence in samples ranged from 31.6% (Group III) to 55.5% (Group IV), whereas the highest conidia concentration was retrieved in Group II (1.2 × 10(4) c.f.u. g(-1)) and in Group III (1.9 × 10(3) c.f.u. g(-1)). The mean concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia was 70 c.f.u. m(-3) with Aspergillus fumigatus (27.3%) being the most frequently detected species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (6.3%). These Aspergillus spp. were also isolated from human nostrils (40%) and ears (35%) (P<0.05) (Group IV). No clinical aspergillosis was diagnosed in hens. The results demonstrate a relationship between the environmental contamination in hen farms and presence of Aspergillus spp. on animals and humans. Even if the concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia (i.e. 70 c.f.u. m(-3)) herein detected does not trigger clinical disease in hens, it causes human colonization. Correct management of hen farms is necessary to control environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp., and could lead to a significant reduction of animal and human colonization.

  6. Aflatoxins, hydroxylated metabolites, and aflatoxicol from breast muscle of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Zaragoza, M; Carvajal-Moreno, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Chilpa-Galván, N C; Avila-González, E; Flores-Ortiz, C M

    2014-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites that are pathological to animals and humans. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), AFG(2)) and their hydroxylated metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1)) and aflatoxicol (AFL) from laying hen breast muscles. Aflatoxins pass from cereal feed to the laying hen tissues, causing economic losses, and from there to humans. To detect the passage of AF from feed to hen breast muscle tissues, an experiment that included 25 Hy-Line W36 121-wk-old hens was performed for 8 d. Hens in individual cages were distributed into 3 groups: a control group, with feed free of AFB(1), and 2 experimental groups, with feed spiked with 2 AFB(1) dosages: 30 µg·kg(-1) (low) or 500 µg·kg(-1) (high). The daily feed consumption per hen was recorded and afterward hens were euthanized and breast muscles were collected, weighed, and dried individually. Aflatoxins were extracted by 2 chemical methods and quantified by HPLC. Both methods were validated by lineality (calibration curves), recovery percentage (>80%), limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The AF (µg·kg(-1)) averages recovered in control breast muscles were as follows: AFB(1) (18); AFG(1), AFM(2), and AFL (0); AFG(2) (1.3); AFM(1) (52), and AFP1 (79). Hens fed with feed spiked with 30 µg·kg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (16); AFG(2) (72); AFM(1) (0); AFM(2) (18); AFP(1) (145); and AFL (5 µg·kg(-1)). Hens with feed spiked with 500 µg·kg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (512); AFG(2) (7); AFM(1) (4,775); AFM(2) (0); AFP(1) (661); and AFL (21 µg·kg(-1)). The best AF extraction method was Qian and Yang's method, modified by adding additional AF from both Supelclean LC18 SPE columns; its limit of detection (0.5 ng·mL(-1)) was lower compared with that of Koeltzow and Tanner, which was 1 ng·mL(-1).

  7. The effect of vitamin E on laying performance and egg quality in laying hens fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Licong; Shan, Anshan

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on laying performance, egg quality, egg fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, and several biochemical parameters of laying hens fed corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) during the laying period (40 to 63 wk of age). A total of 360 Hy-Line Variety Brown hens were randomly assigned to 6 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 10 hens each. Hens were allocated to diets 1 through 6 in a 3 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments included 3 levels of DDGS (0, 10, and 20%) and 2 levels of vitamin E (0 and 200 mg/kg). The results indicated that yolk color and eggshell thickness increased with increasing DDGS (P < 0.05). However, increasing DDGS to 20% in laying hen diets significantly reduced feed conversion (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 200 mg/kg of vitamin E significantly improved egg production and yolk percentage (P < 0.05). Increasing the dietary levels of vitamin E caused a decrease in cholesterol and an increase in the α-tocopherol concentration of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with DDGS decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk (P < 0.05). Supplementation with high levels of vitamin E decreased malondialdehyde and increased glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase concentrations of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that DDGS was successfully fed to laying hens at levels up to 10% without adverse effects on laying performance. Additionally, vitamin E supplementation improved egg production and egg quality and provided health benefits to laying hens.

  8. Restriction of cadmium transfer to eggs from laying hens exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shin; Okabe, Masashi; Emoto, Tadasu

    1997-09-01

    The transfer of Cd to eggs of white Leghorn laying hens has been shown to be restricted. After Cd was injected ip into laying hens, the Cd concentrations in the blood, livers, ovaries, and eggs were measured, Although the Cd concentrations in the maternal blood and livers increased remarkably at certain levels of administrations, the Cd concentration in the yolks of eggs was not significantly increased, and was less than 0.04 {mu}g/g wet weight. After egg production stopped in the highest injected group (7.5 mg Cd/kg), Cd in the yolks of eggs had an accumulated range of 0.02-0.03 {mu}g/g wet weight. This was despite the high Cd accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, the Cd concentration in the follicle walls of the ovary increased and was 13- to 52-fold higher than in the follicle yolks. An additional experiment was conducted in order to estimate whether hatching success is affected by the Cd in the laid eggs of Cd-injected laying hens, The ratio of hatching success in the 0.3 or 1.2 {mu}g Cd/egg-injected groups was similar to that in the saline- injected group, indicating that a small amount of Cd in the eggs might exert no marked influence on the hatching success. In conclusion, Cd transfer from laying hen to eggs was restricted after the maternal bird was exposed to Cd. Furthermore, Cd accumulates in the follicle walls of ovary. These results suggest that the follicle walls might play a role in protecting the follicle yolks against Cd toxicity. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Influence of laying hen systems on the mite fauna (Acari) community of commercial poultry farms in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Horn, Tamara Bianca; Körbes, Júlia Horn; Granich, Juliana; Senter, Malena; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2016-01-01

    Intensive production of confined laying hens affects their welfare and increases the risk of epidemics. Ectoparasites as hematophagous and feather mites cause low productivity and decreased egg quality. This study aimed to determine the diversity of mites captured with traps in different commercial systems of laying hens (Gallus gallus L.) (Phasianidae) in Taquari Valley, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samplings were conducted from August 2013 to August 2014, totaling 21 sampling events in three different commercial laying hen systems: automatic production systems (A(1), (2), (3)), semiautomatic systems (S(1), (2)), and free-range system (FR). A total of 9981 mites belonging to 21 families, 31 genera, and 35 species were found. Acaridae, Caligonellidae, and Cheyletidae showed the highest richness with four species each. Megninia ginglymura (Mégnin, 1877) (Analgidae) was the most abundant ectoparasite species with 1328 specimens and was present in all commercial laying hen systems. No hematophagous mites were found. Cheyletus malaccensis(Cheyletidae) (3503), Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Phytoseiidae) (304), and Blattisocius keegani (Blattisocidae) (181) were the predators present in all systems. The similarity with control system (S(1)--without pesticide) was low (36.5 %) when compared to all other commercial laying hen systems, and it had the highest richness. In FR, low populations of mites and highest diversity were observed. The commercial laying hen system and the management influence the mite fauna in poultry farms.

  10. Effect of feeding clinoptilolite (zeolite) on the performance of three strains of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Olver, M D

    1997-05-01

    1. One hundred and twenty 16-week-old single combed pullets of three strains were fed on a diet containing 135 g protein/kg with or without 50 g clinoptilolite/kg in a trial with 20 hens per treatment. Sterile river sand replaced clinoptilotile in the control diet in order to keep the diets isoenergetic. The hens were individually caged in a naturally ventilated laying house and fed one of the two diets for ten 28-d periods. 2. Significant dietary effects of feeding clinoptilolite were observed with number of eggs laid per hen, shell thickness, efficiency of food utilisation and droppings moisture content. No significant dietary effects between treatments were observed with body weight, age at first egg, egg weight. Haugh units, food intake/hen and rate of amino acid absorption of radioactive lysine and methionine into the bloodstream. Significant differences between strains were observed with regard to all parameters except food intake/hen. There were no significant strain X clinoptilolite interactions.

  11. Individual differences in personality in laying hens are related to learning a colour cue association.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Elske N; Lee, Caroline; Hernandez, Carlos E; Naguib, Marc; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2017-01-01

    Personality can influence how animals perceive and learn cues. The behaviour and physiological responses animals show during stressful events is indicative of their personality. Acute induced stress prior to a cognitive test are known to affect the judgement of a stimulus, but personality of an individual could also affect learning of a specific cognitive paradigm. Here, we assessed if adult laying hens' behaviour and physiological responses, as indicators of their personality, were related to their cognitive performance. We assessed their behavioural responses to a tonic immobility test, an open field test, and a manual restraint test, and measured plasma corticosterone levels after manual restraint. After that, hens (n=20) were trained in a pre-set training schedule to associate a colour-cue with a reward. In a two-choice go-go test, hens needed to choose between a baited or non-baited food container displayed randomly on the left or right side of an arena. Success in learning was related to personality, with better performance of hens which showed a reactive personality type by a long latency to walk, struggle or vocalize during the tests. Only eight out of 20 hens reached the training criteria. The non-learners showed a strong side preference during all training days. Side preferences were strong in hens with high levels of plasma corticosterone and with a long duration of tonic immobility, indicating that fearful, stress-sensitive hens are more prone to develop side biases. Our results show that learning can be hindered by side biases, and fearful animals with a more proactive personality type are more sensitive to develop such biases.

  12. Effects of Dietary Bacillus licheniformis on Gut Physical Barrier, Immunity, and Reproductive Hormones of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Du, Wei; Lei, Kai; Wang, Baikui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yingshan; Li, Weifen

    2017-01-13

    Previous study showed that dietary Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) administration contributes to the improvement of laying performance and egg quality in laying hens. In this study, we aimed to further evaluate its underlying mechanisms. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line Variety W-36 hens (28 weeks of age) were randomized into four groups, each group with six replications (n = 15). The control group received the basal diet and the treatment groups received the same basal diets supplemented with 0.01, 0.03, and 0.06% B. licheniformis powder (2 × 10(10) cfu/g) for an 8-week trial. The results demonstrate that B. licheniformis significantly enhance the intestinal barrier functions via decreasing gut permeability, promoting mucin-2 transcription, and regulating inflammatory cytokines. The systemic immunity of layers in B. licheniformis treatment groups is improved through modulating the specific and non-specific immunity. In addition, gene expressions of hormone receptors, including estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, are also regulated by B. licheniformis. Meanwhile, compared with the control, B. licheniformis significantly increase gonadotropin-releasing hormone level, but markedly reduce ghrelin and inhibin secretions. Overall, our data suggest that dietary inclusion of B. licheniformis can improve the intestinal barrier function and systemic immunity and regulate reproductive hormone secretions, which contribute to better laying performance and egg quality of hens.

  13. Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The health benefits of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are generally recognized. Unfortunately, in most Mediterranean countries, the recommended daily intake of these compounds is rarely met. Therefore, enrichment of commonly occurring foods can boost intake of these fatty acids. In this regard, eggs are an interesting target, as they form an integral part of the diet. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to Laying Hens feed at concentrations 1% or 2% and was evaluated for its effects on performance of the production and on egg quality. The Laying Hens were given access to 110 g of feed mixtures daily that was either a basal diet or a ‘zeolite diet’ (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 1% or 2%). It was found that zeolite treatment had a positive and significatif (p < 0.05) effect on some parameters that were measured like egg height and eggshell strength. While dietary zeolite supplementation tended to/or has no significant effects on total egg, eggshell, yolk and albumen weights. It was found also that zeolite mainly increases level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg. Conclusion This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for Laying Hens, as part of a comprehensive program to control egg quality and to increase level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg. PMID:22676421

  14. Biological and economic optimum level of calcium in White Leghorn laying hens.

    PubMed

    Castillo, C; Cuca, M; Pro, A; González, M; Morales, E

    2004-06-01

    Calcium is important in eggshell formation; inadequate levels in the diet of laying hens may affect shell quality and egg production. An experiment with 250 Leghorn Hy-Line W-98 hens was conducted to evaluate 5 dietary Ca levels (2.96, 3.22, 3.83, 4.31, and 4.82%) in 3 laying periods. The evaluated variables were egg production (EP), egg mass (EM), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion (FC), and specific gravity (SG). The biological optimum level (BOL) of Ca for maximum egg production and specific gravity, and the economic optimum level (EOL) to maximize profits were calculated. There was no interaction between Ca level and laying period. The results show that the Ca level of the diet (P < 0.05) affected the intake of this nutrient (3.34, 3.68, 4.26, 4.89, and 5.39 g bird/day), ADFI (113, 114, 111, 113, and 111 g bird/day), and SG (1.080, 1.081, 1.082, 1.083, and 1.083). As the hens aged, EP and SG diminished (P < 0.05). BOL for maximum EP and SG were 4.34 and 4.62%, and EOL was 4.38%.

  15. Impact of commercial housing systems and nutrient and energy intake on laying hen performance and egg quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Karcher, D M; Jones, D R; Abdo, Z; Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    The US egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen's nutritional requirements and resulting productivity are well established with the conventional cage system, but diminutive research is available in regards to alternative housing systems. The restrictions exist with limited availability of alternative housing systems in research settings and the considerable expense for increased bird numbers in a replicate due to alternative housing system design. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of nutrient and energy intake on production and egg quality parameters from laying hens housed at a commercial facility. Lohmann LSL laying hens were housed in three systems: enriched colony cage, cage-free aviary, and conventional cage at a single commercial facility. Daily production records were collected along with dietary changes during 15 production periods (28-d each). Eggs were analyzed for shell strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, vitelline membrane properties, and egg solids each period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coupled with a principal components analysis (PCA) approach was utilized to assess the impact of nutritional changes on production parameters and monitored egg quality factors. The traits of hen-day production and mortality had a response only in the PCA 2 direction. This finds that as house temperature and Met intake increases, there is an inflection point at which hen-day egg production is negatively effected. Dietary changes more directly influenced shell parameters, vitelline membrane parameters, and egg total solids as opposed to laying hen housing system. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted in controlled research settings on laying hen nutrient and energy intake in the alternative housing systems

  16. Effect of expanded cottonseed meal on laying performance, egg quality, concentrations of free gossypol in tissue, serum and egg of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chao; Song, Hua-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Jiang, Yuan-Jing; Zhang, Ai-Ting; Azzam, Mahmoud Mostafa; Zou, Xiao-Ting

    2014-05-01

    Three hundred and sixty Hy-Line Brown hens, 40 week of age, were allocated to five treatments, each of which included four replicates of 18 hens. After an expanded process of cottonseed meal (CSM), free gossypol content in CSM was decreased from 1.24 to 0.40 g/kg. The dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal based diets including 6% CSM and 6%, 8% and 10% expanded cottonseed meal (ECSM). Hens fed 8% ECSM had higher (P<0.05) laying rate and average egg weight than those fed 6% CSM. The albumen height and Haugh unit in the control group, 6% and 8% ECSM groups were superior (P<0.05) to other treatments. Hens fed 6% CSM resulted in severe (P<0.05) egg yolk discoloration. Free gossypol (FG) concentrations in yolk and albumen and tissues of the 6% CSM group were greater (P<0.05) than those in any ECSM treatments. Hens fed 6% CSM and 10% ECSM had the highest (P<0.05) FG concentrations in the liver compared with those in the kidney and muscle, and higher (P<0.05) FG residues in yolk than those in albumen. In conclusion, FG in CSM can be reduced by 68% through an expanded process and ECSM can be available in laying hens at up to 10% of the total diet and an appropriate replacement of soybean meal with ECSM may improve performance in laying hens.

  17. Influence of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bin; Zhang, Yuan-shu; Ma, Zi-li; Zheng, Liu-hai; Li, Shuang-jie; Dou, Xin-hong; Gong, Jian-sen; Miao, Jin-feng

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens. Green-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to a free range group and two caged groups, one with low-density and the other with high-density housing. Each group was further divided into control (C) and taurine treatment (T) groups. All hens were fed the same basic diet except that the T groups' diet was supplemented with 0.1% taurine. The experiment lasted 15 d. Survival rates, laying rates, daily feed consumption, and daily weight gain were recorded. Histological changes, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation and anti-oxidation levels were determined. The results show that dietary taurine supplementation and reduced housing density significantly attenuated pathophysiological changes in the oviduct. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) DNA binding activity increased significantly in the high-density housing group compared with the two other housing groups and was reduced by taurine supplementation. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA expression in the high-density and low-density C and T groups increased significantly. In the free range and low-density groups, dietary taurine significantly reduced the expression of TNF-α mRNA. Supplementation with taurine decreased interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression significantly in the low-density groups. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) mRNA expression was significantly higher in caged hens. IL-10 mRNA expression was higher in the high-density C group than in the free range and low-density C groups. Supplementation with taurine decreased IL-10 mRNA expression significantly in the high-density group and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the free range hens. We conclude that taurine has important protective effects against oviduct damage. Reducing housing density also results in less oxidative stress, less inflammatory cell infiltration, and lower levels of inflammatory mediators in the oviduct

  18. Incidence, Severity, and Welfare Implications of Lesions Observed Postmortem in Laying Hens from Commercial Noncage Farms in California and Iowa.

    PubMed

    Kajlich, Anya S; Shivaprasad, H L; Trampel, Darrell W; Hill, Ashley E; Parsons, Rebecca L; Millman, Suzanne T; Mench, Joy A

    2016-03-01

    The egg industry is moving away from the use of conventional cages to enriched cage and noncage laying hen housing systems because of animal welfare concerns. In this study, the prevalence and severity of lesions in noncage laying hens from commercial farms in two of the largest egg-producing states, California and Iowa, were evaluated by postmortem examination. Hens that died or were culled were collected during early, mid, and late stages of the laying cycle from 16 houses on three farms. Of the 25 gross lesions identified for study, 22 were observed, with an average of four lesions per hen. Vent cannibalism, reduced feather cover, keel bone deformation, and beak abnormalities were the most frequent lesions, observed in ≥40% of hens. Other common lesions were cloacal prolapse (30.5%), footpad dermatitis (24.3%), and septicemia (23.1%). Beak abnormality and enteric disease had the highest proportion of severe lesions. Pearson chi-square analysis revealed a number of stage-of-lay effects (P ≤ 0.05), some of which differed by state. For both states combined, the lesions observed more frequently during early lay were beak abnormalities, northern fowl mite infestation, and cage layer fatigue, whereas during mid lay, they were poor feather cover, vent cannibalism, footpad dermatitis, keel bone deformation, respiratory disease and roundworms. Feather pecking and cloacal prolapse were most common during late lay. Although differences in hen genetics, farm management practices, and environmental factors could all have affected the results of this study, the information provides a better understanding of hen health in noncage housing systems and could help to identify potential interventions to reduce hen welfare problems.

  19. Relationship of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response with hematological and serum biochemical values in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Soria, Mario Alberto; Bonnet, María Agustina; Bueno, Dante Javier

    2015-06-15

    There are few studies about the blood serum of laying hens infected with Salmonella. The differential leukocyte count and blood chemistry values are an important aid in the diagnosis of human diseases, but blood parameters in the avian species are not well known. On the other hand, invasive forms of bacterial gastroenteritis, like Salmonella, often cause intestinal inflammation so this study was undertaken to find a biomarker of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response in the hematological or serum biochemical parameters in laying hens. Furthermore, we evaluated the association of some farm characteristics with Salmonella infection and fecal leukocytes (FL). A fecal sample with at least one fecal leukocyte per field was considered positive for inflammatory intestinal response. False positive serum reactions for Salmonella infection, by serum plate agglutination (SPA) test, were reduced by heating the sample to 56°C for 30 min and then diluting it 5-fold. The range of hematological and biochemical parameter values was very wide, in addition, there was a poor agreement between the SPA and FL results. Comparison of the positive and negative samples in SPA and FL showed that 1.3% and 79.8% of the laying hens were positive and negative in both tests, respectively. Hens with a positive SPA result showed a higher percentage of monocytes than those with a negative SPA result. Hens with a positive FL test had a higher percentage of heterophils, ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes and aspartate aminotransferase values, while the percentage of lymphocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those with a negative FL test. The risk of Salmonella infection increased when the age of laying hens and the number of hens per poultry house was greater than or equal to 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, compared to less than 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, respectively. On the other hand, the risk of inflammatory intestinal response was higher in laying

  20. Soft Perches in an Aviary System Reduce Incidence of Keel Bone Damage in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, Ariane; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra; Schrader, Lars; Toscano, Michael J.; Würbel, Hanno; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.

    2015-01-01

    Keel bone fractures and deviations are one of the major welfare and health issues in commercial laying hens. In non-cage housing systems like aviaries, falls and collisions with perches and other parts of the housing system are assumed to be one of the main causes for the high incidence of keel bone damage. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of a soft perch material to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations in white (Dekalb White) and brown laying hens (ISA Brown) kept in an aviary system under commercial conditions. In half of 20 pens, all hard, metal perches were covered with a soft polyurethane material. Palpation of 20 hens per pen was conducted at 18, 21, 23, 30, 38, 44 and 64 weeks of age. Production data including egg laying rate, floor eggs, mortality and feed consumption were collected over the whole laying period. Feather condition and body mass was assessed twice per laying period. The results revealed that pens with soft perches had a reduced number of keel bone fractures and deviations. Also, an interaction between hybrid and age indicated that the ISA hybrid had more fractured keel bones and fewer non-damaged keel bones compared with the DW hybrid at 18 weeks of age, a response that was reversed at the end of the experiment. This is the first study providing evidence for the effectiveness of a soft perch material within a commercial setting. Due to its compressible material soft perches are likely to absorb kinetic energy occurring during collisions and increase the spread of pressure on the keel bone during perching, providing a mechanism to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations, respectively. In combination with genetic selection for more resilient bones and new housing design, perch material is a promising tool to reduce keel bone damage in commercial systems. PMID:25811980

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation of bacteriophage on performance, egg quality and caecal bacterial populations in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Kim, J W; Shin, H S; Kim, M C; Lee, J H; Kim, G-B; Kil, D Y

    2015-01-01

    1. Bacteriophages (BP) have gained increasing attention as a treatment of bacterial infection for animals. However, the data pertaining to dietary application of BP for laying hens have been limited. 2. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary BP on laying performance, egg quality and caecal bacterial populations in laying hens. 3. The dietary BP used in this experiment was a mixture of individual BP targeting Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella derby and Staphylococcus aureus. 4. A total of 360 Hy-Line Brown laying hens of 32 weeks of age were allotted to one of three dietary treatments with 6 replicates in a completely randomised design. The basal diet was prepared, and 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg BP mixture was supplemented to the basal diet. Diets were fed to hens for 8 weeks. 5. Laying performance and egg quality were not affected by dietary treatments. As inclusion levels of BP mixture in diets were increased, the DNA copy numbers for Salmonella spp. in the caecal contents decreased linearly, whereas the DNA copy numbers for Escherichia coli in the caecal contents increased linearly. 6. Results indicate that dietary supplementation of BP mixture decreases the target Salmonella spp. populations but increases Escherichia coli populations in the gastrointestinal tract of laying hens with little impact on laying performance and egg quality.

  2. Application phenomena and efficacy of concentrated acaricide dusts for northern fowl mite control on caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hall, R D; Foehse, M C; Vandepopuliere, J M

    1981-06-01

    Fluorescent pigments were used to measure plumage coverage when caged laying hens were dusted for northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), control. Carriage type electrostatic or high velocity backpack equipment produced superior coverage 2 hr posttreatment when the rates of 454 g (1 lb) dust per 100 or 500 hens was employed. A redistribution of dust was noted 48 hr posttreatment, and a subsequent experiment demonstrated that this phenomenon resulted from intracage cross contamination dependent upon bird caging density. Carbaryl 80% wettable powder (WP) at 454 g/1600 hens and tetrachlorvinphos 50% WP at 454 g/1000 hens provided northern fowl mite control for 11 and 5 weeks posttreatment, respectively.

  3. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Respiratory Exposures.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Veronica; Mitchell, Diane; Armitage, Tracey; Tancredi, Daniel; Schenker, Marc; Mitloehner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the personal respiratory exposures of poultry workers in three different types of layer housing under commercial production conditions. Workers were randomly assigned to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary barns in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods over the hens' lifetime. Inhalable and fine particulate matter (PM) and endotoxin in both size fractions were assessed by personal and area samplers over the work shift. Concentrations of inhalable PM, PM2.5 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm), and endotoxin in both size fractions were higher in aviary than either the conventional or enriched barns. Geometric means (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of inhalable PM and endotoxin for the aviary, conventional, and enriched barns were 8.9 (6.8-11.5) mg/m(3) and 7517.9 (5403.2-10,460.2) EU/m(3), 3.7 (2.8-4.8) mg/m(3) and 1655.7 (1144.6-2395.2) EU/m(3), 2.4 (1.8-3.3) mg/m(3) and 1404.8 (983.3-2007.0) EU/m(3), respectively. Area samplers recorded a lower mean inhalable PM concentration and higher PM2.5 concentration than personal samplers. Ammonia concentrations were low throughout three monitoring seasons. These findings show that the aviary barns pose higher respiratory exposures to poultry workers than either conventional or enriched barns.

  4. Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella in laying hens and eggs from flocks with Salmonella in their environment.

    PubMed Central

    Poppe, C; Johnson, R P; Forsberg, C M; Irwin, R J

    1992-01-01

    Seven Canadian layer flocks with Salmonella enteritidis in their environment were investigated to determine the numbers of hens infected with S. enteritidis, the localization of S. enteritidis in organs of infected hens and the numbers of S. enteritidis-infected eggs produced by two affected flocks. By a microagglutination test (MAT) using S. pullorum antigens, these flocks had more seropositive hens (mean 51.9 +/- 16.9%) than two Salmonella-free flocks (mean 13.0 +/- 4.2%). Culture of tissues of 580 hens (433 seropositive) from the seven flocks detected 26 (4.5%) S. enteritidis-infected hens from two flocks. In one flock, 2/150 hens were infected with S. enteritidis phage type (PT) 8, which was confined to the ceca, and no Salmonella spp. were isolated from 2520 eggs (one day's lay). In the second flock, where 24/150 hens were infected with S. enteritidis PT13, extraintestinal infection was found in nine hens and involved the ovaries and/or oviduct in two hens. Salmonella enteritidis PT13 was isolated from one sample of egg contents and from one sample of cracked shells from among 14,040 eggs (one day's lay) from this flock. The overall prevalence of S. enteritidis-contaminated eggs from the two flocks with infected hens was less than 0.06%. Other Salmonella spp. isolated were S. heidelberg from 58 hens (10%), and S. hadar, S. mbandaka and S. typhimurium from one hen (0.2%) each. The MAT with antigens of S. pullorum had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 24% for detecting S. enteritidis-infected hens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1423059

  5. The potential of blue lupins as a protein source, in the diets of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael R F; Parkinson, Sarah; Fleming, Hannah R; Theobald, Vince J; Leemans, Dave K; Burgess, Tony

    2016-12-01

    Layers diets typically contain 15-20% soya due to its high crude protein content (ca. 36%). Reliance on soya for protein can result in large increases in cost of feed due to the law of supply and demand as a global commodity. Lupin grains have high protein content (35-40%) but previous experience with white lupins has shown toxic effects in poultry due to high levels alkaloids and poor performance due to anti-nutritional Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Here blue lupins either processed or whole were trialled for their potential as a protein source. Point of lay chickens (64) at 16 weeks of age were weighed and allocated to 16 coops of four hens. Coops, as the experimental unit, were randomly allocated to four treatments: layers mash with soya (Control); or layers mash with 150 g of lupin/kg diet with the lupin either: whole (Whole); dehulled (Dehulled) or dehulled + a solid state fermentation enzyme extract (SSF; 150 g/tonne DM). All diets were ground and formulated to be balanced for energy, crude protein and essential amino acids using NIRS. No difference in growth rate, final hen weight, DM and water intake, eggs per day, mean egg weight, yellowness of yolk or chroma was found between treatments. There was a trend (P<0.1) for the SSF treatment to produce less heavy shells and a significant effect for the lupin treatments to have redder yolks (P<0.001). Fecal DM and bacterial counts were not different and there was no sign of enteritis or intestinal tissue hyperplasia from hen autopsies. Inclusion of blue lupins in the diet of laying hens at a rate of 150 g/kg DM resulted in no adverse effects in production or hen health and could be used as part of a balanced ration with inclusion of NSP degrading enzymes to reduce reliance on soya protein.

  6. Carnitine supplementation modulates high dietary copper-induced oxidative toxicity and reduced performance in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Güçlü, Berrin Kocaoğlu; Kara, Kanber; Çakır, Latife; Çetin, Ebru; Kanbur, Murat

    2011-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of L-carnitine on performance, egg quality and certain biochemical parameters in laying hens fed a diet containing high levels of copper proteinate. Forty-eight 42-week-old laying hens were divided into four groups with four replicates. The laying hens were fed with a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with either 400 mg carnitine (Car)/kg diet, 800 mg copper proteinate (CuP)/kg diet or 400 mg carnitine + 800 mg copper (Car+CuP)/kg diet, for 6 weeks. Supplemental CuP decreased feed consumption (p < 0.01), feed efficiency and egg production (p < 0.001), as compared to control. The combination of Car and CuP increased (p < 0.001) egg production and feed efficiency as compared to CuP. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.05) and alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.01) were increased, while lactate dehydrogenase activity was decreased (p < 0.001) by supplemental CuP and Car+CuP. Supplemental CuP caused an increase in plasma malondialdehyde (p < 0.01) and nitric oxide levels (p < 0.05). In the Car+CuP group, this increase was observed to have been reduced significantly (p < 0.05). Furthermore, Car+CuP increased (p < 0.05) glucose level. These results indicate that the carnitine and copper combination may prevent the possible adverse effects of high dietary copper on performance and lipid peroxidation in hens.

  7. Biliary ochratoxin A as a biomarker of ochratoxin exposure in laying hens: An experimental study after administration of contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Armorini, Sara; Al-Qudah, Khaled Mefleh; Altafini, Alberto; Zaghini, Anna; Roncada, Paola

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the levels of ochratoxin (OTA) in kidney, liver and bile of laying hens, forty-five laying hens were enrolled in this study and divided into three equal groups: a control group D₀, and two experimental groups, D₁ fed with 10 µg/kg OTA diet and D₂ fed with 200 µg/kg OTA diet for 6 weeks. Kidneys, livers, and bile from all hens were collected and analyzed by HPLC method for the presence of OTA. Eggs collected 2 days before the start of the experiment and 2 days after its end were also analyzed for the presence of OTA. Results show a relevant biliary excretion of the mycotoxin, with high levels of OTA in the bile after administration of the toxin. OTA level in eggs was below the limit of detection (LOD). These results suggest the suitability of using bile as a matrix for screening measurements of OTA in laying hens.

  8. Hypermethylation and post-transcriptional regulation of DNA methyltransferases in the ovarian carcinomas of the laying hen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Young; Jeong, Wooyoung; Lim, Whasun; Lim, Chul-Hong; Bae, Seung-Min; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2013-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are key regulators of DNA methylation and have crucial roles in carcinogenesis, embryogenesis and epigenetic modification. In general, DNMT1 has enzymatic activity affecting maintenance of DNA methylation, whereas DNMT3A and DNMT3B are involved in de novo methylation events. Although DNMT genes are well known in mammals including humans and mice, they are not well studied in avian species, especially the laying hen which is recognized as an excellent animal model for research on human ovarian carcinogenesis. Results of the present study demonstrated that expression of DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B genes was significantly increased, particularly in the glandular epithelia (GE) of cancerous ovaries, but not normal ovaries. Consistent with this result, immunoreactive 5-methylcytosine protein was predominantly abundant in nuclei of stromal and GE cells of cancerous ovaries, but it was also found that, to a lesser extent, in nuclei of stromal cells of normal ovaries. Methylation-specific PCR analysis detected hypermethylation of the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes in the initiation and development of chicken ovarian cancer. Further, several microRNAs, specifically miR-1741, miR-16c, and miR-222, and miR-1632 were discovered to influence expression of DNMT3A and DNMT3B, respectively, via their 3'-UTR which suggests post-transcriptional regulation of their expression in laying hens. Collectively, results of the present study demonstrated increased expression of DNMT genes in cancerous ovaries of laying hens and post-transcriptional regulation of those genes by specific microRNAs, as well as control of hypermethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes.

  9. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  10. A Screen-Peck Task for Investigating Cognitive Bias in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Deakin, Amanda; Browne, William J; Hodge, James J L; Paul, Elizabeth S; Mendl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Affect-induced cognitive judgement biases occur in both humans and animals. Animals in a more negative affective state tend to interpret ambiguous cues more negatively than animals in a more positive state and vice versa. Investigating animals' responses to ambiguous cues can therefore be used as a proxy measure of affective state. We investigated laying hens' responses to ambiguous stimuli using a novel cognitive bias task. In the 'screen-peck' task, hens were trained to peck a high/low saturation orange circle presented on a computer screen (positive cue-P) to obtain a mealworm reward, and to not peck when the oppositely saturated orange circle was presented (negative cue-N) to avoid a one second air puff. Ambiguous cues were orange circles of intermediate saturation between the P and N cue (near-positive-NP; middle-M; near-negative-NN), and were unrewarded. Cue pecking showed a clear generalisation curve from P through NP, M, NN to N suggesting that hens were able to associate colour saturation with reward or punishment, and could discriminate between stimuli that were more or less similar to learnt cues. Across six test sessions, there was no evidence for extinction of pecking responses to ambiguous cues. We manipulated affective state by changing temperature during testing to either ~20°C or ~29°C in a repeated measures cross-over design. Hens have been shown to prefer temperatures in the higher range and hence we assumed that exposure to the higher temperature would induce a relatively positive affective state. Hens tested under warmer conditions were significantly more likely to peck the M probe than those tested at cooler temperatures suggesting that increased temperature in the ranges tested here may have some positive effect on hens, inducing a positive cognitive bias.

  11. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2013-02-01

    More human illnesses caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis throughout the world have been linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs than to any other food vehicle. Deposition of this pathogen in the edible contents of eggs occurs when systemic infections of laying hens involve colonization of reproductive organs. In recent years, the consequences of different housing systems for laying flocks have become the focus of international attention from both animal welfare and public health perspectives. Nevertheless, many questions remain unresolved regarding the food safety implications of various laying hen production systems. The present study assessed the effects of 2 different housing types (conventional cages and colony cages enriched with perching, nesting, and scratching areas) on the invasion of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens. In 2 trials, groups of laying hens housed in each cage system were orally inoculated with doses of 1.0 × 10(7) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis. At 5 to 6 d postinoculation, hens were euthanized and samples of internal organs were removed for bacteriologic culturing. For both trials combined, Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from 95.3% of cecal samples, with no significant differences observed between housing systems. However, Salmonella Enteritidis was detected at significantly (P < 0.05) higher frequencies from hens in conventional cages than from hens in enriched cages for samples of livers (96.9 vs. 75.0%), spleens (93.8 vs. 53.1%), ovaries (25.0 vs. 10.4%), and oviducts (19.8 vs. 2.1%). These results demonstrate that differences in housing systems for egg-laying flocks can affect the susceptibility of hens to colonization of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis.

  12. Potential of alfalfa as an alternative molt induction diet for laying hens: egg quality and consumer acceptability.

    PubMed

    Landers, K L; Howard, Z R; Woodward, C L; Birkhold, S G; Ricke, S C

    2005-05-01

    Dietary molt induction to initiate additional egg laying cycles in commercial laying hen flocks is a wide spread practice in the United States. Feed deprivation is the most commonly used method but this practice has generated several concerns which has lead to research for viable alternative approaches. From a management standpoint a single ingredient molting diet consisting of high fiber-low energy represents an easily adaptable diet for large laying hen production units. Alfalfa meal is readily available in most commercial locations and possesses many of the desirable properties of an ideal laying hen molt diet. In the current study hens at a commercial laying facility were molted by both alfalfa and feed deprivation. After the hens had reentered post-molt commercial egg production, eggs were examined for egg quality performance. Egg shell strength, albumen height, yolk height, weight, length, and yolk color were all tested using various mechanical techniques. The eggs were also sampled for testing by consumer sensory panels that assessed the desirability of the eggs' color and flavor/texture. Eggs laid by hens molted by alfalfa had a significantly lower (p<0.05) "a*" level of colorimetry. Eggs laid by hens molted with alfalfa also exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) egg weights and length. In the consumer sensory test, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in color or flavor/texture scores in eggs from either feed deprived or alfalfa molted hens. The consumer sensory and mechanical quality attributes indicates that alfalfa shows promise as an alternative molt induction diet by providing a single diet option for extending egg production into a second egg laying cycle.

  13. Hormonal regulation of medullary bone metabolism in the laying hen

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new organ culture system for the study of bone formation has been developed using medullary bone, a non-structural, metabolically active form of bone which is found in the marrow cavities of egg-laying birds. In the presence of fetal calf serum, bone explants were viable in culture by morphological criteria, and retained large numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-proline into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and non-collagen protein (NCP) was determined using purified bacterial collagenase. Collagen accounted for over 10% of the total protein labeled. The calcium-regulating hormones, parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), caused a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into CDP. The effective dose range of 1,25(OH)2D3 was 0.1 nM to 100 nM, while that of PTH was 1.0 nM to 100 nM. The effect of both hormones was specific for collagen, since /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into NCP was unaffected. Hydroxyproline analysis of bone explants and culture medium revealed that both hormones decreased the total hydroxyroline content of the cultures, suggesting that the inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into DCP is due to inhibition of collagen synthesis.

  14. Deposition rule of yolk cholesterol in two different breeds of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yang, P K; Tian, Y D; Sun, G R; Jiang, R R; Han, R L; Kang, X T

    2013-11-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the deposition rule of yolk cholesterol in Lushi Green-shelled and Silky Fowl layers. A total of 90 layers of each breed were selected at an age of 15 to 51 weeks. Productive performance was recorded on a weekly basis, whereas yolk cholesterol was determined at 4-week intervals from 21 to 51 weeks of age. The average yolk cholesterol content of Silky Fowl layers during the laying period was higher than that of Lushi Green-shelled layers (58.16 and 49.67%, P > 0.05). Yolk cholesterol content decreased at 21 to 31 weeks of the laying period, whereas a non-significant increasing trend was observed during 31 to 51 weeks of laying period. In conclusion, yolk cholesterol content is not only dependent on the age of hen but also the breed of layers.

  15. Reducing ammonia emissions from laying-hen houses through dietary manipulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Xin, Hongwei; Burns, Robert T; Roberts, Stacey A; Li, Shuhai; Kliebenstein, James; Bregendahl, Kristjan

    2012-02-01

    Feed additives can change the microbiological environment of the animal digestive track, nutrient composition of feces, and its gaseous emissions. This 2-yr field study involving commercial laying-hen houses in central Iowa was conducted to assess the effects of feeding diets containing EcoCal and corn-dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions. Three high-rise layer houses (256,600 W-36 hens per house) received standard industry diet (Control), a diet containing 7% EcoCal (EcoCal) or a diet containing 10% DDGS (DDGS). Gaseous emissions were continuously monitored during the period of December 2007 to December 2009, covering the full production cycle. The 24-month test results revealed that mean NH3 emission rates were 0.58 +/- 0.05, 0.82 +/- 0.04, and 0.96 +/- 0.05 g/hen/day for the EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diet, respectively. Namely, compared to the Control diet, the EcoCal and DDGS diets reduced NH3 emission by an average of 39.2% and 14.3%, respectively. The concurrent H2S emission rates were 5.39 +/- 0.46, 1.91 +/- 0.13, and 1.79 +/- 0.16 mg/ hen/day for the EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diet, respectively. CO2 emission rates were similar for the three diets, 87.3 +/- 1.37, 87.4 +/- 1.26, and 89.6 +/- 1.6 g/hen/day for EcoCal, DDGS, and Control, respectively (P = 0.45). The DDGS and EcoCal houses tended to emit less CH4 than the Control house (0.16 and 0.12 vs. 0.20 g/hen/day) during the monitored summer season. The efficacy of NH3 emission reduction by the EcoCal diet decreased with increasing outside temperature, varying from 72.2% in February 2009 to -7.10% in September 2008. Manure of the EcoCal diet contained 68% higher ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and 4.7 times higher sulfur content than that of the Control diet. Manure pH values were 8.0, 8.9, and 9.3 for EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diets, respectively. This extensive field study verifies that dietary manipulation

  16. Effects of supplemental copper and chromium on the serum and egg traits of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lien, T F; Chen, K L; Wu, C P; Lu, J J

    2004-08-01

    1. This study investigated the effects of supplemental copper and chromium on the serum and egg traits of laying hens using 144 forty-five-week-old White Leghorn layers. The hens were randomly assigned into 9 groups to conduct this 3 copper (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg as copper sulphate) x 3 chromium (0, 800 and 1600 microg/kg as chromium picolinate) factorial trial. 2. Egg yolk cholesterol was significantly reduced by supplementary copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) and there was an interaction between Cu and Cr supplementation. Egg production, egg weight, eggshell strength and eggshell thickness were not influenced by Cu or Cr supplementation. 3. Serum cholesterol concentration was decreased by Cu supplementation and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) was reduced markedly by both Cu and Cr. On the other hand, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly increased by Cu and Cr. Interaction occurred between Cu and Cr in the VLDL and HDL parameters. Supplmentary Cu also reduced VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and enhanced HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), while supplemental Cr had a contrary effect on these two parameters. 4. If minimum egg cholesterol content is the criterion, this study suggests that 125 mg/kg of Cu together with 800 to 1600 microg/kg of Cr provide adequate supplementary concentrations for laying hens.

  17. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  18. Short-term effects of lower oil dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen rations.

    PubMed

    Purdum, Sheila; Hanford, Kathy; Kreifels, Brett

    2014-10-01

    Extraction of oil from dried distillers grains has become a common practice among US ethanol producers. The valuable oil has been diverted to markets other than poultry feed, leaving new dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) products higher in fiber and purportedly lower in ME. This study compared 3 DDGS products with 10.3, 7.3, or 5.2% ether extract, respectively, with a corn-soy control ration in young Bovan laying hens for a feeding period from 20 to 33 wk of age. The DDGS was fed at the rate of 20% of the ration. Lower oil content of DDGS had no effect on short-term egg production parameters: feed intake, egg production, egg weight or mass, and hen weight gain. The diets containing lower fat DDGS (5.2%) did have reduced AME and kilocalories per day intake for laying hens. For each percent reduction in oil from a normal DDGS sample (10.3%) to medium oil (7.3%) DDGS, AME decreased 42.3 kcal/kg of diet. However, total kilocalories per day intake did sustain good egg production during this short trial.

  19. Effect of dietary pomegranate seed oil on laying hen performance and physicochemical properties of eggs.

    PubMed

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Filipiak-Florkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dereń, Katarzyna; Drahun, Anna; Czyżyńska-Cichoń, Izabela; Cieślik, Ewa; Szymczyk, Beata; Franczyk-Żarów, Magdalena

    2017-04-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of pomegranate seed oil, used as a source of punicic acid (CLnA) in the diets of laying hens, on the physicochemical properties of eggs. Forty Isa Brown laying hens (26weeks old) were equally subjected to 4 dietary treatments (n=10) and fed a commercial layer diet supplying 2.5% sunflower oil (control) or three levels (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of punicic acid in the diets. After 12weeks of feeding the hens, eggs collection began. Sixty eggs - randomly selected from each group - were analysed for physicochemical properties. Eggs naturally enriched with CLnA preserve their composition and conventional properties in most of the analysed parameters (including chemical composition, physical as well as organoleptic properties). Dietary CLnA had positive impact on the colour of the eggs' yolk, whereas the hardness of hard-boiled egg yolks was not affected. Additionally, increasing dietary CLnA led to an increase not only the CLnA concentrations, but also CLA in egg-yolk lipids.

  20. The effect of phenyl mercury on reproductive performance in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Pribilincová, J; Marettová, E; Kosucký, J; Maretta, M

    1996-01-01

    The effect of phenyl mercury with and without selenium on the egg production of laying hens and on the fertility, hatchability and properties of eggs was studied. Mercury was administered via the feed at dosages of 5 ppm, 30 ppm, and 30 ppm Hg + 4 ppm Se, for 56 days. After two months, egg production decreased by 8.18% and 7.74% in hens fed 30 ppm Hg, and 30 ppm Hg + 4 ppm Se, respectively. Egg weight decreased in all experimental groups. In comparison to the controls, these results were highly significant (P < 0.01) in hens fed 30 ppm Hg and 30 ppm Hg + 4 ppm Se and significant (P < 0.05) between hens fed 5 ppm Hg and 30 ppm Hg. Fertility rate and hatchability were not affected. Mercury exposure did not affect egg shape, egg-white height, egg-shell hardness or yolk colour. Both egg-shell thickness and weight decreased in all experimental groups. In the group supplemented with selenium there was a nonsignificant improvement in egg production, hatchability and all qualitative properties of eggs in comparison with the group without selenium supplementation. Residual mercury levels in egg yolk greatly surpassed the level found in the egg white: the highest values were measured in the group fed 30 ppm Hg. The addition of selenium had a protective effect upon residual Hg deposits in the yolk, but not in the egg-white.

  1. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, S; Durmuş, I; Yalçın, S; Yıldırım, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period

  2. Effect of dietary threonine on laying performance and intestinal immunity of laying hens fed low-crude-protein diets during the peak production period.

    PubMed

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Zou, X T

    2016-06-30

    Threonine (Thr) may be a limiting amino acid for laying hens fed diets with lowered protein level. An experiment was conducted to examine laying performance, and the intestinal immune function of laying hens provided diets varying in digestible Thr levels. Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 480), 28 weeks of age, were allocated to six dietary treatments, each of which included five replicates of 16 hens. Dietary crude protein (CP) 16.18% diet was offered as the positive control diet. L-Thr was added to the negative diet (14.16% CP) by 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 g/kg, corresponding 0.44%, 0.43%, 0.49%, 0.57%, 0.66% and 0.74% digestible Thr. At 40 weeks, a reduction in CP level decreased laying performance (p < 0.05). In the low CP, increasing dietary Thr increased (p < 0.05) egg production and egg mass and rose to a plateau between 0.57% and 0.66%. The hens fed 0.66% Thr showed the lowest value (p < 0.05) of feed conversion ratio (FCR). Serum level of uric acid showed the lowest values (p < 0.05) at 0.57-0.66%. In addition, serum-free Thr maximized (p < 0.05) between 0.66% and 0.74%. Digestive trypsin activity decreased (p < 0.05) when hens fed the low-CP diet compared with hens fed CP (16.18%) and hens fed 0.57-0.66%. Expressions of ileal MUC2 mRNA maximized (p < 0.05) at 0.66% Thr. Occludin mRNA increased with increasing Thr level (p < 0.05). sIgA mRNA reached to the maximum level (p < 0.05) at 0.66% and 0.74% Thr. INF-γ mRNA reached to the lowest level (p < 0.05) at 0.65%. Expressions of ileal IL-2, IL-6, IL-1β mRNA decreased with increasing Thr level (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Thr supplementation resulting in optimal laying performance and stimulated the mucosal immune system, suggesting that it is a limiting amino acid in the low-crude-protein diet of laying hens during the peak production period.

  3. Fatty haemorrhagic liver syndrome in laying hens on diets supplemented with rapeseed products.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, S; Bhatnagar, M K; Scott, J R; Slinger, S J

    1975-11-01

    Livers of laying hens of Hy-Line No 934E on low erucic acid rapeseed meals and rapeseed oil were studied. Gross lesions in the livers of hens on experimental diets were moderate to severe fatty degeneration, focal necrosis and moderate to severe haemorrhage. Histological examination revealed oedematous foci and lysis of hepatocytes along with large amounts of lipid droplets in the necrotic lesions. Necrotic lesions were not always associated with large haemorrhages. Connective tissue infiltration of older degenerative and haemorrhagic lesions was not extensive. Abdominal haemorrhage from livers occurred when extensive necrosis in the form of hepatocyte lysis and some vascular changes were present, suggesting hepatocytic degeneration caused by toxic products or their metabolites present in rapeseed by-products.

  4. The effect of rapeseed meal on the energy metabolism of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Smith, W K; MacLeod, M G; Tullett, S G; Klandorf, H

    1979-09-01

    1. The effect of 100 g rapeseed meal (RSM)/kg diet on the energy metabolism of hybrid laying hens was examined by indirect calorimetry. Thyroid hormone concentrations, thyroid weight, liver weight and body weight, egg production and food intake were also measured. 2. Fasting heat production was significantly lower in hens receiving RSM than in controls, but this difference disappeared when the birds were fed. 3. Thyroid hormone concentrations decreased, while thyroid and liver weights increased slightly; none of these effects was significant. Body weight, egg production and food intake were unaffected and no liver haemorrhages were noted. 4. The maintenance metabolisable energy (ME) requirement of control and treated birds, estimated from short-term energy balance measurements, was 474 kJ/kg0.75 d; net availability of ME in both treatments was 0.85.

  5. A comparison of transmission characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis between pair-housed and group-housed laying hens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Human cases of bacterial gastro-enteritis are often caused by the consumption of eggs contaminated with Salmonella species, mainly Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis (Salmonella Enteritidis). To reduce human exposure, in several countries worldwide surveillance programmes are implemented to detect colonized layer flocks. The sampling schemes are based on the within-flock prevalence, and, as this changes over time, knowledge of the within-flock dynamics of Salmonella Enteritidis is required. Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis has been quantified in pairs of layers, but the question is whether the dynamics in pairs is comparable to transmission in large groups, which are more representative for commercial layer flocks. The aim of this study was to compare results of transmission experiments between pairs and groups of laying hens. Experimental groups of either 2 or 200 hens were housed at similar densities, and 1 or 4 hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Excretion was monitored by regularly testing of fecal samples for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Using mathematical modeling, the group experiments were simulated with transmission parameter estimates from the pairwise experiments. Transmission of the bacteria did not differ significantly between pairs or groups. This finding suggests that the transmission parameter estimates from small-scale experiments might be extrapolated to the field situation. PMID:21345201

  6. Acaricide residues in laying hens naturally infested by red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Marangi, Marianna; Morelli, Vincenzo; Pati, Sandra; Camarda, Antonio; Cafiero, Maria Assunta; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2012-01-01

    In the poultry industry, control of the red mite D. gallinae primarily relies worldwide on acaricides registered for use in agriculture or for livestock, and those most widely used are carbamates, followed by amidines, pyrethroids and organophosphates. Due to the repeated use of acaricides--sometimes in high concentrations--to control infestation, red mites may become resistant, and acaricides may accumulate in chicken organs and tissues, and also in eggs. To highlight some situations of misuse/abuse of chemicals and of risk to human health, we investigated laying hens, destined to the slaughterhouse, for the presence of acaricide residues in their organs and tissues. We used 45 hens from which we collected a total of 225 samples from the following tissues and organs: skin, fat, liver, muscle, hearth, and kidney. In these samples we analyzed the residual contents of carbaryl and permethrin by LC-MS/MS.Ninety-one (40.4%) samples were positive to carbaryl and four samples (1.7%) were positive to permethrin. Concentrations of carbaryl exceeding the detection limit (0.005 ppm) were registered in the skin and fat of birds from two farms (p<0.01), although these concentrations remained below the maximum residue limit (MRLs) (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01). All organs/tissues of hens from a third farm were significantly more contaminated, with skin and muscle samples exceeding the MRL (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01) of carbaryl in force before its use was banned. Out of 45 chickens tested, 37 (82.2%) were found to be contaminated by carbaryl, and 4 (8.8%) by permethrin. The present study is the first report on the presence of pesticides banned by the EU (carbaryl) or not licensed for use (permethrin) in the organs and tissues of laying hens, which have been treated against red mites, and then slaughtered for human consumption at the end of their life cycle.

  7. Acaricide Residues in Laying Hens Naturally Infested by Red Mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    PubMed Central

    Marangi, Marianna; Morelli, Vincenzo; Pati, Sandra; Camarda, Antonio; Cafiero, Maria Assunta; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2012-01-01

    In the poultry industry, control of the red mite D. gallinae primarily relies worldwide on acaricides registered for use in agriculture or for livestock, and those most widely used are carbamates, followed by amidines, pyrethroids and organophosphates. Due to the repeated use of acaricides - sometimes in high concentrations - to control infestation, red mites may become resistant, and acaricides may accumulate in chicken organs and tissues, and also in eggs. To highlight some situations of misuse/abuse of chemicals and of risk to human health, we investigated laying hens, destined to the slaughterhouse, for the presence of acaricide residues in their organs and tissues. We used 45 hens from which we collected a total of 225 samples from the following tissues and organs: skin, fat, liver, muscle, hearth, and kidney. In these samples we analyzed the residual contents of carbaryl and permethrin by LC-MS/MS. Ninety-one (40.4%) samples were positive to carbaryl and four samples (1.7%) were positive to permethrin. Concentrations of carbaryl exceeding the detection limit (0.005 ppm) were registered in the skin and fat of birds from two farms (p<0.01), although these concentrations remained below the maximum residue limit (MRLs) (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01). All organs/tissues of hens from a third farm were significantly more contaminated, with skin and muscle samples exceeding the MRL (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01) of carbaryl in force before its use was banned. Out of 45 chickens tested, 37 (82.2%) were found to be contaminated by carbaryl, and 4 (8.8%) by permethrin. The present study is the first report on the presence of pesticides banned by the EU (carbaryl) or not licensed for use (permethrin) in the organs and tissues of laying hens, which have been treated against red mites, and then slaughtered for human consumption at the end of their life cycle. PMID:22363736

  8. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Elske N; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G G; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings' SFP at one week and offsprings' anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks.

  9. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O.; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 independent cages) and 21 (N = 48 independent cages) weeks of age. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages. PMID:26955634

  10. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal and soybean meal in laying hens and broilers.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Abd El-Hack, M E; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 7 meat and bone meal (MBM) and 3 soybean meal (SBM) samples in broilers (Ross 708) and laying hens (Hy-line W36). All 10 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21-d-old broiler chickens and 30- or 50-wk-old laying hens. Standardization was accomplished by correcting for basal ileal endogenous amino acid losses using a nitrogen-free diet. Broilers were reared in cages from d 0 to 16 on a standard broiler starter diet adequate in all nutrients and energy; thereafter, they were allotted to treatments using a randomized complete design with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds each. For the laying hens, 6 replicate cages of 6 birds each (542 cm(2)/bird) were used. Each treatment diet, which was fed for 5 d, was semipurified, with MBM or SBM being the sole source of amino acids in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid losses were not different between broilers and the 2 groups of laying hens. Meat and bone meal from different locations varied widely in digestibility. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD in 4 of the 7 MBM samples. In 2 of the 3 SBM samples, broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD for most of the nonessential amino acids. Generally, hens had 6.4 and 7.7% units less Met and Lys digestibility of all MBM samples after standardization. Dry matter digestibility values of the SBM samples were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Likewise, broilers had 4.1 and 1.5% units more Met and Lys digestibility of all the SBM samples evaluated compared with those from laying hens. The results of these experiments suggest that differences exist in the digestive capabilities of laying hens and broilers, which indicates that species-specific nutrient digestibility values or adjustments may be needed.

  11. A Screen-Peck Task for Investigating Cognitive Bias in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Browne, William J.; Hodge, James J. L.; Paul, Elizabeth S.; Mendl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Affect-induced cognitive judgement biases occur in both humans and animals. Animals in a more negative affective state tend to interpret ambiguous cues more negatively than animals in a more positive state and vice versa. Investigating animals’ responses to ambiguous cues can therefore be used as a proxy measure of affective state. We investigated laying hens’ responses to ambiguous stimuli using a novel cognitive bias task. In the ‘screen-peck’ task, hens were trained to peck a high/low saturation orange circle presented on a computer screen (positive cue–P) to obtain a mealworm reward, and to not peck when the oppositely saturated orange circle was presented (negative cue–N) to avoid a one second air puff. Ambiguous cues were orange circles of intermediate saturation between the P and N cue (near-positive–NP; middle–M; near-negative–NN), and were unrewarded. Cue pecking showed a clear generalisation curve from P through NP, M, NN to N suggesting that hens were able to associate colour saturation with reward or punishment, and could discriminate between stimuli that were more or less similar to learnt cues. Across six test sessions, there was no evidence for extinction of pecking responses to ambiguous cues. We manipulated affective state by changing temperature during testing to either ~20°C or ~29°C in a repeated measures cross-over design. Hens have been shown to prefer temperatures in the higher range and hence we assumed that exposure to the higher temperature would induce a relatively positive affective state. Hens tested under warmer conditions were significantly more likely to peck the M probe than those tested at cooler temperatures suggesting that increased temperature in the ranges tested here may have some positive effect on hens, inducing a positive cognitive bias. PMID:27410229

  12. Characterization of Salmonella from Commercial Egg-Laying Hen Farms in a Central Region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Roy; Fandiño, Clemencia; Donado, Pilar; Guzmán, Libia; Verjan, Noel

    2015-03-01

    Salmonellosis affects humans more frequently than any other foodborne disease, and it causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry. A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in laying hen farms in the Tolima region of Colombia. Fifteen egg-laying hen farms were sampled, and a total of 589 samples were cultured to isolate Salmonella spp. A total of 14 isolates of Salmonella spp. were recovered from five farms, resulting in a prevalence of 33.33% (95%, confidence interval = 14%-53%) at the farm level. Salmonella spp. were recovered from eggshells (57.15%, n = 8), feed (28.57%, n = 4), and environmental samples (14.29%, n = 2). Farm practices, such as the milling of feed (odds ratio [OR] = 24) and the storage of eggs in the henhouses (OR = 11.25), in addition to the feed type (OR = 7.64) and the use of bamboo for construction of the facility (OR = 5.24), were identified as risk factors for Salmonella spp. The 14 isolates were identified as Salmonella Enteritidis (n = 6) and Salmonella Shannon (n = 8), and both serovars were resistant to a number of antibiotics. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis presented three different XbaI macrorestriction patterns. The Salmonella Enteritidis isolates all presented a single pattern, whereas the Salmonella Shannon isolates were grouped into two distinct patterns. The results indicate that Salmonella spp. could be recovered from various sources at laying hen farms, and eggshell contamination is a particular concern.

  13. A bespoke management package can reduce levels of injurious pecking in loose-housed laying hen flocks.

    PubMed

    Lambton, S L; Nicol, C J; Friel, M; Main, D C J; McKinstry, J L; Sherwin, C M; Walton, J; Weeks, C A

    2013-04-20

    This study investigated the protective effects of an on-farm management package designed to reduce injurious pecking (IP) in loose-housed laying hens. A systematic review of scientific literature generated 46 potentially protective management strategies. Bespoke management packages were designed for treatment flocks (TF) using these management strategies. IP in 53 TFs was compared with IP in 47 control flocks (CF) where the management package was not employed. Scoring of plumage damage (PD) and observations of gentle and severe feather pecking (GFP; SFP), and vent and cannibalistic pecking (VP) were completed, and management strategy use was recorded, at 20, 30 and 40 weeks of age. Differences between treatment and CF were examined using multilevel modelling. Compared with CF, TF employed more management strategies (P<0.001), had lower PD (P=0.003) and SFP (P=0.019). Regardless of treatment or control flock status, the more of the 46 management strategies that were employed the lower was the PD (P=0.004), GFP (P=0.021), SFP (P=0.043), mortality at 40 weeks (P=0.025), and the likelihood of VP (P=0.021). Therefore, the provision of a bespoke management package was protective against the majority of forms of IP in commercial laying hen flocks.

  14. Effects of stock density on the laying performance, blood parameter, corticosterone, litter quality, gas emission and bone mineral density of laying hens in floor pens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. K.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stocking density on the performance, egg quality, leukocyte concentration, blood biochemistry, corticosterone levels, bone mineral density, and noxious gas emission of laying hens were investigated. Eight hundred 34-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments, each of which was replicated 4 times. Four stocking densities, including 5, 6, 7, and 10 birds/m2, were compared. A commercial-type basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for laying hens from the National Research Council. The diet was fed to the hens ad libitum for 8 wk. Results indicated that hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake were less for (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m2 stock density than other stock densities. Production rate of floor and broken eggs and eggshell strength were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 stock density than other stock densities. There were no significant differences in the level of leukocytes among densities. However, heterophils and the H/L ratio were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 than in stock density of 6 or 7 birds/m2. Serum corticosterone was greater (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m2 than stock density than other stock densities. Litter moisture and gas emission (CO2 and NH3) were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 than stock density than 6 and 7 birds/m2 stock density. Bone mineral content was not influenced by increasing stock density. However, bone mineral density was less (P < 0.05) for 10 m2 stock density than other stock densities. These results indicate that increasing the density beyond 5 birds/m2 elicits some negative effects on laying performance of Hy-Line brown laying hens. PMID:27578881

  15. Effects of stock density on the laying performance, blood parameter, corticosterone, litter quality, gas emission and bone mineral density of laying hens in floor pens.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Park, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, C H

    2016-12-01

    The effects of stocking density on the performance, egg quality, leukocyte concentration, blood biochemistry, corticosterone levels, bone mineral density, and noxious gas emission of laying hens were investigated. Eight hundred 34-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments, each of which was replicated 4 times. Four stocking densities, including 5, 6, 7, and 10 birds/m(2), were compared. A commercial-type basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for laying hens from the National Research Council. The diet was fed to the hens ad libitum for 8 wk. Results indicated that hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake were less for (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m(2) stock density than other stock densities. Production rate of floor and broken eggs and eggshell strength were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m(2) stock density than other stock densities. There were no significant differences in the level of leukocytes among densities. However, heterophils and the H/L ratio were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m(2) than in stock density of 6 or 7 birds/m(2) Serum corticosterone was greater (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m(2) than stock density than other stock densities. Litter moisture and gas emission (CO2 and NH3) were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m(2) than stock density than 6 and 7 birds/m(2) stock density. Bone mineral content was not influenced by increasing stock density. However, bone mineral density was less (P < 0.05) for 10 m(2) stock density than other stock densities. These results indicate that increasing the density beyond 5 birds/m(2) elicits some negative effects on laying performance of Hy-Line brown laying hens.

  16. Effect of yeast with bacteriocin from rumen bacteria on laying performance, blood biochemistry, faecal microbiota and egg quality of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, H T; Shih, W Y; Chen, S W; Wang, S Y

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yeast with bacteriocin from Ruminococcus albus 7 (albusin B) on physiological state and production performance of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 26-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn (Hyline) laying hens were assigned into five groups including: (i) control group, (ii) yeast control (YC), (iii) 0.125% yeast with bacteriocin (0.125B), (iv) 0.25% yeast with bacteriocin (0.25B) and (v) 0.5% yeast with bacteriocin (0.5B). All supplements were added to the experimental diets of the hens from 26 to 46 weeks of age. Samples were collected every 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from the wing vein for blood biochemical parameters assay, and faecal samples were collected by swab for the microbiota test. The egg production performance was recorded daily, and fresh eggs were collected for quality test. The blood biochemical assay results indicated that the addition of yeast with bacteriocin decreased the AST (aspartate aminotransferase) activity and it also affects the lactate concentration in laying hen blood. The result of egg quality indicated that yeast with bacteriocin supplementation had no effect on the mass of yolk and the strength of eggshell, but it had positive effect on the laying performance under hot environment. Low concentration bacteriocin (0.125B) supplementation could decrease total yolk cholesterol. The faecal microbiota result indicated that the supplementation of bacteriocin increased the lactobacilli counts. The yeast with bacteriocin supplementation significantly decreased the clostridia counts under hot environment condition, especially in hens receiving 0.25B. Combining the data from clinic chemistry, faecal microbiota, egg production and egg quality, the 0.25B supplementation may result in the best physiological parameter and egg production performance of laying hen.

  17. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx and Esophagus with Pulmonary Metastasis in a Backyard Laying Hen.

    PubMed

    Laura, Nordio; Marta, Vascellari; Giacomo, Berto; Luca, Bano

    2016-09-01

    A backyard laying hen exhibiting muscular atrophy, dyspnea, and absence of egg production was analyzed for diagnostic insights. Gross findings revealed the presence of a large ulcerated mass with irregular edges involving the caudal part of the oropharynx and the cranial part of the esophagus, occluding the lumen of the esophagus and compressing the trachea. Small nodular lesions were detected also in the lungs. Histologically, both esophageal and pulmonary masses were characterized by nests of pleomorphic epithelial cells with squamous differentiation. The diagnosis was of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus with the uncommon feature of pulmonary metastasis.

  18. Influence of temperature during growth on responses of hens to high or low temperatures during lay.

    PubMed

    Kyarisiima, C C; Balnave, D

    1996-07-01

    1. Commercial pullets were grown at cool (10 degrees -20 degrees C) or hot (25 degrees -35 degrees C) temperatures to similar bodyweights at 18 weeks of age. Between 18 and 50 weeks the birds were either kept at the same temperatures as during growth or transferred to the alternate temperature. 2. Birds kept at the cool temperatures throughout life ate most food and gave the best production during lay. Minimum food intake and poorest performance were obtained with birds kept at the hot temperatures throughout life. 3. Performance in the hot environment during lay was improved by rearing birds in the cool environment, the response being related to an increased food intake. Food intake in the cool environment during lay was reduced, with only minor effects on performance, in birds which had been reared in the hot environment. 4. The results of the present study show that production responses during lay are affected by the temperatures experienced by hens during both growth and lay.

  19. Enantioselective determination of chiral toxaphene congeners in laying hens and eggs using multidimensional high-resolution gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Sobhy; Leupold, Guenter; Ismail, Ahmed; Parlar, Harun

    2005-09-07

    A total of 22 chiral toxaphene congeners were analyzed in organ tissues and eggs of laying hens after they had been fed with food spiked with technical toxaphene. For the analysis, multidimensional high-resolution gas chromatography using a chiral column coated with randomly silylated heptakis(O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin, electron capture detection, and valveless "live column switching" technique was applied. The analytical results were additionally confirmed with mass spectral data, recorded in electron-capture negative ionization mode with selected-ion monitoring mass spectrometry. During both the feeding period of the laying hens with toxaphene-contaminated food (38 weeks, accumulation phase) and the following subsiding period without toxaphenes (another 14 weeks, decontamination phase), organs (liver, kidney, skin/fat), blood, meat, and eggs of the hens served as model matrices for toxaphene uptake. The enantiomeric ratios (ERs) of congeners 26, 31, 32, 40, 41, 42(a+b), 44, 50, and 62--known as the most important components of technical toxaphene occurring in the environment--could be analytically determined. Significant differences were observed with respect to their initial racemic ratios. On the basis of their chemical structures, the metabolic pathways of some congeners could be explained. Astonishingly, some of the toxaphenes applied as racemates could merely be found as single enantiomers at the end of the feeding program, for example, congener 32 in blood and meat samples or congener 44, especially in organ tissues, which showed ERs of zero or infinity. The findings of this study impressively emphasize that it is essential to isolate and analyze individual toxaphene enantiomers in food and biota tissues to be capable of evaluating their toxicity and metabolization more specifically.

  20. Effect of ambient temperature on losses of volatile nitrogen compounds from stored laying hen manure.

    PubMed

    Pratt, E V; Rose, S P; Keeling, A A

    2002-09-01

    Eight one tonne lots of laying hen manure were stored in individual, environmentally controlled chambers for 18-weeks at one of four constant temperatures: 12, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C. The losses of volatile nitrogen compounds, ammonia, and changes in dry matter and pH were measured during the storage period. There was a linear (P < 0.001) loss of nitrogen from the manure over the 18-week storage period. This loss represented approximately 60% of the initial nitrogen present in the manure. The rate of nitrogen loss increased non-linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing storage temperature. Poultry housing systems that provide low temperature storage of manure are recommended to reduce the volatile nitrogen losses from egg-laying enterprises.

  1. Failure of oestradiol administration to induce fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome in the laying hen.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J; Johnson, A H

    1986-03-01

    Studies were carried out to investigate whether the administration of oestradiol to laying hens induced fatty liver-haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS). Short term oestradiol administration (up to 6 d) significantly increased liver size and plasma lipid concentration but had no effect on liver lipid concentration or hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities. Longer-term hormone treatment (up to 28 d) again significantly increased liver size and plasma lipid concentration. Liver lipid concentration was substantially reduced and lipogenic enzyme activity significantly reduced in oestradiol-treated birds. These effects had some similarities to those seen in oestrogenised immature birds and were additive to the effects of endogenous oestrogen in the laying bird. There were no deaths from FLHS and oestradiol treatment did not cause liver haemorrhages or affect egg production.

  2. Factors affecting ranging behaviour in young and adult laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gilani, A-M; Knowles, T G; Nicol, C J

    2014-01-01

    1. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of environment on ranging in 33 flocks reared with (16) or without (17) range access. Ranging was observed at 8, 16 and 35 weeks. Information on house layout, weather conditions and range characteristics was used to create models predicting the percentage of the flock out on the range and the percentage of ranging birds observed away from the house. 2. Three flocks had range access at 8 weeks. The percentage of birds ranging averaged 28%, with 22% of these ranging away from the house. For the 13 flocks with range access at 16 weeks, the percentage of pullets on the range was 12%, with 29% of these ranging away from the house. At 35 weeks, all flocks had range access and the average percentage of birds out on the range was 13%, with 42% of these ranging away from the house. 3. The percentage of birds seen using the range was higher with reduced flock size and stocking density, increased pop hole availability (cm/bird) and light intensity inside the house. More birds ranged on cooler days and on farms located in areas with fewer days of rain per year and lower average rainfall. The percentage of birds ranging varied with season and was lowest in May. More birds ranged away from the house when cover and more artificial structures were present on the range. The proportion of ranging birds located away from the house increased with lower outdoor humidity levels, higher air pressure, and on warmer days. Lastly, birds ranged away from the house more as they got older.

  3. Comparison of bone volume and strength as measures of skeletal integrity in caged laying hens with access to perches.

    PubMed

    Hughes, B O; Wilson, S; Appleby, M C; Smith, S F

    1993-03-01

    Fractures in spent laying hens are now recognised as a major welfare problem; the objective of this work was to determine whether provision of perches for caged layers would increase bone strength, bone volume or both. Sixteen ISA Brown hens were housed from 18 to 72 weeks old in cages with perches and 16 in similar cages without perches. At the end of lay the birds' tibiotarsi were examined for strength by a three-point loading test and their tarsometatarsi for bone volume by histomorphometry. There was no significant effect of perches on tibiotarsal breaking strength. Hens from both groups showed evidence of osteoporosis, but it was more severe in the birds from conventional cages: tarsometatarsal trabecular bone volume was greater in the hens which had access to perches. A positive correlation was found between trabecular bone volume and the degree of day-time perch usage by individual hens. Provision of perches can have a slight but significant beneficial effect, at least for the leg bones, in increasing the bone volume of caged laying hens.

  4. Investigations into an Outbreak of Botulism Caused by Clostridium botulinum Type C/D in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Skarin, Hanna; Lindgren, Ylva; Jansson, Désirée S

    2015-06-01

    This case report describes a recent botulism outbreak in commercial laying hens with a history of increased mortality and flaccid paralysis. Routine diagnostic gross examination and microscopy from seven hens were inconclusive, but botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in peripheral blood was neutralized with both type C and type D antitoxins in the mouse bioassay. During a farm visit, 10 additional hens from a 34-wk-old flock on the farm were selected for clinical examination and further sampling. Nine hens were observed in sternal recumbency, with flaccid paralysis of the neck, drooping wings and tail, inability to escape, and bilateral ptosis, and one hen showed nonspecific clinical signs. Samples from cecum and liver were collected, and the gene coding for BoNT was detected by PCR in all 10 cecal samples and in four of the liver samples. Clostridium botulinum mosaic type C/D was isolated from 5 out of 10 hens from either cecum or liver, and the isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. All five isolates produced the same banding pattern, which was identical or showed >90% similarity to isolates from three different outbreaks on broiler farms in Sweden and Denmark during the 2007-10 period. However, they were clearly distinguishable from the predominantly reported pulsotype associated with avian botulism outbreaks in Europe. The authors are unaware of any previous report of C. botulinum mosaic type C/D isolates from laying hens.

  5. Performance comparison of laying hens segregating for the frizzle gene under thermoneutral and high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zerjal, T; Gourichon, D; Rivet, B; Bordas, A

    2013-06-01

    The effect on thermotolerance of the incompletely dominant frizzle (F) gene, which causes feather curling and feather mass reduction, was investigated in 281 laying hens that were homozygous for the frizzle mutation (FF), heterozygous (FN), or normally feathered (NN). One-half of the birds were kept under standard conditions (22°C) and half were exposed to high ambient temperatures (32°C) between 24 and 46 wk of age. Egg production, egg quality, feed efficiency, and dissection traits were recorded and compared. At standard conditions, egg production and quality traits did not differ among the 3 genotypes, whereas feed efficiency was lower for the homozygous birds. Under heat stress conditions, the superiority of the FF hens was evident for all egg quantity and quality traits. No significant difference was measured between heterozygous carriers and normally feathered hens, indicating that the incomplete dominant frizzle mutation behaved as a recessive mutation regarding heat tolerance. From this study, we deduced that the F mutation in its homozygous state has a beneficial effect in decreasing heat stress in poultry production, and it could be particularly advantageous in tropical countries where average temperatures are never too low to negatively affect feed efficiency.

  6. Quality of eggs from different laying hen production systems, from indigenous breeds and specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Lordelo, M; Fernandes, E; Bessa, R J B; Alves, S P

    2016-11-02

    Consumers are concerned about the quality of commercially available eggs. Eggs used in this study were marketed in Portugal and originated from laying hens raised in cages, barns, free-range, organic eggs, and eggs enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and from native Portuguese breeds. The eggs were analyzed for chemical and physical properties. Results indicated that yolk color was lighter in organic eggs and darker in n-3 PUFA enriched eggs. Eggs from caged hens had lower Haugh units in contrast with organic eggs. Caged hens produced eggs with a higher protein content while organic eggs had the lowest level of protein in the albumen. As might be expected, eggs enriched in n-3 PUFA had the highest n-3 PUFA content. Choosing an egg by its production system or labeling specificities may not be a guarantee of superior product quality. The layer genotype, age, diet, and the quality of the range also may affect egg properties. Due to a different layer diet, enriched eggs seem to be of superior quality.

  7. The association between plumage damage and feather-eating in free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hartcher, K M; Hemsworth, P H; Wilkinson, S J; Thomson, P C; Cronin, G M

    2016-05-01

    Severe feather-pecking (SFP) persists as a highly prevalent and detrimental behavioural problem in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) worldwide. The present experiment investigated the association between feather-eating and plumage damage, a consequence of SFP, in groups of free-range, ISA Brown laying hens. Single feathers were placed on the floor of the home pens. Feathers were sourced from seven different birds. A total of 50 birds in six pens with extensive plumage damage were compared with birds in six control pens with little plumage damage at 41 to 43 weeks of age (n=12 pens, 600 hens). Birds in pens with extensive plumage damage ingested more feathers (F=8.1, DF=1, 8, P=0.02), and also showed shorter latencies to peck at (χ 2=54.5, DF=1, P<0.001), and ingest feathers (χ 2=55.6, DF=1, P<0.001). Birds ingested feathers from a bird in the free-range facility, in which the testing took place, more quickly than from a bird housed in a separate cage facility (χ 2 = 39.0, DF=6, P<0.001). A second experiment investigated the predictive relationship between feather-eating and plumage damage. Feathers were presented to 16 pens of 50 pullets prior to the development of plumage damage, at 15 weeks of age, and then to the same hens after plumage damage had become prominent, at 40 weeks of age. Birds had a higher probability of ingesting feathers (F=142.0, DF=1, 231, P<0.001), pecked feathers more times (F=11.24, DF=1, 239, P<0.001), and also pecked (χ 2 = 127.3, DF=1, P<0.001) and ingested (χ 2=189.3, DF=1, P<0.001) the feathers more quickly at 40 than 15 weeks of age. There was a trend for an interaction, where birds pecked feathers from the rump more times than feathers from the back at 40 weeks of age (F=3.46, DF=1, 237, P=0.06). However, a lack of variability in plumage damage between pens in this experiment precluded investigation of the predictive relationship. The results from the present study confirm the association between feather-eating and plumage

  8. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Red Ginseng By-product on Laying Performance, Blood Biochemistry, Serum Immunoglobulin and Microbial Population in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Park, S-B; Kim, C H

    2016-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of red ginseng by-product (RGB) on the laying performance, blood biochemistry, and microbial population in laying hens. A total of 120 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (75 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per treatment. A commercial-type basal diet was prepared, and 2 additional diets were prepared by supplementing 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg of RGB to the basal diet at the expense of corn. The diets were fed to hens on an ad libitum basis for 4 weeks. There were no differences in feed intake, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio during 4 weeks of the feeding trial. However, hen-day egg production was significantly greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatment groups than that for the basal treatment group. There were no differences in triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during the 4-week feeding trial. However, RGB supplementation increased (p<0.05) the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM content compared with basal treatment group. The total cholesterol was lower (p<0.05) in the RGB treatments groups than that in the basal treatment group. The intestinal Lactobacillus population was greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatments groups than that for the basal treatment group. However, the numbers of Salmonella and Escherichia coli were not different among dietary treatments. During the entire experiment, there was no significant difference in egg quality among all the treatments. In conclusion, in addition to improving hen-day production, there were positive effects of dietary RGB supplementation on serum immunoglobulin and cholesterol levels in laying hens.

  9. Corticosterone regulation of ovarian follicular development is dependent on the energy status of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Yan; Song, Qun-Qing; Guo, Ying-Ying; Jiao, Hong-Chao; Song, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Hai

    2013-07-01

    Glucocorticoids participate in the arousal of stress responses and trigger physiological adjustments that shift energy away from reproduction toward survival. Ovarian follicular development in avians is accompanied by the supply of yolk precursors, which are mainly synthesized in the liver. Therefore, we hypothesized energy status and hepatic lipogenesis are involved in the induction of reproductive disorders by glucocorticoids in laying hens. The results show that corticosterone decreased the laying performance by suppressing follicular development in energy-deficit state, rather than in energy-sufficient state. In corticosterone-treated hens, the suppressed follicular development was associated with the reduced availability of yolk precursor, indicated by the plasma concentration of VLDL and vitellogenin and the decreased proportion of yolk-targeted VLDL (VLDLy). Corticosterone decreased the expression of apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein VLDL-II in the liver. A drop in VLDL receptor content and an increase in the expression of tight junction proteins occludin and claudin1 were also observed in hierarchical follicles. The results suggest corticosterone-suppressed follicular development is energy dependent. The decreased apolipoprotein synthesis and VLDLy secretion by liver are responsible for the decreased availability of circulating yolk precursor, and the upregulation of occludin and claudin expression further prevents yolk deposition into oocytes.

  10. Corticosterone regulation of ovarian follicular development is dependent on the energy status of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Yan; Song, Qun-Qing; Guo, Ying-Ying; Jiao, Hong-Chao; Song, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids participate in the arousal of stress responses and trigger physiological adjustments that shift energy away from reproduction toward survival. Ovarian follicular development in avians is accompanied by the supply of yolk precursors, which are mainly synthesized in the liver. Therefore, we hypothesized energy status and hepatic lipogenesis are involved in the induction of reproductive disorders by glucocorticoids in laying hens. The results show that corticosterone decreased the laying performance by suppressing follicular development in energy-deficit state, rather than in energy-sufficient state. In corticosterone-treated hens, the suppressed follicular development was associated with the reduced availability of yolk precursor, indicated by the plasma concentration of VLDL and vitellogenin and the decreased proportion of yolk-targeted VLDL (VLDLy). Corticosterone decreased the expression of apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein VLDL-II in the liver. A drop in VLDL receptor content and an increase in the expression of tight junction proteins occludin and claudin1 were also observed in hierarchical follicles. The results suggest corticosterone-suppressed follicular development is energy dependent. The decreased apolipoprotein synthesis and VLDLy secretion by liver are responsible for the decreased availability of circulating yolk precursor, and the upregulation of occludin and claudin expression further prevents yolk deposition into oocytes. PMID:23599356

  11. Comparisons of permethrin formulations and application methods for northern fowl mite control on caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Arthur, F H; Axtell, R C

    1982-05-01

    Formulations of permethrin (Ectiban), a synthetic pyrethroid, as an emulsifiable concentrate (EC), wettable powder (WP), and dust were nearly equally effective for 9 or more weeks for control of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), on caged laying hens under environmentally controlled conditions. The permethrin was applied to the vent area as .05% active ingredient (AI) spray of the diluted EC or WP at 40 ml per bird, .1% AI mist of the diluted EC at 20 ml per bird, and 4.5 g per bird of the .25% AI dust. Dilute sprays of .05% permethrin prepared from the EC and WP and applied at 40 ml per bird were more effective in a commercial caged-laying hen house for northern fowl mite control than were .5% sprays of tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon), Ravap, and carbaryl (Sevin). Satisfactory mite control was obtained with .6% permethrin prepared from the EC and misted at the rate of 2.5 ml per bird. Low volume, high concentration misting of permethrin was a promising method for mite control with satisfactory control achieved with .2% AI at 5 ml per bird and .6% AI at 2.5 ml per bird.

  12. Mycoplasma gallisepticum in the commercial egg-laying hen: an historical perspective considering effects of pathogen strain, age of bird at inoculation, and diet on performance and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a pathogenic organism, primarily causes respiratory distress, but can also spread systemically to subsequently reduce egg production and egg quality in laying hens. However, the effects of MG on the performance and physiology of the commercial laying hen have been sho...

  13. Effects of reduced calcium and phosphorous diets supplemented with phytase on laying performance of hens.

    PubMed

    Ziaei, N; Shivazad, M; Mirhadi, S A; Gerami, A

    2009-05-15

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the potential for reduced environmental impact by reducing dietary calcium and phosphorus content and phytase addition of laying hen diets. A randomized complete block design with a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement of 8 dietary treatments: 2 levels ofphytase (0 and 300 FTU kg(-1)) and 2 mineral levels (Ca: 34/18 and NPP: 3.2/2.2 g kg(-1), respectively). A total of 240 White Leghorn (WL) layers, 25 weeks of age were used. Considering birds in 12 cages as a replicate, 5 such replicates were randomly allotted to each dietary treatment. Individual body weight of the bird was recorded at the beginning and end of the experiment. Egg production on an individual basis was recorded daily and percentage hen day egg production was calculated. The cleaned eggshells were dried for 24 h, weighed and expressed as percentage of whole egg. One bird from each experimental unit were selected at random and killed by cervical dislocation at the end of the experiment and the left tibia was removed. Dried bone samples were ashed at 680 degrees C for 12 h for estimation of bone ash. The results of this experiment showed that reducing Ca and NPP (Non-Phytate Phosphorus) without phytase decreased BWG (Body Weight Gain), feed intake, FCE (Feed Conversion Efficiency), egg production, egg shell weight and tibia ash. However, phytase addition to low mineral diets completely corrected the adverse effects associated with low dietary Ca and NPP. It can therefore be concluded that reducing levels of Ca and NPP below current standards and phytase supplementation can reduce pollution potential from laying hen production without adversely affecting bird performance or welfare.

  14. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

    2014-08-01

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation and eggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated. Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs.

  15. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

  16. Choice feeding of selenium-deficient laying hens affects diet selection, selenium intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Zuberbuehler, Christine A; Messikommer, Ruth E; Wenk, Caspar

    2002-11-01

    Inadequate selenium (Se) supply often in combination with low vitamin E status causes deficiency symptoms in many species. It is likely that a vague discomfort or sickness is perceived before clear deficiency signs become apparent. We investigated whether Se-deficient hens reduce their Se deficit by selecting a diet containing more selenium when offered two diets with different Se concentrations. A Low-Se diet (0.07 mg Se/kg) was supplemented with Se-enriched yeast (Sel-Plex 50) to produce Medium-Se (0.20 mg Se/kg) and High-Se (1.50 mg Se/kg) diets. Each of two consecutive study parts (I and II) with the same hens and treatments began with a 6-wk baseline period (Medium-Se diet), subsequently followed a 9-wk depletion period (Low-Se diet or Medium-Se diet), then a 6-wk choice feeding period in which two diets with different Se concentrations (Low-Se and Medium-Se, Medium-Se and High-Se, or Low-Se and High-Se) were offered. A control group received the Medium-Se diet throughout the study. Daily Se intake, calculated from daily feed intake, followed similar patterns in both parts of the study, but Se-deficient hens preferred (P < 0.05) the High-Se diet to the Low-Se diet during the first 3 wk of choice feeding only in part I. We conclude that young Se-deficient laying hens reduce their Se deficit if they have a choice between a Low-Se and a High-Se diet by preferentially selecting the High-Se diet, possibly based on learned place preference and/or learned taste aversion to the Low-Se diet, presumably in response to discomfort due to Se-deficiency.

  17. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-07-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality.

  18. Laying performance, digestibility and plasma hormones in laying hens exposed to chronic heat stress as affected by betaine, vitamin C, and/or vitamin E supplementation.

    PubMed

    Attia, Youssef A; Abd El-Hamid, Abd El-Hamid E; Abedalla, Ahmed A; Berika, Marfat A; Al-Harthi, Mohammed A; Kucuk, Osman; Sahin, Kazim; Abou-Shehema, Baha M

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress had a negative effect on laying hens' performance, thus this research was to study the influences of betaine (Bet, 1000 mg/kg betaine), vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg ascorbic acid), and vitamin E (VE, 150 mg/kg α-Tocopherol acetate) and their possible combinations on egg production, digestibility of nutrients, plasma hormones and reproductive organs of dual-purpose hens exposed to chronic heat stress. Two hundred and eighty eight hens and thirty-six cocks from 32 to 48 weeks of age were divided into nine treatment groups of four replicates, each containing eight hens and one cock. One group was kept under thermo-natural condition and the eight others were kept under chronic heat stress (CHS). One of these eight was used as a negative control, while the others were supplemented with VC, VE and/or betaine and their possible combinations. Body weights, laying rate, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio in hens reared under CHS rooster without any supplementation during 32 to 48 weeks of impairment (P = 0.0052) were recorded. Hens reared under heat stress and fed a diet supplemented with either Bet, VC, VE or combination of the supplements increased production traits. However, hens supplemented with VC showed the greatest production traits. Plasma glucose, estradiol-17 (E2), progesterone (P4), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) decreased in hens reared under CHS and fed a diet with no supplementation compared to the other treatments (P = 0.001). Liver weights, spleen weights, thyroid gland weights, ovary weights, oviduct weights and oviduct lengths were lowest in hens reared under CHS and fed a diet with no supplementation (P = 0.0480). In conclusion, dual purpose hens reared under CHS and supplemented with VC at 200 mg/kg diet and Bet at 1000 mg/kg enhanced the laying performance and combated CHS.

  19. Effect of hens fed dietary flaxseed with and without a fatty liver supplement on hepatic, plasma and production characteristics relevant to fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Schumann, B E; Squires, E J; Leeson, S; Hunter, B

    2003-05-01

    1. Two long-term experiments were conducted with Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) hens (line UCD-003) predisposed to fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS). The first investigated the effect of adding a fatty liver supplement to the diet of laying hens prior to the onset of lay, and continuing either until peak production or throughout 39 weeks into lay. The second experiment, lasting 9 months into lay, investigated the effect of adding a fatty liver supplement, with or without 100 g/kg dietary ground flaxseed, to the diet. Body weight, feed intake, plasma triglycerides (in experiment 2) and egg production were measured throughout the experiment. Liver weight, liver fat content, liver malondialdehyde (MDA) content and liver haemorrhage score and fatty acid content of liver fat (in experiment 2) were measured at the end of each experiment. 2. In experiment 1, hens given diets containing the fatty liver supplement had higher egg production and eggshell strength, but there was no difference in liver parameters including MDA content or haemorrhage score compared with controls. 3. At the end of experiment 2, hens on 100 g/kg flaxseed diets had lower body weight, liver weight, liver dry matter and fat content, and plasma triglyceride concentrations than hens given the control diets. 4. Liver haemorrhage score was positively correlated with liver weight, but not with liver fat content, plasma triglyceride concentration or liver MDA content. This suggests that reducing the liver lipid content or feeding fatty liver supplements may not be as effective in controlling FLHS as controlling the size of the liver.

  20. Identification of Potential Plasma Biomarkers for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Integrating Transcriptomics and Proteomics in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Tsz; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chen, Ching-Yi; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Han, Chia-Li; Chen, Yu-Ju; Mersmann, Harry J; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2017-03-01

    Background: Prevalent worldwide obesity is associated with increased incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome. The identification of noninvasive biomarkers for NAFLD is of recent interest. Because primary de novo lipogenesis occurs in chicken liver as in human liver, adult chickens with age-associated steatosis resembling human NAFLD is an appealing animal model.Objective: The objective of this study was to screen potential biomarkers in the chicken model for NAFLD by transcriptomic and proteomic analysis.Methods: Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were fed standard feed from 25 to 45 wk of age to induce fatty liver. They were killed every 4 wk, and liver and plasma were collected at each time point to assess fatty liver development and for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Next, selected biomarkers were confirmed in additional experiments by providing supplements of the hepatoprotective nutrients betaine [300, 600, or 900 parts per million (ppm) in vivo; 2 mM in vitro] or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 1% in vivo; 100 μM in vitro) to 30-wk-old Hy-Line W-36 laying hens for 4 mo and to Hy-Line W-36 chicken primary hepatocytes with oleic acid-induced steatosis. Liver or hepatocyte lipid contents and the expression of biomarkers were then examined.Results: Plasma acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AACS), dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4), glutamine synthetase (GLUL), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) concentrations are well-established biomarkers for NAFLD. Selected biomarkers had significant positive associations with hepatic lipid deposition (P < 0.001). Betaine (900 ppm in vivo; 2 mM in vitro) and DHA (1% in vivo; 100 μM in vitro) supplementation both resulted in lower steatosis accompanied by the reduced expression of selected biomarkers in vivo and in vitro (P < 0.05).Conclusion: This study used adult laying hens to identify biomarkers for NAFLD and indicated that AACS, DPP4, GLUL, and GST could be considered to be potential diagnostic

  1. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (P<0.05), which was lower in hens fed the diet containing fava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (P<0.05). We conclude that dehulled-micronized fava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens.

  2. Contamination of eggs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2014-03-01

    Both epidemiologic analyses and active disease surveillance confirm an ongoing strong association between human salmonellosis and the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis in commercial egg flocks. The majority of human illnesses caused by this pathogen are attributed to the consumption of contaminated eggs. Animal welfare concerns have increasingly influenced commercial poultry production practices in recent years, but the food safety implications of different housing systems for egg-laying hens are not definitively understood. The present study assessed the effects of 2 different housing systems (conventional cages and colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas) on the frequency of Salmonella Enteritidis contamination inside eggs laid by experimentally infected laying hens. In each of 2 trials, groups of laying hens housed in each cage system were orally inoculated with doses of 1.0 × 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis. All eggs laid between 5 and 25 d postinoculation were collected and cultured to detect internal contamination with Salmonella Enteritidis. For both trials combined, Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from 3.97% of eggs laid by hens in conventional cages and 3.58% of eggs laid by hens in enriched cages. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in the frequency of egg contamination were observed between the 2 housing systems.

  3. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocui; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP) (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50). The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%), had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p<0.05) in weeks 41 to 44. The LCSM50 group did not affect egg production compared to the SBM group in weeks 41 to 44 (p>0.05) and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p<0.05). Compared to the SBM group, the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups showed decreased albumen weight (p<0.05), CP weight in the albumen (p<0.05) and CP weight in the whole egg (p<0.05) at 44 weeks. Plasma total protein (TP) levels were lower in the LCSM100 group than in the SBM group at 44 weeks (p<0.05); however, TP, albumin, and globulin levels were not significantly different between the LCSM50 group and the SBM group or between the DRM50 group and the SBM group (p>0.05). Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality. PMID:27608634

  4. Role of loose feathers on the development of feather pecking in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, S G A; von Borell, E

    2008-05-01

    1. The effect of the presence of loose feathers (on the floor) on the behaviour and plumage condition of laying hens (Lohmann Silver, LS) was studied during the rearing and laying periods. 2. From one day old, 60 birds in each of 4 straw-bedded pens (n = 240 in total) with 6.5 birds/m(2) were either kept under conventional rearing and management conditions (CT: control group with feathers on the floor; n = 120) or in pens from which the feathers were collected from the floor 4 times/week (FR: feathers removed; n = 120). Fifty birds from each of these 4 groups (n = 200 in total) were randomly selected at the age of 16 weeks and allocated to 4 identical pens in a poultry layer house (PH; with perches and 1/3 slatted floor) with access to an outside area (winter garden, WG) at a stocking density of 6 birds/m(2) in both PH and WG. 3. Observations on feather pecking and other behaviours (feeding, drinking, preening, standing, sitting, foraging, moving and dust bathing) were carried out at 8 ages: 6, 10, 15 (rearing period), 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 weeks (laying period). Feather scoring was carried out at 15, 32 and 39 weeks of age. 4. There were no differences in feather pecking rates, forms (gentle, severe and aggressive pecks) as well as in the plumage condition between groups at the end of the rearing period. 5. Birds in the FR group exhibited lower rates and less severe feather pecking during the laying period. Accordingly, birds in the control group had worse feather condition at 32 and 39 weeks of age. Feather pecking rates within groups were, in general, greater in the afternoon compared to the morning periods. Birds in the control group were more active in walking. 6. Wings, rump, tail and back were the main targets for feather pecking. The majority of feather pecking occurred on the floor (66%) followed by feeding area (26%), perches (4%) and slats (4%). 7. Our results suggest that loose feathers on the floor may play an important role in the development and

  5. A role for plasma aromatic amino acids in injurious pecking behavior in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Birkl, Patrick; Franke, Leonora; Bas Rodenburg, T; Ellen, Ester; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2017-03-30

    Injurious pecking, including feather pecking (FP), is one of the most prevalent causes of mortality for commercial laying hens. The underlying biological mechanisms of FP are not yet fully understood, but they could be related to alterations in the serotonin (5-HT) and/or dopamine (DA) circuits within the brain. In the past, the central synthesis of 5-HT and DA was found to be influenced by the availability of their precursors, aromatic amino acids (AAA) such as tryptophan (TRP), phenylalanine (PHE), and tyrosine (TYR), in blood plasma, which are transported across the blood-brain-barrier into the brain. Because knowledge about plasma levels of AAA in laying hens is very limited, the present study compared the AAA profiles of a large sample of laying hens from two genetic lines: one selected for low mortality (LM) due to injurious pecking (n=129 birds) and one high production line (HP) selected for high egg-production only (n=132 birds). Head, comb, and feather covering were scored at the end of the experiment. Blood samples were collected at weeks 24 and 29 of age and were analysed for AAA using high performance liquid chromatography. Neither FP nor feather damage was observed in the present study, but aggressive pecking directed at the head/neck area occurred in several groups with an onset of this aberrant behavior between weeks 22 and 29. Eight HP pens and seven LM pens were affected by severe head/comb injuries inflicted via aggressive pecking. Therefore, our exploratory data analysis focused upon the possible interplay between the variability of our outcome measures (absolute levels of AAA in plasma as well as the ratios PHE/TYR and TRP/(PHE+TYR)) and the aggressive head/comb pecking as an expression of social stress within the pens. We found significantly lower TRP availability relative to PHE and TYR (TRP/(PHE+TYR) ratio) and higher TYR concentrations at week 24 in pens with an early onset of injurious aggressive behavior at weeks 22-23. This was most

  6. Effects of long-term supplementation of laying hens with high concentrations of cholecalciferol on performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Persia, M E; Higgins, M; Wang, T; Trample, D; Bobeck, E A

    2013-11-01

    There is current interest in increasing human vitamin D dietary intake without having to modify human eating habits. One method to increase human dietary vitamin D intake is to generate eggs with increased concentrations of vitamin D through high-concentration vitamin D feeding in the diets of laying hens. Although eggs can be produced with high concentrations of vitamin D, the consequences of these diets on hen performance and egg quality have not been validated. The objective of this research is to quantify the effects of high concentrations of cholecalciferol (D3) on laying hen performance and egg quality. Hy-Line W36 laying hens were placed on 1 of 5 experimental diets for 40 wk: 1) control (contained 2,200 IU of D3/kg of diet), 2) control + 7,500 IU of D3/kg of diet (9,700 IU of D3/kg of diet total), 3) control + 15,000 IU of D3/kg of diet (17,200 IU of D3/kg of diet total), 4) control + 22,500 IU of D3/kg of diet (24,700 IU of D3/kg of diet total), and 5) control + 100,000 IU of D3/kg of diet (102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet total). Egg production and hen mortality were monitored daily. Feed intake was determined weekly. Eggs were collected at predetermined points throughout the 40-wk period (19 to 58 wk of bird age) for assessment of egg weight, egg component weights, Haugh unit, yolk color score, specific gravity, egg mass, and feed efficiency. There were no consistent differences among the dietary treatments over the experimental period. Hens supplemented with up to 102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet resulted in no significant reductions in egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg component weights, yolk color, Haugh units, and specific gravity in comparison with the control-fed hens (P > 0.05). These data suggest the addition of cholecalciferol to the diet of the laying hen at concentrations up to 102,200 IU of D3/kg of diet had no consistent negative effects on laying hen performance or egg quality.

  7. Estimation of total genetic effects for survival time in crossbred laying hens showing cannibalism, using pedigree or genomic information.

    PubMed

    Brinker, T; Raymond, B; Bijma, P; Vereijken, A; Ellen, E D

    2017-02-01

    Mortality of laying hens due to cannibalism is a major problem in the egg-laying industry. Survival depends on two genetic effects: the direct genetic effect of the individual itself (DGE) and the indirect genetic effects of its group mates (IGE). For hens housed in sire-family groups, DGE and IGE cannot be estimated using pedigree information, but the combined effect of DGE and IGE is estimated in the total breeding value (TBV). Genomic information provides information on actual genetic relationships between individuals and might be a tool to improve TBV accuracy. We investigated whether genomic information of the sire increased TBV accuracy compared with pedigree information, and we estimated genetic parameters for survival time. A sire model with pedigree information (BLUP) and a sire model with genomic information (ssGBLUP) were used. We used survival time records of 7290 crossbred offspring with intact beaks from four crosses. Cross-validation was used to compare the models. Using ssGBLUP did not improve TBV accuracy compared with BLUP which is probably due to the limited number of sires available per cross (~50). Genetic parameter estimates were similar for BLUP and ssGBLUP. For both BLUP and ssGBLUP, total heritable variance (T(2) ), expressed as a proportion of phenotypic variance, ranged from 0.03 ± 0.04 to 0.25 ± 0.09. Further research is needed on breeding value estimation for socially affected traits measured on individuals kept in single-family groups.

  8. Control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in laying hens by inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano; Mesquita, Aline Lopes; de Paiva, Jaqueline Boldrin; Zotesso, Fábio; Berchieri Júnior, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the agents that is responsible for outbreaks of human foodborne salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis and is generally associated with the consumption of poultry products. Inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis cell vaccine is one of the available methods to control Salmonella Enteritidis in breeders and laying hens, however results in terms of efficacy vary. This vaccine has never been tested in Brazil, therefore, the present work was carried out to assess three commercial inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines allowed in Brazil. Four hundred white light variety commercial laying hens were obtained at one-day-of age. At eight weeks old, the birds were divided into four groups with one hundred animals each. Birds from three groups (V1, V2 and V3) received different intramuscular vaccines, followed by a booster dose at 16 weeks of age. Birds from another group (CG) were not vaccinated. When the laying hens were 20, 25 and 31 weeks old, 13 from each group were transferred to another room and were challenged by inoculating 2 mL neat culture of Salmonella Enteritidis. On the second day after each challenge, the caecal contents, spleen, liver and ovary of three birds from each group were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Twice a week a cloacal swab of each bird was taken and all eggs laid were examined for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. After four consecutive negative cloacal swabs in all the groups, the birds were sacrificed so as to examine the liver, caecal contents and ovaries. Overall, the inactivated vaccine used in group V3 reduced Salmonella Enteritidis in the feces and eggs. A very small amount of Salmonella was found in the spleen, liver, ovary and caeca of the birds in the four groups during the whole experiment. In general, inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines was able to decrease the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the birds and in the eggs as well. Nevertheless, they must

  9. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in naturally and artificially contaminated laying hen feces.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M F M; Schulz, J; Hartung, J

    2013-02-01

    Infected laying hens regularly excrete large amounts of Campylobacter jejuni with their feces, which represent a reservoir of infection within the flock and for animals in the region. However, the knowledge about survival times of C. jejuni in these feces is still scarce. Therefore, orienting laboratory experiments were carried out under controlled conditions to estimate the survival times of C. jejuni both in artificially and naturally contaminated laying hen feces. In 6 different laying hen flocks (3 Campylobacter-free and 3 Campylobacter-positive flocks), fresh excreta were randomly collected and pooled in 20-g samples per flock. In the laboratory, each of the 3 pooled samples from the Campylobacter-free barns were homogenized and mixed with 10 mL of a freshly prepared C. jejuni suspension (3 × 10(8) cfu/mL). The other 3 samples were homogenized only. The 6 samples were stored at 20 ± 1°C and 40 to 60% RH in 2 different incubators. Specimens of 2 g were taken from all 6 samples 1 h after storage and daily at the same time during the next 10 consecutive days and investigated on culturable C. jejuni. The survival times of culturable C. jejuni ranged from 72 to 96 h in artificially inoculated feces and varied from 120 to 144 h in naturally colonized flocks. The flaA typing by RFLP confirmed that the isolates from the artificially contaminated feces were identical with the added strain. A total of 5 different flaA types were identified from the naturally contaminated feces, and survival of these isolates was dependent on flaA type. The demonstrated survival times indicate that contaminated fresh feces are an important reservoir of C. jejuni, representing a permanent source of infection over at least 6 d after excretion. It shows the considerable potential of fresh feces in transmitting the agent within and between flocks during that period. This 6-d span should be considered when poultry manure is applied to land as organic fertilizer.

  10. Colonization of marker and field strains of Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in antibiotic treated and non-treated laying hen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of three trials, caged laying hens (76, 26, and 33 wk-of-age) were divided into 6 groups designated to receive either maker (nalidixic acid resistance) S. Enteritidis (SE-M), field S. Enteritidis (SE-F), or marker S. Typhimurium (ST-M), and half pretreated with vancomycin (VNC) (n=12). VNC t...

  11. Effects of nitrocompounds on uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nitrocompounds on the growth of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure. There were three treatments: control, 100 mM nitropropanol (NPL), and 100 mM nitropropionic acid (NPC). The mixed la...

  12. The relationship between the immune response and susceptibilty to Salmonella infection in the laying hen, producing safe eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken eggs are one of the main sources of human salmonellosis, with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis the most frequent cause of human non-typhoid salmonellosis. Laying hens colonized with S. Enteritidis generally do not show clinical signs. The bacteria colonize and invade the intestinal ...

  13. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering egg quality or production in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6-fatty acids and extruding defatted seed meal results in high protein meal (~40%) containing residual n-3 fatty acids. We examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina seed meal to commercial laying hens on egg production, quality, ...

  14. The effect of perch availability during pullet rearing and egg laying on musculoskeletal health of caged White Leghorn hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major skeletal problem of conventionally caged hens is increased susceptibility to osteoporosis mainly due to lack of exercise. Osteoporosis is characterized by a progressive decrease in mineralized structural bone. Whereas considerable attention has been given to enriching laying cages, little r...

  15. Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis from Internal Organs of Experimentally Infected Laying Hens Housed in Conventional or Enriched Cages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human illness caused by Salmonella Enteritidis has been more frequently linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs than to any other food source. This pathogen can be deposited inside the edible contents of eggs when reproductive organs are colonized in systemically infected laying hens. In rece...

  16. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis throughout the world have been linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs than to any other food vehicle. Deposition of this pathogen in the edible contents of eggs occurs when systemic infections of laying hens involve colonization of reprod...

  17. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.001) and yolk percentage (P < 0.05) as well as yolk cholesterol and β-carotene contents (P < 0.001), which were improved in hens fed the LFA diet. Including LFA increased serum β-carotene and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that partially replacing conventional SBM as protein source with low-fiber alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits.

  18. The effect of perches in cages during pullet rearing and egg laying on hen performance, foot health, and plumage.

    PubMed

    Hester, P Y; Enneking, S A; Jefferson-Moore, K Y; Einstein, M E; Cheng, H W; Rubin, D A

    2013-02-01

    Enrichment of pullet cages with perches has not been studied. Our objective was to determine if access to metal perches during all or part of the life cycle of caged White Leghorns affected egg traits, foot health, and feather condition. Treatment 1 represented control chickens that never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 hens had perches only during the egg laying phase of the life cycle (17 to 71 wk of age), whereas treatment 3 chickens had perches during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens always had access to perches (0 to 71 wk of age). Comparisons between chickens that always had perches with controls that never had perches showed similar performance relative to egg production, cracked eggs, egg weight, shell weight, % shell, and shell thickness. More dirty eggs occurred in laying cages with perches. Feed usage increased resulting in poorer feed efficiency in hens with perch exposure during the pullet phase with no effect during egg laying. Perches did not affect hyperkeratosis of toes and feet. The back claw at 71 wk of age broke less if hens had prior experience with perches during the pullet phase. In contrast, during egg laying, the back claw at 71 wk of age broke more due to the presence of perches in laying cages. Perches in laying cages resulted in shorter trimmed claws and improved back feather scores, but caused poorer breast and tail feather scores. In conclusion, enriching conventional cages with perches during the entire life cycle resulted in similar hen performance compared with controls. Fewer broken back claws but poorer feed efficiency occurred because of prior experience with perches as pullets. Perch presence during egg laying improved back feather scores with more trimmed nails but caused more dirty eggs, broken back claws, and poorer breast and tail feather scores. Although perches allow chickens to express their natural perching instinct, it was not without causing welfare problems.

  19. Epidemiological aspects of lice (Menacanthus species) infections in laying hen flocks from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, L Do Carmo; Martins, N R Da Silva; Teixeira, C M; Oliveira, P R De; Cunha, L M

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of chicken lice species such as Menacanthus stramineus, M. cornutus and M. pallidulus were studied during an observational, analytical and sectional survey, to determine predisposing factors for their occurrence in laying hen farms in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 431 houses on 43 farms were visited in 2012. M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M. pallidulus occurred in 20.9%, 11.6% and 11.6% of farms, respectively. The frequencies of occurrence of M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M.pallidulus in poultry houses were 10.4%, 8.8% and 3.7%, respectively. The epidemiological determinants for the occurrence of these species were investigated using Poisson or logistic regression models. The region of the farm, the recent use of acaricides and the presence of birds, such as saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola), feral pigeon (Columba livia) and Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) around the farms were related to the epidemiology of M. cornutus. Infestation by M. stramineus was associated with age of birds, number of birds per cage and the presence of Guira cuckoo and Chopi blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi) near the poultry houses. The occurrence of M. pallidulus was influenced by the type of facilities, presence of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and free-range domestic hens around the farm. The use of wire mesh nets in the houses and of forced moulting did not influence lice infestation.

  20. Physiological responses of laying hens during whole-house killing with carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    McKeegan, D E F; Sparks, N H C; Sandilands, V; Demmers, T G M; Boulcott, P; Wathes, C M

    2011-12-01

    1. Poultry on farms are sometimes required to be killed in an emergency, such as during a disease epidemic, yet none of the available methods are ideal. Whole-house carbon dioxide (CO(2)) administration has practical advantages, but gives rise to welfare concerns. 2. The study measured the body temperature, respiration, cardiac and brain activity (EEG) responses of 10 adult hens placed in tiered cages in a deep pit house while the entire flock (28,000 end-of-lay hens) was killed with CO(2). Video and thermographic images were also recorded. Liquid CO(2) was injected into the building producing a gaseous concentration of 45% within 19 min. 3. Those hens nearest the gas delivery site showed delayed respiratory, cardiac and EEG responses compared with those at more distant locations. Although sub-zero temperatures were recorded in the immediate vicinity of some birds, body temperatures indicated that they did not die of hypothermia. 4. EEG characteristics strongly associated with unconsciousness were used to determine an unequivocal time to loss of consciousness; this ranged from 6·0 to 10·5 (average 7·8) min after onset of gas injection. Distinctive cardiac and respiratory responses were seen following gas exposure; in particular, birds responded to inhalation of CO(2) by deep breathing. 5. The primary welfare concern is the duration of unpleasant respiratory effects, such as deep breathing, while the birds were substantively conscious. However, the concentration of CO(2) to which the birds were exposed while conscious would not have stimulated nasal and oral nociceptors. Time to death varied between 12·0 and 22·1 min after gas delivery.

  1. The age of production system and previous Salmonella infections on-farm are risk factors for low-level Salmonella infections in laying hen flocks.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorebeke, S; Van Immerseel, F; De Vylder, J; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F; Pasmans, F; de Kruif, A; Dewulf, J

    2010-06-01

    An explorative field study was carried out to determine risk factors for Salmonella infections in commercial laying hen flocks. For this purpose, 29 laying hen farms, including farms using conventional and alternative housing systems, were intensively sampled. An on-farm questionnaire was used to collect information on general management practices and specific characteristics of the sampled flock such as flock size, age of the hens, and age of the infrastructure. Salmonella was detected in laying hens from 6 of the 29 sampled farms. Using multivariate logistic regression with the Salmonella status of the flock as an outcome variable, a previous Salmonella contamination on the farm and the age of the production system were identified as risk factors for the presence of Salmonella in laying hens (P<0.05). The housing system did not have a significant influence on the prevalence of Salmonella in the current study.

  2. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis.

  3. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Brunberg, Emma I.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain–gut–microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  4. Influence of housing system and design on bone strength and keel bone fractures in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, L J; McKinstry, J L; Avery, N C; Knowles, T G; Brown, S N; Tarlton, J; Nicol, C J

    2011-10-15

    The main objectives of the study were to provide an accurate assessment of current levels of old breaks in end-of-lay hens housed in a variety of system designs and identify the important risk factors. Sixty-seven flocks housed in eight broad subcategories were assessed at the end of the production period. Within each flock, the presence of keel fractures was determined and the tibia, humerus and keel bones dissected for measurement of breaking strength. For each house, variations in internal design and perching provision were categorised and the effective heights of the differing structures recorded. All systems were associated with alarmingly high levels of keel damage although variation in mean prevalence between systems was evident with flocks housed in furnished cages having the lowest prevalence (36 per cent) despite also having significantly weaker bones and flocks housed in all systems equipped with multilevel perches showing the highest levels of damage (over 80 per cent) and the highest severity scores.

  5. Mixed infection by fowlpox virus and Chlamydophila psittaci in a commercial laying hen flock.

    PubMed

    Karpińska, Teresa Agnieszka; Kozaczyński, Wojciech; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Jasik, Agnieszka; Kycko, Anna; Reichert, Michał

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of fowlpox occurred in a commercial laying hen flock in one of the western provinces of Poland. Clinical signs suggested fowlpox and the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological detection of Bollinger bodies within the epithelial cells. Detailed ultrastructural examination revealed an additional concurrent infection with chlamydia-like particles. The particles were identified by PCR as fowlpox virus and Chlamydophila psittaci. It is worth noting that both pathogens can generate morphologic forms capable of prolonged survival and inducing latent and persistent infection. We suggest a possible interaction between the two pathogens on ultrastructural level and assess the clinical consequences of the mixed infection. This study also demonstrates a potential of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) for identifying a superinfection with another pathogen (in this case C. psittaci), which may remain undetected by routine techniques.

  6. Withdrawal times of oxytetracycline and tylosin in eggs of laying hens after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Rubén; Cornejo, Javiera; Maddaleno, Aldo; Araya-Jordán, Carolina; Iragüen, Daniela; Pizarro, Nicolás; San Martín, Betty

    2014-06-01

    Antimicrobials administered to laying hens may be distributed into egg white or yolk, indicating the importance of evaluating withdrawal times (WDTs) of the pharmaceutical formulations. In the present study, oxytetracycline and tylosin's WDTs were estimated. The concentration and depletion of these molecules in eggs were linked to their pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties. Twenty-seven Leghorn hens were used: 12 treated with oxytetracycline, 12 treated with tylosin, and 3 remained as an untreated control group. After completion of therapies, eggs were collected daily and drug concentrations in egg white and yolk were assessed. The yolk was used as the target tissue to evaluate the WDT; the results were 9 and 3 days for oxytetracycline and tylosin, respectively. In particular, oxytetracycline has a good oral bioavailability, a moderate apparent volume of distribution, a molecular weight of 460 g/mol, and is lightly liposoluble. Tylosin, a hydrosoluble compound, with a molecular weight of 916 g/mol, has a low oral bioavailability and a low apparent volume of distribution, too. Present results suggest that the WDTs of the studied antimicrobials are strongly influenced by their oral bioavailability, the distribution, and the molecular weight and solubility, and that these properties also influence the distribution between the egg yolk and white.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. isolated from commercial laying hens and free-living wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Jansson, Désirée S; Pringle, Märit

    2011-08-01

    In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to tylosin, valnemulin, tiamulin, doxycycline, lincomycin and ampicillin was investigated by broth dilution in 48 Brachyspira spp. isolates from commercial laying hens (n=30) and free-living wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) (n=18). Presumed pathogens (Brachyspira alvinipulli, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli), commensals (Brachyspira murdochii, Brachyspira innocens, "Brachyspira pulli"), and isolates of undetermined species affiliation were included. The laying hens had not been exposed to therapeutic levels of antimicrobials for at least 50 weeks before sampling, and low levels of environmental antimicrobial exposure were presumed in mallards. No isolates with decreased susceptibility to tylosin, valnemulin, tiamulin or doxycycline were found. Decreased susceptibility to lincomycin (minimum inhibitory concentration 16 µg/ml) was detected in two isolates (Brachyspira sp.) from laying hens. Five isolates showed decreased susceptibility to ampicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration 16 to >32 µg/ml), including two "B. pulli" and one B. alvinipulli from laying hens, and isolates of B. pilosicoli and "B. pulli" from mallards. Decreased susceptibility to ampicillin was associated with β-lactamase activity in four isolates. A new variant of a class D β-lactamase gene designated bla (oxa-192) was identified in a B. pilosicoli isolate of mallard origin. This is the first time the genetic basis for antimicrobial resistance is described in Brachyspira spp. from a free-living wild bird. Isolates displaying decreased susceptibility to ampicillin were accompanied by fully susceptible isolates of the same species or other genotypes within three laying hen flocks. This underlines the need for performing antimicrobial susceptibility tests on single clones/genotypes, and to analyse multiple isolates from the same flock.

  8. Effects of maternal care and selection for low mortality on tyrosine hydroxylase concentrations and cell soma size in hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale in adult laying hen.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, R E; Zeinstra, E C; Rodenburg, T B; van der Staay, F J

    2013-01-01

    Feather pecking and cannibalism in farm-kept laying hens are damaging behaviors both in terms of animal welfare and economic loss, and a major challenge in modern poultry farming. Both rearing with a foster hen and genetic selection have been demonstrated to reduce feather pecking in laying hens. We examined the effects of rearing with a foster hen, genetic selection for low mortality from cannibalism, and interactions between both, using cellular morphology and levels of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine production, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) as a potential measure for laying hen welfare. Hens from the second generation of a sib-selection scheme line derived from a pure-bred White Leghorn line, selected for low mortality and for production characteristics, or their control line (CL) selected only for production characteristics, were housed with or without a foster Silky hen for the first 7 wk of life. Aside from the presence or absence of a foster Silky hen during the first 7 wk of life, housing conditions were identical for all hens. The hens were then sacrificed and brains were removed at 52 wk of age. Brains were sectioned and stained using a Nissl staining to reveal cell soma morphology, or using immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxlase. A greater degree of lateralization in the hippocampus was observed in hens reared without a foster hen, as measured by absolute difference in cell soma size between hemispheres (P<0.05). The low mortality line showed decreased concentrations of tyrosine hydroxylase in the NCL compared with the CL (P<0.005). Our results indicate that morphological changes in brain induced in very early life can be detected in adult hens, and that genetic selection against mortality due to cannibalism impacts tyrosine hydroxylase in the NCL of laying hens. These observations strengthen the notion that brain measures may be useful as potential readouts for animal welfare.

  9. When continuous observations just won't do: developing accurate and efficient sampling strategies for the laying hen.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Courtney L; Siegford, Janice M

    2014-03-01

    Continuous observation is the most accurate way to determine animals' actual time budget and can provide a 'gold standard' representation of resource use, behavior frequency, and duration. Continuous observation is useful for capturing behaviors that are of short duration or occur infrequently. However, collecting continuous data is labor intensive and time consuming, making multiple individual or long-term data collection difficult. Six non-cage laying hens were video recorded for 15 h and behavioral data collected every 2 s were compared with data collected using scan sampling intervals of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and subsamples of 2 second observations performed for 10 min every 30 min, 15 min every 1 h, 30 min every 1.5 h, and 15 min every 2 h. Three statistical approaches were used to provide a comprehensive analysis to examine the quality of the data obtained via different sampling methods. General linear mixed models identified how the time budget from the sampling techniques differed from continuous observation. Correlation analysis identified how strongly results from the sampling techniques were associated with those from continuous observation. Regression analysis identified how well the results from the sampling techniques were associated with those from continuous observation, changes in magnitude, and whether a sampling technique had bias. Static behaviors were well represented with scan and time sampling techniques, while dynamic behaviors were best represented with time sampling techniques. Methods for identifying an appropriate sampling strategy based upon the type of behavior of interest are outlined and results for non-caged laying hens are presented.

  10. Effect of feeding hemp seed and hemp seed oil on laying hen performance and egg yolk fatty acid content: evidence of their safety and efficacy for laying hen diets.

    PubMed

    Gakhar, N; Goldberg, E; Jing, M; Gibson, R; House, J D

    2012-03-01

    Forty-eight 19-wk-old Bovan White laying hens were fed 1 of 5 diets containing either hemp seed (HS) or hemp seed oil (HO). The level of HO was 4, 8, or 12%, whereas the level was 10 or 20% for the HS. A set of 8 birds fed wheat-, barley-, and corn oil-based diets served as the control. Performance was monitored over 12 wk. Average hen-day egg production was not affected upon feeding of either HS or HO diets. Egg weight was higher than that of the controls for hens consuming the 20% HS diet (P < 0.05). Feed intake was lower than that of the controls for birds consuming the 4% HO diet but similar across other treatments. Final BW were not affected by diet, with the exception of being lower than that of the controls (P < 0.05) in hens consuming the 12% HO diet. The total egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary α-linolenic acid provision with the HS- or HO-based diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed for docosahexaenoic acid levels in egg yolk in response to increasing dietary α-linolenic acid supply. The expression of hepatic fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2, key genes for the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, was significantly decreased (50-60% of controls; P < 0.05) as a result of feeding HS or HO diets. Based on the results from the current study, the inclusion of the hemp products HS or HO in the diets of laying hens up to a maximum level of 20 and 12%, respectively, does not adversely effect the performance of laying hens and leads to the enrichment of the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs.

  11. Effects of dietary fiber and reduced crude protein on ammonia emission from laying-hen manure.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S A; Xin, H; Kerr, B J; Russell, J R; Bregendahl, K

    2007-08-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) emission is a major concern for the poultry industry. The objective of this research was to determine whether inclusion of dietary fiber and a reduced dietary CP content would decrease NH(3) emission from laying-hen manure. A total of 256 Hy-Line W-36 hens were fed diets with 2 levels of CP (normal and reduced) and 4 fiber treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement. The fiber treatments included a corn and soybean meal-based control diet and diets formulated with either 10.0% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 7.3% wheat middlings (WM), or 4.8% soybean hulls (SH) to contribute equal amounts of additional neutral detergent fiber. The CP contents of the reduced-CP diets were approximately 1 percentage unit lower than those of the normal-CP diets. All diets were formulated on the basis of digestible amino acid content and were formulated to be isoenergetic. Fresh manure was collected such that pH, uric acid, and Kjeldahl N contents could be measured. The NH(3) emission from manure was measured over 7 d by placing pooled 24-h manure samples in NH(3) emission vessels. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with Dunnett's multiple-comparisons procedure to compare results from the fiber treatments with the control, whereas the main effect of protein was used to compare the normal- and reduced-CP treatments. Dietary corn DDGS, WM, or SH lowered (P laying-hen manure; however, reducing the CP content by 1 percentage unit had no measurable effect on NH(3) emission.

  12. The effect of dietary supplementation of salts of organic acid on production performance of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Ravinder; Berwal, Raj Singh; Sihag, Sajjan; Patil, Chandrashekhar Santosh; Lalit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing different levels of salts of organic acid in the laying hen’s diet on their production performance and egg quality parameters during a period of 16-week. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 white leghorn laying hens at 24 weeks of age were randomly distributed to seven dietary treatment groups, i.e. T1 (control), T2 (0.5% sodium-butyrate), T3 (1.0% sodium-butyrate), T4 (1.5% sodium-butyrate), T5 (0.5% calcium-propionate), T6 (1.0% calcium-propionate) and T7 (1.5% calcium-propionate) consisting of 5 replications of 4 birds each in each treatment and housed in individual cages from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Feed intake, percent hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and economics of supplementation of salts of organic acids in layers’ ration were evaluated. Results: The dietary supplementation of salts of organic acids did not significantly affect the feed intake (g/day/hen) and body weight gain (g). Different levels of supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved production performance (percent hen-day egg production and egg mass production) as compared to control group. FCR in terms of feed intake (kg) per dozen eggs was lowest (1.83±0.05) in T4 and feed intake (kg) per kg egg mass was lowest (2.87±0.05) in T5 as comparison to control (T1) group. Salts of organic acids supplementation resulted in significant (p<0.05) improvement in FCR. Egg weight was significantly (p<0.05) increased at 0.5% level of salts of organic acids in the diet. The cumulative mean values of feed cost per dozen egg production were Rs. 44.14, 42.40, 42.85, 43.26, 42.57, 43.29 and 43.56 in treatment groups T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7, respectively, and reduction in feed cost per kg egg mass production for Rs. 0.52 and 0.99 in groups T2 and T5, respectively, in comparison to T1 group. Conclusions: It can be concluded that supplementation of salts of organic acids may

  13. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part II—Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    David, Bruce; Mejdell, Cecilie; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Oppermann Moe, Randi

    2015-01-01

    The EU ban on conventional barren cages for laying hens from 2012 has improved many aspects of laying hen welfare. The new housing systems allow for the expression of highly-motivated behaviors. However, the systems available for intensive large-scale egg production (e.g., aviaries, floor housing systems, furnished cages) may cause other welfare challenges. We have reviewed the literature regarding the health, behavior, production characteristics, and welfare of laying hens when exposed to ammonia in their housing environment. Concentrations of ammonia gas are commonly high in aviaries and floor housing systems in which manure is not regularly removed, whereas they are usually lower in furnished cages. High levels are found during the cold season when ventilation flow is often reduced. Ammonia is a pungent gas, and behavioral studies indicate chickens are averse to the gas. High concentrations of gaseous ammonia can have adverse health effects and, when very high, even influence production performance. The most profound effects seen are the occurrence of lesions in the respiratory tract and keratoconjunctivitis. There is also evidence that high ammonia concentrations predispose poultry to respiratory disease and secondary infections. We conclude that there are animal welfare challenges related to high ammonia levels, and that immediate actions are needed. Development of improved systems and management routines for manure removal and ventilation will be important for the reduction of ammonia levels and hence will contribute to safeguarding hen welfare. PMID:26479391

  14. Characterization of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolates from laying hens and poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) from an outbreak of erysipelas.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Helena; Brännström, Sara; Skarin, Hanna; Chirico, Jan

    2010-12-01

    Infection with the zoonotic bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causes severe disease outbreaks (erysipelas) in poultry flocks. As this bacterium has been isolated from the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), this parasite has been suggested as a possible means of transmission of E. rhusiopathiae on and between poultry farms. To further elucidate the capacity of the mite as a reservoir, we analysed and compared 56 bacterial isolates from laying hens and nine isolates from mites by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), using the restriction enzyme SmaI. The isolates originated from one outbreak in a laying hen flock housed in an indoor litter-based aviary system. Except for two isolates, a homogeneous banding pattern was obtained from all isolates analysed, suggesting that a single strain was the cause of the outbreak. Another finding was that isolates from individual hens could exhibit slightly different PFGE patterns. Mites collected from the same house at the end of the production period of the following flock were negative for the presence of E. rhusiopathiae. An increasing number of erysipelas outbreaks as well as escalating problems with D. gallinae are expected in other European countries related to the forthcoming changes in housing systems for laying hens. Consequently, further studies are needed to investigate the importance of erysipelas in poultry and the importance of D. gallinae in the transmission of E. rhusiopathiae.

  15. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems may have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part II-Ammonia.

    PubMed

    David, Bruce; Mejdell, Cecilie; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Moe, Randi Oppermann

    2015-09-03

    The EU ban on conventional barren cages for laying hens from 2012 has improved many aspects of laying hen welfare. The new housing systems allow for the expression of highly-motivated behaviors. However, the systems available for intensive large-scale egg production (e.g., aviaries, floor housing systems, furnished cages) may cause other welfare challenges. We have reviewed the literature regarding the health, behavior, production characteristics, and welfare of laying hens when exposed to ammonia in their housing environment. Concentrations of ammonia gas are commonly high in aviaries and floor housing systems in which manure is not regularly removed, whereas they are usually lower in furnished cages. High levels are found during the cold season when ventilation flow is often reduced. Ammonia is a pungent gas, and behavioral studies indicate chickens are averse to the gas. High concentrations of gaseous ammonia can have adverse health effects and, when very high, even influence production performance. The most profound effects seen are the occurrence of lesions in the respiratory tract and keratoconjunctivitis. There is also evidence that high ammonia concentrations predispose poultry to respiratory disease and secondary infections. We conclude that there are animal welfare challenges related to high ammonia levels, and that immediate actions are needed. Development of improved systems and management routines for manure removal and ventilation will be important for the reduction of ammonia levels and hence will contribute to safeguarding hen welfare.

  16. Phytase transgenic corn in nutrition of laying hens: residual phytase activity and phytate phosphorus content in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gao, C Q; Ji, C; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Ma, Q G

    2013-11-01

    The residual activities of transgenic corn-derived and 2 commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of laying hens were compared to evaluate their relative resistance to hydrolysis in the GIT when added to P-deficient diets. The treatments consisted of a negative control (NC) diet containing 0.10 nonphytate P and an NC diet supplemented with transgenic corn-derived phytase (TCDP), PA, and PB at 500 to 5,000 FTU/kg of diet, respectively. Seven diets were fed to Hy-Line Brown laying hens (n = 504; 8 replicates of 9 hens per treatment) for 21 d. At the end of the experiment, the hens were killed and digesta samples from the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum were collected and analyzed for residual phytase activities and phytate P content. Phytase activity in the transgenic corn was determined to be 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. The residual phytase activities along the GIT had increased (P < 0.01) with the addition of TCDP, PA, and PB to the NC diets. The TCDP had higher residual activity (P < 0.05) in the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum as compared with the PA and PB activity. There was a decrease (P < 0.01) in the phytate P content of the digesta from all sources of phytase supplementation in the NC diets. Residual phytate P content decreased caudally along the GIT of hens. The results of this research indicate that phytase expressed in corn is as efficacious as the commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) in P-deficient diets for the improvement of phytate P digestibility, which would eliminate the need for supplemental phytase and corn separately in laying hen diets.

  17. Expression of tight junction molecule "claudins" in the lower oviductal segments and their changes with egg-laying phase and gonadal steroid stimulation in hens.

    PubMed

    Ariyadi, Bambang; Isobe, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2013-01-15

    Tight junctions in the mucosal epithelium have essential roles as a mucosal barrier to prevent invasion of microbes into the hen oviduct tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the egg-laying phase and estradiol on the expression of tight junction molecule "claudins" in the lower oviductal segments in hens. White Leghorn laying and molting hens were used. Molting hens were given either sesame oil (vehicle) or estradiol benzoate (N = 5 per group) via injection. The lower segments of oviduct (isthmus, uterus, and vagina) of these birds were collected. Gene expression of claudin-1, -3, -5, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα factor (LITAF), and IFN(γ) was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and localization of claudin-1 was examined by immunohistochemistry. Permeability in the mucosal epithelium was assessed by intrauterine injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran. Expression of claudin-1, -3, and -5 genes and density of claudin-1 protein in the lower oviductal segments were higher in laying hens than in molting hens (P < 0.01); their expression was upregulated by estradiol (P < 0.01). Expression of LITAF and IFN(γ) genes was higher in molting hens than in laying hens. More fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran infiltrated into the intercellular space of the uterus mucosal epithelium in molting hens than in laying hens and estradiol-treated molting hens. In conclusion, we inferred that barrier functions of the mucosal epithelium in the lower oviductal segments might be disrupted because of reduced claudin expression in molting hens, which might increase the susceptibility of mucosal tissue during the molting phase.

  18. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting.

  19. Effect of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of various levels of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and the expression patterns of phosphorus metabolism related genes in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens. A total of 405 28-week-old Dwarf pink-shell laying hens were fed the same corn-soybean basal meals but containing 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35% or 0.40% nonphytate phosphorus. The results showed that feed intake, egg production, and average egg weights were quadratically correlated with dietary nonphytate phosphorus content (P < 0.05), and the highest egg production, feed intake and average egg weights were achieved when dietary nonphytate phosphorus was at 0.3% (P < 0.05). mRNA expression of intestinal sodium phosphorus co-transporter linearly decreased when dietary nonphytate phosphorus increased. mRNA and protein expression of intestinal calbindin and vitamin D receptor correlated quadratically with dietary nonphytate phosphorus, and the highest expression was found when dietary available phosphorus was at 0.25% to 0.3%. In conclusion, the ideal phosphorus requirement for Dwarf pink-shell layer hens is estimated to be 0.3% in a corn-soybean diet. With this level of phosphorus supplementation, calbindin and vitamin D receptor reached their highest expression. PMID:24028402

  20. Effect of Vanadium and Tea Polyphenols on Intestinal Morphology, Microflora and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Profile of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z H; Wang, J P; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Xuan, Y; Su, Z W

    2016-12-01

    Vanadium (V) is a trace element which can induce dysfunction of gastro-intestine and egg quality deterioration of laying hens. This study was conducted to determine the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) on intestinal morphology, microflora, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile of laying hens fed vanadium containing diets. A total of 120 Lohman laying hens (67-week-old) were randomly divided into 4 groups with 6 replicates and 5 birds each for a 35-day feeding trial. The dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control (CON), fed a basal diet; (2) vanadium treatment (V10), CON +10 mg V/kg; (3) TP treatment 1 (TP1): V10 + 600 mg TP/kg; (4) TP treatment 2 (TP2): V10 + 1000 mg TP/kg. Fed 10 mg V/kg diets to laying hens did not affect the cecum flora diversity index (H), degree of homogeneity (EH), and richness (S), but hens fed TP2 diet decreased the H, EH, and S (P < 0.05). The cecum butyrate acid concentration was lower in V10 treatment and higher in TP2 treatment (P < 0.05). Addition of 10 mg/kg V resulted in an increased (P < 0.01) duodenal cell apoptosis rate, and 1000 mg/kg TP supplementation overcame (P < 0.01) this reduction effect induced by vanadium. The results indicated that supplementation of 10 mg/kg vanadium increased duodenal cell apoptosis and reduced cecum butyrate acid content. Addition of 1000 mg/kg TP increased the SCFA production to affect cecum flora ecology and protected the duodenal cell from excess apoptosis caused by vanadium.

  1. Detection of Transgenic and Endogenous Plant DNA Fragments and Proteins in the Digesta, Blood, Tissues, and Eggs of Laying Hens Fed with Phytase Transgenic Corn

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianyun; Zhao, Lihong; Hao, Wenbo; Ji, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The trials were conducted to assess the effects of long-term feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) to hens on laying performance and egg quality, and investigate the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in digesta, blood, tissues, and eggs. Fifty-week old laying hens (n = 144) were fed with a diet containing 62.4% PTC or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for 16 weeks. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on laying performance or egg quality (P>0.05) except on yolk color (P<0.05). Transgenic phyA2 gene and protein were rapidly degraded in the digestive tract and were not detected in blood, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, breast muscle, and eggs of laying hens fed with diet containing PTC. It was concluded that performance of hens fed diets containing PTC, as measured by egg production and egg quality, was similar to that of hens fed diets formulated with CC. There was no evidence of phyA2 gene or protein translocation to the blood, tissues, and eggs of laying hens. PMID:23577200

  2. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA fragments and proteins in the digesta, blood, tissues, and eggs of laying hens fed with phytase transgenic corn.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiugang; Gao, Chunqi; Zhang, Jianyun; Zhao, Lihong; Hao, Wenbo; Ji, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The trials were conducted to assess the effects of long-term feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) to hens on laying performance and egg quality, and investigate the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in digesta, blood, tissues, and eggs. Fifty-week old laying hens (n = 144) were fed with a diet containing 62.4% PTC or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for 16 weeks. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on laying performance or egg quality (P>0.05) except on yolk color (P<0.05). Transgenic phyA2 gene and protein were rapidly degraded in the digestive tract and were not detected in blood, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, breast muscle, and eggs of laying hens fed with diet containing PTC. It was concluded that performance of hens fed diets containing PTC, as measured by egg production and egg quality, was similar to that of hens fed diets formulated with CC. There was no evidence of phyA2 gene or protein translocation to the blood, tissues, and eggs of laying hens.

  3. Design of nest access grids and perches in front of the nests: Influence on the behavior of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stämpfli, K; Buchwalder, T; Fröhlich, E K F; Roth, B A

    2013-04-01

    In aviary systems for laying hens, it is important to provide suitable nest access platforms in front of the nests, allowing hens to reach and explore each of the nests easily. This access platform is needed to achieve good nest acceptance by the hens and thereby prevent mislaid eggs. In the present experiment, the behavior of hens using 2 different nest access platforms, a plastic grid and 2 wooden perches, was examined. Furthermore, the nests were placed on both sides of the aviary rack (corridor side and outdoor side), either integrated into the aviary rack itself (integrated nest; IN) or placed on the walls of the pens (wall nest; WN), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial design Four thousand five hundred white laying hens were housed in 20 test pens. The eggs in the nests and mislaid eggs were collected daily, and the behavior of hens on the nest accesses was filmed during wk 25 and 26, using focal observation and scan sampling methods. More balancing, body contact, and agonistic interactions were expected for nests with perches, whereas more walking and nest inspections were expected for nests with grids. There were more mislaid eggs and balancing found in pens equipped with nests with wooden perches. More agonistic interactions and balancing, less standing, and a longer duration of nest inspection were found with the WN compared with the IN. Interactions between platform design and position of the nests were found for duration of nest visits, body contact, and walking, with the highest amount for WN equipped with plastic grids. Nests on the corridor side were favored by the hens. Nest-related behaviors, such as nest inspection, standing, and walking, decreased over time as did the number of hens on the nest accesses, whereas sitting increased. These results indicate that the hens had more difficulties in gripping the perches as designed. The lower number of hens on the nest access platforms in front of IN may be due to a better distribution around nests and tier

  4. Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Gourichon, David; Huang, Nein-Zu; Lee, Yen-Pai; Bordas, André; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle

    2009-01-16

    This study compares laying performances between two environments of dwarf laying hen lines segregating for the naked neck mutation (NA locus), a selected dwarf line of brown-egg layers and its control line. Layers with one of the three genotypes at the NA locus were produced from 11 sires from the control line and 12 sires from the selected line. Two hatches produced 216 adult hens in Taiwan and 297 hens in France. Genetic parameters for laying traits were estimated in each environment and the ranking of sire breeding values was compared between environments. Laying performance was lower, and mortality was higher in Taiwan than in France. The line by environment interaction was highly significant for body weight at 16 weeks, clutch length and egg number, with or without Box-Cox transformation. The selected line was more sensitive to environmental change but in Taiwan it could maintain a higher egg number than the control line. Estimated heritability values in the selected line were higher in France than in Taiwan, but not for all the traits in the control line. The rank correlations between sire breeding values were low within the selected line and slightly higher in the control line. A few sire families showed a good ranking in both environments, suggesting that some families may adapt better to environmental change.

  5. Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study compares laying performances between two environments of dwarf laying hen lines segregating for the naked neck mutation (NA locus), a selected dwarf line of brown-egg layers and its control line. Layers with one of the three genotypes at the NA locus were produced from 11 sires from the control line and 12 sires from the selected line. Two hatches produced 216 adult hens in Taiwan and 297 hens in France. Genetic parameters for laying traits were estimated in each environment and the ranking of sire breeding values was compared between environments. Laying performance was lower, and mortality was higher in Taiwan than in France. The line by environment interaction was highly significant for body weight at 16 weeks, clutch length and egg number, with or without Box-Cox transformation. The selected line was more sensitive to environmental change but in Taiwan it could maintain a higher egg number than the control line. Estimated heritability values in the selected line were higher in France than in Taiwan, but not for all the traits in the control line. The rank correlations between sire breeding values were low within the selected line and slightly higher in the control line. A few sire families showed a good ranking in both environments, suggesting that some families may adapt better to environmental change. PMID:19284708

  6. An Optimal Dietary Zinc Level of Brown-Egg Laying Hens Fed a Corn-Soybean Meal Diet.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shizhen; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Xichun; Liao, Xiudong; Zhang, Liyang; Guo, Yanli; Luo, Xugang

    2016-11-19

    An experiment was conducted to estimate the optimal dietary zinc (Zn) level of brown-egg laying hens fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 20 to 40 weeks of age. A total of 120 20-week-old Beijing Red commercial laying hens were randomly allotted by bodyweight to one of five treatments with six replicates of four birds each in a completely randomized design, and fed a Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 27.95 mg Zn/kg by analysis and the basal diets supplemented with 30, 60, 90, or 120 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate (reagent grade ZnSO4·7H2O) for a duration of 20 weeks. Laying performance, egg quality, tissue Zn concentrations, and activities of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and liver copper-Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) were measured. Regression analyses were performed to estimate an optimal dietary Zn level whenever a significant quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed. Tibia Zn concentration (P = 0.002) and serum AKP activity (P = 0.010) showed significant quadratic responses to dietary supplemental Zn levels. The estimates of dietary Zn requirements for brown-egg laying hens from 20 to 40 weeks of age were 71.95 and 64.63 mg/kg for tibia Zn concentration and serum AKP activity, respectively. The results from this study indicate that the tibia Zn might be a more suitable and reliable parameter for Zn requirement estimation, and the optimal dietary Zn level would be about 72 mg/kg for brown-egg laying hens fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 20 to 40 weeks of age.

  7. Survey of the prevalence of Salmonella species on laying hen farms in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hulaj, B; Çabeli, P; Goga, I; Taylor, N; Hess, C; Hess, M L

    2016-09-01

    A survey on the prevalence of Salmonella (S) species was carried out on 39 layer farms in Kosovo between April and September 2012. In total 367 samples, comprising feces, dust, eggs, and internal organs from dead birds, were investigated using bacteriological culture methods. Additionally, data on the location of the farm, the total number of birds on the farm, age of birds, and laying performance were collected. Salmonella were isolated from 38 samples obtained from 19 (49%) farms. The most common serovar identified was Salmonella enteritidis, found on 18 farms. The most common S. enteritidis phage type was PT29 followed by PT6, PT7, PT21, PT13a, PT8, PT14b, and PT4. One S. enteritidis isolate was not typable. Six farms had more than one phage type. Furthermore, serovar S. Bovismorbificans also was found in samples from 3 farms. Flock size or production stage was not associated with the probability of isolating Salmonella. The only flock factor found to be significantly associated was percent hen/day production: It was 2.8 times more likely to isolate Salmonella from flocks with production above 80% hen/day production compared to flocks producing at a lower level. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance patterns of 30 isolates revealed that all isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole trimethoprim, and oxytetracycline, and 29 (97%) were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. All isolates showed intermediate resistance or were resistant to minocycline and cloxacillin. Twenty-six isolates (86%) had intermediate resistance to amoxicillin and 27 isolates (90%) were fully resistant to streptomycin. The present survey revealed a high prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis in layer flocks in Kosovo, indicating that table eggs have to be suspected as an important source of human salmone-llosis.

  8. Comparison of zinc acetate and propionate addition on gastrointestinal tract fermentation and susceptibility of laying hens to Salmonella enteritidis during forced molt.

    PubMed

    Moore, R W; Park, S Y; Kubena, L F; Byrd, J A; McReynolds, J L; Burnham, M R; Hume, M E; Birkhold, S G; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2004-08-01

    Feed deprivation is the most common method used to induce molting and stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles in laying hens for commercial egg production. Unfortunately, an increased risk of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) colonization may result from the use of this method. Methods to stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles without increasing the risk of SE are needed. In each of 3 experiments, hens over 50 wk of age were divided into groups of 12 and placed in individual laying cages. One week before dietary changes, hens were put on an 8L:16D photoperiod that continued for the 9-d experimental period. Hens in all treatments were challenged orally with 10(4) cfu of SE on the fourth day. Treatments were full fed hens (nonmolted, NM), nonfed hens (molted, M), a zinc acetate diet (ZAC), and a zinc propionate diet (ZPR). The zinc diets contained 10,000 mg of zinc per kilogram of diet. Body weight losses were significantly higher in the M, ZPR, and ZAC treatments than in the NM treatment. Crop lactic acid decreased more in M, ZPR, and ZAC treatments than in NM hens in trial 2. Crop pH was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in NM hens than in M, ZAC, and ZPR hens in trial 2. Although cecal individual or total volatile fatty acids (VFA), and lactic acid were not significantly (P > 0.05) different between NM hens and M, ZAC and ZPR hens in trial 1, lactic acid was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in NM hens than in M, ZAC and ZPR hens (trial 2), and cecal total VFA were lower in M hens than in NM, ZAC and ZPR hens (trial 3). Colonization of SE in the crop and ceca was higher in the M and ZPR hens (trials 1 and 2). Liver, spleen, or ovary invasion by SE was higher in the M and ZPR hens (trials 1 and 2) than in NM hens. At the zinc concentration used in these studies, the zinc dietary regimens may be effective for reducing the risk of SE during induced molt.

  9. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide in laying hens stimulates antimicrobial properties of egg white against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Bedrani, Larbi; Helloin, Emmanuelle; Guyot, Nicolas; Nys, Yves

    2013-04-15

    The natural protective system of eggs relies on egg yolk immunoglobulins and on antimicrobial proteins/peptides mainly concentrated in the egg white. There is much evidence concerning the specific stimulation of immunoglobulins by antigens but to date, the influence of the hen milieu on the regulation of the egg innate molecular immunity has not been established. To explore the hypothesis of modulation in egg antimicrobial molecules, laying hens were immune-challenged with intravenous injections of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 24 h intervals. Eggs of the control and LPS groups were collected over a period of 21 days following the first LPS injection and the egg white activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were assessed. The increase in egg white anti-S. aureus activity reached 20.9% and 23.4% (p<0.05) respectively on days 5 and 6 after the first LPS injection. Anti-E. coli activity increased moderately only on days 9 and 15 after the LPS treatment. To explore the origin of these increased antimicrobial activities, we analyzed the lysozyme and proteases inhibiting (anti-trypsin and anti-chymotrypsin) activities and the pH variations of egg whites. We recorded no significant variations between the two experimental groups for these potential modulating factors. Finally, using RT-qPCR we studied the expression of several genes coding for antimicrobial proteins and peptides involved in the immune response in the infundibulum and the magnum, Out of the 11 genes, only TLR4 in the magnum and ovocalyxin-36 in infundibulum were over-expressed respectively 24h and 8 days after the first LPS injection. The other candidate genes showed similar or down regulated expression in the LPS group as compared to the control especially during the first 24h. Our results suggest that the hen enhances the albumen antimicrobial activity of its eggs when exposed to immune stimulations or infections. This could be an attempt to preventively

  10. Effect of crude glycerin level in the diet of laying hens on egg performance and nutrient utilization.

    PubMed

    Swiatkiewicz, S; Koreleski, J

    2009-03-01

    An experiment was conducted with 72 Bovans Brown laying hens to determine the effect of dietary crude glycerin on laying performance; egg quality; retention of N, Ca, and P; and metabolizability of energy. The dietary treatments consisted of a control corn-soybean diet containing 6% corn starch (17% CP, 2,775 kcal/kg of AME(n), 0.81% lysine, 0.36% methionine, 3.60% Ca, and 0.37% available P) and 3 experimental diets. In the experimental diets, 2, 4, or 6% crude glycerin (a coproduct of commercial biodiesel production from rapeseed) was substituted for corn starch. During the experimental period (28 to 53 wk of hen age), the dietary level of glycerin had no significant effects on performance indices [i.e., egg production (mean value of all 4 dietary treatments was 95.6%), egg weight (60.4 g), daily egg mass (57.8 g/hen), daily feed consumption (121 g/hen), and feed conversion (0.477 g of egg mass/g of feed consumed)]. No significant treatment effects were found for egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh units, yolk color and thickness, density and breaking strength of eggshell), excretion and retention of N, Ca and P, or metabolizability of energy. Linear regression analysis revealed that the AME(n) value of crude glycerol was 3,970 kcal/kg (as-is basis). The results of this study demonstrated that crude glycerin may be incorporated to a level of 6% in the diet of laying hens without any detrimental effect on egg performance, egg quality, nutrient retention, and metabolizability of energy.

  11. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid affects blood parameters, liver morphology and expression of selected hepatic genes in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Koronowicz, A A; Banks, P; Szymczyk, B; Leszczyńska, T; Master, A; Piasna, E; Szczepański, W; Domagała, D; Kopeć, A; Piątkowska, E; Laidler, P

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research were to investigate the effect of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched diet on Isa Brown laying hen health status and to provide a comprehensive analysis of changes in blood parameters, liver morphology and selected hepatic gene expression. Hens were allocated to the control and experimental group (diet enriched with 0.75% CLA) for a total period of 4 m. At the end of the experiment half of the hens from each group were slaughtered for analyses. The remaining hens were transferred to an organic farm for the next 5 m and fed on the diet without CLA supplementation. The CLA-enriched diet resulted in significant changes in blood and serum parameters; specifically, haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and white blood cells (WBC) count were decreased compared to the control. The total cholesterol (TC) was not significantly affected while the triacylglycerol's (TG) concentration was elevated. The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was significantly increased in the CLA-supplemented group, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed an increasing tendency. Liver biopsies showed pathological changes classified as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Additionally, the expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acids synthesis (ME1, ACLY, ACC, FASN, SCD1), oxidation (CPT1α, PPARA), detoxification processes (Cytochrome P450, CYP, Flavin-containing monooxygenase, FMO3), oxidative stress (NOX4, XbP1) and inflammation (IL6, TNFα) were elevated. Cessation of CLA supplementation for 5 m of organic farming resulted in normalisation of blood and hepatic parameters to the levels observed in control hens. The results of this study indicate that dietary CLA triggers an integrated stress response in laying hens and activates mechanisms involved in liver detoxification.

  12. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  13. Effects of copper source on phosphorus retention in broiler chicks and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Banks, K M; Thompson, K L; Rush, J K; Applegate, T J

    2004-06-01

    Copper sulfate is often added to broiler and laying hen diets at prophylactic dosages due to its antimicrobial and growth promoting effects despite reduced P digestibility, whereas P use from other Cu sources is unknown. Therefore, male broiler chicks were fed diets containing 0 or 250 ppm Cu from Cu sulfate (Cu SUL), Cu citrate (Cu CIT), Cu lysinate (Cu LYS), or CuCl from 9 to 22 d of age (8 cages/diet, 6 birds/cage) to determine the effect of each Cu source on performance characteristics, bone mineralization, and P retention. Body weight gain was not different among treatments (P > 0.05). Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu from Cu LYS resulted in chicks having greater toe and tibia ash weights as compared with chicks fed Cu SUL (P < or = 0.05) but was not significantly different from those of birds fed Cu CL, Cu CIT, and 0 ppm Cu diets. Supplementation with Cu LYS resulted in birds with greater toe ash percentage as compared with birds fed Cu CIT, Cu SUL, and the 0 ppm Cu diets (P < or = 0.05) but was not significantly different than those of birds fed the CuCl diet. Birds fed the Cu LYS diet had greater tibia ash percentage as compared with birds fed Cu SUL and 0 ppm Cu diets (P < or = 0.05) but were not significantly different than birds fed the Cu CL or Cu CIT diet. Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu SUL or Cu CIT reduced apparent P retention by 0.029 and 0.053 percentage-units of the diet, respectively (P < or = 0.05) as compared with the 0 ppm diet; whereas the apparent P retention when 250 ppm Cu LYS or Cu CL was fed was not different from the 0 ppm Cu diet (P > 0.05). Feeding of different Cu sources in a subsequent experiment had no influence on P retention in laying hens (P > 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation with 250 ppm Cu from Cu CIT or Cu SUL resulted in decreased apparent P retention. Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu CL or Cu LYS, however, improved apparent P retentions as compared with Cu CIT or Cu SUL.

  14. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  15. Use of radiography to identify keel bone fractures in laying hens and assess healing in live birds.

    PubMed

    Richards, G J; Nasr, M A; Brown, S N; Szamocki, E M G; Murrell, J; Barr, F; Wilkins, L J

    2011-09-10

    The aim of this study was to use radiography to assess and characterise naturally occurring keel bone fractures in laying hens and monitor live birds over several weeks to examine the healing process. Twenty-four Lohmann brown commercial laying hens with varying degrees of keel bone fracture were used in the study. Birds were radiographed regularly over six weeks and the radiographic features and changing appearance of keel bone fractures were evaluated. The radiographic characteristics of old and new fractures were categorised and indicated that 80 per cent of birds entering the study with new fractures had healed after 35 days and five birds had incurred new fractures irrespective of their original fracture status.

  16. Residues of stirofos (rabon) in eggs of laying hens treated for northern fowl mite control by dipping.

    PubMed

    Ivey, M C; Devaney, J A; Ivie, G W; Beerwinkle, K R

    1982-03-01

    Laying hens were treated with a wettable powder formulation of stirofos [Rabon, 2-chloro-1-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) vinyl dimethylphosphate] by dipping in a .5 or 1.0% actual ingredient (AI) water suspension of a 50% wettable powder (WP) stirfos formulation. Stirofos residues were detected in eggs within 1 day after treatment and reached maximum levels 3 days after dipping (.021 and .035 ppm in the low- and high-dose birds, respectively). After that time, levels of residues in eggs declined rapidly and no sample contained detectable quantities (less than .004 ppm) of stirofos after 21 days. Dipping may be a practical control method for the northern fowl mite on chickens, because stirofos dips effectively control this mite on laying hens for at least 6 weeks and because resulting residues in eggs are well below established tolerances.

  17. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in groups of experimentally infected laying hens housed in different housing systems.

    PubMed

    De Vylder, J; Dewulf, J; Van Hoorebeke, S; Pasmans, F; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2011-07-01

    Concerns regarding the welfare of laying hens have led to the ban of conventional battery cages in Europe from 2012 onward and to the development of alternative housing systems that allow hens to perform a broader range of natural behaviors. Limited information is available about the consequences of alternative housing systems on transmission of zoonotic pathogens such as Salmonella Enteritidis. However, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis continues to be one of the leading causes of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide and this is mainly attributed to the consumption of contaminated eggs. A transmission experiment was performed to quantify the effect of the housing system on the spread of a Salmonella Enteritidis infection within a group of layers and on internal egg contamination. At the age of 16 wk, 126 birds housed on the floor were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis. Three weeks later, the inoculated hens were housed together with equal numbers of susceptible contact animals in 4 different housing systems: a conventional cage system, a furnished cage, an aviary, and a floor system. Transmission and egg contamination were followed during a 4-wk period. A trend toward increased bird-to-bird transmission was detected in the aviary and floor system compared with the cage systems. Also, significantly more contaminated eggs were found in the aviary compared with the cage systems and the floor system. These results suggest that there is a clear need to optimize and maintain Salmonella surveillance programs when laying hens will be moved from conventional cage systems to alternative housing systems.

  18. Influence of genetic strain and access to litter on spatial distribution of 4 strains of laying hens in an aviary system.

    PubMed

    Ali, A B A; Campbell, D L M; Karcher, D M; Siegford, J M

    2016-11-01

    Many laying hen producers are transitioning from conventional cages to new housing systems including multi-tier aviaries. Aviary resources, such as litter areas, are intended to encourage hens' expression of natural behaviors to improve their welfare. Little research has examined the influence of laying hen strain on distribution and behavior inside aviaries, yet differences could influence a strain's suitability for an aviary design. This research examined how laying hens of 4 strains (Hy-Line Brown [HB], Bovans Brown [BB], DeKalb White [DW], and Hy-Line W36) distributed themselves among 3 enclosed aviary tiers and 2 litter areas at peak lay (25 to 28 wk of age) and after gaining access to litter on the floor (26 wk). Observations of hens' spatial distribution were conducted immediately before and after, and 3 wk after hens gained access to litter. More HB and BB hens were in upper tiers in morning compared to DW and W36 (all P ≤ 0.05). However, DW and W36 hens roosted in upper tiers in larger numbers than HB and BB during evening (all P ≤ 0.05). More DW and W36 hens were on litter compared to BB and HB, particularly when litter was first accessible (all P ≤ 0.05). The number of hens on litter increased over time for all strains (P ≤ 0.06). White hens on litter occupied open areas in higher numbers (P ≤ 0.05), while more brown hens occupied litter under the aviary after acclimation (P ≤ 0.05). In the dark period, W36 and DW hens were present in higher numbers in upper tiers than HB and BB, while HB and BB showed higher tier-to-tier movement than DW and W36 (P ≤ 0.05). In general, more white hens roosted higher at night and explored litter sooner, while more brown hens were near or in nests in the morning and moved at night. Distinct strain differences indicate that attention should be paid to the match between configuration of the aviary design and strain of laying hen.

  19. [Control of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877) (Acari: Macronyssidae) infestation in commercial laying hens by using Azadirachta indica extract].

    PubMed

    Soares, Nilce M; Tucci, Edna C; Guastalli, Elizabeth A L; Yajima, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a neem extract-based product to control O. sylviarum infestations in commercial laying hens. The birds were divided in 3 groups, which received 2, 3, or 4 applications of the product at 7 day intervals. The results obtained allow the conclusion that the neem extract at 2% is effective to control infestations by O. sylviarum, and at least 3 sprays of the product are required weekly for an effective control of the parasite.

  20. Susceptibility of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli from laying hens in Belgium to antibiotics and disinfectants and integron prevalence.

    PubMed

    Oosterik, Leon H; Peeters, Laura; Mutuku, Irene; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Butaye, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes huge annual losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Multiresistance against antibiotics of APEC strains is increasingly seen in broilers, although much is still unknown about strains from laying hens where use of antibiotics is limited. Disinfection can reduce the infection burden. However, little is known about the presence of resistance against these products. Ninety-seven APEC strains were isolated from Belgian laying hens. The resistance to different classes of antibiotics was determined as well as the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC; agar and broth dilution) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of five disinfectants most often used in the poultry industry (formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, glyoxal, hydrogen peroxide, and a quaternary ammonium compound). The presence of integrons was determined by PCR Resistance to ampicillin (35.1%), nalidixic acid (38.1%), sulfonamides (SULFA, 41.2%), and tetracycline (TET, 53.6%) was high but resistance to other tested antibiotics was low. Nevertheless, two extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers were found. The MIC of the disinfectants for the APEC strains showed a Gaussian distribution, indicating that there was no acquired resistance. MBCs were similar to MICs via the broth dilution method, showing the bactericidal effect of the disinfectants. Twenty-one strains (21.6%) were found positive for class 1 integrons and a positive association between integron presence and resistance to trimethoprim, SULFA, and TET was found. No association could be found between integron presence and phylogenetic group affiliation. Susceptibility of APEC strains from laying hens to antibiotics is, in general, very high. Phenotypic resistance to commonly used disinfectants could not be found, indicating that the current use of disinfectants in the laying hen industry did not select for resistance.

  1. Biofortified orange maize enhances β-cryptoxanthin concentrations in egg yolks of laying hens better than tangerine peel fortificant.

    PubMed

    Heying, Emily K; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; Vasic, Vedran; Cook, Mark; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-12-10

    The xanthophyll β-cryptoxanthin provides vitamin A and has other purported health benefits. Laying hens deposit xanthophyll carotenoids into egg yolk. Hens (n = 8/group) were fed conventional-bred high β-cryptoxanthin biofortified (orange) maize, tangerine peel-fortified white maize, lutein-fortified yellow maize, or white maize for 40 d to investigate yolk color changes using L*a*b* scales, yolk carotenoid enhancement, and hen vitamin A status. Yolks from hens fed orange maize had scores indicating a darker, orange color and mean higher β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene concentrations (8.43 ± 1.82, 23.1 ± 4.8, 0.16 ± 0.08 nmol/g, respectively) than other treatments (P < 0.0001). Yolk retinol concentrations (mean: 14.4 ± 3.42 nmol/g) were similar among groups and decreased with time (P < 0.0001). Hens fed orange maize had higher liver retinol (0.53 ± 0.20 μmol/g liver) than other groups (P < 0.0001). β-Cryptoxanthin-biofortified eggs could be another choice for consumers, providing enhanced color through a provitamin A carotenoid and supporting eggs' status as a functional food.

  2. Manipulation of the phenotypic appearance of individuals in groups of laying hens: effects on stress and immune-related variables.

    PubMed

    Nazar, F N; Marin, R H; Liste, G; Campderrich, I; Estevez, I

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether phenotypic appearance (PA) alteration during two developmental phases in laying hens, reared in two different group sizes, affects stress and immune responses. After hatching, 750 chicks were randomly assigned to 30 pens at a group size of either 10 or 40 birds. Then, the appearance of 0, 30, 50, 70 or 100% of the chicks in each pen was altered by blackdyeing their head feathers (marked); remaining chicks were unmarked. At 32 weeks, basal and postacute stress plasma corticosterone concentration, leukocyte counts, phytohemagglutinin-p lymphoproliferative and primary antibody responses were measured in six birds/pen. Analysis of variances (ANOVAs) showed no differences among treatment combinations. In a second phase, birds within initially homogeneous pens were sequentially either marked or had dye bleached to alter PA of 70% of hens in each flock (= group in a pen). Hens within initially heterogeneous pens remained unaltered as controls. The above variables were remeasured. Hens in phenotypically manipulated pens showed modified leukocyte counts compared to hens in control pens, indicating a chronic stress reaction in all penmates (whether individual PA was altered or not). Social isolation increased plasma corticosterone concentration. However, within groups of n = 40, phenotypically unaltered hens had lower responses than their altered penmate counterparts, suggesting that remaining in a stable PA group aids better coping with challenges. Although all hens in manipulated pens showed modified leukocyte counts, their antibody and lymphoproliferative responses did not differ from controls suggesting that all groupmates were able to immunologically cope with the challenges presented, within the timeframe evaluated.

  3. Changes in substrate access did not affect early feather-pecking behavior in two strains of laying hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Laura M; Duncan, Ian J H

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking, commonly found in flocks of laying hens (Gallus gallus), is detrimental to bird welfare. Thought to cause this problem is the normal housing of layers without a floor substrate. Some evidence suggests that early substrate access decreases later feather pecking. However, there has been little research on the immediate effects of a change in substrate availability on bird welfare, although environmental modifications like this are often done when brooding and rearing laying hen chicks. To investigate this, the behavior of two strains of laying hen chicks was recorded for 4 weeks. The study kept the birds on either wire or peat moss for 14 days and then switched half the chicks to the other flooring. Early feather pecking was not significantly different for birds started on peat moss and switched to wire than for birds only on wire (p > .05). Because moving chicks from peat moss to wire did not cause additional welfare problems, the study recommends that chicks be kept on a substrate when young as feather-pecking levels are lower and immediate welfare is improved compared with birds kept only on wire.

  4. A review on development of novel strategies for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in laying hens: fiber-based molt diets.

    PubMed

    Ricke, S C; Dunkley, C S; Durant, J A

    2013-02-01

    Limiting Salmonella Enteritidis from table eggs can involve intervention approaches at several levels of the production cycle, beginning at the hatchery and ending at the processing or table egg production facilities. Likewise, interventions that limit Salmonella Enteritidis dissemination can be implemented at various stages during the life cycle of infection of Salmonella in the laying hen. However, achieving complete elimination of Salmonella infestation in egg products has remained elusive. There is a multitude of reasons for this, including adaptability of the organism, virulence properties, and persistence. Likewise, environmental factors in the layer house such as transmission routes, reservoirs, and feed sources can influence the exposure of susceptible laying hens to Salmonella Enteritidis. Consequently, successful applications of control measures depend not only on the timing of when they are applied but also on effective surveillance to detect frequency and level of infection of Salmonella. Several studies demonstrated that molt induction by feed withdrawal altered the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract of hens, making them susceptible to Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. To alleviate this, the development of alternative methods to induce a molt became necessary. The use of several fiber-containing diets was shown to effectively induce a molt with alfalfa-based diets being the most extensively studied. Further reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis levels in eggs will probably require application of multiple interventions at several steps during egg production and processing as well as a better understanding of the mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to persist in laying flocks.

  5. Salmonella Gallinarum field isolates from laying hens are related to the vaccine strain SG9R.

    PubMed

    Van Immerseel, F; Studholme, D J; Eeckhaut, V; Heyndrickx, M; Dewulf, J; Dewaele, I; Van Hoorebeke, S; Haesebrouck, F; Van Meirhaeghe, H; Ducatelle, R; Paszkiewicz, K; Titball, R W

    2013-10-09

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Gallinarum can cause severe systemic disease in chickens and a live Salmonella Gallinarum 9R vaccine (SG9R) has been used widely to control disease. Using whole-genome sequencing we found point mutations in the pyruvate dehydrogenase (aceE) and/or lipopolysaccharide 1,2-glucosyltransferase (rfaJ) genes that likely explain the attenuation of the SG9R vaccine strain. Molecular typing using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multiple-Locus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis showed that strains isolated from different layer flocks in multiple countries and the SG9R vaccine strain were similar. The genome of one Salmonella Gallinarum field strain, isolated from a flock with a mortality peak and selected on the basis of identical PFGE and MLVA patterns with SG9R, was sequenced. We found 9 non-silent single-nucleotide differences distinguishing the field strain from the SG9R vaccine strain. Our data show that a Salmonella Gallinarum field strain isolated from laying hens is almost identical to the SG9R vaccine. Mutations in the aceE and rfaJ genes could explain the reversion to a more virulent phenotype. Our results highlight the importance of using well defined gene deletion mutants as vaccines.

  6. The development of seasonal emission factors from a Canadian commercial laying hen facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Robert J.; Wood, David J.; Van Heyst, Bill J.

    2014-04-01

    Pollutants emitted from poultry housing facilities are a concern from a human health, bird welfare, and environmental perspective. Development of emission factors for these aerial pollutants is difficult due to variable climatic conditions, the number and type of poultry, and the wide range of management practices used. To address these concerns, a study was conducted to develop emission factors for ammonia and particulate matter over a period of one year from a commercial poultry laying hen facility in Wellington County, Ontario, Canada. Instruments housed inside an on-site mobile trailer were used to monitor in-house concentrations of ammonia and size fractionated particulate matter via a heated sample line. Along with a ventilation profile, emission factors were developed for the facility. Average emissions of 19.53 ± 19.97, 2.55 ± 2.10, and 1.10 ± 1.52 g day-1 AU-1 (where AU is defined as an animal unit equivalent to 500 kg live mass) for ammonia, PM10, PM2.5, respectively, were observed. All emissions peaked during the winter months, with the exception of PM2.5 which increased in the summer.

  7. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Cheng, H W; Cui, L Y; Zhou, Z L; Hou, J F

    2013-06-01

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are linked disorders in humans. This study examined the hypothesis that excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. A total of one hundred 63-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 2 treatments and fed either a regular layer diet (control) or a high energy and low protein diet (HE-LP; experimental treatment) for 80 d. Egg production, feed intake, and BW were recorded at various days during the treatment. At d 80, ten randomly chosen birds per treatment group were killed. Abdominal fat weight, liver weight, and liver fat content were determined. Serum levels of total calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were measured using a biochemical analyzer. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tibia length and width were measured using a vernier caliper; density of the right tibias was determined using an x-ray scanner; and mechanical properties of the left tibias were analyzed using a material testing machine. The expression of osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin mRNA in the keel bone was analyzed by real-time PCR. The concentration of osteocalcin protein in the keels was measured using western blot. Compared with control hens, hens fed the HE-LP diet had lower egg production, lower feed intake, greater liver fat content, and greater abdominal fat pad mass (P < 0.05). Feeding the HE-LP diet increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen concentrations (P < 0.05), and decreased the keel osteocalcin concentrations (P < 0.05). There were significant positive correlations between the serum concentrations of leptin-like protein, estrogen, and osteocalcin regardless of treatment (P < 0.05). The results indicated that HE-LP diet induced a fatty liver disorder in laying hens with an upregulation in bone turnover and exacerbated skeletal damage. The data

  8. Efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on intestinal health and productivity of coccidian-challenged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lensing, M; van der Klis, J D; Yoon, I; Moore, D T

    2012-07-01

    A 37-d laying hen experiment was performed to determine the effect of Diamond V XPC(LS) (XPC(LS), Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA) during a subclinical Eimeria maxima infection on intestinal health and productivity. Two hundred and sixteen 18-wk-old Brown Nick laying hens were allocated to 24 litter pens based on a weight class system (9 hens/pen). The trial was carried out as a 2 × 2 factorial design with XPC(LS) and E. maxima challenge as main factors. Birds were fed a corn/wheat-based mash prelayer diet from wk 18 to 20 (10.9 MJ/kg of AME and 13.7% CP) and a standard phase I layer diet from wk 20 to 24 (11.7 MJ/kg of AME and 15.3% CP) that were supplemented with XPC(LS) at the rate of 0 or 0.75 g/kg. Hens were orally inoculated on d 23 (22 wk of age) with either 1 mL of saline (not infected) or 10,000 sporulated E. maxima oocysts/bird in 1 mL of saline (infected). Effects of XPC(LS) on intestinal health were determined by E. maxima lesion scoring. Results of E. maxima lesions were analyzed by Fisher exact, whereas severity of lesions and production parameters were analyzed by ANOVA. Supplementation of XPC(LS) significantly reduced severity of E. maxima lesions (P < 0.05) from 1.1 to 0.8 in challenged hens. An overall significant effect of XPC(LS) supplementation was demonstrated on d 34 by decreasing the severity of lesions from 0.3 to 0.1. The E. maxima challenge decreased (P < 0.05) production performance between 7 and 14 d postchallenge by lowering egg weight from 50 to 47 g/egg and laying rate from 84 to 70% and increasing feed per dozen eggs (P < 0.01) from 1.60 to 2.06 kg. Results indicate that Diamond V XPC(LS) supplementation reduced intestinal damage caused by an E. maxima infection in laying hens.

  9. Evaluation of the toxicity of selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Borisuth, Lalita; Chinrasri, Orawan; Saenthaweesuk, Nattanan; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Thosaikham, Witphon; Sriart, Noppong; Chantiratikul, Piyanete

    2016-05-01

    Hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprouts (HPSeKS) are studied for their use as an alternative dietary Se supplement for poultry. The study experimented with different levels and sources of Se to determine toxicity and how the toxicity may affect productive performance, Se concentration in egg and tissues, and physiological responses of laying hens. One-hundred and twenty hens, 59 weeks of age, were divided into 5 groups. Each group consisted of 4 replicates and each replicate had 6 birds according to a 2 × 2 + 1 Augmented Factorial Experiment in a Completely Randomized Design. The experiment was conducted over a 4 week period, and 5 dietary treatments (T) were used: T1 basal diet, T2 and T3 basal diet plus 5 and 10mg Se/kg from sodium selenite (SS), T4 and T5 basal diet plus 5 and 10mg Se/kg from HPSeKS, respectively. The results make clear that Se from HPSeKS, at 5-10mg/kg, did not affect (P>0.05) feed intake and egg production; however, Se bioavailability decreased (P<0.05). Egg, tissue and plasma Se concentrations, and GSH-Px activity in red blood cells increased (P<0.05) compared to those in T1. Final body weight, feed intake, Se bioavailability, concentration of Se in breast muscle and plasma of hens fed Se from SS were lower (P<0.05) than those of hens fed Se from HPSeKS. The findings demonstrate that dietary Se from HPSeKS at 5-10mg/kg is not considered a toxic level for laying hens. The toxicity of Se from HPSeKS was less than the toxicity of Se from SS.

  10. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I—Dust

    PubMed Central

    David, Bruce; Oppermann Moe, Randi; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages) or no access to litter (conventional cages). The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban. PMID:26479370

  11. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I-Dust.

    PubMed

    David, Bruce; Moe, Randi Oppermann; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie

    2015-07-09

    The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages) or no access to litter (conventional cages). The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban.

  12. Assessment of Salmonella spp. in feces, cloacal swabs, and eggs (eggshell and content separately) from a laying hen farm.

    PubMed

    García, C; Soriano, J M; Benítez, V; Catalá-Gregori, P

    2011-07-01

    Microbial pathogens of the genus Salmonella are among the leading causes of foodborne illness in the world. The present study was done on a laying hen farm with a Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis-positive result according to the testing specified by European regulation 2160/2003. The aim of this study was to compare the Salmonella contamination on a laying hen farm with the Salmonella presence in the hen eggs. The strains were isolated by ISO method 6579:2002 (standard method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in the European regulation for food and animal feeding stuffs, animal feces, and environmental samples from the primary production stage, including poultry farms) and were confirmed as Salmonella Enteritidis by the Kauffmann-White method. In addition, strains were compared with genomic macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Four types of samples, namely, feces (n = 50), cloacal swabs (n = 150), eggshells (n = 50), and egg contents (n = 50), were taken from each of 50 randomly selected battery cages. Results demonstrated that feces (92%) were the most positive sample, followed by eggshells (34%) and cloacal swabs (4%). No Salmonella spp. were detected in the egg contents. Our results show that a Salmonella Enteritidis-positive result on a laying hen farm, according to the testing specified by European regulation 2160/2003, did not imply the presence of the pathogen in the egg contents. Additionally, XbaI-digested genomic DNA of Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from several samples resulted in the same pattern, so were probably of the same origin.

  13. Abatement of particulate matter emission from experimental aviary housings for laying hens by spraying rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Winkel, A; van Riel, J W; van Emous, R A; Aarnink, A J A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Ogink, N W M

    2016-12-01

    In alternative systems for laying hens, concentrations and emission rates of particulate matter (PM) give reason for concern with regard to working conditions, bird health and productivity, and health of residents living near farms. Previously, we found that spraying a film of rapeseed oil onto the litter of broilers could substantially reduce PM concentrations and emissions. The objective of this study was to establish dose-response effects of oil spraying in aviaries on concentrations and emission rates of PM with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5), on stockmen's exposure to PM10, on egg production, exterior quality and behavior of the hens, and on the litter. An experiment was carried out with 4 treatments: 0 (control), 15, 30, and 45 mL/m(2) per d (oil treatments). Each treatment was applied in 2 rooms with different aviary systems (8 rooms in total). The experiment was repeated during a second period, both lasting 35 days. From d 11 to d 35, oil was applied daily using a spraying gun. Applying 15, 30, or 45 mL/m(2) per d significantly reduced emission rates of PM10 by 27, 62, and 82%, and emission rates of PM2.5 by 71, 83, and 94%, respectively. No significant effects of oil spraying were found on mortality, egg production, dust bathing behavior, scratching behavior, plumage soiling, DM content of the litter, or friability of the litter. A significant worsening of the plumage condition was found only for the body spot back/wings/tail (not for: throat/neck, chest/breast, or legs) in the 45 mL/m(2) per d treatment. Egg quality shifted significantly towards more second-class eggs in the oil treatments (1.9% versus 1.4%; P = 0.004). Remarkably, foot soiling decreased with increasing oil application. In conclusion, PM concentrations and emission rates in aviaries can be effectively reduced by spraying 15 to 30 mL/m(2) per d with minor side effects within a 25 d application period.

  14. Influence of genetic strain and access to litter on spatial distribution of 4 strains of laying hens in an aviary system1

    PubMed Central

    Ali, A. B. A.; Campbell, D. L. M.; Karcher, D. M.; Siegford, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Many laying hen producers are transitioning from conventional cages to new housing systems including multi-tier aviaries. Aviary resources, such as litter areas, are intended to encourage hens’ expression of natural behaviors to improve their welfare. Little research has examined the influence of laying hen strain on distribution and behavior inside aviaries, yet differences could influence a strain's suitability for an aviary design. This research examined how laying hens of 4 strains (Hy-Line Brown [HB], Bovans Brown [BB], DeKalb White [DW], and Hy-Line W36) distributed themselves among 3 enclosed aviary tiers and 2 litter areas at peak lay (25 to 28 wk of age) and after gaining access to litter on the floor (26 wk). Observations of hens’ spatial distribution were conducted immediately before and after, and 3 wk after hens gained access to litter. More HB and BB hens were in upper tiers in morning compared to DW and W36 (all P ≤ 0.05). However, DW and W36 hens roosted in upper tiers in larger numbers than HB and BB during evening (all P ≤ 0.05). More DW and W36 hens were on litter compared to BB and HB, particularly when litter was first accessible (all P ≤ 0.05). The number of hens on litter increased over time for all strains (P ≤ 0.06). White hens on litter occupied open areas in higher numbers (P ≤ 0.05), while more brown hens occupied litter under the aviary after acclimation (P ≤ 0.05). In the dark period, W36 and DW hens were present in higher numbers in upper tiers than HB and BB, while HB and BB showed higher tier-to-tier movement than DW and W36 (P ≤ 0.05). In general, more white hens roosted higher at night and explored litter sooner, while more brown hens were near or in nests in the morning and moved at night. Distinct strain differences indicate that attention should be paid to the match between configuration of the aviary design and strain of laying hen. PMID:27444438

  15. Persistence of fecal shedding of Salmonella Enteritidis by experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2015-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis can be deposited inside eggs laid by infected hens, so the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial egg-producing flocks is an important risk factor for human illness. Opportunities for the introduction, transmission, and persistence of salmonellae in poultry are potentially influenced by flock housing and management systems. Animal welfare concerns have spurred the development of alternatives to traditional cage-based housing. However, the consequences of poultry housing systems for food safety have not been fully resolved by prior research. The present study assessed the effects of two different housing systems (conventional cages and colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas) on the persistence of fecal shedding of Salmonella Enteritidis by groups of experimentally infected laying hens. In each of two trials, 136 hens were distributed among cages of both housing systems and orally inoculated with doses of 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis (phage type 13a in one trial and phage type 4 in the other). At weekly intervals, samples of voided feces were collected from beneath each cage and cultured to detect Salmonella Enteritidis. Fecal shedding of Salmonella Enteritidis was detected for up to 8 wk post-inoculation by hens housed in enriched colony cages and 10 wk by hens housed in conventional cages. For both trials combined, the frequency of positive fecal cultures was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for conventional cages than for enriched colony cages at 1 wk (84.7 vs. 71.5%), 2 wk (54.2 vs. 31.3%), 3 wk (21.5 vs. 7.6%), and 4 wk (9.7 vs. 2.8%) post-inoculation. These results demonstrate that the susceptibility of hens to intestinal colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis can differ between conventional and enriched cage-based production systems, although this effect does not necessarily translate into a corresponding difference in the longer-term persistence of fecal shedding.

  16. The use of selected plasma enzyme activities for the diagnosis of fatty liver-hemorrhagic syndrome in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Diaz, G J; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1999-01-01

    Profiles of plasma enzymes were compared in two strains of single comb white leghorn laying hens, a normal commercial strain and strain UCD-003, which is highly susceptible to fatty liver-hemorrhagic syndrome. Plasma activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatine kinase (CK) averaged 194 +/- 27, 4.0 +/- 2.8, 146 +/- 20, 1.0 +/- 1.0, and 1041 +/- 268 U/liter, respectively in normal birds. Activities of LDH, GDH, AST, and ALT, but not CK, were significantly higher in UCD-003 than in normal hens. A bimodal distribution of activities of all enzymes was found in the UCD-003 hens, with some birds showing activities comparable with those of the normal hens and others with values that were 2-10 times greater than those found in normal hens. These results are consistent with the extensive hepatic lesions observed in the UCD-003 strain of birds. Average gross hemorrhagic scores from visual inspection (scale of 0-3) were 0.28 +/- 0.45 in normal birds and 1.63 +/- 0.94 in the UCD-003 birds. Even though no clear relationship was found between plasma enzyme activities and the extent of liver hemorrhage in individual birds, the UCD-003 hens consistently had average values significantly higher for plasma enzymes that indicate liver damage. The results suggest that measurement of enzyme activities indicative of liver damage in birds, particularly AST, LDH, and GDH, is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of fatty liver-hemorrhagic syndrome in a flock of layers.

  17. Production performance, use of nest box, and external appearance of two strains of laying hens kept in conventional and enriched cages.

    PubMed

    Onbaşılar, E E; Ünal, N; Erdem, E; Kocakaya, A; Yaranoğlu, B

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in production performance, use of nest box, and external appearance of 2 strains of laying hens kept in conventional and enriched cages. Lohmann Brown Classic (LB, n=532) and Lohmann LSL Classic (LW, n=532) hens were housed from 16 to 73 wk in either conventional cages or enriched cages. Enriched cages had a nesting area, scratch pad, perch, and nail shortener. Body weight (BW), hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), cracked and dirty eggs, use of nest box for lay, and external appearance were determined. Laying period influenced the hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Cage type affected the hen-day egg production and feed conversion ratio, while strain affected the egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Laying period×cage type and laying period×strain interactions affected egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio. Both strains preferred to lay in the nest box. Percentages of cracked and dirty eggs of LW hens in enriched cages were higher than that in conventional cages. Most of the dirty eggs laid by both strains were found outside of the nest box. The LW hens laid more dirty eggs than the LB hens. Cage type and cage type×strain interaction were important for total feather score. Final claw length was affected by cage type, strain, and cage type×strain interaction. This study suggests that cage type, strain, and also cage type×strain and period×strain interactions should be considered when alternative housing systems are used.

  18. Surface wetting and its effect on body and surface temperatures of domestic laying hens at different thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Mutaf, S; Kahraman, N Seber; Firat, M Z

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of surface wetting at different thermal conditions on core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures in laying hens. Hens were sprinkled on the head and dorsal surface by releasing a sprinkling dosage of 10 mL.bird(-1). The first measurement was taken presprinkling, and the second was taken immediately postsprinkling and then repeated every 5 min for 20 min. The cooling water needs for intermittent partial surface wetting to relieve acute heat stress in the laying hens were quantified for 48 domestic laying hens under 4 experimental thermal conditions. The hens were kept at 4 thermal conditions at average dry-bulb temperatures of 31.30 +/- 0.03, 33.20 +/- 0.08, 36.01 +/- 0.12, and 40.24 +/- 0.08 degrees C; RH of 67.68 +/- 0.37, 51.78 +/- 1.98, 24.59 +/- 0.90, and 16.12 +/- 1.55%; and air velocities of 0.09 +/- 0.00, 0.07 +/- 0.00, 0.08 +/- 0.00, and 0.09 +/- 0.00 m.s(-1), respectively. The differences in core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures among the 4 thermal groups were 0.15, 0.18, 0.23, and 0.22 degrees C for core body temperature; 1.63, 1.44, 2.51, and 0.97 degrees C for core head temperature; and 1.23, 1.37, 1.41, and 0.64 degrees C for core dorsal temperature at thermal conditions 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. There were significant differences in core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures among the 4 thermal condition groups. It was concluded that the spraying interval was directly proportional to the product of the vapor pressure deficit and the thermal resistance of convective mass transfer of the wetted hens, because there were no significant differences in the air velocity among the 4 thermal condition groups and the air velocity was very low.

  19. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  20. Feather-pecking response of laying hens to feather and cellulose-based rations fed during rearing.

    PubMed

    Kriegseis, I; Bessei, W; Meyer, B; Zentek, J; Würbel, H; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies in laying hens have shown that feather peckers eat more feathers than nonpeckers. We hypothesized that food pellets containing feathers would decrease the birds' appetite for feathers and thereby also decrease feather pecking. To separate the effect of feathers from that of insoluble fiber per se, additional control groups were fed pellets containing similar amounts of cellulose. Sixty (experiment 1) and 180 (experiment 2) 1-d-old Lohmann-Selected Leghorn birds were divided into 12 groups of 5 (experiment 1) and 15 (experiment 2) birds, respectively, and kept on slatted floors. During the rearing period, 4 groups each had ad libitum access to either a commercial pelleted diet, a pelleted diet containing 5% (experiment 1) or 10% (experiment 2) of chopped feathers, respectively, or a pelleted diet containing 5% (experiment 1) or 10% (experiment 2) of cellulose, respectively. In the consecutive laying period, all groups received a commercial pelleted diet. In experiment 1, feather pecking was recorded weekly from wk 5 to wk 16. In the laying period, observations were made in wk 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, and 30. In experiment 2, feather pecking was recorded weekly from wk 5 to 11, in wk 16 to wk 18, and in wk 20 and 21. At the end of the rearing period, plumage condition per individual hen was scored. Scores from 1 (denuded) to 4 (intact) were given for each of 6 body parts. The addition of 10% of feathers to the diet reduced the number of severe feather-pecking bouts (P < 0.0129) and improved plumage condition of the back area (P < 0.001) significantly compared with control diets. The relationship between feather pecking/eating and the gastrointestinal consequences thereof, which alter feather pecking-behavior, are unclear. Understanding this relationship might be crucial for understanding the causation of feather pecking in laying hens.

  1. Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Beatrice; Zentek, Jürgen; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2013-02-17

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens was examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P<0.001 and P=0.012). In the cecum the amounts of l-lactate, d-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.006, and P<0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P=0.001, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P<0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P<0.001 and P=0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P<0.001 and P=0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research

  2. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  3. Anaemia, Serum Iron Concentrations and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Laying Hens Infected Naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Boiago, M M; do Carmo, G M; Bottari, N B; Araujo, D N; Giuriatti, J; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C; Casagrande, R A; Wisser, C S; Stefani, L M; Alves, M S; Da Silva, A S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anaemia, serum iron concentrations and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in laying hens infected naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum and having severe hepatic lesions. Liver and serum samples were collected from 27 laying hens (20 infected and seven uninfected). The δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations were evaluated. There were significant decreases in δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations (P <0.01) in birds infected by S. Gallinarum when compared with uninfected birds. There was a positive correlation (P <0.001) between serum iron concentration, haematocrit (r(2) = 0.82) and δ-ALA-D activity (r(2) = 0.75). A positive correlation was also observed between δ-ALA-D activity and haematocrit (r(2) = 0.78; P <0.01). Liver samples showed moderate focal coagulative necrosis associated with infiltration of lymphoplasmacytic cells, macrophages and heterophils. The anaemia in the infected hens may be related to reduction in δ-ALA-D activity and serum iron concentrations, since both are important for haemopoiesis.

  4. Flaxseed enriched diet-mediated reduction in ovarian cancer severity is correlated to the reduction of prostaglandin E(2) in laying hen ovaries.

    PubMed

    Eilati, Erfan; Hales, Karen; Zhuge, Yan; Ansenberger Fricano, Kristine; Yu, Rui; van Breemen, Richard B; Hales, Dale Buchanan

    2013-09-01

    Prevention of ovarian cancer is the best approach for reducing the impact of this deadly disease. The laying hen is a robust model of spontaneous ovarian cancer that recapitulates the human disease. Dietary intervention with flaxseed, the richest vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids (OM-3FAs) and phytoestrogen lignans, demonstrate the potential for effective prevention and amelioration of ovarian cancer by targeting inflammatory prostaglandin pathways. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most pro-inflammatory ecoisanoid and one of the downstream products of two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Our objective was to investigate the effect of flaxseed supplementation for one year on ovarian cancer and correlate its effects to expression of COX enzymes and concentrations of prostaglandins. White Leghorn hens were fed 10% flaxseed-enriched or standard diet for one year. The severity of ovarian cancer was determined by gross pathology and histology. COX-1 and COX-2 localization and protein and mRNA expression and PGE2 and PGE3 concentrations in ovaries were measured by IHC, western blot, quantitative real-time PCR and LC-MS-MS, respectively. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in late stage ovarian tumors in the flaxseed-fed hens compared with the control diet-fed hens. In correlation with decreased ovarian cancer severity, concentrations of PGE2 and expression of COX-2 were diminished in ovaries of flaxseed-fed hens. PGE3 concentrations were below the level of detection. The results demonstrated that in normal ovaries, COX-1 was localized to the granulosa cell layer surrounding the follicles and ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) whereas COX-2 protein was localized to the granulosa cell layer in the follicle. Extensive COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression was found throughout the ovarian carcinoma. Our findings suggest that the flaxseed-mediated reduction in the severity of ovarian cancer in hens is correlated to the reduction in PGE2 in

  5. Keel bone condition in laying hens: a histological evaluation of macroscopically assessed keel bones.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Britta; Rönchen, Swaantje; Hamann, Henning; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Distl, Ottmar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to conduct a corresponding histological analysis of 162 macroscopically assessed keel bones (1: severe, 2: moderate, 3: slight, 4: no deformity). Four layer lines were used and hens were kept in furnished cages, small group systems (both allowing more activities due to the provision of perches) and an aviary system, which fully conformed to the EU standards. Investigations were carried out in the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th laying month of two experimental trials. In 97.9% of grade 4 keel bones, no histological deviations were found, whereas in keel bones manifesting deformities of grade 1 and 2, the predominant histological observation was the incidence of fracture callus material (FCM) and new bone in the form of woven bone. FCM was also detected in 50.9% of grade 3 keel bones, whereas in 40.7%, only s-shaped deviations of keel bones were found, which were related to extended pressure loading while perching activities rather than short-duration trauma. Histological analysis showed that keel bones of grade 1 and 2 were mainly attributed to traumatic origin and therefore associated with pain experience in layers. Grade 3 keel bones manifested either FCM as a result of trauma or adaptational deformities without any evidence of a preceding fracture in response to mechanical pressure loading and were most likely not associated with pain. Therefore, histological analysis was found to be a mandatory tool when evaluating grade 3 keel bones with respect to layers'welfare. Furthermore, this analysis corroborates the findings that in aviary systems deformities of keel bones are predominantly caused by painful fractures.

  6. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology

    PubMed Central

    Siegford, Janice M.; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K.; Daigle, Courtney L.; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Hernandez, Carlos E.; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Tracking of individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. We describe several tracking systems that are currently in use for laying hens and review each, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suited, and relevant issues to fit the best technology for the intended purpose. Abstract Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns

  7. Sodium butyrate mitigates in vitro ammonia generation in cecal content of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anping; Wang, Yan; Di Liao, Xin; Wu, Yinbao; Liang, Juan Boo; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    One of the environmental challenges that modern poultry industry faced is odor pollution caused by ammonia emission. The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of sodium butyrate on the production of ammonia in the cecal contents of laying hens using in vitro gas production study and to elucidate the mechanism behind it. The study consisted of a control (without sodium butyrate), and three experimental groups added with 10, 15, and 20 mg of sodium butyrate, respectively. Results showed that ammonia production in headspace of the syringe decreased by 8.2, 23, and 23 %, respectively, while ammonium production from the fermentation broth decreased by 6.3, 14.4, and 13.7 %, respectively. Sodium butyrate had no significant effect on the contents of uric acid and urea, nitrate-N, or total N in all treatments. However, sodium butyrate decreased the urease and uricase activities (P < 0.05) in the fermentation broth. Sodium butyrate also altered volatile fatty acids profile of the fermentation broth by decreasing the production of isovalerate (P < 0.05) and increasing those of acetate, butyrate, and isobutyrate (P < 0.05). The MiSeq System Sequencing results showed that sodium butyrate increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium (P < 0.05) and decreased the relative abundance of Desulfovibrio, Helicobacter, and Campylobacter (P < 0.05).Our results concluded that sodium butyrate changes the diversity and relative abundance of the microbes which altered the fermentation characteristics leading to reduction in ammonia production.

  8. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E; Karcher, Darrin M

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic analyses have linked the frequency of human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis to the consumption of contaminated eggs and thus to the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial egg-laying flocks. Contamination of the edible contents of eggs by Salmonella Enteritidis is a consequence of the colonization of reproductive tissues in systemically infected hens. The animal welfare implications of laying hen housing systems have been widely debated, but no definitive consensus has yet emerged about the food safety significance of poultry housing options. The present study sought to determine the effects of two different bird stocking densities on the invasion of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in groups of experimentally infected laying hens housed in colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas. In two trials, groups of laying hens were distributed at two different stocking densities into colony cages and (along with a group housed in conventional cages) orally inoculated with doses of 1.0 × 10(7) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis. At 5 to 6 d post-inoculation, hens were euthanized and samples of internal organs were removed for bacteriologic culturing. For both trials combined, Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered at a significantly (P < 0.05) greater frequency from hens in enriched colony cages at the higher stocking density than at the lower density from livers (75.0% vs. 51.4%) and ovaries (51.4% vs. 30.6%). However, spleens from hens in enriched colony cages at the higher stocking density were significantly less often positive for Salmonella Enteritidis than from hens in conventional cages at that same density (90.3% vs. 68.1%). These results suggest that stocking density can influence the susceptibility of hens to Salmonella Enteritidis, but other housing systems parameters may also contribute to the outcome of infections.

  9. Rare earth element-enriched yeast improved egg production and egg quality in laying hens in the late period of peak egg production.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Nyachoti, C M; Hancock, J D; Lee, J Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, D H; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rare earth element-enriched yeast (RY) on egg production, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD), egg quality, excreta gas emission and excreta microbiota of laying hens. A total of 216 ISA brown laying hens of 52 weeks of age were used in a 5-week feeding trial and data were collected every week. Birds were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments each with six replicates and 12 hens per replicate. Each cage (38 cm width × 50 cm length × 40 cm height) contained one hen. Treatments consisted of corn-soya bean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg of RY. From weeks 55 to 56, inclusion of RY linearly increased (p < 0.05) egg production. The CTTAD of nitrogen was increased (linear, p < 0.05) with increasing dietary level of RY. In week 55, yolk height and Haugh units were increased linearly (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary RY content. However, no significant effects were observed in terms of excreta emissions and excreta microbiota in laying hens. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with RY improved egg production and CTTAD of nitrogen and slightly improved egg quality in laying hens of the late period of peak egg production.

  10. The effects of iodine level and source on iodine carry-over in eggs and body tissues of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Röttger, Anna S; Halle, Ingrid; Wagner, Hubertus; Breves, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven; Flachowsky, Gerhard

    2012-10-01

    In the presented study the effect of different iodine (I) levels and sources in hen feed on the iodine concentration of different tissues, blood serum, and eggs of laying hens was studied. For this purpose, two experiments were conducted with 30 laying hens each. In these experiments feed was enriched with KI and Ca(IO(3))(2), respectively, at 0 (Control), 0.25, 0.5, 2.5 and 5 mg I/kg feed, resulting a analysed iodine level from 0.44 to 4.20 mg/kg feed. After four weeks experimental feeding the iodine concentrations of thyroid glands, blood, meat, liver, abdominal fat and eggs were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The experimental treatment did not affect hen performance. The iodine supplementation significantly increased the iodine concentration of eggs (144-1304 μg/kg), thyroid glands (3367-5975 μg/g), blood serum (16-67 μg/kg) and liver (13-43 μg/kg). Meat (about 14 μg I/kg) and abdominal fat (about 12 μg I/kg) were not significantly affected by iodine treatment. Comparative regression analyses showed that at a similar iodine intake, the supply via KI resulted in significantly higher iodine deposition into eggs than Ca(IO(3))(2). Due to the high carry-over of iodine into eggs, eggs may considerably contribute to the iodine supply of the consumers.

  11. The effect of replacing soya bean oil with glycerol in diets on performance, egg quality and egg fatty acid composition in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cufadar, Y; Göçmen, R; Kanbur, G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to replace soya bean oil with glycerol in laying hen diets and assess the change's effect on performance, parameters of egg quality and the egg fatty acid profile. A total of 60 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomised experimental design into four treatments consisting of glycerol substitutions for soya bean oil dietary at varying inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%), with five replicates of three birds each. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on BW change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass of laying hens. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit, albumen pH, yolk pH and egg yolk colour values. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acid contents of the egg yolk. The linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the egg yolk significantly decreased with the higher levels of dietary glycerol supplementation (P<0.05). The results of this study show that it is possible to replace 75% of soya bean oil (4.5% in diet) with glycerol.

  12. Variability in amino acid digestibility of triticale grain from diverse genotypes as studied in cecectomized laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zuber, T; Maurer, H P; Möhring, J; Nautscher, N; Siegert, W; Rosenfelder, P; Rodehutscord, M

    2016-12-01

    Triticale, an anthropogenic hybrid grain, is increasing in importance as a feed grain for laying hens. However, our limited knowledge of its nutritional qualities and their impact on hen performance prevents optimization of its use. The present study investigated the digestibility of amino acids ( AA: ) in triticale grain in laying hens, and additionally examined relationships between AA digestibility and chemical and physical characteristics of the grain. Twenty genotypes of triticale were grown under standardized agronomic and environmental conditions and were characterized according to their physical properties (thousand-seed weight, test weight, falling number, extract viscoelasticity), chemical composition (proximate nutrients, non-starch polysaccharides, AA, minerals, inositol phosphates) and gross energy concentration. Additionally, the in vitro solubility of nitrogen was determined. The animal trial comprised 4 Latin Squares (6 × 6) distributed among 2 subsequent runs. Twelve cecectomized LSL-Classic hens were individually housed in metabolism cages and either fed a basal diet containing 500 g/kg cornstarch or one of 20 triticale diets, each replacing the cornstarch with one triticale genotype, for 8 d. During the last 4 d, feed intake was recorded and excreta were collected quantitatively. Amino acid digestibility of the triticale genotypes was calculated by linear regression. The digestibility of all AA differed significantly between the 20 genotypes, including Lys (digestibility range 68 to 80%), Met (77 to 86%), Thr (68 to 78%) and Trp (74 to 83%). However, AA digestibility only correlated with characteristics of the grain in few cases, without a consistent pattern among AA. Equations to predict AA digestibility based on the grain's physical and chemical characteristics were calculated by multiple linear regression. The explanatory power (adjusted R(2);) of these prediction equations was below 0.7 for most AA and thus not sufficiently precise to be

  13. Influence of dietary copper proteinate on performance, selected biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, liver, and egg copper content in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Güçlü, Berrin Kocaoğlu; Kara, Kanber; Beyaz, Latife; Uyanik, Fatma; Eren, Meryem; Atasever, Ayhan

    2008-11-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of copper proteinate on performance, blood chemistry, lipid peroxidation status, and organs as well as copper deposition in the liver and eggs of laying hens. Seventy-two 30-week-old Bovans laying hens were distributed into four groups with three replicates. Animals were fed basal diet containing at least 17% crude protein and 2,800 kcal/kg metabolizable energy supplemented with either 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/kg copper as copper proteinate. Supplementation of 150 and 300 mg/kg copper increased egg production, whereas 450 mg/kg copper decreased (p < 0.001). Liver copper levels were elevated in 300 and 450 mg/kg copper-supplemented groups (p < 0.001). Egg copper contents increased in all treatment groups (p < 0.01). An increase in glucose (p < 0.001) and decreases in albumin (p < 0.01) and total cholesterol (p < 0.05) levels were determined with 300 and 450 mg/kg copper. Supplementation of 450 mg/kg copper increased alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activities (p < 0.05), malondialdehyde, and high-density lipoprotein levels (p < 0.01) but decreased alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities (p < 0.01). No gross and microscopic changes were observed in the liver and kidneys. These results indicated that 150 and 300 mg/kg copper increased egg production without having marked adverse effects, but 450 mg/kg copper altered some blood chemistry variables and reduced egg production in laying hens.

  14. Serum biochemical profile, enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation in organs of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    Braz, N M; Freitas, E R; Trevisan, M T S; do Nascimento, G A J; Salles, R P R; Cruz, C E B; Farias, N N P; da Silva, I N G; Watanabe, P H

    2017-03-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding laying hens diets containing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as a source of anacardic acid on the blood biochemical parameters as well as the enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation of liver and tissues of the reproductive system (ovary, magnum, and uterus). A total of 216 Hisex White commercial laying hens were distributed randomly into six treatments, with six replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a diet without growth promoter (GP); a diet with GP; and diets without GP, with addition of increasing levels of CNSL (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0%). Addition of CNSL to the diet did not affect the blood biochemical parameters (uric acid, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides), the enzymatic activity (superoxide dismutase and nonprotein sulphydryl groups) in the organs (liver, ovary, magnum and uterus) or the peroxidation of lipids from the blood serum, liver, magnum and uterus (p > 0.05). However, the addition of 0.75% and 1.00% CNSL provided a lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content in the birds' ovary (p < 0.001) compared to birds of other treatments, whereas the treatment without the GP provided a higher value. Addition of up to 1% of the CNSL as a source of anacardic acid in the laying hens' diets does not influence blood biochemical parameters or the endogenous enzymatic activity in the liver, ovary, magnum and uterus, but affects the lipid peroxidation in the ovary, although the problem is reduced from the inclusion of 0.75% CNSL.

  15. Effects of cerium oxide supplementation to laying hen diets on performance, egg quality, some antioxidant enzymes in serum and lipid oxidation in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Bölükbaşı, S C; Al-Sagan, A A; Ürüşan, H; Erhan, M K; Durmuş, O; Kurt, N

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary cerium oxide levels (0, 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg) on the laying performance, egg quality, some blood serum parameters and egg lipid peroxidation of laying hen. In total, one hundred and twenty 22-week-old brown Lohman LSL laying hens were randomly assigned to five groups equally (n = 24). Each treatment was replicated six times. Dietary supplementation of cerium oxide had no significant effect on feed intake and egg weight. The addition of cerium oxide to the laying hens' feed improved feed conversion ratio and increased (p < 0.05) egg production. Quality criteria of egg for except shell breaking strength were not affected by supplementing cerium oxide. In particular, supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg cerium oxide to the laying hens feed led to a significant (p < 0. 01) increase in egg shell breaking strength. Calcium and phosphorus concentration of serum increased significantly (p < 0.05) with supplementation of 100 mg/kg cerium oxide to laying hen diets. It was also observed that serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased significantly with supplementation of cerium oxide in diets. Inclusion of cerium oxide resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values in egg yolk in this study. It can be concluded that the addition of cerium oxide had positive effects on egg production, feed conversion ratio and egg shelf life. Based on the results of this study, it could be advised to supplement laying hens feed with cerium oxide as feed additives.

  16. Comparative evaluation of four registered acaricides for field control of northern fowl mites on caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hall, R D; Vandepopuliere, J M; English, L M; Jaynes, W; Lyons, J J; Doisy, K E; Foehse, M C

    1980-11-01

    Carbaryl and tetrachlorvinphos provided longer lasting control of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), than did coumaphos or malathion when the materials were applied to caged laying hens as aqueous sprays. The average duration of residual control was ca. 5 weeks for carbaryl, 4.3 weeks for tetrachlorvinphos, 3.5 weeks for coumaphos, and 2 weeks for malathion. No presumptive evidence of northern fowl mite resistance to carbaryl or tetrachlorvinphos was encountered. In contrast, malathion often failed to produce satisfactory control, and difficulty with adequate dispersion of coumaphos wettable powder was noted.

  17. Influence of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lei, K; Li, Y L; Yu, D Y; Rajput, I R; Li, W F

    2013-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens. Hy-Line Variety W-36 hens (n = 540; 28 wk of age) were randomized into 6 groups, each group with 6 replications (n = 15). The control group received the basal diet formulated with maize and soybean meal. The treatment groups received the same basal diets supplemented with 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09% Bacillus licheniformis powder (2 × 10(10) cfu/g) for an 8-wk trial. The results showed that dietary supplementation with 0.01 and 0.03% B. licheniformis significantly increased egg production and egg mass. However, no significant differences were observed in egg weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion efficiency among the 6 groups. Supplementation with different levels of B. licheniformis was found to be effective in improvement of egg quality by increasing egg shell thickness and strength. Compared with control, d-lactate content, diamine oxidase activity, and adrenocorticotropic hormone level in serum decreased significantly, and the level of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone increased significantly in plasma of all the experimental groups. Dietary supplementation with B. licheniformis increased the intestinal villus height and reduced the crypt depth. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of B. licheniformis could improve laying performance and egg quality significantly in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing the stress response, upregulating the growth hormone, and improving intestinal health.

  18. Ammonia volatilization after surface application of laying-hen and broiler-chicken manures.

    PubMed

    Miola, Ezequiel C C; Rochette, Philippe; Chantigny, Martin H; Angers, Denis A; Aita, Celso; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Pelster, David E; Bertrand, Normand

    2014-11-01

    Ammonia (NH) losses after field application of animal manure are affected by manure characteristics. The objectives of this study were to quantify NH losses from poultry manures obtained from varied handling and storage systems commonly found in eastern Canada and to relate NH emissions to manure characteristics. We measured NH volatilization using wind tunnels for 22 d after soil-surface application of seven solid poultry manures originating from farms varying in production type (laying hens and broiler chickens) and in storage duration and conditions. Cumulative emissions (2.7-7.0 g NH-N m) accounted for 13.6 to 35.0% of the total N applied and 51 to 84% (mean, 70%) of the sum of ammoniacal N, urea N, and uric acid N applied (TAUA). On average, 20% of these losses occurred during the first 4.5 h after application for manures that were not dried in the barn shortly after excretion. Production type and storage durations could not explain differences in NH volatilization between manures. Volatilization losses were linearly related to manure dry matter and to manure-derived NH-N, but sources of N changed with time after application. During the first 7 d, variations in total ammoniacal N applied (TANA) among manures explained most of the variations in cumulative NH losses ( = 0.85 after 26 h and 0.92 after 7 d). After a simulated rainfall (5 mm) on Day 7 that stimulated the decomposition of uric acid in manures, TAUA rather than TANA was related to cumulative emissions ( = 0.77 after 14 and 22 d). Our results indicate that reliable estimates of NH volatilization after land spreading of poultry manures should be based not only on TANA but also on NH-N derived from the decomposition of uric acid, that volatilization losses reported in the literature (including the present study) averaged 50% of TAUA, and that estimates for a given situation also need to account for local environmental conditions.

  19. Effect of dietary α-tocopherol on the bioavailability of lutein in laying hen.

    PubMed

    Islam, K M S; Khalil, M; Männer, K; Raila, J; Rawel, H; Zentek, J; Schweigert, F J

    2016-10-01

    Lutein and its isomer zeaxanthin have gained considerable interest as possible nutritional ingredient in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in humans. Egg yolk is a rich source of these carotenoids. As an oxidative sensitive component, antioxidants such as α-tocopherol (T) might contribute to an improved accumulation in egg yolk. To test this, chickens were fed lutein esters (LE) with and without α-tocopherol as an antioxidant. After depletion on a wheat-soya bean-based lutein-poor diet for 21 days, laying hens (n = 42) were equally divided into three groups and fed the following diets for 21 days: control (basal diet), a LE group (40 mg LE/kg feed) and LE + T group (40 mg LE plus 100 mg T/kg feed). Eggs and blood were collected periodically. Carotenoids and α-tocopherol in yolk and blood plasma were determined by HPLC. Egg yolk was also analysed for total carotenoids using a one-step spectrophotometric method (iCheck((™)) ). Lutein, zeaxanthin, α-tocopherol and total carotenoids in egg yolk were highest after 14 days of feeding and decreased slightly afterwards. At the end of the trial, eggs of LE + T group contained higher amount of lutein (13.72), zeaxanthin (0.65), α-tocopherol (297.40) and total carotenoids (21.6) compared to the LE group (10.96, 0.55, 205.20 and 18.0 mg/kg, respectively, p < 0.05). Blood plasma values of LE + T group contain higher lutein (1.3), zeaxanthin (0.06) and tocopherol (20.1) compared to LE group (1.02, 0.04 and 14.90 mg/l, respectively, p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary α-tocopherol enhances bioavailability of lutein reflecting higher content in egg yolk and blood plasma. Improved bioavailability might be due to increased absorption of lutein in the presence of tocopherol and/or a greater stability of lutein/zeaxanthin due to the presence of α-tocopherol as an antioxidant.

  20. Effects of dietary L-arginine on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring during the late laying period.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoxue; Li, Feng; Mou, Shaoyang; Feng, Jiawei; Liu, Peifeng; Xu, Liangmei

    2015-12-01

    The effects of maternal L-arginine supplementation on laying performance and the antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, egg yolk, and their one-day-old offspring were investigated. In a 9 wk experiment, 210 60-week-old Arbor Acres healthy female broiler breeders were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 7 females and fed a corn and soybean meal diet with 5 arginine levels (0.96%, 1.16%, 1.36%, 1.56%, and 1.76% digestible arginine). Laying performance and anti-oxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring were evaluated. Digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet had a significant effect on the laying rate (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.0001). The highest laying rate was obtained when the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. There was a significant effect of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) concentration in the broiler breeder serum, egg yolk and serum, and liver and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.05). The T-AOC level was highest and the MDA concentration lowest in all tissues when a diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. No difference in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in the broiler breeder serum was observed. There were significant effects of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the GSH-PX activity of the egg yolk (linear effect, P<0.01; quadratic effect, P<0.05) and serum, liver, and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P≤0.01). The GSH-PX activity in all tissues measured in this experiment was highest when the dietary digestible arginine was 1.36%. These results indicate that the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine (1,972 mg/d) is optimal to satisfy the nutritional needs of a female broiler breeder during the late laying period.

  1. Studies on some feed additives and materials giving partial protection against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A on egg production of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stoev, Stoycho D

    2010-06-01

    The protective effects of various feed supplements against the harmful effect of ochratoxin A on egg production and sexual maturation of two-weeks old Plymouth Rock female chicks designed for laying hens were studied. A significant protective effect of the feed additives or materials: water extract of artichoke (WEA), sesame seed (SS), Roxazyme-G (RG) and l-beta phenylalanine (PHE) against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on egg production of laying hens was found. A similar protection was also seen on the toxic effect of OTA on various internal organs of the same hens. A significant protection was found against the decrease of the weight or the quantity of eggs as well as against the delay of the beginning of the laying period of chicks, both of which were provoked by ochratoxin A. These protective effects were strongest in chicks treated with SS or WEA, but were slightest in chicks treated with l-beta PHE.

  2. Using different ratios of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for moult induction and post-moult performance in commercial laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, L; Sadeghi, Gh

    2009-03-01

    1. The applicability of different ratios of bitter vetch seed as a new method for moult induction in laying hens was studied. The effectiveness of bitter vetch seed on post-moult production and post-moult egg quality was also investigated. 2. A total of 120 Single Comb White Leghorn hens, 78 weeks of age, were used in this study. The hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups of 24 birds each. The treatments were 30% bitter vetch seed (BV30) diet, 60% bitter vetch seed (BV60) diet, 90% bitter vetch seed (90BV) diet, feed withdrawal method (FW) and full-fed non-moulted control (CON). 3. Egg production ceased first in FW and BV90 treated hens and last in BV30 treated hens. As the percentage of bitter vetch seed increased in the moulting ration, feed intake decreased and body weight loss increased during the 10-d moult induction period. Time to first egg production was significantly greater in hens exposed to the FW and BV90 diets. 4. FW and BV90 treatment hens had significantly higher hen-d egg production than non-moulted control hens. Egg weight was significantly higher in BV30 and BV90 treatments. There were no differences in egg mass, feed intake and mortality among experimental treatments during the post-moult period. 5. No significant improvements were observed in exterior or interior egg quality in moulted hens, except for Haugh units, which were significantly higher in moulted hens when compared to the non-moulted control hens. 6. In conclusion, the present study showed ad libitum feeding of a layer ration with 90% of bitter vetch seed for 10 d proved to be effective for inducing moult, increasing post-moult egg production and improving some internal egg quality parameters.

  3. Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Marono, S; Loponte, R; Lombardi, P; Vassalotti, G; Pero, M E; Russo, F; Gasco, L; Parisi, G; Piccolo, G; Nizza, S; Di Meo, C; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F

    2017-02-22

    The aim of the research was to study the effects of an insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae (HILM) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens, from 24 to 45 wk of age. A total of 108 24-week-old Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens was equally divided into 2 groups (54 hens/group, 9 replicates of 6 hens/group). From 24 to 45 wk of age, the groups were fed 2 different isoproteic and isoenergetic diets: the control group (SBM) was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, while in the HILM group the soybean meal was completely replaced by Hermetia illucens larvae meal. Feed intake, number of eggs produced, and egg weight were recorded weekly along the trial. At 45 wk of age, blood samples were collected from 2 hens per replicate. The use of HIML led to a more favorable (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio in hens but lay percentage, feed intake, average egg weight, and egg mass were higher (P < 0.01) in hens fed the SBM diet. Hens fed insect meal produced a higher percentage of eggs from small (S), medium (M), and extra-large (XL) classes (P < 0.01) than SBM, while the SBM group had a higher percentage of eggs from the large (L) class (P < 0.01). The levels of globulin and albumin to globulin ratio were, respectively, higher and lower (P < 0.05) in HILM than the SBM group. Cholesterol and triglycerides were higher (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) in hens from SBM than in the HILM group. Blood levels of Ca were higher (P < 0.01) in hens fed insect meal, while creatinine was higher (P < 0.01) in blood of hens fed SBM. Hermetia illucens larvae meal can be a suitable alternative protein source for laying hens even if the complete replacement of soybean meal needs further investigation to avoid the negative effects on feed intake.

  4. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering quality or production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kakani, Radhika; Fowler, Justin; Haq, Akram-Ul; Murphy, Eric J; Rosenberger, Thad A; Berhow, Mark; Bailey, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and extruding the seeds results in high protein meal (*40%) containing high levels of n-3 fatty acids. In this study, we examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina meal to commercial laying hens, measuring egg production, quality, and fatty acid composition. Lohmann White Leghorn hens (29 weeks old) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups (n = 25 per group) and data was collected over a 12 week production period. All the treatment groups were fed a corn soy based experimental diet containing 0% (control), 5, or 10% extruded camelina meal. We found no significant differences in percent hen-day egg production and feed consumed per dozen eggs. Egg shell strength was significantly higher in both camelina groups compared to the controls. Egg total n-3 fatty acid content increased 1.9- and 2.7-fold in 5 and 10% camelina groups respectively relative to the control. A similar increase in DHA content also occurred. Further camelina meal did not alter glucosinolate levels and no detectable glucosinolates or metabolic product isothiocyanates were found in the eggs from either the 5 or 10% camelina groups. These results indicate that camelina meal is a viable dietary source of n-3 fatty acids for poultry and its dietary inclusion results in eggs enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

  5. Effects of faba beans with different concentrations of vicine and convicine on egg production, egg quality and red blood cells in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lessire, M; Gallo, V; Prato, M; Akide-Ndunge, O; Mandili, G; Marget, P; Arese, P; Duc, G

    2016-12-29

    The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a potential source of proteins for poultry, mainly for laying hens whose protein requirements are lower than those of other birds such as growing broilers and turkeys. However, this feedstuff contains anti-nutritional factors, that is, vicine (V) and convicine (C) that are already known to reduce laying hen performance. The aim of the experiment reported here was to evaluate the effects of a wide range of dietary V and C concentrations in laying hens. Two trials were performed with laying hens fed diets including 20% or 25% of faba bean genotypes highly contrasting in V+C content. In Trial 1, faba beans from two tannin-containing cultivars, but with high or low V+C content were dehulled in order to eliminate the tannin effect. In addition to the contrasting levels of V+C in the two cultivars, two intermediate levels of V+C were obtained by mixing the two cultivars (70/30 and 30/70). In Trial 2, two isogenic zero-tannin faba bean genotypes with high or low V+C content were used. In both trials, a classical corn-soybean diet was also offered to control hens. Each experimental diet was given to 48 laying hens for 140 (Trial 1) or 89 (Trial 2) days. Laying performance and egg quality were measured. The redox sensitivity of red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by measuring hemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in these cells. Egg weight was significantly reduced by the diets containing the highest concentrations of V+C (P<0.0001) in Trial 1 and slightly reduced (P<0.10) in Trial 2, but only weak linear relationships between egg weight and dietary V+C concentration were established. No negative effect of V+C level was observed for egg quality parameters. In contrast, certain parameters (i.e. Haugh units, yolk color) were improved by feeding low V+C diets (P<0.05). Hemolysis of RBCs was higher in hens fed high V+C diets. A decrease in GSH concentration in RBCs of hens fed the highest levels of V+C was observed. Faba bean

  6. Egg Production, Shell Thickness, and Other Physiological Parameters of Laying Hens Affected by T-2 Toxin1

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, R. D.; Doerr, J. A.; Hamilton, P. B.; Burmeister, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    T-2 toxin has been reported to cause severe oral lesions and neural disturbances in young broiler chickens. T-2 toxin, when added at a level of 20 μg per g of feed, caused oral lesions but no abnormal neural disturbances in young broiler chickens. T-2 toxin, when added at a level of 20 μg per g of feed, caused oral lesions but no abnormal neural symptoms in laying hens. T-2 toxin had no effect on either hemoglobin, hematocrit values, erythrocyte count, plasma glucose, prothrombin times, or the sizes of the liver, spleen, pancreas, and heart. Lipid content of the liver was not altered. Feed consumption, however, was reduced, as were the total plasma protein and lipid concentrations and the total leukocyte count. Most important economically was the lowered egg production and a thinner egg shell. The timing and severity of the symptoms suggest that T-2 toxin causes primary oral lesions that reduce feed consumption with a consequent reduction in serum proteins and lipids, which culminate in decreased egg production. The leucopenia and thinner egg shell may be independent systemic effects of T-2 toxin in laying hens. PMID:1147602

  7. Comparison of marine algae (Spirulina platensis) and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zahroojian, N; Moravej, H; Shivazad, M

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary marine algae (Spirulina platensis) on egg yolk colour, and compare the effectiveness of Spirulina and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour of laying hens fed on a wheat-based diet. In total, 160 Hy-line W36 laying hens of 63 weeks of age were studied by dividing them into 5 groups, 32 birds in each. Except for the control group (based on wheat and soyabean meal), the feed for three other groups contained 1·5, 2·0 and 2·5% of Spirulina; while one group contained synthetic pigments (BASF Lucantin® yellow: 30 mg/kg, and BASF Lucantin® red: 35 mg/kg). Egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight and egg yolk colour were determined. A significant increase in egg yolk colour was observed in the treatments that received the Spirulina and synthetic pigment, compared with the control diet. There were no significant differences between the treatments with 2·5% Spirulina and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour. Finally, the results indicated that the diet containing 2·5% Spirulina could be as effective as the diet with synthetic pigment in producing an agreeable egg yolk colour.

  8. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    An, S H; Kim, D W; An, B K

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01). A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01). The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05). These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry.

  9. In vitro fermentation response of laying hen cecal bacteria to combinations of fructooligosaccharide prebiotics with alfalfa or a layer ration.

    PubMed

    Donalson, L M; Kim, W K; Chalova, V I; Herrera, P; McReynolds, J L; Gotcheva, V G; Vidanovic, D; Woodward, C L; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of combining a prebiotic with alfalfa on fermentation by laying hen cecal bacteria. Cecal contents from laying hens were diluted to a 1:3,000 concentration with an anaerobic dilution solution and added to serum tubes filled with ground alfalfa or a layer ration with or without fructooligosaccharide (FOS) prebiotic. Samples were processed in an anaerobic hood, pressurized by using a pressure manifold, and incubated at 37 degrees C. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) and lactic acid concentrations were quantified at 6 and 24 h of substrate fermentation. In this study, fermentation of alfalfa resulted in greater production of acetate, VFA, and lactic acid compared with the layer ration. Although with a relative inconsistency in data between trials, the amendment of FOS to both alfalfa and the layer ration appeared to further increase fermentation as demonstrated by overall higher propionate, butyrate, VFA, and lactic acid concentrations. The effect was more pronounced after 24 h of fermentation, implying time constraints for the optimal production of fermentation products in the chicken gastrointestinal tract. These data indicate that in vitro cecal fermentation can be enhanced by the addition of FOS.

  10. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    An, S. H.; Kim, D. W.; An, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01). A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01). The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05). These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry. PMID:26954217

  11. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P < 0.05) in broilers than in laying hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values. Standardized ileal AA digestibility values for broilers were higher (P < 0.05) for BBP 1 and 4. Ileal CP digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P < 0.05) for broilers compared to laying hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values for 4 (histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, and valine) and 6 (histidine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine) indispensable and 3 (cysteine, glutamic acid, and proline) and 4 (cysteine, glutamic acid, proline, and serine) dispensable AA for corn 2 and corn 3, respectively. No difference in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of

  12. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age.

  13. Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of trace mineral supplementation on average egg weight and egg mass; the results did not differ regarding the source used. The increase in the levels of supplementation of Mn, Zn, and Cu provided a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the breaking strength and the percentage of eggshell. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in the egg loss and the number of mammillary buttons in the shell. The best results were obtained using diets supplemented with trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells.

  14. Bioefficacy comparison of organic manganese with inorganic manganese for eggshell quality in Hy-Line Brown laying hens.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J F; Wu, S G; Zhang, H J; Yue, H Y; Wang, J; Ji, F; Qi, G H

    2015-08-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the bioefficacy of organic compared with inorganic manganese (Mn) for eggshell quality. An amino acid-Mn complex or Mn sulfate monohydrate was used as the organic or inorganic Mn source. A total of six hundred forty-eight 50-wk-old layers (Hy-Line Brown) were divided into 9 groups; each group consisted of 6 replicates with 12 layers each. The feeding trial lasted 12 wk. During the first 4 wk of the feeding trial, the groups were fed a basal diet, which met the nutrient requirements of the layers, except for Mn. During the following 8 wk, 9 levels of Mn (inorganic Mn: 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg; organic Mn: 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were used to supplement, respectively, in the basal diet on an equimolar basis. An exponential regression model was applied to calculate the bioefficacy of organic Mn compared with the inorganic Mn. Dietary supplementation with either organic or inorganic Mn did not influence egg production and feed efficiency of (P > 0.05), and eggshell quality did not exhibit a significant response to dietary supplementation with Mn sources at 56 and 58 wk (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with either organic Mn or inorganic Mn significantly enhanced the thickness, breaking strength, and elastic modulus of the eggshells compared with the control group at the end of 62 wk (P < 0.05). At the end of 62 wk, the bioefficacy of organic Mn was 357% (shell thickness), 406% (breaking strength), 458% (elastic modulus), and 470% (eggshell Mn), as efficacious as inorganic Mn at equimolar levels. This study suggests that organic Mn enhances eggshell quality in aged laying hens compared with inorganic Mn.

  15. Assessment of producers' response to Salmonella biosecurity issues and uptake of advice on laying hen farms in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Gosling, R J; Martelli, F; Wintrip, A; Sayers, A R; Wheeler, K; Davies, R H

    2014-01-01

    High standards of biosecurity are known to reduce the risk of disease outbreaks; however, uptake of advice and implementation of biosecurity measures are dependent on many factors. This study assessed the uptake of targeted biosecurity advice by 60 laying hen farms provided during biosecurity audit visits. Advice was provided as bullet point cards focusing on specific areas identified as benefitting from improvement. These covered site entrance, site tidiness, vaccination, boot hygiene, hand hygiene, house tidiness, rodent control, fly control, red mite control and cleaning and disinfection between flocks. Background knowledge of Salmonella and biosecurity and farmers' willingness and intent to implement additional measures were assessed. About 50% of the principal decision-makers had basic background knowledge of Salmonella, with 22% considered well informed; almost all agreed that biosecurity could impact on Salmonella control and many appeared willing to implement additional biosecurity measures. Sixty-three per cent of study farms were categorised using the Defra Farmer Segmentation Model as Modern Family Businesses (MFBs), with 7-11% of farms being categorised as Custodian, Lifestyle Choice, Pragmatist or Challenged Enterprise; however, categorisation, did not determine uptake of advice. The most frequently used advice cards were boot hygiene, red mite control, hand hygiene, site entrance and cleaning and disinfection; uptake of advice ranged from 54 to 80% depending on the advice card. Uptake of advice by the farmers was encouraging, especially considering it was being provided by people other than their usual source of biosecurity information. Those who did not implement the recommended measures cited cost, difficulty of enforcement and practicality as the main reasons. However, the positive uptake of advice and implementation of recommended measures by many farmers demonstrates that targeted advice, discussed face to face with farmers, on a small number of

  16. Effects of energy concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens differing in initial body weight.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bonilla, A; Novoa, S; García, J; Mohiti-Asli, M; Frikha, M; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    The influence of AME(n) concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality traits was studied in Hy-Line brown egg-laying hens differing in initial BW from 24 to 59 wk of age. Eight treatments were arranged factorially with 4 diets varying in energy content (2,650, 2,750, 2,850, and 2,950 kcal of AME(n)/kg) and 2 initial BW of the hens (1,733 vs. 1,606 g). Each treatment was replicated 5 times (13 hens per replicate), and all diets had similar nutrient content per unit of energy. No interactions between energy content of the diet and initial BW of the hens were detected for any trait. An increase in energy concentration of the diet increased (linear, P < 0.05; quadratic P < 0.05) egg production, egg mass, energy efficiency (kcal of AME(n)/g of egg), and BW gain (P < 0.05) but decreased ADFI (linear, P < 0.001) and feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic P < 0.01). An increase in energy content of the diet reduced Haugh units and the proportion of shell in the egg (P < 0.01). Feed intake (114.6 vs. 111.1 g/hen per day), AME(n) intake (321 vs. 311 kcal/hen per day), egg weight (64.2 vs. 63.0 g), and egg mass (58.5 vs. 57.0 g) were higher for the heavier than for the lighter hens (P < 0.01), but feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs and energy efficiency were not affected. Eggs from the heavier hens had a higher proportion of yolk and lower proportion of albumen (P < 0.01) and shell (P < 0.05) than eggs from the lighter hens. Consequently, the yolk-to-albumen ratio was higher (P < 0.001) for the heavier hens. It is concluded that brown egg-laying hens respond with increases in egg production and egg mass to increases in AME(n) concentration of the diet up to 2,850 kcal/kg. Heavy hens had higher feed intake and produced heavier eggs and more egg mass than light hens. However, feed and energy efficiency were better for the lighter hens.

  17. Influence of sumac (Rhus Coriaria L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol and blood parameters in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Y; Salih, Y G

    2017-02-04

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) seed powder and ginger (Zingiber officinale) root powder on egg yolk fatty acid composition, blood/yolk cholesterol in laying hen. A total of 63 (ATAK-S: Domestic Turkish Laying Hens) laying hens (average weight: 1470 g each hen, 25-weeks of age) were assigned to seven treatment diets including sumac seed (S) and ginger root powder (G) at 0 g/kg (control), 10 g/kg (S1), 20 g/kg (S2), and 30 g/kg (S3); 10 g/kg (G1), 20 g/kg (G2), or 30 g/kg in rations respectively, for 8 weeks. After a two-week adaptation period to cages, the hens were allocated to 7 groups with 9 replicates of 1 hen in per cage each. The replications were allotted equally into the upper and lower cages to minimize the effects of cage level. In this study, egg yolk cholesterol had a decrease (p <0.05) in supplemented diet( sumac seed and ginger root powder). Fatty acid content in yolk; saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and rate of n6/n3 were not significant (p <0.05). However, dietary supplementation with sumac and ginger powder reduced and yolk/blood cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Supplementation of sumac and ginger affected on HDL, there was found a significant effect (p < 0.05) in treatment groups. Moreover, LDL positively decreased in all treatment groups compared with the control group. The findings of this study suggested that feeding sumac and ginger tend to be decreasing cholesterol levels in both yolk and blood on laying hens. It can be concluded that ginger root and sumac seed powder can be used as an effective feed additive to improve fatty acid composition and yolk and blood cholesterol in ATAK-S laying hens.

  18. Polyphenols in Eucalyptus leaves improved the egg and meat qualities and protected against ethanol-induced oxidative damage in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Chen, H; Li, W; Miao, J; Chen, N; Shao, X; Cao, Y

    2017-03-09

    Polyphenols in Eucalyptus leaves (PE) were value resources due to various pharmacological activities, but data on the effect on laying hens are very scare. This study was conducted to determine the effect of PE on the laying performance, egg traits, meat quality, antioxidant status and liver tissues of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 256-day-old Yueqinhuang laying hens were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (different levels of PE at 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.2 g/kg diet) for 63 days with 15 replicates per group. Addition of 0.8 g/kg PE not only improved the egg trait by increasing the eggshell thickness and decreasing MDA production and cholesterol content in the egg yolk, but also significantly enhanced meat quality of hens, as suggested by the increase pH45 min (p < .01) and a* value, and decrease drip loss rate (p < .01). Meanwhile, under acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage condition, supplementation of 0.8 g/kg PE enhanced the serum antioxidant status by increasing enzymatic activities (GSH-PX, T-SOD, T-AOC), inhibited oxidative damage and provided protective effect to liver tissue. In conclusion, addition of 0.8 g/kg PE not only improved the egg traits and meat quality without obvious adverse effects, but also increased the serum antioxidant status of the hens and protected their liver tissue from ethanol-induced oxidative damage. This study indicated that PE could be utilized as an effective feed additive for laying hens to improve health performance and egg traits.

  19. Effect of four environmental toxicants on plasma Ca and estradiol 17[beta] and hepatic P450 in laying hens

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.W.; Dziuk, P.J.; Francis, B.M. . Dept. of Animal Sciences)

    1994-05-01

    In a previous study, the authors found that administration of phenobarbital to laying hens was associated with an increase in content of liver cytochrome P450 and a reduction of estradiol (E2) in serum. Thus, the authors hypothesized that other xenobiotics such as environmental toxicants that affect P450 might also affect E2 in laying hens. In experiment 1, the authors examined the effect of four environmental pollutants, three of which induced different isoenzymes of P450 and one inhibitor, on circulating E2 and related reproductive functions. Aroclor 1254 (PCB), 20 mg/d; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), 40 mg/d; or benzo[a]pyrene (BZ), 5 mg/d, was administered for 5 d. An inhibitor, lead acetate, was injected for 2 d. Controls received corn oil or sodium acetate. No significant difference was observed due to administration of lead. Treatment with PCB or DDT decreased the concentration of E2 and increased P450. Only PCB significantly decreased plasma total calcium and egg lay. Therefore in experiment 2, the authors determined the dose-response effect of PCB. The PCB was given orally at doses of 0, 5, 10, and 25 mg in corn oil for 5 d. The depression of concentrations of E2 was associated with the induction of P450 in a dose-dependent manner. Egg production and plasma total calcium were reduced by the two highest doses, but eggshell thickness was not different from control in all regimens. Plasma E2 and plasma total calcium were negatively correlated with induction of P450. BZ is not a strong inducer of P450 and had no effect on E2 or reproduction, whereas DDT and PCB had a profound effect on P450 with consequent depression of circulating E2. These data indicate that the effects of environmental pollutants on reproduction in birds can be mediated through increased P450, thereby increasing the metabolism of steroid hormones and depressing concentration in circulation.

  20. The influence of year, laying date, egg fertility and incubation, individual hen, hen age and mass and clutch size on maternal immunoglobulin Y concentration in captive Steller's and spectacled eider egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Counihan, Katrina L; Maniscalco, John M; Bozza, Maryann; Hendon, Jill M; Hollmén, Tuula E

    2015-09-01

    Steller's eiders and spectacled eiders are sea duck species whose populations have declined significantly and infectious diseases could influence offspring survival. Therefore, the maternal transfer of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) into yolk was investigated in captive Steller's and spectacled eiders during the 2007-2013 breeding seasons. This project had two objectives: establish baseline IgY levels in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk under controlled captive conditions and evaluate the effect of year, laying date, egg fertility, egg incubation duration, individual hen, hen age and mass, and laying order to determine which variables influenced IgY levels. Average IgY concentrations were 0.03-0.48 mg ml(-1) in Steller's eider yolk and 0.10-0.51 mg ml(-1) in spectacled eider yolk. The year and individual hen influenced IgY concentration in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk. The laying date was negatively correlated with egg IgY levels for most Steller's eider hens, but laying order was positively correlated with egg IgY concentration for spectacled eiders.

  1. Comparison of selected haematological and biochemical indices and behaviour patterns of pheasant hens kept in different housing systems during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Voslarova, Eva; Bedanova, Iveta; Radisavljevic, Katarina; Hrabcakova, Petra; Marsalek, Petr; Vecerek, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Selected haematological and biochemical indices and behaviour patterns were monitored in cage-housed pheasant hens during the peak-of-lay egg laying period. Lower counts of monocytes (p = 0.035) and concentrations of plasma biopterin (p = 0.020) and higher concentrations of plasma neopterin (p = 0.005) and plasma phosphorus (p = 0.025) were found in spectacles-fitted pheasant hens kept in conventional cages compared to non-spectacled hens kept in enriched cages. Even more pronounced effects of the housing system were revealed by analysis of the behaviour of pheasant hens: spectacles-fitted pheasant hens kept in conventional cages exhibited higher occurrences of movement (p = 0.045), stereotyped behaviour (p = 0.039), and aggression (p = 0.004), and lower rates of feeding (p = 0.009), drinking (p < 0.001), defecation (p = 0.038), preening (p = 0.013), and feather pecking (p < 0.001). Our results show that the relatively easy and inexpensive enrichment of the cage environment (two perches, a simple hideout) where breeding groups of common pheasants are housed during the laying period can significantly contribute to the health and welfare (including the ability to express natural behaviour patterns) of pheasants kept in commercial cage systems.

  2. Dose-response feeding study of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in laying hens: effects on laying performance and tissue distribution, accumulation and elimination kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ueberschär, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven; Matthes, Siegfried

    2007-02-01

    Technical short chain chlorinated paraffins (C10-C13 with 60% chlorine) were fed to 93 laying hens from 24 to 32 weeks of age in increasing concentrations of up to 100 mg/kg feed. No significant influence on health, relative organ weights or performance (laying intensity, egg weight, feed consumption) was noted. The chlorinated paraffin content of the tissues was linearly related to the concentration of short chain paraffins of the feed. The highest concentrations were found in abdominal fat, egg yolk and fatty tissues. Breast muscle, egg albumen and bile fluid contained minimal or no residues. Less than 1% of the chlorinated paraffins ingested were incorporated into the body (without head, feet, gut and feathers), whereas about 1.5% were eliminated with the egg yolk and 30% were excreted with urine and faeces. A six-week kinetic depuration study revealed a biphasic elimination with half-lifes of 4-40 min (liver, kidneys, legs, fat, blood) for the initial rapid phase, and 15-30 days (blood, fat, liver, yolk, kidneys, legs) for the terminal slow phase.

  3. Effect of air velocity on laying hen performance and egg quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing convective cooling can improve performance and thermal comfort of commercial poultry when weather or system design limit cooling through other means such as evaporative cooling. Previous work in young hens showed increased egg production rate as feed intake is maintained under heat stres...

  4. The effects of housing environment on liver health of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty liver is a common energy metabolic disorder in caged hens. Considering that the egg industry is shifting from conventional cages to alternative housing systems such as enriched cages, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of type of housing, including access to perches, on f...

  5. Effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality, serum hormone levels, and expression of genes related to the reproductive axis in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Long, L; Wu, S G; Yuan, F; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Qi, G H

    2016-09-24

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality, serum hormone levels, and gene expression related to reproductive axis in laying hens to confirm the reproduction-promoting function of octacosanol. In total, 360 Hy-Line Brown (67-wk-old) laying hens were randomly assigned to one of three treatments with 0, 5, and 10 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for 10 weeks. The results showed that the dietary addition of 5 and 10 mg/kg octacosanol improved feed efficiency by 4.9% and 3.4% (P < 0.01), increased the albumen height by 20.5% and 13.3% (P < 0.01), the Haugh unit score by 12.9% and 8.7% (P < 0.01), and the eggshell strength by 39.5% and 24.5% (P < 0.01), respectively, compared with the control diet. Dietary octacosanol addition significantly affected serum triiodothyronine, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone levels (P < 0.05), and progesterone and luteinizing hormone level (P < 0.01). Compared with the control, dietary addition of octacosanol at 5 mg/kg promoted the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) mRNA expression in different-sized follicles, and significantly increased the FSHR mRNA expression of granulosa cells from the F2 and F3 follicles (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with both 5 and 10 mg/kg octacosanol promoted the mRNA expression of luteinizing hormone receptor and prolactin receptor in different-sized follicles, and significantly up-regulated the expression levels in F1 granulosa cells (P < 0.05). The ovarian weight was significantly increased with the dietary addition of 5 mg/kg octacosanol (P < 0.05). The numbers of small yellow follicles and large white follicles were increased with the addition of dietary 5 and 10 mg/kg octacosanol (P < 0.01). This study provides evidence that octacosanol has the capacity to improve reproductive performance, indicating that it is a potentially effective

  6. Effects of Prelay 6/85-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Alone or in Conjunction with the Inoculation of F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum During Lay on the Blood Characteristics of Commercial Egg-Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of 6/85 Mycoplasma gallisepticum (6/85MG) inoculation alone or in conjunction with F-strain M. Gallisepticum (FMG) overlays and their timing on the blood characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens were investigated. Control birds received sham inoculations at 10 wk of age. Birds in ...

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation with a probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) on production performance, excreta microflora, ammonia emission, and nutrient utilization in ISA brown laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, J W; Jeong, J S; Lee, S I; Kim, I H

    2016-12-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to resistance issues has urged scientists to find alternatives to antibiotics. Entercoccus faecium is one of the probiotics which have been used as an alternative to antibiotics in the livestock industry. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation on production performance, feed intake, egg quality, excreta microflora, ammonia emission, and nutrient utilization in laying hens. A total of 288 ISA brown laying hens were used in a 27 wk feeding experiment and randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicates of 12 birds each. The treatments were CON (basal diet), PB1 (basal diet + 0.005% E. faecium), and PB2 (basal diet + 0.01% E. faecium). Overall, our results demonstrated that E. faecium supplementation resulted in a significant increase in egg production, egg shell thickness, and nutrient digestibility (dry matter, nitrogen, and energy) in laying hens, and a significant reduction in fecal coliform counts as compared with CON. The shift of excreta fecal microbial composition by E. faecium supplementation was accompanied by increased nutrient retention and reduction in nutrient excretion, leading to improved nutrient digestibility and reduced excreta ammonia emission. Overall, E. faecium supplementation appears to have a beneficial effect in ISA brown laying hens and should be considered as a positive diet supplement to use in the industry.

  8. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency of human infections with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has been linked to contaminated eggs and thus to SE prevalence in commercial egg-laying flocks. Contamination of the edible contents of eggs is a consequence of SE colonization of reproductive tissues in systemically infected hens. T...

  9. Effects of Time-Specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Overlays on Prelay ts-11-strain M. gallisepticum Vaccination on Blood Characteristics of Commercial Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay ts-11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (ts-11MG) vaccination alone or in combination with subsequent time specific F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculations on the blood characteristics of commercial laying hens. The following 4 treat...

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of Ligustrum lucidum on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; He, W L; Yang, M L; Yan, Y M; Xue, Y H; Zhao, S T

    2017-03-16

    The fruit of Ligustrum lucidum (FLL, Nuzhenzi in Chinese) is an important traditional medicine, and have attracted significant research attention because of their various biological activities. However, there are few research reports available on the use of FLL as a feed additive in livestock nutrition, particularly in layers. This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementation of the diet of laying hens with FLL on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites. A total of 360 72-week-old hens were allocated to three dietary treatments (eight replications of 15 hens/treatment group) and were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with an inclusion level of 0.25% or 0.50% of FLL powder in the final feed, until 78 weeks of age. Hens were housed in a three-tier cage system. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Blood samples and eggs were collected at the end of the experiment. The results showed that dietary supplementation with FLL did not affect egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell thickness, albumen height, egg yolk color, eggshell breaking strength or egg shape index. However, FLL supplementation significantly decreased (P<0.001) mortality, cracked-egg rate and blood serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase, and increased (P<0.001) blood serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No differences in serum levels of total protein, albumin, glucose, calcium, aspartate aminotransferase or alkaline phosphatase were observed in hens fed FLL compared with the control group. It can be concluded that FLL, at a supplementation level of 0.25% final feed, can be used as an effective feed additive to improve the performance of laying hens during the late laying period.

  11. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, specific gravity, Haugh unit, and shell percentage were significantly affected by the addition of SMP. In conclusion, in our study, SMP added to a diet containing L. acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics.

  12. Oral immunisation of laying hens with the live vaccine strains of TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T reduces internal egg contamination with Salmonella Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Gantois, Inne; Ducatelle, Richard; Timbermont, Leen; Boyen, Filip; Bohez, Lotte; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; van Immerseel, Filip

    2006-09-11

    Eggs are a major source of human infections with Salmonella. Therefore controlling egg contamination in laying hen flocks is one of the main targets for control programmes. A study was carried out to assess the effect of oral vaccination with TAD Salmonella vac E, TAD Salmonella vac T and with both vaccines TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T, on colonization of the reproductive tract and internal egg contamination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis. Three groups of 30 laying hens were vaccinated at 1 day, 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age with either one of the vaccine strains, or a combination of both vaccine strains, while a fourth group was left unvaccinated. At 24 weeks of age, the birds were intravenously challenged with 0.5 ml containing 5 x 10(7)cfu Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 S1400/94. The number of oviducts from which Salmonella was isolated, was significantly lower in the vaccinated than in the non-vaccinated hens at 3 weeks post-challenge. Significantly less egg contents were Salmonella positive in the birds vaccinated with TAD Salmonella vac E or TAD Salmonella vac T (12/105 batches of eggs in both groups) than in the unvaccinated birds (28/105 batches of eggs). Internal egg contamination in the hens vaccinated with both TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T was even more reduced, as over the whole experiment, only one batch of eggs was positive. In conclusion, these data indicate that vaccination of laying hens with these live vaccines could be considered as a valuable tool in controlling internal egg contamination.

  13. Influence of substituting dietary soybean for air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) meal on egg production and steroid hormones in early-phase laying hens.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Nahashon, S N; Introna, M; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-02-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely and expensive protein source used in the formulation of poultry diets; however, when the price of SBM increases, poultry nutritionists seek alternative sources that are more economical in formulating least-cost rations. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary air-classified sunflower meal (SFM) on some productive parameters and plasma steroid hormones in laying hens. In this trial, 20-week-old laying hens (ISA Brown strain) in the early phase of production were randomly assigned to two groups and fed wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean (135 g/kg; 48% CP) or air-classified SFM (160 g/kg; 41% CP) as the main protein source. Laying performance, egg size and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 week. Plasma steroid hormones (progesterone and oestradiol) in the hens were quantified weekly. Substituting SBM with air-classified SFM did not change (p > 0.05) the hens' growth performance, whereas feed consumption and efficiency were positively influenced (p < 0.05) by SFM treatment. Egg production rate was improved in hens fed the SFM diet (p < 0.05), as well as the percentage of medium-size eggs that was higher for SFM treatment (p < 0.05). Steroid hormones levels were affected by dietary treatment (p < 0.01). From our findings, it could be effective to include air-classified SFM in early-phase laying hen diets as an alternative protein source substituting SBM, without negative influence on productive performance and egg traits, reducing also the production costs.

  14. The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens.

    PubMed

    Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Kim, J S; Lohakare, J D; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

    2013-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens.

  15. The Effects of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on Cholesterol Metabolism, Egg Production and Quality Parameters during the Late Laying Periods in Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Anushka; Ingale, S. L.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lohakare, J. D.; Chae, B. J.; Kwon, I. K.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Rhodobacter capsulatus KCTC-2583 on egg-yolk and serum cholesterol, egg production and quality parameters during the late laying periods in hens. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (54 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each (40 birds per treatment). Two hens were confined individually with cage size 35×35×40 cm and each 10 birds (5 cages) shared a common feed trough between them forming one experimental unit. Dietary treatments were; basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Experimental diets were fed in meal form for 56 d. Dietary supplementation of increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 reduced (linear, p<0.05) egg-yolk cholesterol and triglycerides (d 28, 42 and 56) concentrations. Also, serum cholesterol and triglycerides (d 21, 42 and 56) concentrations were linearly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing dietary R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Laying hens fed a diet supplemented with increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 had increased (linear; p<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency. However, dietary treatments had no effect (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on feed intake of laying hens. At d 28 and 56, breaking strength and yolk colour of eggs were linearly improved (p<0.05) in laying hens fed dietary increasing levels of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583. Dietary treatment had no effects (linear or quadratic; p>0.05) on albumin height, shell thickness and shell weight at any period of experiment. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus KCTC-2583 has the potential to improve the laying hen performance and lead to the development of low cholesterol eggs during late laying period in Hy-Line Brown hens. PMID:25049857

  16. Effect of starting body fat content and genotype of laying hens on the changes in their live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition during the first egg-laying period.

    PubMed

    Milisits, G; Szentirmai, E; Donkó, T; Budai, Z; Ujvári, J; Áprily, S; Bajzik, G; Sütő, Z

    2015-01-01

    A total 120 laying hens (60 TETRA BLANCA white egg layers and 60 TETRA SL brown egg layers) were selected from 250 TETRA BLANCA and 250 TETRA SL pullets based on their predicted body fat content by means of computed tomography (CT) at 16 weeks of age. Three groups of pullets were chosen for the investigation with the highest (n = 20), lowest (n = 20) and average (n = 20) body fat content. Changes in the live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition of the chosen animals were recorded at 32, 52 and 72 weeks of age. Based on the results, it was established that differences in starting body fat content of the hens remained the same during the experimental period. The differences between the two extreme groups were statistically significant at each age. The starting body fat content of the hens affected the rate of egg production, i.e. hens with high starting body fat content produced 11-14 eggs fewer than the hens with a low or average body fat content but had no effect on the composition of the eggs. Genotype affected almost all of the examined traits: TETRA BLANCA hens had lower live weight and higher body fat content during the experimental period and produced fewer eggs with lower albumen and higher yolk, dry matter and crude fat content than the TETRA SL hens.

  17. Evaluation of the microclimate in poultry transport module drawers during the marketing process of end-of-lay hens from farm to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Richards, G J; Wilkins, L J; Weeks, C A; Knowles, T G; Brown, S N

    2012-11-10

    Changes in module drawer temperature and relative humidity were monitored for 24 commercial loads of hens. Mathematical models revealed significant differences in predicted drawer temperature depending on their location and the outside environmental temperature. Higher predicted temperatures were found in uppermost drawers of the top modules at the front of the lorry, and lower temperatures in drawers on the outer sides of modules and in those drawers in modules next to the back of the lorry in both the upper and lower modules during transport. In the lairage, drawer temperature generally decreased, except in drawers at the top of modules where temperatures increased. Temperature increases were most often recorded in modules which had been located at the rear of the lorry, which were generally cooler during transport. End-of-lay hens would appear to be exposed to a greater risk of cold stress rather than heat stress in the UK. Inspection of birds during transport, or upon arrival, should be directed to the bottom and side drawers of a load when looking for cold stress, and the top row of drawers (centre) of the top modules when looking for heat stress. The frequency of inspections should increase at times of high ambient temperature while the birds are being held in lairages. Adjusting the numbers of birds loaded per drawer according to bird condition and weather appears to be an effective mitigation strategy which is already in use commercially.

  18. Succession and Replacement of Bacterial Populations in the Caecum of Egg Laying Hens over Their Whole Life

    PubMed Central

    Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Lukac, Maja; Faldynova, Marcela; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we characterised the development of caecal microbiota in egg laying hens over their commercial production lifespan, from the day of hatching until 60 weeks of age. Using pyrosequencing of V3/V4 variable regions of 16S rRNA genes for microbiota characterisation, we were able to define 4 different stages of caecal microbiota development. The first stage lasted for the first week of life and was characterised by a high prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae (phylum Proteobacteria). The second stage lasted from week 2 to week 4 and was characterised by nearly an absolute dominance of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae (both phylum Firmicutes). The third stage lasted from month 2 to month 6 and was characterised by the succession of Firmicutes at the expense of Bacteroidetes. The fourth stage was typical for adult hens in full egg production aged 7 months or more and was characterised by a constant ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes formed by equal numbers of the representatives of both phyla. PMID:25501990

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of a calcium pump and calbindin-D28k in the oviduct of the laying hen.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, R H; Smith, C A; Smith, C M; Brindak, M E; Fullmer, C S; Krook, L; Penniston, J T; Kumar, R

    1991-01-01

    The localization of a plasma membrane calcium pump in the oviduct of the laying hen was investigated by immunohistochemical techniques, utilizing a monoclonal antibody (5F10) produced against the human erythrocyte calcium pump. This antibody was shown to react with an epitope of the pump in oviductal tissue, and prominent staining was observed on the microvilli of the tubular gland cells of the hen shell gland (uterus) and the isthmus. The Ca2+ pump was not detectable in the infundibulum or the magnum. Calbindin-D28k, also localized by immunohistochemical means, was observed to be present in the tubular gland cells of the shell gland and the distal isthmus (adjacent to shell gland) but not in either the proximal isthmus (adjacent to the magnum), the magnum or the infundibulum. The localization of the Ca2+ pump in the oviduct corresponds to known sites of mineral deposition during egg shell formation. The distribution of calbindin-D28k differed, co-localizing with the Ca2+ pump in the shell gland and distal isthmus but not in the proximal isthmus. This might reflect a greater rate of active Ca2+ secretion in the distal isthmus and shell gland as compared to the proximal isthmus.

  20. Effects of nitrocompounds on uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Weeks, L J; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J; Dunkley, K; Ricke, S C

    2009-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of nitrocompounds on growth of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure. There were three treatments: control, 100 mM nitropropanol (NPL), and 100 mM nitropropionic acid (NPC). The mixed laying hen manure was divided into 3 groups and incubated at 23 degrees C for 7 days. On Days 0, 3, and 7, samples were collected to measure the quantity of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, total nitrogen retention, and microbial community changes. Both nitrocompounds significantly reduced growth of the uric acid-utilizing microorganisms on Day 3 (P < 0.05). Inhibitory effects of both nitrocompounds remained until Day 7 when the experiment was terminated. NPL treatment retained significantly more manure nitrogen compared to the control on both Days 3 and 7. Manure nitrogen levels of NPC treatment were also significantly higher than the control on Day 7. We further investigated the effects of NPL and NPC on microbial community changes during a 7-day incubation. NPC treatment and control on Day 7 exhibited 94% community similarity. NPC on Day 3 and NPL on Day 7 also showed high community similarity (approximately 94%). Control on Day 0 and Day 7 yielded less than 80% community similarity. Control and NPL treatment groups on Day 3 gave the lowest community similarity (approximately 64%) compared to the other groups. This result indicated that incubation time and treatment moderately influenced microbial community changes. In summary, these results indicate that both nitrocompounds increased manure nitrogen retention by inhibiting the growth of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, and that NPL and NPC could be used as manure treatments in order to reduce ammonia volatilization and nitrogen retention in poultry manure. Moreover, nitrocompounds may have potential as feed additives to reduce ammonia volatilization.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of Repeated Sodium Salicylate Administration to Laying Hens: Evidence for Time Dependent Increase in Drug Elimination from Plasma and Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Poźniak, Błażej; Grabowski, Tomasz; Motykiewicz-Pers, Karolina; Bobrek, Kamila; Rak, Lech; Bobusia, Katarzyna; Gaweł, Andrzej; Świtała, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus) salicylate (SA) may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS) to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT), minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h) and elimination half-life (T1/2el) of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB) increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment. PMID:25893240

  2. Modulation of energy and protein supplies in sequential feeding in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Traineau, M; Bouvarel, I; Mulsant, C; Roffidal, L; Launay, C; Lescoat, P

    2015-01-01

    Sequential feeding (SF) consists of splitting energy (E) and protein/calcium (P) fractions temporally, improving the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of hens compared with a continuous distribution during the day. In a previous study, the E fraction (with a low level of protein) was provided in the morning, whereas the P fraction (with low level of energy) was given in the afternoon. However, there is no clear evidence that a requirement in energy or proteins is connected to these distribution sequences, whereas the requirement for calcium is known to be required in the afternoon. To evaluate the effects on performances of the modulation of energy and protein supplies in SF, five different sequential treatments were offered: E0P0/E0P0; E+P+/E-P-; E+P-/E-P+; E0P+/E0P- and E+P0/E-P0 where E+ represents a high energy level, E0 a moderate one and E- a low one (with the same meaning for P regarding protein supply). Afternoon fractions were provided with particulate calcium. A total of 168 Hendrix hens were housed in individual cages from 20 to 39 weeks of age in two environmentally contrasted rooms. Feed intake in the morning and afternoon fractions, egg production, egg weight, BW and weight of digestive organs were recorded. No diet effect was observed concerning feed intake, egg production and BW. These results suggested that hens are not able to fit their feed intake on energy or protein level of fractions within half-day duration, whereas at the day scale same protein and energy intakes were observed. Moreover, the time of nutrient distribution in feeding did not seem to have an impact on birds' performances. These studies have also demonstrated that, despite strong environmental pressure, the hens with SF had attenuated performance but continue to produce eggs.

  3. Effects of a premolt calcium and low-energy molt program on laying hen behavior and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios.

    PubMed

    Dickey, E R; Bregendahl, K; Stalder, K; Fitzgerald, R; Johnson, A K

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the behaviors, postures, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (H:L) of laying hens housed in a cage system when offered a Ca premolt treatment and low-energy molt diets vs. a traditional feed withdrawal (FW) treatment during and after molt. A total of 144 Hy-Line W-36 hens (85 wk of age), housed 3 hens/cage (413 cm(2)/hen), were used. Hens were allotted to treatments according to a randomized complete block design, with the cage location and initial BW as the blocking criteria. Six treatments were compared in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 Ca premolt treatments (fine or coarse) and 3 low-energy molt diets (FW, soybean hulls, or wheat middlings). The 2 Ca premolt treatments differed only in Ca particle size (fine was 0.14 mm and coarse was 2.27 mm mean diameter). Two postures and 5 behaviors were recorded and H:L was measured. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS, with P < 0.05 considered significant. There were no differences in behaviors, postures, or H:L during the premolt baseline period. The Ca premolt treatment had no carryover effects during or after molt for behaviors or postures. During molt, hens in the FW treatment were more active, and they ate and drank less compared with hens fed soybean hulls or wheat middlings, but there were no differences in aggression, nonnutritive pecking, or sitting. Drinking and aggression during and after molt were not different, but hens postmolt engaged in more sitting and feeding and less activity, nonnutritive pecking, and preening compared with during molt. There were no differences in H:L during or after molt. In conclusion, a Ca premolt treatment did not affect the behavior of the laying hen. The low-energy molt diets did not adversely affect behavior compared with FW and did not increase H:L; therefore, they could be useful alternatives for inducing molt in laying hens.

  4. Effect of light-emitting diode (LED) vs. fluorescent (FL) lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 2 - Egg quality, shelf-life and lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Xin, H; Hansen, H; Ning, Z; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    In this 60-wk study, egg quality, egg shelf-life, egg cholesterol content, total yolk lipids, and yolk fatty acid composition of eggs produced by Dekalb white laying hens in commercial aviary houses with either light-emitting diode (LED) or fluorescent (FL) lighting were compared. All parameters were measured at 27, 40, and 60 wk of age, except for egg shelf-life, which was compared at 50 wk of age. The results showed that, compared to the FL regimen, the LED regimen resulted in higher egg weight, albumen height, and albumen weight at 27 wk of age, thicker shells at 40 wk of age, but lower egg weight at 60 wk of age. Egg quality change was similar between the lighting regimens during the 62-d egg storage study, indicating that LED lighting did not influence egg shelf-life. Eggs from both lighting regimens had similar cholesterol content. However, cholesterol concentration of the yolk (15.9 to 21.0 mg cholesterol/g wet weight yolk) observed in this study was higher than that of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database (10.85 mg/g). No significant differences in total lipids or fatty acid composition of the yolks were detected between the two lighting regimens.

  5. Effects of dietary fiber and reduced crude protein on nitrogen balance and egg production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S A; Xin, H; Kerr, B J; Russell, J R; Bregendahl, K

    2007-08-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern for the poultry industry and can be lowered by dietary inclusion of fibrous ingredients and by lowering the dietary CP content. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of dietary fiber and reduced-CP diets, which may lower NH(3) emission, on egg production and N balance in laying hens. A total of 256 Hy-Line W-36 hens were fed diets with 2 contents of CP (normal and reduced) and 4 fiber treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement from 23 to 58 wk of age. The fiber treatments included a corn and soybean meal-based control diet and diets formulated with either 10.0% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 7.3% wheat middlings (WM), or 4.8% soybean hulls (SH) added to contribute equal amounts of neutral detergent fiber. The CP contents of the reduced-CP diets were approximately 1 percentage unit lower than that of the normal-CP diets. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis to be isoenergetic. There were no effects (P > 0.05) of including corn DDGS, WM, or SH in the diet on egg production, egg weight, egg mass, yolk color, feed consumption, feed utilization, or BW gain. Although the corn DDGS and WM diets resulted in an increase (P < 0.001) in N consumption, N excretion was not affected (P > 0.10) compared with hens fed the control diet. The reduced-CP diets did not affect egg weight, feed consumption, or BW gain (P > 0.05); however, egg production, egg mass, feed utilization, N consumption, and N excretion were lower than that from the hens fed the normal-CP diets (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that the diets containing 10% corn DDGS, 7% WM, or 5% SH did not affect egg production or N excretion. However, the 1% lower CP diets caused a lower egg production and lower N excretion.

  6. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the productivity of laying hens and egg quality during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shang, X G; Wang, F L; Li, D F; Yin, J D; Li, J Y

    2004-10-01

    Five hundred and four 40-wk-old Brown Dwarf hens (1.51 +/- 0.08 kg BW) were fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to measure the effects of dietary CLA on laying hen productivity and egg quality during refrigerated storage. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of egg yolks. From d 12 to 18, eggs from hens fed diets containing 0, 2, 4, and 6% CLA diets were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 28 d. At designated times (1, 14, or 28 d), eggs were taken, broken, and shelled to evaluate water content, pH, and ion concentration. Firmness of hard-cooked egg yolk was also determined. With increased dietary CLA, feed intake, BW gain, rate of egg production, egg weight, and feed efficiency all decreased linearly (P < 0.01). The weight of the yolk, albumen, and shell decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Concentration of CLA in the yolk lipids increased quadratically (P < 0.01), with increasing dietary CLA. Concurrent increases (P < 0.01) in the concentration of myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids and decreases (P < 0.01) in oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and archidonic acids in egg yolk lipids were observed. Days of storage and CLA (P < 0.01) increased yolk firmness. Egg yolk water content and pH increased with storage and CLA content (P < 0.01). Corresponding decreases were observed in albumen pH. Regardless of dietary treatment, the concentrations of Na, K, and Mg in egg yolks increased with longer storage time. At 28 d of storage, there was a linear (P < 0.01) increase in Na, K, and Mg content in egg yolks as dietary CLA increased. In contrast to the egg yolk, the concentrations of Na, K, and Mg in egg albumen decreased with storage time. On d 28, there was a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in the Na content of

  7. Changes in hepatic lipid parameters and hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid expression following estradiol administration in laying hens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Lee, B K; Kim, J S; Ahn, H J; Hwang, J H; Kim, J M; Lee, H T; An, B K; Kang, C W

    2010-12-01

    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is characterized by increased hepatic triacylglycerol content associated with liver hemorrhages and results in a sudden decline in egg production. Genetic, environmental, nutritional, and hormonal factors have all been implicated in the etiology of FLHS, but the exact cause of FLHS is still unknown. Estrogens have been implicated in the development of excess fat content of the liver and in the etiology of FLHS. This study investigated estradiol (E(2)) administration in hens and its effect on lipid metabolism. Hy-Line Brown laying hens were intramuscularly injected with E(2) on a daily basis for 3 wk. The dosages were 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg of BW, with corn oil injections used as a control. Egg production and quality were measured among the groups, with no significant difference seen in egg production. Liver weights of hens treated with E(2) were greater than those of control hens, but the increase was not statistically significant. Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities and E(2) plasma concentrations increased in a dose-dependent manner, with plasma concentration of E(2) increasing from 6,900 to 19,000 pg/mL. No significant differences in free cholesterol or phospholipids were observed, but there was a significant increase in hepatic triacylglycerol levels. Injection with E(2) showed an increased expression of mRNA for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (23-fold), but not for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. A statistically significant increase was seen for fatty acid synthase, apolipoprotein B, and adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase, but not for acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, apolipoprotein VLDL-II, microsomal triglyceride transport protein, or malic enzyme. For proteins involved in the oxidation of E(2), only cytochrome P450 3A37 showed a statistically significant increase. The present results suggest that E(2) upregulates the synthesis of fatty acids

  8. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer.

    PubMed

    Schaal, T P; Arango, J; Wolc, A; Brady, J V; Fulton, J E; Rubinoff, I; Ehr, I J; Persia, M E; O'Sullivan, N P

    2016-02-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dl), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dl). Data were analyzed using ANOVA to investigate the effect of production status as categorized by bird age. Trait relationships were evaluated by linear correlation and their spectral decomposition. All traits differed significantly among pullets and mature laying hens in both first and second lay cycles. Levels for K, iCa, Hct, pH, TCO2, HCO3, BE, sO2, and Hb differed significantly between first cycle and second cycle laying hens. Many venous blood gas and chemistry parameters were significantly correlated. The first 3 eigenvalues explained ∼2/3 of total variation. The first 2 principal components (PC) explained 51% of the total variation and indicated acid-balance and relationship between blood O2 and CO2. The third PC explained 16% of variation and seems to be related to blood iCa. Establishing reference ranges for pullet and laying hen blood gas and chemistry with the i-STAT®1 handheld unit provides a mechanism to further investigate pullet and layer physiology, evaluate metabolic disturbances, and may potentially serve as a means to select breeder candidates with optimal blood gas or chemistry levels on-farm.

  9. Effects of litter provision during early rearing and environmental enrichment during the production phase on feather pecking and feather damage in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Tahamtani, F M; Brantsæter, M; Nordgreen, J; Sandberg, E; Hansen, T B; Nødtvedt, A; Rodenburg, T B; Moe, R O; Janczak, A M

    2016-12-01

    Feather pecking is a multi-factorial behavioral disorder and a serious welfare issue in the poultry industry. Several studies report early life experience with litter to be a major determinant in the development of feather pecking. The current study aimed to test the large-scale on-farm efficiency of a simple and cheap husbandry procedure applied during the rearing period with the ultimate goal of reducing the incidence of feather pecking and plumage damage during the production stage in laying hens. Five laying hen-rearing farmers from across Norway participated in the study. These farmers were asked to create divisions within their hen rearing houses and to separate their chicks into 2 groups: one reared with access to a paper substrate from the first d of age, the other a control group without access to paper substrate during rearing. All flocks were visited at the production farms at 30 wk of age and observed for pecking behavior and feather damage. Birds in the control group had higher odds of having more feather damage compared to the birds from the treatment group. In addition, flocks provided with environmental enrichment at the production farms had a reduced incidence of feather pecking, irrespective of the treatment. These results indicate that husbandry procedures during both rearing and production stages have the potential to alleviate feather pecking and increase laying hen welfare.

  10. Productive performance, egg quality, blood constituents, immune functions, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens fed diets with different levels of Yucca schidigera extract.

    PubMed

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; El-Kholy, Mohamed S

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera extract on productive performance, egg quality, blood metabolites, immune function, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens. A total of 96 36-week-old hens were allocated into four groups, the control diet or the diet supplemented with 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg of yucca extract, from 36 to 52 weeks of age. Hens were divided into four equal groups replicated six times with four hens per replicate. As a result of this study, there were no linearly or quadratically differences in body weight change (BWC), feed consumption (FC), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and egg weight (EW) due to yucca treatments at different ages, except FCR and EW that were improved with yucca supplementation during 36-40 weeks of age. Supplemental dietary yucca up to 100 mg/kg diet led to significant improvement in egg number (EN) and egg mass (EM). Egg qualities were not linearly or quadratically affected by yucca treatments except shell thickness was quadratically (P < 0.001) increased with increasing yucca level up to 100 mg/kg diet. Dietary supplementation of yucca exhibited a positive impact on albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Comparing to the control group, yucca addition to laying hen diets resulted in a significant linear (P < 0.001) and quadratic (P = 0. 010) decrease in blood ammonia-N and urea-N, respectively. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level in serum were quadratically improved in yucca groups. The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased with yucca addition in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, yucca supplemented up to 100 mg/kg diet can be used as effective feed additive to improve productive performance, blood profile, and antioxidant enzyme activities in laying hens.

  11. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.05) and percentage of large-size eggs (P < 0.05) that were improved in hens fed the low-fiber SFM diet. Including low-fiber SFM decreased serum and egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Our results suggest that the replacement of conventional soybean with low-fiber sunflower meal may be a valid alternative in diets for laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs.

  12. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. II: live weight, health measures and perching.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems, where conveyor belts below the tiers remove the manure at regular intervals, are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on live weight, health measures and perching are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough, and perch access at the lowest stocking density (D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Hen live weight, mortality and foot health were not affected by the stocking densities used in the present study. Other variables (plumage condition, presence of breast redness and blisters, pecked tail feathers, and perch use) were indirectly affected by the increase in stocking density through the simultaneous reduction in access to other resources, mainly perches and troughs. The welfare of the hens was mostly affected by these associated constraints, despite all of them being within the allowed minimum requirements for organic production in the EU. Although the welfare consequences reported here were assessed to be moderate to minor, it is important to take into account concurrent constraints on access to other resources when higher stocking densities are used in organic production.

  13. Scanning electron microscopy of thin and soft shells induced by feeding calcium-deficient or vitamin D-deficient diets to laying hens.

    PubMed

    Narbaitz, R; Tsang, C P; Grunder, A A; Soares, J H

    1987-02-01

    A scanning electron microscopic study was conducted on shells from eggs laid by four groups of hens maintained on different types of diets: a) control, b) vitamin D3-deficient, c) Ca-deficient, and d) vitamin D3-deficient supplemented with 1,25-(OH)2D3. After 1 week for Ca-deficient hens and after 4 weeks for vitamin D3-deficient hens, the thickness of the shell decreased abruptly and numerous thin-shelled and soft-shelled eggs were laid. The study showed that with both Ca-deficient and vitamin D3-deficient diets, the outer layers of the shell (cuticle and spongy) were reduced or absent but the mammillary layer was present even in the thinnest soft-shelled egg. The order in which layers disappeared as treatment progressed was exactly the reverse of the order in which these layers are formed in normal eggs. No eggs were found without mammillary knobs, which suggests that the hens stop laying before Ca concentrations in blood become too low for the formation of the mammillary knobs. Uncalcified portions of the shell organic matrix were never found, suggesting that Ca deposition and matrix formation were inhibited simultaneously. The relationship between fibers of the shell membrane and mammillary knobs was preserved in all cases. The eggshells from hens on 1,25-(OH)2D3-supplemented diets were ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of hens on diets adequate in vitamin D3.

  14. Effects of probiotic supplementation in different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z F; Kim, I H

    2013-10-01

    This 6-wk study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation of different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. A total of 432 Hy-Line brown layers (40 wk old) were allotted into 4 dietary treatments with 2 levels of probiotic supplementation (0 or 0.01%) and 2 levels of energy (2,700 or 2,800 kcal ME/kg) and nutrient density. Weekly feed intake, egg quality, and daily egg production were determined. Eighteen layers per treatment (2 layers/replication) were bled to determine serum cholesterol concentrations at wk 3 and 6. Excreta microbial shedding of Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella and noxious gas emission were determined at the end of the experiment. Hens fed the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets had less (P < 0.01) ADFI than those fed the low-energy and low-nutrient-density diets throughout the experimental period. During wk 4 to 6 and overall, hens fed the diets supplemented with the probiotic had greater (P < 0.01) egg production, egg weight, and eggshell thickness than hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Dietary supplementation of the probiotic increased (P = 0.01) excreta Lactobacillus counts and decreased (P = 0.02) Escherichia coli counts compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. The excreta ammonia emission was decreased (P = 0.02) in hens fed the probiotic diets compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Serum total cholesterol concentration was decreased (P < 0.01) by feeding hens with the probiotic at wk 3 and 6. Layers fed the probiotic-incorporated diets had greater (P < 0.01) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lower (P = 0.03) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations than hens fed the nonsupplemented diets at wk 6. Interactive effects (P < 0.05) of energy and nutrient density and the

  15. Effect of yellow lupine (L. luteus) on the egg yolk fatty acid profile, the physicochemical and sensory properties of eggs, and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Magdalena; Przywitowski, Marcin; Mikulski, Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary inclusion of raw yellow lupine seed meal (YLM) on laying hen performance, the fatty acid (FA) profile, physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs. A total of 224 Lohmann Brown laying hens at 32 wk age were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets for 16 wk. The control diet contained soybean meal (SBM), and in study diets SBM was replaced with YLM at 100, 200, or 300 g/kg. In comparison with soybean, lupine seeds had a higher content of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) (29.5 vs. 14.0 and 8.56 vs. 5.91% DM). The dietary 300 g/kg lupine seeds increased the content of NSP and RFO in the ration, from 9.34 to 13.39 and 1.36 to 2.54%, respectively. The YLM inclusion level had no adverse effect on laying performance, including feed intake, FCR, egg production, and egg weight. The final BW of hens fed lupine-based diets were significantly higher compared with the control (P=0.039). Throughout the study, dietary treatments had no effect on eggshell and albumen quality. An increase in the inclusion rate of YLM was followed by a linear increase (P<0.001) in yolk color intensity. Dietary treatments had no influence on the aroma, taste, and texture of eggs evaluated in laying hens at 46 wk age. The inclusion of lupine seeds in experimental diets caused a linear increase in n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) content and the n-6/n-3 ratio (all P<0.001), but it had no influence on the atherogenic and the thrombogenic indices of egg yolk lipids. The results of this study indicate that YLM can be included at 300 g/kg in layer diets as a partial substitute for soybean meal without compromising laying performance, the physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs.

  16. Microbiological Consequences of Different Housing Systems for Laying Hens: Field and Experimental Infection Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant proportion of human illnesses caused by Salmonella are linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs. In response, substantial government and private industry resources are committed to comprehensive Salmonella testing and risk reduction programs for commercial egg-laying flocks. Envi...

  17. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis are attributed to contaminated eggs, and the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial laying flocks has been identified as a leading epidemiologic risk factor. Flock housing and management systems can affect opportunities for the intr...

  18. Salmonella Enteritidis deposition in eggs after experimental infection of laying hens with different oral doses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuing attribution of human Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections to internally contaminated eggs has necessitated the commitment of substantial public and private resources to SE testing and control programs in commercial laying flocks. Cost-effective risk reduction requires a detailed and...

  19. The relationship between corn particle size and thermoregulation of laying hens in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, João Batista Freire; de Morais Oliveira, Vanessa Raquel; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; de Melo Silva, Aurora; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the main factors affecting egg production. One way to improve egg production is physical processing of the feed ingredients, allowing for better utilization of nutrients. In this study, the relationship between the corn particle size, measured as the geometric mean diameter (GMD), and thermoregulation was evaluated by determining the effect of the GMD on performance, egg quality, and physiological responses. Feed intake, eggshell quality (weight and thickness), rectal temperature ( T R), respiratory rate ( R R), and surface temperature ( T S) were recorded in sixty 20-week-old naked neck laying hens that were fed corn of different particle sizes. Ambient temperature ( T A) was also recorded during the trial. The GMD of corn particles was determined using a screens granulometer, resulting in sizes of 605, 1,030, and 2,280 μm. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of a completely randomized design showed a significant effect ( P < 0.05) of GMD on feed intake, shell weight, and shell thickness. The ANOVA performed by the least squares method showed a highly significant effect ( P < 0.01) of GMD on T R and R R. T A, categorized into three classes (24.0-26, 26.1-28.9, and 29.0-31.0 °C), had a significant effect ( P < 0.01) on T R and T S. The interaction between the GMD of corn particles and the T A classes was not statistically significant. Coarser corn particles cause an increase in the rectal temperature of naked neck hens, and these birds increase their respiratory rate to dissipate excess metabolic heat. This increase in the respiratory rate causes a decrease in the eggshell quality.

  20. Effect of Ligustrum lucidum and Schisandra chinensis on the egg production, antioxidant status and immunity of laying hens during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Deying; Shan, Anshan; Chen, Zhihui; Du, Juan; Song, Kai; Li, Jianping; Xu, Qiyou

    2005-12-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of two plants belonging to Chinese herbal medicines, Ligustrum lucidum (LL) and Schisandra chinensis (SC), on the laying performance, antioxidant status and immunity of hens during heat stress. The results showed that diets supplement with 1% of either LL or SC had beneficial effects on egg production and FCR of hens during heat stress (p < 0.05), compared with the control group. Either LL or SC significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of heart, liver, sera and egg yolk. In addition, glutathione reductase (GR) activity of tissues and sera of the birds was significantly elevated by supplementation LL or SC. Furthermore, LL or SC supplementation significantly elevated lymphoblastogenese of the birds and the antibody values against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The results suggest that diets supplement with 1% of either LL or SC may enhance egg production, immune function, and antioxidant status of hens during heat stress.

  1. Experimental validation of the AVIVET trap, a tool to quantitatively monitor the dynamics of Dermanyssus gallinae populations in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lammers, G A; Bronneberg, R G G; Vernooij, J C M; Stegeman, J A

    2016-12-05

    Dermanyssus gallinae (D.gallinae) infestation causes economic losses due to impaired health and production of hens and costs of parasite control across the world. Moreover, infestations are associated with reduced welfare of hens and may cause itching in humans. To effectively implement control methods it is crucially important to have high quality information about the D.gallinae populations in poultry houses in space and time. At present no validated tool is available to quantitatively monitor the dynamics of all four stages of D.gallinae (i.e., eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults) in poultry houses.This article describes the experimental validation of the AVIVET trap, a device to quantitatively monitor dynamics of D.gallinae infestations. We used the device to study D.gallinae in fully equipped cages with two white specific pathogen free Leghorn laying hens experimentally exposed to three different infestation levels of D.gallinae (low to high).The AVIVET trap was successfully able to detect D.gallinae at high (5,000 D.gallinae), medium (2,500 D.gallinae), and low (50 D.gallinae) level of D.gallinae infestation. The linear equation Y = 10(∧)10(∧)(0.47 + 1.21X) with Y = log10 (Total number of D.gallinae nymphs and adults) in the cage and X = log10 (Total number of D.gallinae nymphs and adults) in the AVIVET trap explained 93.8% of the variation.The weight of D.gallinae in the AVIVET trap also appears to be a reliable parameter for quantifying D.gallinae infestation in a poultry house. The weight of D.gallinae in the AVIVET trap correlates 99.6% (P < 0.000) to the counted number of all stages of D.gallinae in the trap (i.e., eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults) indicating that the trap is highly specific.From this experiment it can be concluded that the AVIVET trap is promising as quantitative tool for monitoring D.gallinae dynamics in a poultry house.

  2. Feather eating and its associations with plumage damage and feathers on the floor in commercial farms of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Riber, A B; Hinrichsen, L K

    2016-07-01

    Feather eating has been associated with feather pecking, which continues to pose economic and welfare problems in egg production. Knowledge on feather eating is limited and studies of feather eating in commercial flocks of laying hens have not been performed previously. Therefore, the main objective was to investigate feather eating and its association with plumage damage and floor feather characteristics in commercial flocks of layers in barn and organic production systems. The study was performed in 13 flocks of barn layers and 17 flocks of organic layers. Each flock was visited at around 32 and 62 weeks of age. During both visits, the plumage condition was assessed and the density of floor feathers recorded. In week 62, droppings and floor feathers were collected. Droppings were examined for presence of feather content, whereas length, downiness and pecking damage were recorded for each floor feather. In week 62, a higher prevalence of hens with poor plumage condition was found in barn (22.2%) compared with organic production systems (7.4%; P<0.001), but the prevalence of droppings with feather content did not differ between the two production systems (8.5% in barn v. 4.3% in organic; P=0.99). Our hypothesis about a positive correlation between feather eating and plumage damage was not supported as no correlation was found between the prevalence of poor plumage condition and the prevalence of droppings with feather content. However, the prevalence of pecking damaged floor feathers was positively correlated both with prevalence of droppings with feather content (P<0.05) and poor plumage condition (P<0.01), indicating a possible association between feather eating and feather pecking. In conclusion, it was confirmed that feather eating occurs on-farm, but feather eating was only found to be positively correlated to the number of floor feathers with pecking damage and not as expected to the prevalence of plumage damage. More research is needed into the sources from

  3. Laboratory tests for controlling poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) with predatory mites in small 'laying hen' cages.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; Sabelis, Maurice W; van Niekerk, Thea G C M; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-12-01

    To assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in cages, each with 2-3 laying hens, initially 300 poultry red mites and later the release of 1,000 predators. These small-scale tests were designed to prevent mite escape from the cages and they were carried out in three replicates at each of three temperature regimes: 26, 30 (constant day and night) and 33-25 °C (day-night cycle). After 6 weeks total population sizes of poultry red mites and predatory mites were assessed. For the temperature regimes of 26 and 33/25 °C S. scimitus reduced the poultry red mite population relative to the control experiments by a factor 3 and 30, respectively, and A. casalis by a factor of 18 and 55, respectively. At 30 °C the predators had less effect on red mites, with a reduction of 1.3-fold for S. scimitus and 5.6-fold for A. casalis. This possibly reflected hen manure condition or an effect of other invertebrates in the hen feed. Poultry red mite control was not negatively affected by temperatures as high as 33 °C and was always better in trials with A. casalis than in those with S. scimitus. In none of the experiments predators managed to eradicate the population of poultry red mites. This may be due to a prey refuge effect since most predatory mites were found in and around the manure tray at the bottom of the cage, whereas most poultry red mites were found higher up in the cage (i.e. on the walls, the cover, the perch, the nest box and the food box). The efficacy of applying predatory mites in the poultry industry may be promoted by reducing this refuge effect, boosting predatory mite populations using alternative prey and prolonged predator release devices. Biocontrol success, however, will strongly depend on how the poultry is

  4. Effect of different levels of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) on performance, intestinal Escherichia coli colonization and jejunal morphology in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Boka, J; Mahdavi, A H; Samie, A H; Jahanian, R

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.) on performance, intestinal Escherichia coli count and morphology of jejunal epithelial cells in laying hens. A total of 100 Leghorn laying hens (Hy-Line W-36) of 49 weeks old were randomly distributed among five cage replicates of five birds each. Experimental diets consisted of different levels (0%, 1%, 2% and 3% of diet) of dietary black cumin inclusion. The experimental period lasted for a total of 10 weeks, and egg quality indexes and laying hens' performance were measured as two 35-day trial periods. At the final day, two hens per replicate were slaughtered to investigate the influence of dietary treatments on intestinal E. coli colonization and morphology of jejunal cells. Although dietary black cumin in all supplementation levels decreased (p < 0.05) the enumeration of ileal E. coli, the morphological and histological alterations in small intestine such as enhancement of villus height to crypt depth ratio, increased goblet cell numbers and proliferation of lamina propria lymphatic follicles were observed after dietary supplementation with at least 2% black cumin. Dietary treatments decreased (p < 0.05) the concentration of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and increased (p < 0.05) serum HDL concentration and relative weight of pancreas; however, the egg yolk cholesterol was not influenced by dietary treatments. In addition, dietary supplementation with black cumin improved (p < 0.05) eggshell quality and Haugh unit. The best feed conversion ratio was obtained when diets were supplemented with 2% black cumin. This improvement was due to the increase (p < 0.05) in egg mass and contemporaneous decrease (p < 0.01) in feed consumption. The present results indicated that regardless of supplementation level, dietary inclusion of black cumin decreased E. coli enumeration in ileal digesta and improved serum lipid profile and eggshell quality, whereas the

  5. Zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite improves tissue zinc accumulation in laying hens by enhancing zinc transporter gene mRNA abundance.

    PubMed

    Li, Linfeng; Li, Ping; Chen, Yueping; Wen, Chao; Zhuang, Su; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate effects of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite (ZnCP), as an alternative for zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), on laying performance, tissue Zn accumulation and Zn transporter genes expression in laying hens. Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allocated to three treatments, each of which had six replicates with 15 hens per replicate, receiving basal diet supplemented with ZnSO4 (control, 80 mg Zn/kg diet), 0.23% ZnCP (40.25 mg Zn/kg diet) and 0.46% ZnCP (80.50 mg Zn/kg diet) for 8 weeks, respectively. Compared with control, hens fed diet containing 0.23% ZnCP had similar Zn content in measured tissues (P > 0.05). A higher ZnCP inclusion (0.46%) enhanced Zn accumulation in liver (P < 0.05) and pancreas (P < 0.05). In addition, ZnCP inclusion increased blood iron (Fe) content (P < 0.05). ZnCP supplementation enhanced jejunal metallothionein-4 (MT-4) messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance (P < 0.05). ZnCP inclusion at a higher level (0.46%) increased mRNA expression of MT-4 in pancreas (P < 0.05) and zinc transporter-1 (ZnT-1) in jejunum (P < 0.05). The highest ZnT-2 mRNA abundance in jejunum was found in hens fed 0.23% ZnCP inclusion diet (P < 0.05). The results indicated that ZnCP reached a higher bioavailability as compared with ZnSO4 as evidenced by enhanced tissue Zn accumulation and Zn transporter genes expression.

  6. Performance of broilers and production and egg quality parameters of laying hens fed 60% raw or treated common vetch (Vicia sativa) seeds.

    PubMed

    Farran, M T; Dakessian, P B; Darwish, A H; Uwayjan, M G; Dbouk, H K; Sleiman, F T; Ashkarian, V M

    2001-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of feeding 60% untreated (U) or coarsely ground treated vetch (V) seeds on performance of broilers and laying hens. In Experiment 1, the V seeds were soaked in 1% NaHCO3 (1:10) or in 1% acetic acid (1:5) at room temperature for 24 h (RTAA). Birds on the NaHCO3-treated V diet had 100% mortality rate but had significantly longer survival time than those on UV (14.9 vs 5.1 d). Birds on RTAA-V survived and had similar BW and feed conversion but greater kidney size than those of the controls at 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, control, UV, V soaked in water at 40 C (40WV), RTAA-V, and V soaked in acetic acid at 40 C (40AAV) diets were fed to laying hens for 84 d. The ground seeds in RTAA-V and 40AAV were soaked in acetic acid (1:10) at room temperature or at 40 C, respectively, for 24 h. For 40WV, the seeds were soaked in water (1:10) at 40 C for 72 h with a water change every 12 h. The UV-fed hens ceased egg production within 14 d and had the highest BW loss and the lowest feed intake among all treatments (P < 0.05). The 40WV and 40AAV significantly improved these criteria. Moreover, the RTAA-V resulted in performance comparable to that of the controls. Eggs produced by hens on treated V diets had similar weight but higher Haugh unit score (11 points), thinner shell, and lower yolk color score than those of the controls (P < 0.05). Results indicated that RTAA-V at 60% dietary level was not detrimental to broilers and laying hens.

  7. Residues of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its metabolite de-epoxy-DON in eggs, plasma and bile of laying hens of different genetic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Ebrahem, Mohammad; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Breves, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the potential for carry-over of deoxynivalenol (DON) into eggs and DON residues in plasma and bile of laying hens of different genetic backgrounds after long-term feeding trial was investigated. A total of 80, 23-week-old laying hens were assigned to a feeding trial with two diets, a control diet and a Fusarium toxin-contaminated diet (FUS) (0.4 and 9.9 mg DON kg(-1), respectively). In the 60th week of hen's life, 10 eggs from each group were collected. In the 70th week of hen's life, all hens were slaughtered and samples of blood and bile were collected. The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for DON and de-epoxy-DON. DON was only detected in samples of hens which fed the FUS diet while none of the samples analysed had detectable levels of de-epoxy-DON. In plasma and bile samples, DON levels ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 ng ml(-1) and from 1.8 to 4.1 ng ml(-1), respectively. DON levels in egg yolk and albumen ranged between 0.0-0.46 ng g(-1) and 0.0-0.35 ng g(-1), respectively, corresponding to carry-over rates of DON into eggs from 0.0 to 0.000016. Moreover, no differences in DON levels or carry-over rates were noticed between the two tested breeds. These results show that very low levels of DON were transferred into eggs and indicate that although eggs could contribute to human exposure to DON, the levels are very low and insignificant.

  8. Effect of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on clotting activities of Factor V, VII and X in fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome-susceptible laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E; Wood, R D; Leeson, S; Squires, E J

    2009-05-01

    1. The relationship between concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in plasma and Factor V, VII and X clotting activities was determined using a crossover feeding trial with diets supplemented with either soy oil or flax oil. 2. Laying hens on the soy diet, which is high in omega-6 fatty acids, had substantially higher clotting activity for all three factors compared to laying hens on the flax diet that was high in omega-3 fatty acids. 3. Positive associations were seen between liver haemorrhage score and the percentage of liver weight and between the percentage of liver weight and the severity of haemorrhagic and fatty changes seen on histology. 4. These results support the hypothesis that concentrations of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in plasma affect clotting activity; however, there was no relationship between the extent of liver haemorrhages and the composition of plasma fatty acids.

  9. A model of Salmonella infection within industrial house hens.

    PubMed

    Prévost, K; Magal, P; Beaumont, C

    2006-10-07

    Salmonella is one of the major sources of toxi-infection in humans. Incidences of human salmonellosis have greatly increased over the past 20 years and this can largely be attributed to epidemics of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 within poultry. The main concern with this bacterium is the existence of silent carriers, i.e. animals harbouring S. enteritidis without expressing any visible symptoms. In this article, we formulate a model for S. enteritidis transmission in hen houses, considering both the hens and the environmental bacterium contamination. By considering the hen's individual development of the disease, we build a model for the production of eggs contaminated by S. enteritidis. The objectives are to analyse the dynamic of the disease, and to provide understanding of measures to avoid the endemicity of S. enteritidis in industrial hen houses.

  10. Apoptosis induction and release of inflammatory cytokines in the oviduct of egg-laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Tang, Chao; Wang, Qiuzhen; Li, Ruiqiao; Chen, Zhanli; Han, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Xu, Xingang

    2015-06-12

    The H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can cause serious damage to the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens, leading to severe egg-drop and poor egg shell quality. However, previous studies in relation to the oviductal-dysfunction resulted from this agent have not clearly been elucidated. In this study, apoptosis and pathologic changes in the oviducts of egg-laying hens caused by H9N2 AIV were evaluated. To understand the immune response in the pathogenic processes, 30-week old specific pathogen free (SPF) egg-laying hens inoculated with H9N2 subtype of AIV through combined intra-ocular and intra-nasal routes. H9N2 AIV infection resulted in oviductal lesions, triggered apoptosis and expression of immune related genes accompanied with infiltration of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8α(+) cells. Significant tissue damage and apoptosis were observed in the five oviductal parts (infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina) at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). Furthermore, immune-related genes, including chicken TLR3 (7, 21), MDA5, IL-2, IFN-β, CXCLi1, CXCLi2, XCL1, XCR1 and CCR5 showed variation in the egg-laying hens infected with H9N2 AIV. Notably, mRNA expression of IFN-α was suppressed during the infection. These results show distinct expression patterns of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines amongst segments of the oviduct. Differential gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes aggregation occurring in oviducts may initiate the infected tissue in response to virus replication which may eventually lead to excessive cellular apoptosis and tissue damage.

  11. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P < 0.01) in broiler chicks compared to laying-hen chicks. TRFLP analysis showed that cecal microbiota varied due to diet (P = 0.02) and chicken line (P = 0.03). Metagenomics analyses identified differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter pullorum and Megamonas hypermegale and the genera Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides in different treatment groups. These results provide insights into the effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks.

  12. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p<0.05) for birds fed 1.2, 2.4 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper

  13. Thermophile-fermented compost extract as a possible feed additive to enhance fecundity in the laying hen and pig: Modulation of gut metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshiyuki; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Kumagai, Yoshifumi; Udagawa, Motoaki; Shinmyo, Toshihito; Mori, Kenichi; Ogawa, Kazuo; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Kodama, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Recently, we reported that the oral administration of an extract of compost fermented with marine animal resources and thermophilic Bacillus species should confer health benefits in fish, pigs and rodents. Herein, the relations between fecundity and gut metabolites in laying hens and pigs on farms after oral exposure to compost were investigated. On the hen farms, the egg production of hens continuously administered the extract was maintained at significantly higher levels compared with the hens not administered the extract. On the swine farms, after the compost treatment, the shipping dates of fattening pigs were shortened, with an improvement in the death rate of the pigs. When the levels of fecal organic acids, such as short-chain fatty acids, lactate, and ammonium, as indicators of gut metabolism and energy sources for peripheral tissues, were examined, the levels of the acetate, propionate, and butyrate in the feces of the hens and pigs in the compost-treated group were not always different from those in the untreated control group. However, the levels of lactate were consistently low in the feces of both animals after the compost treatment. The fecal ammonium concentrations in old hens (age 597-672 days) and 2-month-old piglets from the compost-fed mother sows were low when compared with the untreated groups. The concentrations of free organic acids and their related compounds in the animal products (eggs and pig loins) were nearly equal to those in the untreated control products. Thus, the oral administration of the thermophile-fermented compost should improve the fecundity of hens and pigs by modifying their gut metabolism.

  14. Effects of dietary mixture of garlic (Allium sativum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and probiotics on immune responses and caecal counts in young laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Kim, M J; Park, S H; Lee, S B; Wang, T; Jung, U S; Im, J; Kim, E J; Lee, K W; Lee, H G

    2016-09-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a combined mixture of phytogenic extracts (garlic and coriander) and probiotics on growth performance and immune responses in laying hens based on the results of in vitro studies to screen for immunomodulatory potency of each ingredient. Several parameters of immunomodulatory potency were estimated using lamina propria leucocytes (LPLs) isolated from rat intestinal mucosa tissue. Results show that the combined mixture enhanced LPLs proliferation, increased LPL-mediated cytotoxicity against YAC-1 tumour cells, and decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production including tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in LPLs. For in vivo study, laying hens (n = 50/each diet group) were fed with control diet, a diet containing antibiotics (0.01% per kg feed) or the combined mixture (0.02% per kg feed) for 21 days. The dietary combined mixture improved egg production (p < 0.05) but not growth performance and carcass traits. Interestingly, the patterns of suppressing plasma IFN-γ productions during inflammation by LPS injection and decreasing caecal E. coli counts in the combined mixture group were comparable to those in the antibiotics group. Taken together, our results suggested that the 0.02% of combined mixture of phytogenic extracts and probiotics as ingredients has potential immunomodulatory effects in laying hens.

  15. Effects of Dietary Corticosterone on Yolk Colors and Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Hwa; Kim, Jimin; Yoon, Hyung-Sook; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone on egg quality. For 2 weeks hens received either control or experimental diet containing corticosterone at 30 mg/kg diet. Feed intake and egg production were monitored daily, and body weight measured weekly. Egg weights and egg quality were measured daily. Corticosterone treatment resulted in a remarkable increase in feed intake and sharp decrease in egg production compared with control (p<0.05) whereas body weight remained unchanged. Decreased albumen height, but no changes in egg weight, led to decreased Haugh unit (p<0.05). Corticosterone caused elevated eggshell thickness (p<0.05) without altering weight and strength, suggesting possible changes in shell structure. Yolk color and redness were increased by corticosterone (p<0.05) but lightness and yellowness were either not changed or inconsistent over the time period of measurements. Increased concentrations in plasma were also found for corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and amylase (p<0.05), suggesting that corticosterone increased protein breakdown, renal dysfunctions and pancreatitis. Together, the current results imply that dietary corticosterone affects egg quality such as yolk colors and shell thickness, in addition to its effects on feed intake and egg production. PMID:25925061

  16. Effect of selected dietary antioxidants on fatty liver-haemorrhagic syndrome in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Diaz, G J; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-09-01

    1. Single comb White Leghorn hens of an inbred line highly susceptible to fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) were fed supplemented dietary ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg), alpha-tocopherol (75 mg/kg), or L-cysteine (3 g/kg, and 6 g/kg) for 28 d in order to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of these compounds against the disease. 2. Supplementation of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, or a low level of L-cysteine (3 g/kg) did not significantly affect any of the hepatic variables evaluated. Hepatic glutathione was not increased by the supplementation of dietary L-cysteine. 3. L-cysteine supplemented at a level of 6 g/kg decreased hepatic dry matter and fat contents without affecting the hepatic malondialdehyde or the liver haemorrhagic score. 4. Because one of the predisposing factors of FLHS is a high hepatic fat content it was concluded that dietary supplementation of L-cysteine (6 g/kg) may be useful in the prevention of the disease.

  17. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on performance, ovarian morphology, serum lipid parameters and egg sensory quality in laying hen

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Ali Asghar; Aliarabi, Hassan; Hosseini Siyar, Sayed Ali; Salari, Jalal; Hashemi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of 4, 8 and 12 g kg-1 phytogenic feed additives mixture on performance, egg quality, ovary parameters, serum biochemical parameters and yolk trimethylamine level in laying hens. The results of experiment have shown that egg weight was increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive whereas egg production, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected. There were no significant differences in egg quality parameters by supplementation of phytogenic feed additive, whereas yolk trimethylamine level was decreased as the feed additive level increased. The sensory evaluation parameters did not differ significantly. No significant differences were found in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the treatments but low- and high-density lipoprotein were significantly increased. Number of small follicles and ovary weight were significantly increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive. Overall, dietary supplementation of polyherbal additive increased egg weigh, improved ovary characteristics and declined yolk trimethylamine level. PMID:25610580

  18. Antioxidant, Liver Protective and Angiotensin I-converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Old Laying Hen Hydrolysate in Crab Meat Analogue.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Choi, Yeung Joon; Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Seung Yun; Hur, Sun Jin

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative activities of Crab meat analogue prepared with protein hydrolysates obtained from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) from spent laying hens. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity was increased by adding MDCM hydrolysates during storage, and activity correlated with the concentration of DPPH added up to 6 weeks of storage. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity was increased in all analogues containing MDCM hydrolysates. At 0 days of storage, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity was increased by the addition of MDCM hydrolysates. Activity did not correlate after 6 weeks of storage, in which ACE-inhibitory activity was increased with low concentrations of MDCM hydrolysates, but no ACE-inhibitory activity was observed at higher concentrations. The liver-protecting activity of crab meat analogue was shown to be around 60% of the positive control; however, it was not significantly different among the samples during storage. These results support the use of MDCM as a source of health-promoting constituents in crab meat analogue.

  19. Antioxidant, Liver Protective and Angiotensin I-converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Old Laying Hen Hydrolysate in Crab Meat Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Choi, Yeung Joon; Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Seung Yun; Hur, Sun Jin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative activities of Crab meat analogue prepared with protein hydrolysates obtained from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) from spent laying hens. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity was increased by adding MDCM hydrolysates during storage, and activity correlated with the concentration of DPPH added up to 6 weeks of storage. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity was increased in all analogues containing MDCM hydrolysates. At 0 days of storage, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity was increased by the addition of MDCM hydrolysates. Activity did not correlate after 6 weeks of storage, in which ACE-inhibitory activity was increased with low concentrations of MDCM hydrolysates, but no ACE-inhibitory activity was observed at higher concentrations. The liver-protecting activity of crab meat analogue was shown to be around 60% of the positive control; however, it was not significantly different among the samples during storage. These results support the use of MDCM as a source of health-promoting constituents in crab meat analogue. PMID:26954200

  20. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and fish oil supplementation on performance and egg quality in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, C; Cachaldora, P; Méndez, J; García-Rebollar, P; De Blas, J C

    2004-08-01

    1. Laying hen performance, yolk fat fatty acid concentrations and firmness of eggs were evaluated with respect to the inclusion in the diet of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and fish oil. 2. Nine diets were arranged factorially, with three levels of supplementation of CLA (1, 3 and 5 g/kg) and fish oil (0, 14 and 20 g/kg). 3. Type of diet did not affect egg production traits. 4. CLA addition increased yolk weight and yolk fat concentrations of CLA, saturated and total long-chain n-3 fatty acids, but decreased those of monounsaturated and total long-chain n-6 fatty acids. 5. Fish oil addition increased long-chain n-3 fatty acids yolk fat concentrations but decreased those of CLA, saturated and long-chain n-6 fatty acids. 6. Effects of CLA addition on yolk fat concentrations of C22:4 n-6 and C20:5 n-3 were greater when no fish oil was added to the diet. 7. CLA supplementation increased linearly yolk moisture and firmness and altered albumen and yolk pH.

  1. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and high-oleic sunflower oil on performance and egg quality in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, C; García-Rebollar, P; Cachaldora, P; Méndez, J; de Blas, J C

    2005-02-01

    (1) Laying hen performance, yolk fatty acid (FA) concentrations, sensory quality and firmness of eggs were evaluated with respect to the inclusion in the diet of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and high-oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO). (2) Nine diets were arranged factorially, with three concentrations of CIA (0, 1 and 2 g/kg) and HOSO (10, 20 and 30 g/kg). (3) Type of diet did not affect egg production traits. (4) Dietary addition of CLA decreased yolk lipid content and yolk lipid concentrations of monounsaturated FA, C(20:4 n-6) and C(22:6 n-3), but increased those of CLA and saturated FA. (5) Dietary addition of HOSO increased monounsaturated FA concentrations in the yolk lipid but decreased those of CLA and saturated FA. (6) CLA supplementation increased yolk moisture and firmness and impaired the sensory quality of eggs. (7) An interaction between CLA and HOSO addition was found as effects of CLA addition on yolk lipid CLA concentrations and egg quality traits were smaller when the amount of HOSO in the diet increased. (8) Regression equations have been calculated in order to predict yolk CLA and C(18:1), concentration from dietary composition, and yolk firmness from yolk FA composition.

  2. Characterization of egg laying hen and broiler fecal microbiota in poultry farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products.

  3. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on performance, ovarian morphology, serum lipid parameters and egg sensory quality in laying hen.

    PubMed

    Saki, Ali Asghar; Aliarabi, Hassan; Hosseini Siyar, Sayed Ali; Salari, Jalal; Hashemi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of 4, 8 and 12 g kg(-1) phytogenic feed additives mixture on performance, egg quality, ovary parameters, serum biochemical parameters and yolk trimethylamine level in laying hens. The results of experiment have shown that egg weight was increased by supplementation of 12 g kg(-1) feed additive whereas egg production, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected. There were no significant differences in egg quality parameters by supplementation of phytogenic feed additive, whereas yolk trimethylamine level was decreased as the feed additive level increased. The sensory evaluation parameters did not differ significantly. No significant differences were found in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the treatments but low- and high-density lipoprotein were significantly increased. Number of small follicles and ovary weight were significantly increased by supplementation of 12 g kg(-1) feed additive. Overall, dietary supplementation of polyherbal additive increased egg weigh, improved ovary characteristics and declined yolk trimethylamine level.

  4. Colonization of internal organs by Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium in experimentally infected laying hens housed in enriched colony cages at different stocking densities.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Guard, Jean; Anderson, Kenneth E; Karcher, Darrin M

    2016-10-04

    Contaminated eggs produced by infected commercial laying flocks are often implicated as sources of human infections with Salmonella Enteritidis, but Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium have also been associated with egg-transmitted illness. Contamination of the edible contents of eggs is a consequence of the colonization of reproductive tissues in systemically infected hens. In recent years, the animal welfare implications of diverse poultry housing and management systems have been vigorously debated, but the food safety significance of laying hen housing remains uncertain. The present study evaluated the effects of 2 different bird stocking densities on the invasion of internal organs by Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Typhimurium in groups of experimentally infected laying hens housed in colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas. Laying hens were distributed at 2 different stocking densities (648 and 973 cm(2)/bird) into colony cages and (along with a group housed in conventional cages at 648 cm(2)/bird) orally inoculated with doses of 10(7) cfu of 2-strain cocktails of either Salmonella Heidelberg or Salmonella Typhimurium. At 5 to 6 d post-inoculation, hens were euthanized and samples of internal organs (cecum, liver, spleen, ovary, and oviduct) were removed for bacteriologic culturing. The overall frequency of Salmonella isolation from ceca after inoculation with strains of serovar Heidelberg (83.3%) was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than the corresponding value for strains of serovar Typhimurium (53.8%), whereas Salmonella was recovered significantly more often from both livers (85.2% vs. 53.7%; P < 0.0001) and spleens (78.7% vs. 56.5%; P = 0.0008) after inoculation with strains of serovar Typhimurium than strains of serovar Heidelberg. However, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between stocking densities or cage systems in the frequencies of isolation of either Salmonella serovar from any of the five sampled

  5. Performance, serum biochemical responses, and gene expression of intestinal folate transporters of young and older laying hens in response to dietary folic acid supplementation and challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Munyaka, P M; Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; O, K; House, J D

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary folic acid (FA) supplementation on performance, serum biochemical indices, and mRNA abundance of intestinal folate transporters in young and older laying hens after acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Two experiments were conducted separately involving 48 Shaver White young laying hens (24 wk of age) in experiment 1 and 48 Shaver White older laying hens (58 wk of age) in experiment 2. Birds were fed 2 diets in a complete randomized design. The diets were wheat-soybean meal based, with or without supplemental 4 mg of FA/kg of diet. Birds were fed for 8 wk, during which time feed consumption and egg production were monitored. At the end of each feeding experiment, 6 hens from each dietary treatment were injected intravenously with 8 mg/kg of BW of either Escherichia coli LPS or sterile saline. Four hours after injection, blood and intestinal samples were collected for further analysis. Compared with the control, dietary FA supplementation increased egg weight and egg mass and decreased serum glucose levels in the young laying hens, and reduced serum uric acid in the older laying hens (P < 0.05). Relative to saline injection, plasma homocysteine, serum calcium, and phosphorus levels were found to be lower in both young and older laying hens after LPS challenge (P < 0.05). Other serum biochemical variables and the mRNA expression of 2 folate transport genes in the small and large intestine were differentially affected by LPS challenge, and some of those responses varied with the age of the birds. Additionally, interactions between diet and LPS challenge were specifically found in the older laying hens. In summary, in addition to improving production performance, there were effects of dietary FA supplementation and its interaction with LPS challenge on biochemical constituents, and age played a role in the development of responses to diet and bacterial LPS infections.

  6. Aerial perches and free-range laying hens: the effect of access to aerial perches and of individual bird parameters on keel bone injuries in commercial free-range laying hens.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, C J; Ball, M E E; O'Connell, N E

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of aerial perches on keel bone injuries and tibia bone characteristics in free-range laying hens. The relationship between keel bone injuries and individual bird parameters, such as weight, girth, wing:girth ratio, feather coverage, and tibia bone characteristics, was also assessed. Five commercial free-range houses, each containing between 7,000 and 8,000 birds, were used. The houses and range areas were divided in half; in half of the house, birds had access to aerial perches (P) and in the other half, they did not (NP). On 13 occasions between 17 and 70 wk of age, 20 birds per treatment were randomly selected from the slatted area and palpated for keel bone injury. At 72 wk of age, 30 birds per treatment in each of 4 houses were selected at random, weighed, and then euthanized. Girth and wing area and feather coverage were measured. The keel and left tibia bones were removed and keel bones were scored for injury. Tibia bones were weighed and diameter, length, breaking strength, and ash content recorded. Results indicated that access to aerial perches did not affect tibia bone measures (P > 0.05). Average palpated keel bone score increased with age of the hens (P < 0.001) but was not significantly affected by perch treatment (P > 0.05). There was a significant interaction between treatment and farm on keel bone injuries measured at dissection (P < 0.05), with the probability of birds having high keel-damage scores increasing in the perched treatment in some farms but not others. In general, as the keel bone injury score measured at dissection increased, the breaking strength (P < 0.001) and ash content (P < 0.05) of the tibia bone decreased. It is suggested that individual variation in bone strength contributes to differences in susceptibility to keel injury. No relationship existed between keel-injury score measured at dissection and individual parameters, such as weight, girth, or wing:girth ratio (P > 0

  7. Ovalbumin expression in the oviduct magnum of hens is related to the rate of egg laying and shows distinct stress-type-specific responses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J P; Zhang, Q; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Jiang, M J; Luo, H; Lin, H

    2016-10-01

    Three trials were performed to evaluate the association of ovalbumin (OVA) abundance in the oviduct magnum with egg production and the underlying regulatory mechanism by glucocorticoids. In trial 1, twenty Hy-Line Brown layers (56-60 weeks of age) with different combinations (n = 5/combination) of laying rate (high or low) and egg weight (high or low) were selected from an initial group of 300. An upregulated expression of magnum OVA was observed (p < 0.05) in hens with higher laying rate, regardless of egg weight. In trial 2, eighty Hy-Line Brown layers (80-90 weeks of age) were subjected to the forced moulting (n = 8). The abundance of OVA transcript and protein in the magnum was significantly decreased during moulting (p < 0.01), and the same was true for laying rate (p < 0.01) and serum oestrogen (p < 0.05). In trial 3, forty-five 56-week-old Hy-Line Brown layers were kept individually (n = 15) in the following conditions for 10 days: constant optimal ambient temperature at 23 °C and ad libitum feeding, high ambient temperature at 32 °C for 6 h/day (10:00-16:00) and ad libitum feeding (32AL), and constant optimal ambient temperature at 23 °C and pair-fed to the 32AL hens. In spite of elevated corticosterone in circulation, OVA synthesis, blood oestrogen and laying rate were not affected by heat exposure (p > 0.05). These results allow concluding that OVA expression in the oviduct magnum of hens is related to the rate of egg laying and shows distinct stress-type-specific responses.

  8. Colonization of a marker and field strain of Salmonella enteritidis and a marker strain of Salmonella typhimurium in vancomycin-pretreated and nonpretreated laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hannah, J F; Wilson, J L; Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Cason, J A; Bourassa, D V; Buhr, R J

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of a vancomycin pretreatment on the ability of marker (nalidixic-acid resistant) Salmonella Enteritidis (SE(M)), field Salmonella Enteritidis (SE(E)), and marker Salmonella Typhimurium (ST(M)) strains to colonize within the intestinal and reproductive tracts and translocate to other organs of leghorn laying hens. In each of three trials, caged laying hens (76, 26, and 33 wk ofage) were divided into six groups designated to receive SE(M), SE(F), or ST(M), and half were pretreated with vancomycin (n = 11-12 hens). Vancomycin-treated hens received 10 mg vancomycin in saline/kilogram body weight orally for 5 days to inhibit Gram-positive bacteria within the intestines. On Day 6, all hens were concurrently challenged by oral, intravaginal, and intracolonal routes with Salmonella and placed into separate floor chambers by Salmonella strain. Two weeks postinoculation, all hens were euthanatized and the ceca, spleen, liver/gall bladder (LGB), upper (URT), and lower (LRT) reproductive tracts, and ovarian follicles were aseptically collected, and analyzed for Salmonella. Results did not differ for the three hen's ages and were therefore combined. The vancomycin pretreatment also had no significant effect on the colonization ability of SE(M), SE(F) or ST(M), and therefore results were combined within Salmonella strain. The marker strain of Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from 21% of ceca, 4% of LGB, 9% of LRT, and 17% of the fecal samples. The field strain of Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from 88% of ceca, 96% of spleen, 92% of LGB, 30% of LRT, 4% of URT, 13% of follicle, and 42% of the fecal samples. The marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium was recovered from 100% of ceca, 74% of spleen, 91% of LGB, 30% of LRT, 9% of URT, 9% of follicle, and 100% of the fecal samples. Among ceca, spleen, LGB, and fecal samples, SE(F) and ST(M) colonization was significantly greater than SE(M) colonization. Overall prevalence

  9. Towards a ‘Good Life’ for Farm Animals: Development of a Resource Tier Framework to Achieve Positive Welfare for Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne L.; Mullan, Siobhan M.; Pritchard, Joy C.; McFarlane, Una J. C.; Main, David C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Farm animals can be said to have a ‘good life’ if their quality of life is substantially higher than the current legal minimum and includes positive experiences such as pleasure. In commercial farms, animals can be provided with different resources such as bedding, exercise areas and enrichment objects. We used scientific evidence and expert opinion to determine which resources laying hens need to contribute to a ‘good life’. These resources were organised into three tiers, of increasing welfare, leading towards a ‘good life’. We describe how we developed the resource tiers and suggest how the overall framework might be used to promote a ‘good life’ for farm animals. Abstract The concept of a ‘good life’ recognises the distinction that an animal’s quality of life is beyond that of a ‘life worth living’, representing a standard of welfare substantially higher than the legal minimum (FAWC, 2009). We propose that the opportunities required for a ‘good life’ could be used to structure resource tiers that lead to positive welfare and are compatible with higher welfare farm assurance schemes. Published evidence and expert opinion was used to define three tiers of resource provision (Welfare +, Welfare ++ and Welfare +++) above those stipulated in UK legislation and codes of practice, which should lead to positive welfare outcomes. In this paper we describe the principles underpinning the framework and the process of developing the resource tiers for laying hens. In doing so, we summarise expert opinion on resources required to achieve a ‘good life’ in laying hens and discuss the philosophical and practical challenges of developing the framework. We present the results of a pilot study to establish the validity, reliability and feasibility of the draft laying hen tiers on laying hen production systems. Finally, we propose a generic welfare assessment framework for farm animals and suggest directions for implementation

  10. Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. 3. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. 4. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. 5. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. 6. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens.

  11. Effects of in ovo injection of bovine lactoferrin before incubation in layer breeder eggs on tibia measurements and performance of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Saki, A A; Mahmoudi, H

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing concern about welfare of laying hens in cages, and one aspect of this topic relates to bone fragility. Therefore, bone anabolic components such as bovine lactoferrin (bLF) may be an effective strategy to maintain the integrity and health of bones. A total of 1080 eggs were divided into four groups with three replicates, each comprising 270 eggs; (1) control group was injected with 100 μl of normal saline per egg; (2, 3 and 4) groups including 22.5 (low), 45 (medium) and 67.5 µg (high) of bLF in 100 µl of normal saline per egg. Eggs were incubated and after hatching, chicks were reared to 28 weeks of age. Tibia measurements were obtained at hatch and at 28 weeks of age. Tibia weight at hatch, was not influenced by in ovo injection of bLF in comparison with the control. Eggs injected with the high concentration of bLF (67.5 µg of bLF per egg) showed significant strengthening in laying-hen tibias at 28 weeks of age, as measured by ultimate force and bending stress, compared with the control. Egg weights from hens treated with this concentration of bLF were also significantly greater than the control. Our data suggest that tibia cortical thickness is a suitable variable for evaluating bone status reflecting bone integrity and strength. The present study also shows that bLF (67.5 µg of bLF per egg) injected into layer breeder eggs before incubation can be used to improve bone strength and egg weight of laying hens at 28 weeks of age, while having no detrimental effect on embryo hatchability.

  12. Infectious bronchitis virus and brown shell colour: Australian strains of infectious bronchitis virus affect brown eggshell colour in commercial laying hens differently.

    PubMed

    Samiullah, Sami; Roberts, Juliet; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess any effect of wild and vaccine Australian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains on shell colour in brown-shelled eggs. In Experiment 1, eggs were collected from day 1 to day 13 post-inoculation (p.i.) from unvaccinated laying hens challenged with IBV wild strains T and N1/88 and from a negative control group of hens. In Experiment 2, eggs were collected from 2 to 22 days p.i. from unvaccinated and vaccinated laying hens challenged with either a wild or a vaccine strain of IBV. In Experiment 1, there was a significant effect (P < 0.05) of day p.i. and of viral strain on shell reflectivity, L* and protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) in eggshells, with and without cuticle. The mean PP IX/g of shell with and without cuticle was significantly higher on day 1 p.i. compared to day 7, after which PP IX increased with day p.i. In Experiment 2, shell reflectivity and L* increased and PP IX decreased with increased day p.i. until day 12. Shell reflectivity and L* decreased slightly after day 12 and increased again towards day 22. Shell reflectivity, L* and PP IX were not significantly different for eggshells from unvaccinated and vaccinated laying hens in the intact eggshell, but were significantly different in shells from which cuticle had been removed. In conclusion, the IBV strains reduced the intensity of brown shell colour to different extents with a lower amount of PP IX in eggshells.

  13. Fear, stress, and feather pecking in commercial white and brown laying hen parent-stock flocks and their relationships with production parameters.

    PubMed

    de Haas, E N; Kemp, B; Bolhuis, J E; Groothuis, T; Rodenburg, T B

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the relationship between welfare traits and production in laying hen parent stock (PS). In commercial laying hens and pure lines, it is known that aspects associated with reduced welfare such as high fear, stress, and feather pecking can have negative effects on production. Because PS hens are housed under different conditions than commercial laying hens, the relationship between welfare traits and production may differ. We therefore studied the fear response to a stationary person (SP) and novel object (NO), basal plasma corticosterone (CORT) and whole-blood serotonin levels (5-HT), and feather damage as a proxy for feather pecking in 10 Dekalb White (DW) and 10 ISA Brown (ISA) commercial PS flocks and related these to production data. Because the relationship between welfare traits and production may differ by genetic origin and group size, we also assessed genotype and group size effects. Dekalb White birds were more fearful of a SP, and had more feather damage and lower 5-HT levels than ISA birds. Genotypes did not differ in CORT. A large group size (n > 5,000) was associated with low feed intake and better feed conversion for ISA flocks. For DW flocks, high fear of the NO was associated with low BW, low egg weight, and low feed intake. For ISA flocks, high fear of the SP was associated with high mortality. For both lines, high CORT was related to low egg weight. This is the first study to associate levels of fear and CORT to production in commercial PS flocks. Management of PS flocks should take into account breed differences, group size effects, and effects of human-bird interactions. Further research is needed to determine the effects of fear, CORT, 5-HT, and feather damage in commercial PS flocks on the development of their offspring.

  14. Effects of dietary organic chromium and vitamin C supplementation on performance, immune responses, blood metabolites, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density.

    PubMed

    Mirfendereski, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium-methionine (CrMet) and vitamin C (VC) on performance, immune response, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density. A total of 360 Hy-Line W-36 leghorn hens (at 26 wk old) were used in a 2×3×2 factorial arrangement that had 2 cage densities (5 and 7 hens per cage), 3 Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 ppb as CrMet), and 2 dietary VC levels (0 and 500 ppm as L-ascorbic acid). The trial lasted for 12 wk. The first 2 wk were for adaptation (26 to 28 wk of age), and the remaining 10 wk served as the main recording period. In addition to performance, immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was assessed at d 7 and 14 postvaccination. Also, the birds' stress status was evaluated by analyzing appropriate plasma metabolites. The results showed that hens in cages with higher stocking density had lower hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake compared with those in normal density cages (P<0.05). Dietary CrMet supplementation caused significant increases in egg production and egg mass (P<0.01). There were significant Cr × VC interactions related to egg production and feed conversion efficiency (P<0.01); dietary CrMet supplementation was more effective in improving egg production and feed conversion ratio in VC-unsupplemented diets. Although plasma concentrations of triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins were not influenced by dietary treatments, supplemental CrMet decreased plasma cholesterol levels (P<0.05). Plasma insulin and glucose levels of hens kept at a density of 7 hens/cage were significantly higher than those of hens in normal cage density (P<0.01), and dietary CrMet supplementation decreased plasma concentrations of insulin (P<0.001) and glucose (P<0.01), with higher impacts in high stocking density-challenged hens. While high stocking density caused a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (P<0.01), both supplemental

  15. Determination of Energy and Nutrient Utilization of Enzyme-treated Rump Round Meat and Lotus Root Designed for Senior People with Young and Age d Hens as an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Woong; Kil, Dong Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the nutrient utilization of rump round meat and lotus root using young (32 wk) and aged hens (108 wk) as an animal model. Rump round meat and lotus root were prepared with or without enzymatic treatment. For each age group of laying hens, a total of 24 Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allotted to one of two dietary treatments with six replicates. For rump round meat, the true total tract retention rate (TTTR) of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) were unaffected by either enzymatic treatment or hen age. However, aged hens had greater (p<0.01) TTTR of energy and crude fat than young hens. Enzymatic treatment did not influence the TTTR of energy or crude fat. In addition, we did not observe any significant interaction between the TTTR of DM, energy, N, or crude fat in rump round meat and hen age or enzymatic treatment. The TTTR of DM remained unchanged between controls and enzyme-treated lotus root for young hens. However, enzyme-treated lotus root exhibited greater (p<0.05) TTTR of DM than control lotus root for aged hens, resulting in a significant interaction (p<0.05). The TTTR of energy and N in lotus roots were greater (p<0.01) for aged hens than for young hens. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment exerted beneficial effects on energy and nutrient utilization in aged hens, suggesting the aged hen model is practical for simulation of metabolism of elderly individuals. PMID:27499671

  16. Performance of commercial laying hens when six percent corn oil is added to the diet at various ages and with different levels of tryptophan and protein.

    PubMed

    Antar, R S; Harms, R H; Shivazad, M; Faria, D E; Russell, G B

    2004-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of corn oil in the diet of commercial layers as a method of increasing egg weight. In the first experiment, the performance of commercial layers receiving 6% added corn oil beginning at 18 to 30 wk at 2-wk intervals was evaluated. In the second experiment, comparisons were made between performance of young and old commercial layers when 6% corn oil was added to the diet. The third experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects upon commercial layers when 6% corn oil was added to diets varying in Trp content. In experiment 1, egg weights increased during the first 2 wk that corn oil was added to the diet. During this time, the intake of Trp was greater than or equal to the hen requirements. However, during the last 2 wk of the experiment, when Trp intakes were low, egg weights decreased when corn oil was added to the diet. In experiment 2, egg weights from young and old hens increased during the first 2 wk after corn oil was added to the diet. During the last 2 wk, egg weights from young hens decreased, whereas egg weights from old hens increased. In experiment 3, egg weight was not affected when the diet contained 0.166 or 0.176% Trp. However, egg weights significantly increased when corn oil was added to the diet containing 0.193% Trp. The data in these experiments indicate that the diet of a laying hen must contain a high level of Trp to get an increase in egg weight from the addition of corn oil to the diet. Also the need for other amino acids must be met. Therefore, the hen eats to meet her energy requirement for maximum egg production, and her amino acid intake determines the egg weight.

  17. Effect of different dietary levels of mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves and spice supplementation on productive performance, egg quality, lipid metabolism and metabolic profiles in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Al-Harthi, M A; El-Deek, A A; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F; Qota, E M

    2009-11-01

    In order to study the influence of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves on productive performance, egg quality, lipids metabolism and metabolic profiles, 180 Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to 6 dietary treatments each contained 6 replicates of 5 individually caged hens during the period from 50 to 60 weeks of age. 2. Three isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 0, 50 and 100 g/kg of sun-dried mangrove leaves. Each diet was fed with or without supplementation of 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet. 3. Mangrove leaves at either 50 or 100 g/kg adversely affect laying rate, egg mass and FCR, whilst increasing water intake and water to feed ratio. Mangrove leaves had no significant effect on dry matter, protein, lipid, cholesterol and ash content of liver, or on dry matter, protein and ash of yolk. 4. Plasma total protein, total lipids; liver enzymes AST and ALT and mortality rate were not significantly affected by mangrove leaves. On the other hand, yolk lipid, yolk cholesterol and plasma cholesterol significantly decreased, while yolk colour significantly increased with inclusion of 50 or 100 g/kg mangrove leaves, and Haugh unit score significantly increased with 100 g/kg mangrove leaves. 5. Spice mixture significantly increased egg weight by 2.2%. Yolk lipid content significantly decreased by 2.6%, while yolk colour and Haugh unit significantly increased with inclusion of spice mixtures. 6. In conclusion, mangrove leaves at 50 g/kg may be included in the laying hen diets as a means of decreasing lipid and cholesterol in yolk and plasma cholesterol and increasing yolk colour. Spice mixture at 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet increased laying rate, egg mass, Haugh unit score and yolk colour while decreasing yolk lipids.

  18. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of reduced folate carrier and effect of dietary folate supplementation on the expression of reduced folate carrier in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Kroeker, A; House, J D

    2009-09-01

    The reduced folate carrier (RFC) has been postulated to be a major entity for folate transport activity in humans and other mammals. However, there are limited reports of the importance of RFC in an avian system. In the current study, therefore, the molecular cloning and tissue distribution of RFC, as well as the effect of dietary folate supplementation on the expression of this transporter, were investigated in the chicken. Shaver White laying hens (n=8 per diet) received 3 wheat-based diets containing the following: 1) no supplemental folate, 2) folic acid (10.00 mg/kg), or 3) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (11.30 mg/kg) for 21 d. The mRNA expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the cloned partial RFC cDNA containing the full coding region from duodenum was 99% homologous to the reference gene available in GenBank. A broad expression profile of RFC transcripts was observed, with RFC mRNA detected in the brain, liver, kidney, spleen, lung, intestine, ovary, and testis, as well as other tissues. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that no significant differences (P>0.05) due to diet were found in the mRNA levels of RFC in the duodenum and cecum. However, compared with the basal diet, jejunal mRNA levels of RFC were decreased (P<0.05) in hens fed with the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate diet, but the reduction did not reach significance (P=0.077) in the hens fed the folic acid diet. Overall, the current study demonstrated that the RFC cDNA containing the full coding region was successfully cloned from the duodenum of laying hens. The wide tissue distribution of RFC transcripts is suggestive of an important role of RFC in the process of folate transport in the chicken. Moreover, dietary folate supplementation could downregulate the jejunal mRNA expression of RFC. Such findings will lay the foundation of future work involving the RFC in avian systems, including laying hens.

  19. Effects of inositol, inositol-generating phytase B applied alone, and in combination with 6-phytase A to phosphorus-deficient diets on laying performance, eggshell quality, yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid deposition in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zyla, K; Mika, M; Duliński, R; Swiatkiewicz, S; Koreleski, J; Pustkowiak, H; Piironen, J

    2012-08-01

    Phytase B, a product of Aspergillus niger phyB gene expressed in Trichoderma reesei, which increased myo-inositol concentrations in 20 mM sodium phytate solution 7.5-fold during 120-min incubation, a combination of phytase B with 6-phytase A, and pure myo-inositol were tested as feed supplements in Bovans Brown laying hens. In the 2-factorial experiment (2×5), birds from wk 50 to 62 were fed 2 basal diets, corn-soybean (CSM) or wheat-soybean (WSM), using 12 one-hen cages per treatment. For both basal diets, the dietary treatments included negative control (0.08% nonphytate P in CSM, 0.13% nonphytate P in WSM; NC); internal control groups, NC+0.04% nonphytate P from monocalcium phosphate, MCP (IC); NC+0.1% of myo-inositol (Inos), NC+phytase B at 1,300 units of phytase B-acid phosphatase activity (AcPU)/kg (PhyB), NC+phytase B at 1,300 AcPU/kg+6-phytase A at 300 FTU/kg (PhyA+B). Feed intake, laying performance, and eggshell quality were determined. The total lipid and cholesterol contents as well as fatty acid profile were assessed in egg yolks collected from hens fed CSM diets, as was fatty acid profile. The hens fed the WSM diet consumed significantly more feed, laid a higher mass of eggs daily with higher mean weights, and had a higher hen-day egg production than the birds receiving the CSM diets. Similarly, higher values for yolk weights, shell weights, shell thickness, shell density, and breaking strengths were determined in the eggs laid by the hens fed the WSM diets. In hens fed either the CSM diets with phytase B alone, or in combination with 6-phytase A, enhanced feed intakes, egg mass, and hen-day egg production were recorded. Phytases also enhanced the eggshell quality parameters in the hens fed both variants of the diets. Phytase B alone, or in combination with 6-phytase A, reduced the total lipid and cholesterol concentrations in egg yolks collected from the hens fed the CSM diets, whereas the combination of both phytases improved the n-6:n-3

  20. Assessing the possibility of genetically modified DNA transfer from GM feed to broiler, laying hen, pig and calf tissues.

    PubMed

    Sieradzki, Z; Mazur, M; Kwiatek, K; Swiatkiewicz, S; Swiatkiewicz, M; Koreleski, J; Hanczakowska, E; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Goldsztejn, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of genetically modified DNA transfer from feed containing RR soybean or/and MON810 maize to animal tissues, gut bacterial flora, food of animal origin, and the fate of GM DNA in the animal digestive tract. The experiment was carried out on broilers, laying hens, pigs and calves. All animals were divided into four groups: I--control group (non-modified feed), II--GM soybean group (non-modified maize, RR soybean), III--GM maize group (MON810 maize, non-modified soybean), and IV--GM maize and soybean group (MON810 maize, RR soybean). Samples of blood, organs, tissues, digesta from the gastrointestinal tract, and eggs were analysed for the presence of plant species specific genes, and transgenic sequences of CaMV 35S promoter and NOS terminator. PCR amplifications of these GM sequences were conducted to investigate the GM DNA transfer from feed to animal tissues and bacterial gut flora. In none of the analysed samples of blood, organs, tissues, eggs, excreta and bacterial DNA were plant reference genes or GM DNA found. A GM crop diet did not affect bacterial gut flora as regards diversity of bacteria species, quantity of particular bacteria species in the animal gut, or incorporation of transgenic DNA to the bacteria genome. It can be concluded that MON810 maize and RR soybean used for animal feeding are substantially equivalent to their conventional counterparts. Genetically modified DNA from MON810 maize and RR soybean is digested in the same way as plant DNA, with no probability of its transfer to animal tissues or gut bacterial flora.

  1. Erratum to: the acaricidal efficacy of peracetic acid and deltamethrin against the fowl tick, Argas persicus, infesting laying hens.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Seddiek, Shaker A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Ali, Ali M

    2013-10-01

    The fowl tick, Argas persicus (Oken), is of veterinary importance as a parasite of poultry and wild birds. The antitick efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, of peracetic acid (PAA) and deltamethrin (DMT) was tested separately against A. persicus through the dipping technique. PAA (0.5%) was highly efficient against soft tick larvae (A. persicus), resulting in 100 % mortality after 2 min. The lethal concentrations LC₅₀ and LC₉₅ were 0.310 and 0.503 %, respectively. The lethal time values LT₅₀ and LT₉₅ were 5.34 and 40.00 min, respectively, after treatment with PAA (0.25%). Two minutes after exposure to DMT, LC₅₀ and LC₉₅ values were 0.0033 and 0.0052% (33.204 and 51.527 mg/L), respectively. The LT₅₀ and LT₉₅ values were 27.03 and 305.46 min, respectively, after treatment with 0.0025% DMT (25 mg/L). After dipping in PAA (0.5%), the chickens did not show respiratory signs or inflammation on the eyes and/or skin. By contrast, temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed in chickens dipped in DMT (0.005 % or 50 mg /L). Seven days posttreatment (PT), the reduction in the percentages of A. persicus infesting laying hens were 99.15 and 63.42% after dipping in PAA and DMT, respectively. However, complete elimination of the number of ticks occurred after 28 days PT with DMT. PAA inhibits molting effectively (28%) when compared with that of DMT (52%). Results indicated that PAA is a more potent and promising acaricide against A. persicus (in vitro and in vivo) than DMT.

  2. The acaricidal efficacy of peracetic acid and deltamethrin against the fowl tick, Argas persicus, infesting laying hens.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Seddiek, Shaker A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Ali, Ali M

    2013-01-01

    The fowl tick, Argas persicus (Oken), is of veterinary importance as a parasite of poultry and wild birds. The antitick efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, of peracetic acid (PAA) and deltamethrin (DMT) was tested separately against A. persicus through the dipping technique. PAA (0.5 %) was highly efficient against soft tick larvae (A. persicus), resulting in 100 % mortality after 2 min. The lethal concentrations LC(50) and LC(95) were 0.310 and 0.503 %, respectively. The lethal time values LT(50) and LT(95) were 5.34 and 40.00 min, respectively, after treatment with PAA (0.25 %). Two minutes after exposure to DMT, LC(50) and LC(95) values were 0.033 and 0.052 % (33.204 and 51.527 mg/L), respectively. The LT(50) and LT(95) values were 27.03 and 305.46 min, respectively, after treatment with 0.025 % DMT (25 mg/L). After dipping in PAA (0.5 %), the chickens did not show respiratory signs or inflammation on the eyes and/or skin. By contrast, temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed in chickens dipped in DMT (0.05 % or 50 mg /L). Seven days posttreatment (PT), the reduction in the percentages of A. persicus infesting laying hens were 99.15 and 63.42 % after dipping in PAA and DMT, respectively. However, complete elimination of the number of ticks occurred after 28 days PT with DMT. PAA inhibits molting effectively (28 %) when compared with that of DMT (52 %). Results indicated that PAA is a more potent and promising acaricide against A. persicus (in vitro and in vivo) than DMT.

  3. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  4. The utilization of the Welfare Quality® assessment for determining laying hen condition across three housing systems.

    PubMed

    Blatchford, R A; Fulton, R M; Mench, J A

    2016-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(®) Assessment protocol for poultry ( WQA: ) provides animal-based measures allowing welfare comparisons across farms and housing systems. It was used to compare Lohmann LSL Classic White hens housed in an enriched colony ( EC: ), aviary ( AV: ), and conventional cage system ( CC: ) on a commercial farm over 2 flock cycles. Hens (n = 100/system) were scored on a variety of measures. A baseline measurement was made at placement at 19 wk of age for 1 flock, since AV hens had been reared in an aviary pullet facility ( AVP: while EC and CC hens were reared in a conventional pullet facility ( CCP: ). Hens in all systems were then assessed at 52 and 72 wk of age. Necropsies were performed on all mortalities 1 wk before and after the WQA sampling. WQAs were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests for prevalence and Fisher's exact tests for severity. There was an effect of rearing, with AVP having shorter claws (P = 0.01), dirtier feathers (P = 0.03), and more keel abnormalities (P < 0.0001) than CCP at placement. For the hens, there were several significant housing system effects across flocks and age periods (all P ≤ 0.05). AV and EC hens had more keel abnormalities than CC hens. They also had fewer foot abnormalities than CC hens, although those in AV hens were more severe. AV hens had consistently dirtier feathers than EC and CC hens. While AV hens had the best overall feather cover, feather loss patterns suggested that loss was due to head pecking for AV, whereas in EC and CC it was due to cage abrasion. The necropsy findings and the WQA results were similar, except that the WQA failed to find enteritis at 19 wk, although it was detected in the necropsies during this sampling period. These results show that the WQA is a useful tool for detecting hen condition differences across housing systems.

  5. Implications for Welfare, Productivity and Sustainability of the Variation in Reported Levels of Mortality for Laying Hen Flocks Kept in Different Housing Systems: A Meta-Analysis of Ten Studies

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Claire A.; Lambton, Sarah L.; Williams, Adrian G.

    2016-01-01

    Data from ten sources comprising 3,851 flocks were modelled to identify variation in levels of mortality in laying hens. The predicted increase with age was curvilinear with significant variation between the seven breed categories. Mortality was higher in loose housing systems than in cages and variable within system, confirming previous reports. Cumulative mortality (CM) was higher in flocks with intact beaks (χ2 = 6.03; df 1; p = 0.014) than in those with trimmed beaks. Most data were available for free-range systems (2,823 flocks), where producer recorded CM at 60–80 weeks of age averaged 10% but with a range from 0% to 69.3%. Life cycle assessment showed that the main effect of increased levels of hen mortality is to increase the relative contribution of breeding overheads, so increasing environmental burdens per unit of production. Reducing CM to levels currently achieved by the 1st quartile could reduce flock greenhouse gas emissions by as much as 25%. Concurrently this would enhance hen welfare and better meet the expectation of egg consumers. More research to understand the genetic x environment interaction and detailed records of the causes of mortality is required so that improved genotypes can be developed for different systems and different breeds can be better managed within systems. PMID:26734933

  6. Implications for Welfare, Productivity and Sustainability of the Variation in Reported Levels of Mortality for Laying Hen Flocks Kept in Different Housing Systems: A Meta-Analysis of Ten Studies.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Claire A; Lambton, Sarah L; Williams, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    Data from ten sources comprising 3,851 flocks were modelled to identify variation in levels of mortality in laying hens. The predicted increase with age was curvilinear with significant variation between the seven breed categories. Mortality was higher in loose housing systems than in cages and variable within system, confirming previous reports. Cumulative mortality (CM) was higher in flocks with intact beaks (χ2 = 6.03; df 1; p = 0.014) than in those with trimmed beaks. Most data were available for free-range systems (2,823 flocks), where producer recorded CM at 60-80 weeks of age averaged 10% but with a range from 0% to 69.3%. Life cycle assessment showed that the main effect of increased levels of hen mortality is to increase the relative contribution of breeding overheads, so increasing environmental burdens per unit of production. Reducing CM to levels currently achieved by the 1st quartile could reduce flock greenhouse gas emissions by as much as 25%. Concurrently this would enhance hen welfare and better meet the expectation of egg consumers. More research to understand the genetic x environment interaction and detailed records of the causes of mortality is required so that improved genotypes can be developed for different systems and different breeds can be better managed within systems.

  7. Effects of Dietary Persimmon Peel and its Ethanol Extract on the Production Performance and Liver Lipids in the Late Stage of Egg Production in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Oh, S. T.; Zheng, L.; Shin, Y. K.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary effects of persimmon peel (PP) and PP ethanol extract (PPE) on egg production, egg quality, and liver lipids in the late stage of egg production in laying hens. One hundred and twenty 50-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 120) were fed different diets. Four replicate groups of 6 hens each were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. The 5 dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON, basal diet; ii) PP 0.15, CON+0.15% PP (0.035% tannin); iii) PP 0.5, CON +0.5% PP (0.117% tannin); iv) PPE 0.075, CON+0.075% PPE (0.03% tannin); and v) PPE 0.25, CON+0.25% PPE (0.11% tannin). The total tannin concentration of PPE was higher (p<0.05) than that of PP. Egg production in the PP 0.5 group was higher than in the other groups. Egg production and mass of hens in the PPE 0.25 group showed a greater decrease than that in the other groups (p<0.05). Eggshell color in the PP 0.15, PP 0.5, and PPE 0.075 groups was lighter than that of the control group (p<0.05). The Haugh unit for the groups that were fed PP and PPE were significantly higher than that in the other groups after 7 d of storage (p<0.05). Therefore, PP seems an effective feed additive for improving the production performance and egg quality in late stage laying hens. PMID:25049785

  8. The net energy values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles and wheat bran for laying hens using indirect calorimetry method.

    PubMed

    Ning, D; Yuan, J M; Wang, Y W; Peng, Y Z; Guo, Y M

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the NE values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran (WB) for laying hens based on an indirect calorimetry method and nitrogen balance measurements. A total of 576 twenty-eight-wk-old Dwarf Pink-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups fed a basal diet (BD) or a combination of BD with 50% corn or 20% DDGS or 20% WB, with four replicates each. After a 7-d adaptation period, each replicate with 36 hens were kept in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP) for 6 days during the feeding period and subsequent 3-d fasting. The equilibrium fasting HP (FHP) provided an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm). The NE values of test feedstuffs was estimated using the difference method. Results showed that the heat increment that contributed 35.34 to 37.85% of ME intake was not influenced by experimental diets (p>0.05) when expressed as Mcal/kg of DM feed intake. Lighting increased the HP in hens in an fed-state. The FHP decreased over time (p<0.05) with the lowest value determined on the third day of starvation. No significant difference between treatments was found on FHP of d 3 (p>0.05). The estimated AME, AMEn, and NE values were 3.46, 3.44 and 2.25 Mcal/kg DM for corn, 3.11, 2.79, and 1.80 Mcal/kg DM for DDGS, 2.14, 2.10, and 1.14 Mcal/kg DM for WB, respectively. The net availability of AME of corn tended to be numerically higher than DDGS and WB (p = 0.096). In conclusion, compared with corn, the energy values of DDGS and WB were overestimated when expressed on an AME basis.

  9. Effect of catching method and lighting intensity on the prevalence of broken bones and on the ease of handling of end-of-lay hens.

    PubMed

    Gregory, N G; Wilkins, L J; Alvey, D M; Tucker, S A

    1993-02-06

    Five catching methods were compared in terms of their effect on the proportion of battery hens which had bones broken when they were removed from battery cages. In addition the effect of tier, lighting intensity during lay and lighting intensity during handling on the prevalence of fractures at catching and on old fractures which occurred during lay was evaluated. Catching and removing hens by one leg from the cages resulted in 11 to 14 per cent of the birds acquiring a broken bone, whereas catching and removing each bird by two legs resulted in 5 per cent of the birds acquiring a freshly broken bone. Removing more than one bird at a time from the cage tended to cause more skeletal damage than removing them individually, and incorporating a wooden breast support slide over the feed trough had no effect on the prevalence of broken bones. Catching birds in the top tier of a three-tiered battery unit was more difficult than for the middle or bottom tiers. When the light intensity at catching was the same as that during lay birds were more difficult to catch than when the light intensity was changed, but the effects were insufficient to affect the prevalence of damage to the skeleton.

  10. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the performance of laying hens, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor, and serum components

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuelan; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Peipei; Shi, Tianhong; Wei, Xiangfa

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the serum components, laying hen productivity, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor and egg quality. Methods Healthy 28-week-old Hy-Line white laying hens (n = 480) were divided randomly into 4 groups, 6 replicates/group, 20 birds/replicate. The 30-day experimental diets included 0% (control), 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA. Some serum indices of the birds, and egg production, quality, fatty acid composition, egg quality were measured. Results The dietary supplementation with 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA did not significantly affect the laying rate and feed intake, as well as calcium ion and phosphorus ion concentration in serum (p>0.05). However, the CLA had significantly increased the strength of eggshell, decreased the odor, flavor, and taste of egg yolk, deepened the color of egg yolk, increased saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and reduced the monounsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05). On the other hand, the dietary supplementation with 1.6% CLA had significant effects on feed/gain, and improved serum hormones. Dietary supplementation with 0.4% and 0.8% CLA can significantly enhance the activity of alkaline phosphates. Conclusion CLA has no effect on production performance, but does enhance the lipid content of the egg yolk and the strength of the eggshell. PMID:27383812

  11. Molting in Salmonella Enteritidis-challenged laying hens fed alfalfa crumbles. II. Fermentation and microbial ecology response.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, K D; McReynolds, J L; Hume, M E; Dunkley, C S; Callaway, T R; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine microbial population shifts and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) responses in the gastrointestinal tract of Salmonella Enteritidis-challenged molted and nonmolted hens fed different dietary regimens. Fifteen Salmonella-free Single Comb Leghorn hens (>50 wk old) were assigned to 3 treatment groups of 5 birds each based on diet in 2 trials: 100% alfalfa crumbles (ALC), full-fed (FF, nonmolted) 100% commercial layer ration, and feed withdrawal (FW). A forced molt was induced by either a 12-d alfalfa diet or FW. In all treatment groups, each hen was challenged by crop gavage orally 4 d after molt induction with a 1-mL inoculum containing 10(6) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis. Fecal and cecal samples (d 4, 6, 8, 11, and necropsy on d 12) were collected postchallenge. Microbial population shifts were evaluated by PCR-based 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and SCFA concentrations were measured. Total SCFA in fecal and cecal contents for FW molted hens were generally lower (P < or = 0.05) in the later stages of the molt period when compared to ALC and FF treatment groups. The overall trend of SCFA in cecal and fecal samples exhibited similar patterns. In trials 1 and 2, hens molted with ALC diet generally yielded more similar amplicon band patterns with the FF hens in both fecal and cecal samples by the end of the molting period than with FW hens. The results of these studies suggest that ALC molted hens supported microflora and fermentation activities, which were more comparable to FF hens than FW hens by the end of the molting period.

  12. Comparative omega-3 fatty acid enrichment of egg yolks from first-cycle laying hens fed flaxseed oil or ground flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Ehr, I J; Persia, M E; Bobeck, E A

    2017-01-20

    When laying hen diets are enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to generate value-added eggs for human consumption markets, concentrations of alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) in the yolk can reach 250 mg/50 g whole egg. Flaxseed, a rich source of ALA, is commonly used for omega-3 enrichment; however, the impact of dietary flaxseed source (extracted oil vs. milled seed) on fatty acid transfer to egg yolk in laying hens is unknown. Therefore, transfer of ALA, EPA, and DHA into egg yolk from extracted flaxseed oil or milled flaxseed was evaluated in Hy-Line W-36 laying hens over an 8-week feeding period (25 to 33 wk old). Hens (n = 132) were randomly housed with 3 birds/cage (4 replicates/treatment) for each of the 11 treatment groups. Diets were isocaloric and consisted of a control diet, 5 flaxseed oil diets (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, or 5.0% flaxseed oil), and 5 milled flaxseed diets (calculated flaxseed oil concentration from milled flaxseed 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0%). Increasing dietary concentrations of flaxseed oil and milled flaxseed resulted in increased ALA, EPA, and DHA concentration in egg yolk, and fatty acid deposition from flaxseed oil was 2 times greater compared to milled flaxseed when fed at the same dietary inclusions (P < 0.01). Egg yolk EPA and DHA concentrations were not different due to oil or milled source (P = 0.21); however, increasing dietary inclusion rates of flaxseed oil from either source increased yolk EPA and DHA (P < 0.01). Hens fed either flaxseed oil or milled flaxseed resulted in reduced BW change as dietary concentrations increased (P = 0.02). Feed efficiency increased as flaxseed oil increased in concentration, while feeding milled flaxseed decreased feed efficiency (P = 0.01). Analysis of the nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy of flaxseed oil resulted in 7,488 kcal/kg on an as-fed basis. Dietary flaxseed oil improved feed efficiency and increased ALA deposition

  13. Effect of tea polyphenols on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z H; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Wang, J P

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic-antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets. A total of 300 Lohman laying hens (67 wk old) were used in a 1 plus 3 × 3 experiment design in which hens were given either a diet without vanadium and TP supplementation (control) or diets supplemented with 5, 10, or 15 mg V/kg and TP (0, 600, 1,000 mg/kg) diets for 8 wk, which included 2 phases: a 5-wk accumulation phase and a 3-wk depletion phase. During the accumulation phase, dietary vanadium addition decreased (linear, P < 0.01) albumen height and Haugh unit (HU), and TP supplementation mitigated (linear effect, P < 0.01) this reduction effect induced by vanadium. Eggshell thickness (linear, P < 0.01), redness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05), and yellowness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) were decreased by vanadium and increased by the effect of TP when a vanadium-containing diet was fed. In the depletion phase, the bleaching effect on eggshells induced by vanadium disappeared one wk after vanadium withdrawal. Eggshell thickness, eggshell strength, albumen height, and HU were lower (P < 0.05) in the 15 mg/kg vanadium group compared with the control diet until 2 wk post vanadium challenge, but hens fed 15 mg/kg vanadium and 600 mg/kg TP showed no difference from the control diet only after 1 wk withdrawal. In the liver, the activity of glutathione S-transferases and glutathione peroxidase was increased (linear, P < 0.01) with the TP addition at 5 wk in the accumulation phase in the vanadium-containing diet; the malondialdehyde content increased (linear effect, P = 0.02) with the addition of vanadium. The results indicate that supplementation of 10 and 15 mg/kg vanadium resulted in reduced albumen quality, bleaching effect on eggshell color, and antioxidant stress in the liver. The effect of TP addition can prevent laying hens from the adverse effect of vanadium on egg

  14. The probiotic Bacillus licheniformis ameliorates heat stress-induced impairment of egg production, gut morphology, and intestinal mucosal immunity in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Deng, W; Dong, X F; Tong, J M; Zhang, Q

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effect of a 12-d exposure to 34°C plus dietary inclusion of the probiotic Bacillus licheniformis on the egg production, gut morphology, and intestinal mucosal immunity of laying hens. Ninety-six commercial hens (Hy-Line Brown) at the age of 60 wk were randomly allocated to 4 groups. After a period of laying rate adjustment (14 d), all the hens were subjected to 2 temperature treatments (12 d). Birds in 1 group were raised at 21°C and fed a basal diet, and birds in the other 3 groups were raised at 34°C and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 10(6), or 10(7) cfu of B. licheniformis per gram of feed, respectively. Rearing at 34°C depressed egg production and feed intake (P < 0.05). Compared with birds kept at 21°C, birds kept at 34°C had elevated serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (d 6), IL-1 (d 6 and 12), and corticosterone (d 6); decreased villus height (ileum: d 6; cecum: d 6 and 12) and ratio of villus height to crypt depth (ileum: d 6; cecum: d 6 and 12); fewer intraepithelial lymphocytes (ileum: d 6; cecum: d 6) and IgA-secreting cells (ileum: d 6; cecum: d 6 and 12); and more mast cells (ileum: d 6; cecum: d 6 and 12; P < 0.05). The number of goblet cells in the cecum increased at d 6 in heat-treated birds, and then deceased at d 12 (P < 0.05). Moreover, morphological examination showed injury to the villi of birds kept at 34°C. In general, inclusion of 10(7) cfu/g of B. licheniformis in the diet of heat-stressed hens was effective in overcoming the observed decline in egg production and feed intake, restoring the impaired villus structure, and sustaining a balanced mucosal immune response. Therefore, the probiotic B. licheniformis may be useful for ameliorating the adverse influence of heat on the egg production and gut health of laying hens.

  15. Improving productive performance and mitigating harmful emissions from laying hen excreta via feeding on graded levels of corn DDGS with or without Bacillus subtilis probiotic.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Mahgoub, S A; Alagawany, M; Ashour, E A

    2016-05-17

    An experiment that included some inclusions of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without supplementation of probiotic bacteria to Hi-sex Brown laying hen diets was conducted to evaluate the impacts on performance, egg quality, blood metabolites and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion in the manure. A total of 216 twenty-two-week-old Hi-sex Brown laying hens were randomly divided into eight treatment groups in a factorial design (4 × 2) experiment, which included four levels of DDGS (0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg diet) plus two levels of Bacillus subtilis probiotic (0 or 1000 mg/kg diet, with a concentration of 1.5 × 108 CFU/g of dried product). The experimental period extended from 22 to 34 weeks of age. The results showed that linear increase in DDGS level up to 150 g/kg improved (p ≤ 0.01) the values of feed consumption, egg shape index and yolk colour compared to the control and other treatment groups. Inclusion of dietary DDGS up to 150 g/kg in layer diets led to a significant decrease in egg mass and a significant increase in Haugh unit score compared to other groups. In the bacillus group, the values of feed conversion, egg weight and egg mass enhanced by 6.45, 3.27 and 7.60% respectively compared with the control diet. Total protein, albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, calcium and ammonia in serum were significantly (p ≤ 0.01) influenced by DDGS inclusion. The excreted nitrogen decreased by 8.62 and 4.31% in hens fed 50 or 100 g/kg of DDGS respectively, while excreted phosphorous decreased by 3.33, 7.22 and 10.56% in hens fed 50, 100 or 150 g/kg of DDGS respectively as compared to the control group. It could be concluded that increasing DDGS inclusion level in the diet up to 10% and the supplementation of probiotic bacteria improved the productive performance of laying hens and mitigated the harmful emissions from chicken manure; this means better production within environmentally friendly conditions.

  16. Effect of inositol and phytases on hematological indices and α-1 acid glycoprotein levels in laying hens fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Zyła, K; Grabacka, M; Pierzchalska, M; Duliński, R; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of feeding low nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with myo-inositol at 0.1%, or with phytase B at 1,300 acid phosphatase units/kg, or with phytase B enriched in 6-phytase A at 300 phytase units/kg on the hematological indices and the α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations in the blood of Bovans Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design comprised also a negative control diet and an internal control diet that had the NPP content adjusted by the addition of 0.304 g of monocalcium phosphate per kg to reach the NPP level similar to that resulting from the combined action of both phytases. A total of sixty 50-wk-old hens were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments with 12 cage replicates of 1 hen, and fed the experimental diets until wk 62, when the blood samples were taken and analyzed for basic hematological indices and for AGP concentrations in sera. The hematological indices from all the experimental groups remained in a normal range; nevertheless, the statistically significant effects of diet on hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.003), erythrocyte counts (P = 0.035), the percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.020), heterophils (P = 0.002), eosinophils (P = 0.023), and basophils (P = 0.001) in the leucocyte population, as well as on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), were observed. The highest erythrocyte counts were characteristic for hens fed the diet supplemented with both phytase A and phytase B. The highest heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were found in blood of hens fed the diet supplemented with phytase B, whereas the highest basophil percentages and the highest AGP concentrations occurred in birds fed the negative control diet. A highly significant correlation was observed between AGP concentrations in sera and BW losses determined previously. The results indicate that the low-NPP corn soybean meal-based diets increased acute phase protein level in laying hens. Phytase B alone

  17. Relative bioavailability of copper in tribasic copper chloride to copper in copper sulfate for laying hens based on egg yolk and feather copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Shin, J E; Kil, D Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Cu in tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to Cu in copper sulfate (monohydrate form; CuSO4·H2O) for layer diets based on egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations. A total of 252, 72-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates consisting of 6 hens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Hens were fed corn-soybean meal-based basal diets supplemented with 0 (basal), 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4 or TBCC for 4 wk. Results indicated that egg production, egg weight, and egg mass were not affected by dietary treatments. However, increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from CuSO4 decreased (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR), whereas increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from TBCC did not affect FCR, indicating significant interaction (P < 0.05). Increasing inclusion levels of Cu from TBCC or CuSO4 increased (P < 0.05) Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers. Feather Cu concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for hens fed diets containing CuSO4 than for hens fed diets containing TBCC. The values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 based on log10 transformed egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were 107.4% and 69.5%, respectively. These values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC did not differ from Cu in CuSO4 (100%). The RBV measured in egg yolk did not differ from the RBV measured in feather. In conclusion, the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 can be determined using Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers although the values depend largely on target tissues of laying hens. For a practical application, however, the RBV value of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 could be 88.5% when the RBV values determined using egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were averaged.

  18. Effect of reduced energy, protein and entire substitution of inorganic phosphorus by phytase on performance and bone mineralisation of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lei, Q B; Shi, L X; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Liu, Y G

    2011-04-01

    1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of total removal of dietary inorganic phosphorus and reduced energy and protein, without and with phytase supplementation, on the performance, egg quality and bone composition of laying hens. 2. Lohmann pink-shell hens were randomly assigned at 56 weeks of age to 5 treatments for 20 weeks as follows: (1) a positive control (PC) with 155 g CP/kg, 11·09 MJ ME/kg, calcium (Ca) 3·40% and non-phytic phosphorus (NPP) 0·26%, (2) a negative control (NC1) diet based on PC diet with Ca decreased to 3·30% and NPP to 0·14%, (3) NC2 diet was formulated on the basis of NC1 diet with 152·7 g CP/kg, 10·90 MJ/kg, (4) NC1 and (5) NC2 supplemented with phytase (300 FTU/kg) each. 3. Feed intake, hen-day or hen-housed egg production, egg number per hen-housed, and final body weight were depressed with NC1 and NC2 diets, but restored by phytase inclusion. There were no significant differences