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Sample records for lband radiometric behaviour

  1. Aquarius L-Band Microwave Radiometer: Three Years of Radiometric Performance and Systematic Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Hong, Liang; Pellerano, Fernando A.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquarius L-band microwave radiometer is a three-beam pushbroom instrument designed to measure sea surface salinity. Results are analyzed for performance and systematic effects over three years of operation. The thermal control system maintains tight temperature stability promoting good gain stability. The gain spectrum exhibits expected orbital variations with 1f noise appearing at longer time periods. The on-board detection and integration scheme coupled with the calibration algorithm produce antenna temperatures with NEDT 0.16 K for 1.44-s samples. Nonlinearity is characterized before launch and the derived correction is verified with cold-sky calibration data. Finally, long-term drift is discovered in all channels with 1-K amplitude and 100-day time constant. Nonetheless, it is adeptly corrected using an exponential model.

  2. Analysis of L-band radiometric data over the Mediterranean Sea from the SMOS Validation Rehearsal campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabarro, C.; Talone, M.; Font, J.

    2009-04-01

    L-band radiometric data obtained with a real aperture airborne radiometer during SMOS validation Rehearsal campaign (April-May 2008) over the NW Mediterranean Sea have been analysed. EMIRAD, a fully polarimetric radiometer developed by the Technical University of Denmark operating in the 1400 - 1427 MHz band, was mounted on board a Skyvan aircraft from the Helsinki University of Technology. Two antennas were used: one facing nadir with 37.6° full aperture at half-power; and one placed towards the rear of the aircraft at 40° zenith angle with 30.6° full aperture at half-power. Two transit flights over the sea from Marseille to Valencia (19 April 2008) and from Valencia to Marseille (3 May 2008) have been studied. Two meteorological and oceanographic buoys were moored 40 Km offshore in front of Tarragona and were overflown during these transits. Additionally, information on sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) was obtained from operational model outputs (Mediterranean Forecasting System - Mediterranean Operational Oceanography Network) and wind speed from QuikSCAT. Measured brightness temperatures (Tb) have been compared with modelled Tb, using a semi-empirical emissivity model: Klein and Swift model is used to define the dielectric constant and Hollinger model for the rough sea emissivity contribution. Comparisons show that in general measured Tb variability fits with modelled variability, although a bias is observed in the aft V channel.

  3. Galactic Noise and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing from Space At L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Abraham, Saji; Hildebrand Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The spectral window at L-band (1.4 GHz) is important for passive remote sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity from space, parameters that are needed to understand the hydrologic cycle and ocean circulation. At this frequency, radiation from extraterrestrial (mostly galactic) sources is strong and, unlike the constant cosmic background, this radiation is spatially variable. This paper presents a modern radiometric map of the celestial sky at L-band and a solution for the problem of determining what portion of the sky is seen by a radiometer in orbit. The data for the radiometric map is derived from recent radio astronomy surveys and is presented as equivalent brightness temperature suitable for remote sensing applications. Examples using orbits and antennas representative of those contemplated for remote sensing of soil moisture and sea surface salinity from space are presented to illustrate the signal levels to be expected. Near the galactic plane, the contribution can exceed several Kelvin.

  4. TES radiometric assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, H.; Sarkissian, E.; Bowman, K.; Fisher, B.; Rider, D.; Aumann, H. H.; Apolinski, M.; Debaca, R. C.; Gluck, S.; Madatyan, M.; McDuffie, J.; Tremblay, D.; Shephard, M.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Tobin, D.; Revercomb, H.

    2005-01-01

    TES is an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer on board the EOS-Aura spacecraft launched July 15, 2004. Improvements to the radiometric calibration and consequent assessment of radiometric accuracy have been on-going since launch.

  5. NASA Radiometric Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the characterization of radiometric data by NASA. The objective was to perform radiometric vicarious calibrations of imagery and compare with vendor-provided calibration coefficients. The approach was to use multiple, well-characterized sites. These sites are widely used by the NASA science community for radiometric characterization of airborne and space borne sensors. Using the data from these sites, the investigators performed independent characterizations with independent teams. Each team has slightly different measurement techniques and data processing methods.

  6. PV Solar Radiometric Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.; Cannon, T.W.

    1997-02-01

    Radiometric measurements performed by the PV Solar Radiometric Measurements Task support NREL{close_quote}s centers for Measurements and Characterization, Performance Engineering and Reliability, and Renewable Energy Resources. The task provides characterization, measurements, testing, designs, and analysis of radiometric instrumentation and data for the performance of PV cells, modules, and systems. We describe recent characterization of the radiometric performance of pyranometers deployed for PV system testing at the NREL Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) and improvements undertaken in NREL broadband radiometer characterization. Typical measurement and calibration issues with diode array spectroradiometers used for absolute spectral measurements applied to PV performance and characterization are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. NASA IKONOS Radiometric Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Frisbee, Troy; Zanoni, Vicki; Blonski, Slawek; Daehler, Erik; Grant, Brennan; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Sellers, Richard; Smith, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this program: Perform radiometric vicarious calibrations of IKQNOS imagery and compare with Space Imaging calibration coefficients The approach taken: utilize multiple well-characterized sites which are widely used by the NASA science community for radiometric characterization of airborne and spaceborne sensors; and to Perform independent characterizations with independent teams. Each team has slightly different measurement techniques and data processing methods.

  8. Galactic Noise and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing from Space at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Abraham, S.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The spectral window at L-band (1.4 GHz) is important for passive remote sensing of parameters such as soil moisture and ocean salinity best measured at long wavelengths. At L-band, radiation from extraterrestrial (galactic) sources is strong enough to warrant inclusion in calibration and retrieval algorithms and unlike the constant cosmic background is spatially variable. Previous estimates of the magnitude and distribution of this background radiation have been rather coarse, However, recent surveys of the radio sky at 1.4 GHz have made it possible to produce maps with sufficient spatial and radiometric accuracy to be relevant to remote sensing applications. This is of particular concern for remote sensing of sea surface salinity because the surface (water) is a good reflector and the salinity signal is relatively small. This paper presents a modem map of the radiometric sky at L-band and a solution to the problem of determining the portion of the sky seen by a radiometer in orbit. The data is derived from recent radio astronomy surveys and is presented as equivalent brightness temperature suitable for remote sensing applications. Examples using orbits and antennas representative of those contemplated for remote sensing of soil moisture and sea surface salinity from space are presented to illustrate the signal levels to be expected. Radiation near the galactic plane can exceed several kelvin.

  9. Radiometric correction procedure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colby, C.; Sands, R.; Murphrey, S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of MSS radiometric processing techniques identified as a preferred radiometric processing technique a procedure which equalizes the mean and standard deviation of detector-specific histograms of uncalibrated scene data. Evaluation of MSS calibration data demonstrated that the relationship between detector responses is essentially linear over the range of intensities typically observed in MSS data, and that the calibration wedge data possess a high degree of temporal stability. An analysis of the preferred radiometric processing technique showed that it could be incorporated into the MDP-MSS system without a major redesign of the system, and with minimal impact on system throughput.

  10. NASA IKONOS Radiometric Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Daehler, Erik; Zanoni, Vicki; Schiller, Stephen; Thome, Kurtis

    2002-01-01

    NASA acquired imagery from the IKONOS satellite as part of its Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) program, which purchases scientific data sets from commercial sources. This viewgraph presentation describes the IKONOS satellite and its sensors, and then gives an overview of characterization efforts undertaken by NASA in cooperation with other government agencies. The characterization included relative radiometric correction, absolute radiometric characterization of data from Lunar Lake Playa, Nevada, and calibration of data from Stennis Space Center, Mississippi.

  11. Photovoltaics radiometric issues and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a summary of issues discussed at the photovoltaic radiometric measurements workshop. Topics included radiometric measurements guides, the need for well-defined goals, documentation, calibration checks, accreditation of testing laboratories and methods, the need for less expensive radiometric instrumentation, data correlations, and quality assurance.

  12. Radiometric Dating Does Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, G. Brent

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the accuracy of dating methods and creationist arguments that radiometric dating does not work. Explains the Manson meteorite impact and the Pierre shale, the ages of meteorites, the K-T tektites, and dating the Mount Vesuvius eruption. (Author/YDS)

  13. Small satellite radiometric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    A critical need for the Mission to Planet Earth is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, flexible radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated data and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs). 12 refs., 2 figs.

  14. L-Band Radiometer Measurements of Conifer Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R.; LeVine, D.; Chauhan, N.; deMatthaeis, P.; Bidwell, S.; Haken, M.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne radiometer measurements have been made at L-band over conifer forests in Virginia to study radiometric response to biomass and soil moisture. The horizontally polarized synthetic aperture radiometer, ESTAR, has been deployed abroad a NASA-P3 aircraft which is based at the Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. The instrument has been mounted in the bomb bay of the P-3 and images data in the cross track direction. Aircraft and surface measurements were made in July, August and November of 1999 over relatively homogeneous conifer stands of varying biomass. The surface measurements included soil moisture measurements in several stands. The soil moisture was low during the July flight and highest in November after heavy rains had occurred. The microwave images clearly distinguished between the different forest stands. Stand age, obtained from International Paper Corporation which owns the stands, showed a strong correlation between brightness temperature and stand age. This agrees with previous simulation studies of conifer forests which show that the brightness temperature increases with increasing stand biomass. Research is continuing to seek a quantitative correlation between the observed brightness temperature of the stands and their biomass and surface soil moisture.

  15. Development of a High-Stability Microstrip-based L-band Radiometer for Ocean Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando A.; Horgan, Kevin A.; Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a microstrip-based L-band Dicke radiometer with the long-term stability required for future ocean salinity measurements to an accuracy of 0.1 psu is presented. This measurement requires the L-band radiometers to have calibration stabilities of less than or equal to 0.05 K over 2 days. This research has focused on determining the optimum radiometer requirements and configuration to achieve this objective. System configuration and component performance have been evaluated with radiometer test beds at both JPL and GSFC. The GSFC testbed uses a cryogenic chamber that allows long-term characterization at radiometric temperatures in the range of 70 - 120 K. The research has addressed several areas including component characterization as a function of temperature and DC bias, system linearity, optimum noise diode injection calibration, and precision temperature control of components. A breadboard radiometer, utilizing microstrip-based technologies, has been built to demonstrate this long-term stability.

  16. Simplified Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary

    2010-01-01

    A measurement-based radiance estimation approach for vicarious radiometric calibration of spaceborne multispectral remote sensing systems has been developed. This simplified process eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and reduces the number of atmospheric assumptions required to perform sensor calibrations. Like prior approaches, the simplified method involves the collection of ground truth data coincident with the overpass of the remote sensing system being calibrated, but this approach differs from the prior techniques in both the nature of the data collected and the manner in which the data are processed. In traditional vicarious radiometric calibration, ground truth data are gathered using ground-viewing spectroradiometers and one or more sun photometer( s), among other instruments, located at a ground target area. The measured data from the ground-based instruments are used in radiative transfer models to estimate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) target radiances at the time of satellite overpass. These TOA radiances are compared with the satellite sensor readings to radiometrically calibrate the sensor. Traditional vicarious radiometric calibration methods require that an atmospheric model be defined such that the ground-based observations of solar transmission and diffuse-to-global ratios are in close agreement with the radiative transfer code estimation of these parameters. This process is labor-intensive and complex, and can be prone to errors. The errors can be compounded because of approximations in the model and inaccurate assumptions about the radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain. The errors can increase the uncertainty of the TOA radiance estimates used to perform the radiometric calibration. In comparison, the simplified approach does not use atmospheric radiative transfer models and involves fewer assumptions concerning the radiative transfer properties of the atmosphere. This new technique uses two neighboring uniform

  17. Radiometric sounding system

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Anderson, G.A.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Shaw, W.J.

    1995-04-01

    Vertical profiles of solar and terrestrial radiative fluxes are key research needs for global climate change research. These fluxes are expected to change as radiatively active trace gases are emitted to the earth`s atmosphere as a consequence of energy production and industrial and other human activities. Models suggest that changes in the concentration of such gases will lead to radiative flux divergences that will produce global warming of the earth`s atmosphere. Direct measurements of the vertical variation of solar and terrestrial radiative fluxes that lead to these flux divergences have been largely unavailable because of the expense of making such measurements from airplanes. These measurements are needed to improve existing atmospheric radiative transfer models, especially under the cloudy conditions where the models have not been adequately tested. A tethered-balloon-borne Radiometric Sounding System has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide an inexpensive means of making routine vertical soundings of radiative fluxes in the earth`s atmospheric boundary layer to altitudes up to 1500 m above ground level. Such vertical soundings would supplement measurements being made from aircraft and towers. The key technical challenge in the design of the Radiometric Sounding System is to develop a means of keeping the radiometers horizontal while the balloon ascends and descends in a turbulent atmospheric environment. This problem has been addressed by stabilizing a triangular radiometer-carrying platform that is carried on the tetherline of a balloon sounding system. The platform, carried 30 m or more below the balloon to reduce the balloon`s effect on the radiometric measurements, is leveled by two automatic control loops that activate motors, gears and pulleys when the platform is off-level. The sensitivity of the automatic control loops to oscillatory motions of various frequencies and amplitudes can be adjusted using filters.

  18. HIGH CURRENT L-BAND LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    S. RUSSELL; B. CARLSTEN; J. GOETTEE

    2001-02-01

    The Sub-Picosecond Accelerator (SPA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is an L-band photoinjector. Using magnetic compression, the SPA routinely compresses 8 MeV, 1 nC per bunch electron beams from an initial temporal FWHM bunch length of 20 ps to less than 1 ps. In recent plasma wakefield accelerator experiments, we have compressed a 2 nC per bunch electron beam to an approximate temporal length of 1 ps.

  19. [Laser-based radiometric calibration].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric calibration accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity calibration and characterization of detectors and remote sensing instruments in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric calibrations have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low calibration uncertainty and so on for radiometric calibration applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric calibration facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric calibration facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric calibration measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance calibrations for space remote sensing instruments, and promote the

  20. [Laser-based radiometric calibration].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric calibration accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity calibration and characterization of detectors and remote sensing instruments in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric calibrations have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low calibration uncertainty and so on for radiometric calibration applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric calibration facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric calibration facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric calibration measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance calibrations for space remote sensing instruments, and promote the

  1. L-Band Microwave Experiment On Russian Investigational Satellite, First Results And Comparison With SMOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, M.; Khaldin, A.

    2013-12-01

    The main scientific objective of mission with Zond-PP on Russian investigational satellite MKA-FKI No1 is development of techniques for retrieval: sea salinity in open oceans, soil moisture in global scales, vegetation state characteristics, sea ice characteristics. At the beginning stage of space experiments the main goals were to develop and test new space microwave radiometric instrument in order to solve technical objectives: investigation of RFI in L-band all over the globe, development and testing in-flight calibration techniques and others. First obtained results of our observations are presented. Zond-PP results were compared with MIRAS. For comparison were used results of brightness temperatures measurements obtained from Zond-PP and MIRAS in the same regions with minimal time difference. Results of comparison show general accordance in the brightness temperatures levels.

  2. Radiometric calibration by rank minimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Young; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Shi, Boxin; Kweon, In So; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust radiometric calibration framework that capitalizes on the transform invariant low-rank structure in the various types of observations, such as sensor irradiances recorded from a static scene with different exposure times, or linear structure of irradiance color mixtures around edges. We show that various radiometric calibration problems can be treated in a principled framework that uses a rank minimization approach. This framework provides a principled way of solving radiometric calibration problems in various settings. The proposed approach is evaluated using both simulation and real-world datasets and shows superior performance to previous approaches.

  3. L-band radar scattering from grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  4. Photovoltaic solar radiometric measurements and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.; Cannon, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    We describe current activities in radiometric measurements by the Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team as part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) PV Module and System Performance and Engineering Project. Scientific and engineering understanding of incident solar irradiance is provided through radiometric instrumentation and/or measurement methods. Recently, deployed reference broadband radiometric and meteorological instrumentation and spectral instrumentation provide the project with best-practice routine and specialized radiometric data. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. The effects of vegetation cover on the radar and radiometric sensitivity to soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Dobson, M. C.; Brunfeldt, D. R.; Razani, M.

    1982-01-01

    The measured effects of vegetation canopies on radar and radiometric sensitivity to soil moisture are compared to emission and scattering models. The models are found to predict accurately the measured emission and backscattering for various crop canopies at frequencies between 1.4 and 5.0 GHz, especially at theta equal to or less than 30 deg. Vegetation loss factors, L(theta), increase with frequency and are found to be dependent upon canopy type and water content. In addition, the radiometric power absorption coefficient of a mature corn canopy is 1.75 times that calculated for the radar. Comparison of an L-band radiometer with a C-band radar shows the two systems to be complementary in terms of accurate soil moisture sensing over the extreme range of naturally occurring soil moisture conditions.

  6. Earth Studies Using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    L-band SAR has played an important role in studies of the Earth by revealing the nature of the larger-scale (decimeter) surface features. JERS-1, by supplying multi-seasonal coverage of the much of the earth, has demonstrated the importance of L-band SARs. Future L-band SARs such as ALOS and LightSAR will pave the way for science missions that use SAR instruments. As technology develops to enable lower cost SAR instruments, missions will evolve to each have a unique science focus. International coordination of multi-parameter constellations and campaigns will maximize science return.

  7. Radiometric Calibration Techniques for Signal-of-Opportunity Reflectometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Shah, Rashmi; Deshpande, Manohar; Johnson, Carey

    2014-01-01

    Bi-static reflection measurements utilizing global navigation satellite service (GNSS) or other signals of opportunity (SoOp) can be used to sense ocean and terrestrial surface properties. End-to-end calibration of GNSS-R has been performed using well-characterized reflection surface (e.g., water), direct path antenna, and receiver gain characterization. We propose an augmented approach using on-board receiver electronics for radiometric calibration of SoOp reflectometers utilizing direct and reflected signal receiving antennas. The method calibrates receiver and correlator gains and offsets utilizing a reference switch and common noise source. On-board electronic calibration sources, such as reference switches, noise diodes and loop-back circuits, have shown great utility in stabilizing total power and correlation microwave radiometer and scatterometer receiver electronics in L-band spaceborne instruments. Application to SoOp instruments is likely to bring several benefits. For example, application to provide short and long time scale calibration stability of the direct path channel, especially in low signal-to-noise ratio configurations, is directly analogous to the microwave radiometer problem. The direct path channel is analogous to the loopback path in a scatterometer to provide a reference of the transmitted power, although the receiver is independent from the reflected path channel. Thus, a common noise source can be used to measure the gain ratio of the two paths. Using these techniques long-term (days to weeks) calibration stability of spaceborne L-band scatterometer and radiometer has been achieved better than 0.1. Similar long-term stability would likely be needed for a spaceborne reflectometer mission to measure terrestrial properties such as soil moisture.

  8. Reflectivity and Emissivity of Sea Foam at L-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelova, M. D.; Burrage, D. M.; Bettenhausen, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquitous use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for navigation is well known. GPS operates at L-band frequencies of 1-2 GHz. Because these low microwave frequencies penetrate clouds and rain, GPS signals can detect the specular reflection and diffuse scattering from flat and rough surfaces. This makes the GPS signals useful for geophysical measurements in all weather conditions. Aircraft and satellite-borne GPS reflectometers have been shown to successfully sense ocean surface wind. L-band reflectometry measures changes in ocean surface reflectivity due to changes of ocean surface roughness as wind increases. The use of GPS, together with other Global Navigation Satellite Systems, will soon provide hundreds of L-band transmitters in space and thus high temporal resolution for geophysical measurements. With its all weather capability and high temporal resolution, GPS reflectometry can provide wind speed data in hurricane conditions. Such capabilities enable the new Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) project which aims to improve the skill of hurricane intensity forecasts. However, wave breaking under high winds produces sea foam (whitecaps) and sea spray, which complicate processes acting at the air-sea interface. Whitecaps and sea spray have high emissivity at L-band and will thus reduce the ocean reflectivity needed for wind speed retrieval. A combination of L-band reflectometry and L-band radiometry can thus help to better understand and model the physical mechanisms governing the L-band sensor responses. We use a radiative transfer model formulated in terms of foam layer thickness and void fraction to evaluate both the reflectivity and emissivity of a foam-covered sea surface. We report on the attenuation of L-band radiation in foam layers, and the corresponding foam reflectivity, for layers with varying thicknesses and void fractions. The reflected GPS signal sensitivity to wind speed variations in the presence of foam is assessed.

  9. Miniature L-Band Radar Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWatters, Dalia; Price, Douglas; Edelstein, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    A miniature L-band transceiver that operates at a carrier frequency of 1.25 GHz has been developed as part of a generic radar electronics module (REM) that would constitute one unit in an array of many identical units in a very-large-aperture phased-array antenna. NASA and the Department of Defense are considering the deployment of such antennas in outer space; the underlying principles of operation, and some of those of design, also are applicable on Earth. The large dimensions of the antennas make it advantageous to distribute radio-frequency electronic circuitry into elements of the arrays. The design of the REM is intended to implement the distribution. The design also reflects a requirement to minimize the size and weight of the circuitry in order to minimize the weight of any such antenna. Other requirements include making the transceiver robust and radiation-hard and minimizing power demand. Figure 1 depicts the functional blocks of the REM, including the L-band transceiver. The key functions of the REM include signal generation, frequency translation, amplification, detection, handling of data, and radar control and timing. An arbitrary-waveform generator that includes logic circuitry and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) generates a linear-frequency-modulation chirp waveform. A frequency synthesizer produces local-oscillator signals used for frequency conversion and clock signals for the arbitrary-waveform generator, for a digitizer [that is, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)], and for a control and timing unit. Digital functions include command, timing, telemetry, filtering, and high-rate framing and serialization of data for a high-speed scientific-data interface. The aforementioned digital implementation of filtering is a key feature of the REM architecture. Digital filters, in contradistinction to analog ones, provide consistent and temperature-independent performance, which is particularly important when REMs are distributed throughout a large

  10. Skylab program: Earth resources experiment package. Sensor performance evaluation. Volume 6: (S194) L-band radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of the Skylab S194 L-band radiometer experiment data provided significant results pertaining to the actual realized performance during flight. Analysis of preflight test data provided a baseline from which to compare the experiment flight performance, although many radiometric data performance capabilities could only be demonstrated in the flight environment. The final results establish the overall hardware performance of the S194 system from which prospective users of the flight data can refer for various scientific applications. Instrument performance is presented in the areas of housekeeping and internal calibration parameters, antenna system integrity, dynamic range, linearity, precision, resolution, and absolute accuracy. Supplementary evaluations were included for an error analysis of system calibration stability. Results of the evaluation show that the instrument performance was generally as expected. Conclusions are drawn from the final evaluation results, and recommendations for improving the effectiveness of a future program are offered.

  11. Radiometric acid-base titrations.

    PubMed

    Erdey, L; Gimesi, O; Szabadváry, F

    1969-03-01

    Acid-base titrations can be performed with radiometric end-point detection by use of labelled metal salts (e.g., ZnCl(2), HgCl(2)). Owing to the formation or dissolution of the corresponding hydroxide after the equivalence point, the activity of the titrated solution linearly increases or decreases as excess of standard solution is added. The end-point of the titration is determined graphically.

  12. L-band tone-code-data transponder calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisken, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of this program were to identify and quantify factors which affect the performance of the L-band tone-code-data ranging transponders. Specific objectives included the following: (1) assemble the L-band ranging transponder, previously deployed in Hawaii for the tracking of the ATS-5 satellite, at the GE Radio-Optical Observatory; (2) configure the observatory to conduct calibration exercises with the transponder; and (3) conduct sufficient calibration experiments to demonstrate factors which degrade transponder accuracy, precision, and reliability, to quantify these factors where possible, and to verify long term transponder stability under controlled conditions.

  13. Radiometric studies of Mycobacterium lepraemurium.

    PubMed

    Camargo, E E; Larson, S M; Tepper, B S; Wagner, H N

    1976-01-01

    The radiometric method has been applied for studying the metabolism of M. lepraemurium and the conditions which might force or inhibit its metabolic activity in vitro. These organisms assimilate and oxidize (U-14C) glycerol, and (U-14C) acetate, but are unable to oxidize (U-14C) glucose, (U-14C) pyruvate, (U-14C) glycine and 14C-formate. When incubated at 30 degrees C M. lepraemurium oxidizes (U-14C) acetate to 14CO2 faster than 37 degrees C. The smae effect was observed with increasing concentrations of polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), or the 14C-substrate. No change in metabolic rate was observed when the organisms were kept at -20 degrees C for 12 days. Although tried several times, it was not possible to demonstrate any "inhibitors" of bacterial metabolism in the reaction system. The radiometric method seems to be an important tool for studying metabolic pathways and the influence of physical and biochemical factors on the metabolism of M. lepraemurium in vitro.

  14. Radiometric Measurements and Data for Evaluating Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Andreas, A.; Rymes, M.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Treadwell, J.

    2000-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltiac Radiometric Measurements Task ddresses the impact of solar and optical radiation on photovoltaic (PV) devices. The task maintains spectral and broadband calibration capability directly traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

  15. VIIRS emissive band radiometric performance trending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Eric; Ranshaw, Courtney

    2012-09-01

    The Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite launched on October 28, 2011 into a polar orbit of 824 km nominal altitude. VIIRS collects radiometric and imagery data of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces in 22 spectral bands spanning the visible and infrared spectrum from 0.4 to 12.5 μm. This paper summarizes the radiometric performance measured in the 7 VIIRS thermal emissive bands (3.7 to 12.5 μm), covering both pre-launch thermal-vacuum testing and early on-orbit characterizations. Radiometric characteristics trended include radiometric response and radiometric sensitivity (SNR/NEdT).

  16. Effective Tree Scattering at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurum, Mehmet; ONeill, Peggy E.; Lang, Roger H.; Joseph, Alicia T.; Cosh, Michael H.; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    For routine microwave Soil Moisture (SM) retrieval through vegetation, the tau-omega [1] model [zero-order Radiative Transfer (RT) solution] is attractive due to its simplicity and eases of inversion and implementation. It is the model used in baseline retrieval algorithms for several planned microwave space missions, such as ESA's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission (launched November 2009) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission (to be launched 2014/2015) [2 and 3]. These approaches are adapted for vegetated landscapes with effective vegetation parameters tau and omega by fitting experimental data or simulation outputs of a multiple scattering model [4-7]. The model has been validated over grasslands, agricultural crops, and generally light to moderate vegetation. As the density of vegetation increases, sensitivity to the underlying SM begins to degrade significantly and errors in the retrieved SM increase accordingly. The zero-order model also loses its validity when dense vegetation (i.e. forest, mature corn, etc.) includes scatterers, such as branches and trunks (or stalks in the case of corn), which are large with respect to the wavelength. The tau-omega model (when applied over moderately to densely vegetated landscapes) will need modification (in terms of form or effective parameterization) to enable accurate characterization of vegetation parameters with respect to specific tree types, anisotropic canopy structure, presence of leaves and/or understory. More scattering terms (at least up to first-order at L-band) should be included in the RT solutions for forest canopies [8]. Although not really suitable to forests, a zero-order tau-omega model might be applied to such vegetation canopies with large scatterers, but that equivalent or effective parameters would have to be used [4]. This requires that the effective values (vegetation opacity and single scattering albedo) need to be evaluated (compared) with theoretical definitions of

  17. Small satellite radiometric measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth`s radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

  18. Survey of emissivity measurement by radiometric methods.

    PubMed

    Honner, M; Honnerová, P

    2015-02-01

    A survey of the state of the art in the field of spectral directional emissivity measurements by using radiometric methods is presented. Individual quantity types such as spectral, band, or total emissivity are defined. Principles of emissivity measurement by various methods (direct and indirect, and calorimetric and radiometric) are discussed. The paper is focused on direct radiometric methods. An overview of experimental setups is provided, including the design of individual parts such as the applied reference sources of radiation, systems of sample clamping and heating, detection systems, methods for the determination of surface temperature, and procedures for emissivity evaluation.

  19. Spectrally Tunable Sources for Advanced Radiometric Applications.

    PubMed

    Brown, S W; Rice, J P; Neira, J E; Johnson, B C; Jackson, J D

    2006-01-01

    A common radiometric platform for the development of application-specific metrics to quantify the performance of sensors and systems is described. Using this platform, sensor and system performance may be quantified in terms of the accuracy of measurements of standardized sets of source distributions. The prototype platform consists of spectrally programmable light sources that can generate complex spectral distributions in the ultraviolet, visible and short-wave infrared regions for radiometric, photometric and colorimetric applications. In essence, the programmable spectral source is a radiometric platform for advanced instrument characterization and calibration that can also serve as a basis for algorithm testing and instrument comparison.

  20. A portable L-band voice transceiver for satellite communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruschak, J.; Nace, D.

    1978-01-01

    A portable L-band voice transceiver was developed as a feasibility model and can provide a half-duplex voice link to another terminal via the L-band transponder on the Applications Technology Satellite, ATS-6. The narrow band FM transceiver utilizes commercial subsystems including a UHF transceiver, provides an RF output power of 20 watts, weights less than 25 lbs., is housed in a plastic briefcase, can be powered by an automobile electrical system, and has been successfully operated with ATS-6 on numerous occasions. Design considerations and operation of the transceiver are described, along with alignment and testing procedures, packaging and cost considerations, subsystem performance requirements and overall transceiver performance characteristics.

  1. L-band maritime experiments. [using ATS 6 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandel, D. L.; Kaminsky, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented for the technical experiments conducted by the U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) using the ATS-6 satellite operating in the L-band fan beam mode. The MARAD experiments were conducted with satellite terminals placed on two commercial ships for evaluation of the communication service similar to that which will be available with a maritime commercial satellite system. Evaluation of position determination with a satellite was also made. Three modems having voice and digital data and a stabilized shipboard L-band antenna system were assessed. The ship antenna demonstrated successful tracking of the satellites for test period intervals of 4 to 6 hr without the need for operator adjustment. The ship position determination tests showed good measurement repeatability. The data analyzed supported the ability of future commercial satellite systems to achieve a probability of bit error of better than 0.00001.

  2. EMI survey for maritime satellite, L-band, shipboard terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.; Brandel, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The United States Lines 15,690-ton commercial-container ship, American Alliance, was selected as lead ship for an onboard EMI survey prior to installation of L-Band shipboard terminals for operation with two, geostationary, maritime satellites. In general, the EMI survey revealed tolerable interference levels onboard ship: radiometer measurements indicate antenna-noise temperatures less than 70 K, at elevation angles of 5 deg and greater, at 1559 MHz, at the output terminals of the 1.2-m-diameter, parabolic-dish antenna for the L-Band shipboard terminal. Other EMI measurements include field intensity from 3 cm- and 10 cm-wavelength pulse radars, and conducted-emission tests of primary power lines to both onboard radars.

  3. CV-990 L-band SAR: A calibration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, D. N.; Werner, C.

    1985-01-01

    Calibrated image data is required by most users of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data particularly those attempting to classify targets based upon their radar backscatter signature as a function of frequency polarization or incidence angle. In this experiment, the backscatter derived by calibrating the NASA/JPL CV-990 L-band SAR, and the backscatter reported from a pass of the NASA/JSC C-130 scatterometer as the two instruments flew over the same site at different times are compared.

  4. Radiometric ages of Tennessee rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Corgan, J.X.; Bradley, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    This report compiles and summarizes all known radiometric age determinations based on bedrock samples from Tennessee. Data are available for 89 sites. Specimens record both igneous and metamorphic events ranging in age from 1.3 billion to 220 million years before present. Tennessee rocks have been dated by techniques that measure the results of four different kinds of radioactive decay: thorium-lead, uranium-lead, potassium-argon, and rubidium-strontium. Most determinations meet normal scientific standards for reliability. This study focuses on clarifying published data by bringing together geochemical, geological, and geographical information for each site. In addition to data on the age of bedrock samples, this study presents basic information on the ages of meteorites from Tennessee and on the ages of sediments and organic remains from Ice Age fossil sites and more recent archeological sites. While bedrock ages are the thrust of the report, other kinds of absolute age determinations are briefly discussed. 98 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  6. a Comparison of LIDAR Reflectance and Radiometrically Calibrated Hyperspectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncat, A.; Briese, C.; Pfeifer, N.

    2016-06-01

    In order to retrieve results comparable under different flight parameters and among different flight campaigns, passive remote sensing data such as hyperspectral imagery need to undergo a radiometric calibration. While this calibration, aiming at the derivation of physically meaningful surface attributes such as a reflectance value, is quite cumbersome for passively sensed data and relies on a number of external parameters, the situation is by far less complicated for active remote sensing techniques such as lidar. This fact motivates the investigation of the suitability of full-waveform lidar as a "single-wavelength reflectometer" to support radiometric calibration of hyperspectral imagery. In this paper, this suitability was investigated by means of an airborne hyperspectral imagery campaign and an airborne lidar campaign recorded over the same area. Criteria are given to assess diffuse reflectance behaviour; the distribution of reflectance derived by the two techniques were found comparable in four test areas where these criteria were met. This is a promising result especially in the context of current developments of multi-spectral lidar systems.

  7. Azimuthal radiometric temperature measurements of wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of azimuthal view angle on the radiometric temperature of wheat canopies at various stages of development are investigated. Measurements of plant height, total leaf area index, green leaf area index and Feeks growth stage together with infrared radiometric temperature measurements at 12 azimuth intervals with respect to solar azimuth and at different solar zenith angles were obtained for four wheat canopies at various heights. Results reveal a difference on the order of 2 C between the temperatures measured at azimuths of 0 and 180 deg under calm wind conditions, which is attributed to the time-dependent transfer of heat between canopy component surfaces. The azimuthal dependence must thus be taken into account in the determination of radiometric temperatures.

  8. THEMATIC MAPPER: DETAILED RADIOMETRIC AND GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Hugh

    1983-01-01

    The paper is in abstract form. It discusses those radiometric characteristics of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) that can be established without absolute calibration or spectral data. Subscenes of radiometrically raw data (B-data) were examined on an individual detector basis; areas of uniform radiance were used to characterize subtle radiometric differences and noise problems. The effective resolution in radiance is degraded by about a factor of two by irregular width of the digital levels. Several detectors have a change of gain with a period of several scans, the largest effect is about 4%. The geometric fidelity of the GSFC filmwriter used for Thematic Mapper (TM) images was assessed by measurement with accuracy better than three micrometers of a test grid.

  9. UAVSAR: Airborne L-band Radar for Repeat Pass Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objectives of the UAVSAR Project were to: a) develop a miniaturized polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for use on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or piloted vehicle. b) develop the associated processing algorithms for repeat-pass differential interferometric measurements using a single antenna. c) conduct measurements of geophysical interest, particularly changes of rapidly deforming surfaces such as volcanoes or earthquakes. Two complete systems were developed. Operational Science Missions began on February 18, 2009 ... concurrent development and testing of the radar system continues.

  10. Low-profile metamaterial-based L-band antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Lepage, Anne-Claire; Varault, Stefan; Begaud, Xavier; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present contribution is to show that metasurfaces such as reactive impedance surfaces (RIS) and artificial magnetic conductors can be efficiently used in the design of low-profile circularly polarized L-band antennas. We present the design and simulation of the compact and low-profile antennas. The solution based on RIS will be compared to a circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna using the same materials in order to prove the benefit of metasurfaces. The engineered metasurfaces allow increasing the bandwidths with few modifications on the thickness and the overall antenna size.

  11. L-band RF gun with a thermionic cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Andrews, R.; Church, M.; Lunin, A.; Nezhevenko, O.; Solyak, N.; Sun, D.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    We present a conceptual design for an L-band (1.3 GHz) rf gun with a two-grid thermionic cathode assembly. The rf gun is designed to provide a 9 mA average beam current for 1 ms pulses at a 5 Hz rate. These parameters match the beam requirements for both the ILC and the Fermilab Project X test facilities. In our simulations we are able to attain a full bunch length of 20-30 degrees, while the output energy can vary from 2 to 4 MeV. Simulations as well as a preliminary design will be presented.

  12. Picture processing of SAR L-band imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, M. L.; Stromberg, W. D.; Farr, T.

    1977-01-01

    Data digitization and thresholding are applied to two scenes - sea ice and fresh-water lakes - to define the possible uses of automatic picture processing of uncalibrated SAR L-band imagery. It is shown that certain types of features, those which have constant returns which are also very high or very low in intensity can be effectively studied using simple automatic picture processing techniques applied to uncalibrated radar data. In areas which are generally inaccessible or in which monitoring of the changes of some types of earth surfaces are required, the uncalibrated SAR data can provide valuable inputs for modeling and mapping purposes.

  13. Aquarius L-Band Radiometers Calibration Using Cold Sky Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Le Vine, David M.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Shannon T.; Hong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    An important element in the calibration plan for the Aquarius radiometers is to look at the cold sky. This involves rotating the satellite 180 degrees from its nominal Earth viewing configuration to point the main beams at the celestial sky. At L-band, the cold sky provides a stable, well-characterized scene to be used as a calibration reference. This paper describes the cold sky calibration for Aquarius and how it is used as part of the absolute calibration. Cold sky observations helped establish the radiometer bias, by correcting for an error in the spillover lobe of the antenna pattern, and monitor the long-term radiometer drift.

  14. AIRS radiometric calibration validation for climate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Elliott, Denis; Gaiser, Steve; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Climate research using data from satellite based radiometers makes extreme demands on the traceability and stability of the radiometric calibration. The selection of a cooled grating array spectrometer for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, AIRS, is key, but does not ensured that AIRS data will be of climate quality. Additional design features, plus additional pre-launch testing, and extensive on-orbit calibration subsystem monitoring beyond what would suffice for application of the data to weather forecasting were required to ensure the radiometric data quality required for climate research. Validation that climate data quality are being generated makes use of the sea surface skin temperatures (SST and (obs-calc).

  15. LLM: An L-band multibeam land mobile payload for Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedicto, J.; Rammos, E.; Oppenhaeuser, G.; Roederer, A.

    1990-01-01

    The European Space Agency is developing, in the context of the ARTEMIS program, a multibeam reconfigurable mobile payload to provide pre-operational land-mobile satellite services at the L-band over Europe. The L-band Land-Mobile (LLM) payload features high capacity at L-band, efficient use of the L-band spectrum resources, and flexibility in reconfiguring the allocation of bandwith and RF power resources to the different beams. Additionally, a number of features were added to the payload purely for experimental purposes, like the provision of one steerable spot beam which can be repositioned anywhere within the coverage area, and the possibility to reuse L-band frequencies by spatial discrimination between non-adjacent beams, or via orthogonal polarizations. The architecture of the payload and the hardware implementation of the most critical subsystems are described.

  16. Severe Marine Weather Studies using SMOS L-band Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reul, Nicolas; Chapron, Bertrand; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta

    2014-05-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission provides multi-angular L-band (1.4 GHz) brightness temperature images of the Earth. Because upwelling radiation at 1.4 GHz is significantly less affected by rain and atmospheric effects than at higher microwave frequencies, the SMOS measurements offer unique opportunities to complement existing ocean satellite high wind observations that are often erroneous in these extreme conditions. In this talk, we shall provide an overview of the results of an ESA project which aims to exploit the identified capability of SMOS L1 Brightness Temperatures to monitor wind speed and whitecap statistical properties beneath Tropical Cyclones and severe storms. We shall present an overview of these new capabilities and of the potential of the synergy between L-band and C-band sensor data for severe marine weather monitoring. In particular, we will show the results from SMOS for several Hurricanes and Typhoons since 2010 and an analysis of the combined SMOS and AMSR-2 data acquired during the passage of the Typhoon Haiyan, the strongest tropical storms to date and the second-deadliest Philippine typhoon on record.

  17. An Inflatable L-Band Microstrip SAR Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.; Lou, M.; Feria, A.; Kim, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Inflatable structures have been identified as one of the enabling technologies to achieve low mass, high packaging efficiency, and reliable deployment for future NASA spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) array antennas. A current L-band SAR antenna development, with aperture size of 10 m x 3 m, is required to have the capabilities of dual-linear polarization, 80-MHz bandwidth, electronic beam scanning, and less than 100 kg of mass. An inflatable concept, which employs the inflatable tubular frame structure to support a multilayer, thin membrane, microstrip array radiating aperture, has been identified. It uses a "roll-up" concept, for deploying the thin membranes to form a planar array aperture. To demonstrate this concept, two contracts were independently given to ILC Dover, Inc. and L'Garde Corp. for each to construct a 1/3 size (3.3 m x 1.0 m) functional model with an inflatable structure at L-band frequency. JPL provided both contractors with the antenna RF design and the etched thin membranes. The ILC Dover model has been delivered to JPL and gone through a series of deployment and RF tests. This is believed to be the first inflatable array antenna ever developed. This paper presents the mechanical and electrical constructions of this inflatable array and its test results.

  18. Radiometric Characterization of IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    A radiometric characterization of Space Imaging's IKONOS 4-m multispectral imagery has been performed by a NASA funded team from the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group (UARSG), and South Dakota State University (SDSU). Both intrinsic radiometry and the effects of Space Imaging processing on radiometry were investigated. Relative radiometry was examined with uniform Antarctic and Saharan sites. Absolute radiometric calibration was performed using reflectance-based vicarious calibration methods on several uniform sites imaged by IKONOS, coincident with ground-based surface and atmospheric measurements. Ground-based data and the IKONOS spectral response function served as input to radiative transfer codes to generate a Top-of-Atmosphere radiance estimate. Calibration coefficients derived from each vicarious calibration were combined to generate an IKONOS radiometric gain coefficient for each multispectral band assuming a linear response over the full dynamic range of the instrument. These calibration coefficients were made available to Space Imaging, which subsequently adopted them by updating its initial set of calibration coefficients. IKONOS imagery procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program is processed with or without a Modulation Transfer Function Compensation kernel. The radiometric effects of this kernel on various scene types was also investigated. All imagery characterized was procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program.

  19. Kernel MAD Algorithm for Relative Radiometric Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Tang, Ping; Hu, Changmiao

    2016-06-01

    The multivariate alteration detection (MAD) algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA). The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1) data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  20. Absolute Radiometric Calibration Of The Thematic Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.; Moran, M. S.; Palmer, J. M.; Yuan, B.

    1986-11-01

    The results are presented of five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations, made in the period July 1984 to November 1985, at White Sands, New Mexico, of the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) . The 23 bandcalibrations made on the five dates show a ± 2.8% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean.

  1. Radiometric surface temperature components for row crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature is a boundary condition often used in assessing soil moisture status and energy exchange from the soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface. For row crops having incomplete canopy cover, the radiometric surface temperature is a composite of sunlit and shaded vegetation and substr...

  2. Radiometric terrain correction of SPOT5 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiuli; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ke

    2007-06-01

    Remote sensing SPOT5 images have been widely applied to the surveying of agriculture and forest resources and to the monitoring of ecology environment of mountain areas. However, the accuracy of land-cover classification of mountain areas is often influenced by the topographical shadow effect. Radiometric terrain correction is important for this kind of application. In this study, a radiometric terrain correction model which based on the rationale of moment matching was made in ERDAS IMAGINE by using the Spatial Modeler Language. Lanxi city in China as the study area, a SPOT5 multispectral image with the spatial resolution of 10 m of that mountain area was corrected by the model. Furthermore, in order to present the advantage of this new model in radiometric terrain correction of remote sensing SPOT5 image, the traditional C correction approach was also applied to the same area to see its difference with the result of the radiometric terrain correction model. The results show that the C correction approach keeps the overall statistical characteristics of spectral bands. The mean and the standard deviation value of the corrected image are the same as original ones. However, the standard deviation value became smaller by using the radiometric terrain correction model and the mean value changed accordingly. The reason of these changes is that before the correction, the histogram of the original image is represented as the 'plus-skewness distribution' due to the relief-caused shade effect, after the correction of the model, the histogram of the image is represented as the normal distribution and the shade effect of the relief has been removed. But as for the result of the traditional C approach, the skewness of the histogram remains the same after the correction. Besides, some portions of the mountain area have been over-corrected. So in my study area, the C correction approach can't remove the shade effect of the relief ideally. The results show that the radiometric

  3. Effective Tree Scattering and Opacity at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurum, Mehmet; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Lang, Roger H.; Joseph, Alicia T.; Cosh, Michael H.; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates vegetation effects at L-band by using a first-order radiative transfer (RT) model and truck-based microwave measurements over natural conifer stands to assess the applicability of the tau-omega) model over trees. The tau-omega model is a zero-order RT solution that accounts for vegetation effects with effective vegetation parameters (vegetation opacity and single-scattering albedo), which represent the canopy as a whole. This approach inherently ignores multiple-scattering effects and, therefore, has a limited validity depending on the level of scattering within the canopy. The fact that the scattering from large forest components such as branches and trunks is significant at L-band requires that zero-order vegetation parameters be evaluated (compared) along with their theoretical definitions to provide a better understanding of these parameters in the retrieval algorithms as applied to trees. This paper compares the effective vegetation opacities, computed from multi-angular pine tree brightness temperature data, against the results of two independent approaches that provide theoretical and measured optical depths. These two techniques are based on forward scattering theory and radar corner reflector measurements, respectively. The results indicate that the effective vegetation opacity values are smaller than but of similar magnitude to both radar and theoretical estimates. The effective opacity of the zero-order model is thus set equal to the theoretical opacity and an explicit expression for the effective albedo is then obtained from the zero- and first- order RT model comparison. The resultant albedo is found to have a similar magnitude as the effective albedo value obtained from brightness temperature measurements. However, it is less than half of that estimated using the theoretical calculations (0.5 - 0.6 for tree canopies at L-band). This lower observed albedo balances the scattering darkening effect of the large theoretical albedo

  4. Scattering Properties of Greenland Ice Sheets Inferred from ALOS L-band InSAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. C.; Zebker, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is 2000 kilometers long and has a maximum thickness of over 3000 meters. It contains around ten percent of the fresh water on Earth. As both a reservoir of water and a heat sink for the Gulf Stream, it plays an important role in the Earth's climate and sea level. Therefore accurate assessments of the Greenland ice sheet's mass balance are essential for understanding global climate change and sea level. Measurements of ice scattering properties in the dry snow zone can contribute to our understanding of accumulation rates, which tend to be harder to measure than loss rates. In this study we examine data acquired by the PALSAR L-band (23.61 centimeter carrier wavelength) InSAR instrument aboard the ALOS satellite. We generate polarimetric InSAR images of two long strips of the Greenland ice sheet extending from the inner dry snow zone through the percolation and wet snow zones to the northern coastline, a total distance of about 700 kilometers. The single-look resolution is around 10 meters, and there is a temporal baseline of 46 days, and spatial baselines range from about 150 to 350 meters. We have demonstrated that the resulting geocoded differential interferograms can have high coherence (0.5 up to 0.9) in large regions of the dry snow zone, and that corrections can be made to recover coherence that is lost due to ionospheric inhomogeneity. We have also estimated radar penetration depths of 50 to 90 meters in the dry snow zone, though estimated penetration depth also depends on polarization. We apply phase and radiometric calibration to the data products generated by our SAR processor, incorporating calibration results published by JAXA. This allows us to estimate radar backscatter brightness (sigma0) and to make an estimated correction for ionospheric Faraday rotation effects in order to accurately measure polarimetric parameters. In general, the backscatter brightness in co-polarized SLC images is about 5 dB higher than in cross

  5. Enhancing the Accessibility and Utility of UAVSAR L-band SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, D.; Arko, S. A.; Gens, R.; Sanches, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    The UAVSAR instrument, developed at NASA Jet Propulsion Lab, is a reconfigurable L-band, quad-polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) developed specifically for repeat-track differential interferometry (InSAR). It offers resolution of approximately 5m and swaths greater than 16 km. Although designed to be flown aboard a UAV (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle), it is currently being flown aboard a Gulfstream III in an ambitious set of campaigns around the world. The current archive from 2009 contains data from more than 100 missions from North America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Greenland. Compared with most SAR data from satellites, UAVSAR offers higher resolution, full-polarimetry, and an impressive noise floor. For scientists, these datasets present wonderful opportunities for understanding Earth processes and developing new algorithms for information extraction. Yet despite the diverse range of coverage, UAVSAR is still relatively under-utilized. In its capacity as the NASA SAR DAAC, the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) is interested in expanding recognition of this data and serving data products that can be readily downloaded into a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Two hurdles exist: one is the large size of the data products and the second is the format of the data. The data volumes are in excess of several GB; presenting slow downloads and overwhelming many software programs. Secondly, while the data is appropriately formatted for expert users, it may prove challenging for scientists who have not previously worked with SAR. This paper will address ways that ASF is working to reduce data volume while maintaining the integrity of the data. At the same time, the creation of value-added products that permit immediate visualization in a GIS environment will be described. Conversion of the UAVSAR polarimetric data to radiometrically terrain-corrected Pauli images in a GeoTIFF format will permit researchers to understand the scattering

  6. New Combined L-band Active/Passive Soil Moisture Retrieval Algorithm Optimized for Argentine Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruscantini, C. A.; Grings, F. M.; Salvia, M.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Karszenbaum, H.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of L-band passive microwave satellite observations to provide soil moisture (mv) measurements is well known. Despite its high sensitivity to near-surface mv, radiometric technology suffers from having a relatively low spatial resolution. Conversely active microwave observations, although their finer resolution, are difficult to be interpreted for mv content due to the confounding effects of vegetation and roughness. There have been and there are strong motivations for the realization of satellite missions that carry passive and active microwave instruments on board. This has also led to important contributions in algorithm development. In this line of work, NASA-CONAE SAC-D/Aquarius mission had on board an L band radiometer and scatterometer. This was followed by the launch of NASA SMAP mission (Soil Moisture Active Passive), as well as several airborne campaigns that provide active and passive measurements. Within this frame, a new combined active/passive mv retrieval algorithm is proposed by deriving an analytical expression of brightness temperature and radar backscattering relation using explicit semi-empirical models. Simple models (i.e. that can be easily inverted and have relatively low amount of ancillary parameters) were selected: ω-τ model (Jackson et al., 1982, Water Resources Research) and radar-only model (Narvekar et al., 2015, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing). A major challenge involves coupling the active and passive models to be consistent with observations. Coupling equations can be derived using theoretical active/passive high-order radiative transfer models, such as 3D Numerical Method of Maxwell equations (Zhou et al., 2004, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing) and Tor Vergata (Ferrazzoli et al., 1995,Remote Sensing of Environment) models. In this context, different coupling equations can be optimized for different land covers using theoretical forward models with specific parametrization for each

  7. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  8. L-band Photocathode RF gun at KEK-STF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Hayano, H.; Urakawa, J.; Kashiwagi, S.; Isoyama, G.; Kato, R.; Sugimoto, N.; Kuriki, M.

    2011-05-01

    The superconducting RF test facility (STF) in KEK is a facility to promote R&D of the International Linear Collider (ILC) cavities and cryomodule. L-band photocathode RF gun has been developed at KEK-STF as an electron beam source for cryomodule test scheduled in autumn of 2011. The RF cavity of the gun will be operated with a 1.3 GHz RF frequency, 1 msec RF pulse width, 5 Hz repetition rate at normal conductivity. The cavity was prepared by collaborative work with DESY and FNAL, and fabricated by FNAL. The RF conditioning of the cavity has been started since April 2010. A cesium telluride thin film as a photocathode material has been adopted, and the preparation equipment for cesium telluride has been newly designed and constructed. By using this new system, a fabrication and a performance estimation of the cesium telluride thin film as a photocathode are the next step of the research.

  9. A radiometric Bode's Law: Predictions for Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheres of three planets, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, are known to be sources of intense, nonthermal radio bursts. The emissions from these sources undergo pronounced long term intensity fluctuations that are caused by the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere of each planet. Determinations by spacecraft of the low frequency radio spectra and radiation beam geometry now permit a reliable assessment of the overall efficiency of the solar wind in stimulating these emissions. Earlier estimates of how magnetospheric radio output scales with the solar wind energy input must be revised greatly, with the result that, while the efficiency is much lower than previously thought, it is remarkably uniform from planet to planet. The formulation of a radiometric Bode's Law from which a planet's magnetic moment is estimated from its radio emission output is presented. Applying the radiometric scaling law to Uranus, the low-frequency radio power is likely to be measured by the Voyager 2 spacecraft as it approaches this planet.

  10. The Candela and Photometric and Radiometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Albert C.

    2001-01-01

    The national measurement system for photometric and radiometric quantities is presently based upon techniques that make these quantities traceable to a high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer. The redefinition of the candela in 1979 provided the opportunity for national measurement laboratories to base their photometric measurements on optical detector technology rather than on the emission from high-temperature blackbody optical sources. The ensuing technical developments of the past 20 years, including the significant improvements in cryogenic radiometer performance, have provided the opportunity to place the fundamental maintenance of photometric quantities upon absolute detector based technology as was allowed by the 1979 redefinition. Additionally, the development of improved photodetectors has had a significant impact on the methodology in most of the radiometric measurement areas. This paper will review the status of the NIST implementation of the technical changes mandated by the 1979 redefinition of the candela and its effect upon the maintenance and dissemination of optical radiation measurements. PMID:27500020

  11. Climate Change and Sounder Radiometric Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Satellite instrument radiometric stability is critical for climate studies. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiances are of sufficient stability and accuracy to serve as a climate data record as evidenced by comparisons with the global network of buoys. In this paper we examine the sensitivity of derived geophysical products to potential instrument radiometric stability issues due to diurnal, orbital and seasonal variations. Our method is to perturb the AIRS radiances and examine the impact to retrieved parameters. Results show that instability in retrieved temperature products will be on the same order of the brightness temperature error in the radiances and follow the same time dependences. AIRS excellent stability makes it ideal for examining impacts of instabilities of future systems on geophysical parameter performance.

  12. Geometric and Radiometric Evaluation of Rasat Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cam, Ali; Topan, Hüseyin; Oruç, Murat; Özendi, Mustafa; Bayık, Çağlar

    2016-06-01

    RASAT, the second remote sensing satellite of Turkey, was designed and assembled, and also is being operated by TÜBİTAK Uzay (Space) Technologies Research Institute (Ankara). RASAT images in various levels are available free-of-charge via Gezgin portal for Turkish citizens. In this paper, the images in panchromatic (7.5 m GSD) and RGB (15 m GSD) bands in various levels were investigated with respect to its geometric and radiometric characteristics. The first geometric analysis is the estimation of the effective GSD as less than 1 pixel for radiometrically processed level (L1R) of both panchromatic and RGB images. Secondly, 2D georeferencing accuracy is estimated by various non-physical transformation models (similarity, 2D affine, polynomial, affine projection, projective, DLT and GCP based RFM) reaching sub-pixel accuracy using minimum 39 and maximum 52 GCPs. The radiometric characteristics are also investigated for 8 bits, estimating SNR between 21.8-42.2, and noise 0.0-3.5 for panchromatic and MS images for L1R when the sea is masked to obtain the results for land areas. The analysis show that RASAT images satisfies requirements for various applications. The research is carried out in Zonguldak test site which is mountainous and partly covered by dense forest and urban areas.

  13. Robust radiometric calibration and vignetting correction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Joo; Pollefeys, Marc

    2008-04-01

    In many computer vision systems, it is assumed that the image brightness of a point directly reflects the scene radiance of the point. However, the assumption does not hold in most cases due to nonlinear camera response function, exposure changes, and vignetting. The effects of these factors are most visible in image mosaics and textures of 3D models where colors look inconsistent and notable boundaries exist. In this paper, we propose a full radiometric calibration algorithm that includes robust estimation of the radiometric response function, exposures, and vignetting. By decoupling the effect of vignetting from the response function estimation, we approach each process in a manner that is robust to noise and outliers. We verify our algorithm with both synthetic and real data which shows significant improvement compared to existing methods. We apply our estimation results to radiometrically align images for seamless mosaics and 3D model textures. We also use our method to create high dynamic range (HDR) mosaics which are more representative of the scene than normal mosaics.

  14. Methods for LWIR Radiometric Calibration and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Harrington, Gary; Howell, Dane; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    The utility of a remote sensing system increases with its ability to retrieve surface temperature or radiance accurately. Research applications, such as sea temperature and power plant discharge, require a 0.2 C resolution or better for absolute temperature retrievals. Other applications, including agriculture water stress detection, require at least a 1 C resolution. To achieve these levels of accuracy routinely, scientists must perform laboratory and onboard calibration, as well as in-flight vicarious radiometric characterization. A common approach used for in-flight radiometric characterization incorporates a well-calibrated infrared radiometer that is mounted on a bouy and placed on a uniform water body. The radiometer monitors radiant temperature along with pressure, humidity, and temperature measurements of an associated column of atmosphere. On very still waters, however, a buoy can significantly distrub these measurements. Researchers at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) have developed a novel approach of using an uncooled infrared camera mounted on a boom to quantify buoy effects. Another critical aspect of using buoy-mounted infrared radiometers is the need for extensive laboratory characterization of the instruments' radiometric sensitivity, field of view, and spectral response. Proper surface temperature retrieval also requires detailed knowledge of both the upward emission and the reflected sky emission. Recent work at SSC has demonstrated that the use of a polarization-based radiometer operating at the Brewster angle can greatly simplify temperature retrieval as well as improve overall accuracy.

  15. Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  16. Impact of ionosphere on high-bandwidth chirp in L-band SAR and its mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, Partha Sarathi; Putrevu, Deepak

    2016-05-01

    There is a trend of SAR imaging at low frequencies (VHF/UHF, L-band) and wide bandwidth, for penetration into foliage for high resolution applications. The propagation of spaceborne radar signals operating at L-band frequency or below can be seriously affected by the ionosphere. While these effects are negligible at X-band, Faraday Rotation and the frequency-dependent path delays can become seriously problematic at L-band. Range delay, interferometric phase bias, range defocussing and Faraday rotation are the most prominent ones. Due to ionospheric effects, blind use of a generic matched filter causes inaccuracies when correlating the received signal with transmitted replica. In this paper we study the effects of frequency dependent path delays in L-band SAR chirp signal due to ionospheric electron density. Also a method to correct ionospheric anomalies without the knowledge of electron content level in a single SAR acquisition is proposed.

  17. DSN 64-meter antenna L-band (1668-MHz) microwave system performance overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withington, J.

    1988-01-01

    In 1985, L-band (1668 MHz) receive-only feed systems were installed on the three Deep Space Network 64 meter antennas to provide tracking support for two non-NASA spacecraft. The specifications, design approach, and operational test results are presented. The L-band microwave system met all of its tracking goals and is currently being upgraded to include a C-band (5000 MHz) uplink.

  18. Resonantly pumped high power flat L-band erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber source.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Ping; Liu, Ze-Jin; Li, Yi-Gang; Lu, Ke-Cheng; Zhou, Shou-Huan

    2008-01-01

    An all-single-mode-fiber L-band superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) with 1 W output power, 34.3 nm bandwidth (FWHM) and 54% optical conversion efficiency is constructed by seeding a high power erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with a low power L-band ASE seed source to avoid parasitic lasing. The source is resonantly pumped by a high power C-band SFS peaked at 1545 nm.

  19. L-Band SAR Interferometry for Mapping Arctic Landfast Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; Mahoney, A.; Eicken, H.; Denny, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    Landfast sea ice is a key element of the arctic coastal system. Its presence can mitigate the effect of winter storms on the coast and impact the degree of coastal erosion. Landfast ice is also of great importance to coastal communities who use the ice for travel and to hunt. Furthermore, its presence and stability is of considerable economic importance for offshore oil and gas development in parts of the Arctic. In recent years, there has been a reduced presence of landfast sea ice throughout the Arctic. E.g., along Alaska’s northern coast, although the annual maximum extent has changed little, landfast sea ice appears to forming later and breaking up earlier than it did during the 1970s. As a result of these changes together with increasing commercial interest in coastal areas of the Arctic, it has become important in recent years to be able to identify landfast ice from remote sensing data. In recent years methods have been developed to extract the seaward landfast ice edge from series of remote sensing images, with most of them relying on incoherent change detection in optical, infrared, or radar amplitude imagery. While such approaches provide valuable results, some still lack the required level of robustness and all lack the ability to fully automate the detection and mapping of landfast ice over large areas and long time spans. Furthermore, it is often not so much the presence, but the stability of landfast ice that matters most in practical applications, in particular use of sea ice as a platform. This paper presents an alternative approach to mapping landfast ice extent and assessing ice stability. The method is based on interferometric processing of L-band SAR image pairs acquired by the spaceborne SAR sensor PALSAR on board the Japanese Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). With interferometric phase and interferometric coherence, SAR interferometry (InSAR) comprises two measurements that have the potential for assessing both landfast ice extent

  20. INTRABAND RADIOMETRIC PERFORMANCE OF THE LANDSAT 4 THEMATIC MAPPER.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Hugh H.; Eliason, Eric M.; Chavez, Pat S.; ,

    1985-01-01

    This preliminary report examines those radiometric characteristics of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. Analysis is based largely on radiometrically raw (B type) data of three daytime and two nighttime scenes; in most scenes, a set of 512 lines were examined on an individual-detector basis. Subscenes selected for uniform-radiance were used to characterize subtle radiometric differences and noise problems.

  1. Relative radiometric calibration of LANDSAT TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Raw thematic mapper (TM) calibration data from pre-launch tests and in-orbit acquisitions from LANDSAT 4 and 5 satellites are analyzed to assess the radiometric characteristics of the TM sensor. A software program called TM radiometric and algorithmic performance program (TRAPP) was used for the majority of analyses. Radiometric uncertainty in the final TM image originates from: (1) scene variability (solar irradiance and atmospheric scattering); (2) optical and electrical variability of the sensor; and (3) variability introduced during image processing.

  2. Current status and future plans for NBS radiometric source standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostkowski, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    The accuracy and long-term stability of currently available NBS radiometric source standards are described. Current research efforts and expected results in this area are outlined. There are over ten NBS radiometric source standards currently available or under development that are of interest for solar measurements or for remote sensing of the earth. The standards and sources are classified and described in terms of the radiometric quantities they represent -- spectral radiance, spectral irradiance and irradiance.

  3. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.

    1997-04-01

    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  4. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  5. Optical Imaging and Radiometric Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Kong Q.; Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Moiser, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Le, Chi M.

    2010-01-01

    OPTOOL software is a general-purpose optical systems analysis tool that was developed to offer a solution to problems associated with computational programs written for the James Webb Space Telescope optical system. It integrates existing routines into coherent processes, and provides a structure with reusable capabilities that allow additional processes to be quickly developed and integrated. It has an extensive graphical user interface, which makes the tool more intuitive and friendly. OPTOOL is implemented using MATLAB with a Fourier optics-based approach for point spread function (PSF) calculations. It features parametric and Monte Carlo simulation capabilities, and uses a direct integration calculation to permit high spatial sampling of the PSF. Exit pupil optical path difference (OPD) maps can be generated using combinations of Zernike polynomials or shaped power spectral densities. The graphical user interface allows rapid creation of arbitrary pupil geometries, and entry of all other modeling parameters to support basic imaging and radiometric analyses. OPTOOL provides the capability to generate wavefront-error (WFE) maps for arbitrary grid sizes. These maps are 2D arrays containing digital sampled versions of functions ranging from Zernike polynomials to combination of sinusoidal wave functions in 2D, to functions generated from a spatial frequency power spectral distribution (PSD). It also can generate optical transfer functions (OTFs), which are incorporated into the PSF calculation. The user can specify radiometrics for the target and sky background, and key performance parameters for the instrument s focal plane array (FPA). This radiometric and detector model setup is fairly extensive, and includes parameters such as zodiacal background, thermal emission noise, read noise, and dark current. The setup also includes target spectral energy distribution as a function of wavelength for polychromatic sources, detector pixel size, and the FPA s charge

  6. An extended area blackbody for radiometric calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaVeigne, Joe; Franks, Greg; Singer, Jake; Arenas, D. J.; McHugh, Steve

    2013-06-01

    SBIR is developing an enhanced blackbody for improved radiometric testing. The main feature of the blackbody is an improved coating with higher emissivity than the standard coating used. Comparative measurements of the standard and improved coatings are reported, including reflectance. The coatings were also tested with infrared imagers and a broadband emissivity estimate derived from the imagery data. In addition, a control algorithm for constant slew rate has been implemented, primarily for use in minimum resolvable temperature measurements. The system was tested over a range of slew rates from 0.05 K/min to 10 K/min and its performance reported.

  7. Accumulation Rates in the Dry Snow Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet Inferred from L-band InSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. C.; Zebker, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet contains about 2.9 million km3 of ice and would raise global sea levels by about 7.1 m if it melted completely. Two unusually large iceberg calving events at Petermann Glacier in the past several years, along with the unusually large extent of ice sheet melt this summer point to the relevance of understanding the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. In this study, we use data from the PALSAR instrument aboard the ALOS satellite to form L-band (23-centimeter carrier wavelength) InSAR images of the dry snow zone of the Greenland ice sheet. We form geocoded differential interferograms, using the ice sheet elevation model produced by Howat et.al. [1]. By applying phase and radiometric calibration, we can examine interferograms formed between any pair of transmit and receive polarization channels. In co-polarized interferograms, the InSAR correlation ranges from about 0.35 at the summit (38.7 deg W, 73.0 deg N) where accumulation is about 20 cm w.e./yr to about 0.70 at the north-eastern part of the dry snow zone (35.1 deg W, 77.1 deg N), where accumulation is about 11.7 cm w.e./yr. Cross-polarized interferograms show similar geographic variation with overall lower correlation. We compare our InSAR data with in-situ measurements published by Bales et.al. [2]. We examine the applicability of dense-medium radiative transfer electromagnetic scattering models for estimating accumulation rates from L-band InSAR data. The large number and broad coverage of ALOS scenes acquired between 2007 and 2009 with good InSAR coherence at 46-day repeat times and 21.5 degree incidence angles gives us the opportunity to examine the empirical relationship between in-situ accumulation rate observations and the polarimetric InSAR correlation and radar brightness at this particular imaging geometry. This helps us quantify the accuracy of accumulation rates estimated from InSAR data. In some regions, 46-day interferograms acquired in the winters of several consecutive

  8. Aquarius Active-Passive RFI Environment at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David M.; De Matthaeis, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Active/Passive instrument combinations (i.e., radiometer and radar) are being developed at L-band for remote sensing of sea surface salinity and soil moisture. Aquarius is already in orbit and SMAP is planned for launch in the Fall of 2014. Aquarius has provided for the first time a simultaneous look at the Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) environment from space for both active and passive instruments. The RFI environment for the radiometer observations is now reasonably well known and examples from Aquarius are presented in this manuscript that show that RFI is an important consideration for the scatterometer as well. In particular, extensive areas of the USA, Europe and Asia exhibit strong RFI in both the radiometer band at 1.41 GHz and in the band at 1.26 GHz employed by the Aquarius scatterometer. Furthermore, in areas such as the USA, where RFI at 1.4 GHz is relatively well controlled, RFI in the scatterometer band maybe the limiting consideration for the operation of combination active/passive instruments.

  9. L-band radar sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Salomonson, V. V.; Atwater, S. G.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Bryan, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the experiment were to assess the performance of an L-band, 25-cm wavelength imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for soil moisture determination, and to study the temporal variability of radar returns from a number of agricultural fields. A series of overflights was accomplished during March 1977 over an agricultural test site in Kern County, Calif. Soil moisture samples were collected from bare fields at nine sites at depths of 0-2, 2-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm. These gravimetric measurements were converted to percent of field capacity for correlation to the radar return signal. The initial signal film was optically correlated and scanned to produce image data numbers. These numbers were then converted to relative return power by linear interpolation of the noise power wedge which was introduced in 5-dB steps into the original signal film before and after each data run. Results of correlations between the relative return power and percent of field capacity demonstrate that the relative return power from this imaging radar system is responsive to the amount of soil moisture in bare fields. The signal returned from dry and wet fields where furrowing is parallel to the radar beam differs by about 15 dB. Before this technique can be operationally employed, adequate calibration of the radar system is required to insure comparability of data both from area to area within a single flight and between different flights.

  10. A multichannel wide FOV infrared radiometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, S.; Lissak, Z.; Yoav, Y.; Komet, Y.; Davidson, R.

    1989-07-01

    A radiometric system which consists of five IR radiometers with a mutual data acquisition system is described. The system was designed, developed and built at IAI to conduct simultaneous IR signature measurements of a high intensity source at different aspect angles. The requirement to provide a wide FOV radiometric capability led to a technical solution based on the combination of refractive and reflective optics. Each radiometer is equipped with a ZnSe lens, elliptical mirror, mechanical chopper and a thermoelectrically cooled PbSe detector. The chopper is positioned before the entrance aperture and its blades serve as an ambient temperature reference Black Body. The reference temperature is monitored by a temperature transducer. The optical layout of the radiometers and relevant ray tracing examples are demonstrated. The radiometer sensitivity and field of view response data are presented. The data acquisition as well as software capabilities are described. The system is remotely operated. Data on source intensity, at different aspect angles, may be obtained immediately after the test.

  11. Validation of Landsat 7 ETM+ band 6 radiometric performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, Frank; Hook, Simon; Abtahi, Ali; Alley, Ron

    2005-01-01

    Since shortly after launch the radiometric performance of band 6 of the ETM+ instrument on Landsat 7 has been evaluated using vicarious calbiration techniques for both land and water targets. This evaluation indicates the radiometric performance of band 6 has been both highly stable and accurate.

  12. Relative radiometric calibration of LANDSAT TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A common scientific methodology and terminology is outlined for characterizing the radiometry of both TM sensors. The magnitude of the most significant sources of radiometric variability are discussed and methods are recommended for achieving the exceptional potential inherent in the radiometric precision and accuracy of the TM sensors.

  13. Soil Moisture Limitations on Monitoring Boreal Forest Regrowth Using Spaceborne L-Band SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Tanase, Mihai A.; Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.; Borr, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the utility of L-band SAR data for estimating aboveground biomass in sites with low levels of vegetation regrowth. Data to estimate biomass were collected from 59 sites located in fire-disturbed black spruce forests in interior Alaska. PALSAR L-band data (HH and HV polarizations) collected on two dates in the summer/fall of 2007 and one date in the summer of 2009 were used. Significant linear correlations were found between the log of aboveground biomass (range of 0.02 to 22.2 t ha-1) and (L-HH) and (L-HV) for the data collected on each of the three dates, with the highest correlation found using the LHV data collected when soil moisture was highest. Soil moisture, however, did change the correlations between L-band and aboveground biomass, and the analyses suggest that the influence of soil moisture is biomass dependent. The results indicate that to use L-band SAR data for mapping aboveground biomass and monitoring forest regrowth will require development of approaches to account for the influence that variations in soil moisture have on L-band microwave backscatter, which can be particularly strong when low levels of aboveground biomass occur

  14. First Results of the TOPSAR C-Band / L-Band Interferometer: Calibration and Differential Penetration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.; Hensley, Scott

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/JPL TOPSAR instrument recently was extended from a single wavelength C-band dual aperture synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometer to include a second wavelength at the L-band. Adding the second wavelength invites comparison of wavelength-diverse effects in topographic mapping of surfaces, with the principal goal of understanding the penetration of the radar signals in vegetation canopies, and determining the inferred topographic height. A first analysis of these data was conducted at two sites. Elkhorn Slough near Monterey, California presented flat, vegetation free terrain required for calibrating the radar interferometer parameters. A second site stretching from San Jose to Santa Cruz, California, which is heavily vegetated, provided the first test case for wavelength diverse penetration studies. Preliminary results show that: (a) the interferometer calibration determined at Elkhorn Slough is extenable to Laurel Quad and gives confidence in the C- and L-band height measurements; (b) Clear differences were observed between the C- and L-band heights associated with vegetation, with the C-band derived topographic heights generally higher than those from L-band. The noise level in the L-band interferometer is presently the limiting factor in penetration studies.

  15. Visible/infrared radiometric calibration station

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, D.A.; Maier, W.B. II; Bender, S.C.; Holland, R.F.; Michaud, F.D.; Luettgen, A.L.; Christensen, R.W.; O`Brian, T.R.

    1994-07-01

    We have begun construction of a visible/infrared radiometric calibration station that will allow for absolute calibration of optical and IR remote sensing instruments with clear apertures less than 16 inches in diameter in a vacuum environment. The calibration station broadband sources will be calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and allow for traceable absolute radiometric calibration to within {plus_minus}3% in the visible and near IR (0.4--2.5 {mu}m), and less than {plus_minus}1% in the infrared, up to 12 {mu}m. Capabilities for placing diffraction limited images or for sensor full-field flooding will exist. The facility will also include the calibration of polarization and spectral effects, spatial resolution, field of view performance, and wavefront characterization. The configuration of the vacuum calibration station consists of an off-axis 21 inch, f/3.2, parabolic collimator with a scanning fold flat in collimated space. The sources are placed, via mechanisms to be described, at the focal plane of the off-axis parabola. Vacuum system pressure will be in the 10{sup {minus}6} Torr range. The broadband white-light source is a custom design by LANL with guidance from Labsphere Inc. The continuous operating radiance of the integrating sphere will be from 0.0--0.006 W/cm{sup 2}/Sr/{mu}m (upper level quoted for {approximately}500 nm wavelength). The blackbody source is also custom designed at LANL with guidance from NIST. The blackbody temperature will be controllable between 250--350{degrees}K. Both of the above sources have 4.1 inch apertures with estimated radiometric instability at less than 1%. The designs of each of these units will be described. The monochromator and interferometer light sources are outside the vacuum, but all optical relay and beam shaping optics are enclosed within the vacuum calibration station. These sources are described, as well as the methodology for alignment and characterization.

  16. Thematic mapper: detailed radiometric and geometric characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Hugh

    1983-01-01

    Those radiometric characteristics of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data have been examined. Subscenes of radiometric all raw data (B-data) were examined on an individual detector basis: areas of uniform radiance were used to characterize subtle radiometric differences and noise problems. A variety of anomalies have been discovered with magnitude of a few digital levels or less: the only problem not addressable by ground processing is irregular width of the digital levels. Essentially all of this non-ideal performance is incorporated in the fully processed (P-type) images, but disguised by the geometric resampling procedure. The overall performance of the Thematic Mapper is a great improvement over previous Landsat scanners. The effective resolution in radiance is degraded by about a factor of two by irregular width of the digital levels. Several detectors have a change of gain with a period of several scans, the largest effect is about 4%. These detectors appear to switch between two response levels during scan direction reversal; there is no apparent periodicity to these changes. This can cause small apparent difference between forward and reverse scans for portions of an image. The high-frequency noise level of each detector was characterized by the standard deviation of the first derivative in the sample direction across a flat field. Coherent sinusoidal noise patterns were determined using one-dimensional Fourier transforms. A "stitching" pattern in Band 1 has a period of 13.8 samples with a peak-to-peak amplitude ranging from 1 to 5 DN. Noise with a period of 3.24 samples is pronounced for most detectors in band 1, to a lesser extent in bands 2, 3, and 4, and below background noise levels in bands 5, 6, and 7. The geometric fidelity of the GSFC film writer used for Thematic Mapper (TM) images was assessed by measurement with accuracy bette than three micrometers of a test grid. A set of 55

  17. Radiometric characterization of the NASA GSFC radiometric calibration facility primary transfer radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John W.; Brown, Steven W.; Abel, Peter; Marketon, John E.; Butler, James J.

    2004-11-01

    As part of an effort to reduce uncertainties in the radiometric calibrations of integrating sphere sources and standard lamp irradiance sources, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Radiometric Calibration Facility (RCF) primary radiometer was characterized at the NIST facility for Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Calibrations with Uniform Sources (SIRCUS). Specifically, the radiometer's slit spectral function was measured and the magnitude of out-of-band stray light was determined. The characterization also revealed significant contributions of spectral stray light due to fluorescence of the radiometer's input sphere. The RCF examined the effects of stray light and sphere fluorescence in the radiometer on source radiance calibrations along with approaches to reduce those sources of measurement error.

  18. Absolute radiometric calibration of the CCRS SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulander, Lars M. H.; Hawkins, Robert K.; Livingstone, Charles E.; Lukowski, Tom I.

    1991-11-01

    Determining the radar scattering coefficients from SAR (synthetic aperture radar) image data requires absolute radiometric calibration of the SAR system. The authors describe an internal calibration methodology for the airborne Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) SAR system, based on radar theory, a detailed model of the radar system, and measurements of system parameters. The methodology is verified by analyzing external calibration data acquired over a 6-month period in 1988 by the C-band radar using HH polarization. The results indicate that the overall error is +/- 0.8 dB (1-sigma) for incidence angles +/- 20 deg from antenna boresight. The dominant error contributions are due to the antenna radome and uncertainties in the elevation angle relative to the antenna boresight.

  19. The Joint African Radiometric Propagation Measurement Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbesser-Rastburg, B.; Zaks, C.; Rogers, D. V.; McCarthy, D. K.; Allnutt, J. E.

    1990-06-01

    This paper summarizes the principal aspects of a major cooperative radiowave propagation experiment that was designed to collect data for improving rain attenuation prediction models for tropical Africa. A pressing need for such data had previously been identified by Resolution 79 of the CCIR. In a unique joint arrangement with three African governments, Intelsat, Comsat, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the U.S. National Telecommunications and Information Administration and the U.S. Telecommunications Training Institute (USTTI) collaborated in setting up a Ku-band radiometric measurement campaign in Cameroon, Kenya and Nigeria. A brief historical overview is given, together with the major technical parameters of the sites and the equipment installed there. The anticipated characteristics of the three locations are outlined with regard to meteorological and propagation conditions, and some preliminary indications of the results are presented based on an inspection of the early event data.

  20. GIFTS SM EDU Radiometric and Spectral Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, J.; Reisse, R. a.; Johnson, D. G.; Gazarik, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Sensor Module (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiance using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument gathers measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the processing algorithms involved in the calibration. The calibration procedures can be subdivided into three categories: the pre-calibration stage, the calibration stage, and finally, the post-calibration stage. Detailed derivations for each stage are presented in this paper.

  1. Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

  2. Overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Dennis K.; Feinholz, Michael; Yarbrough, Mark; Johnson, B. Carol; Brown, Steven W.; Kim, Yong S.; Barnes, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    a negative difference for the post- deployment values. This trend is to be expected after a deployment of 3 months. To date, only the pre-deployment calibration measurements have been used to adjust the system responses for the MOBY time series. Based on these results, the estimated radiometric uncertainty for MOBY in-water ocean color measurements is estimated to be about 4% to 8% (kequals1). As part of a collaboration with NIST, annual radiometric comparisons are made at the MOBY calibration facility. NIST personnel use transfer radiometers and integrating spheres to validate (verify) the accuracy of the MOBY calibration sources. Recently, we began a study of the stray light contribution to the radiometric uncertainty in the MOBY systems. A complete reprocessing of the MOBY data set, including the changes within each MOBY deployment, will commence upon the completion of the stray light characterization, which is scheduled for the fall of 2001. It is anticipated that this reprocessing will reduce the overall radiometric uncertainty to less than 5% (kequals1).

  3. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  4. Ultrashort stretched-pulse L-band laser using carbon-nanotube saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Won Sik; Lee, Hyub; Kim, Jin Hwan; Choi, Jindoo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2015-03-23

    In the paper, a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser in the long-wavelength band (L-band) is presented by using a single-wall nanotube saturable absorber (SWNT-SA). The optical properties of the SWNT-SA are compared with those in the C-band in view of the absorbance spectrum and the power-dependent transmittance of the SWNT-SA film. The effects of the net cavity dispersion and the length of the erbium-doped fiber (EDF) on L-band stretched pulse generation are discussed. The designed stretched-pulse L-band laser has a net dispersion of 0.017-ps2 and generates ultrashort (110 fs), broad-spectrum (41 nm) pulses with a signal-to-noise ratio over 70 dB.

  5. Preliminary geologic evaluation of L-band radar imagery: Arkansas test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Waite, W. P.

    1977-01-01

    The relatively small angles of incidence (steep depression angles) of the L-band system provide minimal shadowing on terrain back-slopes and considerable foreshortening on terrain fore-slopes which sacrifice much of the topographic enhancement afforded by a more oblique angle of illumination. In addition, the dynamic range of the return from vegetated surfaces is substantially less for the L-band system, and many surface features defined primarily by subtle changes in vegetation are lost. In areas having terrain conditions similar to those of northern Arkansas, and where LANDSAT and shorter wavelength aircraft radar data are available, the value of the JPL L-band imagery as either a complimentary or supplementary geologic data source is not obvious.

  6. ELBARA II, an L-Band Radiometer System for Soil Moisture Research

    PubMed Central

    Schwank, Mike; Wiesmann, Andreas; Werner, Charles; Mätzler, Christian; Weber, Daniel; Murk, Axel; Völksch, Ingo; Wegmüller, Urs

    2010-01-01

    L-band (1–2 GHz) microwave radiometry is a remote sensing technique that can be used to monitor soil moisture, and is deployed in the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). Performing ground-based radiometer campaigns before launch, during the commissioning phase and during the operative SMOS mission is important for validating the satellite data and for the further improvement of the radiative transfer models used in the soil-moisture retrieval algorithms. To address these needs, three identical L-band radiometer systems were ordered by ESA. They rely on the proven architecture of the ETH L-Band radiometer for soil moisture research (ELBARA) with major improvements in the microwave electronics, the internal calibration sources, the data acquisition, the user interface, and the mechanics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the instruments and the main characteristics that are relevant for the user. PMID:22315556

  7. Comparison of Model Prediction with Measurements of Galactic Background Noise at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Abraham, Saji; Kerr, Yann H.; Wilson, Willam J.; Skou, Niels; Sobjaerg, S.

    2004-01-01

    The spectral window at L-band (1.413 GHz) is important for passive remote sensing of surface parameters such as soil moisture and sea surface salinity that are needed to understand the hydrological cycle and ocean circulation. Radiation from celestial (mostly galactic) sources is strong in this window and an accurate accounting for this background radiation is often needed for calibration. Modem radio astronomy measurements in this spectral window have been converted into a brightness temperature map of the celestial sky at L-band suitable for use in correcting passive measurements. This paper presents a comparison of the background radiation predicted by this map with measurements made with several modem L-band remote sensing radiometers. The agreement validates the map and the procedure for locating the source of down-welling radiation.

  8. Large Scale Assessment of Radio Frequency Interference Signatures in L-band SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; Nicoll, J.

    2011-12-01

    Imagery of L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems such as the PALSAR sensor on board the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has proven to be a valuable tool for observing environmental changes around the globe. Besides offering 24/7 operability, the L-band frequency provides improved interferometric coherence, and L-band polarimetric data has shown great potential for vegetation monitoring, sea ice classification, and the observation of glaciers and ice sheets. To maximize the benefit of missions such as ALOS PALSAR for environmental monitoring, data consistency and calibration are vital. Unfortunately, radio frequency interference (RFI) signatures from ground-based radar systems regularly impair L-band SAR data quality and consistency. With this study we present a large-scale analysis of typical RFI signatures that are regularly observed in L-band SAR data over the Americas. Through a study of the vast archive of L-band SAR data in the US Government Research Consortium (USGRC) data pool at the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) we were able to address the following research goals: 1. Assessment of RFI Signatures in L-band SAR data and their Effects on SAR Data Quality: An analysis of time-frequency properties of RFI signatures in L-band SAR data of the USGRC data pool is presented. It is shown that RFI-filtering algorithms implemented in the operational ALOS PALSAR processor are not sufficient to remove all RFI-related artifacts. In examples, the deleterious effects of RFI on SAR image quality, polarimetric signature, SAR phase, and interferometric coherence are presented. 2. Large-Scale Assessment of Severity, Spatial Distribution, and Temporal Variation of RFI Signatures in L-band SAR data: L-band SAR data in the USGRC data pool were screened for RFI using a custom algorithm. Per SAR frame, the algorithm creates geocoded frame bounding boxes that are color-coded according to RFI intensity and converted to KML files for analysis in Google Earth. From

  9. The L-band PBMR measurements of surface soil moisture in FIFE. [First International satellite land surface climatology project Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James R.; Shiue, James C.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Engman, Edwin T.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's L-band pushbroom microwave radiometer (PBMR) aboard the NASA C-130 aircraft was used to map surface soil moisture at and around the Konza Prairie Natural Research Area in Kansas during the four intensive field campaigns of FIFE in May-October 1987. There was a total of 11 measurements was made when soils were known to be saturated. This measurement was used for the calibration of the vegetation effect on the microwave absorption. Based on this calibration, the data from other measurements on other days were inverted to generate the soil moisture maps. Good agreement was found when the estimated soil moisture values were compared to those independently measured on the ground at a number of widely separated locations. There was a slight bias between the estimated and measured values, the estimated soil moisture on the average being lower by about 1.8 percent. This small bias, however, was accounted for by the difference in time of the radiometric measurements and the soil moisture ground sampling.

  10. Comparison of Measured Galactic Background Radiation at L-Band with Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Abraham, Saji; Kerr, Yann H.; Wilson, William J.; Skou, Niels; Sobjaerg, Sten

    2004-01-01

    Radiation from the celestial sky in the spectral window at 1.413 GHz is strong and an accurate accounting of this background radiation is needed for calibration and retrieval algorithms. Modern radio astronomy measurements in this window have been converted into a brightness temperature map of the celestial sky at L-band suitable for such applications. This paper presents a comparison of the background predicted by this map with the measurements of several modern L-band remote sensing radiometer Keywords-Galactic background, microwave radiometry; remote sensing;

  11. Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Pust, Nathan; Thurairajah, Brentha; Mizutani, Kohei

    2005-07-25

    An uncooled microbolometer-array thermal infrared camera has been incorporated into a remote sensing system for radiometric sky imaging. The radiometric calibration is validated and improved through direct comparison with spectrally integrated data from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). With the improved calibration, the Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) system routinely obtains sky images with radiometric uncertainty less than 0.5 W/(m(2 )sr) for extended deployments in challenging field environments. We demonstrate the infrared cloud imaging technique with still and time-lapse imagery of clear and cloudy skies, including stratus, cirrus, and wave clouds. PMID:19498585

  12. Intraband radiometric performance of the Landsat Thematic Mappers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Cook, D.A.; Eliason, E.M.; Eliason, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    Radiometric characteristics have been examined of the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers (TMs) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. This analysis is based on radiometrically and geometrically raw (B-type) data of both uniform (flat-field) and high-contrast scenes. Subscenes selected for uniform radiance were used to characterized subtle radiometric differences and noise problems. Although the general performance of the Thematic Mappers is excellent, various anomalies that have a magnitude of a few digital levels (DN) or less are quantified. -from Authors

  13. Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Pust, Nathan; Thurairajah, Brentha; Mizutani, Kohei

    2005-07-25

    An uncooled microbolometer-array thermal infrared camera has been incorporated into a remote sensing system for radiometric sky imaging. The radiometric calibration is validated and improved through direct comparison with spectrally integrated data from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). With the improved calibration, the Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) system routinely obtains sky images with radiometric uncertainty less than 0.5 W/(m(2 )sr) for extended deployments in challenging field environments. We demonstrate the infrared cloud imaging technique with still and time-lapse imagery of clear and cloudy skies, including stratus, cirrus, and wave clouds.

  14. Relative Radiometric Calibration of LANDSAT TM Reflective Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Results and recommendations pertaining to the characterization of the relative radiometric calibration of the protoflight thematic mapper (TM/PF) on the LANDSAT-4 satellite are presented. Some preliminary pre-launch and in-orbit results are also included from the flight model (TM/F) on LANDSAT-5. A common scientific methodology and terminology is outlined for characterizing the radiometry of both TM sensors. The magnitude of the most significant sources of radiometric variability are discussed and methods are recommended for achieving the exceptional potential inherent in the radiometric precision and accuracy of the sensors.

  15. Laboratory Measurement of Bidirectional Reflectance of Radiometric Tarps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: a) To determine the magnitude of radiometric tarp BRDF; b) To determine whether an ASD FieldSpec Pro spectroradiometer can be used to perform the experiment. Radiometric tarps with nominal reflectance values of 52%, 35%, and 3.5%, deployed for IKONOS. QuickBird, and OrbView-3 overpasses Ground-based spectroradiometric measurements of tarp and Spectralon@ panel taken during overpass using ASD FieldSpec Pro spectroradiometer, and tarp reflectance calculated. Reflectance data used in atmospheric radiative transfer model (MODTRAN) to predict satellite at-sensor radiance for radiometric calibration. Reflectance data also used to validate atmospheric correction of high-spatial-resolution multispectral image products

  16. L-band radiometry for sea ice applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heygster, G.; Hedricks, S.; Mills, P.; Kaleschke, L.; Stammer, D.; Tonboe, R.

    2009-04-01

    Peake (1976). This expression was used by Menashi et al. (1993) to derive the thickness of sea ice from UHF (0.6 GHz) radiometer. Second, retrieval algorithms for sea ice parameters with emphasis on ice-water discrimination from L-band observations considering the specific SMOS observations modes and geometries are investigated. A modified Menashi model with the permittivity depending on brine volume and temperature suggests a thickness sensitivity of up to 150 cm for low salinity (multi year or brackish) sea ice at low temperatures. At temperatures approaching the melting point the thickness sensitivity reduces to a few centimetres. For first year ice the modelled thickness sensitivity is roughly half a meter. Runs of the model MEMLS with input data generated from a 1-d thermodynamic sea ice model lead to similar conclusio. The results of the forward model may strongly vary with the input microphysical details. E.g. if the permittivity is modelled to depend in addition on the sea ice thickness as supported by several former field campaigns for thin ice, the model predictions change strongly. Prior to the launch of SMOS, an important source of observational data is the SMOS Sea-Ice campaign held near Kokkola, Finland, March 2007 conducted as an add-on of the POL-ICE campaign. Co-incident L-band observations taken with the EMIRAD instrument of the Technical University of Denmark, ice thickness values determined from the EM bird of AWI and in situ observations during the campaign are combined. Although the campaign data are to be use with care, for selected parts of the flights the sea ice thickness can be retrieved correctly. However, as the instrumental conditions and calibration were not optimal, more in situ data, preferably from the Arctic, will be needed before drawing clear conclusions about a future the sea ice thickness product based on SMOS data. Use of additional information from other microwave sensors like AMSR-E might be needed to constrain the conditions, e

  17. Radiometric Meteorology: radon progeny as tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Mark; Iwata, Atsushi; Ito, Nahoko; Kubo, Kenya; Komura, Kazu; Ishizaki, Miho

    2008-10-01

    In-situ measurement of atmospheric γ radiation from radon progeny determine rain and snow rates to better accuracy than standard rain gauges and gives a handle on how droplets are formed. The measured γ ray rates (GRR) have been shown to be proportional to a power of radiometric precipitation rates (RPR)^α, α giving a handle on the extent to which radon progeny are surface adsorbed or volume absorbed.ootnotetextM. B. Greenfield et al., J. Appl. Phys. 93, (2003) pp 5733-5741. More recently time dependent ratios of GRR from ^214Pb and ^214Bi, concentrated from collected rainwater, have been used to determine the elapsed time since activity from RPR, adhered to rain droplets, was removed from secular equilibrium. Ion exchange resins precipitate out the ^214Pb and ^214Bi ions, which are then filtered from 10s of liters of rainwater or snowmelt. A portable Ge detector is used to integrate the resulting activity over 5-10 min intervals. The measured evolution of these two activities from secular equilibrium to transient equilibrium has meteorological applications enabling both the determination of average elapsed times between the formation of raindrops and the time they reach the ground, as well as an estimate of the initial activity at the source of droplet formation.

  18. Radiometric dating of the Siloam Tunnel, Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Amos; Shimron, Aryeh; Rosenbaum, Jeff

    2003-09-11

    The historical credibility of texts from the Bible is often debated when compared with Iron Age archaeological finds (refs. 1, 2 and references therein). Modern scientific methods may, in principle, be used to independently date structures that seem to be mentioned in the biblical text, to evaluate its historical authenticity. In reality, however, this approach is extremely difficult because of poor archaeological preservation, uncertainty in identification, scarcity of datable materials, and restricted scientific access into well-identified worship sites. Because of these problems, no well-identified Biblical structure has been radiometrically dated until now. Here we report radiocarbon and U-Th dating of the Siloam Tunnel, proving its Iron Age II date; we conclude that the Biblical text presents an accurate historic record of the Siloam Tunnel's construction. Being one of the longest ancient water tunnels lacking intermediate shafts, dating the Siloam Tunnel is a key to determining where and when this technological breakthrough took place. Siloam Tunnel dating also refutes a claim that the tunnel was constructed in the second century bc.

  19. Calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, J. K.; Schildkraut, Elliot Robert; Bauldree, Russell S.; Goodrich, Shawn M.

    1996-06-01

    The calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (CIGARS) is a new high performance, multi-purpose, multi- platform Fourier transform spectrometer (FPS) sensor. It covers the waveband from 0.2 to 12 micrometer, has spectral resolution as fine as 0.3 cm-1, and records over 100 spectra per second. Two CIGARS units are being used for observations of target signatures in the air or on the ground from fixed or moving platforms, including high performance jet aircraft. In this paper we describe the characteristics and capabilities of the CIGARS sensor, which uses four interchangeable detector modules (Si, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe) and two optics modules, with internal calibration. The data recording electronics support observations of transient events, even without precise information on the timing of the event. We present test and calibration data on the sensitivity, spectral resolution, stability, and spectral rate of CIGARS, and examples of in- flight observations of real targets. We also discuss plans for adapting CIGARS for imaging spectroscopy observations, with simultaneous spectral and spatial data, by replacing the existing detectors with a focal plane array (FPA).

  20. Transportable high sensitivity small sample radiometric calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, J.R.; Biddle, R.S.; Cordova, B.S.; Sampson, T.E.; Dye, H.R.; McDow, J.G.

    1998-12-31

    A new small-sample, high-sensitivity transportable radiometric calorimeter, which can be operated in different modes, contains an electrical calibration method, and can be used to develop secondary standards, will be described in this presentation. The data taken from preliminary tests will be presented to indicate the precision and accuracy of the instrument. The calorimeter and temperature-controlled bath, at present, require only a 30-in. by 20-in. tabletop area. The calorimeter is operated from a laptop computer system using unique measurement module capable of monitoring all necessary calorimeter signals. The calorimeter can be operated in the normal calorimeter equilibration mode, as a comparison instrument, using twin chambers and an external electrical calibration method. The sample chamber is 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in diameter by 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) long. This size will accommodate most {sup 238}Pu heat standards manufactured in the past. The power range runs from 0.001 W to <20 W. The high end is only limited by sample size.

  1. Aperture-Coupled Thin-Membrane L-Band Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    2007-01-01

    The upper part of the figure depicts an aperture-coupled L-band antenna comprising patterned metal conductor films supported on two thin polyimide membranes separated by an air gap. In this antenna, power is coupled from a microstrip line on the lower surface of the lower membrane, through a slot in a metal ground plane on the upper surface of the lower membrane, to a radiating metal patch on the upper surface of the upper membrane. The two-membrane configuration of this antenna stands in contrast to a three-membrane configuration heretofore considered as the basis for developing arrays of dual-polarization, wideband microwave antennas that could be thin and could be, variously, incorporated into, or supported on, thin structures, including inflatable structures. By reducing the number of membranes from three to two, the present design simplifies the problems of designing and fabricating such antennas or arrays of such antennas, including the problems of integrating such antennas or arrays with thin-membrane-mounted transmit/ receive modules. In addition, the use of aperture (slot) coupling eliminates the need for rigid coaxial feed pins and associated solder connections on thin membranes, making this antenna more mechanically reliable, relative to antennas that include coaxial feed pins. This antenna is designed for a nominal frequency of 1.26 GHz. The polyimide membranes are 0.05 mm thick and have a relative permittivity of 3.4. The radiating patch is square, 8.89 cm on each side. This radiating patch lies 1.27 cm above the ground plane. The feeding microstrip line is 0.12 mm wide and has a characteristic impedance of 50 . The aperture-coupling slot, etched in the ground plane, is 0.48 mm wide and 79.5 mm long. In order to maximize coupling, the microstrip line is extended beyond the middle of the slot by a length of 36 mm, which corresponds to a transmission- line electrical length of about a quarter wavelength. The other end of the microstrip line is

  2. Effective Albedo of Vegetated Terrain at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurum, Mehmet; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Lang, Roger H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper derives an explicit expression for an effective albedo of vegetated terrain from the zero- and multiple- order radiative transfer (RT) model comparison. The formulation establishes a direct physical link between the effective vegetation parameterization and the theoretical description of absorption and scattering within the canopy. The paper will present an evaluation of the derived albedo for corn canopies with data taken during an experiment at Alabama A&M Winfield A. Thomas Agricultural Research Station near Huntsville, Alabama in June, 1998. The test site consisted of two 50-m x 60-m plots - one with a bare surface and the other with grass cover - and four 30-m x 50-m plots of corn at different planting densities. One corn field was planted at a full density of 9.5 plants/sq m while the others were planted at 1/3, 1/2 and 2/3 of the full density. The fields were observed with a truck-mounted L-band radiometer at incident angle of 15 degree for the period of two weeks. Soil moisture (SM) changed daily due to irrigation and natural rainfall. Variations in gravimetric SM from 18 % to 34 % were seen during this period. Ground truth data, including careful characterization of the corn size and orientation statistics, and its dielectric, was also collected and used to simulate the effective albedo for the vegetation. The single-scattering albedo is defined as the fractional power scattered from individual vegetation constituents with respect to canopy extinction. It represents single-scattering properties of vegetation elements only, and is independent of ground properties. The values of the albedo get higher when there is dense vegetation (i.e. forest, mature corn, etc.) with scatterers, such as branches and trunks (or stalks in the case of corn), which are large with respect to the wavelength. This large albedo leads to a reduction in brightness temperature in the zero-order RT solution (known as tau-omega model). Higher-order multiple-scattering RT

  3. Coherent model of L-band radar scattering by soybean plants: model development, validation and retrieval

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved coherent branching model for L-band radar remote sensing of soybean is proposed by taking into account the correlated scattering among scatterers. The novel feature of the analytic coherent model consists of conditional probability functions to eliminate the overlapping effects of branc...

  4. Inter-comparison of SMAP, Aquarius and SMOS L-band brightness temperature observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for launch on January 29, 2015. SMAP will make observations with an L-band radar and radiometer using a shared 6 m rotating reflector antenna. SMAP is a fully polarimetric radiometer with the center frequency of 1.41 GHz. The target accuracy o...

  5. Precipitation estimation using L-Band and C-Band soil moisture retrievals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An established methodology for estimating precipitation amounts from satellite-based soil moisture retrievals is applied to L-band products from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite missions and to a C-band product from the Advanced Scatterome...

  6. Radar measurement of L-band signal fluctuations caused by propagation through trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Klein, Jeffrey D.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1991-10-01

    Fluctuations of an L-band, horizontally polarized signal that was transmitted from the ground through a coniferous forest canopy to an airborne radar are examined. The azimuth synthetic aperture radar (SAR) impulse response in the presence of the measured magnitude fluctuations shows increased sidelobes over the case with no trees. Statistics of the observed fluctuations are similar to other observations.

  7. Parametric exponentially correlated surface emission model for L-band passive microwave soil moisture retrieval

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface soil moisture is an important parameter in hydrology and climate investigations. Current and future satellite missions with L-band passive microwave radiometers can provide valuable information for monitoring the global soil moisture. A factor that can play a significant role in the modeling...

  8. Estimation of Soil Moisture for Vegetated Surfaces Using Multi-Temporal L-Band SAR Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jian-Cheng; Sun, G.; Hsu, A.; Wang, J.; ONeill, P.; Ranson, J.; Engman, E. T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the technique to estimate ground surface and vegetation scattering components, based on the backscattering model and the radar decomposition theory, under configuration of multi-temporal L-band polarimetric SAR measurement. This technique can be used to estimate soil moisture of vegetated surface.

  9. Forest canopy effects on the estimation of soil moisture at L-Band

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Truck-based measurements of brightness temperature at Lband over small deciduous stands located in Maryland were made in 2006 and 2007. Ground truth data related to forest stands and the ground were also collected. The deciduous trees were modeled by the Distorted Born Approximation (DBA) in conjunc...

  10. The design of a linear L-band high power amplifier for mobile communication satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, N.; Brassard, G.; Li, E.; Goux, P.

    1990-01-01

    A linear L-band solid state high power amplifier designed for the space segment of the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) mobile communication system is described. The amplifier is capable of producing 35 watts of RF power with multitone signal at an efficiency of 25 percent and with intermodulation products better than 16 dB below carrier.

  11. Lessons Learned from the AIRS Pre-Flight Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Weiler, Margie

    2013-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flies on the NASA Aqua satellite and measures the upwelling hyperspectral earth radiance in the spectral range of 3.7-15.4 micron with a nominal ground resolution at nadir of 13.5 km. The AIRS spectra are achieved using a temperature controlled grating spectrometer and HgCdTe infrared linear arrays providing 2378 channels with a nominal spectral resolution of approximately 1200. The AIRS pre-flight tests that impact the radiometric calibration include a full system radiometric response (linearity), polarization response, and response vs scan angle (RVS). We re-derive the AIRS instrument radiometric calibration coefficients from the pre-flight polarization measurements, the response vs scan (RVS) angle tests as well as the linearity tests, and a recent lunar roll test that allowed the AIRS to view the moon. The data and method for deriving the coefficients is discussed in detail and the resulting values compared amongst the different tests. Finally, we examine the residual errors in the reconstruction of the external calibrator blackbody radiances and the efficacy of a new radiometric uncertainty model. Results show the radiometric calibration of AIRS to be excellent and the radiometric uncertainty model does a reasonable job of characterizing the errors.

  12. Radiometric Characteristics of Cassini RADAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiles, B. W.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G. A.; Johnson, W. T.; Shimada, J. G.; West, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Cassini RADAR instrument on-board the Cassini Orbiter is currently being employed to obtain SAR imagery of the surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. The viewing geometry of Cassini RADAR is different from most imaging radars because the Cassini Orbiter flies by Titan rather than entering into orbit about it. This unusual viewing geometry leads to variable noise characteristics throughout the SAR swath. Due to large changes in range to target and number of looks, noise characteristics and effective resolution vary widely throughout the swath. A good understanding of these parameters is important in order to draw scientific conclusions from the SAR images. Changes in noise bias could be misinterpreted as changes in reflectivity from the surface. Changes in resolution or noise variance could be misinterpreted as changes in the heterogeneity of the surface. The purpose of this paper is to quantify noise variance, bias, and effective radiometric resolution throughout the SAR swath in order to aid scientists in interpreting the data. Of the three parameters, the easiest to model is noise bias which increases with the range to the target. Noise variance is more complicated. The thermal noise (SNR) contribution to the overall variance increases with range, but the fading (speckle) noise contribution varies inversely with number of looks and thus with range. Effective resolution becomes coarser as range increases, but cross track and along track resolution vary differently. Along track resolution varies continuously, but cross track resolution has a discontinuity at 1600 km altitude, due to a change in commanded bandwidth. This paper presents the equations governing the noise characteristics and effective resolution as well as providing pseudo-color images of each quantity in SAR image coordinates for the October 2004 Cassini RADAR observation of Titan. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with

  13. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper

    SciTech Connect

    Wukelic, G.E.; Gibbons, D.E.; Martucci, L.M.; Foote, H.P.

    1988-08-01

    Absolute calibration of satellite-acquired data is essential for quantification of scientific studies and a variety of image- processing applications. This paper describes a multiyear, on-orbit radiometric calibration of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). Primary emphasis was placed on TM band 6 (thermal) calibration, but selected reflectance-band calibration measurements were also made. Twenty-five Landsat TM coverages were acquired, and included day, night, and seasonal scenes at several geographical locations. Concurrent with Landsat overpasses, thermal and reflectance field and local meteorological (surface and radiosonde) measurements were collected. At-satellite (uncorrected) radiances and temperatures for water and non-water land cover were compared to ground truth (GT) measurements after making adjustments for atmospheric (using LOWTRAN), mixed-pixel, and emissivity effects. Results indicate that for well-characterized water features, TM band 6 average corrected temperature determinations using local radiosonde data for atmospheric adjustments are within less than or equal to0.6/degree/C of GT temperature determinations. For non-water features, TM band 6 derived temperatures are within 1/degree/C of GT temperature determinations, if appropriate emissivity adjustments are made. Corrections using non-local radiosonde data resulted in errors as large as 12/degree/C. Corrections using the US Standard atmosphere gave temperature values within 1 to 2/degree/C of GT. The average uncertainty for field instruments was +-0.2/degree/C; average uncertainty for Landsat TM corrected temperature determinations was +-0.4/degree/C. A cross-calibration of TM band 6 and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for a Landsat overpass gave similar temperature results. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Assessment of VIIRS radiometric performance using vicarious calibration sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uprety, Sirish; Cao, Changyong; Blonski, Slawomir; Wang, Wenhui

    2014-09-01

    Radiometric performance of satellite instruments needs to be regularly monitored to determine if there is any drift in the instrument response over time despite the calibration with the best effort. If a drift occurs, it needs to be characterized in order to keep the radiometric accuracy and stability well within the specification. Instrument gain change over time can be validated independently using many techniques such as using stable earth targets (desert, ocean, snow sites etc), inter-comparison with other well calibrated radiometers (using SNO, SNO-x), deep convective clouds (DCC), lunar observations or other methods. This study focus on using vicarious calibration sites for the assessment of radiometric performance of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective solar bands. The calibration stability is primarily analyzed by developing the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance time series over these sites. In addition, the radiometric bias relative to AQUA MODIS is estimated over these calibration sites and analyzed. The radiometric bias is quantified in terms of observed and spectral bias. The spectral characterization and bias analysis will be performed using hyperspectral measurements and radiative transfer models such as MODTRAN.

  15. Radiometric validation of NASA's Ames Research Center's Sensor Calibration Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven W; Johnson, B Carol; Biggar, Stuart F; Zalewski, Edward F; Cooper, John; Hajek, Pavel; Hildum, Edward; Grant, Patrick; Barnes, Robert A; Butler, James J

    2005-10-20

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Ames Research Center's Airborne Sensor Facility (ASF) is responsible for the calibration of several airborne Earth-viewing sensor systems in support of NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) investigations. The primary artifact used to calibrate these sensors in the reflective solar region from 400 to 2500 nm is a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source. In September 1999, a measurement comparison was made at the Ames ASF Sensor Calibration Facility to validate the radiometric scale, establish the uncertainties assigned to the radiance of this source, and examine its day-to-day repeatability. The comparison was one of a series of validation activities overseen by the EOS Calibration Program to ensure the radiometric calibration accuracy of sensors used in long-term, global, remote-sensing studies. Results of the comparison, including an evaluation of the Ames Sensor Calibration Laboratory (SCL) measurement procedures and assigned radiometric uncertainties, provide a validation of their radiometric scale at the time of the comparison. Additionally, the maintenance of the radiance scale was evaluated by use of independent, long-term, multiyear radiance validation measurements of the Ames sphere source. This series of measurements provided an independent assessment of the radiance values assigned to integrating sphere sources by the Ames SCF. Together, the measurements validate the SCF radiometric scale and assigned uncertainties over the time period from September 1999 through July 2003.

  16. Radiometric validation of NASA's Ames Research Center's Sensor Calibration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven W.; Johnson, B. Carol; Biggar, Stuart F.; Zalewski, Edward F.; Cooper, John; Hajek, Pavel; Hildum, Edward; Grant, Patrick; Barnes, Robert A.; Butler, James J

    2005-10-20

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Ames Research Center's Airborne Sensor Facility (ASF) is responsible for the calibration of several airborne Earth-viewing sensor systems in support of NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) investigations. The primary artifact used to calibrate these sensors in the reflective solar region from 400 to 2500 nm is a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source. In September 1999, a measurement comparison was made at the Ames ASF Sensor Calibration Facility to validate the radiometric scale, establish the uncertainties assigned to the radiance of this source, and examine its day-to-day repeatability. The comparison was one of a series of validation activities overseen by the EOS Calibration Program to ensure the radiometric calibration accuracy of sensors used in long-term, global, remote-sensing studies. Results of the comparison, including an evaluation of the Ames Sensor Calibration Laboratory (SCL) measurement procedures and assigned radiometric uncertainties, provide a validation of their radiometric scale at the time of the comparison. Additionally, the maintenance of the radiance scale was evaluated by use of independent, long-term, multiyear radiance validation measurements of the Ames sphere source. This series of measurements provided an independent assessment of the radiance values assigned to integrating sphere sources by the Ames SCF. Together, the measurements validate the SCF radiometric scale and assigned uncertainties over the time period from September 1999 through July 2003.

  17. Radiometric Study of Soil Profiles in the Infrared Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, T. V.; Ponomarev, E. I.

    2016-02-01

    The applicability of radiometric survey of soil profiles in the infrared range for the analysis of soil physical properties was studied. Radiometric data were obtained for different dates of the growing season for a number of soil profiles. The specificity of temperature profiles of texture-differentiated soils (Luvisols and Retisols) as related to weather conditions of the growing season was examined. The correlation analysis showed a close relationship between the air and surface soil temperatures and between the radiometric and thermodynamic soil temperatures in the upper 10 cm. In the studied profiles, the gradient of radiometric temperatures reached 0.5-0.8°C/cm in the humus horizons and sharply decreased at the depth of more than 15-20 cm. The gradient analysis of radiometric images made it possible to outline the boundaries of soil horizons. For the texture-differentiated soils, the most distinct boundaries were established between the gray-humus AY horizon and the underlying eluvial EL horizon in podzolic soils and between the AY horizon and the underlying humus-eluvial AEL horizon in gray soils.

  18. The Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Space - Sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Ronald Gene

    1987-09-01

    The need for absolute radiometric calibration of space-based sensors will continue to increase as new generations of space sensors are developed. A reflectance -based in-flight calibration procedure is used to determine the radiance reaching the entrance pupil of the sensor. This procedure uses ground-based measurements coupled with a radiative transfer code to characterize the effects the atmosphere has on the signal reaching the sensor. The computed radiance is compared to the digital count output of the sensor associated with the image of a test site. This provides an update to the preflight calibration of the system and a check on the on-board internal calibrator. This calibration procedure was used to perform a series of five calibrations of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). For the 12 measurements made in TM bands 1-3, the RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean is (+OR-) 1.9%, and for measurements in the IR, TM bands 4,5, and 7, the value is (+OR-) 3.4%. The RMS variation for all 23 measurements is (+OR-) 2.8%. The absolute calibration techniques were put to another test with a series of three calibration of the SPOT-1 High Resolution Visible, (HRV), sensors. The ratio, HRV-2/HRV-1, of absolute calibration coefficients compared very well with ratios of histogrammed data obtained when the cameras simultaneously imaged the same ground site. Bands PA, B1 and B3 agreed to within 3%, while band B2 showed a 7% difference. The procedure for performing a satellite calibration was then used to demonstrate how a calibrated satellite sensor can be used to quantitatively evaluate surface reflectance over a wide range of surface features. Predicted reflectance factors were compared to values obtained from aircraft -based radiometer data. This procedure was applied on four dates with two different surface conditions per date. A strong correlation, R('2) = .996, was shown between reflectance values determined from satellite imagery and low-flying aircraft

  19. Radiometric rectification - Toward a common radiometric response among multidate, multisensor images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, F. G.; Strebel, D. E.; Nickeson, J. E.; Goetz, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for relating scene digital counts among several images of the same scene by identifying radiometric control sets with mean reflectances that are basically constant. The average digital-count values of the control sets are utilized to compute linear transforms that relate digital count values between images. Two Landsat TM images are studied by means of the technique using simulations of a wide range of atmospheric conditions. In the visible and near-IR bands the algorithm effectively adjusts the surface reflectance for the effects of relative atmospheric differences to within 1 percent. The proposed method is found to be an effective relative correction procedure that can be used when atmospheric optical-depth data and calibration coefficients are not available.

  20. In-flight Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner system was placed into Earth orbit on July 16, 1982, as part of NASA's LANDSAT 4 payload. To determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system in flight, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere are made simultaneously with TM image acquisitions over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values into an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels at the entrance pupil of the TM in four of the TM spectral bands are determined. These levels are compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. By reference to an adjacent, larger uniform area, the calibration is extended to all 16 detectors in each of the three bands.

  1. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

  2. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, NM area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1: 0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2: 0.53 to 0.61 micrometers, band 3: 0.62 to 0.70 micrometers, and 4: 0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. Previously announced in STAR as N84-15633

  3. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  4. MAPSAR: a small L-band SAR mission for land observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Reinhard; Puls, Jürgen; Hajnsek, Irena; Jochim, Fritz; Neff, Thomas; Kono, Janio; Renato Paradella, Waldir; Marcos Quintino da Silva, Mario; de Morisson Valeriano, Dalton; Pereira Farias Costa, Maycira

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces Multi-Application Purpose SAR (MAPSAR). A new Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission for earth observation. MAPSAR is the result of a joint pre-phase A study conducted by INPE and DLR targeting a mission for assessment, management and monitoring of natural resources. The applicability of the sensor system was investigated for cartography, forestry, geology, geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, disaster management, oceanography, urban studies and security. An L-band SAR, based on INPE's multi-mission platform (MMP), has been chosen as payload of the satellite. The key component of the SAR instrument is the SAR antenna, which is designed as an elliptical parabolic reflector antenna. L-band (high spatial resolution, quad-pol) has been selected for the SAR sensor as optimum frequency accounting for the majority of Brazilian and German user requirements. At the moment, the pre-phase A has been concluded and the phase A is planned to start in early 2003.

  5. Using multiple-polarization L-band radar to monitor marsh burn recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Nelson, G.A.; Sapkota, S.K.; Laine, S.C.; Verdi, J.; Rrasznay, S.

    1999-01-01

    Aircraft L-band VV-, HH-, and VH-polarizations were examined as tools for monitoring burn recovery in a coastal marsh. Significant relationships were observed between time-since-burn (difference between burn and image collection dates; 550-900 days after burn) and returns related to all polarizations. As marsh burn recovery progressed, VV returns decreased while HH and VH returns increased. Radar returns extracted from control sites adjacent to each burn-simulated nonburn marsh and were not individually or in combination significantly related to the timesince-burn. Normalized by the control data, VH-polarization explained up to 83% of the total variations. Overall, the L-band multipolarization radars estimated time-since-burn within ??59 to ??92 days. ?? 1999 IEEE.

  6. Reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber-amplifier-based fiber loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hongyun; Liu, Songhao; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    We constructed a reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier based on fiber loop mirror, which reflects the backward ASE to the EDF as a secondary pumping source. A gain of 30 dB increased 6 dB compared to the forward end-pumped EDFA has been achieved in the wavelength region from 1570 to 1603 nm. In order to improve the gain and NF further, we constructed a novel configuration for reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier via inserting a 980 nm LD in the input part. Adjusting the ratio of power of the two LDs, the gain and NF are greatly improved in different degree in the region from 1565 to 1615 nm. Compared to the configuration pumped by only 1480 nm LD with given power, the gain enhanced 1.5-9.9 dB and the NF decreases 1.3-9.4 dB.

  7. Study of precise positioning at L-band using communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The L-band positioning experiment is reported which encompassed experiment design, experimentation, and data reduction and analysis. In the experiment the ATS-5 synchronous satellite L-band transponder was used in conjunction with the modified ALPHA 2 navigation receivers to demonstrate the technical capability of precision position fixing for oceanographic purposes. The feasibility of using relative ranging techniques implemented by two identical receiving systems, properly calibrated, to determine a line of position accurately on the surface of the earth was shown. The program demonstrated the level of resolution, repeatibility, precision, and accuracy of existing modest-cost effective navigation equipment. The experiment configuration and data reduction techniques were developed in parallel with the hardware modification tasks. Test results verify the ability of a satellite-based system to satisfy the requirements of precision position fixing.

  8. Gain enhanced L-band optical fiber amplifiers and tunable fiber lasers with erbium-doped fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Leblanc, M.; Schinn, G. W.

    2003-02-01

    We report on the experimental investigation of gain enhanced L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) by either recycling residual ASE or using a second C-band wavelength pump laser and on the experimental demonstration of L-band tunable erbium-doped fiber ring lasers. We observed that by reflecting ASE from pumped erbium-doped fiber (EDF) the L-band EDFA gain can be enhanced of 2-15 dB depending on amplifier designs. We also studied wavelength and power dependence of second pump laser on the gain enhanced L-band EDFA and found that an optimum wavelength for second pump laser was between 1550 and 1560 nm. Finally, a L-band tunable erbium-doped fiber laser was also constructed in which lazing oscillation was observed closed to 1624 nm by recycling residual ASE. This L-band tunable laser has a line-width of about 300 MHz, an output power of 1 mW, and a signal to source spontaneous emission ratio of 60 dB.

  9. Deformation Survey of Volcanoes in Central America Using Japanese L-Band SAR Satellite ALOS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelug, F.; Lebowitz, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Japanese L-Band SAR satellite ALOS-1 has proven intself to be a useful tool for deformation monitoring of active volcanoes. Here we present a systematic deformation survey of volcanoes in Central America for the 2007-2011 time frame using the Small Baseline InSAR time-series approach. We present results for deforming volcanoes and non-deforming volcanoes, including simple elastic source models for the volcanoes that show surface deformation.

  10. Scanning L-Band Active Passive (SLAP) - Recent Results from an Airborne Simulator for SMAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Scanning L-band Active Passive (SLAP) is a recently-developed NASA airborne instrument specially tailored to simulate the new Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite instrument suite. SLAP conducted its first test flights in December, 2013 and participated in its first science campaign-the IPHEX ground validation campaign of the GPM mission-in May, 2014. This paper will present results from additional test flights and science observations scheduled for 2015.

  11. Analyzing topography effects for l-band radiometry using an improved model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Weihermüller, L.; Zhang, L. X.; Jiang, L. M.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-04-01

    Global measurements of soil moisture, the key variables in the water cycle, are provided by spaceborne radiometer based on the long wavelength detection. As one potentially critical factor, topography will induce soil moisture retrieval error over mountain areas from space. Therefore, it is imperative to develop microwave radiative transfer models for L-band over mountain areas characterized by low complexity, and therefore, practical use. To address this issue, we pay close attention to the interactive mechanism between topography and microwave radiation by describing microwave radiation characteristics of terrain scenes. To explore the mechanism of relief effects on L-band, landscape scenes are generated based on Gaussian surfaces ranging from flat terrain to multiple hills within a 35 x 35 km scene. The scattering radiation, one of contributions to the L-band microwave signal, had undergone the fairly reasonable modification that we recalculated the mutual diffuse reflection of adjacent hills instead of the maximal unidirectional diffuse reflection. Therefore, an improved microwave radiative transfer model to simulate relief effects was proposed. Based on the model, the significance of soil moisture and land surface temperature to relief effects in these terrain scenes are analyzed respectively. When the soil becomes wetter the deviation of TB between flat and mountainous terrain is enhanced. In contrast to water content, land surface temperature has a negligible effect with less than 1 K for both polarizations. Besides, the impact of topography on brightness temperature and soil moisture retrieval is predicted. It is shown that the soil moisture retrieval error at L band arisen by topography is more than 4%, the maximum permissible error, and the maximum fractional error of soil moisture retrieval compared to soil moisture in the flat terrain is 77.6%. The results presented indicate the necessity of eliminating relief effects at L-band and our approach provides

  12. Decorrelation of L-band and C-band interferometry to volcanic risk prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Sandwell, D.; Tassetti, A. N.; Cappelletti, L.

    2013-10-01

    SAR has several strong key features: fine spatial resolution/precision and high temporal pass frequency. Moreover, the InSAR technique allows the accurate detection of ground deformations. This high potential technology can be invaluable to study volcanoes: it provides important information on pre-eruption surface deformation, improving the understanding of volcanic processes and the ability to predict eruptions. As a downside, SAR measurements are influenced by artifacts such as atmospheric effects or bad topographic data. Correlation gives a measure of these interferences, quantifying the similarity of the phase of two SAR images. Different approaches exists to reduce these errors but the main concern remain the possibility to correlate images with different acquisition times: snow-covered or heavily-vegetated areas produce seasonal changes on the surface. Minimizing the time between passes partly limits decorrelation. Though, images with a short temporal baseline aren't always available and some artifacts affecting correlation are timeindependent. This work studies correlation of pairs of SAR images focusing on the influence of surface and climate conditions, especially snow coverage and temperature. Furthermore, the effects of the acquisition band on correlation are taken into account, comparing L-band and C-band images. All the chosen images cover most of the Yellowstone caldera (USA) over a span of 4 years, sampling all the seasons. Interferograms and correlation maps are generated. To isolate temporal decorrelation, pairs of images with the shortest baseline are chosen. Correlation maps are analyzed in relation to snow depth and temperature. Results obtained with ENVISAT and ERS satellites (C-band) are compared with the ones from ALOS (L-band). Results show a good performance during winter and a bad attitude towards wet snow (spring and fall). During summer both L-band and C-band maintain a good coherence with L-band performing better over vegetation.

  13. Examples L-Band Interference will be Presented and Discussed, as well as the Importance of L-Band Soil Moisture Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Examples of L-band interference will be presented and discussed, as well as the importance of L-band soil moisture observations, as part of this one-day GEOSS workshop XXXVII on "Data Quality and Radio Spectrum Allocation Impact on Earth Observations" will address the broad challenges of data quality and the impact of generating reliable information for decision makers who are Earth data users but not necessarily experts in the Earth observation field. GEO has initiated a data quality assessment task (DA-09-01a) and workshop users will review and debate the directions and challenges of this effort. Radio spectrum allocation is an element of data availability and data quality, and is also associated with a GEO task (AR-06-11). A recent U.S. National Research Council report on spectrum management will be addressed as part of the workshop. Key representatives from industry, academia, and government will provide invited talks on these and related issues that impact GEOSS implementation.

  14. Sentinel-3 OLCI Radiometric and Spectral Performance Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, L.; Blanot, L.; Lamquin, N.; Bruniquel, V.; Meskini, N.; Nieke, J.; Bouvet, M.; Fougnie, B.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the activities to be undertaken by ACRI-ST under ESA/ESTEC coordination for the assessment of OLCI Radiometric and Spectral Performances during the SENTINEL-3 Commissioning Phase. As an introduction, it briefly describes the instrument concept and available on-board calibration hardware, the context and main objective of the work. Insisting on the fact that radiometric calibration of OLCI is based on in-flight measurements, as was for MERIS, it then describes the methodology and tools to be used during Commissioning. Finally, as in-flight based radiometry implies the need for independent validation, it describes the corresponding methods and tools.

  15. Ellipsoidal geometry in asteroid thermal models - The standard radiometric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The major consequences of ellipsoidal geometry in an othewise standard radiometric model for asteroids are explored. It is shown that for small deviations from spherical shape a spherical model of the same projected area gives a reasonable aproximation to the thermal flux from an ellipsoidal body. It is suggested that large departures from spherical shape require that some correction be made for geometry. Systematic differences in the radii of asteroids derived radiometrically at 10 and 20 microns may result partly from nonspherical geometry. It is also suggested that extrapolations of the rotational variation of thermal flux from a nonspherical body based solely on the change in cross-sectional area are in error.

  16. Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Results are summarized and analyzed from several prelaunch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere used as part of the absolute radiometric calibration experiments for the protoflight TM sensor carried on the LANDSAT-4 satellite. The calibration procedure is presented and the radiometric sensitivity of the TM is assessed. The internal calibrator and dynamic range after calibration are considered. Tables show dynamic range after ground processing, spectral radiance to digital number and digital number to spectral radiance values for TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and for channel 4 of band 6.

  17. Radiometric comparison of the Landsat-5 TM and MSS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Alain; Charbonneau, Lise; Brochu, Richard; Murphy, Jennifer M.; Teillet, Philippe M.

    1987-04-01

    The radiometric accuracy of Landsat-5 TM data and MSS data is evaluated. The TM and MSS images employed in the study were recorded simultaneously over Montreal on August 4, 1984. The radiometric and geometric correction procedures of the Canada Center for Remote Sensing are described. TM and MSS normalized and corrected apparent reflectances computed for 11 different cover types (four water areas, three urban areas having different densities, and four vegetative surfaces) are compared. It is observed that the normalized and corrected apparent reflectances from TM and MSS correlate well; and the usefulness of the processing procedure is validated.

  18. High gain low noise L-band preamplifier with cascade double-pass structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Dongfang; Wang, Yanyong; Bao, Huanmin; Yang, Tianxin; Li, Shichen

    2005-06-01

    An optimized two-stage-cascade double-pass structure L-band preamplifier was proposed and experimentally studied to overcome the shortcomings of low gain coefficient and high noise figure of L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The fiber lengthes of 6.5 and 32.5 m, pump powers of 130 and 119 mW for the first and second stages respectively are used in the experiment. When input signal power is -30 dBm, the amplifier can provide gain above 38.84 dB in a wavelength range of 34 nm (1568---1602 nm), gain ripple less than 2.04 dB (40.88---38.84 dB), and noise figures lower than 5.29 dB with the lowest value of 3.95 dB at 1590 nm. Experimental and simulation results show that this low cost and high pump efficiency amplifier is suitable for the application as an L-band preamplifier in the broadband fiber communication system.

  19. Measurement and modeling of land mobile satellite propagation at UHF and L-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Hong, Ui-Seok

    1988-05-01

    A propagation experiment is described in which a stratospheric balloon served as a transmitter platform at 870 and 1502 MHz in simulation of a land mobile satellite. A vehicle followed the drifting balloon along roads of western Texas and New Mexico, collecting at L-band amplitude and phase, and at UHF amplitude information only for elevation angles between 25 and 45 deg. The data obtained have been analyzed and are presented along with results from modeling of multipath scattering and roadside tree attenuation. The signal, with variations caused by multipath propagation and tree shadowing, was reduced by 3 dB at L-band and 2 dB at UHF for one percent of all locations. A median ratio of 3.9 was found between peak-to-peak phase (degrees) and power (dB) fluctuations. The ratio between L-band and UHF dB attenuation averages varied from 1.3 to 1.0 at fade levels from 6 to 23 dB. Optical sky brightness was measured and used to predict fade distribution with great accuracy. A single-scatterer multipath model is introduced. It is used to duplicate some of the measured data and to show the dependence of power variations on satellite elevation angle. Using Fresnel diffraction theory, the attenuation caused by a model tree was calculated to be near 10 dB and the maximum fade was found to increase by the logarithm of the number of branches.

  20. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting additional threats recommended for a future security analysis conducted at a later stage in the system development process. The document discusses various security controls, including those suggested in the COCR Version 2.0.

  1. Estimating vegetation optical depth using L-band passive microwave airborne data in HiWATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Chai, Linna

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a relationship between polarization differences of soil emissivity at different incidence angles was constructed from a large quantity of simulated soil emissivity based on the Advanced Integrated Emission Model (AIEM) input parameters include: a frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band), incident angles varying from 1°to 60° at a 1° interval, a wide range of soil moisture content and land surface roughness parameters. Then, we used this relationship and the ω-τ zero-order radiation transfer model to develop an inversion method of low vegetation optical depth at L-band, this work were under the assumption that there was no significant polarization difference between the vegetation signals. Based on this inversion method of low vegetation optical depth, we used the land surface passive microwave brightness temperature of Heihe Watershed obtained by airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR) in 2012 Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) to retrieve the corn optical depth in the flight areas, then the results were compared with the measured corn LAI. Results show that the retrieved corn optical depths were consisted with the measured LAI of corn. It proved that the corn optical depth inversion method proposed in this study was feasible. Moreover, the method was promising to apply to the satellite observations.

  2. Design and Performance of a Miniature Radar L-Band Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWatters, D.; Price, D.; Edelstein, W.

    2004-01-01

    Radar electronics developed for past JPL space missions historically had been custom designed and as such, given budgetary, time, and risk constraints, had not been optimized for maximum flexibility or miniaturization. To help reduce cost and risk of future radar missions, a generic radar module was conceived. The module includes a 1.25-GHz (L-band) transceiver and incorporates miniature high-density packaging of integrated circuits in die/chip form. The technology challenges include overcoming the effect of miniaturization and high packaging density to achieve the performance, reliability, and environmental ruggedness required for space missions. The module was chosen to have representative (generic) functionality most likely required from an L-band radar. For very large aperture phased-array spaceborne radar missions, the large dimensions of the array suggest the benefit of distributing the radar electronics into the antenna array. For such applications, this technology is essential in order to bring down the cost, mass, and power of the radar electronics module replicated in each panel of the array. For smaller sized arrays, a single module can be combined with the central radar controller and still provide the bene.ts of configuration .exibility, low power, and low mass. We present the design approach for the radar electronics module and the test results for its radio frequency (RF) portion: a miniature, low-power, radiation-hard L-band transceiver.

  3. Joint Correction of Ionospheric Artifact and Orbital Error in L-band SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Liu, Z.; Lu, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) is a powerful technique to measure surface deformation. However, the accuracy of this technique for L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system is largely compromised by ionospheric path delays on the radar signals. The ionospheric effect causes severe ionospheric distortion called azimuth streaking in SAR backscattering intensity images as well as long wavelength phase distortion similar to orbital ramp error. Effective detection and correction of ionospheric phase distortion from L-band InSAR images are necessary to measure and interpret surface displacement accurately. Recently Jung et al.(2012) proposed an efficient method to correct ionospheric phase distortions using the multiple aperture interferometry (MAI) interferogram. In this study, we extend this technique to correct the ionosphere effect in InSAR measurements of interseismic deformation. We present case studies in southern California using L-band ALOS PALSAR data and in-situ GPS measurements and show that the long wavelength noise can be removed by joint correction of the ionospheric artifact and the orbital error. Displacement maps created from 20070715-20091020 ALOS PALSAR pair: (a-b) before and after joint correction of ionospheric artifact and orbital error, and (c) after correction from 2D-polynomial fit Displacement maps created from 20071015-20091020 ALOS PALSAR pair: (a-b) before and after joint correction of ionospheric artifact and orbital error, and (c) after correction from 2D-polynomial fit

  4. Measurement and modeling of land mobile satellite propagation at UHF and L-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Hong, Ui-Seok

    1988-01-01

    A propagation experiment is described in which a stratospheric balloon served as a transmitter platform at 870 and 1502 MHz in simulation of a land mobile satellite. A vehicle followed the drifting balloon along roads of western Texas and New Mexico, collecting at L-band amplitude and phase, and at UHF amplitude information only for elevation angles between 25 and 45 deg. The data obtained have been analyzed and are presented along with results from modeling of multipath scattering and roadside tree attenuation. The signal, with variations caused by multipath propagation and tree shadowing, was reduced by 3 dB at L-band and 2 dB at UHF for one percent of all locations. A median ratio of 3.9 was found between peak-to-peak phase (degrees) and power (dB) fluctuations. The ratio between L-band and UHF dB attenuation averages varied from 1.3 to 1.0 at fade levels from 6 to 23 dB. Optical sky brightness was measured and used to predict fade distribution with great accuracy. A single-scatterer multipath model is introduced. It is used to duplicate some of the measured data and to show the dependence of power variations on satellite elevation angle. Using Fresnel diffraction theory, the attenuation caused by a model tree was calculated to be near 10 dB and the maximum fade was found to increase by the logarithm of the number of branches.

  5. Evaluation of Spaceborne L-band Radiometer Measurements for Terrestrial Freeze/Thaw Retrievals in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, A.; Royer, A.; Derksen, C.; Brucker, L.; Langlois, A.; Mailon, A.; Kerr, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape freeze/thaw (FT) state has an important impact on the surface energy balance, carbon fluxes, and hydrologic processes; the timing of spring melt is linked to active layer dynamics in permafrost areas. L-band (1.4 GHz) microwave emission could allow the monitoring of surface state dynamics due to its sensitivity to the pronounced permittivity difference between frozen and thawed soil. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of both Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) L-band passive microwave measurements using a polarization ratio-based algorithm for landscape FT monitoring. Weekly L-band satellite observations are compared with a large set of reference data at 48 sites across Canada spanning three environments: tundra, boreal forest, and prairies. The reference data include in situ measurements of soil temperature (Tsoil) and air temperature (Tair), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) and snow cover area (SCA) products. Results show generally good agreement between Lband FT detection and the surface state estimated from four reference datasets. The best apparent accuracies for all seasons are obtained using Tair as the reference. Aquarius radiometer 2 (incidence angle of 39.6) data gives the best accuracies (90.8), while for SMOS the best results (87.8 of accuracy) are obtained at higher incidence angles (55- 60). The FT algorithm identifies both freeze onset and end with a delay of about one week in tundra and two weeks in forest and prairies, when compared to Tair. The analysis shows a stronger FT signal at tundra sites due to the typically clean transitions between consistently frozen and thawed conditions (and vice versa) and the absence of surface vegetation. Results in the prairies were poorer because of the influence of vegetation growth in summer (which decreases the polarization ratio) and the high frequency of ephemeral thaw events during winter. Freeze onset

  6. Effect of Forest Canopy on Remote Sensing Soil Moisture at L-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lang, R. H.; Jackson, T. J.; Haken, M.

    2005-01-01

    Global maps of soil moisture are needed to improve understanding and prediction of the global water and energy cycles. Accuracy requirements imply the use of lower frequencies (L-band) to achieve adequate penetration into the soil and to minimize attenuation by the vegetation canopy and effects of surface roughness. Success has been demonstrated over agricultural areas, but canopies with high biomass (e.g. forests) still present a challenge. Examples from recent measurements over forests with the L-band radiometer, 2D-STAR, and its predecessor, ESTAR, will be presented to illustrate the problem. ESTAR and 2D-STAR are aircraft-based synthetic aperture radiometers developed to help resolve both the engineering and algorithm issues associated with future remote sensing of soil moisture. ESTAR, which does imaging across track, was developed to demonstrate the viability of aperture synthesis for remote sensing. The instrument has participated several soil moisture experiments (e.g. at the Little Washita Watershed in 1992 and the Southern Great Plains experiments in 1997 and 1999). In addition, measurements have been made at a forest site near Waverly, VA which contains conifer forests with a variety of biomass. These data have demonstrated the success of retrieving soil moisture at L-band over agricultural areas and the response of passive observations at L-band to biomass over forests. 2D-STAR is a second generation instrument that does aperture synthesis in two dimensions (along track and cross track) and is dual polarized. This instrument has the potential to provide measurements at L-band that simulate the measurements that will be made by the two L-band sensors currently being developed for future remote sensing of soil moisture from space: Hydros (conical scan and real aperture) and SMOS (multiple incidence angle and synthetic aperture). 2D-STAR participated in the SMEX-03 soil moisture experiment, providing images from the NASA P-3 aircraft. Preliminary results

  7. Radiometric sources for the Los Alamos National Laboratory calibration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.; Bender, S.; Byrd, D.; Michaud, F.D.; Moore, S.; O`Brian, T.R.

    1994-07-01

    Los Alamos is developing a laboratory that will support state of the art calibration of moderate-aperture instrumentation (< 40 cm diameter) having high spatial and thermal resolution. Highly accurate calibration in the reflected solar and thermal infrared spectral regions are required for newly developed instrumentation. Radiometric calibration of the instrumentation requires well-characterized, extensive sources of radiation from 0.45 to 12 {mu}m. For wavelengths above 2.5 {mu}m, blackbodies having temperature control and radiometric uniformity to within 100 mK are being designed and will be radiometrically characterized at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). For the spectral range 0.45--2.5 {mu}m, a ``whitebody`` integrating sphere equipped with tungsten-halogen lamps and enclosed inside a vacuum shroud will be used; this vacuum-compatible extensive standard diffuse source utilizes well-known technology and will be characterized at NIST`s existing facilities. Characterization of instrumental contrast performance for wavelengths, {lambda}, beyond 2.5 {mu}m will utilize a recently designed absolute variable-contrast IR radiometric calibrator, and preliminary data indicate that this calibrator will perform satisfactorily. Conceptual design and status of these extensive broad-band sources and of a monochromatic source to be used for spectral calibrations will be presented.

  8. A Non-Radiative Transfer Approach to Radiometric Vicarious Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary; Stanley, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    TOA (top-of-atmosphere) radiance from high-spatial-resolution satellite imagery systems is important for a wide variety of research and applications. Many research initiatives require data with absolute radiometric accuracy better than a few percent. The conversion of satellite digital numbers to radiance depends on accurate radiometric calibration. A common method for determining and validating radiometric calibrations is to rely upon vicarious calibration approaches. Historically, vicarious calibration methods use radiative transfer codes with ground-based atmosphere and surface reflectance or radiance inputs for estimating TOA radiance values. These TOA radiance values are compared against the satellite digital numbers to determine the radiometric calibration. However, the radiative transfer codes used depend on many assumptions about the aerosol properties and the atmospheric point spread function. A measurement-based atmospheric radiance estimation approach for high-spatial-resolution, multispectral, visible/near-infrared sensors is presented that eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and many of the underlying assumptions. A comparison between the radiative transfer and non-radiative transfer approaches is made.

  9. Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of radiometric tarps

    SciTech Connect

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J

    2008-06-20

    Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of radiometric tarp samples used in the vicarious calibration of Earth remote sensing satellite instruments are presented in this paper. The results illustrate the BRDF dependence on the orientation of the tarps' weft and warp threads. The study was performed using the GSFC scatterometer at incident zenith angles of 0 deg., 10 deg., and 30 deg.; scatter zenith angles from 0 deg. to 60 deg.; and scatter azimuth angles of 0 deg., 45 deg., 90 deg., 135 deg., and 180 deg.. The wavelengths were 485 nm, 550 nm, 633 nm, and 800 nm. The tarp's weft and warp dependence on BRDF is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. The BRDF difference can be as high as 8% at 0 deg. incident angle and 12% at 30 deg. incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps are reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well-pronounced forward scatter. The provided BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps is an excellent reference for anyone interested in using tarps for radiometric calibrations. The results are NIST traceable.

  10. Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of radiometric tarps.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Georgi T; Butler, James J

    2008-06-20

    Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of radiometric tarp samples used in the vicarious calibration of Earth remote sensing satellite instruments are presented in this paper. The results illustrate the BRDF dependence on the orientation of the tarps' weft and warp threads. The study was performed using the GSFC scatterometer at incident zenith angles of 0 degrees, 10 degrees, and 30 degrees; scatter zenith angles from 0 degrees to 60 degrees; and scatter azimuth angles of 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, 135 degrees, and 180 degrees. The wavelengths were 485 nm, 550 nm, 633 nm, and 800 nm. The tarp's weft and warp dependence on BRDF is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. The BRDF difference can be as high as 8% at 0 degrees incident angle and 12% at 30 degrees incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps are reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well-pronounced forward scatter. The provided BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps is an excellent reference for anyone interested in using tarps for radiometric calibrations. The results are NIST traceable.

  11. Thematic Mapper, band 6, radiometric calibration and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, John R.

    1988-01-01

    A technique is presented for absolute radiometric calibration of longwave infrared satellite systems. The technique involves a combination underflight technique and radiometric models to estimate the radiance field reaching a satellite sensor. The radiance field can then be compared to the radiance observed at the satellite to evaluate the sensor's post launch calibration. The technique was applied to the Thematic Mapper band 6 sensor on board Landsat 5. Results are presented for three underflight dates. These results indicate that the TM band 6 sensor can be calibrated to yield an expected error (1 standard deviation) in surface temperature of 0.9K. The radiometric propagation models used to achieve these results are presented along with estimates of potential sensor calibration errors. The final radiometric propagation models developed can be applied independent of underflight requirements and represent a general approach to computation of kinetic surface temperatures. The parameters included in the analysis encompass internal calibration, sensor spectral response, atmospheric transmission, upwelled radiance, downwelled radiance, and sample emissivity.

  12. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Alireza G; Olsen, Michael J; Parrish, Christopher E; Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-11-06

    In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems also record "intensity", loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of "normalization", "correction", or "calibration" techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration.

  13. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Alireza G; Olsen, Michael J; Parrish, Christopher E; Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems also record "intensity", loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of "normalization", "correction", or "calibration" techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration. PMID:26561813

  14. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Alireza G.; Olsen, Michael J.; Parrish, Christopher E.; Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems also record “intensity”, loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of “normalization”, “correction”, or “calibration” techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration. PMID:26561813

  15. Radiometric Calibration of Earth-Observing Sensors Using the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Anderson, N. J.; Thome, K. J.; Biggar, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) of the College of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona uses the reflectance-based approach to perform the absolute radiometric calibration of such sensors as Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI, Terra and Aqua MODIS, ASTER, RapidEye, and others. The reflectance-based approach requires that personnel be present at a test site during the sensor overpass, so the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) was developed in order to capture data during every possible overpass, which assists in the temporal trending of the radiometric calibration of earth-observing sensors. The number of earth-observing sensors is rapidly increasing in recent years, and RadCaTS provides the ability to radiometrically calibrate them without the requirement of frequent field campaigns. The 2013 launch of Landsat 8 provides a unique opportunity for RadCaTS in that it is being used to supplement the in situ measurements by RSG ground personnel, and it will be used throughout the lifetime of the Landsat 8 mission. This allows more data to be collected throughout the year, and it also allows the accuracy and uncertainty of RadCaTS to be analyzed. The current top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance uncertainty of the reflectance-based approach is ~2.6% in the mid-visible region of the spectrum, and current work indicates that the uncertainty of RadCaTS in TOA spectral radiance is ~3-4%. This work presents the radiometric calibration results of RadCaTS for a variety of sensors such as Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI, Terra and Aqua MODIS, MISR, ASTER, and Suomi NPP VIIRS.

  16. Correlations between Strong Range Spread-F and GPS L-Band Scintillations Observed in Hainan in 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-Jun; Shi, Jian-Kui; Shang, She-Ping; Wang, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Data from the DPS-4 digisonde and the GPS L-band ionospheric scintillation monitor are employed to study the correlations between strong range spread-F (SSF) and GPS L-band scintillations observed in the ionosphere over Hainan Island, China (19.5°N, 109.1°E geogr., dip lat. 9°N) in 2004. The SSF in the ionogram is different from the general range spread-F because it extends in frequency well beyond FoF2 and makes FoF2 difficult to be determined. The observations show that the SSF phenomenon is frequently accompanied by the occurrence of GPS L-band scintillations. The SSF and GPS L-band scintillations occur frequently in the equinoctial months (March, April, September, and October), but rarely in the winter (January, February, November, and December) and summer (May-August) especially, occurrence variations of the SSF and GPS L-band scintillations nearly have a same trend. The SSF and scintillations may be associated with the occurrence of topside plasma bubbles and could be explained by the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  17. Ocean Surface Emissivity at L-band (1.4 GHz): The Dependence on Salinity and Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Lang, R. H.; Wentz, F. J.; Meissner, T.

    2012-12-01

    A characterization of the emissivity of sea water at L-band is important for the remote sensing of sea surface salinity. Measurements of salinity are currently being made in the radio astronomy band at 1.413 GHz by ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and NASA's Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. The goal of both missions is accuracy on the order of 0.2 psu. This requires accurate knowledge of the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature and also the effect of waves (roughness). The former determines the emissivity of an ideal (i.e. flat) surface and the later is the major source of error from predictions based on a flat surface. These two aspects of the problem of characterizing the emissivity are being addressed in the context of the Aquarius mission. First, laboratory measurements are being made of the dielectric constant of sea water. This is being done at the George Washington University using a resonant cavity. In this technique, sea water of known salinity and temperature is fed into the cavity along its axis through a narrow tube. The sea water changes the resonant frequency and Q of the cavity which, if the sample is small enough, can be related to the dielectric constant of the sample. An extensive set of measurements have been conducted at 1.413 GHz to develop a model for the real and imaginary part of the dielectric constant as a function of salinity and temperature. The results are compared to the predictions of models based on parameterization of the Debye resonance of the water molecule. The models and measurements are close; however, the differences are significant for remote sensing of salinity. This is especially true at low temperatures where the sensitivity to salinity is lowest. Second, observations from Aquarius are being used to develop a model for the effect of wind-driven roughness (waves) on the emissivity in the open ocean. This is done by comparing the measured

  18. SMOS satellite L-band radiometer: A new capability for ocean surface remote sensing in hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reul, Nicolas; Tenerelli, Joseph; Chapron, Bertrand; Vandemark, Doug; Quilfen, Yves; Kerr, Yann

    2012-02-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission currently provides multiangular L-band (1.4 GHz) brightness temperature images of the Earth. Because upwelling radiation at 1.4 GHz is significantly less affected by rain and atmospheric effects than at higher microwave frequencies, these new SMOS measurements offer unique opportunities to complement existing ocean satellite high wind observations that are often contaminated by heavy rain and clouds. To illustrate this new capability, we present SMOS data over hurricane Igor, a tropical storm that developed to a Saffir-Simpson category 4 hurricane from 11 to 19 September 2010. Thanks to its large spatial swath and frequent revisit time, SMOS observations intercepted the hurricane 9 times during this period. Without correcting for rain effects, L-band wind-induced ocean surface brightness temperatures (TB) were co-located and compared to H*Wind analysis. We find the L-band ocean emissivity dependence with wind speed appears less sensitive to roughness and foam changes than at the higher C-band microwave frequencies. The first Stokes parameter on a ˜50 km spatial scale nevertheless increases quasi-linearly with increasing surface wind speed at a rate of 0.3 K/m s-1 and 0.7 K/m s-1 below and above the hurricane-force wind speed threshold (˜32 m s-1), respectively. Surface wind speeds estimated from SMOS brightness temperature images agree well with the observed and modeled surface wind speed features. In particular, the evolution of the maximum surface wind speed and the radii of 34, 50 and 64 knots surface wind speeds are consistent with GFDL hurricane model solutions and H*Wind analyses. The SMOS sensor is thus closer to a true all-weather satellite ocean wind sensor with the capability to provide quantitative and complementary surface wind information of interest for operational Hurricane intensity forecasts.

  19. Interpretation key for SAR /L-band/ imagery of sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    An interpretation key, similar to those previously developed for use with aerial photography and other remotely sensed data, was developed for L-band (25 cm) radar imagery collected over the Arctic Ocean. Data from April, August, and October were considered. The procedure for developing a valid interpretation key for operation use involves substituting time for space. Open water situations (polynyas, leads, flaws), examples of unconsolidated ice (frazil, slush, brash), thin ice (nilas), and annual ice (first year, multi-year ice) situations are examined. It is suggested that the interpretation key will enhance the use of side looking airborne radar data in the qualitative photo interpretation mode.

  20. Progress in L-Band Power Distribution System R&D at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Nantista, Christopher; Adolphsen, Chris; Wang, Faya; /SLAC

    2008-10-20

    We report on the L-band RF power distribution system (PDS) developed at SLAC for Fermilab's NML superconducting test accelerator facility. The makeup of the system, which allows tailoring of the power distribution to cavities by pairs, is briefly described. Cold test measurements of the system and the results of high power processing are presented. We also investigate the feasibility of eliminating the expensive, lossy circulators from the PDS by pair-feeding cavities through custom 3-dB hybrids. A computational model is used to simulate the impact on cavity field stability due to the reduced cavity-to-cavity isolation.

  1. SRRC/ANL high current l-band single cell photocathode rf gun.

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C. H.

    1998-07-16

    A high current L-band photocathode rf gun is under development at SRRC (Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Taiwan) in collaboration with ANL (Argonne National Laboratory, USA). The goal is to produce up to 100 nC charge with the surface field gradient of over 90 MV/m at the center of the photocathode. In this report, they present the detailed design and initial test results. If successful, this gun will be used as the future AWA (Argonne Wakefield Accelerator)[1] high current gun.

  2. Estimating Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Using Combined Passive and Active L-Band Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2012-01-01

    Several L-band microwave radiometer and radar missions have been, or will be, operating in space for land and ocean observations. These include the NASA Aquarius mission and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, both of which use combined passive/ active L-band instruments. Aquarius s passive/active L-band microwave sensor has been designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. SMAP s primary objectives are for soil moisture and freeze/thaw detection, but it will operate continuously over the ocean, and hence will have significant potential for ocean surface research. In this innovation, an algorithm has been developed to retrieve simultaneously ocean surface salinity and wind from combined passive/active L-band microwave observations of sea surfaces. The algorithm takes advantage of the differing response of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter to salinity, wind speed, and direction, thus minimizing the least squares error (LSE) measure, which signifies the difference between measurements and model functions of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter. The algorithm uses the conjugate gradient method to search for the local minima of the LSE. Three LSE measures with different measurement combinations have been tested. The first LSE measure uses passive microwave data only with retrieval errors reaching 1 to 2 psu (practical salinity units) for salinity, and 1 to 2 m/s for wind speed. The second LSE measure uses both passive and active microwave data for vertical and horizontal polarizations. The addition of active microwave data significantly improves the retrieval accuracy by about a factor of five. To mitigate the impact of Faraday rotation on satellite observations, the third LSE measure uses measurement combinations invariant under the Faraday rotation. For Aquarius, the expected RMS SSS (sea surface salinity) error will be less than about 0.2 psu for low winds, and increases to 0.3 psu at 25 m/s wind speed

  3. L-Band System Engineering - Concepts of Use, Systems Performance Requirements, and Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, Stephen; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-band and L-band Communications Standard Development. Task 7 was motivated by the five year technology assessment performed for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) under the joint FAA-EUROCONTROL cooperative research Action Plan (AP-17), also known as the Future Communications Study (FCS). It was based on direction provided by the FAA project-level agreement (PLA FY09_G1M.02-02v1) for "New ATM Requirements-Future Communications." Task 7 was separated into two distinct subtasks, each aligned with specific work elements and deliverable items. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed development, and tests/demonstrations to establish operational capability for what is now referred to as the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2, which is the subject of this report, focused on preliminary systems engineering and support of joint FAA/EUROCONTROL development and evaluation of a future L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) air/ground (A/G) communication system known as the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS), which was defined during the FCS. The proposed L-DACS will be capable of providing ATM services in continental airspace in the 2020+ timeframe. Subtask 7-2 was performed in two phases. Phase I featured development of Concepts of Use, high level functional analyses, performance of initial L-band system safety and security risk assessments, and development of high level requirements and architectures. It also included the aforementioned support of joint L-DACS development and evaluation, including inputs to L-DACS design specifications. Phase II provided a refinement of the systems engineering activities performed during Phase I, along

  4. Processing and Breakdown Localization Rresults For an L-Band Standing-Wave Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Faya; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

    2009-08-03

    An L-band (1.3 GHz), normal-conducting, 5-cell, standing-wave cavity that was built as a prototype capture accelerator for the ILC is being high-power processed at SLAC. The goal is to demonstrate stable operation at 15 MV/m with 1 msec, 5 Hz pulses and the cavity immersed in a 0.5 Telsa solenoidal magnetic field. This paper summarizes the performance that was ultimately achieved and describes a novel analysis of the modal content of the stored energy in the cavity after a breakdown to determine on which iris it occurred.

  5. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) L-Band Microwave Radiometer Post-Launch Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Misra, Sidharth; Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Hudson, Derek; Le Vine, David M.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Yueh, Simon H.; Meissner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP microwave radiometer is a fully-polarimetric L-band radiometer flown on the SMAP satellite in a 6 AM/ 6 PM sun-synchronous orbit at 685 km altitude. Since April, 2015, the radiometer is under calibration and validation to assess the quality of the radiometer L1B data product. Calibration methods including the SMAP L1B TA2TB (from Antenna Temperature (TA) to the Earth's surface Brightness Temperature (TB)) algorithm and TA forward models are outlined, and validation approaches to calibration stability/quality are described in this paper including future work. Results show that the current radiometer L1B data satisfies its requirements.

  6. Propagation effects by roadside trees measured at UHF and L-band for mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1988-01-01

    Propagation field tests were performed in Central Maryland and involved a helicopter and mobile van as the source and receiving platforms, respectively. Tests were implemented at both UHF (870 MHz) and L-band (1.5 GHz) during a period in which the trees were in full blossom and contained maximum moisture. Cumulative fade distributions were determined from the data for various fixed elevation angles, side of the road driving, and road types for both worst and best case path geometries and for overall average road conditions.

  7. Landscape freeze/thaw retrievals from soil moisture active passive (SMAP) L-band radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Derksen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission produces a daily landscape freeze/thaw product (L3_FT_A) which provides categorical (frozen, thawed, or [inverse] transitional) classification of the surface state (for land areas north of 45°N) derived from ascending and descending orbits of SMAP high-resolution L-band radar measurements. The FT retrievals are output to 3 km resolution polar and global grids with temporal revisit of 2 days or better north of ~55°N and 3 days or better north of 45°N. The algorithm classifies the land surface freeze/thaw state based on the time series of L-band radar backscatter compared to frozen and thawed reference states. This presentation will describe pre-launch L3_FT_A algorithm implementation and evaluation using NASA/SAC-D Aquarius L-band radar data, and provide an update on the current status of the SMAP L3_FT_A product. In advance of SMAP measurements, the L3_FT_A algorithm was configured and evaluated using Aquarius measurements. While the temporal (weekly) and spatial (~100 km) resolution is much coarser than SMAP, Aquarius provides L-band radar measurements at an incidence angle (normalized to 40 degrees) which is close to SMAP. Evaluation of FT retrievals derived using both Aquarius freeze/thaw references and backscatter time series as inputs identified good agreement during the fall freeze-up period with FT flag agreement (Aquarius versus in situ) exceeding the 80% SMAP mission requirement when summarized on a monthly basis. Disagreement was greater during the spring thaw transition due in part to uncertainty in characterizing the surface state from in situ measurements and backscatter sensitivity to the onset of snow melt, independent of the soil temperature beneath the snowpack. Initial challenges for SMAP derived FT retrievals include the scale difference between the Aquarius references (~100 km) and the SMAP measurements (3 km) which is particularly problematic in areas of complex topography and/or mixed

  8. A Dual-polarized Microstrip Subarray Antenna for an Inflatable L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zawadzki, Mark; Huang, John

    1999-01-01

    Inflatable technology has been identified as a potential solution to the problem of achieving small mass, high packaging efficiency, and reliable deployment for future NASA spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) antennas. Presently, there exists a requirement for a dual-polarized L-band SAR antenna with an aperture size of 10m x 3m, a center frequency of 1.25GHz, a bandwidth of 80MHz, electronic beam scanning, and a mass of less than 100kg. The work presented below is part of the ongoing effort to develop such an inflatable antenna array.

  9. L-Band Measurement of Nova Del 2013 Consistent with Presence of Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, A. C.; Carlon, R. L.; Corgan, D. T.; Dykhoff, D. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Shenoy, D. P.

    2013-09-01

    An L-band measurement of Nova Del 2013 on 29.17 September 2013 UT using an As:Si bolometer mounted on the 0.76-m infrared telescope of the University of Minnesota's O'Brien Observatory (Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota, USA) yielded a magnitude of L = +2.6 +/- 0.3. Vega (alpha Lyrae) was used as the standard star. This flux level is consistent with a small amount of dust having formed recently as reported in ATEL 5431.

  10. Development of NASA's Next Generation L-Band Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, Seung-Kuk; Ranson, K. Jon; Marrero, Victor; Yeary, Mark

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Next generation Digital Beamforming SAR (DBSAR-2) is a state-of-the-art airborne L-band radar developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The instrument builds upon the advanced architectures in NASA's DBSAR-1 and EcoSAR instruments. The new instrument employs a 16-channel radar architecture characterized by multi-mode operation, software defined waveform generation, digital beamforming, and configurable radar parameters. The instrument has been design to support several disciplines in Earth and Planetary sciences. The instrument was recently completed, and tested and calibrated in a anechoic chamber.

  11. Issues in Absolute Spectral Radiometric Calibration: Intercomparison of Eight Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Kindel, Bruce; Pilewskie, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The application of atmospheric models to AVIRIS and other spectral imaging data to derive surface reflectance requires that the sensor output be calibrated to absolute radiance. Uncertainties in absolute calibration are to be expected, and claims of 92% accuracy have been published. Measurements of accurate surface albedos and cloud absorption to be used in radiative balance calculations depend critically on knowing the absolute spectral-radiometric response of the sensor. The Earth Observing System project is implementing a rigorous program of absolute radiometric calibration for all optical sensors. Since a number of imaging instruments that provide output in terms of absolute radiance are calibrated at different sites, it is important to determine the errors that can be expected among calibration sites. Another question exists about the errors in the absolute knowledge of the exoatmospheric spectral solar irradiance.

  12. Radiometric calibration procedures for a wideband infrared scene projector (WISP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, David S.; Marlow, Steven A.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Kircher, James R.

    1999-07-01

    The Wideband Infrared Scene Projector (WISP) has been undergoing development for the Kinetic-Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator facility at Eglin AFB, Florida. In order to perform realistic tests of an infrared seeker, the radiometric output of the WISP system must produce the same response in the seeker as the real scene. In order to ensure this radiometric realism, calibration procedures must be established and followed. This paper describes calibration procedures that have been used in recent tests. The procedures require knowledge of the camera spectral response in the seeker under test. The camera is set up to operate over the desired range of observable radiances. The camera is then nonuniformity corrected (NUCed) and calibrated with an extended blackbody. The camera drift rates are characterized, and as necessary, the camera is reNUCed and recalibrated. The camera is then set up to observe the WISP system, and calibration measurements are made of the camera/WISP system.

  13. The OLI Radiometric Scale Realization Round Robin Measurement Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutlip, Hansford; Cole,Jerold; Johnson, B. Carol; Maxwell, Stephen; Markham, Brian; Ong, Lawrence; Hom, Milton; Biggar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    A round robin radiometric scale realization was performed at the Ball Aerospace Radiometric Calibration Laboratory in January/February 2011 in support of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) Program. Participants included Ball Aerospace, NIST, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the University of Arizona. The eight day campaign included multiple observations of three integrating sphere sources by nine radiometers. The objective of the campaign was to validate the radiance calibration uncertainty ascribed to the integrating sphere used to calibrate the OLI instrument. The instrument level calibration source uncertainty was validated by quatnifying: (1) the long term stability of the NIST calibrated radiance artifact, (2) the responsivity scale of the Ball Aerospace transfer radiometer and (3) the operational characteristics of the large integrating sphere.

  14. Radiometric and Spatial Characterization of High-Spatial Resolution Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Zanoni, Vicki (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The development and improvement of commercial hyperspatial sensors in recent years has increased the breadth of information that can be retrieved from spaceborne and airborne imagery. NASA, through it's Scientific Data Purchases, has successfully provided such data sets to its user community. A key element to the usefulness of these data are an understanding of the radiometric and spatial response quality of the imagery. This proposal seeks funding to examine the absolute radiometric calibration of the Ikonos sensor operated by Space Imaging and the recently-launched Quickbird sensor from DigitalGlobe. In addition, we propose to evaluate the spatial response of the two sensors. The proposed methods rely on well-understood, ground-based targets that have been used by the University of Arizona for more than a decade.

  15. SLC-off Landsat-7 ETM+ reflective band radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.; Thome, K.J.; Barker, J.L.; Scaramuzza, P.L.; Helder, D.L.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Since May 31, 2003, when the scan line corrector (SLC) on the Landsat-7 ETM+ failed, the primary foci of Landsat-7 ETM+ analyses have been on understanding and attempting to fix the problem and later on developing composited products to mitigate the problem. In the meantime, the Image Assessment System personnel and vicarious calibration teams have continued to monitor the radiometric performance of the ETM+ reflective bands. The SLC failure produced no measurable change in the radiometric calibration of the ETM+ bands. No trends in the calibration are definitively present over the mission lifetime, and, if present, are less than 0.5% per year. Detector 12 in Band 7 dropped about 0.5% in response relative to the rest of the detectors in the band in May 2004 and recovered back to within 0.1% of its initial relative gain in October 2004.

  16. Thematic Mapper radiometric correction research and development results and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, A.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper has the objective to discuss three modifications made to the Thematic Mapper Image Processing System (TIPS) radiometric correction process during the R&D period, before turnover of the Landsat Ground Segment to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The R&D period was to enhance the correction performance of the ground processing of Thematic Mapper (TM) data, taking into account the correction of sensor anomalies. In the context of a brief review of the major steps in TM radiometric correction, a description is provided of the approaches employed to overcome the effects of the Landsat-5 light leak and the saturated calibration lamp states. Attention is also given to scene content correction limitations, and a performance bench mark.

  17. Thematic Mapper radiometric correction research and development results and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.

    1985-09-01

    The present paper has the objective to discuss three modifications made to the Thematic Mapper Image Processing System (TIPS) radiometric correction process during the R&D period, before turnover of the Landsat Ground Segment to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The R&D period was to enhance the correction performance of the ground processing of Thematic Mapper (TM) data, taking into account the correction of sensor anomalies. In the context of a brief review of the major steps in TM radiometric correction, a description is provided of the approaches employed to overcome the effects of the Landsat-5 light leak and the saturated calibration lamp states. Attention is also given to scene content correction limitations, and a performance bench mark.

  18. Validation of Landsat 7 ETM+ band 6 radiometric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palluconi, Frank; Hook, Simon; Abtahi, Ali; Alley, Ron

    2005-08-01

    Since shortly after launch the radiometric performance of band 6 of the ETM+ instrument on Landsat 7 has been evaluated using vicarious calibration techniques for both land and water targets. This evaluation indicates the radiometric performance of band 6 has been both highly stable and accurate. Over a range corresponding to a factor of two in radiance (5 to 55 C in kinetic temperature terms) the difference between the in-situ derived radiance and the image derived radiance is on average 0.5% or less. Water targets are the easiest to use but are limited to the temperature range from 0 to about 32 C. Land targets can reach 55 C or more but are far less spatially homogeneous than water targets with respect to both local surface temperature and spectral emissivity. The techniques used and the results are described.

  19. Characterization of radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

    1984-01-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch internal calibrator, image, and background data is to characterize the radiometric performance of the LANDSAT-4 TM and to recommend improved procedures for radiometric calibration. All but two channels (band 2, channel 4; band 5, channel 3) behave normally. Gain changes relative to a postlaunch reference for channels within a band vary within 0.5 percent as a group. Instrument gain for channels in the cold focal plane oscillates. Noise in background and image data ranges from 0.5 to 1.7 counts. Average differences in forward and reverse image data indicate a need for separate calibration processing of forward and reverse scans. Precision is improved by increasing the pulse integration width from 31 to 41 minor frames, depending on the band.

  20. The 90 GHz radiometric imaging. [for terrain analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. E.; White, J. D.; Wilson, W. J.; Mori, T. T.; Hollinger, J. P.; Troy, B. E.; Kenney, J. E.; Mcgoogan, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    A 90-GHz (3 mm wavelength) radiometer with a noise output fluctuation of 0.22 K (RMS), with a scanning antenna beam mirror, and the data processing system are described. Real-time radiometric imaging of terrain and man-made objects are shown. Flying at an altitude of 1500 ft a radiometer antenna with a 2 degrees halfpower beamwidth can distinguish landforms, waterways, roads, runways, bridges, ships at sea and their wakes, aircraft on runways, and athletic fields. A flight taken at an altitude of 3000 ft with approximately 2000 ft of clouds below the radiometer demonstrates the ability to distinguish bridges, rivers, marshland and other landforms even though the clouds are optically opaque. The radiometric images of a few representative scenes along with photographs of the corresponding scenes are presented to demonstrate the resolution of the imager system.

  1. BOREAS TE-18, 60-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 2 1 Jun-1995. The 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18-Sep-1994 in the SSA and 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (1991). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, the full-resolution (30-m) images may not be publicly distributed. However, this spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images may be openly distributed and is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. After the radiometric rectification processing, the original data were degraded to a 60-m pixel size from the original 30-m pixel size by averaging the data over a 2- by 2-pixel window. The data are stored in binary image-format files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  2. High speed radiometric measurements of IED detonation fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spidell, Matthew T.; Gordon, J. Motos; Pitz, Jeremey; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-04-01

    Continuum emission is predominant in fireball spectral phenomena and in some demonstrated cases, fine detail in the temporal evolution of infrared spectral emissions can be used to estimate size and chemical composition of the device. Recent work indicates that a few narrow radiometric bands may reveal forensic information needed for the explosive discrimination and classification problem, representing an essential step in moving from "laboratory" measurements to a rugged, fieldable system. To explore phenomena not observable in previous experiments, a high speed (10μs resolution) radiometer with four channels spanning the infrared spectrum observed the detonation of nine home made explosive (HME) devices in the < 100lb class. Radiometric measurements indicate that the detonation fireball is well approximated as a single temperature blackbody at early time (0 < t <~ 3ms). The effective radius obtained from absolute intensity indicates fireball growth at supersonic velocity during this time. Peak fireball temperatures during this initial detonation range between 3000.3500K. The initial temperature decay with time (t <~ 10ms) can be described by a simple phenomenological model based on radiative cooling. After this rapid decay, temperature exhibits a small, steady increase with time (10 <~ t <~ 50ms) and peaking somewhere between 1000.1500K-likely the result of post-detonation combustion-before subsequent cooling back to ambient conditions . Radius derived from radiometric measurements can be described well (R2 > 0.98) using blast model functional forms, suggesting that energy release could be estimated from single-pixel radiometric detectors. Comparison of radiometer-derived fireball size with FLIR infrared imagery indicate the Planckian intensity size estimates are about a factor of two smaller than the physical extent of the fireball.

  3. Changes in the Radiometric Sensitivity of SeaWiFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Patt, Frederick S.

    1998-01-01

    We report on the lunar and solar measurements used to determine the changes in the radiometric sensitivity of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Radiometric sensitivity is defined as the output from the instrument (or from one of the instrument bands) per unit spectral radiance at the instrument's input aperture. Knowledge of the long-term repeatability of the SeaWiFS measurements is crucial to maintaining the quality of the ocean scenes derived from measurements by the instrument. For SeaWiFS bands 1 through 6 (412 nm through 670 rim), the change in radiometric sensitivity is less than 0.2% for the period from November 1997 through November 1998. For band 7 (765 nm), the change is about 1.5%, and for band 8 (865 nm) about 5%. The rates of change of bands 7 and 8, which were linear with time for the first eight months of lunar measurements, are now slowing. The scatter in the data points about the trend lines in this analysis is less than 0.3% for all eight SeaWiFS bands. These results are based on monthly measurements of the moon. Daily solar measurements using an onboard diffuser show that the radiometric sensitivities of the SeaWiFS bands have changed smoothly during the time intervals between lunar measurements. Since SeaWiFS measurements have continued past November 1998, the results presented here are considered as a snapshot of the instrument performance as of that date.

  4. LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. (Editor); Barker, J. (Editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

  5. Radiometrically accurate thermal imaging in the Landsat program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansing, Jack C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Methods of calibrating Landsat TM thermal IR data have been developed so that the residual error is reduced to 0.9 K (1 standard deviation). Methods for verifying the radiometric performance of TM on orbit and ground calibration methods are discussed. The preliminary design of the enhanced TM for Landsat-6 is considered. A technique for accurately reducing raw data from the Landsat-5 thermal band is described in detail.

  6. User's guide to the Radiometric Age Data Bank (RADB)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, Robert Eugene; Cole, James C.; Marvin, Richard F.

    1976-01-01

    The Radiometric Age Data Bank (RADB) has been established by the U.S. Geological Survey, as a means for collecting and organizing the estimated 100,000 radiometric ages presently published for the United States. RADB has been constructed such that a complete sample description (location, rock type, etc.), literature citation, and extensive analytical data are linked to form an independent record for each sample reported in a published work. Analytical data pertinent to the potassium-argon, rubidium-strontium, uranium-thorium-lead, lead-alpha, and fission-track methods can be accommodated, singly or in combinations, for each record. Data processing is achieved using the GIPSY program (University of Oklahoma) which maintains the data file and builds, updates, searches, and prints the records using simple yet versatile command statements. Searching and selecting records is accomplished by specifying the presence, absence, or (numeric or alphabetic) value of any element of information in the data bank, and these specifications can be logically linked to develop sophisticated searching strategies. Output is available in the form of complete data records, abbreviated tests, or columnar tabulations. Samples of data-reporting forms, GIPSY command statements, output formats, and data records are presented to illustrate the comprehensive nature and versatility of the Radiometric Age Data Bank.

  7. Preliminary radiometric calibration assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouvet, M.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Saunier, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities carried out in the frame of the data quality activities of the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) sensor onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). Assessment of the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 multi-spectral imager is achieved via three intercomparisons to currently flying sensors over the Libyan desert, during the first year of operation. AU three methodologies indicate a slight underestimation of AVNIR-2 in band 1 by 4 to 7% with respect to other sensors radiometric scale. Band 2 does not show any obvious bias. Results for band 3 are affected by saturation due to inappropriate gain setting. Two methodologies indicate no significant bias in band 4. Preliminary results indicate possible degradations of the AVNIR-2 channels, which, when modeled as an exponentially decreasing functions, have time constants of respectively 13.2 %.year-1, 8.8%.year-1 and 0.1%.year-1 in band 1, 2 and 4 (with respect to the radiometric scale of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, MERIS). Longer time series of AVNIR-2 data are needed to draw final conclusions. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  8. [Spectral radiometric calibration research of Quick Bird digital image].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Kun; Chen, Chun; Xing, Fu; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Zhao, Yun-Sheng

    2008-03-01

    The present article uses the basic operation of the digital remote image radiometric calibration of the Quickbird with high distinguishing rate, including the physical attribute and the mathematical basement of digital images, the annotation as well as the format of image data. The study makes use of information of spectral radiance from the ground-atmosphere system, which is recorded by the digital remote image of Quick Bird in Honghe area. This dissertation offered the calculation means of radiometric calibration, and changed the pixel digital number into band-integrated radiance. Then, the spectral radiance was calculated. After the radiometric calibration, the Quick Bird image showed the quantitative information of spectral feature from various ground items. Only through the calibration can the Quick Bird image be quantitatively compared and analyzed with other remote sensor images. Thus, the inversion image has the value of application. The significance consists in offering important basic condition for the image amalgamation and better disposal of the special inforation pick-up. This effort also offered spectral information of the ground items for the inversion of the remote image. Therefore, the authors can combine the research of the spectral character of ground items with the establishment of the remote application model in order to quantitatively analyze the ground items.

  9. [Radiometric calibration of LCTF-based multispectral area CCD camera].

    PubMed

    Du, Li-Li; Yi, Wei-Ning; Zhang, Dong-Ying; Huang, Hong-Lian; Qiao, Yan-Li; Zhang, Xie

    2011-01-01

    Multispectral area CCD camera based on liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) is a new spectral imaging system, which could record image of one wavelength on the area CCD by utilizing electrically controlled birefringence of liquid-crystal and interference principle of polarized light. Because of the special working principle of LCTF and frame transfer area CCD, the existing radiometric calibration method can not meet the precision need of remote sensing application if it is used for LCTF-camera. An improved radiometric calibration method is proposed, in which the camera performance test and calibration experiment are carried out relying on the devices of integrating sphere and standard detector, and the absolute calibration coefficient is calculated via correcting frame transfer smear and improving data process algorithm. Then the validity of the laboratory calibration coefficient is checked by a field validation experiment. Experimental result indicates that the calibration coefficient is valid, and the radiation information on the ground could be accurately inverted from the calibrated image data. With the resolution of radiometric calibration of LCTF-camera and the improvement of calibration precision, the application field of the image data acquired by the camera would be extended effectively.

  10. Laboratory-Based BRDF Calibration of Radiometric Tarps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study provides the remote sensing community with important high accuracy laboratory-based BRDF calibration of radiometric tarps. The results illustrate the dependence of tarps' weft and warp threads orientation on BRDF. The study was done at incident angles of 0deg, 10deg, and 30deg; scatter zenith angles from 0deg to 60deg, and scatter azimuth angles of 0deg, 45deg, 90deg, 135deg, and 180deg. The wavelengths were 485nm, 550nm, 633nm and 800nm. The dependence is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. It can be as high as 8% at 0deg incident angle and 2% at 30deg incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps is reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well pronounced forward scatter. The BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps can be successfully extended to other structured surface fabric samples. The results are NIST traceable.

  11. Radiometric cross-calibration of KOMPSAT-3 with Landsat-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dongyoon; Jin, Cheonggil; Ahn, Hoyong; Choi, Chuluong

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a radiometric cross calibration of KOMPSAT-3 AEISS based on Landsat-8 OLI. Cross calibration between the two sensors using simultaneous image pairs, acquired during an underfly event over the Libya 4 pseudo invariant calibration site (PICS) site. The spectral profile of the target comes from the near-simultaneous EO-1 Hyperion data over these sites for apply Spectral Band Adjustment Factor (SBAF). The results indicate that the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance measurements for KOMPSAT-3 agree with Landsat-8 to within 5% after the application of SBAF. To validate radiometric coefficient, comparison TOA reflectance executed in north Virginia, USA. The difference in TOA reflectance was calculated to within a maximum ±1.55%. There was a huge improvement when the standard deviation altered from 0.1 to 0.01, when applying the SBAF. The result of radiometric coefficient presented here appear to be a good standard for maintaining the optical quality of the KOMPSAT-3, for which prelaunch, onboard, and vicarious calibration data are lacking.

  12. A Preliminary Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C.; Fusco, L.; Mehl, W.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA raw (BT) product, the radiometrically corrected (AT) product, and the radiometrically and geometrically corrected (PT) product of a TM scene were analyzed examine the frequency distribution of the digital data; the statistical correlation between the bands; and the variability between the detectors within a band. The analyses were performed on a series of image subsets from the full scence. Results are presented from one 1024 c 1024 pixel subset of Realfoot Lake, Tennessee which displayed a representative range of ground conditions and cover types occurring within the full frame image. From this cursory examination of one of the first seven channel TM data sets, it would appear that the radiometric performance of the system is most satisfactory and largely meets pre-launch specifications. Problems were noted with Band 5 Detector 3 and Band 2 Detector 4. Differences were observed between forward and reverse scan detector responses both for the BT and AT products. No systematic variations were observed between odd and even detectors.

  13. Results of magnetic HGI and radiometric surveys in W. Canada

    SciTech Connect

    LeSchack, L.A.

    1997-05-19

    This article presents four case histories in which ground-based magnetic horizontal gradient intensity (HGI) and radiometric surveys were used in Western Canada for cost-effective geochemical exploration for hydrocarbons. The authors has developed these two surface exploration techniques from published studies and adapted them for use on the prairies the past 7 years. These surveys are used in conjunction with the usual geologic and seismic studies for: (1) evaluating prospects and land; (2) verifying seismic anomalies and inexpensively locating areas for conducting expensive 3D seismic surveys. Occasionally, as in two of the case histories discussed, these surveys were used successfully as stand-alone exploration methods where seismic exploration is not effective. The HGI and radiometric surveys measure, by geophysical methods, those effects associated with geochemical alterations due to vertical microseepage of hydrocarbons. The total cost, including permitting, data acquisition, data processing, and interpretation of the combination HGI and radiometric surveys is about 15% the total cost of a 3D seismic survey. Because of this, the author finds them an attractive and rapid survey adjunct to traditional exploration. They substantially reduce finding costs and significantly raise the probability of financial success.

  14. L-band (3.5 μm) IR-excess in massive star formation. I. 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maercker, M.; Burton, M. G.

    2005-08-01

    L-band data of 30 Doradus at 3.5 μm taken with SPIREX (South Pole Infrared Explorer) is presented. The photometry was combined with 2MASS JHK data at 1.25-2.2 μm. Colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams are constructed and used to determine the sources with infrared excess. These are interpreted as circumstellar disks, and enable the fraction of sources with disks (the cluster disk fraction or CDF) to be determined. We find that ~42% of the sources detected at L-band in 30 Doradus have an IR-excess.

  15. Fade measurements at L-band and UHF in mountainous terrain for land mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius

    1988-01-01

    Fading results related to land mobile satellite communications at L-band (1502 MHz) and UHF (870 MHz) are described. These results were derived from an experiment performed in a series of canyon passes in the Boulder, Colorado region of the US. The experimental configuration involved a helicopter as the source platform, which maintained a relatively fixed geometry with a mobile van containing the receiver and data-acquisition system. An unobstructed line of sight between the radiating sources and the receiving van was, for the most part, also maintained. In this configuration, the dominant mechanism causing signal fading (or enhancement) is a result of multipath. The resulting fade distributions demonstrated that at the 1 percent and 5 percent levels, 5.5- and 2.6-dB fades were on the average exceeded at L-band and 4.8- and 2.4-dB at UHF, respectively, for a path elevation angle of 45 deg. The canyon results as compared with previous roadside-tree-shadowing results demonstrate that the deciding factor dictating fade margin for future land mobile satellite systems is tree shadowing rather than fades caused by multipath.

  16. Impact of the Ionosphere on an L-band Space Based Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, Elaine; Chan, Samuel F.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Chen, Curtis W.; Martin, Jan M.; Michel, Thierry R.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Pi, Xiaoqing; Rosen, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    We have quantified the impact that the ionosphere would have on a L-band interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission using a combination of simulation, modeling, Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected during the last solar maximum, and existing spaceborne SAR data. We conclude that, except for high latitude scintillation related effects, the ionosphere will not significantly impact the performance of an L-band InSAR mission in an appropriate orbit. We evaluated the strength of the ionospheric irregularities using GPS scintillation data collected at Fairbanks, Alaska and modeled the impact of these irregularities on azimuth resolution, azimuth displacement, peak sidelobe ratio (PSLR), and integrated sidelobe ratio (ISLR). Although we predict that less than 5% of auroral zone data would show scintillation related artifacts, certain sites imaged near the equinoxes could be effected up to 25% of the time because the frequency of occurrence of scintillation is a strong function of season and local time of day. Our examination of ionospheric artifacts observed in InSAR data has revealed that the artifacts occur primarily in the polar cap data, not auroral zone data as was previously thought.

  17. L-band and SHF multiple access schemes for the MSAT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razi, Michael; Shoamanesh, Alireza; Azarbar, Bahman

    1988-01-01

    The first generation of the Canadian Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system, planned to be operational in the early 1990s, will provide voice and data services to land, aeronautical, and maritime mobile terminals within the Canadian land mass and its territorial waters. The system will be managed by a centralized Demand Assignment Multiple Access (DAMA) control system. Users will request a communication channel by communicating with the DAMA Control System (DCS) via the appropriate signalling channels. Several access techniques for both L-band and SHF signalling channels have been investigated. For the L-band, Slotted Aloha (SA) and Reservation Aloha (RA), combined with a token scheme, are discussed here. The results of Telesat studies to date indicate that SA, when combined with token scheme, provides the most efficient access and resource management tool in a mobile propagation environment. For SHF signalling channels, slim time division multiple access (TDMA) and SA have been considered as the most suitable candidate schemes. In view of the operational environment of the SHF links, provision of a very short channel access delay and a relatively high packet success rate are highly desirable. Studies carried out generally favor slim-TDMA as the most suitable approach for SHF signalling channels.

  18. Extending ALFALFA: Reducing L-Band Wide Observations of Optically Selected Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Evan; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    Observations of galaxies in the Virgo Cluster were completed at the Arecibo Observatory in the spring and summer of 2015. 161 targets were observed, selected by photometry criteria such as magnitude and shape from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The targets, some too dim to be detected by Arecibo's ALFA drift scanner, were observed with the L-Band Wide detector. Once reductions in an IDL environment were done, these data were matched to the targets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the GALEX/MAST catalog. 115 of the 161 targets observed had positive detections, a 71% success rate. Comparing the galaxies that were detected against the galaxies that were not detected (by the L-Band Wide receiver) will allow us to refine our method of using photometric data to select HI-rich galaxies in the 2000 km/s to 9000 km/s range to refine our selection for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS), which uses the same method of target selection.

  19. An L-band SAR for repeat pass deformation measurements on a UAV platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling; Rosen, Paul; Wheeler, Kevin; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren; Miller, Tim; Hoffman, Jim; Farra, Don

    2003-01-01

    We are proposing to develop a miniaturized polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for repeat-pass differential interferometric measurements of deformation for rapidly deforming surfaces of geophysical interest such as volcanoes or earthquakes that is to be flown on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or minimally piloted vehicle (MPV). Upon surveying the capabilities and availabilities of such aircraft, the Proteus aircraft and the ALTAIR UAV appear to meet our criteria in terms of payload capabilities, flying altitude, and endurance. To support the repeat pass deformation capability it is necessary to control flight track capability of the aircraft to be within a specified 10 m tube with a goal of 1 m. This requires real-time GPS control of the autopilot to achieve these objectives that has not been demonstrated on these aircraft. Based on the Proteus and ALTAIR's altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft), we are designing a fully polarimetric L-band radar with 80 MHz bandwidth and a 16 km range swath. The radar will have an active electronic beam steering antenna to achieve a Doppler centroid stability that is necessary for repeat-pass interferometry. This paper presents some of the trade studies for the platform, instrument and the expected science.

  20. High Resolution UAV-based Passive Microwave L-band Imaging of Soil Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Stachura, M.; Elston, J.; McIntyre, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Due to long electrical wavelengths and aperture size limitations the scaling of passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture from spaceborne low-resolution applications to high resolution applications suitable for precision agriculture requires use of low flying aerial vehicles. This presentation summarizes a project to develop a commercial Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hosting a precision microwave radiometer for mapping of soil moisture in high-value shallow root-zone crops. The project is based on the use of the Tempest electric-powered UAV and a compact digital L-band (1400-1427 MHz) passive microwave radiometer developed specifically for extremely small and lightweight aerial platforms or man-portable, tractor, or tower-based applications. Notable in this combination are a highly integrated UAV/radiometer antenna design and use of both the upwelling emitted signal from the surface and downwelling cold space signal for precise calibration using a lobe-correlating radiometer architecture. The system achieves a spatial resolution comparable to the altitude of the UAV above the ground while referencing upwelling measurements to the constant and well-known background temperature of cold space. The radiometer incorporates digital sampling and radio frequency interference mitigation along with infrared, near-infrared, and visible (red) sensors for surface temperature and vegetation biomass correction. This NASA-sponsored project is being developed both for commercial application in cropland water management, L-band satellite validation, and estuarian plume studies.

  1. Design of an Airborne L-Band Cross-Track Scanning Scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe the design of an airborne L-band cross-track scanning scatterometer suitable for airborne operation aboard the NASA P-3 aircraft. The scatterometer is being designed for joint operation with existing L-band radiometers developed by NASA for soil moisture and ocean salinity remote sensing. In addition, design tradeoffs for a space-based radar system have been considered, with particular attention given to antenna architectures suitable for sharing the antenna between the radar and radiometer. During this study, we investigated a number of imaging techniques, including the use of real and synthetic aperture processing in both the along track and cross-track dimensions. The architecture selected will permit a variety of beamforming algorithms to be implemented, although real aperture processing, with hardware beamforming, provides better sidelobe suppression than synthetic array processing and superior signal-to-noise performance. In our discussions with the staff of NASA GSFC, we arrived at an architecture that employs complete transmit/receive modules for each subarray. Amplitude and phase control at each of the transmit modules will allow a low-sidelobe transmit pattern to be generated over scan angles of +/- 50 degrees. Each receiver module will include all electronics necessary to downconvert the received signal to an IF offset of 30 MHz where it will be digitized for further processing.

  2. L-Band Brightness Temperature Variations at Dome C and Snow Metamorphism at the Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brucker, Ludovic; Dinnat, Emmanuel; Picard, Ghislain; Champollion, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The Antarctic Plateau is a promising site to monitor microwave radiometers' drift, and to inter-calibrate microwave radiometers, especially 1.4 GigaHertz (L-band) radiometers on board the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), and AquariusSAC-D missions. The Plateau is a thick ice cover, thermally stable in depth, with large dimensions, and relatively low heterogeneities. In addition, its high latitude location in the Southern Hemisphere enables frequent observations by polar-orbiting satellites, and no contaminations by radio frequency interference. At Dome C (75S, 123E), on the Antarctic Plateau, the substantial amount of in-situ snow measurements available allows us to interpret variations in space-borne microwave brightness temperature (TB) (e.g. Macelloni et al., 2007, 2013, Brucker et al., 2011, Champollion et al., 2013). However, to analyze the observations from the Aquarius radiometers, whose sensitivity is 0.15 K, the stability of the snow layers near the surface that are most susceptible to rapidly change needs to be precisely assessed. This study focuses on the spatial and temporal variations of the Aquarius TB over the Antarctic Plateau, and at Dome C in particular, to highlight the impact of snow surface metamorphism on the TB observations at L-band.

  3. Microwave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macelloni, G.; Paloscia, S.; Pampaloni, P.; Santi, E.; Tedesco, M.

    Within the framework of the MAP and RAPHAEL projects, airborne experimental campaigns were carried out by the IFAC group in 1999 and 2000, using a multifrequency microwave radiometer at L, C and X bands (1.4, 6.8 and 10 GHz). The aim of the experiments was to collect soil moisture and vegetation biomass information on agricultural areas to give reliable inputs to the hydrological models. It is well known that microwave emission from soil, mainly at L-band (1.4 GHz), is very well correlated to its moisture content. Two experimental areas in Italy were selected for this project: one was the Toce Valley, Domodossola, in 1999, and the other, the agricultural area of Cerbaia, close to Florence, where flights were performed in 2000. Measurements were carried out on bare soils, corn and wheat fields in different growth stages and on meadows. Ground data of soil moisture (SMC) were collected by other research teams involved in the experiments. From the analysis of the data sets, it has been confirmed that L-band is well related to the SMC of a rather deep soil layer, whereas C-band is sensitive to the surface SMC and is more affected by the presence of surface roughness and vegetation, especially at high incidence angles. An algorithm for the retrieval of soil moisture, based on the sensitivity to moisture of the brightness temperature at C-band, has been tested using the collected data set. The results of the algorithm, which is able to correct for the effect of vegetation by means of the polarisation index at X-band, have been compared with soil moisture data measured on the ground. Finally, the sensitivity of emission at different frequencies to the soil moisture profile was investigated. Experimental data sets were interpreted by using the Integral Equation Model (IEM) and the outputs of the model were used to train an artificial neural network to reproduce the soil moisture content at different depths.

  4. L-band Spectroscopy with Magellan-AO/Clio2: First Results on Young Low-mass Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jordan M.; Eisner, Josh; Skemer, Andy; Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird; Males, Jared; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Phil; Puglisi, Alfio

    2016-09-01

    L-band spectroscopy is a powerful probe of cool low-gravity atmospheres: the P, Q, and R branch fundamental transitions of methane near 3.3 μm provide a sensitive probe of carbon chemistry; cloud thickness modifies the spectral slope across the band; and {{{H}}}3+ opacity can be used to detect aurorae. Many directly imaged gas-giant companions to nearby young stars exhibit L-band fluxes distinct from the field population of brown dwarfs at the same effective temperature. Here we describe commissioning the L-band spectroscopic mode of Clio2, the 1-5 μm instrument behind the Magellan adaptive-optics system. We use this system to measure L-band spectra of directly imaged companions. Our spectra are generally consistent with the parameters derived from previous near-infrared spectra for these late M to early L type objects. Therefore, deviations from the field sequence are constrained to occur below 1500 K. This range includes the L-T transition for field objects and suggests that observed discrepancies are due to differences in cloud structure and CO/CH4 chemistry.

  5. Precisely determined the surface displacement by the ionospheric mitigation using the L-band SAR Interferometry over Mt.Baekdu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won-Jin; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Park, Sun-Cheon; Lee, Duk Kee

    2016-04-01

    Mt. Baekdu (Changbaishan in Chinese) is located on the border between China and North Korea. It has recently attracted the attention of volcanic unrest during 2002-2005. Many researchers have applied geophysical approaches to detect magma system of beneath Mt.Baekdu such as leveling, Global Positioning System (GPS), gases analysis, seismic analysis, etc. Among them, deformation measuring instruments are important tool to evaluate for volcanism. In contrast to GPS or other deformation measuring instruments, Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) has provided high resolution of 2-D surface displacement from remote sensed data. However, Mt. Baekdu area has disturbed by decorrelation on interferogram because of wide vegetation coverage. To overcome this limitation, L-band system of long wavelength is more effective to detect surface deformation. In spite of this advantage, L-band can surfer from more severe ionospheric phase distortions than X- or C- band system because ionospheric phase distortions are inverse proportion to the radar frequency. Recently, Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI) based ionospheric phase distortions mitigation method have proposed and investigated. We have applied this technique to the Mt.Baekdu area to measure surface deformation precisely using L-band Advanced Land Observing Satellite-1(ALOS-1) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(PALSAR) data acquiring from 2006 to 2011.

  6. In-harbor and at-sea electromagnetic compatibility survey for maritime satellite L-band shipboard terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Geostationary maritime satellites, one over the Pacific and one over the Atlantic Ocean, are planned to make available high-speed communications and navigation (position determination) services to ships at sea. A shipboard satellite terminal, operating within the authorized maritime L-band, 1636.5 to 1645.0 MHz, will allow ships to pass voice, teletype, facsimile, and data messages to shore communication facilities with a high degree of reliability. The shore-to-ship link will also operate in the maritime L-band from 1535.0 to 1543.5 MHz. A significant number or maritime/commercial ships are expected to be equipped with an L-band satellite terminal by the year 1980, and so consequently, there is an interest in determining electromagnetic compatibility between the proposed L-band shipboard terminal and existing, on-board, shipboard communications/electronics and electrical systems, as well as determining the influence of shore-based interference sources. The shipboard electromagnetic interference survey described was conducted on-board the United States Line's American Leader class (15,690 tons) commercial container ship, the "American Alliance" from June 16 to 20, 1974. Details of the test plan and measurements are given.

  7. A new algorithm for sea-surface wind-speed retrieval based on the L-band radiometer onboard Aquarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Jie; Fan, Chenqing; Wang, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Aquarius is the second satellite mission to focus on the remote sensing of sea-surface salinity from space and it has mapped global sea-surface salinity for nearly 3 years since its launch in 2011. However, benefiting from the high atmospheric transparency and moderate sensitivity to wind speed of the L-band brightness temperature (TB), the Aquarius L-band radiometer can actually provide a new technique for the remote sensing of wind speed. In this article, the sea-surface wind speeds derived from TBs measured by Aquarius' L-band radiometer are presented, the algorithm for which is developed and validated using multisource wind speed data, including WindSat microwave radiometer and National Data Buoy Center buoy data, and the Hurricane Research Division of the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory wind field product. The error analysis indicates that the performance of retrieval algorithm is good. The RMSE of the Aquarius wind-speed algorithm is about 1 and 1.5 m/s for global oceans and areas of tropical hurricanes, respectively. Consequently, the applicability of using the Aquarius L-band radiometer as a near all-weather wind-speed measuring method is verified.

  8. 21-nm-range wavelength-tunable L-band Er-doped fiber linear-cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shiquan; Zhao, Chunliu; Li, Zhaohui; Ding, Lei; Yuan, Shuzhong; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2001-10-01

    A novel method, which utilizes amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) as a secondary pump source, is presented for implanting a linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser operating in L-Band. The output wavelength tuned from 1566 nm to 1587 nm, about 21 nm tuning range, was obtained in the experiment and the stability of the laser is very good.

  9. Passive Microwave Measurements Over Conifer Forests at L-Band and C-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lang, R.; Chauhan, N.; Kim, E.; Bidwell, S.; Goodberlet, M.; Haken, M.; deMatthaeis, P.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements have been made at L-band and C-band over conifer forests in Virginia to study the response of passive microwave instruments to biomass and soil moisture. A series of aircraft measurements were made in July, August and November, 1999 over relatively homogenous conifer forests of varying biomass. Three radiometers participated in these measurements. These were: 1) the L-band radiometer ESTAR, a horizontally polarized synthetic aperture radiometer which has been used extensively in past measurements of soil moisture; 2) the L-band radiometer SLFMR, a vertically polarized cross-track scanner which has been used successfully in the past for mapping sea surface salinity; and 3) The ACMR, a new C-band radiometer which operates at V- and H-polarization and in the configuration for these experiments did not scan. All three radiometers were flown on the NASA P-3 aircraft based at the Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. The ESTAR and SLFMR were mounted in the bomb bay of the P-3 and imaged across track whereas the ACMR was mounted to look aft at 54 degrees up from nadir. Data was collected at altitudes of 915 meters and 457 meters. The forests consisted of relatively homogeneous "managed" stands of conifer located near Waverly, Virginia. This is a relatively flat area about 30 miles southeast of Richmond, VA with numerous stands of trees being grown for the forestry industry. The stands selected for study consisted of areas of regrowth and mature stands of pine. In addition, a small stand of very large trees was observed. Soil moisture sampling was done in each stand during the aircraft over flights. Data was collected on July 7, August 27, November 15 and November 30, 1999. Measurements were made with ESTAR on all days. The ACMR flew on the summer missions and the SLFMR was present only on the August 27 flight. Soil moisture varied from quite dry on July 7 to quite moist on November 30 (which was shortly after a period of rain). The microwave

  10. Formulation of radiometric feasibility measures for feature selection and planning in visual servoing.

    PubMed

    Janabi-Sharifi, Farrokh; Ficocelli, M

    2004-04-01

    Feature selection and planning are integral parts of visual servoing systems. Because many irrelevant and nonreliable image features usually exist, higher accuracy and robustness can be expected by selecting and planning good features. Assumption of perfect radiometric conditions is common in visual servoing. The following paper discusses the issue of radiometric constraints for feature selection in the context of visual servoing. Here, radiometric constraints are presented and measures are formulated to select the optimal features (in a radiometric sense) from a set of candidate features. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed measures.

  11. BOREAS TE-18, 30-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 21-Jun-1995. the 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18 Sep-1994 in the SSA and from 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (199 1). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. The data are stored in binary image-format files. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, these full-resolution images may not be publicly distributed. However, a spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. See Sections 15 and 16 for information about how to possibly acquire the full resolution data. Information about the full-resolution images is provided in an inventory listing on the CD-ROMs. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  12. Radiometric calibration of the Landsat MSS sensor series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Karki, Sadhana; Bhatt, Rajendra; Micijevik, Esad; Aaron, David; Jasinski, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing of the Earth using Landsat sensors was ushered on July 23, 1972, with the launch of Landsat-1. Following that success, four more Landsat satellites were launched, and each of these carried the Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). These five sensors provided the only consistent multispectral space-based imagery of the Earth's surface from 1972 to 1982. This work focuses on developing both a consistent and absolute radiometric calibration of this sensor system. Cross-calibration of the MSS was performed through the use of pseudoinvariant calibration sites (PICSs). Since these sites have been shown to be stable for long periods of time, changes in MSS observations of these sites were attributed to changes in the sensors themselves. In addition, simultaneous data collections were available for some MSS sensor pairs, and these were also used for cross-calibration. Results indicated substantial differences existed between instruments, up to 16%, and these were reduced to 5% or less across all MSS sensors and bands. Lastly, this paper takes the calibration through the final step and places the MSS sensors on an absolute radiometric scale. The methodology used to achieve this was based on simultaneous data collections by the Landsat-5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments. Through analysis of image data from a PICS location and through compensating for the spectral differences between the two instruments, the Landsat-5 MSS sensor was placed on an absolute radiometric scale based on the Landsat-5 TM sensor. Uncertainties associated with this calibration are considered to be less than 5%.

  13. Site characterization for calibration of radiometric sensors using vicarious method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parihar, Shailesh; Rathore, L. S.; Mohapatra, M.; Sharma, A. K.; Mitra, A. K.; Bhatla, R.; Singh, R. S.; Desai, Yogdeep; Srivastava, Shailendra S.

    2016-05-01

    Radiometric performances of earth observation satellite/sensors vary from ground pre-launch calibration campaign to post launch period extended to lifetime of the satellite due to launching vibrations. Therefore calibration is carried out worldwide through various methods throughout satellite lifetime. In India Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) calibrates the sensor of Resourcesat-2 satellite by vicarious method. One of these vicarious calibration methods is the reflectance-based approach that is applied in this study for radiometric calibration of sensors on-board Resouresat-2 satellite. The results of ground-based measurement of atmospheric conditions and surface reflectance are made at Bap, Rajasthan Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) site. Cal/Val observations at site were carried out with hyper-spectral Spectroradiometer covering spectral range of 350nm- 2500nm for radiometric characterization of the site. The Sunphotometer/Ozonometer for measuring the atmospheric parameters has also been used. The calibrated radiance is converted to absolute at-sensor spectral reflectance and Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) radiance. TOA radiance was computed using radiative transfer model `Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum' (6S), which can accurately simulate the problems introduced by the presence of the atmosphere along the path from Sun to target (surface) to Sensor. The methodology for band averaged reflectance retrieval and spectral reflectance fitting process are described. Then the spectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters are put into 6S code to predict TOA radiance which compare with Resourcesat-2 radiance. Spectral signature and its reflectance ratio indicate the uniformity of the site. Thus the study proves that the selected site is suitable for vicarious calibration of sensor of Resourcesat-2. Further the study demonstrates the procedure for similar exercise for site selection for Cal/Val analysis of other satellite over India

  14. Evaluation of S190A radiometric exposure test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Goodding, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The S190A preflight radiometric exposure test data generated as part of preflight and system test of KM-002 Sequence 29 on flight camera S/N 002 was analyzed. The analysis was to determine camera system transmission using available data which included: (1) films exposed to a calibrated light source subject; (2) filter transmission data; (3) calibrated light source data; (4) density vs. log10 exposure curves for the films; and (5) spectral sensitometric data for the films. The procedure used is outlined, and includes the data and a transmission matrix as a function of field position for nine measured points on each station-film-filter-aperture-shutter speed combination.

  15. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The TM multispectral scanner system was calibrated in an absolute manner before launch. To determine the temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM collections over White Sands, New Mexico. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels of the in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined. Tables show values for the reflectance of snow at White Sands measured by a modular 8 channel radiometer, and values for exoatmospheric irradiance within the TM passbands, calculated for the Earth-Sun distance using a solar radiometer.

  16. Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable, Wideband, Onboard Calibration Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, James B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.; Nolte, Scott H.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Knoll, Linley A.

    2013-01-01

    The Onboard Calibration (OBC) source incorporates a medical/scientific-grade halogen source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system, and a fiber-based intensity-monitoring feedback loop that results in radiometric and spectral stabilities to within less than 0.3 percent over a 15-hour period. The airborne imaging spectrometer systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory incorporate OBC sources to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The use of the OBC source will provide a significant increase in the quantitative accuracy, reliability, and resulting utility of the spectral data collected from current and future imaging spectrometer instruments.

  17. Calibration method for radiometric and wavelength calibration of a spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, Edward M.

    1998-12-01

    A new calibration target or Certified Reference Material (CRM) has been designed that uses violet, orange, green and cyan dyes ont cotton paper. This paper type was chosen because it has a relatively flat spectral response from 400 nm to 700 nm and good keeping properties. These specific dyes were chosen because the difference signal between the orange, cyan, green and purple dyes have certain characteristics that then a low the calibration of an instrument. The ratio between the difference readings is a direct function of the center wavelength of a given spectral band. Therefore, the radiometric and spectral calibration can be determined simultaneously from the physical properties of the reference materials.

  18. Radiometric correction and equalization of satellite digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Algazi, V. R.; Ford, G. E.; Kazakoff, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Satellite digital data from Landsat and NOAA satellites is often marred by striping or streaking errors due to variations in the response of the radiometric sensors. In this paper, we discuss the equalization of the digital data as a preprocessing step, prior to image enhancement or automatic classification. The methods described make use of statistics of the data itself to generate nonlinear or linear memory-less equalization algorithms. These algorithms, by contrast to multidimensional filtering, do not result in a loss of spatial resolution. Examples of applications to Landsat and NOAA-3 thermal infrared data are given and illustrated.

  19. A radiometric interpretive legend for Landsat digital thematic maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    A legend is suggested for use with computer-generated thematic maps made from Landsat digital data that designates some of the radiometric characteristics of each thematic map unit as well as the described terrain attributes of each map unit. The relationship between spectral band and radiance for each map unit is shown by a two-dimensional polygon with the four Landsat multispectral scanner bands plotted on the ordinate and radiance levels on the abscissa. The resulting shape is colored to correspond with the map unit color, thus facilitating the recognition and understanding of the computer-generated map units.

  20. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    A main problem encountered in radiometric calibration of satellite image data is correcting for atmospheric effects. Without this correction, an image digital number (DN) cannot be converted to a surface reflectance value. In this paper the accuracy of a calibration procedure, which includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, is tested. Two simple methods, a stand-alone and an in situ sky radiance measurement technique, were used to derive the HAZE DN values for each of the six reflectance Thematic Mapper (TM) bands. The DNs of two Landsat TM images of Phoenix, Arizona were converted to surface reflectances. -from Author

  1. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Radiometric Response Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, J. A.; Lencioni, D. E.; Evans, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is one of three instruments to be flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1) under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). ALI contains a number of innovative features, including a wide field of view optical design, compact multispectral focal plane arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe detectors for the short wave infrared bands, and silicon carbide optics. This document outlines the techniques adopted during ground calibration of the radiometric response of the Advanced Land Imager. Results from system level measurements of the instrument response, signal-to-noise ratio, saturation radiance, and dynamic range for all detectors of every spectral band are also presented.

  2. A review of some radiometric calibration problems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1984-01-01

    The in-flight radiometric calibration instrumentation and procedures of the Landsat Thematic Mapper and the high-resolution visible-range instruments of SPOT are illustrated with drawings and diagrams, characterized, and compared. Problems encountered in the laboratory calibration process, minimizing the temporal instability of the systems, identifying anomalies in the electronics in flight, and rechecking the calibration are examined, and it is pointed out that the stability of the calibration systems is less than that of the instruments themselves. The use of carefully measured ground-site data and atmospheric parameters in combination with radiative-transfer models for periodic calibration is recommended.

  3. The Aquarius Ocean Salinity Mission High Stability L-band Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando A.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Triesky, Michael; Horgan, Kevin; Forgione, Joshua; Caldwell, James; Wilson, William J.; Yueh, Simon; Spencer, Michael; McWatters, Dalia; Freedman, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science System Pathfinder (ESSP) mission Aquarius, will measure global ocean surface salinity with approx.120 km spatial resolution every 7-days with an average monthly salinity accuracy of 0.2 psu (parts per thousand). This requires an L-band low-noise radiometer with the long-term calibration stability of less than or equal to 0.15 K over 7 days. The instrument utilizes a push-broom configuration which makes it impractical to use a traditional warm load and cold plate in front of the feedhorns. Therefore, to achieve the necessary performance Aquarius utilizes a Dicke radiometer with noise injection to perform a warm - hot calibration. The radiometer sequence between antenna, Dicke load, and noise diode has been optimized to maximize antenna observations and therefore minimize NEDT. This is possible due the ability to thermally control the radiometer electronics and front-end components to 0.1 Crms over 7 days.

  4. L-Band Radiometer Experiment in the SMOS Test Site Upper Danube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenz, Florian; Gebhardt, Timo; Loew, Alexander; Marzahn, Philip; Mauser, Wolfram

    2010-12-01

    In the frame of calibration and validation activities for ESA's soil moisture and ocean salinity mission, SMOS, the University of Munich operates a ground based L-band radiometer (ELBARA II) at 1.4 GHz to test and validate the radiative transfer model L-MEB also used in the SMOS Level 2 processor. The radiometer is situated on a test site near Puch, about 30 km west of Munich in the Upper Danube watershed in southern Germany in a temperate agricultural area. It is mounted on a scaffolding that allows to rotate the antenna which enables it to look at 2 different fields with grass and winter rape as land use respectively. In addition to the radiometer, a variety of complementary sensors are installed measuring all important meteorological and hydrological parameters. First datasets of the radiometer experiment are presented.

  5. Analysis on the Potential of L-Band PolSAR Data for Crop Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester-Berman, J. David; Lopez-Sanchez, Juan M.

    2011-03-01

    In this work we have made use of quad-pol measurements at L-band acquired by DLRs E-SAR system during the AgriSAR06 campaign for analyzing time series of different polarimetric indicators over winter wheat, maize and winter rape fields on the basis of the phenological development. Also, the sensitivity to crop fields of parameters derived from hybrid-polarity SAR architecture as proposed by Raney in 2007 has been investigated. In both quad-pol and hybrid-pol cases a correlation study along the whole phenological development among observables and ground-truth measurements has been performed. We have focused the potential of some of these observables for the detection of particular crop conditions along certain periods within the whole growth season.

  6. Monitoring Everglades freshwater marsh water level using L-band synthetic aperture radar backscatter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Lu, Zhong; Jones, John W.; Shum, C.K.; Lee, Hyongki; Jia, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The Florida Everglades plays a significant role in controlling floods, improving water quality, supporting ecosystems, and maintaining biodiversity in south Florida. Adaptive restoration and management of the Everglades requires the best information possible regarding wetland hydrology. We developed a new and innovative approach to quantify spatial and temporal variations in wetland water levels within the Everglades, Florida. We observed high correlations between water level measured at in situ gages and L-band SAR backscatter coefficients in the freshwater marsh, though C-band SAR backscatter has no close relationship with water level. Here we illustrate the complementarity of SAR backscatter coefficient differencing and interferometry (InSAR) for improved estimation of high spatial resolution water level variations in the Everglades. This technique has a certain limitation in applying to swamp forests with dense vegetation cover, but we conclude that this new method is promising in future applications to wetland hydrology research.

  7. Effects of the equatorial ionosphere on L-band Earth-space transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest K.; Flock, Warren L.

    1993-01-01

    Ionosphere scintillation can effect satellite telecommunication up to Ku-band. Nighttime scintillation can be attributed to large-scale inhomogeneity in the F-region of the ionosphere predominantly between heights of 200 and 600 km. Daytime scintillation has been attributed to sporadic E. It can be thought of as occurring in three belts: equatorial, high-latitude, and mid-latitude, in order of severity. Equatorial scintillation occurs between magnetic latitudes +/- 25 degrees, peaking near +/- 10 degrees. It commonly starts abruptly near 2000 local time and dies out shortly after midnight. There is a strong solar cycle dependence and a seasonal preference for the equinoxes, particularly the vernal one. Equatorial scintillation occurs more frequently on magnetically quiet than on magnetically disturbed days in most longitudes. At the peak of the sunspot cycle scintillation depths as great as 20 dB were observed at L-band.

  8. Relation between L-band soil emittance and soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroosnijder, L.; Lascano, R. J.; Van Bavel, C. H. M.; Newton, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental relation between soil emittance (E) at L-band and soil surface moisture content (M) is compared with a theoretical one. The latter depends on the soil dielectric constant, which is a function of both soil moisture content and of soil texture. It appears that a difference of 10 percent in the surface clay content causes a change in the estimate of M on the order of 0.02 cu m/cu m. This is based on calculations with a model that simulates the flow of water and energy, in combination with a radiative transfer model. It is concluded that an experimental determination of the E-M relation for each soil type is not required, and that a rough estimate of the soil texture will lead to a sufficiently accurate estimate of soil moisture from a general, theoretical relationship obtained by numerical simulation.

  9. Polarimetric Decomposition Analysis of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Slick Using L-Band UAVSAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen; Minchew, Brent; Holt, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    We report here an analysis of the polarization dependence of L-band radar backscatter from the main slick of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, with specific attention to the utility of polarimetric decomposition analysis for discrimination of oil from clean water and identification of variations in the oil characteristics. For this study we used data collected with the UAVSAR instrument from opposing look directions directly over the main oil slick. We find that both the Cloude-Pottier and Shannon entropy polarimetric decomposition methods offer promise for oil discrimination, with the Shannon entropy method yielding the same information as contained in the Cloude-Pottier entropy and averaged in tensity parameters, but with significantly less computational complexity

  10. Comparisons of Aquarius Measurements over Oceans with Radiative Transfer Models at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinnat, E.; LeVine, D.; Abraham, S.; DeMattheis, P.; Utku, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft includes three L-band (1.4 GHz) radiometers dedicated to measuring sea surface salinity. It was launched in June 2011 by NASA and CONAE (Argentine space agency). We report detailed comparisons of Aquarius measurements with radiative transfer model predictions. These comparisons are used as part of the initial assessment of Aquarius data and to estimate the radiometer calibration bias and stability. Comparisons are also being performed to assess the performance of models used in the retrieval algorithm for correcting the effect of various sources of geophysical "noise" (e.g. Faraday rotation, surface roughness). Such corrections are critical in bringing the error in retrieved salinity down to the required 0.2 practical salinity unit on monthly global maps at 150 km by 150 km resolution.

  11. Estimation of Soil Moisture with L-band Multi-polarization Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, J.; Chen, K. S.; Kim, Chung-Li Y.; Van Zyl, J. J.; Njoku, E.; Sun, G.; O'Neill, P.; Jackson, T.; Entekhabi, D.

    2004-01-01

    Through analyses of the model simulated data-base, we developed a technique to estimate surface soil moisture under HYDROS radar sensor (L-band multi-polarizations and 40deg incidence) configuration. This technique includes two steps. First, it decomposes the total backscattering signals into two components - the surface scattering components (the bare surface backscattering signals attenuated by the overlaying vegetation layer) and the sum of the direct volume scattering components and surface-volume interaction components at different polarizations. From the model simulated data-base, our decomposition technique works quit well in estimation of the surface scattering components with RMSEs of 0.12,0.25, and 0.55 dB for VV, HH, and VH polarizations, respectively. Then, we use the decomposed surface backscattering signals to estimate the soil moisture and the combined surface roughness and vegetation attenuation correction factors with all three polarizations.

  12. Multiwavelength L-band fiber laser with bismuth-oxide EDF and photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzia Salem, A. M.; Al-Mansoori, M. H.; Hizam, H.; Mohd Noor, S. B.; Abu Bakar, M. H.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2011-05-01

    A multiwavelength laser comb using a bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber and 50 m photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated in a ring cavity configuration. The fiber laser is solely pumped by a single 1455 nm Raman pump laser to exploit its higher power delivery compared to that of a single-mode laser diode pump. At 264 mW Raman pump power and 1 mW Brillouin pump power, 38 output channels in the L-band have been realized with an optical signal-to-noise ratio above 15 dB and a Stokes line spacing of 0.08 nm. The laser exhibits a tuning range of 12 nm and produces stable Stokes lines across the tuning range between Brillouin pump wavelengths of 1603 nm and 1615 nm.

  13. The Planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission L-Band Radar/Radiometer Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Michael; Wheeler, Kevin; Chan, Samuel; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Hudson, Derek; Medeiros, James

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission is a NASA mission identified by the NRC 'decadal survey' to measure both soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space. The mission will use both active radar and passive radiometer instruments at L-Band. In order to achieve a wide swath at sufficiently high resolution for both active and passive channels, an instrument architecture that uses a large rotating reflector is employed. The instrument system has completed the preliminary design review (PDR) stage, and detailed instrument design has begun. In addition to providing an overview of the instrument design, two recent design modifications are discussed: 1) The addition of active thermal control to the instrument spun side to provide a more stable, settable thermal environment for the radiometer electronics, and 2) A 'sequential transmit' strategy for the two radar polarization channels which allows a single high-power amplifier to be used.

  14. A novel method to improve noise figure for double-pass L-band EDFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Ling; Liu, Yange; Wang, Chao; Liu, Lihui; Xiong, Lingyun; Yuan, Shuzhong; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a noise figure improved double-pass L-band EDFA based on HiBi fiber loop mirror as the ASE suppressor. By utilizing a HiBi fiber loop mirror as the wavelength-dependent reflector, the ASE light has been weakened to a large extend, which increases the inversion ion population at the input end of erbium-doped fiber. Therefore, the noise figure of this double-pass EDFA has been much improved. Compared with that of the conventional double-pass structure based on 3dB fiber loop mirror, the NF of our novel configuration is reduced by 2.06~5.33dB for the ten sampled signal wavelength (1580.84nm~1588.48nm).

  15. High power L-band mode-locked fiber laser based on topological insulator saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yichang; Semaan, Georges; Salhi, Mohamed; Niang, Alioune; Guesmi, Khmaies; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Sanchez, Francois

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a passive mode-locked Er:Yb doped double-clad fiber laser using a microfiber-based topological insulator (Bi(2)Se(3)) saturable absorber (TISA). By optimizing the cavity loss and output coupling ratio, the mode-locked fiber laser can operate in L-band with high average output power. With the highest pump power of 5 W, 91st harmonic mode locking of soliton bunches with average output power of 308 mW was obtained. This is the first report that the TISA based erbium-doped fiber laser operating above 1.6 μm and is also the highest output power yet reported in TISA based passive mode-locked fiber laser.

  16. Systems implications of L-band fade data statistics for LEO mobile systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devieux, Carrie L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines and analyzes research data on the role of foliage attenuation in signal fading between a satellite transmitter and a terrestrial vehicle-mounted receiver. The frequency band of measurement, called L-Band, includes the region 1610.0 to 1626.5 MHz. Data from tests involving various combinations of foliage and vehicle movement conditions clearly show evidence of fast fading (in excess of 0.5 dB per millisecond) and fade depths as great or greater than 16 dB. As a result, the design of a communications link power control that provides the level of accuracy necessary for power sensitive systems could be significantly impacted. Specific examples of this include the communications links that employ Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) as a modulation technique.

  17. Color composite C-band and L-band image of Kilauea volcanoe on Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This color composite C-band and L-band image of the Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii was acuired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The city of Hilo can be seen at the top. The image shows the different types of lava flows around the crater Pu'u O'o. Ash deposits which erupted in 1790 from the summit of Kilauea volcano show up as dark in this image, and fine details associated with lava flows which erupted in 1919 and 1974 can be seen to the south of the summit in an area called the Ka'u Desert. Other historic lava flows can also be seen. Highway 11 is the linear feature running from Hilo to the Kilauea volcano. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43918.

  18. Structural Biomass Estimation from L-band Interferometric SAR and Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treuhaft, R. N.; Chapman, B. D.; Goncalves, F.; Hensley, S.; dos Santos, J. R.; Graca, P. A.; Dutra, L.

    2011-12-01

    After a review of biomass estimation from interferometric SAR (InSAR) at all bands over the last 15 years, and a brief review of lidar biomass estimation, this paper discusses structure and biomass estimation from simultaneously acquired (not repeat-track) InSAR at L-band. We will briefly discuss the history of regression of biomass to InSAR raw observations (coherence and phase) and structural parameters (height, standard deviation, Fourier component). Lidar biomass estimation from functions of the waveform will be discussed. We review our structural and biomass estimation results for C-band InSAR at vertical polarization for 12-14 baselines in La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. C-band vertical scales were between 12 and 100 m for structure estimation, but only between 50 and 100 m for biomass estimation, due to phase calibration problems at the shorter vertical wavelengths (larger baselines). Most of the talk will be spent on L-band, simultaneously acquired multibaseline InSAR, also at La Selva, acquired at vertical polarization. Because the vertical interferometric scale is proportional to the radar altitude times the wavelength over the baseline length, the AirSAR aircraft had to be flown very low (1.2 km) to realize vertical scales at L-band of 60 m and higher. Our lidar biomass estimation suggests that vertical scales of 14 m-100 m are optimal for biomass estimation. We will try three different approaches to biomass estimation with the limited high vertical scales we have available: 1) We will regress biomass to Fourier transforms as in the C-band and lidar study, but with 60 m - 100+ m vertical scales we do not expect accuracies to be as high as for the lidar demonstration (58 Mg/ha RMS scatter of estimated about field biomass for biomasses up to 450 Mg/ha), which used Fourier vertical wavelengths of 15 m-20 m. In addition to using Fourier components, 2) we will report the use of the derivative of the InSAR complex coherence with respect to Fourier

  19. The correlation of Skylab L-band brightness temperatures with antecedent precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The S194 L-band radiometer flown on the Skylab mission measured terrestrial radiation at the microwave wavelength of 21.4 cm. The terrain emissivity at this wavelength is strongly dependent on the soil moisture content, which can be inferred from antecedent precipitation. For the Skylab data acquisition pass from the Oklahoma panhandle to southeastern Texas on 11 June 1973, the S194 brightness temperatures are highly correlated with antecedent precipitation from the preceding eleven day period, but very little correlation was apparent for the preceding five day period. The correlation coefficient between the averaged antecedent precipitation index values and the corresponding S194 brightness temperatures between 230 K and 270 K, the region of apparent response to soil moisture in the data, was -0.97. The equation of the linear least squares line is given.

  20. Simple and efficient L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for WDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H. B.; Oh, J. M.; Lee, D.; Ahn, S. J.; Park, B. S.; Lee, S. B.

    2002-11-01

    The performance of L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) of a simple structure with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) was investigated. The injected C-band ASE by the FBG offers low-cost amplification and greatly improves the efficiency of the EDFA. There are 9 and 4 dB improvements with the FBG at 1587 nm, at low and high input, respectively. The flat gain of 18 dB, up to a total input of -5 dBm at 150 mW of 980 nm pump, is obtained over 30 nm with less than ±0.5 dB gain variations without any gain equalizer. The proposed EDFA provides a cost-effective solution for wavelength division multiplexing systems.

  1. Soil Moisture Estimation by Assimilating L-Band Microwave Brightness Temperature with Geostatistics and Observation Localization

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xujun; Li, Xin; Rigon, Riccardo; Jin, Rui; Endrizzi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The observation could be used to reduce the model uncertainties with data assimilation. If the observation cannot cover the whole model area due to spatial availability or instrument ability, how to do data assimilation at locations not covered by observation? Two commonly used strategies were firstly described: One is covariance localization (CL); the other is observation localization (OL). Compared with CL, OL is easy to parallelize and more efficient for large-scale analysis. This paper evaluated OL in soil moisture profile characterizations, in which the geostatistical semivariogram was used to fit the spatial correlated characteristics of synthetic L-Band microwave brightness temperature measurement. The fitted semivariogram model and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter algorithm are combined together to weight and assimilate the observations within a local region surrounding the grid cell of land surface model to be analyzed. Six scenarios were compared: 1_Obs with one nearest observation assimilated, 5_Obs with no more than five nearest local observations assimilated, and 9_Obs with no more than nine nearest local observations assimilated. The scenarios with no more than 16, 25, and 36 local observations were also compared. From the results we can conclude that more local observations involved in assimilation will improve estimations with an upper bound of 9 observations in this case. This study demonstrates the potentials of geostatistical correlation representation in OL to improve data assimilation of catchment scale soil moisture using synthetic L-band microwave brightness temperature, which cannot cover the study area fully in space due to vegetation effects. PMID:25635771

  2. L-band radiometer experiment in the SMOS test site Upper Danube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenz, Florian; Gebhardt, Timo; Loew, Alexander; Marzahn, Philip; Mauser, Wolfram

    2010-05-01

    In the frame of calibration and validation activities for ESA's soil moisture and ocean salinity mission, SMOS, the University of Munich operates a ground based L-band radiometer (ELBARA II) on an experimental farm in Southern Germany since September 2009. It is being used to validate the radiative transfer model, L-MEB, used in the SMOS Level 2 processor. The radiometer measures the natural emission of two fields in the microwave domain with a wavelength of 1.4 GHz. Its working principle is similar to that of SMOS, for which reason it can be used for validation of the radiative transfer model on the field scale. To support the validation, extensive environmental measurements are being made at the test site. The radiometer is situated on an experimental farm near Puch, about 30 km west of Munich in the Upper Danube watershed in southern Germany in a temperate agricultural area. It is mounted on a 4 m high scaffolding that allows to turn the radiometer to look at 2 different fields with grass and winter rape as land use respectively. In addition to the L-band measurements, thermal infrared (IR) measurements are performed. For this purpose, one thermal IR radiometer is attached to the ELBARA antenna to look into the same direction and two IR radiometers are constantly pointed at the two fields. Next to the radiometer is a meteorological station providing soil and air temperature profiles, precipitation, global radiation, wind speed and relative humidity measurements with an hourly resolution. In addition to that, soil moisture is measured with TDR probes in 2 profiles under each of the two fields with several probes installed at depths between 5 and 50cm. Vegetation and snow parameters are also recorded on a regularly basis. Soil roughness is measured with a photogrammetric approach. An overview about the infrastructure and existing datasets is presented.

  3. Impact of surface roughness on L-band emissivity of the sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miernecki, M.; Kaleschke, L.; Hendricks, S.; Søbjærg, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    In March 2014 a joint experiment IRO2/SMOSice was carried out in the Barents Sea. R/V Lance equipped with meteorological instruments, electromagnetic sea ice thickness probe and engine monitoring instruments, was performing a series of tests in different ice conditions in order to validate the ice route optimization (IRO) system, advising on his route through pack ice. In parallel cal/val activities for sea ice thickness product obtained from SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission) L-band radiometer were carried out. Apart from helicopter towing the EMbird thickness probe, Polar 5 aircraft was serving the area during the experiment with L-band radiometer EMIRAD2 and Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) as primary instruments. Sea ice Thickness algorithm using SMOS brightness temperature developed at University of Hamburg, provides daily maps of thin sea ice (up to 0.5-1 m) in polar regions with resolution of 35-50 km. So far the retrieval method was not taking into account surface roughness, assuming that sea ice is a specular surface. Roughness is a stochastic process that can be characterized by standard deviation of surface height σ and by shape of the autocorrelation function R to estimate it's vertical and horizontal scales respectively. Interactions of electromagnetic radiation with the surface of the medium are dependent on R and σ and they scales with respect to the incident wavelength. During SMOSice the radiometer was observing sea ice surface at two incidence angles 0 and 40 degrees and simultaneously the surface elevation was scanned with ALS with ground resolution of ~ 0.25 m. This configuration allowed us to calculate σ and R from power spectral densities of surface elevation profiles and quantify the effect of surface roughness on the emissivity of the sea ice. First results indicate that Gaussian autocorrelation function is suitable for deformed ice, for other ice types exponential function is the best fit.

  4. Evaluating SAR polarization modes at L-band for forest classification purposes in Eastern Amazon, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesenberg, Veraldo; Gloaguen, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Single, interferometric dual, and quad-polarization mode data were evaluated for the characterization and classification of seven land use classes in an area with shifting cultivation practices located in the Eastern Amazon (Brazil). The Advanced Land-Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data were acquired during a six month interval. A clear-sky Landsat-5/TM image acquired at the same period was used as additional ground reference and as ancillary input data in the classification scheme. We evaluated backscattering intensity, polarimetric features, interferometric coherence and texture parameters for classification purposes using support vector machines (SVM) and feature selection. Results showed that the forest classes were characterized by low temporal backscattering intensity variability, low coherence and high entropy. Quad polarization mode performed better than dual and single polarizations but overall accuracies remain low and were affected by precipitation events on the date and prior SAR date acquisition. Misclassifications were reduced by integrating Landsat data and an overall accuracy of 85% was attained. The integration of Landsat to both quad and dual polarization modes showed similarity at the 5% significance level. SVM was not affected by SAR dimensionality and feature selection technique reveals that co-polarized channels as well as SAR derived parameters such as Alpha-Entropy decomposition were important ranked features after Landsat' near-infrared and green bands. We show that in absence of Landsat data, polarimetric features extracted from quad-polarization L-band increase classification accuracies when compared to single and dual polarization alone. We argue that the joint analysis of SAR and their derived parameters with optical data performs even better and thus encourage the further development of joint techniques under the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanism.

  5. Forest and Forest Change Mapping with C- and L-band SAR in Liwale, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarpaintner, J.; Davids, C.; Hindberg, H.; Zahabu, E.; Malimbwi, R. E.

    2015-04-01

    As part of a Tanzanian-Norwegian cooperation project on Monitoring Reporting and Verification (MRV) for REDD+, 2007-2011 Cand L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter data from Envisat ASAR and ALOS Palsar, respectively, have been processed, analysed and used for forest and forest change mapping over a study side in Liwale District in Lindi Region, Tanzania. Land cover observations from forest inventory plots of the National Forestry Resources Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA) project have been used for training Gaussian Mixture Models and k-means classifier that have been combined in order to map the study region into forest, woodland and non-forest areas. Maximum forest and woodland extension masks have been extracted by classifying maximum backscatter mosaics in HH and HV polarizations from the 2007-2011 ALOS Palsar coverage and could be used to map efficiently inter-annual forest change by filtering out changes in non-forest areas. Envisat ASAR APS (alternate polarization mode) have also been analysed with the aim to improve the forest/woodland/non-forest classification based on ALOS Palsar. Clearly, the combination of C-band SAR and L-band SAR provides useful information in order to smooth the classification and especially increase the woodland class, but an overall improvement for the wall-to-wall land type classification has yet to be confirmed. The quality assessment and validation of the results is done with very high resolution optical data from WorldView, Ikonos and RapidEye, and NAFORMA field observations.

  6. Aquarius L-band scatterometer and radiometer observations over a Tibetan Plateau site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; van der Velde, Rogier; Su, Zhongbo; Wen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the impact of freeze-thaw, soil moisture and vegetation on L-band backscatter and emission is studied using Aquarius scatterometer/radiometer measurements collected from August 2011 to May 2013 over the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau. The study area is the Maqu region that holds a regional-scale monitoring network consisting of twenty soil moisture/temperature stations, which is selected as one of the core international Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) sites for NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. Comparisons of Aquarius scatterometer/radiometer measurements with soil moisture recorded by capacitance probes installed at a 5-cm soil depth illustrate that (i) L-band microwave observations are also sensitive to the amount of liquid water in soil below freezing point, and (ii) the sensitivity of Aquarius observations over the Maqu area dissipates above soil moisture contents of 0.3 m3 m-3. Further effects of vegetation become directly noticeable only within passive microwave observations at moisture levels larger than 0.4 m3 m-3. The impact of vegetation is studied in more detail through analysis of the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI). Although seasonal variability is captured, the dynamic range of the RVI is insufficient for a meaningful signal-to-noise. Further vegetation optical depth (τ) is estimated using the τ-ω concept by reconstructing the Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) derived from Aquarius radiometer data. Peaks in the τ estimates are noted in the months January/February and July/August. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of τ is a measure for the frost depth when temperatures are below freezing point whereas the behavior of τ in the warm season is in line with the vegetation dynamics.

  7. Soil moisture estimation by assimilating L-band microwave brightness temperature with geostatistics and observation localization.

    PubMed

    Han, Xujun; Li, Xin; Rigon, Riccardo; Jin, Rui; Endrizzi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The observation could be used to reduce the model uncertainties with data assimilation. If the observation cannot cover the whole model area due to spatial availability or instrument ability, how to do data assimilation at locations not covered by observation? Two commonly used strategies were firstly described: One is covariance localization (CL); the other is observation localization (OL). Compared with CL, OL is easy to parallelize and more efficient for large-scale analysis. This paper evaluated OL in soil moisture profile characterizations, in which the geostatistical semivariogram was used to fit the spatial correlated characteristics of synthetic L-Band microwave brightness temperature measurement. The fitted semivariogram model and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter algorithm are combined together to weight and assimilate the observations within a local region surrounding the grid cell of land surface model to be analyzed. Six scenarios were compared: 1_Obs with one nearest observation assimilated, 5_Obs with no more than five nearest local observations assimilated, and 9_Obs with no more than nine nearest local observations assimilated. The scenarios with no more than 16, 25, and 36 local observations were also compared. From the results we can conclude that more local observations involved in assimilation will improve estimations with an upper bound of 9 observations in this case. This study demonstrates the potentials of geostatistical correlation representation in OL to improve data assimilation of catchment scale soil moisture using synthetic L-band microwave brightness temperature, which cannot cover the study area fully in space due to vegetation effects.

  8. Potentials of L-band ALOS interferometry for the measurement of ground deformations at Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briole, P.; Panagiotis, E.; Puglisi, G.; Guglielmino, F.; Bonforte, A.; Murakami, M.

    2009-04-01

    Using eleven ascending PALSAR scenes acquired by the Japanese satellite ALOS over Etna, between January 2007 and September 2008, we produced a series of interferograms covering the volcano and surroundings, by using ROI-PAC software. We compare our results with ENVISAT interferograms covering the same period. The coherence is significantly higher than C-band and it is particularly high in the inhabited areas and on lava flows emplaced during last centuries, where local subsidence is observed on the most recent ones; important improvements in the coherency are also achieved on forested areas. L-band interferometric pairs having large baselines, up to 3 km, are still usable but the coherency significantly fall off, as the baseline increases. Deformation patterns are well measured, and the use of L-band dataset is particular useful in those cases where the coherency in C-band is usually low. This is the case, for instance, of the north-eastern sector of the volcano, where the large forested area made difficult to measure the important ground deformations produced by the dynamic of the Pernicana Fault and the NE Rift zone. The known left lateral strike slip creep across the Pernicana fault is, indeed, well mapped. It can be quantified over the observation interval along the entire fault and compared with the GPS measurements. In the next years, we hope that the acquisition plan of ALOS will permit the capture of more PALSAR scene with the same sensor and orbit parameters. This will constitute a new and exceptional data base, crucial for the knowledge of the dynamics of Etna.

  9. EPR Methods for Biological Cu(II): L-Band CW and NARS

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Brian; Kowalski, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Copper has many roles in biology that involve the change of coordination sphere and/or oxidation state of the copper ion. Consequently, the study of copper in heterogeneous environments is an important area in biophysics. EPR is a primary technique for the investigation of paramagnetic copper, which is usually the isolated Cu(II) ion, but sometimes as Cu(II) in different oxidation states of multi-transition ion clusters. The gross geometry of the coordination environment of Cu(II) can often be determined from a simple inspection of the EPR spectrum, recorded in the traditional X-band frequency range (9 – 10 GHz). Identification and quantitation of the coordinating ligand atoms, however, is not so straightforward. In particular, analysis of the superhyperfine structure on the EPR spectrum, to determine the number of coordinated nitrogen atoms, is fraught with difficulty at X-band, despite the observation that the overwhelming number of EPR studies of Cu(II) in the literature have been carried out at X-band. Greater reliability has been demonstrated at S-band (3 – 4 GHz), using the low-field parallel (gz) features. However, analysis relies on clear identification of the outermost superhyperfine line, which has the lowest intensity of all the spectral features. Computer simulations have subsequently indicated that the much more intense perpendicular region of the spectrum can be reliably interpreted at L-band (2 GHz). The present work describes the development of L-band EPR of Cu(II) into a routine method, that is applicable to biological samples. PMID:26478491

  10. EPR Methods for Biological Cu(II): L-Band CW and NARS.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brian; Kowalski, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Copper has many roles in biology that involve the change of coordination sphere and/or oxidation state of the copper ion. Consequently, the study of copper in heterogeneous environments is an important area in biophysics. EPR is a primary technique for the investigation of paramagnetic copper, which is usually the isolated Cu(II) ion, but sometimes as Cu(II) in different oxidation states of multitransition ion clusters. The gross geometry of the coordination environment of Cu(II) can often be determined from a simple inspection of the EPR spectrum, recorded in the traditional X-band frequency range (9-10 GHz). Identification and quantitation of the coordinating ligand atoms, however, is not so straightforward. In particular, analysis of the superhyperfine structure on the EPR spectrum, to determine the number of coordinated nitrogen atoms, is fraught with difficulty at X-band, despite the observation that the overwhelming number of EPR studies of Cu(II) in the literature have been carried out at X-band. Greater reliability has been demonstrated at S-band (3-4 GHz), using the low-field parallel (gz) features. However, analysis relies on clear identification of the outermost superhyperfine line, which has the lowest intensity of all the spectral features. Computer simulations have subsequently indicated that the much more intense perpendicular region of the spectrum can be reliably interpreted at L-band (2 GHz). The present work describes the development of L-band EPR of Cu(II) into a routine method that is applicable to biological samples.

  11. A new technique to characterize foliage attenuation using passive radar in the L-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesturgie, Marc; Thirion-Lefèvre, Laetitia; Saillant, Stéphane; Dorey, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    The goal of the experiment proposed in this paper is to give rapidly and with a limited equipment the attenuation level in the L-band for various elevation angles, between 20 and 70 degrees. The original principle is to use the L-band signal transmitted from an airport radar. The signal backscattered by a plane flying over the forest next to the airport is received on many antennas: some are over the canopy; others are on the ground under the foliage. The direct path signal transmitted by the airport radar is received by the antennas located above the forest. This signal is used to synchronize the temporal signals by detecting the waveform of the transmitting pulses. The signal backscattered by the plane is received by two H and V polar antennas located over the forest and by two other antennas placed under the foliage. The signals received by these antennas are digitized and processed to extract the plots of the opportunistic targets that approach the airport. The magnitudes of each plane echo are measured on each channel, and a comparison of the level of signal is made between the antenna above and under the forest. The ratio of magnitude between the two measurements on each polarization component gives the absorption factor of the foliage at the place of experiment. The position of the plane is given by an ADS-B receiver. For each elevation position of the antennas, the pattern of the chosen target will describe all the angles of arrival. This experiment has been deployed on two forested sites near an airport in South-East Asia. xml:lang="fr"

  12. Development of a Two Dimensional Synthetic Aperture Radiometer at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Carver, K.; Goodberlet, M.; Popstefanija, I.; Mead, J.

    2000-01-01

    A radiometer that uses aperture synthesis in two dimensions is being built as part of research under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. The instrument development team consists of engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center, the University of Massachusetts and Quadrant Engineering. This will be an aircraft instrument operating at L-band which builds on the heritage of ESTAR. The choice of L-band was made because the problem of achieving adequate resolution in space is most critical at this wavelength and because a polarimetric, conical scanning airborne radiometer for future experiments to validate soil moisture and ocean salinity retrieval algorithms is not currently available. The instrument will be designed to fly on the NASA P-3 aircraft in a nadir pointing mode, although other options are possible. The antenna will consist of an array of modules arranged in a rectangular grid. Each module will be comprised of a printed circuit dual-polarized patch and integrated receiver. The distribution of modules within the rectangular array will be adjustable so that several different imaging configurations (e.g. "+","Y", "T") can be employed. The integrated receiver will provide amplification and conversion to IF. The IF signal will be routed to a processor where the required correlations performed. The I and Q channels will be created digitally and the correlations will be done digitally in this processor. The digitization will be done with sufficient bits to study the effects of quantization on radiometer performance. A computer/controller will store the data for conversion to an image and will also perform temperature control and other data interfacing and housekeeping tasks. The instrument is currently in the bread boarding phase of development. A design of the critical components has been completed and hardware is being assembled to test the individual elements. It is expected that a complete 2-channel correlator will be tested by the summer of 2000 and that the

  13. In-flight radiometric calibration of AVIRIS in 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.; Helmlinger, Mark; Vandenbosch, Jeannette; Hajek, Pavel

    1995-01-01

    The AVIRIS sensor must be calibrated at the time it measures spectra from the ER-2 airborne platform in order to achieve research and application objectives that are both quantitative and physically based. However, the operational environment inside the Q-bay of the ER-2 at 20 km altitude differs from that in the AVIRIS laboratory with respect to temperature, pressure, vibration, and high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Experiments at surface calibration targets are used in each flight season to confirm the accuracy of AVIRIS in-flight radiometric calibrations. For these experiments, the MODTRAN radiative transfer code is constrained by using in situ measurements to independently predict the upwelling spectral radiance arriving at AVIRIS for a specific calibration target. AVIRIS calibration is validated in flight by comparing the MODTRAN-predicted radiance to the laboratory-calibrated radiance measured by the AVIRIS sensor for the same time over the calibration target. We present radiometric calibration results for the AVIRIS in-flight calibration experiment held at the beginning of the 1994 flight season.

  14. Automated gamma spectrometry and data analysis on radiometric neutron dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, W.Y.

    1983-01-01

    An automated gamma-ray spectrometry system was designed and implemented by the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) to analyze radiometric neutron dosimeters. Unattended, automatic, 24 hour/day, 7 day/week operation with online data analysis and mainframe-computer compatible magnetic tape output are system features. The system was used to analyze most of the 4000-plus radiometric monitors (RM's) from extensive reactor characterization tests during startup and initial operation of th Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The FFTF, operated by HEDL for the Department of Energy, incorporates a 400 MW(th) sodium-cooled fast reactor. Aumomated system hardware consists of a high purity germanium detector, a computerized multichannel analyzer data acquisition system (Nuclear Data, Inc. Model 6620) with two dual 2.5 Mbyte magnetic disk drives plus two 10.5 inch reel magnetic tape units for mass storage of programs/data and an automated Sample Changer-Positioner (ASC-P) run with a programmable controller. The ASC-P has a 200 sample capacity and 12 calibrated counting (analysis) positions ranging from 6 inches (15 cm) to more than 20 feet (6.1 m) from the detector. The system software was programmed in Fortran at HEDL, except for the Nuclear Data, Inc. Peak Search and Analysis Program and Disk Operating System (MIDAS+).

  15. Radiometric measurement of differential metabolism of fatty acid by mycobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Camargo, E.E.; Kertcher, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Tepper, B.S.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1982-06-01

    An assay system has been developed based on automated radiometric quantification of /sup 14/CO2 produced through oxidation of (1-/sup 14/C) fatty acids by mycobacteria. Two stains of M. tuberculosis (H37Rv and Erdman) and one of M. bovis (BCG) in 7H9 medium (ADC) with 1.0 microCi of one of the fatty acids (butyric, hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic) were studied. Results previously published on M. lepraemurium (Hawaiian) were also included for comparison. Both strains of M. tuberculosis had maximum /sup 14/CO2 production from hexanoic acid. Oxidation of butyric and avid oxidation of lauric acids were also found with the H37Rv strain but not with Erdman. In contrast, /sup 14/CO2 production by M. bovis was greatest from lauric and somewhat less from decanoic acid. M. lepraemurium showed increasing oxidation rates from myristic, decanoic and lauric acids. Assimilation studies of M. tuberculosis H37Rv confirmed that most of the oxidized substrates were converted into by-products with no change in those from which no oxidation was found. These data suggest that the radiometric measurement of differential fatty acid metabolism may provide a basis of strain identification of the genus Mycobacterium.

  16. Radiometric Characterization of Hyperspectral Imagers using Multispectral Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Kurt, Thome; Leisso, Nathan; Anderson, Nikolaus; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona has a long history of using ground-based test sites for the calibration of airborne and satellite based sensors. Often, ground-truth measurements at these test sites are not always successful due to weather and funding availability. Therefore, RSG has also automated ground instrument approaches and cross-calibration methods to verify the radiometric calibration of a sensor. The goal in the cross-calibration method is to transfer the calibration of a well-known sensor to that of a different sensor, This work studies the feasibility of determining the radiometric calibration of a hyperspectral imager using multispectral a imagery. The work relies on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (M0DIS) as a reference for the hyperspectral sensor Hyperion. Test sites used for comparisons are Railroad Valley in Nevada and a portion of the Libyan Desert in North Africa. Hyperion bands are compared to MODIS by band averaging Hyperion's high spectral resolution data with the relative spectral response of M0DlS. The results compare cross-calibration scenarios that differ in image acquisition coincidence, test site used for the calibration, and reference sensor. Cross-calibration results are presented that show agreement between the use of coincident and non-coincident image pairs within 2% in most brands as well as similar agreement between results that employ the different MODIS sensors as a reference.

  17. Reduction of radiometric miscalibration--applications to pushbroom sensors.

    PubMed

    Rogass, Christian; Spengler, Daniel; Bochow, Mathias; Segl, Karl; Lausch, Angela; Doktor, Daniel; Roessner, Sigrid; Behling, Robert; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Kaufmann, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework-Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME)-considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data. PMID:22163960

  18. Principal Component Noise Filtering for NAST-I Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed- Interferometer (NAST-I) instrument is a high-resolution scanning interferometer that measures emitted thermal radiation between 3.3 and 18 microns. The NAST-I radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient and hot temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes a principal component (PC) noise filter to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, further improve the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy. To test the procedure and estimate the PC filter noise performance, we form dependent and independent test samples using odd and even sets of blackbody spectra. To determine the optimal number of eigenvectors, the PC filter algorithm is applied to both dependent and independent blackbody spectra with a varying number of eigenvectors. The optimal number of PCs is selected so that the total root-mean-square (RMS) error is minimized. To estimate the filter noise performance, we examine four different scenarios: apply PC filtering to both dependent and independent datasets, apply PC filtering to dependent calibration data only, apply PC filtering to independent data only, and no PC filters. The independent blackbody radiances are predicted for each case and comparisons are made. The results show significant reduction in noise in the final calibrated radiances with the implementation of the PC filtering algorithm.

  19. Reduction of radiometric miscalibration--applications to pushbroom sensors.

    PubMed

    Rogass, Christian; Spengler, Daniel; Bochow, Mathias; Segl, Karl; Lausch, Angela; Doktor, Daniel; Roessner, Sigrid; Behling, Robert; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Kaufmann, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework-Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME)-considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data.

  20. Branching Ratios for The Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daw, Adrian N.; Bhatia, A. K.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket instrument is a two-channel imaging spectrograph that observes the solar corona and transition region with high spectral resolution and a rapid cadence made possible by unprecedented sensitivity. The upcoming flight will incorporate a new wavelength channel covering the range 524-630 Angstroms, the previously-flown 300-370 Angstroms channel, and the first flight demonstration of cooled active pixel sensor (APS) arrays. The new 524-630 Angstrom channel incorporates a Toroidal Varied Line Space (TVLS) grating coated with B4C/Ir, providing broad spectral coverage and a wide temperature range of 0.025 to 10 MK. Absolute radiometric calibration of the two channels is being performed using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and NIST-calibrated AXUV-100G photodiode. Laboratory observations of He I 584 Angstroms and He II 304 Angstroms provide absolute radiometric calibrations of the two channels at those two respective wavelengths by using the AXUV photodiode as a transfer standard. The spectral responsivity is being determined by observing line pairs with a common upper state in the spectra of Ne I-III and Ar II-III. Calculations of A-values for the observed branching ratios are in progress.

  1. Investigation of radiometric properties of the LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The radiometric data quality of the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) was examined using several LANDSAT 4 frames. It was found that LANDSAT 4 MSS produces high-quality data of the caliber experienced with previous LANDSATS. For example, the detector equalization procedure worked well, leaving a residual banding effect of about 0.3 digital counts RMS, close to the theoretical minimum value of quantization error. Nevertheless, artifacts of the data were found, two of which were not experienced in previous MSS data. A low-level coherent noise effect was observed in all bands, with a magnitude of about 0.5 digital counts and a frequency of approximately 28 KHz (representing a wavelength of about 3.6 pixels); a substantial increase in processing complexity would be required to reduce this artifact in the data. Also, a substantial scan-length variation (of up to six pixels) was noted in MSS data when the TM sensor was operating; the LANDSAT 4 correction algorithms being applied routinely by the EROS Data Center to produce a p-type data should remove most of this variation. Between-satellite calibrations were examined in paired LANDSAT 3 and LANDSAT 4 MSS data sets, which were closely matched in acquisition time and place. Radiometric comparisons showed that all bands were highly linear in digital counts, and a well-determined linear transformation between the MSS's was established.

  2. A Preliminary Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C.; Fusco, L.; Mehl, W.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis was performed to characterize the radiometry of three Thematic Mapper (TM) digital products of a scene of Arkansas. The three digital products examined were the NASA raw (BT) product, the radiometrically corrected (AT) product and the radiometrically and geometrically corrected (PT) product. The frequency distribution of the digital data; the statistical correlation between the bands; and the variability between the detectors within a band were examined on a series of image subsets from the full scene. The results are presented from one 1024 x 1024 pixel subset of Realfoot Lake, Tennessee which displayed a representative range of ground conditions and cover types occurring within the full frame image. Bands 1, 2 and 5 of the sample area are presented. The subsets were extracted from the three digital data products to cover the same geographic area. This analysis provides the first step towards a full appraisal of the TM radiometry being performed as part of the ESA/CEC contribution to the NASA/LIDQA program.

  3. Overview of atmospheric correction and radiometric calibration efforts during FIFE

    SciTech Connect

    Halthore, R.N. ); Markham, B.L. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. This paper reports on the work of the atmospheric corrections and radiometric calibration subgroup of FIFE. The responsibility of this group included calibration of remote sensing instrumentation used on surface platforms and aircraft, establishing recommendations for calibrating satellite observations, measurement of relevant atmospheric properties, development of algorithms which will perform the atmospheric corrections for the remotely sensed data, and finally evaluation of surface properties, including reflectances and temperatures. Good progress was made for cloudless and low-haze atmospheric conditions, but no effort was directed toward more complicated conditions, since little FIFE data was collected in these conditions. Studies of aircraft mounted instrumentation revealed that some of this instrumentation was not adequately designed for radiometric calibration, and thus the errors are very large for some of this data.

  4. Blood culture cross contamination associated with a radiometric analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.R.; Miller, A.D.; Davis, A.C.

    1982-04-01

    During a 9-day period in August 1980 in a New Jersey hospital, three pairs of consecutively numbered blood cultures from different patients were identified as positive for the same organism, for each pair, both cultures were positive in the same atmosphere, both organisms had the same sensitivities, and the second of each pair grew at least 2 days after the first and was the only positive blood culture obtained from the patient. When the hospital laboratory discontinued use of its radiometric culture analyzer for 15 days, no more consecutive pairs of positive cultures occurred. Subsequent use of the machine for 9 days with a new power unit but the original circuit boards resulted in one more similar consecutive pair (Staphylococcus epidermidis). After replacement of the entire power unit, there were no further such pairs. Examination of the machine by the manufacturer revealed a defective circuit board which resulted in inadequate needle sterilization. Laboratories which utilize radiometric analyzers should be aware of the potential for cross contamination. Recognition of such events requires alert microbiologists and infection control practitioners and a record system in the bacteriology laboratory designed to identify such clusters.

  5. Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, B. J.; Mccafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

  6. Radiometric and Geometric Accuracy Analysis of Rasat Pan Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocaman, S.; Yalcin, I.; Guler, M.

    2016-06-01

    RASAT is the second Turkish Earth Observation satellite which was launched in 2011. It operates with pushbroom principle and acquires panchromatic and MS images with 7.5 m and 15 m resolutions, respectively. The swath width of the sensor is 30 km. The main aim of this study is to analyse the radiometric and geometric quality of RASAT images. A systematic validation approach for the RASAT imagery and its products is being applied. RASAT image pair acquired over Kesan city in Edirne province of Turkey are used for the investigations. The raw RASAT data (L0) are processed by Turkish Space Agency (TUBITAK-UZAY) to produce higher level image products. The image products include radiometrically processed (L1), georeferenced (L2) and orthorectified (L3) data, as well as pansharpened images. The image quality assessments include visual inspections, noise, MTF and histogram analyses. The geometric accuracy assessment results are only preliminary and the assessment is performed using the raw images. The geometric accuracy potential is investigated using 3D ground control points extracted from road intersections, which were measured manually in stereo from aerial images with 20 cm resolution and accuracy. The initial results of the study, which were performed using one RASAT panchromatic image pair, are presented in this paper.

  7. Empirical radiometric correction of optical remote sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palubinskas, Gintautas; Mueller, Rupert M.; Reinartz, Peter H.

    2002-08-01

    We propose an empirical radiometric correction method for the effects, such as atmospheric effects and anisotropic reflection of the surface, in optical remote sensing data. These distortions are sensor viewing (scanning) angle dependent, thus they can be significant for data received from airborne sensors due to their wide field of view. The procedure is based solely on the digital image data and consists of several steps. First, the initial image region near nadir (minimal distortions) is clustered by an extended k-means algorithm, which automatically detects the clusters (surface types) in an image. Then, for each cluster an average line profile is calculated. These profiles (initially defined in a middle part of an image line) are extrapolated to the whole line of an image by a polynomial approximation. Finally, from these polynomial functions the linear regression over all clusters is build using the radiative transfer equation, which allows the radiometric correction for each viewing angle in an image relative to the reference angle, usually nadir. The procedure is iterative, that is the correction is first performed for a narrow part around the initial region. Then the procedure is initialized with this newly corrected image region and repeated until the whole image is corrected. The experiments for data acquired by airborne multispectral scanner DAEDALUS AADS 1268 ATM show the effectiveness of the proposed method especially for the mosaicking and classification applications.

  8. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper Thermal Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Gibbons, D. E.; Martucci, L. M.; Foote, H. P.

    1989-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of satellite-acquired data is essential for quantitative scientific studies, as well as for a variety of image-processing applications. This paper describes a multiyear, on-orbit radiometric calibration of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Band 6 conducted at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Numerous Landsat TM scenes acquired and analyzed included day and night coverages at several geographical locations over several seasons. Concurrent with Landsat overpasses, thermal field and local meteorological (surface and radiosonde) measurements were collected. At-satellite (uncorrected) radiances and temperatures for water and nonwater land cover were compared to ground truth (GT) measurements after making adjustments for atmospheric (using LOWTRAN), mixed-pixel, and emissivity effects. Results indicate that, for both water and nonwater features, TM Band 6 average corrected temperature determinations using local radiosonde data to adjust for atmospheric effects, and using appropriate emissivities, are within 1.0 C of GT temperature values. Temperatures of water pixels derived from uncorrected TM Band 6 data varied roughly between 1 and 3 C of ground truth values for water temperatures ranging between 4 and 24 C. Moreover, corrections using nonlocal and noncoincident radiosonde data resulted in errors as large as 12 C. Corrections using the U.S. Standard Atmosphere gave temperature values within 1 to 2 C of GT. The average uncertainty for field instruments was + or - 0.2 C; average uncertainty for Landsat TM corrected temperature determinations was + or - 0.4 C.

  9. Evaluating Radiometric Measurements Using a Fixed 45 Degrees Responsivity and Zenith Angle Dependent Responsivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Reda, I.; Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Andreas, A.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    This poster seeks to demonstrate the importance and application of an existing but unused approach that ultimately reduces the uncertainty of radiometric measurements. Current radiometric data is based on a single responsivity value that introduces significant uncertainty to the data, however, through using responsivity as a function of solar zenith angle, the uncertainty could be decreased by 50%.

  10. Application of radiometric surface temperature for surface energy balance estimation: John Monteith's contributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 25 years ago, Huband and Monteith paper’s investigating the radiative surface temperature and the surface energy balance of a wheat canopy, highlighted the key issues in computing fluxes with radiometric surface temperature. These included the relationship between radiometric and aerodynamic s...

  11. Galileo SSI/Gaspra Radiometrically Calibrated Images V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, D. L.

    2015-05-01

    This data set includes Galileo Orbiter SSI radiometrically calibrated images of the asteroid 951 Gaspra, created using ISIS software and assuming nadir pointing. This is an original delivery of radiometrically calibrated files, not an update to existing files. All images archived include the the asteroid within the image frame. Calibration was performed in 2013-2014.

  12. Developing an Error Model for Ionospheric Phase Distortions in L-Band SAR and InSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; Agram, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    Many of the recent and upcoming spaceborne SAR systems are operating in the L-band frequency range. The choice of L-band has a number of advantages especially for InSAR applications. These include deeper penetration into vegetation, higher coherence, and higher sensitivity to soil moisture. While L-band SARs are undoubtedly beneficial for a number of earth science disciplines, their signals are susceptive to path delay effects in the ionosphere. Many recent publications indicate that the ionosphere can have detrimental effects on InSAR coherence and phase. It has also been shown that the magnitude of these effects strongly depends on the time of day and geographic location of the image acquisition as well as on the coincident solar activity. Hence, in order to provide realistic error estimates for geodetic measurements derived from L-band InSAR, an error model needs to be developed that is capable of describing ionospheric noise. With this paper, we present a global ionospheric error model that is currently being developed in support of NASA's future L-band SAR mission NISAR. The system is based on a combination of empirical data analysis and modeling input from the ionospheric model WBMOD, and is capable of predicting ionosphere-induced phase noise as a function of space and time. The error model parameterizes ionospheric noise using a power spectrum model and provides the parameters of this model in a global 1x1 degree raster. From the power law model, ionospheric errors in deformation estimates can be calculated. In Polar Regions, our error model relies on a statistical analysis of ionospheric-phase noise in a large number of SAR data from previous L-band SAR missions such as ALOS PALSAR and JERS-1. The focus on empirical analyses is due to limitations of WBMOD in high latitude areas. Outside of the Polar Regions, the ionospheric model WBMOD is used to derive ionospheric structure parameters for as a function of solar activity. The structure parameters are

  13. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Knight, Edward J.; Kvaran, Geir; Barsi, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) has a comprehensive radiometric characterization and calibration program beginning with the instrument design, and extending through integration and test, on-orbit operations and science data processing. Key instrument design features for radiometric calibration include dual solar diffusers and multi-lamped on-board calibrators. The radiometric calibration transfer procedure from NIST standards has multiple checks on the radiometric scale throughout the process and uses a heliostat as part of the transfer to orbit of the radiometric calibration. On-orbit lunar imaging will be used to track the instruments stability and side slither maneuvers will be used in addition to the solar diffuser to flat field across the thousands of detectors per band. A Calibration Validation Team is continuously involved in the process from design to operations. This team uses an Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the ground system to characterize and calibrate the on-orbit data.

  14. MAPSAR Image Simulation Based on L-band Polarimetric Data from the SAR-R99B Airborne Sensor (SIVAM System)

    PubMed Central

    Mura, José Claudio; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Dutra, Luciano Vieira; dos Santos, João Roberto; Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon; da Silva, Mario Marcos Quintino; da Silva, Wagner Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology applied to generate simulated multipolarized L-band SAR images of the MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR) satellite from the airborne SAR R99B sensor (SIVAM System). MAPSAR is a feasibility study conducted by INPE (National Institute for Space Research) and DLR (German Aerospace Center) targeting a satellite L-band SAR innovative mission for assessment, management and monitoring of natural resources. Examples of simulated products and their applications are briefly discussed. PMID:22389590

  15. Land Cover Classification Method using Combined Signatures of L-band Radar and Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the utility of combining L-band radar and radiometer measurements for more accurate land cover classification in terms of vegetation type and density. This investigation is relevant in the context of two NASA missions which employ L-band active and passive measurements. The first one, Aquarius, was launched in June 2011 and the second one, SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) is proposed for launch in late 2014. The results of this study can be applied in the observation situation of both of these missions to improve L-band land cover characterization for the benefit of retrieval accuracy of parameters such as soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Brightness temperature, measured by radiometer, is the product of the physical temperature and emissivity of the target. Reflectivity describes how much of radiation incident on the surface reflects and scatters away from it to all directions. The sum of emissivity and reflectivity equals one. On the other hand, backscatter, measured by radar, expresses how much of radiation incident on the surface reflects back to the direction of the radar. The difference between reflectivity and backscatter can be quantified by introducing Normalized Reflection Difference (NRD), which is normalized difference between reflectivity and backscatter. In the proposed method the NRD value is merged with brightness temperature polarization index (MPI) and cross-polarized backscatter to classify the land cover of the measured area. The method is tested using the experimental data obtained with the PALS (Passive and Active L- band System) airborne instrument over numerous locations in US between 1999 and 2008. The PALS instrument performs coincidental radiometer and radar measurements. The in situ data recorded in the abovementioned campaigns allow classification based on not only vegetation type but also based on Vegetation Water Content (VWC), biomass, Leaf Area Index (LAI) soil texture and surface roughness. The

  16. Mobile satellite system fade statistics for shadowing and multipath from roadside trees at UHF and L-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1989-01-01

    Field tests related to planned mobile satellite systems were performed, and results that add to the existing database of propagation measurements at L-band (1.5 GHz) are described. They are considered particularly useful in that propagation effects were studied systematically, with repeated and controlled runs pertaining to different path elevation angles, road types, and path geometries defining shadowing and line-of-sight modes. In addition, simultaneous L-band and UHF measurements were performed for the purpose of establishing scaling factors applicable to previous UHF (870 MHz) results. The control of the experimental parameters was made possible by using a helicopter as the source platform and a mobile van to house the receiver.

  17. High power test results of the first SRRC/ANL high current L-band RF gun.

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C. H.

    1998-09-11

    A joint program is underway between the SRRC (Synchrotrons Radiation Research Center, Taiwan) and ANL (Argonne National Laboratory, USA) for developing a high current L-band photocathode rf guns. We have constructed an L-Band (1.3 Ghz), single cell rf photocathode gun and conducted low power tests at SRRC. High power rf conditioning of the cavity has been completed at ANL. In this paper we report on the construction and high power test results. So far we have been able to achieve > 120 MV/m axial electric field with minimal dark current. This gun will be used to replace the AWA (Argonne Wakefield Accelerator)[l] high current gun.

  18. L-band all-optical gain-clamped EDFA by utilizing C-band backward ASE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Jin, Yanli; Dou, Qingying; Liu, Yange; Yuan, Shuzhong; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2006-04-01

    By using an optical circulator and C/L-band wavelength division multiplexer to recycle the C-band backward ASE, an L-band gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier is presented. We have experimentally studied the static gain clamping property of this amplifier. As the ASE feedback attenuation is set to 0, the gain at 1585 nm can be clamped at 18.84 ± 0.26 dB within dynamic range of 25 dB and the critical power reaches about -15.09 dBm. The gain variation and saturated output power at 1585 nm for 0 dB attenuation are 1 dB lower and 2.17 dB higher than those for 30 dB attenuation, which indicates that the L-band EDFA gain can be effectively clamped via the ASE injection technique.

  19. Determination of precipitation profiles from airborne passive microwave radiometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, Christian; Hakkarinen, Ida M.; Pierce, Harold F.; Weinman, James A.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents the first quantitative retrievals of vertical profiles of precipitation derived from multispectral passive microwave radiometry. Measurements of microwave brightness temperature (Tb) obtained by a NASA high-altitude research aircraft are related to profiles of rainfall rate through a multichannel piecewise-linear statistical regression procedure. Statistics for Tb are obtained from a set of cloud radiative models representing a wide variety of convective, stratiform, and anvil structures. The retrieval scheme itself determines which cloud model best fits the observed meteorological conditions. Retrieved rainfall rate profiles are converted to equivalent radar reflectivity for comparison with observed reflectivities from a ground-based research radar. Results for two case studies, a stratiform rain situation and an intense convective thunderstorm, show that the radiometrically derived profiles capture the major features of the observed vertical structure of hydrometer density.

  20. Mixing geometric and radiometric features for change classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Alexandre; Descombes, Xavier; Zerubia, Josiane

    2008-02-01

    Most basic change detection algorithms use a pixel-based approach. Whereas such approach is quite well defined for monitoring important area changes (such as urban growth monitoring) in low resolution images, an object based approach seems more relevant when the change detection is specifically aimed toward targets (such as small buildings and vehicles). In this paper, we present an approach that mixes radiometric and geometric features to qualify the changed zones. The goal is to establish bounds (appearance, disappearance, substitution ...) between the detected changes and the underlying objects. We proceed by first clustering the change map (containing each pixel bitemporal radiosity) in different classes using the entropy-kmeans algorithm. Assuming that most man-made objects have a polygonal shape, a polygonal approximation algorithm is then used in order to characterize the resulting zone shapes. Hence allowing us to refine the primary rough classification, by integrating the polygon orientations in the state space. Tests are currently conducted on Quickbird data.

  1. Radiometric performance of the Viking Mars lander cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Burcher, E. E.; Taylor, E. J.; Wall, S. D.

    1975-01-01

    The Viking lander cameras feature an array of 12 silicon photodiodes for electronic focus selection and multispectral imaging. Comparisons of absolute radiometric calibrations of the four cameras selected for the mission to Mars with performance predictions based on their design data revealed minor discrepancies. These discrepancies were caused primarily by the method used to calibrate the photosensor array and apparently also from light reflections internal to the array. The sensitivity and dynamic range of all camera channels are found to be sufficient for high quality pictures, providing that the commandable gains and offsets can be optimized for the scene radiance; otherwise, the quantization noise may be too high or the dynamic range too low for an adequate characterization of the scene.

  2. New Sentinel-2 radiometric validation approaches (SEOM program)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruniquel, Véronique; Lamquin, Nicolas; Ferron, Stéphane; Govaerts, Yves; Woolliams, Emma; Dilo, Arta; Gascon, Ferran

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is an ESA program element whose one of the objectives aims at launching state-of-the-art studies for the scientific exploitation of operational missions. In the frame of this program, ESA awarded ACRI-ST and its partners Rayference and National Physical Laboratory (NPL) early 2016 for a R&D study on the development and intercomparison of algorithms for validating the Sentinel-2 radiometric L1 data products beyond the baseline algorithms used operationally in the frame of the S2 Mission Performance Centre. In this context, several algorithms have been proposed and are currently in development: The first one is based on the exploitation of Deep Convective Cloud (DCC) observations over ocean. This method allows an inter-band radiometry validation from the blue to the NIR (typically from B1 to B8a) from a reference band already validated for example with the well-known Rayleigh method. Due to their physical properties, DCCs appear from the remote sensing point of view to have bright and cold tops and they can be used as invariant targets to monitor the radiometric response degradation of reflective solar bands. The DCC approach is statistical i.e. the method shall be applied on a large number of measurements to derive reliable statistics and decrease the impact of the perturbing contributors. The second radiometric validation method is based on the exploitation of matchups combining both concomitant in-situ measurements and Sentinel-2 observations. The in-situ measurements which are used here correspond to measurements acquired in the frame of the RadCalNet networks. The validation is performed for the Sentinel-2 bands similar to the bands of the instruments equipping the validation site. The measurements from the Cimel CE 318 12-filters BRDF Sun Photometer installed recently in the Gobabeb site near the Namib desert are used for this method. A comprehensive verification of the calibration requires an analysis of MSI radiances over the full dynamic range

  3. Radiometric Calibrations, Measurements, and Standards Development at NREL: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Andreas, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Gotseff, P.; Kay, B.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Radiometric calibrations, measurements, and standards development at NREL. We describe proposed revisions to current reference standard spectral distributions used to evaluate photovoltaic device performance and durability of materials. Improvements in broadband outdoor radiometer calibrations reduce uncertainties in broadband radiometer calibrations. We report a method to quantify the rate of change of broadband radiometer responsivities as a function of integrated exposure to irradiance and thermal energy. The results of applying a vector of calibration factors or responsivities to field data to remove zenith-angle dependent errors in global solar radiation measurements are shown. We report on the relative sensitivity of radiometers to daily versus biweekly cleaning.

  4. [In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV multispectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yan, Lei; Gou, Zhi-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Liu, Da-Ping; Duan, Yi-Ni

    2012-12-01

    Based on the data of the scientific experiment in Urad Front Banner for UAV Remote Sensing Load Calibration Field project, with the help of 6 hyperspectral radiometric targets with good Lambertian property, the wide-view multispectral camera in UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. The result reveals that for green, red and infrared channel, whose images were successfully captured, the linear correlation coefficients between the DN and radiance are all larger than 99%. In final analysis, the comprehensive error is no more than 6%. The calibration results demonstrate that the hyperspectral targets equipped by the calibration field are well suitable for air-borne multispectral load in-flight calibration. The calibration result is reliable and could be used in the retrieval of geophysical parameters.

  5. Active radiometric calorimeter for absolute calibration of radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, K.E.; DeWerd, L.A.; Rudman, D.A.; Schima, S.A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the design and initial noise floor measurements of a radiometric calorimeter designed to measure therapeutic medical radioactive sources. The instrument demonstrates a noise floor of approximately 2 nW. This low noise floor is achieved by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) transition edge sensor (TES) thermometers in a temperature-control feedback loop. This feedback loop will be used to provide absolute source calibrations based upon the electrical substitution method. Other unique features of the calorimeter are (a) its ability to change sources for calibration without disrupting the vacuum of the instrument, and (b) the ability to measure the emitted power of a source in addition to the total contained source power.

  6. New approach for the radiometric calibration of spectral imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Kohler, David; Bissett, W; Steward, Robert; Davis, Curtiss

    2004-05-31

    The calibration of multispectral and hyperspectral imaging systems is typically done in the laboratory using an integrating sphere, which usually produces a signal that is red rich. Using such a source to calibrate environmental monitoring systems presents some difficulties. Not only is much of the calibration data outside the range and spectral quality of data values that are expected to be captured in the field, using these measurements alone may exaggerate the optical flaws found within the system. Left unaccounted for, these flaws will become embedded in to the calibration, and thus, they will be passed on to the field data when the calibration is applied. To address these issues, we used a series of well-characterized spectral filters within our calibration. It provided us with a set us stable spectral standards to test and account for inadequacies in the spectral and radiometric integrity of the optical imager.

  7. Radiometric calibration and SNR calculation of a SWIR imaging telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Ozgur; Turk, Fethi; Selimoglu, Ozgur

    2012-09-06

    Radiometric calibration of an imaging telescope is usually made using a uniform illumination sphere in a laboratory. In this study, we used the open-sky images taken during bright day conditions to calibrate our telescope. We found a dark signal offset value and a linear response coefficient value for each pixel by using three different algorithms. Then we applied these coefficients to the taken images, and considerably lowered the image non-uniformity. Calibration can be repeated during the operation of telescope with an object that has better uniformity than open-sky. Also SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of each pixel was calculated from the open-sky images using the temporal mean and standard deviations. It is found that SNR is greater than 80 for all pixels even at low light levels.

  8. Airborne Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Observations of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Racette, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the first radiometric measurements of cirrus clouds in the frequency range of 89-325 GHz from a high-altitude aircraft flight. The measurements are conducted with a Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) on board the NASA ER-2 aircraft over a region in northern Oklahoma. Aboard the same aircraft are a cloud lidar system and a multichannel radiometer operating at the visible and infrared wavelengths. The instrument ensemble is well suited for identifying cirrus clouds. It is shown that the depressions in brightness temperatures associated with a few intense cirrus clouds occur at all frequency channels of the MIR. Estimates of total ice water path of the cirrus clouds are derived from comparisons of radiative transfer calculations and observed brightness depressions.

  9. Radiometric Ages of Martian Meteorites compared to Martian Surfaces Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1999-01-01

    The surprisingly young Rb-Sr age of the Shergotty meteorite contributed to early suggestions that it might be of martian origin. their redox state and oxygen isotopic compositions linked the shergottites to the clino-pyroxenite nakhlites and the dunite Chassigny, causing them to be grouped as SNC meteorites. These characteristics, but especially the similarity of the elemental and isotopic compositions of gases trapped in shergottites to those of the martian atmosphere, have caused the martian origin of the SNC and related meteorites to be widely accepted. Although the young ages were one of the early hints of a martian origin for the SNC meteorites, their interpretation has remained somewhat ambiguous. We will review the radiometric ages of the martian meteorites and attempt to place them into the context of martian surface ages.

  10. Analysis of soil moisture retrieval from airborne passive/active L-band sensor measurements in SMAPVEX 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Song, Hongting; Tan, Lei; Li, Yinan; Li, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Soil moisture is a key component in the hydrologic cycle and climate system. It is an important input parameter for many hydrologic and meteorological models. NASA'S upcoming Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, to be launched in October 2014, will address this need by utilizing passive and active microwave measurements at L-band, which will penetrate moderately dense canopies. In preparation for the SMAP mission, the Soil Moisture Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was conducted from 6 June to 17 July 2012 in the Carment-Elm Creek area in Manitoba, Canada. Over a period of six weeks diverse land cover types ranging from agriculture over pasture and grassland to forested sites were re-visited several times a week. The Passive/Active L-band Sensor (PALS) provides radiometer products, vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures, and radar products. Over the past two decades, successful estimation of soil moisture has been accomplished using passive and active L-band data. However, remaining uncertainties related to surface roughness and the absorption, scattering, and emission by vegetation must be resolved before soil moisture retrieval algorithms can be applied with known and acceptable accuracy using satellite observations. This work focuses on analyzing the Passive/Active L-band Sensor observations of sites covered during SMAPVEX12, investigating the observed data, parameterizing vegetation covered surface model, modeling inversion algorithm and analyzing observed soil moisture changes over the time period of six weeks. The data and analysis results from this study are aimed at increasing the accuracy and range of validity of SMAP soil moisture retrievals via enhancing the accuracy for soil moisture retrieval.

  11. Sea ice concentration and sea ice drift for the Arctic summer using C- and L-band SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Malin; Berg, Anders; Eriksson, Leif

    2014-05-01

    The decreasing amount of sea ice and changes from multi-year ice to first year ice within the Arctic Ocean opens up for increased maritime activities. These activities include transportation, fishing and tourism. One of the major threats for the shipping is the presence of sea ice. Should an oil spill occur, the search and rescue is heavily dependent on constant updates of sea ice movements, both to enable a safer working environment and to potentially prevent the oil from reaching the sea ice. It is therefore necessary to have accurate and updated sea ice charts for the Arctic Ocean during the entire year. During the melt season that ice is subject to melting conditions making satellite observations of sea ice more difficult. This period coincides with the peak in marine shipping activities and therefore requires highly accurate sea ice concentration estimates. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) are not hindered by clouds and do not require daylight. The continuous record and high temporal resolution makes C-band data preferable as input data for operational sea ice mapping. However, with C-band SAR it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between a wet sea ice surface and surrounding open water. L-band SAR has a larger penetration depth and has been shown to be less sensitive to less sensitive than C-band to the melt season. Inclusion of L-band data into sea chart estimates during the melt season in particular could therefore improve sea ice monitoring. We compare sea ice concentration melt season observations using Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) L-band images with Envisat ASAR C-band images. We evaluate if L-band images can be used to improve separation of wet surface ice from open water and compare with results for C-band.

  12. Coherence Effects in L-Band Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Quasi-Periodic Corn Canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, Cuneyt; Lang, Roger H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their highly random nature, vegetation canopies can be modeled using the incoherent transport theory for active and passive remote sensing applications. Agricultural vegetation canopies however are generally more structured than natural vegetation. The inherent row structure in agricultural canopies induces coherence effects disregarded by the transport theory. The objective of this study is to demonstrate, via Monte-Carlo simulations, these coherence effects on L-band scattering and thermal emission from corn canopies consisting of only stalks.

  13. A Dual Polarization, Active, Microstrip Antenna for an Orbital Imaging Radar System Operating at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Kenneth C.; Huang, John

    1999-01-01

    A highly successful Earth orbiting synthetic antenna aperture radar (SAR) system, known as the SIR-C mission, was carried into orbit in 1994 on a U.S. Shuttle (Space Transportation System) mission. The radar system was mounted in the cargo bay with no need to fold, or in any other way reduce the size of the antennas for launch. Weight and size were not limited for the L-Band, C-Band, and X-Band radar systems of the SIR-C radar imaging mission; the set of antennas weighed 10,500 kg, the L-Band antenna having the major share of the weight. This paper treats designing an L-Band antenna functionally similar to that used for SIR-C, but at a fraction of the cost and at a weight in the order of 250 kg. Further, the antenna must be folded to fit into the small payload shroud of low cost booster rocket systems. Over 31 square meters of antenna area is required. This low weight, foldable, electronic scanning antenna is for the proposed LightSAR radar system which is to be placed in Earth orbit on a small, dedicated space craft at the lowest possible cost for an efficient L-Band radar imaging system. This LightSAR spacecraft radar is to be continuously available for at least five operational years, and have the ability to map or repeat-map any area on earth within a few days of any request. A microstrip patch array, with microstrip transmission lines heavily employed in the aperture and in the corporate feed network, was chosen as the low cost approach for this active dual-polarization, 80 MHz (6.4%) bandwidth antenna design.

  14. IRCM spectral signature measurements instrumentation featuring enhanced radiometric accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantagne, Stéphane; Prel, Florent; Moreau, Louis; Roy, Claude; Willers, Cornelius J.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral Infrared (IR) signature measurements are performed in military applications including aircraft- and -naval vessel stealth characterization, detection/lock-on ranges, and flares efficiency characterization. Numerous military applications require high precision measurement of infrared signature characterization. For instance, Infrared Countermeasure (IRCM) systems and Infrared Counter-Countermeasure (IRCCM) system are continuously evolving. Infrared flares defeated IR guided seekers, IR flares became defeated by intelligent IR guided seekers and Jammers defeated the intelligent IR guided seekers [7]. A precise knowledge of the target infrared signature phenomenology is crucial for the development and improvement of countermeasure and counter-countermeasure systems and so precise quantification of the infrared energy emitted from the targets requires accurate spectral signature measurements. Errors in infrared characterization measurements can lead to weakness in the safety of the countermeasure system and errors in the determination of detection/lock-on range of an aircraft. The infrared signatures are analyzed, modeled, and simulated to provide a good understanding of the signature phenomenology to improve the IRCM and IRCCM technologies efficiency [7,8,9]. There is a growing need for infrared spectral signature measurement technology in order to further improve and validate infrared-based models and simulations. The addition of imagery to Spectroradiometers is improving the measurement capability of complex targets and scenes because all elements in the scene can now be measured simultaneously. However, the limited dynamic range of the Focal Plane Array (FPA) sensors used in these instruments confines the ranges of measurable radiance intensities. This ultimately affects the radiometric accuracy of these complex signatures. We will describe and demonstrate how the ABB hyperspectral imaging spectroradiometer features enhanced the radiometric accuracy

  15. JPSS-1 VIIRS pre-launch radiometric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudrari, Hassan; McIntire, Jeff; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Efremova, Boryana; Ji, Qiang; Lee, Shihyan; Schwarting, Tom

    2015-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on-board the first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) completed its sensor level testing on December 2014. The JPSS-1 (J1) mission is scheduled to launch in December 2016, and will be very similar to the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) mission. VIIRS instrument was designed to provide measurements of the globe twice daily. It is a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer with spatial resolutions of 370 and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It covers the wavelength spectrum from reflective to long-wave infrared through 22 spectral bands [0.412 μm to 12.01 μm]. VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data products (EDRs). This paper will briefly describe J1 VIIRS characterization and calibration performance and methodologies executed during the pre-launch testing phases by the independent government team, to generate the at-launch baseline radiometric performance, and the metrics needed to populate the sensor data record (SDR) Look-Up-Tables (LUTs). This paper will also provide an assessment of the sensor pre-launch radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dynamic range, reflective and emissive bands calibration performance, polarization sensitivity, bands spectral performance, response-vs-scan (RVS), near field and stray light responses. A set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to the SNPP VIIRS pre-launch performance.

  16. Validation of Aquarius Measurements Using Radiative Transfer Models at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinnat, E.; LeVine, David M.; Abraham, S.; DeMattheis, P.; Utku, C.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius/SAC-D was launched in June 2011 by NASA and CONAE (Argentine space agency). Aquarius includes three L-band (1.4 GHz) radiometers dedicated to measuring sea surface salinity. We report detailed comparisons of Aquarius measurements with radiative transfer model predictions. These comparisons were used as part ofthe initial assessment of Aquarius data. In particular, they were used successfully to estimate the radiometer calibration bias and stability. Further comparisons are being performed to assess the performance of models in the retrieval algorithm for correcting the effect of sources of geophysical "noise" (e.g. the galactic background, atmospheric attenuation and reflected signal from the Sun). Such corrections are critical in bringing the error in retrieved salinity down to the required 0.2 practical salinity unit (psu) on monthly global maps at 150 km by 150 km resolution. The forward models making up the Aquarius simulator have been very useful for preparatory studies in the years leading to Aquarius' launch. The simulator includes various components to compute effects ofthe following processes on the measured signal: 1) emission from Earth surfaces (ocean, land, ice), 2) atmospheric emission and absorption, 3) emission from the Sun, Moon and celestial Sky (directly through the antenna sidelobes or after reflection/scattering at the Earth surface), 4) Faraday rotation, and 5) convolution of the scene by the antenna gain patterns. Since the Aquarius radiometers tum-on in late July 2011, the simulator has been used to perform a first order validation of the data. This included checking the order of magnitude ofthe signal over ocean, land and ice surfaces, checking the relative amplitude of signal at different polarizations, and checking the variation with incidence angle. The comparisons were also used to assess calibration bias and monitor instruments calibration drift. The simulator is also being used in the salinity retrieval. For example, initial

  17. A Model for Backscattering from Quasi Periodic Corn Canopies at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Zhao, Q.; O'Neill, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a model for backscattering at L-band from a corn canopy is proposed. The canopy consists of a quasi-periodic distribution of stalks and a random distribution of leaves. The Distorted Born Approximation (DBA) is employed to calculate the single scattered return from the corn field. The new feature of the method is that the coherence of the stalks in the row direction is incorporated in the model in a systematic fashion. Since the wavelength is on the order of the distance between corn stalks in a row, grating lobe behavior is observed at certain azimuth angles of incidence. The results are compared with experimental values measured in Huntsville, Alabama in 1998. The mean field and the effective dielectric constant of the canopy are obtained by using the Foldy approximation. The stalks are placed in the effective medium in a two dimensional lattice to simulate the row structure of a corn field. In order to mimic a real corn field, a quasi-periodic stalk distribution is assumed where the stalks are given small random perturbations about their lattice locations. Corn leaves are also embedded in the effective medium and the backscattered field from the stalks and the leaves is computed. The backscattering coefficient is calculated and averaged over successive stalk position perturbations. It is assumed that soil erosion has smoothed the soil sufficiently so that it can be assumed flat. Corn field backscatter data was collected from cornfields during the Huntsville 98 experimental campaign held at Alabama A&M University Research Station, Huntsville, Alabama in 1998 using the NASA/GW truck mounted radar. Extensive ground truth data was collected. This included soil moisture measurements and corn plant architectural data to be used in the model. In particular, the distances between the stalks in a single row have been measured. The L-band radar backscatter data was collected for both H and V polarizations and for look angles of 15o and 45o over a two week

  18. Wetland Maps of Central Canada based on L-band SAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, J.; Clewley, D.; Moghaddam, M.; McDonald, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Northern wetlands have the potential to become major sources of greenhouse gases. Detailed and accurate maps of the locations, types, and extents of these wetlands are therefore essential to the development of accurate carbon budgets. However, due to their vast extent and inaccessibility, most northern wetlands remain unmapped. We have been constructing high-resolution (100 m) thematic maps of boreal wetlands, with current focus on Canadian wetlands. The maps are developed using spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which efficiently collects high-resolution imagery over extensive regions and, unlike optical sensors, is unimpaired by clouds or lack of sunlight. Spaceborne L-band (~1.3 GHz) SAR, in particular, records scene characteristics imperceptible to optical sensors such as vegetation structure and moisture content, soil moisture and roughness, and canopy-obscured surface waters. These attributes make it the best single tool for mapping boreal wetlands. Two L-band SAR-based wetland maps are being assembled: one using HH-polarized imagery from the JERS-1 satellite collected in the winter and summer of 1997-1998, and a second using dual-polarized (HH and HV) imagery from the PALSAR sensor of the ALOS satellite collected in the summer of 2008. Ancillary data layers such as image texture, topographic slope, and proximity to water are also generated, and a training/testing data layer is formed by merging polygons from the Canadian Wetland Inventory (CWI) with other land cover databases. A Random Forests decision tree classifier takes as input the SAR, ancillary, and training/testing data layers and uses them to produce thematic wetland maps. The accuracy of each map is quantified via producer and user error statistics. Finally, the SAR-based wetland maps are compared to form a 1998-2008 wetlands change map. Recent advances include a powerful new software suite developed to handle huge volumes of data and much-improved JERS-1 registration. Challenges, including

  19. Passive L-Band H Polarized Microwave Emission During the Corn Growth Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, A. T.; van der Velde, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Kim, E. J.; Lang, R. H.; Gish, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    Hourly L-band (1.4 GHz) horizontally (H) polarized brightness temperatures (TB's) measured during five episodes (more than two days of continuous measurements) of the 2002 corn growth cycle are analyzed. These TB measurements were acquired as a part of a combined active/passive microwave field campaign, and were obtained at five incidence and three azimuth angles relative to the row direction. In support of this microwave data collection, intensive ground sampling took place once a week. Moreover, the interpretation of the hourly TB's could also rely on the data obtained using the various automated instruments installed in the same field. In this paper, the soil moisture and temperature measured at fixed time intervals have been employed as input for the tau-omega model to reproduce the hourly TB. Through the calibration of the vegetation and surface roughness parameterizations, the impact of the vegetation morphological changes on the microwave emission and the dependence of the soil surface roughness parameter, hr, on soil moisture are investigated. This analysis demonstrates that the b parameter, appearing in the representation of the canopy opacity, has an angular dependence that varies throughout the growing period and also that the parameter hr increases as the soil dries in a portion of the dry-down cycle. The angular dependence of the b parameter imposes the largest uncertainty on TB simulations near senescence as the response of b to the incidence is also affected by the crop row orientation. On the other hand, the incorporation of a soil moisture dependent hr parameterization was responsible for the largest error reduction of TB simulations in the early growth cycle. A.T. Joseph, R. Van der Velde, P.E. O'Neill, R.H. Lang, and T. Gish, "Soil moisture retrieval during a corn growth cycle using L-band (1.6 GHz) radar observations", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 46, DOI:10.1109/TGRS.2008.917214, Aug. 2008. M.C. Dobson, F.T. Ulaby, M

  20. L-Band Transmit/Receive Module for Phase-Stable Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andricos, Constantine; Edelstein, Wendy; Krimskiy, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has been shown to provide very sensitive measurements of surface deformation and displacement on the order of 1 cm. Future systematic measurements of surface deformation will require this capability over very large areas (300 km) from space. To achieve these required accuracies, these spaceborne sensors must exhibit low temporal decorrelation and be temporally stable systems. An L-band (24-cmwavelength) InSAR instrument using an electronically steerable radar antenna is suited to meet these needs. In order to achieve the 1-cm displacement accuracy, the phased array antenna requires phase-stable transmit/receive (T/R) modules. The T/R module operates at L-band (1.24 GHz) and has less than 1- deg absolute phase stability and less than 0.1-dB absolute amplitude stability over temperature. The T/R module is also high power (30 W) and power efficient (60-percent overall efficiency). The design is currently implemented using discrete components and surface mount technology. The basic T/R module architecture is augmented with a calibration loop to compensate for temperature variations, component variations, and path loss variations as a function of beam settings. The calibration circuit consists of an amplitude and phase detector, and other control circuitry, to compare the measured gain and phase to a reference signal and uses this signal to control a precision analog phase shifter and analog attenuator. An architecture was developed to allow for the module to be bidirectional, to operate in both transmit and receive mode. The architecture also includes a power detector used to maintain a transmitter power output constant within 0.1 dB. The use of a simple, stable, low-cost, and high-accuracy gain and phase detector made by Analog Devices (AD8302), combined with a very-high efficiency T/R module, is novel. While a self-calibrating T/R module capability has been sought for years, a practical and cost-effective solution has

  1. Use of IRI to Model the Effect of Ionosphere Emission on Earth Remote Sensing at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Saji; LeVine, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing in the window at 1.413 GHz (L-band) set aside for passive use only is important for monitoring sea surface salinity and soil moisture. These parameters are important for understanding ocean dynamics and energy exchange between the surface and atmosphere, and both NASA and ESA plan to launch satellite sensors to monitor these parameters at L-band (Aquarius, Hydros and SMOS). The ionosphere is an important source of error for passive remote sensing at this frequency. In addition to Faraday rotation, emission from the ionosphere is also a potential source of error at L-band. As an aid for correcting for emission, a regression model is presented that relates ionosphere emission to the integrated electron density (TEC). The goal is to use TEC from sources such as TOPEX, JASON or GPS to obtain estimates of emission over the oceans where the electron density profiles needed to compute emission are not available. In addition, data will also be presented to evaluate the use of the IRI for computing emission over the ocean.

  2. The ground-based H-, K-, and L-band absolute emission spectra of HD 209458b

    SciTech Connect

    Zellem, Robert T.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Deroo, Pieter; Swain, Mark R.; Waldmann, Ingo P.

    2014-11-20

    Here we explore the capabilities of NASA's 3.0 m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and SpeX spectrometer and the 5.08 m Hale telescope with the TripleSpec spectrometer with near-infrared H-, K-, and L-band measurements of HD 209458b's secondary eclipse. Our IRTF/SpeX data are the first absolute L-band spectroscopic emission measurements of any exoplanet other than the hot Jupiter HD 189733b. Previous measurements of HD 189733b's L band indicate bright emission hypothesized to result from non-LTE CH{sub 4} ν{sub 3} fluorescence. We do not detect a similar bright 3.3 μm feature to ∼3σ, suggesting that fluorescence does not need to be invoked to explain HD 209458b's L-band measurements. The validity of our observation and reduction techniques, which decrease the flux variance by up to 2.8 orders of magnitude, is reinforced by 1σ agreement with existent Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRAC1 observations that overlap the H, K, and L bands, suggesting that both IRTF/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec can measure an exoplanet's emission with high precision.

  3. L-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer for use in vivo and in studies of aqueous biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, T.; Leśniewski, P.; Salikhov, I.; Sucheta, A.; Szybiński, K.; Swartz, H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of L-band (˜1.2GHz) frequency EPR spectrometers has made feasible many in vivo studies in laboratory animals and, recently, in human volunteers. The lower dielectric and eddy current losses that occur at L-band balance the lower Zeeman splitting so useful measurements can be made in conductive aqueous samples. We describe typical resonators used in such studies and provide details on the construction of the spectrometer, including the bridge, the automatic frequency control subsystem, the low-noise high-stability tunable L-band frequency source, as well as the low-frequency components—the signal receiver and the modulation unit. The application of EPR spectroscopy to larger subjects requires special care in the design of an appropriate magnet with sufficient homogeneity and stability, yet with dimensions that allow operation with a wide range of subject sizes. We describe our solution, which involves a permanent magnet, air-core scan coils to provide the field sweep and offset, and field stabilization by means of a field-frequency lock. We also describe the magnetic field modulation system, which operates at 25 kHz to avoid distortion in spectra from materials with narrow lines (such as lithium phthalocyanine). We refer to recent reviews to illustrate the range of in vivo studies and the clinical applications of the type of spectrometer described here.

  4. Analysis and modeling of radiometric error caused by imaging blur in optical remote sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xufen; Zhang, Yuncui; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Imaging blur changes the digital output values of imaging systems. It leads to radiometric errors when the system is used for measurement. In this paper, we focus on the radiometric error due to imaging blur in remote sensing imaging systems. First, in accordance with the radiometric response calibration of imaging systems, we provide a theoretical analysis on the evaluation standard of radiometric errors caused by imaging blur. Then, we build a radiometric error model for imaging blur based on the natural stochastic fractal characteristics of remote sensing images. Finally, we verify the model by simulations and physical defocus experiments. The simulation results show that the modeling estimation result approaches to the simulation computation. The maximum difference of relative MSE (Mean Squared Error) between simulation computation and modeling estimation can achieve 1.6%. The physical experimental results show that the maximum difference of relative MSE between experimental results and modeling estimation is only 1.29% under experimental conditions. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed model is correct, which can be used to estimate the radiometric error caused by imaging blur in remote sensing images. This research is of great importance for radiometric measurement system evaluation and application.

  5. Radiometric Normalization of Large Airborne Image Data Sets Acquired by Different Sensor Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, S.; Beshah, B. T.

    2016-06-01

    Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere) and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage). We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor's properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling - with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images - allows for adaptation to each sensor's geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image's histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in HxMap software. It has been

  6. CAROLS: A New Airborne L-Band Radiometer for Ocean Surface and Land Observations

    PubMed Central

    Zribi, Mehrez; Pardé, Mickael; Boutin, Jacquline; Fanise, Pascal; Hauser, Daniele; Dechambre, Monique; Kerr, Yann; Leduc-Leballeur, Marion; Reverdin, Gilles; Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten; Albergel, Clement; Calvet, Jean Christophe; Wigneron, Jean Pierre; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Rius, Antonio; Tenerelli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The “Cooperative Airborne Radiometer for Ocean and Land Studies” (CAROLS) L-Band radiometer was designed and built as a copy of the EMIRAD II radiometer constructed by the Technical University of Denmark team. It is a fully polarimetric and direct sampling correlation radiometer. It is installed on board a dedicated French ATR42 research aircraft, in conjunction with other airborne instruments (C-Band scatterometer—STORM, the GOLD-RTR GPS system, the infrared CIMEL radiometer and a visible wavelength camera). Following initial laboratory qualifications, three airborne campaigns involving 21 flights were carried out over South West France, the Valencia site and the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean) in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in coordination with in situ field campaigns. In order to validate the CAROLS data, various aircraft flight patterns and maneuvers were implemented, including straight horizontal flights, circular flights, wing and nose wags over the ocean. Analysis of the first two campaigns in 2007 and 2008 leads us to improve the CAROLS radiometer regarding isolation between channels and filter bandwidth. After implementation of these improvements, results show that the instrument is conforming to specification and is a useful tool for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite validation as well as for specific studies on surface soil moisture or ocean salinity. PMID:22346599

  7. UAVSAR - A New Airborne L-Band Radar for Repeat Pass Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Lou, Yunling

    2009-01-01

    NASA/JPL has developed a new airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) which has become available for use by the scientific community in January, 2009. Pod mounted, the UAVSAR was designed to be portable among a variety of aircraft, including unmanned aerial systems (UAS). The instrument operates in the L-Band, has a resolution under 2m from a GPS altitude of 12Km and a swath width of approximately 20Km. UAVSAR currently flies on a modified Gulfstream-III aircraft, operated by NASA s Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California. The G-III platform enables repeat-pass interferometric measurements, by using a modified autopilot and precise kinematic differential GPS to repeatedly fly the aircraft within a specified 10m tube. The antenna is electronically steered along track to assure that the antenna beam can be directed independently, regardless of speed and wind direction. The instrument can be controlled remotely, AS AN OPTION, using the Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL). This allows simulation of the telepresence environment necessary for flight on UAS. Potential earth science research and applications include surface deformation, volcano studies, ice sheet dynamics, and vegetation structure.

  8. High-efficiency L-band T/R Module: Development Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, Wendy N.; Andricos, Constantine; Wang, Feiyu; Rutled, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Future interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) systems require electronically scanned phased-array antennas, where the transmit/receive (T/R) module is a key component. The T/R module efficiency is a critical figure of merit and has direct implications on the power dissipation and power generation requirements of the system. Significant improvements in the efficiency of the T/R module will make SAR missions more feasible and affordable. The results of two high-efficiency T/R modules are presented, each based on different power amplifier technologies. One module uses a 30W GaAs Class-AlB power amplifier and the second module uses a 70W LD-MOS Class-ElF power amplifier, where both modules use a common low power section. Each module operates over an 80MHz bandwidth at L-band (1.2GHz) with an overall module efficiency greater than 58%. We will present the results of these two T/R modules that have been designed, built and tested.

  9. The Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array Survey Data Release 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eli Goldston Peek, Joshua; Babler, Brian L.; Douglas, Kevin A.; Zheng, Yong; Clark, Susan; Putman, Mary E.; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Heiles, Carl E.; Gibson, Steven J.; Korpela, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array HI Survey Data Release 2 (GALFA-HI DR2). Data Release 2 is a map of neutral hydrogen in the Galaxy at 4' angular resolution, 184 m/s spectral resolution, and covering the sky from -1° < dec < 38°. The data were taken commensally over 2000 hours of observations at the Arecibo 305 meter telescope. We present advanced data reduction methods we employed to produce a much more pristine data product than the first data release, including "über-cal"-style self-calibration with LASSO methods, and more sophisticated baseline ripple suppression methods. In addition to the 450 GB of HI data cubes, we also will be providing two ancillary data products. The first is a column density map of the sky in HI, useful for many kinds of extragalactic observations including extinction and X-ray attenuation. The second will be an HI fiber map, tracing out the fine linear structure of the ISM, which has been shown to be a useful tool for ISM magnetic field orientation and CMB polarization foregrounds.

  10. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Concepts of Use, Systems Performance, Requirements, and Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Contractor Report summarizes and documents the work performed to develop concepts of use (ConUse) and high-level system requirements and architecture for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. This work was completed as a follow-on to the technology assessment conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center and ITT for the Future Communications Study (FCS). ITT assessed air-to-ground (A/G) communications concepts of use and operations presented in relevant NAS-level, international, and NAS-system-level documents to derive the appropriate ConUse relevant to potential A/G communications applications and services for domestic continental airspace. ITT also leveraged prior concepts of use developed during the earlier phases of the FCS. A middle-out functional architecture was adopted by merging the functional system requirements identified in the bottom-up assessment of existing requirements with those derived as a result of the top-down analysis of ConUse and higher level functional requirements. Initial end-to-end system performance requirements were derived to define system capabilities based on the functional requirements and on NAS-SR-1000 and the Operational Performance Assessment conducted as part of the COCR. A high-level notional architecture of the L-DACS supporting A/G communication was derived from the functional architecture and requirements.

  11. Repetitive operation of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with metal array cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Fen; Wang, Dong; Xu, Sha; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Zhi-kai

    2016-04-01

    We present the repetitive operation research results of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with metal array cathode (MAC-MILO) in this paper. To ensure a more uniform emission of electrons emitted from the cathode, metal plates with different outer radii and thicknesses are periodically arranged in longitudinal direction on the cathode substrate to act as emitters. The higher order mode depressed MILO (HDMILO) structure is applied to ensure stability of the tube. Comparison experiments are carried out between velvet cathode and MAC MILO driven by a 20 GW/40 Ω/40 ns/20 Hz pulse power system. Experimental results reveal that the MAC has much lower outgassing rate, much longer life time, and higher repetitive stability. The MAC-MILO could work stably with a rep-rate up to 20 Hz at a power level of 550 MW when employing a 350 kV/35 kA electric pulse. The TE11 mode radiation pattern in the farfield region reveals the tube works steadily on the dominant mode. More than 2000 shots have been tested in repetitive mode without any obvious degradation of the detected microwave parameters.

  12. Plate form three-dimensional gradient coils for L-band ESR imaging experiment.

    PubMed

    Ke, Wu; Changgang, Huang; Yuanlin, Cao; Yingguang, Zheng; Jianbo, Cong; Hong, Xian; Changzhen, Wang; Shangkai, Gao; Baolu, Zhao

    2005-08-01

    A set of plate form three-dimensional magnetic gradient coils was developed and used in electron spin resonance imaging (ESRI) experiment. The coils were processed with whole copper plates instead of wound with copper wires, which made its structure so compact that it was much thinner and smaller comparing to those traditionally used in ESRI. The coil set had a pie-like appearance of which the total thickness was only 14 mm and the outer diameter was 250 mm. The efficiency of the coils could be greater than 10 mT/m/A when distance between the two side-pieces was 63 mm. A maximum gradient strength of more than 200 mT/m could be obtained with driving current of about 20 A in each dimension coil. The spatial linearity was better than 5% in all three dimensions within the available spatial linearity area of larger than a sphere of 40 mm in diameter. The stability of the gradients strength could reach the level of 10(-5). An imaging resolution of better than 1 mm could be achieved with the coil set. Some preliminary practical imaging results show that the developed gradient coil set is suitable for L-band ESRI experiment of biological samples or even in vivo small animals.

  13. Mechanisms related to reduction of radical in mouse lung using an L-band ESR spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, K; Hamada, A; Utsumi, H

    1999-04-01

    Reduction of radicals in mouse lung was characterized in whole animals using an L-band ESR technique and nitroxide radicals as probes. An aqueous solution of nitroxide radical was immediately instilled intratracheally to mouse after euthanasia. Nitroxide radicals without charged groups were reduced significantly in the lung, while radicals with charged groups were only slightly reduced. Permeation rates across lung plasma membrane were not rate limiting of the stage of reduction of the noncharged nitroxides. Michaelis parameters, apparent Km and apparent Vmax, were obtained from the Lineweaver-Burk plots of the reduction. Among noncharged nitroxides with constant apparent Vmax, radicals with a larger n-octanol/water partition coefficient showed a lower apparent Km, thereby suggesting that the concentration of these nitroxides in the membrane contributes to apparent Km. The reduction rate of noncharged nitroxide, hydroxy-TEMPO, was influenced by noncharged SH reagents instilled together with the nitroxide; dithiothreitol stimulated the reduction, while the oxidized reagent inhibited it. The Lineweaver-Burk plots of the nitroxide reduction in the presence of various concentrations of dithiothreitol suggest the possibility that the reduction system for hydroxy-TEMPO is based on a kind of ping pong bi-reactant mechanism, and that the reduction system utilizes SH as an electron donor. Endogenous glutathione contributed partially to the reduction.

  14. T/R module development for large aperture L-band phased array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Andricos, Constantine; Kumley, Kendra; Berkun, Andrew; Hodges, Richard; Spitz, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a transmit / receive (T/R) module for a large L-band space based radar active phased array being developed at JPL. Electrical performance and construction techniques are described, with emphasis on the former. The T/R modules have a bandwidth of more than 80 MHz centered at 1260MHz and support dual, switched polarizations. Phase and amplitude are controlled by a 6-bit phase shifter and a 6-bit attenuator, respectively. The transmitter power amplifier generates 2.4 W into a nominal 50 ohm load with 36% overall efficiency. The receiver noise figure is 4.4 dB including all front-end losses. The module weighs 32 g and has a footprint of 8 cm x 4.5 cm. Fourteen of these T/R modules were fabricated at the JPL Pick-and-Place Facility and were tested using a computer-controlled measurement facility developed at JPL. Calibrated performance of this set of T/R modules is presented and shows good agreement with design predictions.

  15. Microstrip patch antenna panel for large aperture L-band phased array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Amaro, Luis; Oakes, Eric; Hodges, Richard; Spitz, Suzanne; Rosen, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a large, lightweight antenna panel for an active phased array operating at L-band. The panel was developed under a JPL program of technology development for space based radar. It utilizes dual-stacked patch elements that are interconnected with corporate feed manifold of striplines. This paper focuses on the electromagnetic design and performance of the radiating elements, with emphasis on scan performance, and also addresses mechanical and thermal aspects of the panel. The element in the array environment has a bandwidth of more than 80MHz centered at 1260MHz and is fed so that it can radiate orthogonal linear polarizations. The envisioned phased array, with a nominal aperture of 50m x 2m, is designed to scan +/-45 degrees in azimuth and +/-20 degrees in elevation. The panel of radiating elements has a mass density of 3.9 kg/m2, which represents approximately 50% of the target 8kg/m2 total panel mass density that includes T/R modules and feed manifolds.

  16. False-color L-band image of Manaus region of Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This false-color L-band image of the Manaus region of Brazil was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its 46th orbit. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 by 25 miles). At the top of the image are the Solimoes and Rio Negro River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude, and 61 degrees west longitude. Blue areas show low returns at VV poloarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces. Green areas in the image are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest. Between Rio Solimoes and Rio Negro, a road can be seen running from some cleared areas (visible as blue rectangles north of Rio Solimoes) north toward a tributary or Rio Negro. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43895.

  17. Surveying The Zone Of Avoidance With The Arecibo L-band Feed Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Patricia A.; Springob, C. M.; Catinella, B.; Momjian, E.; Koribalski, B.; Masters, K.; Muller, E.; Pantoja, C.; Putman, M.; Rosenberg, J. L.; Schneider, S.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2006-06-01

    We are conducting 21-cm surveys with the Arecibo L-Band Feed Array, searching for HI galaxies at low galactic latitudes, where optical obscuration and infrared confusion preclude the mapping of galaxies and large-scale structures in those wavebands. Galaxies which contain HI are detected by these blind surveys, and their Doppler shifted emission locates them in 3 dimensions.The first survey will be of the inner Galaxy accessible to Arecibo (l=30-75 degrees), within 10 degrees of the Galactic equator, and will be relatively shallow (effective integration time of 8-10 seconds per beam, with rms about 6 mJy). We have completed two small regions using this observing mode (near l=40 degrees, and l=192 degrees). The catalog of HI detections will be presented, and future expectations for the full survey will be discussed.We will also be conducting very deep, pointed observations, with dwell times expected to be more than 260 seconds per pointing, over all longitudes accessible to Arecibo. Our expectations for this very deep low Galactic latitude survey will be presented. Both the shallow and deep surveys are conducted in "commensal" modes with other surveys on the telescope, a Galactic HI survey, and a pulsar survey, respectively.P.A.H. acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-0506676.

  18. Repetitive operation of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with metal array cathode.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fen; Wang, Dong; Xu, Sha; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Zhi-Kai

    2016-04-01

    We present the repetitive operation research results of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with metal array cathode (MAC-MILO) in this paper. To ensure a more uniform emission of electrons emitted from the cathode, metal plates with different outer radii and thicknesses are periodically arranged in longitudinal direction on the cathode substrate to act as emitters. The higher order mode depressed MILO (HDMILO) structure is applied to ensure stability of the tube. Comparison experiments are carried out between velvet cathode and MAC MILO driven by a 20 GW/40 Ω/40 ns/20 Hz pulse power system. Experimental results reveal that the MAC has much lower outgassing rate, much longer life time, and higher repetitive stability. The MAC-MILO could work stably with a rep-rate up to 20 Hz at a power level of 550 MW when employing a 350 kV/35 kA electric pulse. The TE11 mode radiation pattern in the farfield region reveals the tube works steadily on the dominant mode. More than 2000 shots have been tested in repetitive mode without any obvious degradation of the detected microwave parameters. PMID:27131691

  19. Repetitive operation of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with metal array cathode.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fen; Wang, Dong; Xu, Sha; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Zhi-Kai

    2016-04-01

    We present the repetitive operation research results of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with metal array cathode (MAC-MILO) in this paper. To ensure a more uniform emission of electrons emitted from the cathode, metal plates with different outer radii and thicknesses are periodically arranged in longitudinal direction on the cathode substrate to act as emitters. The higher order mode depressed MILO (HDMILO) structure is applied to ensure stability of the tube. Comparison experiments are carried out between velvet cathode and MAC MILO driven by a 20 GW/40 Ω/40 ns/20 Hz pulse power system. Experimental results reveal that the MAC has much lower outgassing rate, much longer life time, and higher repetitive stability. The MAC-MILO could work stably with a rep-rate up to 20 Hz at a power level of 550 MW when employing a 350 kV/35 kA electric pulse. The TE11 mode radiation pattern in the farfield region reveals the tube works steadily on the dominant mode. More than 2000 shots have been tested in repetitive mode without any obvious degradation of the detected microwave parameters.

  20. L-band radar sensing of soil moisture. [Kern County, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Atwater, S.; Salomonson, V. V.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Bryan, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of an L-band, 25 cm wavelength imaging synthetic aperture radar was assessed for soil moisture determination, and the temporal variability of radar returns from a number of agricultural fields was studied. A series of three overflights was accomplished over an agricultural test site in Kern County, California. Soil moisture samples were collected from bare fields at nine sites at depths of 0-2, 2-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm. These gravimetric measurements were converted to percent of field capacity for correlation to the radar return signal. The initial signal film was optically correlated and scanned to produce image data numbers. These numbers were then converted to relative return power by linear interpolation of the noise power wedge which was introduced in 5 dB steps into the original signal film before and after each data run. Results of correlations between the relative return power and percent of field capacity (FC) demonstrate that the relative return power from this imaging radar system is responsive to the amount of soil moisture in bare fields. The signal returned from dry (15% FC) and wet (130% FC) fields where furrowing is parallel to the radar beam differs by about 10 dB.

  1. Radiometric Calibration Assessment of Commercial High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Image Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara; Aaron, David; Thome, Kurtis

    2006-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can better understand their properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent team member to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The combined results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of these commercially available high spatial resolution sensors' absolute calibration values.

  2. Radiometric Characterization of the IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView-3 Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara

    2006-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can better understand their properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent team member to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The combined results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of these commercially available high spatial resolution sensors' absolute calibration values.

  3. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Barsi, J.A.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Helder, D.L.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Schott, J.R.; Scaramuzza, P.; ,

    2002-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than ??1%, reflective band absolute calibration to better than ??5%, and thermal band absolute calibration to better than ??0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m 2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of ??0.6 K. The stability and absolute calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric cross-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.

  4. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Dabney, Philip; Pedelty, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments to fly on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is scheduled to launch in December 2012 to become the 8th in the series of Landsat satellites. The OLI images in the solar reflective part of the spectrum, with bands similar to bands 1-5, 7 and the panchromatic band on the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument. In addition, it has a 20 nm bandpass spectral band at 443 nm for coastal and aerosol studies and a 30 nm band at 1375 nm to aid in cirrus cloud detection. Like ETM+, spatial resolution is 30 m in the all but the panchromatic band, which is 15 meters. OLI is a pushbroom radiometer with approximately 6000 detectors per 30 meter band as opposed to the 16 detectors per band on the whiskbroom ETM+. Data are quantized to 12 bits on OLI as opposed to 8 bits on ETM+ to take advantage of the improved signal to noise ratio provided by the pushbroom design. The saturation radiances are higher on OLI than ETM+ to effectively eliminate saturation issues over bright Earth targets. OLI includes dual solar diffusers for on-orbit absolute and relative (detector to detector) radiometric calibration. Additionally, OLI has 3 sets of on-board lamps that illuminate the OLI focal plane through the full optical system, providing additional checks on the OLI's response[l]. OLI has been designed and built by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. (BATC) and is currently undergoing testing and calibration in preparation for delivery in Spring 2011. Final pre-launch performance results should be available in time for presentation at the conference. Preliminary results will be presented below. These results are based on the performance of the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) that was radiometrically tested at the integrated instrument level in 2010 and assembly level measurements made on the flight unit. Signal-to-Noise (SNR) performance: One of the advantages of a pushbroom system is the increased dwell time of the detectors

  5. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barker, John L.; Barsi, Julia A.; Kaita, Ed; Thome, Kurtis J.; Helder, Dennis L.; Palluconi, Frank D.; Schott, John R.; Scaramuzza, Pat

    2003-04-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than +/-1%, reflective band absolute calibration to better than +/-5%, and thermal band absolute calibration to better than +/- 0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of +/- 0.6 K. The stability and absolute calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric cross-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.

  6. Susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi to amphotericin B by a rapid radiometric method

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, W.G.; Fay, D.; Thumar, B.; Dixon, D.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid, radiometric method was developed to determine the susceptibility of filamentous fungi to amphotericin B. The rapid, radiometric method depended on measurement of the inhibition of /sup 24/CO/sub 2/ production in the presence of amphotericin B. Thirty isolates of filamentous fungi were tested by the rapid, radiometric method and a reference agar dilution method. There was 93% agreement between the two methods when an 80% or greater decrease in CO/sub 2/ production was used to calculate the minimal inhibitory concentration with the rapid, radiometric method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, based on 80% decrease of CO/sub 2/ production, were achieved within 24 h of incubation with all of the fungi tested.

  7. Experimental Research on Passive Millimeter Wave Radiometric Stealth Technology of Metal Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangfeng; Lou, Guowei; Li, Xingguo

    2012-12-01

    Working all day and all weather, a passive millimeter wave radiometer (PMMW) can be widely used in civil and military affairs. It can get some specific information about the material characteristics different from radar and infrared detectors. On basis of the radiometric operating range equation, the radiation cross section and stealth effect of metal objects are presented for the PMMW near-sensing application. The measurement experiments of metal solid models adopts 3 mm band Dicke radiometer with the outdoor calibration system. The sky temperature and other different surface metal objects are also measured as the contrastive experiments. The results show the radiometric temperature contrasts of solid models have remarkable difference in the bare and coated conditions, and the radiometric operating range can decrease to 60.8 %. In addition, the PMMW stealth methods through different surface treatment respectively reduce the radiometric antenna temperature contrast in some degree.

  8. Flight Technology Improvement. [spaceborne optical radiometric instruments, attitude control, and electromechanical and power subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Shortcomings in spaceborne instrumentation technology are analyzed and recommendations are given for corrections and technology development. The technologies discussed are optical radiometric instruments and calibration, attitude control and determination, and electromechanical and power subsystems.

  9. Level 1 In-Flight Radiometric Calibration and Characterization Algorithm Theoretical Basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruegge, C.; Chrien, N.; Diner, D.

    2000-01-01

    This Algorithm Theoretical Basis (ATB) document describes the algorithms which operate at the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Science Computing Facility (SCF) as part of the In-flight Radiometric Calibration and characterization (IFRCC) subsystem.

  10. Intra-annual NDVI validation of the Landsat 5 TM radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Groeneveld, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone of the extensive archive of moderate-resolution Earth imagery. Even after more than 24 years of service, the L5 TM is still operational. Given the longevity of the satellite, the detectors have aged and the sensor's radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters in the National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS) have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations in 2003 and 2007 have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data. This letter uses the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a metric to evaluate the radiometric calibration. The calibration change has improved absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic radiometry and will provide the basis for continued long-term studies of the Earth's land surfaces.

  11. Advanced radiometric complex for detection of radioactive release from Siberian chemical combine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotkov, Gennady A.; Penin, Sergei T.

    2015-11-01

    The paper states limited availability of the use of the automated radiation situation monitoring system and proposes radiometric complex as more reliable system in the case of an accidental release of the Siberian Chemical Enterprises.

  12. Radiometric-microbiologic assay fo vitamin B-6: analysis of plasma samples

    SciTech Connect

    Guilarte, T.R.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-11-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for the analysis of vitamin B-6 in plasma was developed. The method is based on the measurement of 14CO2 generated from the metabolism of DL-l-14C-valine (L-l-14C-valine) by Kloeckera brevis. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of the vitamin, that is, pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine, and their respective phosphorylated forms. The biologically inert vitamin B-6 metabolite (4-pyridoxic acid) did not generate a response at concentrations tested. The radiometric technique was shown to be sensitive to the 1 nanogram level. Reproducibility and recovery studies gave good results. Fifteen plasma samples were assayed using the radiometric and turbidimetric techniques. The correlation coefficient was r . 0.98. Turbid material or precipitated debris did not interfere with the radiometric microbiologic assay, thus allowing for simplification of assay procedure.

  13. Study of Spectral/Radiometric Characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for Land Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Metzler, M. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    An investigation conducted in support of the LANDSAT 4/5 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) Program is discussed. Results of engineering analyses of radiometric, spatial, spectral, and geometric properties of the Thematic Mapper systems are summarized; major emphasis is placed on the radiometric analysis. Details of the analyses are presented in appendices, which contain three of the eight technical papers produced during this investigation; these three, together, describe the major activities and results of the investigation.

  14. Radiometric and signal-to-noise ratio properties of multiplex dispersive spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Lastri, Cinzia; Nardino, Vanni; Marcoionni, Paolo; Pippi, Ivan

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical investigations have shown important radiometric disadvantages of interferential multiplexing in Fourier transform spectrometry that apparently can be applied even to coded aperture spectrometers. We have reexamined the methods of noninterferential multiplexing in order to assess their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance, relying on a theoretical modeling of the multiplexed signals. We are able to show that quite similar SNR and radiometric disadvantages affect multiplex dispersive spectrometry. The effect of noise on spectral estimations is discussed.

  15. Robust Multiscale Stereo Matching from Fundus Images with Radiometric Differences

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Li; Garvin, Mona K.; Lee, Kyungmoo; Alward, Wallace L.M.; Kwon, Young H.; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    A robust multiscale stereo matching algorithm is proposed to find reliable correspondences between low contrast and weakly textured retinal image pairs with radiometric differences. Existing algorithms designed to deal with piecewise planar surfaces with distinct features and Lambertian reflectance do not apply in applications such as 3D reconstruction of medical images including stereo retinal images. In this paper, robust pixel feature vectors are formulated to extract discriminative features in the presence of noise in scale space, through which the response of low-frequency mechanisms alter and interact with the response of high-frequency mechanisms. The deep structures of the scene are represented with the evolution of disparity estimates in scale space, which distributes the matching ambiguity along the scale dimension to obtain globally coherent reconstructions. The performance is verified both qualitatively by face validity and quantitatively on our collection of stereo fundus image sets with ground truth, which have been made publicly available as an extension of standard test images for performance evaluation. PMID:21464502

  16. A hyperspectral imager for high radiometric accuracy Earth climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo, Joey; Drake, Ginger; Heuerman, Karl; Kopp, Greg; Lieber, Alex; Smith, Paul; Vermeer, Bill

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate a visible and near-infrared prototype pushbroom hyperspectral imager for Earth climate studies that is capable of using direct solar viewing for on-orbit cross calibration and degradation tracking. Direct calibration to solar spectral irradiances allow the Earth-viewing instrument to achieve required climate-driven absolute radiometric accuracies of <0.2% (1σ). A solar calibration requires viewing scenes having radiances 105 higher than typical Earth scenes. To facilitate this calibration, the instrument features an attenuation system that uses an optimized combination of different precision aperture sizes, neutral density filters, and variable integration timing for Earth and solar viewing. The optical system consists of a three-mirror anastigmat telescope and an Offner spectrometer. The as-built system has a 12.2° cross track field of view with 3 arcmin spatial resolution and covers a 350-1050 nm spectral range with 10 nm resolution. A polarization compensated configuration using the Offner in an out of plane alignment is demonstrated as a viable approach to minimizing polarization sensitivity. The mechanical design takes advantage of relaxed tolerances in the optical design by using rigid, non-adjustable diamond-turned tabs for optical mount locating surfaces. We show that this approach achieves the required optical performance. A prototype spaceflight unit is also demonstrated to prove the applicability of these solar cross calibration methods to on-orbit environments. This unit is evaluated for optical performance prior to and after GEVS shake, thermal vacuum, and lifecycle tests.

  17. Advanced radiometric and interferometric milimeter-wave scene simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauss, B. I.; Moffa, P. J.; Steele, W. G.; Agravante, H.; Davidheiser, R.; Samec, T.; Young, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Smart munitions and weapons utilize various imaging sensors (including passive IR, active and passive millimeter-wave, and visible wavebands) to detect/identify targets at short standoff ranges and in varied terrain backgrounds. In order to design and evaluate these sensors under a variety of conditions, a high-fidelity scene simulation capability is necessary. Such a capability for passive millimeter-wave scene simulation exists at TRW. TRW's Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code is a rigorous, benchmarked, end-to-end passive millimeter-wave scene simulation code for interpreting millimeter-wave data, establishing scene signatures and evaluating sensor performance. In passive millimeter-wave imaging, resolution is limited due to wavelength and aperture size. Where high resolution is required, the utility of passive millimeter-wave imaging is confined to short ranges. Recent developments in interferometry have made possible high resolution applications on military platforms. Interferometry or synthetic aperture radiometry allows the creation of a high resolution image with a sparsely filled aperture. Borrowing from research work in radio astronomy, we have developed and tested at TRW scene reconstruction algorithms that allow the recovery of the scene from a relatively small number of spatial frequency components. In this paper, the TRW modeling capability is described and numerical results are presented.

  18. Radiometric STFT Analysis of PDV recordings and detectivity limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozier, Olivier; Prudhomme, Gabriel; Mercier, Patrick; Berthe, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    Photonic Doppler Velocimetry is a plug-and-play and versatile diagnostic used in dynamic physic experiments to measure velocities. When signals are analyzed using a Short-Time Fourier Transform, multiple velocities can be distinguished: by example, the velocities of moving particle-cloud appear on spectrograms. In order to estimate the back-scattering fluxes of target, we propose an original approach ``PDV Radiometric analysis'' resulting in an expression of time-velocity spectrograms coded in power units. Experiments involving micron-sized particles raise the issue of detection limit; particle-size limit is very difficult to evaluate. From the quantification of noise sources, we derivate an estimation of the spectrogram noise leading to a detectivity limit. It may be compared to back-scattering and collected power from a particle, which is increasing with its size. At least, some results from laser-shock accelerated particles using two different PDV systems are compared: it may show the improvement of sensitivity.

  19. Optimized mapping of radiometric quantities into OpenGL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, Maximo; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Moulton, J. R., Jr.; Liu, Jesse

    1999-07-01

    Physically realistic synthesis of FLIR imagery requires intensive phenomenology calculations of the spectral band thermal emission and reflection from scene elements in the database. These calculations predict the heat conduction, convection, and radiation exchange between scene elements and the environment. Balancing this requirement is the need for imagery to be presented to a display in a timely fashion, often in real time. In order to support these conflicting requirements, some means of overcoming the gap between real time and high fidelity must be achieved. Over the past several years, the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has been developing a real-time forward looking infrared sensor simulation known as Paint the Night (PTN). As part of this development, NVESD has explored schemes for optimizing signature models and for mapping model radiometric output into parameters compatible with OpenGL, real-time rendering architectures. Relevant signature and mapping optimization issues are discussed, and a current NVESD PTN real-time implementation scheme is presented.

  20. History of Solar Radiometry and the World Radiometric Reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, C.

    1991-01-01

    The history of solar radiometry since the first pyrheliometer of Pouillet is presented. After the invention of the Ångström and the Smithsonian pyrheliometers around the turn of this century two different "scales" were in use. Comparisons with absolute cavity radiometers developed in America and Europe have been performed since about 1910 which show remarkably accurate measurements in terms of the SI units. However, these results have never been accepted and several rules have been established to reference radiation measurements in the meteorological community and to remedy the unsatisfactory fact of having different "scales". Unfortunately none of these rules led to a reference close to the SI units of irradiance, confusing the issue even more. With the advent of modern absolute radiometers in the late 1960s the situation improved and led to the definition of the World Radiometric Reference in use by the meteorological community since 1981. This reference has an estimated accuracy of 0,3% and guarantees the worldwide homogeneity of radiation measurements within 0,1% precision.

  1. JPSS-1 VIIRS pre-launch radiometric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudrari, Hassan; McIntire, Jeff; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Ji, Qiang; Schwarting, Tom; Zeng, Jinan

    2016-05-01

    The first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1 or J1) mission is scheduled to launch in January 2017, and will be very similar to the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) mission. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the J1 spacecraft completed its sensor level performance testing in December 2014. VIIRS instrument is expected to provide valuable information about the Earth environment and properties on a daily basis, using a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer. The design covers the wavelength spectrum from reflective to long-wave infrared through 22 spectral bands, from 0.412 μm to 12.01 μm, and has spatial resolutions of 370 m and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. This paper will provide an overview of pre-launch J1 VIIRS performance testing and methodologies, describing the at-launch baseline radiometric performance as well as the metrics needed to calibrate the instrument once on orbit. Key sensor performance metrics include the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dynamic range, reflective and emissive bands calibration performance, polarization sensitivity, bands spectral performance, response-vs-scan (RVS), near field response, and stray light rejection. A set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to the sensor requirements and to SNPP VIIRS pre-launch performance.

  2. Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 {mu}m. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 {mu}m, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following.

  3. Infrared atmospheric sounder interferometer radiometric noise assessment from spectral residuals.

    PubMed

    Serio, Carmine; Standfuss, Carsten; Masiello, Guido; Liuzzi, Giuliano; Dufour, Emmanuel; Tournier, Bernard; Stuhlmann, Rolf; Tjemkes, Stephen; Antonelli, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    The problem of characterizing and estimating the radiometric noise of satellite high spectral resolution infrared spectrometers from Earth views is addressed in this paper. A methodology has been devised which is based on the common concept of spectral residuals (Observations-Calculations) obtained after spectral radiance inversion for atmospheric and surface parameters. An in-depth analytical assessment of the statistical covariance matrix of the spectral residuals has been performed which is based on the optimal estimation theory. It has been mathematically demonstrated that the use of spectral residuals to assess instrument noise leads to an effective estimator, which is largely independent of possible departures of the observational covariance matrix from the true covariances. Application to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer has been considered. It is shown that Earth-view-derived observation errors agree with blackbody in-flight calibration. The spectral residuals approach also proved to be effective in characterizing noise features due to mechanical microvibrations of the beam splitter of the IASI instrument.

  4. Radiometric sensitivity contrast metrics for hyperspectral remote sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silny, John F.; Zellinger, Lou

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses the calculation, interpretation, and implications of various radiometric sensitivity metrics for Earth-observing hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensors. The most commonly used sensor performance metric is signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), from which additional noise equivalent quantities can be computed, including: noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR), noise equivalent delta reflectance (NEΔρ), noise equivalent delta emittance (NEΔƐ), and noise equivalent delta temperature (NEΔT). For hyperspectral sensors, these metrics are typically calculated from an at-aperture radiance (typically generated by MODTRAN) that includes both target radiance and non-target (atmosphere and background) radiance. Unfortunately, these calculations treat the entire at-aperture radiance as the desired signal, even when the target radiance is only a fraction of the total (such as when sensing through a long or optically dense atmospheric path). To overcome this limitation, an augmented set of metrics based on contrast signal-to-noise ratio (CNSR) is developed, including their noise equivalent counterparts (CNESR, CNEΔρ, CNEΔƐ, and CNEΔT). These contrast metrics better quantify sensor performance in an operational environment that includes remote sensing through the atmosphere.

  5. Phoretic and Radiometric Force Measurements on Microparticles in Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. James

    1996-01-01

    Thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and radiometric forces on microparticles are being measured over a wide range of gas phase and particle conditions using electrodynamic levitation of single particles to simulate microgravity conditions. The thermophoretic force, which arises when a particle exists in a gas having a temperature gradient, is measured by levitating an electrically charged particle between heated and cooled plates mounted in a vacuum chamber. The diffusiophoretic force arising from a concentration gradient in the gas phase is measured in a similar manner except that the heat exchangers are coated with liquids to establish a vapor concentration gradient. These phoretic forces and the radiation pressure force acting on a particle are measured directly in terms of the change in the dc field required to levitate the particle with and without the force applied. The apparatus developed for the research and the experimental techniques are discussed, and results obtained by thermophoresis experiments are presented. The determination of the momentum and energy accommodation coefficients associated with molecular collisions between gases molecules and particles and the measurement of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and small particles are of particular interest.

  6. Combined Geometric/radiometric Point Cloud Matching for Shear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, S.

    2012-07-01

    In the recent past, dense image matching methods such as Semi-Global Matching (SGM) became popular for many applications. The SGM approach has been adapted to and implemented for Leica ADS line-scanner data by North West Geomatics (North West) in co-operation with Leica Geosystems; it is used in North West's production workflow. One of the advantages of ADS imagery is the calibrated color information (RGB and near infrared), extending SGM-derived point clouds to dense "image point clouds" or, more general, information clouds (info clouds). With the goal of automating the quality control of ADS data, info clouds are utilized for Shear Analysis: Three-dimensional offsets of adjacent ADS image strips are determined from a pattern of info cloud pairs in strip overlaps by point cloud matching. The presented approach integrates geometry (height) and radiometry (intensity) information; matching is based on local point-to-plane distances for all points in a given cloud. The offset is derived in a least squares adjustment by applying it to each individual distance computation equation. Using intensities in addition to heights greatly benefits the offset computation, because intensity gradients tend to occur more frequently than height gradients. They can provide or complement the required information for the derivation of planimetric offset components. The paper details the combined geometric/radiometric point cloud matching approach and verifies the results against manual measurements.

  7. Effects on Spacecraft Radiometric Data at Superior Solar Conjunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, Trevor; Budnik, Frank

    2007-01-01

    During 2006, three ESA interplanetary spacecraft, Rosetta, Mars Express (MEX) and Venus Express (VEX), passed through superior solar conjunction. For all three spacecraft, the noise in the post-fit range-rate residuals from the orbit determination was analysed. At small Sun-Earth-Probe (SEP) angles the level was almost two orders of magnitude higher than normal. The main objective was to characterize the Doppler (rangerate) noise as a function of SEP angle. At least then the range-rate data can be appropriately weighted within the orbit determination so that the solution uncertainties are realistic. For VEX, some intervals of particularly noisy Doppler data could be correlated with unusual solar activity. For Rosetta, the biases in the range data residuals were analysed with the aim of improving the model used for calibrating the signal delay due to the solar plasma. The model, which originally had fixed coefficients, was adjusted to achieve better fits to the data. Even the relatively small Doppler biases were well represented. Using the improved model, the electron density at 20 solar radii was compared with earlier results obtained by radio science studies using Voyager 2 and Ulysses radiometric data. There is some evidence for a dependency of the density on the phase within the 11 years solar cycle.

  8. Optical Diffraction Corrections in Radiometric Thermodynamic Temperature Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briaudeau, S.; Rougié, B.; Sadli, M.; Richard, A.; Coutin, J. M.

    2009-02-01

    One of the main components of uncertainty in high-temperature thermometry arises because of the size-of-source effect (SSE). This effect makes the temperature measurement sensitive to the geometry of the radiating environment. It is caused by optical diffraction and especially by light scattering off/from, and inter-reflections between, optical components inside the pyrometer. The LNE-INM/CNAM is involved in extending the thermometry temperature scale to very high temperatures ( T > 2000 °C) and has developed eutectic-based fixed points (Sadli et al. (in: Zvizdic (ed.) Proceedings of TEMPMEKO 2004, 9th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, 2004)) and a thermodynamic temperature measurement capability based on absolute radiometric methods (Briaudeau et al. (in: D. Zvizdic (ed.) Proceedings of TEMPMEKO 2004, 9th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science 2004)). A new measurement technique that uses an optical fiber has been developed and tested, allowing the determination of the SSE at any defocusing plane, with high resolution. A model based on optical diffraction has been developed to simulate the SSE in a real situation, considering the contribution to the pyrometer signal of the whole “3D” optical scene inside the blackbody furnace. Using the same approach, it has been demonstrated that optical scattering in a simple radiance meter can be estimated from accurate optical diffraction measurement.

  9. Investigation of Aerodynamic and Aerodynamic and Radiometric Land Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crago, Richard D.; Friedl, Mark; Kustas, William; Wang, Ye-Qiao

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the project was to reconcile the difference between T(sub s,r) and T(sub aero), while maintaining consistency within models and with theory and data. The project involved collaboration between researchers at Bucknell University, Boston University, University of mode Island, and the USDNARS Hydrology Laboratory. This report focuses on the work done at Bucknell, which used an analytical continuous-source flux model developed by Crago (1998), based on work by Brutsaert and Sugita (1996) to generate fluxes at all levels of the canopy. Named ALARM [Analytical Land- Atmosphere-Radiometer Model] by Suleiman and Crago (2002), the model assumes the foliage has an exponential vertical temperature profile. The same profile is felt by the within-canopy turbulence and 'seen" by a radiometer viewing the surface from any zenith view angle. ALARM converts radiometric surface temperatures taken from any view angle into a clearly-defined version of Taero called the equivalent isothermal surface temperature T(sub s,j), and then calculates the sensible heat flux H using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. This allows remotely sensed Ts,r measurements to be used to produce high quality sensible and latent heat flux estimates, or to validate or update the surface temperature produced by SVATs in climate or mesoscale models.

  10. Space-based detection of wetlands' surface water level changes from L-band SAR interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wdowinski, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T.H.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Sonenshein, R.

    2008-01-01

    Interferometric processing of JERS-1 L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data acquired over south Florida during 1993-1996 reveals detectable surface changes in the Everglades wetlands. Although our study is limited to south Florida it has implication for other large-scale wetlands, because south Florida wetlands have diverse vegetation types and both managed and natural flow environments. Our analysis reveals that interferometric coherence level is sensitive to wetland vegetation type and to the interferogram time span. Interferograms with time spans less than six months maintain phase observations for all wetland types, allowing characterization of water level changes in different wetland environments. The most noticeable changes occur between the managed and the natural flow wetlands. In the managed wetlands, fringes are organized, follow patterns related to some of the managed water control structures and have high fringe-rate. In the natural flow areas, fringes are irregular and have a low fringe-rate. The high fringe rate in managed areas reflects dynamic water topography caused by high flow rate due to gate operation. Although this organized fringe pattern is not characteristic of most large-scale wetlands, the high level of water level change enables accurate estimation of the wetland InSAR technique, which lies in the range of 5-10??cm. The irregular and low rate fringe pattern in the natural flow area reflects uninterrupted flow that diffuses water efficiently and evenly. Most of the interferograms in the natural flow area show an elongated fringe located along the transitional zone between salt- and fresh-water wetlands, reflecting water level changes due to ocean tides. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Upward-looking L-band FMCW radar for snow cover monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Okorn, Robert; Brunnhofer, Georg; Platzer, Thomas; Heilig, Achim; Schmid, Lino; Mitterer, Christoph; Schweizer, Jürg; Eisen, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting snow avalanche danger in mountainous regions is of major importance for the protection of infrastructure in avalanche run-out zones. Inexpensive measurement devices capable of measuring snow height and layer properties in avalanche starting zones may help to improve the quality of risk assessment. We present a low-cost L-band frequency modulated continuous wave radar system (FMCW) in upward-looking configuration. To monitor the snowpack evolution, the radar system was deployed in fall and subsequently was covered by snowfalls. During two winter seasons we recorded reflections from the overlying snowpack. The influence of reflection magnitude and phase to the measured frequency spectra, as well as the influence of signal processing were investigated. We present a method to extract the phase of the reflection coefficients from the phase response of the frequency spectra and their integration into the presentation of the measurement data. The phase information significantly improved the detectability of the temporal evolution of the snow surface reflection. We developed an automated and a semi-automated snow surface tracking algorithm. Results were compared with independently measured snow height from a laser snow-depth sensor and results derived from an upward-looking impulse radar system (upGPR). The semi-automated tracking used the phase information and had an accuracy of about 6 to 8 cm for dry-snow conditions, similar to the accuracy of the upGPR, compared to measurements from the laser snow-depth sensor. The percolation of water was observable in the radargrams. Results suggest that the upward-looking FMCW system may be a valuable alternative to conventional snow-depth sensors for locations, where fixed installations above ground are not feasible. PMID:24994943

  12. Airborne Geodetic Imaging Using the L-band UAVSAR Instrument (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, S.; Zebker, H. A.; Jones, C. E.; Michel, T.; Chapman, B. D.; Muellerschoen, R.; Fore, A.; Simard, M.

    2009-12-01

    Radar interferometry using both airborne and spaceborne platforms has become an integral tool in geodetics sciences over the past 3 decades for both fine resolution topographic mapping and for measuring surface deformation from a variety of both natural and anthropogenic sources. The UAVSAR instrument, employing an L-band actively electronically scanned antenna, had its genesis in the ESTO Instrument Incubator Program and after 3 years of development has begun the regular collection of science data in support of various geodetic applications. System design was motivated by solid Earth applications where repeat pass radar interferometry can be used to measure subtle deformation of the surface, however flexibility and extensibility to support other applications were also major design drivers. Initial testing and deployments are being carried out with the NASA Gulfstream III aircraft, which has been modified to accommodate the radar pod and has been equipped with precision autopilot capability developed by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. With this the aircraft can fly within a 10 m diameter tube on any specified trajectory necessary for repeat-pass radar interferometric applications. To maintain the required pointing for repeat-pass interferometric applications we have employed an actively scanned antenna steered using INU measurement data. This talk will present some early deformation results made by the UAVSAR instrument over volcanoes (Mt St Helens), landslides near Parkfield CA, ice sheet motion in Greenland and Iceland, anthropogenic induced surface deformation from oil pumping near Lost Hills, CA and changes in agricultural surfaces in California’s San Joaquin Valley. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Upward-looking L-band FMCW radar for snow cover monitoring.

    PubMed

    Okorn, Robert; Brunnhofer, Georg; Platzer, Thomas; Heilig, Achim; Schmid, Lino; Mitterer, Christoph; Schweizer, Jürg; Eisen, Olaf

    2014-07-01

    Forecasting snow avalanche danger in mountainous regions is of major importance for the protection of infrastructure in avalanche run-out zones. Inexpensive measurement devices capable of measuring snow height and layer properties in avalanche starting zones may help to improve the quality of risk assessment. We present a low-cost L-band frequency modulated continuous wave radar system (FMCW) in upward-looking configuration. To monitor the snowpack evolution, the radar system was deployed in fall and subsequently was covered by snowfalls. During two winter seasons we recorded reflections from the overlying snowpack. The influence of reflection magnitude and phase to the measured frequency spectra, as well as the influence of signal processing were investigated. We present a method to extract the phase of the reflection coefficients from the phase response of the frequency spectra and their integration into the presentation of the measurement data. The phase information significantly improved the detectability of the temporal evolution of the snow surface reflection. We developed an automated and a semi-automated snow surface tracking algorithm. Results were compared with independently measured snow height from a laser snow-depth sensor and results derived from an upward-looking impulse radar system (upGPR). The semi-automated tracking used the phase information and had an accuracy of about 6 to 8 cm for dry-snow conditions, similar to the accuracy of the upGPR, compared to measurements from the laser snow-depth sensor. The percolation of water was observable in the radargrams. Results suggest that the upward-looking FMCW system may be a valuable alternative to conventional snow-depth sensors for locations, where fixed installations above ground are not feasible. PMID:24994943

  14. The microwave emission and transmission characters of deciduous forest at L-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongjun; Yuan, Yu; Zheng, Xingming; Zhu, Xiaoming; Fu, Xiuli

    2014-11-01

    Forest covers about 30% of earth surface, which plays an important role in global forecast and carbon cycle. Monitoring forest biomass, and retrieving soil moisture at forest area, are the main goals of most passive microwave sensors on satellite missions. L-band is the most sensitive frequency among all the frequencies due to its good penetration ability. Because of its variety of the size of scattering components, the complicated structures and species of forest, it is difficult to describe the scattering and attenuation characters of forest in modeling microwave emission at forest area. In this paper, we studied the emissivity and transmissivity of deciduous forest at L(1.4GHz) by model simulation and field experiment. The microwave emission model was based on Matrix-Doubling algorithm. The comparison between simulated emissivity and measured data collected during an experiment at Maryland, USA in 2007 was good. Since theoretical model like Matrix-Doubling is too complicated to be used in retrial application, we mapped the results of Matrix-Doubling to a simple 0th-order model, also called ω-τ model, by setting the simulated emissivity to be the emissivity of 0th-order model at the same environment, which 2 unknown variables---opacity τ and effective single scattering albedo ω need to be determined. To valited τ (transmissivity of forest) simulated by Matrix-Doubling, we took an deciduous forest experiment by an L band microwave radiometer under trees at JingYueTan area, Changchun, Jilin Province in April to June in 2014. Thus the ω of forest can be determined. The matching results are presented in this paper. The relationship between LAI and forest microwave characters are discussed.

  15. L-Band H Polarized Microwave Emission During the Corn Growth Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, A. T.; va der Velde, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Kim, E.; Lang, R. H.; Gish, T.

    2012-01-01

    Hourly L-band (1.4 GHz) horizontally (H) polarized brightness temperatures (T(sub B))'s measured during five episodes (more than two days of continuous measurements) of the 2002 corn growth cycle are analyzed. These T(sub B)'s measurements were acquired as a part of a combined active/passive microwave field campaign, and were obtained at five incidence and three azimuth angles relative to the row direction. In support of this microwave data collection, intensive ground sampling took place once a week. Moreover, the interpretation of the hourly T(sub B)'s could also rely on the data obtained using the various automated instruments installed in the same field. In this paper, the soil moisture and temperature measured at fixed time intervals have been employed as input for the tau-omega model to reproduce the hourly T(sub B). Through the calibration of the vegetation and surface roughness parameterizations, the impact of the vegetation morphological changes on the microwave emission and the dependence of the soil surface roughness parameter, h(sub r), on soil moisture are investigated. This analysis demonstrates that the b parameter, appearing in the representation of the canopy opacity, has an angular dependence that varies throughout the growing period and also that the parameter hr increases as the soil dries in a portion of the dry-down cycle. The angular dependence of the b parameter imposes the largest uncertainty on T(sub B) simulations near senescence as the response of b to the incidence is also affected by the crop row orientation. On the other hand, the incorporation of a soil moisture dependent h(sub r) parameterization was responsible for the largest error reduction of T(sub B) simulations in the early growth cycle.

  16. Impact of Conifer Forest Litter on Microwave Emission at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurum, Mehmet; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Lang, Roger H.; Cosh, Michael H.; Joseph, Alicia T.; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the utilization of microwave modeling, together with ground truth, and L-band (1.4-GHz) brightness temperatures to investigate the passive microwave characteristics of a conifer forest floor. The microwave data were acquired over a natural Virginia Pine forest in Maryland by a ground-based microwave active/passive instrument system in 2008/2009. Ground measurements of the tree biophysical parameters and forest floor characteristics were obtained during the field campaign. The test site consisted of medium-sized evergreen conifers with an average height of 12 m and average diameters at breast height of 12.6 cm. The site is a typical pine forest site in that there is a surface layer of loose debris/needles and an organic transition layer above the mineral soil. In an effort to characterize and model the impact of the surface litter layer, an experiment was conducted on a day with wet soil conditions, which involved removal of the surface litter layer from one half of the test site while keeping the other half undisturbed. The observations showed detectable decrease in emissivity for both polarizations after the surface litter layer was removed. A first-order radiative transfer model of the forest stands including the multilayer nature of the forest floor in conjunction with the ground truth data are used to compute forest emission. The model calculations reproduced the major features of the experimental data over the entire duration, which included the effects of surface litter and ground moisture content on overall emission. Both theory and experimental results confirm that the litter layer increases the observed canopy brightness temperature and obscure the soil emission.

  17. Development of a Two Dimensional Synthetic Aperture Radiometer at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Carver, K.; Swift, C.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A radiometer that uses aperture synthesis in two dimensions is being built as part of research under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. The instrument development team consists of engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center, the University of Massachusetts and Quadrant Engineering. This will be an aircraft instrument operating at L-band which builds on the heritage of Electronically Steered Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR). This instrument is a next step in the development of aperture synthesis (STAR technology) to meet the goal of a future mission to monitor soil moisture globally from space. The instrument will be designed to fly on the NASA P-3 aircraft in a nadir pointing mode, although other options are possible. The antenna will consist of an array of modules in a rectangular grid. Each module will be comprised of a printed circuit dual-polarized patch and integrated receiver. The distribution of modules within the rectangular array will be adjustable so that several different imaging configurations (e.g. '+', 'Y', 'T') can be employed. The integrated receiver will provide amplification and conversion to infrared (IF). The IF signal will be routed to a processor where the required correlations performed. The I and Q channels will be created digitally and the correlations will be done digitally in this processor. The digitization will be done with sufficient bits to study the effects of quantization on radiometer performance. A computer/controller will store the data for conversion to an image and will also perform temperature control and other data interfacing and housekeeping tasks. The design of critical components has been completed and hardware is being assembled to test the individual elements. It is expected that a complete two-channel correlator will be tested by the end of 2000 and that the complete instrument will be ready for flight tests the following summer (2001).

  18. Evaluation of relative radiometric correction techniques on Landsat 8 OLI sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelli, Antonio; Caradonna, Grazia; Tarantino, Eufemia

    2016-08-01

    The quality of information derived from processed remotely sensed data may depend upon many factors, mostly related to the extent data acquisition is influenced by atmospheric conditions, topographic effects, sun angle and so on. The goal of radiometric corrections is to reduce such effects in order enhance the performance of change detection analysis. There are two approaches to radiometric correction: absolute and relative calibrations. Due to the large amount of free data products available, absolute radiometric calibration techniques may be time consuming and financially expensive because of the necessary inputs for absolute calibration models (often these data are not available and can be difficult to obtain). The relative approach to radiometric correction, known as relative radiometric normalization, is preferred with some research topics because no in situ ancillary data, at the time of satellite overpasses, are required. In this study we evaluated three well known relative radiometric correction techniques using two Landsat 8 - OLI scenes over a subset area of the Apulia Region (southern Italy): the IR-MAD (Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection), the HM (Histogram Matching) and the DOS (Dark Object Subtraction). IR-MAD results were statistically assessed within a territory with an extremely heterogeneous landscape and all computations performed in a Matlab environment. The panchromatic and thermal bands were excluded from the comparisons.

  19. A multi-channel radiometric profiler of temperature, humidity and cloud liquid.

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, R.; Carpenter, R.; Guldner, J.; Liljegren, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Solheim, F.; Vandenberghe, F.; Environmental Research; Radiometrics Corp.; Univ. Corp. for Atmospheric Research; Weather Decision Technologies Inc.; Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc.; National Center for Atmospheric Research

    2003-07-31

    A microwave radiometer is described that provides continuous thermodynamic (temperature, water vapor, and moisture) soundings during clear and cloudy conditions. The radiometric profiler observes radiation intensity at 12 microwave frequencies, along with zenith infrared and surface meteorological measurements. Historical radiosonde and neural network or regression methods are used for profile retrieval. We compare radiometric, radiosonde, and forecast soundings and evaluate the accuracy of radiometric temperature and water vapor soundings on the basis of statistical comparison with radiosonde soundings. We find that radiometric soundings are equivalent in accuracy to radiosonde soundings when used in numerical weather forecasting. A case study is described that demonstrates improved fog forecasting on the basis of variational assimilation of radiometric soundings. The accuracy of radiometric cloud liquid soundings is evaluated by comparison with cloud liquid sensors carried by radiosondes. Accurate high-resolution three-dimensional water vapor and wind analysis is described on the basis of assimilation of simulated thermodynamic and wind soundings along with GPS slant delays. Examples of mobile thermodynamic and wind profilers are shown. Thermodynamic profiling, particularly when combined with wind profiling and slant GPS, provides continuous atmospheric soundings for improved weather and dispersion forecasting.

  20. Selection of chemotherapy for patient treatment utilizing a radiometric versus a cloning system

    SciTech Connect

    Von Hoff, D.D.; Forseth, B.J.; Turner, J.N.; Clark, G.M.; Warfel, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    From the 1950s to the 1970s, a number of in vitro systems that measured inhibition of glucose metabolism were used to predict the responsiveness of patients' tumors to chemotherapy. In vitro-in vivo correlations were excellent, with true positive predictions ranging from 68% to 96% and true negative predictions of 95% to 100%. The radiometric system is a new in vitro technique that measures the conversion of 14C-glucose to 14CO2. The system already has been utilized to screen prospective new antineoplastic agents for cytotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to determine if the radiometric system might be used to predict correctly the responsiveness of an individual patient's tumor to single-agent or combination-agent chemotherapy. Fifty-six tumor specimens were divided and tested for drug sensitivity in the radiometric system and a conventional human tumor clonning system. Overall, there was a significant correlation between in vitro and in vivo results for the conventional cloning system (P = 0.03). However, there was no significant relationship between in vitro and in vivo results for the radiometric system. The radiometric system consistently failed to predict the tumor's clinical sensitivity to single agents. A radiometric system is not useful in predicting the responsiveness of a patient's tumor to single agent chemotherapy and is not a replacement for the more biologically attractive human tumor cloning system.

  1. A first-order radiative transfer model for microwave radiometry of forest canopies at L-band

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a first-order radiative transfer (RT) model is developed to more accurately account for vegetation canopy scattering by modifying the basic radiative transfer model (the zero-order RT solution). In order to optimally utilize microwave radiometric data in soil moisture (SM) retrievals ...

  2. Forest above ground biomass estimation and forest/non-forest classification for Odisha, India, using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, M.; Kiran Chand, T. R.; Fararoda, R.; Jha, C. S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Tropical forests contribute to approximately 40 % of the total carbon found in terrestrial biomass. In this context, forest/non-forest classification and estimation of forest above ground biomass over tropical regions are very important and relevant in understanding the contribution of tropical forests in global biogeochemical cycles, especially in terms of carbon pools and fluxes. Information on the spatio-temporal biomass distribution acts as a key input to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation Plus (REDD+) action plans. This necessitates precise and reliable methods to estimate forest biomass and to reduce uncertainties in existing biomass quantification scenarios. The use of backscatter information from a host of allweather capable Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems during the recent past has demonstrated the potential of SAR data in forest above ground biomass estimation and forest / nonforest classification. In the present study, Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) / Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data along with field inventory data have been used in forest above ground biomass estimation and forest / non-forest classification over Odisha state, India. The ALOSPALSAR 50 m spatial resolution orthorectified and radiometrically corrected HH/HV dual polarization data (digital numbers) for the year 2010 were converted to backscattering coefficient images (Schimada et al., 2009). The tree level measurements collected during field inventory (2009-'10) on Girth at Breast Height (GBH at 1.3 m above ground) and height of all individual trees at plot (plot size 0.1 ha) level were converted to biomass density using species specific allometric equations and wood densities. The field inventory based biomass estimations were empirically integrated with ALOS-PALSAR backscatter coefficients to derive spatial forest above ground biomass estimates for the study area. Further, The Support Vector Machines (SVM) based Radial

  3. A Dual Polarization, Active, Microstrip Antenna for an Orbital Imaging Radar System Operating at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Kenneth C.; Huang, John

    2000-01-01

    A highly successful Earth orbiting synthetic antenna aperture radar (SAR) system, known as the SIR-C mission, was carried into orbit in 1994 on a U.S. Shuttle (Space Transportation System) mission. The radar system was mounted in the cargo bay with no need to fold, or in any other way reduce the size of the antennas for launch. Weight and size were not limited for the L-Band, C-Band, and X-Band radar systems of the SIR-C radar imaging mission; the set of antennas weighed 10,500 kg, the L-Band antenna having the major share of the weight. This paper treats designing an L-Band antenna functionally similar to that used for SIR-C, but at a fraction of the cost and at a weight in the order of 250 kg. Further, the antenna must be folded to fit into the small payload shroud of low cost booster rocket systems. Over 31 square meters of antenna area is required. This low weight, foldable, electronic scanning antenna is for the proposed LightSAR radar system which is to be placed in Earth orbit on a small, dedicated space craft at the lowest possible cost for an efficient L- Band radar imaging system. This LightSAR spacecraft radar is to be continuously available for at least five operational years, and have the ability to map or repeat-map any area on earth within a few days of any request. A microstrip patch array, with microstrip transmission lines heavily employed in the aperture and in the corporate feed network, was chosen as the low cost approach for this active dual-polarization, 80 MHz (6.4%) bandwidth antenna design.

  4. Airborne active and passive L-band measurements using PALS instrument in SMAPVEX12 soil moisture field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Yueh, Simon; Chazanoff, Seth; Dinardo, Steven; O'Dwyer, Ian; Jackson, Thomas; McNairn, Heather; Bullock, Paul; Wiseman, Grant; Berg, Aaron; Magagi, Ramata; Njoku, Eni

    2012-10-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in late 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and other Canadian and US institutions in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of a data record that features long time-series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions over an aerial domain of multiple parallel flight lines. The coincident active and passive L-band data was acquired with the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) instrument. The measurements were conducted over the experiment domain every 2-3 days on average, over a period of 43 days. The preliminary calibration of the brightness temperatures obtained in the campaign has been performed. Daily lake calibrations were used to adjust the radiometer calibration parameters, and the obtained measurements were compared against the raw in situ soil moisture measurements. The evaluation shows that this preliminary calibration of the data produces already a consistent brightness temperature record over the campaign duration, and only secondary adjustments and cleaning of the data is need before the data can be applied to the development and validation of SMAP algorithms.

  5. First Operation of an Ungated Diamond Field-Emission Array Cathode in a L-Band Radiofrequency Electron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Brau, C. A.; Choi, B. K.; Blomberg, B.; Gabella, W. E.; Ivanov, B.; Jarvis, J.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Mihalcea, D.; Panuganti, S.; Prieto, P.; Reid, J.

    2014-06-30

    We report on the first successful operation of a field-emitter-array cathode in a conventional L-band radio-frequency electron source. The cathode consisted of an array of $\\sim 10^6$ diamond diamond tips on pyramids. Maximum current on the order of 15~mA were reached and the cathode did not show appreciable signs of fatigue after weeks of operation. The measured Fowler-Nordheim characteristics, transverse beam density, and current stability are discussed. Numerical simulations of the beam dynamics are also presented.

  6. Estimating net rainfall, evaporation and water storage of a bare soil from sequential L-band emissivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroosnijder, L.; Lascano, R. J.; Newton, R. W.; Vanbavel, C. H. M.

    1984-01-01

    A general method to use a time series of L-band emissivities as an input to a hydrological model for continuously monitoring the net rainfall and evaporation as well as the water content over the entire soil profile is proposed. The model requires a sufficiently accurate and general relation between soil emissivity and surface moisture content. A model which requires the soil hydraulic properties as an additional input, but does not need any weather data was developed. The method is shown to be numerically consistent.

  7. The absolute radiometric calibration of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager using the reflectance-based approach and the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Anderson, Nikolaus; Thome, Kurtis; Biggar, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    Landsat 8 was launched on 11 February 2013 as the newest platform in the Landsat program. It contains two Earthobserving instruments, one of which is the Operational Land Imager (OLI). OLI includes an onboard radiometric calibration system that is used to monitor changes in its responsivity throughout the mission lifetime, and it consists of Spectralon solar diffuser panels as well as tungsten lamp assemblies. External techniques are used to monitor both OLI and its calibration system, and they include lunar views, side slither maneuvers of the satellite, and ground-based vicarious calibration. This work presents the absolute radiometric calibration results for Landsat 8 OLI that were obtained using two ground-based measurement techniques. The first is the reflectance-based approach, where measurements of atmospheric and surface properties are made during a Landsat 8 overpass, and it requires personnel to be on site during the time of measurement. The second uses the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS), which was developed by the Remote Sensing Group in the College of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona so that radiometric calibration data can be collected without the requirement of on-site personnel. It allows more data to be collected annually, which increases the temporal sampling of trending results.

  8. Wafer-level radiometric performance testing of uncooled microbolometer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Denis G.; Topart, Patrice; Tremblay, Bruno; Julien, Christian; Martin, Louis; Vachon, Carl

    2014-03-01

    A turn-key semi-automated test system was constructed to perform on-wafer testing of microbolometer arrays. The system allows for testing of several performance characteristics of ROIC-fabricated microbolometer arrays including NETD, SiTF, ROIC functionality, noise and matrix operability, both before and after microbolometer fabrication. The system accepts wafers up to 8 inches in diameter and performs automated wafer die mapping using a microscope camera. Once wafer mapping is completed, a custom-designed quick insertion 8-12 μm AR-coated Germanium viewport is placed and the chamber is pumped down to below 10-5 Torr, allowing for the evaluation of package-level focal plane array (FPA) performance. The probe card is electrically connected to an INO IRXCAM camera core, a versatile system that can be adapted to many types of ROICs using custom-built interface printed circuit boards (PCBs). We currently have the capability for testing 384x288, 35 μm pixel size and 160x120, 52 μm pixel size FPAs. For accurate NETD measurements, the system is designed to provide an F/1 view of two rail-mounted blackbodies seen through the Germanium window by the die under test. A master control computer automates the alignment of the probe card to the dies, the positioning of the blackbodies, FPA image frame acquisition using IRXCAM, as well as data analysis and storage. Radiometric measurement precision has been validated by packaging dies measured by the automated probing system and re-measuring the SiTF and Noise using INO's pre-existing benchtop system.

  9. Reintroducing radiometric surface temperature into the Penman-Monteith formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Boegh, Eva; Trebs, Ivonne; Alfieri, Joseph G.; Kustas, William P.; Prueger, John H.; Niyogi, Dev; Das, Narendra; Drewry, Darren T.; Hoffmann, Lucien; Jarvis, Andrew J.

    2015-08-01

    Here we demonstrate a novel method to physically integrate radiometric surface temperature (TR) into the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation for estimating the terrestrial sensible and latent heat fluxes (H and λE) in the framework of a modified Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC). It combines TR data with standard energy balance closure models for deriving a hybrid scheme that does not require parameterization of the surface (or stomatal) and aerodynamic conductances (gS and gB). STIC is formed by the simultaneous solution of four state equations and it uses TR as an additional data source for retrieving the "near surface" moisture availability (M) and the Priestley-Taylor coefficient (α). The performance of STIC is tested using high-temporal resolution TR observations collected from different international surface energy flux experiments in conjunction with corresponding net radiation (RN), ground heat flux (G), air temperature (TA), and relative humidity (RH) measurements. A comparison of the STIC outputs with the eddy covariance measurements of λE and H revealed RMSDs of 7-16% and 40-74% in half-hourly λE and H estimates. These statistics were 5-13% and 10-44% in daily λE and H. The errors and uncertainties in both surface fluxes are comparable to the models that typically use land surface parameterizations for determining the unobserved components (gS and gB) of the surface energy balance models. However, the scheme is simpler, has the capabilities for generating spatially explicit surface energy fluxes and independent of submodels for boundary layer developments. This article was corrected on 27 AUG 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  10. Radiometric Calibration of the Earth Observing System's Imaging Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Philip N. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The work on the grant was mainly directed towards developing new, accurate, redundant methods for the in-flight, absolute radiometric calibration of satellite multispectral imaging systems and refining the accuracy of methods already in use. Initially the work was in preparation for the calibration of MODIS and HIRIS (before the development of that sensor was canceled), with the realization it would be applicable to most imaging multi- or hyper-spectral sensors provided their spatial or spectral resolutions were not too coarse. The work on the grant involved three different ground-based, in-flight calibration methods reflectance-based radiance-based and diffuse-to-global irradiance ratio used with the reflectance-based method. This continuing research had the dual advantage of: (1) developing several independent methods to create the redundancy that is essential for the identification and hopefully the elimination of systematic errors; and (2) refining the measurement techniques and algorithms that can be used not only for improving calibration accuracy but also for the reverse process of retrieving ground reflectances from calibrated remote-sensing data. The grant also provided the support necessary for us to embark on other projects such as the ratioing radiometer approach to on-board calibration (this has been further developed by SBRS as the 'solar diffuser stability monitor' and is incorporated into the most important on-board calibration system for MODIS)- another example of the work, which was a spin-off from the grant funding, was a study of solar diffuser materials. Journal citations, titles and abstracts of publications authored by faculty, staff, and students are also attached.

  11. Landsat-7 EMT+ On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barker, J. L.; Kaita, E.; Seiferth, J.; Morfitt, Ron

    1999-01-01

    Landsat-7 was launched on April 15, 1999 and completed its on orbit initialization and verification period on June 28, 1999. The ETM+ payload is similar to the TM sensors on previous Landsat satellites and incorporates two new devices to improve its absolute radiometric calibration. The Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) is a deployable diffuser panel. This device has been deployed 9 times to date, with a normal deployment schedule of once per month. The initial analysis of the FASC data has given absolute calibration results within 5% of the prelaunch integrating sphere calibrations and a range of variation of 2% between dates. The Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC), is a set of auxiliary optics that allows the ETM+ to view the sun through a reduced aperture. Data have normally been acquired on a daily basis with the PASC. Initial results with the PASC were encouraging, despite some unexpected saturation in the shortest wavelength band. The response of the ETM+ short wavelength (silicon) bands to the PASC increased initially and has begun to decrease in some of these bands. The longer wavelength (InSb) bands have shown up to 30% oscillations that vary between detectors within the band. Studies are ongoing to better characterize the response to the PASC. The ETM+ also incorporates an internal calibrator (IC), a shutter that oscillates in front of the focal plane that directs light from the internal calibrator lamps to the focal plane. The responses to this device are also varying, though differently than the PASC results. Both the IC and PASC results are attributable to the calibration devices as opposed to the ETM+ itself.

  12. Radiometric calibration of a polarization-sensitive sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.P.; Markham, B.L. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD )

    1992-11-01

    The radiometric accuracy of a sensor is adversely affected by scene polarization if its optical system is sensitive to polarization. Tests performed on the reflective bands of the NS001 Thematic Mapper simulator, an aircraft multispectral scanner, show that it is very sensitive to the polarization state of the incoming radiations. For 100 percent linearly polarized light, errors in the measured intensity vary from -40 to +40 percent, depending on the scan angle and spectral band. To estimate polarization-induced errors in the intensity measured at aircraft level, the intensity and polarization of the atmospheric radiances were simulated using a realistic earth-atmosphere radiative transfer model. For the polarization of atmospheric radiances in the solar meridian plane over a vegetated target, intensity errors may range from -10 to + 10 percent. The polarization-induced errors are highest in the shortest NS001 spectral band (0.450-0.525 microns) because of large atmospheric polarizations contributed by Rayleigh particles and small diluting effects caused by the small contributions of weakly polarized radiations coming from aerosols and the surface. Depending on the illumination and view angles, the errors in derived surface reflectance due to the radiance errors can be very large. In particular, for large off-nadir view angles in the forward scattered direction when the sun is low, the relative errors in the derived surface reflectance can be as large as 4 to 5 times the relative error in the radiances. Polarization sensitivity errors cannot be neglected for the shorter wavelengths when the surface reflectance contribution to atmospheric radiances is very small. 40 refs.

  13. Experimental methods of indoor millimeter-wave radiometric imaging for personnel concealed contraband detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Taiyang; Xiao, Zelong; Li, Hao; Lv, Rongchuan; Lu, Xuan

    2014-11-01

    The increasingly emerging terrorism attacks and violence crimes around the world have posed severe threats to public security, so carrying out relevant research on advanced experimental methods of personnel concealed contraband detection is crucial and meaningful. All of the advantages of imaging covertly, avoidance of interference with other systems, intrinsic property of being safe to persons under screening , and the superior ability of imaging through natural or manmade obscurants, have significantly combined to enable millimeter-wave (MMW) radiometric imaging to offer great potential in personnel concealed contraband detection. Based upon the current research status of MMW radiometric imaging and urgent demands of personnel security screening, this paper mainly focuses on the experimental methods of indoor MMW radiometric imaging. The reverse radiation noise resulting from super-heterodyne receivers seriously affects the image experiments carried out at short range, so both the generation mechanism and reducing methods of this noise are investigated. Then, the benefit of sky illumination no longer exists for the indoor radiometric imaging, and this leads to the decrease in radiometric temperature contrast between target and background. In order to enhance the radiometric temperature contrast for improving indoor imaging performance, the noise illumination technique is adopted in the indoor imaging scenario. In addition, the speed and accuracy of concealed contraband detection from acquired MMW radiometric images are usually restricted to the deficiencies in traditional artificial interpretation by security inspectors, thus an automatic recognition and location algorithm by integrating improved Fuzzy C-means clustering with moment invariants is put forward. A series of original results are also presented to demonstrate the significance and validity of these methods.

  14. English/Russian terminology on radiometric calibration of space-borne optoelectronic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalsky, V.; Zakharenkov, V.; Humpherys, T.; Sapritsky, V.; Datla, R.

    The efficient use of data acquired through exo-atmospheric observations of the Earth within the framework of existing and newly planned programs requires a unique understanding of respective terms and definitions. Yet, the last large-scale document on the subject - The International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - had been published 18 years ago. This lack of a proper document, which would reflect the changes that had occurred in the area since that time, is especially detrimental to the developing international efforts aimed at global observations of the Earth from space such as the Global Earth Observations Program proposed by the U.S.A. at the 2003 WMO Congress. To cover this gap at least partially, a bi-lingual explanatory dictionary of terms and definitions in the area of radiometric calibration of space-borne IR sensors is developed. The objectives are to produce a uniform terminology for the global space-borne observations of the Earth, establish a unique understanding of terms and definitions by the radiometric communities, including a correspondence between the Russian and American terms and definitions, and to develop a formal English/Russian reference dictionary for use by scientists and engineers involved in radiometric observations of the Earth from space. The dictionary includes close to 400 items covering basic concepts of geometric, wave and corpuscular optics, remote sensing technologies, and ground-based calibration as well as more detailed treatment of terms and definitions in the areas of radiometric quantities, symbols and units, optical phenomena and optical properties of objects and media, and radiometric systems and their properties. The dictionary contains six chapters: Basic Concepts, Quantities, Symbols, and Units, Optical phenomena, Optical characteristics of surfaces and media, Components of Radiometric Systems, Characteristics of radiometric system components, plus English/Russian and Russian/Inglish indices.

  15. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Souce for System-Level Testing of Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of an improved vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source used for characterizing and calibrating remote optical sensors, in situ, throughout their testing period. The original flat plate radiometric source was developed for use by the VIIRS instrument during the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). Following this effort, the FPI has had significant upgrades in order to improve both the radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of the VIIRS testing with the reconfigured FPI are reported and discussed.

  16. The Impact of the Sun on Passive Remote Sensing at L-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Abraham, Saji

    2005-01-01

    The sun is a strong source of radiation at L-band behaving roughly like a thermal source with a temperature ranging between 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) K, depending on solar activity. This is an important consideration at 1.4 GHz (the window set aside for passive use only) where future satellite sensors will operate to monitor soil moisture and sea surface salinity (e.g. SMOS, Aquarius, and Hydros). Straight forward calculations show that such a source of radiation can be a significant issue for these remote sensing applications, especially in the case of remote sensing of sea surface salinity. Radiation from the sun impacts passive remote sensing systems in several ways. First, is the solar radiation that comes directly from the sun (line-of-sight from sun to spacecraft that enters the radiometer through antenna side lobes). This is a particular problem for sensors in sunsynchronous orbits near the terminator (e.g. orbits with equatorial crossing times near 6am/6pm) because the spacecraft is in the sun most of the time. Second, is solar radiation that is reflected (specularly) from the mean surface to the radiometer. This contribution can be nearly as large as the direct ray, especially when the reflection is from the ocean surface which has a high reflection coefficient. Finally, there is "incoherent" signal reflected from the surface structure (roughness) to the radiometer antenna. Examples illustrating the significance of these terms is presented for the case of a pushbroom radiometer such as Aquarius and a conically scanning radiometer such as proposed for Hydros. Calculations are made using a set of theoretical patterns for these beams together with data on solar radiation obtained from by a worldwide network of observing stations known as Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN). Near solar minimum, solar contamination is not a problem unless the sun enters near the main beam. But near solar maximum, account must be made for radiation from the sun even when the signal

  17. True-time-delay photonic beamformer for an L-band phased array radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmuda, Henry; Toughlian, Edward N.; Payson, Paul M.; Malowicki, John E.

    1995-10-01

    The problem of obtaining a true-time-delay photonic beamformer has recently been a topic of great interest. Many interesting and novel approaches to this problem have been studied. This paper examines the design, construction, and testing of a dynamic optical processor for the control of a 20-element phased array antenna operating at L-band (1.2-1.4 GHz). The approach taken here has several distinct advantages. The actual optical control is accomplished with a class of spatial light modulator known as a segmented mirror device (SMD). This allows for the possibility of controlling an extremely large number (tens of thousands) of antenna elements using integrated circuit technology. The SMD technology is driven by the HDTV and laser printer markets so ultimate cost reduction as well as technological improvements are expected. Optical splitting is efficiently accomplished using a diffractive optical element. This again has the potential for use in antenna array systems with a large number of radiating elements. The actual time delay is achieved using a single acousto-optic device for all the array elements. Acousto-optic device technologies offer sufficient delay as needed for a time steered array. The topological configuration is an optical heterodyne system, hence high, potentially millimeter wave center frequencies are possible by mixing two lasers of slightly differing frequencies. Finally, the entire system is spatially integrated into a 3D glass substrate. The integrated system provides the ruggedness needed in most applications and essentially eliminates the drift problems associated with free space optical systems. Though the system is presently being configured as a beamformer, it has the ability to operate as a general photonic signal processing element in an adaptive (reconfigurable) transversal frequency filter configuration. Such systems are widely applicable in jammer/noise canceling systems, broadband ISDN, and for spread spectrum secure communications

  18. Effects of the Antenna Aperture on Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; LeVine, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Remote sensing of sea surface salinity with sufficient accuracy to meet the needs of global oceanography is a challenging task. The global variability of the salinity signal in the open ocean is only a few Kelvin even at L-band and an accuracy on the order of 0.1K is desired to study the influence of salinity on ocean circulation and energy exchange with the atmosphere. On the other hand, resolution is not an issue for understanding the dynamics of the open ocean where scales of hundreds of km are not uncommon. This permits remote sensing with large antenna footprints and spatial averaging to reduce noise. However, antennas with large footprints introduce other problems. For example, the angle of incidence and hence the brightness temperature varies over the footprint. Similarly, the polarization of brightness temperature relative to the antenna ports changes. Studies have been conducted using antenna patterns representative of the antenna that will be flown on the Aquarius mission to examine these effects. Aquarius is a pushbroom style radiometer with three beams looking across track away from the sun. The beams are at incidences angles (at the spacecraft) of about 26.5, 34 and 40 degrees each with a half-power beam width of about 5.8 degrees. It is shown that the measured brightness temperature is biased relative to the value at boresight because of changes across the field of view. The bias can be as much as 4K and positive or negative depending on polarization. Polarization mixing because of the variations of the local plane of incidence across the footprint also occur and can result in biased polarimetric measurements. A bias in the third Stokes parameter of as much as 0.4K is possible. Such effects may affect algorithms that use the third Stokes parameter to correct for Faraday rotation. Another issue associated with the antenna is sun glint. This is an issue determined by surface roughness and antenna sidelobes. Examples will be given for the random

  19. Fpga based L-band pulse doppler radar design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savci, Kubilay

    As its name implies RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is an electromagnetic sensor used for detection and locating targets from their return signals. Radar systems propagate electromagnetic energy, from the antenna which is in part intercepted by an object. Objects reradiate a portion of energy which is captured by the radar receiver. The received signal is then processed for information extraction. Radar systems are widely used for surveillance, air security, navigation, weather hazard detection, as well as remote sensing applications. In this work, an FPGA based L-band Pulse Doppler radar prototype, which is used for target detection, localization and velocity calculation has been built and a general-purpose Pulse Doppler radar processor has been developed. This radar is a ground based stationary monopulse radar, which transmits a short pulse with a certain pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Return signals from the target are processed and information about their location and velocity is extracted. Discrete components are used for the transmitter and receiver chain. The hardware solution is based on Xilinx Virtex-6 ML605 FPGA board, responsible for the control of the radar system and the digital signal processing of the received signal, which involves Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detection and Pulse Doppler processing. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK using the Xilinx System Generator for DSP tool. The field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) implementation of the radar system provides the flexibility of changing parameters such as the PRF and pulse length therefore it can be used with different radar configurations as well. A VHDL design has been developed for 1Gbit Ethernet connection to transfer digitized return signal and detection results to PC. An A-Scope software has been developed with C# programming language to display time domain radar signals and detection results on PC. Data are processed both in FPGA chip and on PC. FPGA uses fixed

  20. Drought index driven by L-band microwave soil moisture data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitar, Ahmad Al; Kerr, Yann; Merlin, Olivier; Cabot, François; Choné, Audrey; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Drought is considered in many areas across the globe as one of the major extreme events. Studies do not all agree on the increase of the frequency of drought events over the past 60 years [1], but they all agree that the impact of droughts has increased and the need for efficient global monitoring tools has become most than ever urgent. Droughts are monitored through drought indexes, many of which are based on precipitation (Palmer index(s), PDI…), on vegetation status (VDI) or on surface temperatures. They can also be derived from climate prediction models outputs. The GMO has selected the (SPI) Standardized Precipitation Index as the reference index for the monitoring of drought at global scale. The drawback of this index is that it is directly dependent on global precipitation products that are not accurate over global scale. On the other hand, Vegetation based indexes show the a posteriori effect of drought, since they are based on NDVI. In this study, we choose to combine the surface soil moisture from microwave sensor with climate data to access a drought index. The microwave data are considered from the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission at L-Band (1.4 Ghz) interferometric radiometer from ESA (European Space Agency) [2]. Global surface soil moisture maps with 3 days coverage for ascending 6AM and descending 6PM orbits SMOS have been delivered since January 2010 at a 40 km nominal resolution. We use in this study the daily L3 global soil moisture maps from CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS) [3,4]. We present a drought index computed by a double bucket hydrological model driven by operational remote sensing data and ancillary datasets. The SPI is also compared to other drought indicators like vegetation indexes and Palmer drought index. Comparison of drought index to vegetation indexes from AVHRR and MODIS over continental United States show that the drought index can be used as an early warning system for drought monitoring as

  1. Microwave and Millimeter Wave Forward Modeling Results from the 2004 North Slope of Alaska Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Westwater, E.R.; Cimini, D.; Klein, M.; Leuski, V.; Mattioli, V.; Gasiewski, A.J.; Dowlatshahi, S.; Liljegren, J.S.; Lesht, B.M.; Shaw, J.A.

    2005-03-18

    The 2004 Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment was conducted at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program field site near Barrow, Alaska from March 9 to April 9, 2004. The goals of the experiment were: to study the microwave and millimeter wave radiometric response to water vapor and clouds during cold and dry conditions; to obtain data for forward model studies at frequencies ranging from 22.235 to 400 GHz, to demonstrate new Environmental Technology Laboratory's (ETL) radiometric receiver and calibration technology and to compare both radiometric and in situ measurements of water vapor.

  2. Characteristics of multiwavelength L-band Brillouin-Raman fiber laser under forward and backward pumped environment.

    PubMed

    Abass, A K; Al-Mansoori, M H; Jamaludin, M Z; Abdullah, F; Al-Mashhadani, T F

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally investigate the performance of L-band multiwavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser (MBRFL) under forward and backward pumped environments utilizing a linear cavity. A short length of 1.18 km dispersion compensating fiber is used as a nonlinear gain medium for both Brillouin and Raman gain. Experimental results indicate that the gain in the copumped laser configuration is higher than the gain in the counterpumped configuration. A stable and constant number of Brillouin Stokes lines up to 23 Stokes, with channel spacing of 0.08 nm and more than 20 dB of optical signal to noise ratio, can be generated as well as tuning over 20 nm in the L-band region from 1570 to 1590 nm. The laser generating the Brillouin Stokes lines exhibits flat amplitude bandwidth and high average output power of 0.8 and 1.6 dBm for the copropagation and counterpropagation pumps, respectively. Moreover, the tuning range bandwidth of the MBRFL can be predicted from the oscillated Brillouin pump gain profile.

  3. Studies of the dependence of L-band backscatter on sea surface winds using the synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, D. E.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Thompson, T. W.; Gonzalez, F. I.; Jones, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    Airborne and Seasat-1 SAR measurements of over-ocean winds through the use of L-band frequencies is described. A consistent dependence has been found between the wind speeds and the microwave backscattering coefficient. Measurements were obtained for cells a few kilometers across and at an incidence angle of 20 deg from nadir. Surface measurements were included in the analyses whenever possible, including data for surface temperatures and current variations, such as in the Gulf Stream. Higher radar cross-sections have been observed from the Gulf Stream than in nearby continental shelf waters. The eye-wall of Hurricane Gloria in Sept. 1976 displayed the largest backscatter of the storm. Wind speed backscatter exponents of 0.5 for winds below 18 m/sec, and 0.58 for winds above 20 m/sec have been determined for the Seasat L-band backscatter. The same wind speeds hold true for 0.05 and 0.50, respectively, for the wind direction component.

  4. Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Retrieval Algorithm Using Combined Passive-Active L-Band Microwave Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, the global water cycle, and climate. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 kilometers and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 practical salinity units globally on a monthly basis. The measurement principle is based on the response of the L-band (1.413 gigahertz) sea surface brightness temperatures (T (sub B)) to sea surface salinity. To achieve the required 0.2 practical salinity units accuracy, the impact of sea surface roughness (e.g. wind-generated ripples and waves) along with several factors on the observed brightness temperature has to be corrected to better than a few tenths of a degree Kelvin. To the end, Aquarius includes a scatterometer to help correct for this surface roughness effect.

  5. Classifying Indonesian Plantation And Natural Forest Cover And Measuring Changes With C-And L-Band SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xichao; Quegan, Shaun; Uryu, Yumiko; Zeng, Tao

    2013-12-01

    Tropical coverage by Envisat is sparse in space and time and has limited value for monitoring deforestation. The only available APG multi-temporal dataset over Riau province, Indonesia (9 images in a single year), is used to distinguish and monitor tropical plantations and their dynamics and is compared with L-band PALSAR data. For Envisat APG data, both VV and VH are important in discriminating different types of forest cover, while at L-band most of the relevant information is in the cross- polarised channel. Whether the underlying soil is peat or non-peat in acacia plantations has important effects on backscatter and classification. Supervised classification of the C-band data gave overall accuracies of 86.2% and kappa coefficient of 0.78 by comparison with land cover maps derived from optical data. Classifications from separate phases in the C-band time series allow the changes occurring in acacia plantations due to management to be tracked.

  6. Coastal flood inundation monitoring with Satellite C-band and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Bannister, Terri

    2013-01-01

    Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was evaluated as a method to operationally monitor the occurrence and distribution of storm- and tidal-related flooding of spatially extensive coastal marshes within the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Maps representing the occurrence of marsh surface inundation were created from available Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-Band SAR (PALSAR) (L-band) (21 scenes with HH polarizations in Wide Beam [100 m]) data and Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) Advanced SAR (ASAR) (C-band) data (24 scenes with VV and HH polarizations in Wide Swath [150 m]) during 2006-2009 covering 500 km of the Louisiana coastal zone. Mapping was primarily based on a decrease in backscatter between reference and target scenes, and as an extension of previous studies, the flood inundation mapping performance was assessed by the degree of correspondence between inundation mapping and inland water levels. Both PALSAR- and ASAR-based mapping at times were based on suboptimal reference scenes; however, ASAR performance seemed more sensitive to reference-scene quality and other types of scene variability. Related to water depth, PALSAR and ASAR mapping accuracies tended to be lower when water depths were shallow and increased as water levels decreased below or increased above the ground surface, but this pattern was more pronounced with ASAR. Overall, PALSAR-based inundation accuracies averaged 84% (n = 160), while ASAR-based mapping accuracies averaged 62% (n = 245).

  7. Airborne Active and Passive L-Band Observations in Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Yueh, S. H.; Chazanoff, S.; Jackson, T. J.; McNairn, H.; Bullock, P.; Wiseman, G.; Berg, A. A.; Magagi, R.; Njoku, E. G.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in October 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of data record that features long-time series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions (for testing the application of time-series approach) over aerial domain of multiple parallel lines (for spatial disaggregation studies). The coincident active and passive L-band data were acquired using the Passive Active L-band System (PALS), which is an airborne radiometer and radar developed for testing L-band retrieval algorithms. For SMAPVEX12 PALS was installed on a Twin Otter aircraft. The flight plan included flights at two altitudes. The higher altitude was used to map the whole experiment domain and the lower altitude was used to obtain measurements over a specific set of field sites. The spatial resolution (and swath) of the radar and radiometer from low altitude was about 600 m and from high altitude about 1500 m. The PALS acquisitions were complemented with high resolution (~10 m) L-band SAR measurements carried out by UAVSAR instrument on-board G-III aircraft. The campaign ran from June 7 until July 19. The PALS instrument conducted 17 brightness temperature and backscatter measurement flights and the UAVSAR conducted 14 backscatter measurement flights. The airborne data acquisition was supported by

  8. The Eurosdr Project "RADIOMETRIC Aspects of Digital Photogrammetric IMAGES" - Results of the Empirical Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkavaara, E.; Arbiol, R.; Markelin, L.; Martínez, L.; Bovet, S.; Bredif, M.; Chandelier, L.; Heikkinen, V.; Korpela, I.; Lelegard, L.; Pérez, F.; Schläpfer, D.; Tokola, T.

    2011-09-01

    This article presents the empirical research carried out in the context of the multi-site EuroSDR project "Radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images" and provides highlights of the results. The investigations have considered the vicarious radiometric and spatial resolution validation and calibration of the sensor system, radiometric processing of the image blocks either by performing relative radiometric block equalization or into absolutely reflectance calibrated products, and finally aspects of practical applications on NDVI layer generation and tree species classification. The data sets were provided by Leica Geosystems ADS40 and Intergraph DMC and the participants represented stakeholders in National Mapping Authorities, software development and research. The investigations proved the stability and quality of evaluated imaging systems with respect to radiometry and optical system. The first new-generation methods for reflectance calibration and equalization of photogrammetric image block data provided promising accuracy and were also functional from the productivity and usability points of view. The reflectance calibration methods provided up to 5% accuracy without any ground reference. Application oriented results indicated that automatic interpretation methods will benefit from the optimal use of radiometrically accurate multi-view photogrammetric imagery.

  9. Radiometric calibration and noise estimation of acousto-optic tunable filter hyperspectral imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Katrašnik, Jaka; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2013-05-20

    The accuracy of the radiometric response of acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) hyperspectral imaging systems is crucial for obtaining reliable measurements. It is therefore important to know the radiometric response and noise characteristics of the hyperspectral imaging system used. A radiometric model of an AOTF hyperspectral imaging system composed of an imaging sensor radiometric model (CCD, CMOS, and sCMOS) and an AOTF light transmission model is proposed. Using the radiometric model, a method for obtaining the fixed pattern noise (FPN) of the imaging system by displacing and imaging an illuminated reference target is developed. Methods for estimating the temporal noise of the imaging system, using the photon transfer method, and for correcting FPN are also presented. Noise estimation and image restoration methods were tested on an AOTF hyperspectral imaging system. The results indicate that the developed methods can accurately calculate temporal and FPN, and can effectively correct the acquired images. After correction, the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired images was shown to increase by 26%. PMID:23736239

  10. Radiometric calibration and noise estimation of acousto-optic tunable filter hyperspectral imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Katrašnik, Jaka; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2013-05-20

    The accuracy of the radiometric response of acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) hyperspectral imaging systems is crucial for obtaining reliable measurements. It is therefore important to know the radiometric response and noise characteristics of the hyperspectral imaging system used. A radiometric model of an AOTF hyperspectral imaging system composed of an imaging sensor radiometric model (CCD, CMOS, and sCMOS) and an AOTF light transmission model is proposed. Using the radiometric model, a method for obtaining the fixed pattern noise (FPN) of the imaging system by displacing and imaging an illuminated reference target is developed. Methods for estimating the temporal noise of the imaging system, using the photon transfer method, and for correcting FPN are also presented. Noise estimation and image restoration methods were tested on an AOTF hyperspectral imaging system. The results indicate that the developed methods can accurately calculate temporal and FPN, and can effectively correct the acquired images. After correction, the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired images was shown to increase by 26%.

  11. GPU-based high-precision real-time radiometric rendering for IR scene generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xi; Zhang, Jianqi; Zhang, Shaoze; Wu, Xin

    2014-07-01

    Aiming at the problem that traditional infrared scene real-time radiometric rendering method leads to greater calculation error for securing real-time purpose, this article studies the IR rendering comprehensive optimization method, which secures real-time performance as well as calculation accuracy. Firstly, based on the effective average value principle, the spectrum coupling thermal emission and reflected radiations in the spectral radiometric equation are decomposed into physical quantities, and the spectral radiometric equation is improved to become a simpler calculation between "primer" radiance terms and effective average factors. Secondly, the parameter processing method is proposed to cope with the situation when index parameters of effective average factors exceed the maximum dimensionalities of graphics processing unit (GPU) look-up-table (LUT); and pre-calculation method is applied to promote the real-time evaluation efficiency of the physical quantities in the radiometric equation. Finally, concurrent computation of radiometric equation is achieved with GPU IR scene generation software and the precise and real-time rendering of three-dimensional IR scene is realized.

  12. Radiometric Characterization Results for the IKONOS, Quickbird, and OrbView-3 Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara; Aaron, David; Thome, Kurtis

    2006-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities better understand commercial imaging satellite properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, the NASA Applied Sciences Directorate (ASD) at Stennis Space Center established a commercial satellite imaging radiometric calibration team consisting of three independent groups: NASA ASD, the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group, and South Dakota State University. Each group independently determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of available high-spatial-resolution commercial 4-band multispectral products, in the visible though near-infrared spectrum, from GeoEye(tradeMark) (formerly SpaceImaging(Registered TradeMark)) IKONOS, DigitalGlobe(Regitered TradeMark) QuickBird, and GeoEye (formerly ORBIMAGE(Registered TradeMark) OrbView. Each team member employed some variant of reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, requiring ground-based measurements coincident with image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. Several study sites throughout the United States that covered a significant portion of the sensor's dynamic range were employed. Satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent team member to evaluate the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The combined results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of these sensors' absolute calibration values.

  13. Preparation of a new autonomous instrumented radiometric calibration site: Gobabeb, Namib Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwell, Claire; Bialek, Agnieszka; Marks, Amelia; Woolliams, Emma; Berthelot, Béatrice; Meygret, Aimé; Marcq, Sébastien; Bouvet, Marc; Fox, Nigel

    2015-10-01

    A new permanently instrumented radiometric calibration site for high/medium resolution imaging satellite sensors is currently under development, focussing on the visible and near infra-red parts of the spectrum. The site will become a European contribution to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) initiative RadCalNet (Radiometric Calibration Network). The exact location of the permanent monitoring instrumentation will be defined following the initial site characterisation. The new ESA/CNES RadCalNet site will have a robust uncertainty budget and its data fully SI traceable through detailed characterisation and calibration by NPL of the instruments and artefacts to be used on the site. This includes a CIMEL sun photometer (the permanent instrumentation) an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, Gonio Radiometric Spectrometer System (GRASS), and reference reflectance standards.

  14. Radiometric calibration and processing procedure for reflective bands on LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiometric subsystem of NASA's LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor is described. Special emphasis is placed on the internal calibrator (IC) pulse shapes and timing cycle. The procedures for the absolute radiometric calibration of the TM channels with a 122-centimeter integrating sphere and the transfer of radiometric calibration from the channels to the IC are reviewed. The use of the IC to calibrate TM data in the ground processing system consists of pulse integration, pulse averaging, IC state identification, linear regression analysis, and histogram equalization. An overview of the SCROUNGE-era (before August 1983) method is presented. Procedural differences between SCROUNGE and the TIPS-era (after July 1983) and the implications of these differences are discussed.

  15. Absolute radiometric calibration of Als intensity data: effects on accuracy and target classification.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Pyysalo, Ulla; Krooks, Anssi; Vain, Ants; Kukko, Antero; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of airborne laser scanning (ALS) intensity data aims at retrieving a value related to the target scattering properties, which is independent on the instrument or flight parameters. The aim of a calibration procedure is also to be able to compare results from different flights and instruments, but practical applications are sparsely available, and the performance of calibration methods for this purpose needs to be further assessed. We have studied the radiometric calibration with data from three separate flights and two different instruments using external calibration targets. We find that the intensity data from different flights and instruments can be compared to each other only after a radiometric calibration process using separate calibration targets carefully selected for each flight. The calibration is also necessary for target classification purposes, such as separating vegetation from sand using intensity data from different flights. The classification results are meaningful only for calibrated intensity data.

  16. Radiometric Calibration of Mars HiRISE High Resolution Imagery Based on Fpga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yifan; Geng, Xun; Xing, Shuai; Tang, Yonghe; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Due to the large data amount of HiRISE imagery, traditional radiometric calibration method is not able to meet the fast processing requirements. To solve this problem, a radiometric calibration system of HiRISE imagery based on field program gate array (FPGA) is designed. The montage gap between two channels caused by gray inconsistency is removed through histogram matching. The calibration system is composed of FPGA and DSP, which makes full use of the parallel processing ability of FPGA and fast computation as well as flexible control characteristic of DSP. Experimental results show that the designed system consumes less hardware resources and the real-time processing ability of radiometric calibration of HiRISE imagery is improved.

  17. Artifact correction and absolute radiometric calibration techniques employed in the Landsat 7 image assessment system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boncyk, Wayne C.; Markham, Brian L.; Barker, John L.; Helder, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    The Landsat-7 Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the Landsat-7 Ground System, will calibrate and evaluate the radiometric and geometric performance of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) instrument. The IAS incorporates new instrument radiometric artifact correction and absolute radiometric calibration techniques which overcome some limitations to calibration accuracy inherent in historical calibration methods. Knowledge of ETM + instrument characteristics gleaned from analysis of archival Thematic Mapper in-flight data and from ETM + prelaunch tests allow the determination and quantification of the sources of instrument artifacts. This a priori knowledge will be utilized in IAS algorithms designed to minimize the effects of the noise sources before calibration, in both ETM + image and calibration data.

  18. Absolute radiometric calibration of Als intensity data: effects on accuracy and target classification.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Pyysalo, Ulla; Krooks, Anssi; Vain, Ants; Kukko, Antero; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of airborne laser scanning (ALS) intensity data aims at retrieving a value related to the target scattering properties, which is independent on the instrument or flight parameters. The aim of a calibration procedure is also to be able to compare results from different flights and instruments, but practical applications are sparsely available, and the performance of calibration methods for this purpose needs to be further assessed. We have studied the radiometric calibration with data from three separate flights and two different instruments using external calibration targets. We find that the intensity data from different flights and instruments can be compared to each other only after a radiometric calibration process using separate calibration targets carefully selected for each flight. The calibration is also necessary for target classification purposes, such as separating vegetation from sand using intensity data from different flights. The classification results are meaningful only for calibrated intensity data. PMID:22346660

  19. NASA IKONOS Multispectral Radiometric Calibration and 3-Year Temporal Stability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Carver, David; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen; Aaran, David

    2003-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can place confidence in the imagery they use and can fully understand its properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other system. In addition, the user community has little or no insight into the design and operation of commercial sensors or into the methods involved in generating commercial products. To address this calibration need, the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) Earth Science Applications (ESA) Directorate established a commercial satellite imaging radiometric calibration team consisting of three independent groups: NASA, SSC,ESA, the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group, and South Dacota State University. Each group determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of the Space Imaging IKONOS 4-band, 4 m multispectral product covering the visible through near-infrared spectral region. For a three year period beginning in 2000, each team employed some variant of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, requiring ground-based measurements coincident with IKONOS image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. Several study sites throughout the United States were employed that covered nearly the entire dynamic range of the IKONOS sensor. IKONOS at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent group to determine the IKONOS sensor's radiometric accuracy and stability. Over 10 individual vicariously determined at-sensor radiance estimates were used each year. When combined, these estimates provided a high-precision radiometric gain calibration coefficient. No significant calibration offset was observed. The results of this evaluation provide the scientific community with an independent assessment of the IKONOS sensor's absolute calibration and temporal stability over the 3

  20. Soil moisture mapping at Bubnow Wetland using L-band radiometer (ELBARA III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukowski, Mateusz; Schwank, Mike; Szlązak, Radosław; Wiesmann, Andreas; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Bogusław; Usowicz, Jerzy; Rojek, Edyta; Werner, Charles

    2016-04-01

    The study of soil moisture is a scientific challenge. Not only because of large diversity of soils and differences in their water content, but also due to the difficulty of measuring, especially in large scale. On this field of interest several methods to determine the content of water in soil exists. The basic and referential is gravimetric method, which is accurate, but suitable only for small spatial scales and time-consuming. Indirect methods are faster, but need to be validated, for example those based on dielectric properties of materials (e.g. time domain reflectometry - TDR) or made from distance (remote), like brightness temperature measurements. Remote sensing of soil moisture can be performed locally (from towers, drones, planes etc.) or globally (satellites). These techniques can complement and help to verify different models and assumptions. In our studies, we applied spatial statistics to local soil moisture mapping using ELBARA III (ESA L-band radiometer, 1.4 GHz) mounted on tower (6.5 meter height). Our measurements were carried out in natural Bubnow Wetland, near Polesie National Park (Eastern Poland), during spring time. This test-site had been selected because it is representative for one of the biggest wetlands in Europe (1400 km2), called "Western Polesie", localized in Ukraine, Poland and Belarus. We have investigated Bubnow for almost decade, using meteorological and soil moisture stations, conducting campaigns of hand-held measurements and collecting soil samples. Now, due to the possibility of rotation at different incidence angles (as in previous ELBARA systems) and the new azimuth tracking capabilities, we obtained brightness temperature data not only at different distances from the tower, but also around it, in footprints containing different vegetation and soil types. During experiment we collected data at area about 450 m2 by rotating ELBARA's antenna 5-175° in horizontal and 30-70° in vertical plane. This type of approach allows

  1. DOMEX-2 Ground-Based Antarctic L-Band Emission Measurements: a Contribution to Smos Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Macelloni, G.; Brogioni, M.; Pettinato, S.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, interest has grown in the remote sensing community for using the Antarctic ice sheet for calibrating and validating data from low-frequency satellite-borne microwave radiometers such as SMOS, Aquarius and SMAP. In particular, the East Antarctic Plateau Dome-C region around the Concordia Station appears to be particularly suited for this purpose. The specific characteristics of this region of interest are its size, structure, spatial homogeneity and thermal stability as well as frequent overpasses of these polar-orbiting satellites. In-situ measurements indicate that the roughness is limited with respect to other Antarctic areas and the temperature of the firn below 10 m remains stable on multiyear timescales. This attribute is particularly interesting for low-frequency microwave radiometers since, due to the low extinction of dry snow, the upper ice sheet layer is almost transparent and the brightness temperature (Tb) variability therefore predicted to be extremely small. At the year-round Italian-French base of Concordia ancillary data such as atmospheric parameters and snow temperature at different depths are routinely acquired as a basis for the analysis and the interpretation of satellite microwave data. Meanwhile, a first pilot experiment, called DOMEX-1 carried out an austral summer Antarctic campaign in November 2004- December 2005 to demonstrate the short-term brightness temperature stability at monthly scale. With the November 2009 launch of the European Space Agency’s SMOS satellite, a corresponding second experiment called DOMEX-2 was initiated in the Austral summer 2008-2009 with the goal to verify the assumption of year-round stability and suitability of the ice sheet as an external calibration reference target. The primary objectives of DOMEX-2 are to provide an independent source of stable reference data for SMOS satellite calibration and in particular: continuous acquisition of a calibrated time series of microwave (L-band) and

  2. Development of a L-band ocean emissivity electromagnetic model using observations from the Aquarius Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazin, Y.; Jones, W.; El-Nimri, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D ocean salinity measurement mission was launched into polar orbit during the summer of 2011. The prime sensor is an L-band radiometer/scatterometer developed jointly by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This paper deals with the development of an ocean emissivity model using AQ radiometer brightness temperature (Tb) observations. This model calculates the ocean surface emissivity as a function of ocean salinity, sea surface temperature, surface wind speed and direction. One unique aspect of this model is that it calculates ocean emissivity over wide ranges of Earth incidence angles (EIAs) from nadir to > 60°and ocean wind speeds from 0 m/s to > 70 m/s. This physical electromagnetic model with empirical coefficients follows the form of Stogryn [1967] that treats the ocean as a mixture of foam and clean rough water. The CFRSL ocean surface emissivity (ɛocean) is modeled as a linear sum of foam (ɛfoam) and foam-free seawater (ɛrough) emissivities, according to ɛocean = FF * ɛfoam + (1 - FF) * ɛrough (1) where FF is the fractional area coverage by foam. The foam emissivity is modeled as ɛfoam = Q(freq, U10, EIA) (2) where Q( ) is the empirical dependence of foam emissivity on radiometer frequency, the 10-m neutral stability wind speed and EIA according to El-Nimri [2010]. Following Stogryn, the foam-free seawater emissivity (ɛrough) is modeled ɛrough = ɛsmooth +Δɛexcess (3) where ɛsmooth = (1 - Γ) is the smooth surface emissivity, Γ is the Fresnel power reflection coefficient, and Δɛexcess is the wind-induced excess emissivity, given by Δɛexcess = G(freq, U10, WDir, EIA) (4) Where G( ) is the empirical signature of foam-free rough ocean, which depends upon the surface wind speed and wind direction. This function is determined empirically from measured AQ radiometer Tb's associated with surface wind vector from collocated NOAA GDAS numerical weather model. Ocean emissivity calculations are compared

  3. Nitric oxide: prospects and perspectives of in vivo detection by L-band EPR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hirotada; Berliner, Lawrence J.

    1998-07-01

    This paper discusses, compares and evaluates various in vivo EPR methods of detection of nitric oxide (NO). In particular the various classes of agents are: Fe(II)-dithiocarbamate derivative complexes of MGD ( N-methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate) and DTCS [ N-(dithiocarboxy)sarcosine], stable imidazolineoxy N-oxides and nitronyl N-oxides, and NO-sensitive chars. As a specific example direct, real-time, in vivo measurements of nitric oxide (NO) in mice are described with the water soluble metal chelator complex -, as monitored at L-band EPR. The three-line EPR spectrum of [--NO] was observed non-invasively in both control animals injected with the preformed product [--NO] and from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated mice subsequently injected with - complex. The [--NO] spectrum was markedly suppressed after administration of phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) prior to LPS injection as PBN inhibits the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). When -arginine was administered to LPS-treated mice, an EPR spectrum consisting of both three- and two-line EPR signals (due to

  4. Fourth World Radiometric Reference to SI radiometric scale comparison and implications for on-orbit measurements of the total solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.; Schmutz, W.; Winkler, R.; Finsterle, W.; Fox, N.

    2012-04-01

    We report the fourth World Radiometric Reference (WRR)-to-SI comparison. At the National Physical Laboratory we compared three transfer pyrheliometer instruments in power mode with the SI radiometric scale. Compared with the three previous comparisons, we improved the experiment by operating the transfer instruments in vacuum. At the Total solar irradiance Radiometer Facility (TRF) located at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) in Boulder, we repeated the power comparison of one of the transfer instruments. The TRF also allowed the comparison and characterization of this instrument in irradiance mode. Using the WRR comparisons performed in Davos, we find that the WRR is 0.34% higher than the SI scale. Comparing irradiance mode calibrations with power mode calibrations reveals that previous estimates of stray light of PMO6-type radiometers were very low. The instrument calibrated at TRF was integrated in the space experiment PREMOS on the French satellite PICARD and carries the first vacuum irradiance calibration to space.

  5. Radiometric-microbiologic assay of niacin using Kloeckera brevis: analysis of human blood and food

    SciTech Connect

    Guilarte, T.R.; Pravlik, K.

    1983-12-01

    Kloeckera brevis, a yeast, was used as the test organism for the development of a radiometric-microbiologic (RMA) assay for niacin. The assay was determined to be sensitive to the 2 ng niacin per vial level and specific for the biologically active forms of this vitamin. The method was shown to be simple, accurate, and precise in the analysis of niacin in human blood and food. The application of the radiometric technique eliminates some of the problems encountered with conventional turbidimetric-microbiologic assay.

  6. Mapping Inundation and Changes in Wetland Extent with L-band SAR: A Combined Data and Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galantowicz, J. F.; Samanta, A.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate mapping of seasonal and inter-annual changes in inundation and wetland extent is a key requisite for the estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG, e.g., methane) emissions from land surfaces to the atmosphere. This task would benefit from the 1- to 3-km spatial resolution L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and 3-day revisit time of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, planned for launch in 2014. With a view to utilizing this unique capability, we propose a method for mapping the fraction of area inundated using a combination of semi-empirical models of radar backscatter and L-band SAR data. Inundation exhibits a characteristic radar backscatter that is affected by a set of factors, including roughness of soil and water surfaces, and presence of vegetation cover. Further, the impact of vegetation cover on radar backscatter from underlying soil and/or water surface will depend on biome type. The effects of these factors on both the like-polarized (HH, VV) and cross-polarized (HV) radar backscatter was investigated using semi-empirical models. A key step in devising an inundation fraction retrieval algorithm is to benchmark and calibrate the backscatter simulated with semi-empirical models against SAR data. This task was undertaken using data from the Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) instrument onboard Japan's Earth Resources Satellite's (JERS, e.g., Fig. 1). This calibration was performed in the following way. First, using a Monte-Carlo type of approach, a large set of random backscatter samples was extracted from different landcover classes, including dry forests and clear-cut areas, inundated forests (wetlands), and open water. Second, mean backscatter was calculated at varying spatial resolutions: 100 m, 500 m, 1 km, 2 km, 3 km and 10 km. Third, the mean model backscatter was set to the mean PALSAR backscatter for each landcover class, but the model dispersion was retained. Finally, using these calibrated values

  7. Inferring Land Surface Model Parameters for the Assimilation of Satellite-Based L-Band Brightness Temperature Observations into a Soil Moisture Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission provides global measurements of L-band brightness temperatures at horizontal and vertical polarization and a variety of incidence angles that are sensitive to moisture and temperature conditions in the top few centimeters of the soil. These L-band observations can therefore be assimilated into a land surface model to obtain surface and root zone soil moisture estimates. As part of the observation operator, such an assimilation system requires a radiative transfer model (RTM) that converts geophysical fields (including soil moisture and soil temperature) into modeled L-band brightness temperatures. At the global scale, the RTM parameters and the climatological soil moisture conditions are still poorly known. Using look-up tables from the literature to estimate the RTM parameters usually results in modeled L-band brightness temperatures that are strongly biased against the SMOS observations, with biases varying regionally and seasonally. Such biases must be addressed within the land data assimilation system. In this presentation, the estimation of the RTM parameters is discussed for the NASA GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, which is based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the Catchment land surface model. In the GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, soil moisture and brightness temperature biases are addressed in three stages. First, the global soil properties and soil hydraulic parameters that are used in the Catchment model were revised to minimize the bias in the modeled soil moisture, as verified against available in situ soil moisture measurements. Second, key parameters of the "tau-omega" RTM were calibrated prior to data assimilation using an objective function that minimizes the climatological differences between the modeled L-band brightness temperatures and the corresponding SMOS observations. Calibrated parameters include soil roughness parameters, vegetation structure parameters

  8. Comparison of diverse methods for the correction of atmospheric effects on LANDSAT and SKYLAB images. [radiometric correction in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Camara, G.; Dias, L. A. V.; Mascarenhas, N. D. D.; Desouza, R. C. M.; Pereira, A. E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Earth's atmosphere reduces a sensors ability in currently discriminating targets. Using radiometric correction to reduce the atmospheric effects may improve considerably the performance of an automatic image interpreter. Several methods for radiometric correction from the open literature are compared leading to the development of an atmospheric correction system.

  9. Airborne lidar and radiometric observations of PBL- and low clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamant, P. H.; Valentin, R.; Pelon, J.

    1992-01-01

    lidar and narrowbeam IR radiometer is conducted to study the scale integration problem. A good agreement within less than 100 m relies on spatial uniformity and an optically thick layer. In the presence of holes, a discrepancy is observed. This is illustrated in figure 2, displaying as a function of time (1) the lidar signals; (2) the target temperature (either clouds or sea surface) retreived from a narrowbeam IR radiometer, 17 C is the sea surface temperature on that day; and (3) the visible flux, linked to cloud albedo, measured by a pyranometer. In preparation of ASTEX, down- and up-looking measurements where conducted on stratocumulus clouds over the Atlantic Ocean near Quimper in Brittany. Depending on the flight pattern orientation with respect to the wind, the top and bottom cloud morphologies are different. Preliminary results are given on cloud morphology, cloud top PDFs, optical porosity, fractional cloudiness, and comparison of lidar and radiometric measurements.

  10. L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery performs better than optical datasets at retrieving woody fractional cover in deciduous, dry savannahs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, Laven; Mathieu, Renaud; Main, Russell; Wessels, Konrad; Asner, Gregory P.

    2016-10-01

    Woody canopy cover (CC) is the simplest two dimensional metric for assessing the presence of the woody component in savannahs, but detailed validated maps are not currently available in southern African savannahs. A number of international EO programs (including in savannah landscapes) advocate and use optical LandSAT imagery for regional to country-wide mapping of woody canopy cover. However, previous research has shown that L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides good performance at retrieving woody canopy cover in southern African savannahs. This study's objective was to evaluate, compare and use in combination L-band ALOS PALSAR and LandSAT-5 TM, in a Random Forest environment, to assess the benefits of using LandSAT compared to ALOS PALSAR. Additional objectives saw the testing of LandSAT-5 image seasonality, spectral vegetation indices and image textures for improved CC modelling. Results showed that LandSAT-5 imagery acquired in the summer and autumn seasons yielded the highest single season modelling accuracies (R2 between 0.47 and 0.65), depending on the year but the combination of multi-seasonal images yielded higher accuracies (R2 between 0.57 and 0.72). The derivation of spectral vegetation indices and image textures and their combinations with optical reflectance bands provided minimal improvement with no optical-only result exceeding the winter SAR L-band backscatter alone results (R2 of ∼0.8). The integration of seasonally appropriate LandSAT-5 image reflectance and L-band HH and HV backscatter data does provide a significant improvement for CC modelling at the higher end of the model performance (R2 between 0.83 and 0.88), but we conclude that L-band only based CC modelling be recommended for South African regions.

  11. Forest biomass, canopy structure, and species composition relationships with multipolarization L-band synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of forest biomass, canopy structure, and species composition on L-band synthetic aperature radar data at 44 southern Mississippi bottomland hardwood and pine-hardwood forest sites was investigated. Cross-polarization mean digital values for pine forests were significantly correlated with green weight biomass and stand structure. Multiple linear regression with five forest structure variables provided a better integrated measure of canopy roughness and produced highly significant correlation coefficients for hardwood forests using HV/VV ratio only. Differences in biomass levels and canopy structure, including branching patterns and vertical canopy stratification, were important sources of volume scatter affecting multipolarization radar data. Standardized correction techniques and calibration of aircraft data, in addition to development of canopy models, are recommended for future investigations of forest biomass and structure using synthetic aperture radar.

  12. Comparison of X-Band, L-Band and C-Band Radar Images in Monitoring Subsidence in Agricultural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motagh, Mahdi; Haghshenas Haghighi, Mahmud; Shamshiri, Roghaye; Esmaeili, Mustapha

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing pattern of groundwater induced land subsidence in major valleys and agricultural regions of Iran has been recently documented by several studies (e.g. [1-4]) using C-band Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations. In this article we present the results of our research in which we evaluated the performance of C-band, L-band and X-band SAR data, using time-series method of small baseline subset (SBAS), to retrieve long time series of ground subsidence in agricultural regions in the country. Two major groundwater basins have been selected for this purpose: (1) Rafsanjan Valley in the Kerman province of central Iran and (2) Tehran Plain (capital of Iran). We also report on our experience using dualpolarimetry (HH/VV) X-band SAR data for Persistent Scatterer (PS) deformation analysis in natural terrains subject to high rate of deformation.

  13. Savannah woody structure modelling and mapping using multi-frequency (X-, C- and L-band) Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, Laven; Mathieu, Renaud; Main, Russell; Kleynhans, Waldo; Wessels, Konrad; Asner, Gregory; Leblon, Brigitte

    2015-07-01

    Structural parameters of the woody component in African savannahs provide estimates of carbon stocks that are vital to the understanding of fuelwood reserves, which is the primary source of energy for 90% of households in South Africa (80% in Sub-Saharan Africa) and are at risk of over utilisation. The woody component can be characterised by various quantifiable woody structural parameters, such as tree cover, tree height, above ground biomass (AGB) or canopy volume, each been useful for different purposes. In contrast to the limited spatial coverage of ground-based approaches, remote sensing has the ability to sense the high spatio-temporal variability of e.g. woody canopy height, cover and biomass, as well as species diversity and phenological status - a defining but challenging set of characteristics typical of African savannahs. Active remote sensing systems (e.g. Light Detection and Ranging - LiDAR; Synthetic Aperture Radar - SAR), on the other hand, may be more effective in quantifying the savannah woody component because of their ability to sense within-canopy properties of the vegetation and its insensitivity to atmosphere and clouds and shadows. Additionally, the various components of a particular target's structure can be sensed differently with SAR depending on the frequency or wavelength of the sensor being utilised. This study sought to test and compare the accuracy of modelling, in a Random Forest machine learning environment, woody above ground biomass (AGB), canopy cover (CC) and total canopy volume (TCV) in South African savannahs using a combination of X-band (TerraSAR-X), C-band (RADARSAT-2) and L-band (ALOS PALSAR) radar datasets. Training and validation data were derived from airborne LiDAR data to evaluate the SAR modelling accuracies. It was concluded that the L-band SAR frequency was more effective in the modelling of the CC (coefficient of determination or R2 of 0.77), TCV (R2 of 0.79) and AGB (R2 of 0.78) metrics in Southern African

  14. Posterior uncertainty of GEOS-5 L-band radiative transfer model parameters and brightness temperatures after calibration with SMOS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lannoy, G. J.; Reichle, R. H.; Vrugt, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Simulated L-band (1.4 GHz) brightness temperatures are very sensitive to the values of the parameters in the radiative transfer model (RTM). We assess the optimum RTM parameter values and their (posterior) uncertainty in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) land surface model using observations of multi-angular brightness temperature over North America from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. Two different parameter estimation methods are being compared: (i) a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach, and (ii) an MCMC simulation procedure using the differential evolution adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm. Our results demonstrate that both methods provide similar "optimal" parameter values. Yet, DREAM exhibits better convergence properties, resulting in a reduced spread of the posterior ensemble. The posterior parameter distributions derived with both methods are used for predictive uncertainty estimation of brightness temperature. This presentation will highlight our model-data synthesis framework and summarize our initial findings.

  15. Scanning L-Band Active Passive (SLAP)—FLIGHT Results from a New Airborne Simulator for Smap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.; Faulkner, T.; Wu, A.; Patel, H.

    2014-12-01

    1. Introduction and BackgroundThis paper introduces a new NASA airborne instrument, the Scanning L-band Active Passive (SLAP), which is specially tailored to simulate SMAP. 2. Description of SLAPSLAP has both passive (radiometer) and active (radar) microwave L-band imaging capabilities. The radiometer observes at 1.4 GHz using duplicate front end hardware from the SMAP satellite radiometer. It also includes a duplicate of the digital backend development unit for SMAP, thus the novel Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) detection and mitigation features and algorithms for SMAP are duplicated with very high fidelity in SLAP. The digital backend provides 4-Stokes polarization capability. The real-aperture radar operates in the 1215-1300 MHz band with quad-pol capability. Radar and radiometer share one antenna via diplexers that are spare units from the Aquarius satellite instrument. 3. Flight ResultsSLAP's initial flights were conducted in Dec 2013 over the eastern shore of Maryland and successfully demonstrated radiometer imaging over 2 full SMAP 36x36 km grid cells at 1km resolution within 3 hrs, easily meeting the SMAP post-launch cal/val airborne mapping requirements. A second flight on the same day also demonstrated SLAP's quick-turn abilities and high-resolution/wide-swath capabilities with 200m resolution across a 1500m swath from 2000 ft AGL. Additional flights were conducted as part of the GPM iPHEX campaign in May, 2014. 4. ConclusionThis paper presents flight data and imagery, as well as details of the radiometer and radar performance and calibration. The paper will also describe the mission performance achievable on the King Air and other platforms.

  16. Simultaneous K- and L-band Spectroscopy of Be Stars: Circumstellar Envelope Properties from Hydrogen Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, A.; Arias, M. L.; Cidale, L. S.

    2010-05-01

    We present medium-resolution K- and L-band spectra of a sample of eight Be stars, obtained with Gemini/NIRI. The IR K and L bands contain many lines of different hydrogen series that are used as a diagnosis to the physical conditions in the circumstellar environments. We make an analysis on the optical depths of the line-forming regions based on the intensity ratios of Pfγ and Brα lines, the behavior of Humphreys' series, and the fluxes of Brα and Brγ lines. All our targets show spectroscopic and photometric long-term variability; thus, time-resolved K- and L-band spectroscopy is an ideal tool for studying the structure and evolution of the innermost regions of the envelope and to test models on the disk-forming mechanism. We note that the instrumental configuration used allowed us to obtain good quality IR observations and to take profit of Gemini band 3 observing time (allocation time for ranked programs in which the observing conditions are relaxed). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (USA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  17. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morfitt, Ron; Barsi, Julia A.; Levy, Raviv; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad; Ong, Lawrence; Scaramuzza, Pat; Vanderwerff, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance onboard Landsat-8 have been met or exceeded. The calibration activities that occurred prior to launch provided calibration parameters that enabled ground processing to produce imagery that met most requirements when data were transmitted to the ground. Since launch, calibration updates have improved the image quality even more, so that all requirements are met. These updates range from detector gain coefficients to reduce striping and banding to alignment parameters to improve the geometric accuracy. This paper concentrates on the on-orbit radiometric performance of the OLI, excepting the radiometric calibration performance. Topics discussed in this paper include: signal-to-noise ratios that are an order of magnitude higher than previous Landsat missions; radiometric uniformity that shows little residual banding and striping, and continues to improve; a dynamic range that limits saturation to extremely high radiance levels; extremely stable detectors; slight nonlinearity that is corrected in ground processing; detectors that are stable and 100% operable; and few image artifacts.

  18. Radiometric ages of brachyuran crabs from the Galapagos spreading-center hydrothermal ventfield

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.T.; Turekian, K.K.

    1984-09-01

    The ages of four crab carapaces from the Galapagos spreading-center hydrothermal ventfield were determined radiometrically using members of the U and Th decay chains. One animal had an age of 0.1 years and therefore had undergone molting just before collection; the other three had last molted 3-4 years before collection.

  19. Adjustments to the MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration and Polarization Sensitivity in the 2010 Reprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra provides global coverage of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances that have been successfully used for terrestrial and atmospheric research. The MODIS Terra ocean color products, however, have been compromised by an inadequate radiometric calibration at the short wavelengths. The Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) at NASA has derived radiometric corrections using ocean color products from the SeaWiFS sensor as truth fields. In the R2010.0 reprocessing, these corrections have been applied to the whole mission life span of 10 years. This paper presents the corrections to the radiometric gains and to the instrument polarization sensitivity, demonstrates the improvement to the Terra ocean color products, and discusses issues that need further investigation. Although the global averages of MODIS Terra ocean color products are now in excellent agreement with those of SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua, and image quality has been significantly improved, the large corrections applied to the radiometric calibration and polarization sensitivity require additional caution when using the data.

  20. Initial Radiometric Calibration of the AWiFS Using Vicarious Calibration Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The NASA team of University of Arizona, South Dakota State University, and NASA SSC produce consistent results. The AWiFS calibration coefficients agree reasonably well with the NASA team estimate. The NASA team will continue to assess AWiFS radiometric accuracy.

  1. Investigation of Pre- and Post-Flight Radiometric Calibration Uncertainties from Surface Based Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, D.F.; Wei, Z.Y.; Ahman, Z.

    1997-06-01

    A new technique has been developed for inferring column ozone amounts and aerosol optical depths from zenith sky observations. A new radiometric calibration technique for large aperture remote sensing instruments observing the earth through space has been validated which subsequently increased the accuracy of remote sensing measurements of ozone and vertical profiles using measurements of back-scattered ultraviolet solar radiation.

  2. Radiometric performance assessment of Suomi NPP VIIRS SWIR Band (2.25 μm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uprety, Sirish; Cao, Changyong

    2015-09-01

    Suomi NPP VIIRS SWIR band M11 (2.25 μm) has larger radiometric uncertainty compared to the rest of the reflective solar bands. This is due to a number of reasons including prelaunch calibration uncertainties. One of the most commonly used technique to verify the radiometric stability and accuracy of VIIRS is by intercomparing it with other well calibrated radiometers such as MODIS. However one of the limitations of using MODIS is that VIIRS band M11 RSR doesn't overlap with MODIS bands at all. Thus the accuracy of intercomparison relies completely on how well the spectral differences are analyzed over the given target. Since desert sites have higher reflectance and more flat spectra, this study uses desert sites to analyze M11 radiometric performance. In order to better match the RSR between instruments, we have chosen Landsat 8 OLI SWIR band 2 (2.20 μm) to perform intercomparison. This is mainly because OLI SWIR band 2 fully covers the VIIRS band M11 even though OLI has much wider RSR compared to VIIRS. The study suggests that there exists large radiometric inconsistency between VIIRS M11 and OLI, on the order of 5%. The impact due to spectral differences is estimated and accounted for using EO-1 Hyperion observations and MODTRAN.

  3. Texture analysis of radiometric signatures of new sea ice forming in Arctic leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Duane T.; Farmer, L. Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of 33.6-GHz, high-resolution, passive microwave images suggests that new sea ice accumulating in open leads is characterized by a unique textural signature which can be used to discriminate new ice forming in this environment from adjacent surfaces of similar radiometric temperature. Ten training areas were selected from the data set, three of which consisted entirely of first-year ice, four entirely of multilayer ice, and three of new ice in open leads in the process of freezing. A simple gradient operator was used to characterize the radiometric texture in each training region in terms of the degree to which radiometric gradients are oriented. New ice in leads has a sufficiently high proportion of well-oriented features to distinguish it uniquely from first-year ice and multiyear ice. The predominance of well-oriented features probably reflects physical processes by which new ice accumulates in open leads. Banded structures, which are evident in aerial photographs of new ice, apparently give rise to the radiometric signature observed, in which the trend of brightness temperature gradients is aligned parallel to lead trends. First-year ice and multiyear ice, which have been subjected to a more random growth and process history, lack this banded structure and therefore are characterized by signatures in which well-aligned elements are less dominant.

  4. Spectral and radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Chrien, Thomas G.; Miller, Edward A.; Reimer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratory spectral and radiometric calibration of the AVIRIS science data collected since 1987 is described. The instrumentation and procedures used in the calibration are discussed and the accuracy achieved in the laboratory as determined by measurement and calculation is compared with the requirements. Instrument performance factors affecting radiometry are described. The paper concludes with a discussion of future plans.

  5. Radiometric surveying applied to an evaluation of Sorrento Field, Cheyenne County, CO

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, A.V.

    1996-06-01

    The radiometric survey was performed in July of 1994 as part of the Colorado School of Mines Reservoir Characterization Project Phase V. The 5.5 square mile field study consisted of geologic; geophysical; reservoir engineering; geochemical; 3-D seismic and radiometric investigations over the Sorrento Field. Radiometric data was acquired over the study area using a 512 cu. In. NaI detector system and four channel digital acquisition system. Twenty foot stations were acquired along the same traverses as the source and receiver lines of the 3-D seismic program. Profiles were plotted for each line. Data was normalized and Z-Transform and ratio maps were produced. A profile interpretation map indicated the presence of several lineaments possibly related to fracturing now known to exist within the study area as a result of the 3-D seismic survey. An experimental north-south profile was also obtained through the study area using a NaI detector and full spectrum analyzer capable of 60,000 CPS. Data was processed into 1000 channels of data. An analysis of the full spectrum data indicates the presence of two discrete (4 to 6 KeV) windows in the lower portion of the gamma spectrum that exhibit a consistent high response over the productive portion of the field. The normally expected low radiometric response over petroleum reservoirs appears to be a function of a general overall decrease, principally in that portion of the gamma spectrum below 1.50 MeV.

  6. MODIS Cloud Optical Property Retrieval Uncertainties Derived from Pixel-Level VNIR/SWIR Radiometric Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, S.; Wind, G.; Xiong, X.

    2011-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of optical thickness and effective particle radius for liquid water and ice phase clouds employ a well-known VNIR/ SWIR solar reflectance technique. For this type of algorithm, we evaluate the quantitative uncertainty in simultaneous retrievals of these two cloud parameters to pixel-level radiometric calibration estimates and other fundamental (and tractable) error sources.

  7. MODIS Cloud Optical Property Retrieval Uncertainties Derived from Pixel-Level Radiometric Error Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    MODIS retrievals of cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius employ a well-known VNIR/SWIR solar reflectance technique. For this type of algorithm, we evaluate the uncertainty in simultaneous retrievals of these two parameters to pixel-level (scene-dependent) radiometric error estimates as well as other tractable error sources.

  8. Dynamic noise corrected hyperspectral radiometric calibration in the SWIR range using a supercontinuum laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keresztes, Janos C.; Aernouts, Ben; Koshel, R. J.; Saeys, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    As line scanning short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a growing field in the food industry, it is important to select efficient illumination designs to image contaminants with high contrast and low noise. Illumination systems can efficiently be compared and optimized through the use of ray tracing simulations. However, these simulations provide illumination patterns in absolute radiometric units while HSI systems typically provide relative measurements. To bridge this gap, a supercontinuum laser and monochromator setup was used in this study to calibrate a SWIR HSI imager in spectral radiometric units. For the radiometric calibration, an integrating sphere (IS) was illuminated with the monochromatic laser light, while both a high sensitivity photodiode and the hyperspectral camera were positioned at different ports of the IS to measure the diffuse light synchronously. For each spectral band, the radiance observed by the imager corresponding to a line was detected using image analysis, while the remainder of the image was used to sample the noise of the sensor. Laser power fluctuations were monitored using a power meter coupled with a thermal sensor, allowing for their correction. As these measurements were time consuming, while InGaAs based sensors are very sensitive to thermal drift, the dark current was sampled frequently to avoid noise time drifts. This approach allowed correcting for 6% of temporal noise fluctuations. A per-pixel linear radiometric model was fitted with an R2 of 0:94+/-0:3 and used to transfer the measured light distribution of a halogen spot with and without a diffuser into absolute radiometric units. This allowed comparing measurements with the results of ray tracing.

  9. Rapid radiometric methods to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis from other mycobacterial species

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Hwangbo, C.C.; Silcox, V.; Good, R.C.; Snider, D.E. Jr.; Middlebrook, G.

    1984-10-01

    Rapid methods for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis (TB complex) from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli) were developed and evaluated in a three-phase study. In the first phase, techniques for identification of Mycobacterium species were developed by using radiometric technology and BACTEC Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Based on /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution, characteristic growth patterns were established for 13 commonly encountered mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria belonging to the TB complex were differentiated from other mycobacteria by cellular morphology and rate of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution. For further differentiation, radiometric tests for niacin production and inhibition by Q-nitro-alpha-acetyl amino-beta-hydroxy-propiophenone (NAP) were developed. In the second phase, 100 coded specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as members of the TB complex, MOTT bacilli, bacteria other than mycobacteria, or ''no viable organisms'' within 3 to 12 (average 6.4) days of receipt from the Centers for Disease Control. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from 20 simulated sputum specimens were carried out in phase III. Out of 20 sputum specimens, 16 contained culturable mycobacteria, and all of the positives were detected by the BACTEC method in an average of 7.3 days. The positive mycobacterial cultures were isolated and identified as TB complex or MOTT bacilli in an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric NAP test was found to be highly sensitive and specific for a rapid identification of TB complex, whereas the radiometric niacin test was found to have some inherent problems. Radiometric BACTEC and conventional methodologies were in complete agreement in Phase II as well as in Phase III.

  10. Analyzing Spectral Characteristics of Shadow Area from ADS-40 High Radiometric Resolution Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ta; Wu, Shou-Tsung; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Chen, Jan-Chang

    2016-06-01

    The shadows in optical remote sensing images are regarded as image nuisances in numerous applications. The classification and interpretation of shadow area in a remote sensing image are a challenge, because of the reduction or total loss of spectral information in those areas. In recent years, airborne multispectral aerial image devices have been developed 12-bit or higher radiometric resolution data, including Leica ADS-40, Intergraph DMC. The increased radiometric resolution of digital imagery provides more radiometric details of potential use in classification or interpretation of land cover of shadow areas. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to analyze the spectral properties of the land cover in the shadow areas by ADS-40 high radiometric resolution aerial images, and to investigate the spectral and vegetation index differences between the various shadow and non-shadow land covers. According to research findings of spectral analysis of ADS-40 image: (i) The DN values in shadow area are much lower than in nonshadow area; (ii) DN values received from shadowed areas that will also be affected by different land cover, and it shows the possibility of land cover property retrieval as in nonshadow area; (iii) The DN values received from shadowed regions decrease in the visible band from short to long wavelengths due to scattering; (iv) The shadow area NIR of vegetation category also shows a strong reflection; (v) Generally, vegetation indexes (NDVI) still have utility to classify the vegetation and non-vegetation in shadow area. The spectral data of high radiometric resolution images (ADS-40) is potential for the extract land cover information of shadow areas.

  11. Improved geodetic earthquake source modelling through correction of ionospheric disturbances in L-band InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhaus, Henriette; Gomba, Giorgio; Eineder, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The use of L-band InSAR data for observing the surface displacements caused by earthquakes can be very beneficial. The retrieved signal is generally more stable against temporal phase decorrelation with respect to C-band and X-band InSAR data, such that fault movements also in vegetated areas can be observed. Also, due to the longer wavelength, larger displacement gradients that occur close to the ruptures can be measured. A serious draw back of L-band data on the other hand is that it more strongly reacts to heterogeneities in the ionosphere. The spatial variability of the electron content causes spatially long wavelength trends in the interferometric phase, distorts the surface deformation signal therefore impacts on the earthquake source analysis. A well-known example of the long-wavelength distortions are the ALOS-1 InSAR observations of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. To mitigate the effect of ionospheric phase in the geodetic modelling of earthquake sources, a common procedure is to remove any obvious linear or quadratic trend in the surface displacement data that may have been caused by ionospheric phase delays. Additionally, remaining trends may be accounted for by including so-called ambiguity (or nuisance) parameters in the modelling. The introduced ionospheric distortion, however, is only approximated arbitrarily by such simple ramp functions with the true ionospheric phase screen unknown. As a consequence, either a remaining ionospheric signal may be mistaken for surface displacement or, the other way around, long-wavelength surface displacement may be attributed to ionospheric distortion and is removed. The bias introduced to the source modelling results by the assumption of linear or quadratic ionospheric effects is therefore unknown as well. We present a more informed and physics-based correction of the surface displacement data in earthquake source modelling by using a split-spectrum method to estimate the ionospheric phase screen superimposed to the

  12. Inter-spin distance determination using L-band (1-2 GHz) non-adiabatic rapid sweep electron paramagnetic resonance (NARS EPR)

    PubMed Central

    Kittell, Aaron W.; Hustedt, Eric J.; Hyde, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Site-directed spin-labeling electron paramagnetic resonance (SDSL EPR) provides insight into the local structure and motion of a spin probe strategically attached to a molecule. When a second spin is introduced to the system, macromolecular information can be obtained through measurement of inter-spin distances either by continuous wave (CW) or pulsed electron double resonance (ELDOR) techniques. If both methodologies are considered, inter-spin distances of 8 to 80 Å can be experimentally determined. However, there exists a region at the upper limit of the conventional X-band (9.5 GHz) CW technique and the lower limit of the four-pulse double electron-electron resonance (DEER) experiment where neither method is particularly reliable. The work presented here utilizes L-band (1.9 GHz) in combination with non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) EPR to address this opportunity by increasing the upper limit of the CW technique. Because L-band linewidths are three to seven times narrower than those at X-band, dipolar broadenings that are small relative to the X-band inhomogeneous linewidth become observable, but the signal loss due to the frequency dependence of the Boltzmann factor, has made L-band especially challenging. NARS has been shown to increase sensitivity by a factor of five, and overcomes much of this loss, making L-band distance determination more feasible [1]. Two different systems are presented and distances of 18–30 Å have been experimentally determined at physiologically relevant temperatures. Measurements are in excellent agreement with a helical model and values determined by DEER. PMID:22750251

  13. Monitoring of Three Case Studies of Creeping Landslides in Ecuador using L-band SAR Interferometry (InSAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorga Torres, T. M.; Mohseni Aref, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tannia Mayorga Torres1,21 Universidad Central del Ecuador. Faculty of Geology, Mining, Oil, and Environment 2 Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship 2015-16 IntroductionLandslides lead to human and economic losses across the country, mainly in the winter season. On the other hand, satellite radar data has cost-effective benefits due to open-source software and free availability of data. With the purpose of establishing an early warning system of landslide-related surface deformation, three case studies were designed in the Coast, Sierra (Andean), and Oriente (jungle) regions. The objective of this work was to assess the capability of L-band InSAR to get phase information. For the calculation of the interferograms in Repeat Orbit Interferometry PACkage, the displacement was detected as the error and was corrected. The coherence images (Figure 1) determined that L-band is suitable for InSAR processing. Under this frame, as a first approach, the stacking DInSAR technique [1] was applied in the case studies [2]; however, due to lush vegetation and steep topography, it is necessary to apply advanced InSAR techniques [3]. The purpose of the research is to determine a pattern of data acquisition and successful results to understand the spatial and temporal ground movements associated with landslides. The further work consists of establishing landslide inventories to combine phases of SAR images to generate maps of surface deformation in Tumba-San Francisco and Guarumales to compare the results with ground-based measurements to determine the maps' accuracy. References[1] Sandwell D., Price E. (1998). Phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 103, N. B12, pp. 30,183-30,204. [2] Mayorga T., Platzeck G. (2014). Using DInSAR as a tool to detect unstable terrain areas in an Andes region in Ecuador. NH3.5-Blue Poster B298, Vol. 16, EGU2014-16203. Austria. [3] Wasowski J., Bovenga F. (2014). Investigating landslides and unstable slopes with

  14. Quantification of L-band InSAR decorrelation in volcanic terrains using airborne LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedze, M.; Heggy, E.; Jacquemoud, S.; Bretar, F.

    2011-12-01

    Repeat-pass InSAR LOS measurements of the Piton de La Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France) suffer from substantial phase decorrelation due to the occurrence of vegetation and ash deposits on the caldera and slopes of the edifice. To correct this deficiency, we combine normalized airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) intensity data with spaceborne InSAR coherence images from ALOS PALSAR L-band acquired over the volcano in 2008 and 2009, following the 2007 major eruption. The fusion of the two data sets improves the calculation of coherence and the textural classification of different volcanic surfaces. For future missions considering both InSAR and/or LiDAR such as DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice), such data fusion studies can provide a better analysis of the spatiotemporal variations in InSAR coherence in order to enhance the monitoring of pre-eruptive ground displacements. The airborne surveys conducted in 2008 and 2009, cover different types of vegetation and terrain roughness on the central and western parts of the volcano. The topographic data are first processed to generate a high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) of the volcanic edifice with elevation accuracy better than 1 m. For our purposes, the phase variations caused by the surface relief can be eliminated using the LiDAR-derived DTM. Then normalized LiDAR intensities are correlated to the L-band polarimetric coherence for different zones of the volcano to assess the LiDAR-InSAR statistical behavior of different lava flows, pyroclastics, and vegetated surfaces. Results suggest that each volcanic terrain type is characterized by a unique LiDAR-InSAR histogram pattern. We identified four LiDAR-InSAR distinguished relations: (1) pahoehoe lava flow surfaces show an agglomerate histogram pattern which may be explained by low surface scattering and low wave penetration into the geological medium; (2) eroded a'a lava surfaces is characterized by high standard deviation

  15. Coastal Monitoring Using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Image Data - Some Case Studies in Asian Delta Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal geomorphology is highly variable as it is affected by sea-level changes and other naturally- and human-induced fluctuations. To effectively assess and monitor geomorphological changes in various time scales is thus critical for coastal management. Asian mega deltas are vulnerable to a sea-level rise due to its low-lying delta plain, and are dynamic region given a large amount of sediment supply. However, limited data availability and accessibility in the deltas have prevented establishment of systematic coastal monitoring. A variety of remote sensing systems can be used to monitor geomorphological changes in coastal areas as it has wide spatial coverage and high temporal repeatability. Especially, analysis using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data not affected by the cloud conditions offer potential for monitoring in the monsoon Asia region. We will present some case studies of Asian coastal regions using L-band SAR data, ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) and JERS-1 (Japanese Earth Resource Satellite-1) SAR data. One example is that time-series of radar amplitude images can be used to delineate changes quantitatively of the areal extent of river-mouth bars in distributaries of the Mekong River delta. It shows that the estimated areas of river mouthbars gradually increase on an annual time scale, and seasonal variations of areas were also recognized. Another example is that differential SAR interferometry is applied to the coast of the Yellow River delta in China. It shows very high subsidence rates, likely due to groundwater pumping. A further example is that we apply a SAR interferometry time series analysis to monitor ground deformations in the lower Chao Phraya delta plain, Thailand. A single reference time series interferogram from the stacking of unwrapped phases were applied. The subsidence and uplift pattern observed using the SAR interferometry time series analysis highlights the spatial complexity

  16. Impact of the perturbation zonal velocity variation on the spatio/temporal occurrence pattern of L-band scintillation - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagiya, Mala; Pant, Tarun; Choudhary, Raj Kumar; Sunda, Surendra; Sridharan, R.

    2016-07-01

    The earlier evolved method for the forecast of the spatio-temporal variation of L-band scintillation based on the expected variation of the perturbations [Bagiya et al., 2014; Sridharan et al., 2014], under favorable ionospheric/thermospheric conditions, has been refined by duly accounting for the local time variation of the zonal velocity of the perturbations. The unique combination of the two geostationary satellites (GSAT-8 and GSAT-10) over the Indian zone has been used to estimate the typical LT dependence of the perturbation velocities by closely following identifiable features in the scintillation pattern. The measured velocities, that registered a steady decrease with the progression of night, had been shown to significantly alter the forecast pattern of the scintillations with respect to longitude and local time. The significant improvement in the forecast pattern has been demonstrated through a case study putting the forecast method on a firmer footing. References: Bagiya, M. S., R. Sridharan, S. Sunda, L. Jose, T. K. Pant and R. Chaudhary, Critical assessment of the forecasting capability of L-band scintillations over the magnetic equatorial region - Campaign results, J. Atmos. and Sol. Terr. Phys., 110-111, 15-20 2014 Sridharan, R., Mala S. Bagiya, Surendra Sunda, Rajkumar Choudhary, Tarun K. Pant, Lijo Jose, First results on forecasting the spatial occurrence pattern of L-band scintillation and its temporal evolution, J. Atmos. and Sol. Terr. Phys., 119, 53-62 2014

  17. Weekly Gridded Aquarius L-band Radiometer-Scatterometer Observations and Salinity Retrievals over the Polar Regions - Part 2: Initial Product Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brucker, L.; Dinnat, E. P.; Koenig, L. S.

    2014-01-01

    Following the development and availability of Aquarius weekly polar-gridded products, this study presents the spatial and temporal radiometer and scatterometer observations at L band (frequency1.4 GHz) over the cryosphere including the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, sea ice in both hemispheres, and over sub-Arctic land for monitoring the soil freeze-thaw state. We provide multiple examples of scientific applications for the L-band data over the cryosphere. For example, we show that over the Greenland Ice Sheet, the unusual 2012 melt event lead to an L-band brightness temperature (TB) sustained decrease of 5 K at horizontal polarization. Over the Antarctic ice sheet, normalized radar cross section (NRCS) observations recorded during ascending and descending orbits are significantly different, highlighting the anisotropy of the ice cover. Over sub-Arctic land, both passive and active observations show distinct values depending on the soil physical state (freeze-thaw). Aquarius sea surface salinity (SSS) retrievals in the polar waters are also presented. SSS variations could serve as an indicator of fresh water input to the ocean from the cryosphere, however the presence of sea ice often contaminates the SSS retrievals, hindering the analysis. The weekly grided Aquarius L-band products used a redistributed by the US Snow and Ice Data Center at http:nsidc.orgdataaquariusindex.html, and show potential for cryospheric studies.

  18. Amplifications in the S-, C- and L-bands using RE-ion doped short tellurite fibres with 980 nm and 800 nm excitation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Animesh; Shen, Shaoxiong; Joshi, P.

    2006-02-01

    We report the results of emission and amplification in Tm 3+- and Er 3+-fibres for signal gain in the 1420 nm to 1600 nm wavelength range, which covers S-, C- and L-bands of silica fibre optical communication networks. The paper explains the mechanism for alleviating the pump excited state absorption (ESA) in Er-doped tellurite fibres for maximizing the pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm using the Ce-ions as a co-dopant and via the structural modification of TeO II glass using B IIO 3. The spectroscopic data and gain bandwidth of Er-doped fibres are reported in the C- and L-bands. Methods for enhancing gain in the S-band using the co-dopants (Tb 3+, Yb 3+) with 800 nm and 980 nm pumping schemes are also explained. The measured maximum relative gain in short fibres of 5 to 10 cm in length in C- and L-bands are: 30 dB and 15 dB, respectively. By comparison the internal gain in a 20 cm long Tm/Yb ion co-doped fibre pumped with a 980 nm source was 7 dB.

  19. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Source For System-Level Testing Of Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance.

  20. Improving Ocean Color Data Products using a Purely Empirical Approach: Reducing the Requirement for Radiometric Calibration Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson

    2008-01-01

    Radiometric calibration is the foundation upon which ocean color remote sensing is built. Quality derived geophysical products, such as chlorophyll, are assumed to be critically dependent upon the quality of the radiometric calibration. Unfortunately, the goals of radiometric calibration are not typically met in global and large-scale regional analyses, and are especially deficient in coastal regions. The consequences of the uncertainty in calibration are very large in terms of global and regional ocean chlorophyll estimates. In fact, stability in global chlorophyll requires calibration uncertainty much greater than the goals, and outside of modern capabilities. Using a purely empirical approach, we show that stable and consistent global chlorophyll values can be achieved over very wide ranges of uncertainty. Furthermore, the approach yields statistically improved comparisons with in situ data, suggesting improved quality. The results suggest that accuracy requirements for radiometric calibration cab be reduced if alternative empirical approaches are used.

  1. Errors in radiometric remote sensing of sea-surface temperature and salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, C. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for remote measurement of sea-surface physical temperature and salinity using radiometric measurements from aircraft or satellite are reviewed. Studies have been conducted to determine the sensitivity of the errors in surface temperature and salinity to errors in the measured brightness temperatures using combinations of UHF, L, S, and C-band measurements. These investigations were made using values of conductivity, static dielectric constant, and relaxation time derived from the regression equations of Klein and Swift (1977). Results of the error sensitivity study are presented in the form of error contour plots which permit the calculation of errors in the estimation of the physical parameters for given errors in the raw radiometric measurements.

  2. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Inflight radiometric calibration and the determination of surface reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.; Vane, G.; Green, R. O.; Alley, R. E.; Carere, V.; Gabell, A.; Bruegge, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The inflight radiometric performance of AVIRIS is presented together with a comparison of methods of recovering surface spectral reflectance from the data. Performance is evaluated by comparing radiance predicted from AVIRIS with radiance generated from the LOWIRAN 6 atmospheric model and measured surface reflectance. Comparisons show apparent agreement to within a few percent between 1800 and 2450 nm. Between 600 and 1800 nm the response of AVIRIS is systematically low by as much as 70 percent, and between 400 and 600 nm it is higher than expected. These problems are traced to thermal distortions of the instrument, and to detachment during flight of optical fibers connecting foreoptics to two of four spectrometers in the instrument. Of three methods studied, an empirical one involving calibration curves constructed from field reflectance measurements returns accurate predictions of the surface reflectance independent of the actual radiometric significance of the flight data.

  3. Real-Time EDL Navigation Performance Using Spacecraft to Spacecraft Radiometric Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, P. Daniel; Ely, Todd; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, Glenn; Campbell, Todd; Mogensen, Andy

    2006-01-01

    A two-year task sponsored by NASA's Mars Technology Program's Advanced Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) work area includes investigation of improvements to EDL navigation by processing spacecraft-to-spacecraft radiometric data. Spacecraft-to- spacecraft navigation will take advantage of the UHF link between two spacecraft (i.e. to an orbiter from an approaching lander for EDL telemetry relay) to build radiometric data, specifically the velocity between the two spacecraft along the radio beam, that are processed to determine position and velocity in real time. The improved onboard state knowledge provided by spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will improve the performance of entry guidance by providing a more accurate state estimate and ultimately reduce the landed position error. Work on the final year of this task is reported here.

  4. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. . In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  5. Results of a thermoluminescence radiometric survey in Takala area of China's Tarim basin

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, F.R. ); Vaz, J.E. ); Su, J. )

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports on a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) radiometric study of the near-surface radiation flux which was done as an adjunct to oil exploration research in the Takala area, Tarim basin, western China. About 80 sq km of the basin were evaluated using lithium fluoride (LiF) TLDs buried at about 0.5 m; Rn and [Delta]C (anomalous carbonate) measurements were made in this region as well. Small target areas were defined in the region by low value TL radiometric signals. Comparative measurements of Rn and [Delta]C were not as effective as TL in defining small areas for follow-up seismic work or in revealing the structural trends. The structural nature of the area was mimicked by the near-surface radiometries distribution pattern determined by TLDs and suggested the possibility of fault-influenced traps in the subsurface.

  6. Mississippi exploration field trials using microbial, radiometrics, free soil gas, and other techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J.S.; Brown, L.R.; Thieling, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mississippi Office of Geology has conducted field trials using the surface exploration techniques of geomicrobial, radiometrics, and free soil gas. The objective of these trials is to determine if Mississippi oil and gas fields have surface hydrocarbon expression resulting from vertical microseepage migration. Six fields have been surveyed ranging in depth from 3,330 ft to 18,500 ft. The fields differ in trapping styles and hydrocarbon type. The results so far indicate that these fields do have a surface expression and that geomicrobial analysis as well as radiometrics and free soil gas can detect hydrocarbon microseepage from pressurized reservoirs. All three exploration techniques located the reservoirs independent of depth, hydrocarbon type, or trapping style.

  7. Method to remove the effect of ambient temperature on radiometric calibration.

    PubMed

    Songtao, Chang; Yaoyu, Zhang; Zhiyuan, Sun; Min, Li

    2014-09-20

    High precision radiometric calibration is essential for infrared imaging systems, especially in scientific applications where an accurate quantitative analysis is required. Nevertheless, calibration and radiometry are usually not simultaneously performed. Hence the discrepancy of ambient temperature between calibration and actual measurement can generate significant measurement errors unless the calibration results have been properly corrected. To overcome the restriction, we studied the effect of ambient temperature on radiometric calibration, then derived the relationship between calibration results and ambient temperature considering the integration time. A novel method compensating for the impact of ambient temperature on the calibration of a cooled infrared system is proposed. Several experiments are performed, and the results indicate that the proposed method can not only ensure the accuracy of calibration but achieve calibration results under any ambient temperature and arbitrary integration time.

  8. Modeling Radiometric Uncertainty for Vision with Tone-Mapped Color Images.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Ayan; Xiong, Ying; Sun, Baochen; Darrell, Trevor; Scharstein, Daniel; Zickler, Todd; Saenko, Kate

    2014-11-01

    To produce images that are suitable for display, tone-mapping is widely used in digital cameras to map linear color measurements into narrow gamuts with limited dynamic range. This introduces non-linear distortion that must be undone, through a radiometric calibration process, before computer vision systems can analyze such photographs radiometrically. This paper considers the inherent uncertainty of undoing the effects of tone-mapping. We observe that this uncertainty varies substantially across color space, making some pixels more reliable than others. We introduce a model for this uncertainty and a method for fitting it to a given camera or imaging pipeline. Once fit, the model provides for each pixel in a tone-mapped digital photograph a probability distribution over linear scene colors that could have induced it. We demonstrate how these distributions can be useful for visual inference by incorporating them into estimation algorithms for a representative set of vision tasks.

  9. Uncertainty propagation algorithm from the radiometric calibration to the restored earth observation radiance.

    PubMed

    Guorui, Jia; Huijie, Zhao; Hao, Lei

    2014-04-21

    The uncertainty of the radiometric calibration affects the accuracy of the earth observation (EO) radiance restored from the remote sensing digital number (DN) data. However, it has not been intensively analyzed whether they are equivalent to each other. The algorithm to deduce the uncertainty of the restored EO radiance in the solar-reflective spectral range (400-2500 nm) along the uncertainty propagation chain in the radiometric calibration process is proposed. It was validated compared with the traditional calibration uncertainty algorithm through an example of calibrating an imaging spectrometer. The interval about the real EO radiance and the corresponding level of confidence was reported as a result, which shows the possibility to accurately expressing the quality of the restored EO radiance following the rules used in the field of metrology.

  10. Effects of point-spread function on calibration and radiometric accuracy of CCD camera.

    PubMed

    Du, Hong; Voss, Kenneth J

    2004-01-20

    The point-spread function (PSF) of a camera can seriously affect the accuracy of radiometric calibration and measurement. We found that the PSF can produce a 3.7% difference between the apparent measured radiance of two plaques of different sizes with the same illumination. This difference can be removed by deconvolution with the measured PSF. To determine the PSF, many images of a collimated beam from a He-Ne laser are averaged. Since our optical system is focused at infinity, it should focus this source to a single pixel. Although the measured PSF is very sharp, dropping 4 and 6 orders of magnitude and 8 and 100 pixels away from the point source, respectively, we show that the effect of the PSF as far as 100 pixels away cannot be ignored without introducing an appreciable error to the calibration. We believe that the PSF should be taken into account in all optical systems to obtain accurate radiometric measurements.

  11. Bandwidth and spectral stray light effects in the NASA GSFC Radiometric Calibration Facility primary transfer radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Cooper, John W.; Marketon, John E.; Brown, Steven W.; Johnson, B. Carol; Butler, James J.

    2006-08-01

    As part of an effort to reduce uncertainties in the radiometric calibrations of integrating sphere sources and standard lamp irradiance sources, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Radiometric Calibration Facility's (RCF) primary radiometer was characterized at the NIST facility for Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Calibrations with Uniform Sources (SIRCUS). Based on those measurements, a nominal slit scattering function was developed for the radiometer. This allowed calculations of band averaged spectral radiances and irradiances for the radiometer's measurements of sphere and standard lamp sources, respectively. From these calculations the effects of bandwidth and spectral stray light were isolated for measurements in the blue spectral region. These effects, which depend on the spectral distribution of the source being measured, can be as large as 8% for measurements at 400 nm. The characterization results and a correction algorithm for these effects are presented here.

  12. An information theory characterization of radar images and a new definition for radiometric resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The noise properties of the radar image formation process are used in the present modeling of a communication channel in which the desired target properties are the information transmitted, and the final image represents the received signal. The average information rate over this communication channel is calculated together with appropriate bounds and approximations, and is found to be small on a per-sample basis. As a result, many samples must be averaged to allow for the discrimination, or classification, of several levels of target reflectivity. These information rate properties are consistent with known results concerning target detection and image quality in speckle, and the rate is applicable to the definition of radar image radiometric resolution. Radiometric resolution is functionally related to the degree of noncoherent averaging performed by the sensor.

  13. Radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction of satellite and aircraft data for FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Markham, Brian L.; Newcomer, Jeffery A.

    1992-01-01

    The satellite and aircraft radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction work carried out as part of the first International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) are summarized. A large volume (120 Gbytes) of radiometric data were acquired and derived from a number of different instruments on a variety of platforms. The same basic procedure was applied to each instrument: derive the most recent calibration coefficients for converting sensor counts to reflective spectral radiances; correct the radiances for earth-sun distance variations and incident solar spectral irradiance within the bandpass of each respective instrument channel at the top of the atmosphere; characterize the atmosphere for aerosols and absorbing gases; and derive apparent surface reflectance by correcting the exoatmospheric values for atmospheric attenuation. The same basic approach was used for surface temperature derivation. The results of this processing were verified by surface measurements, and corroborated by sensor intercomparisons.

  14. Radiometric versus thermometric calibration of IR test systems: which is best?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Philip I.

    1991-09-01

    Radiometric calibration of military IR test equipment is an approach being explored to avoid perceived shortcomings of traditional thermometric calibration. This issue has profound impact on the testing of military systems: the lack of internally consistent calibration architecture can cost military customers millions of dollars in increased maintenance and spares costs due to test result inconsistencies. An example is presented to show that the lack of a standard spectral response definition in this region, and the difficulty in making such a definition, make the radiometric calibration approach seem questionable for the foreseeable future. Calibration errors of more than 7% (not even a worst-case scenario) can result. The best approach to assuring test accuracy and calibration consistency is to employ thermometric calibration in conjunction with intelligent test system design: high, flat spectral transmittance of the test system and high emissivity targets and sources. These are achievable today with proper application of existing materials and coatings.

  15. Radiometric performance results of the New Horizons' ALICE UV imaging spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, David C.; Davis, Michael W.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Scherrer, John; Stern, S. Alan

    2005-09-01

    We describe the radiometric performance and calibration results of the New Horizons' ALICE flight model. This ALICE is a lightweight (4.4 kg), low-power (4.4 W), ultraviolet spectrograph based on the ALICE instrument now in flight aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft. Its primary job will be to detect a variety of important atomic and molecular species in Pluto's atmosphere, and to determine their relative abundances so that a complete picture of Pluto's atmospheric composition can be determined for the first time. ALICE will also be used to search for an atmosphere around Pluto's moon, Charon, as well as the Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) New Horizons hopes to fly by after Pluto-Charon. Detailed radiometric performance results of the ALICE flight model are presented and discussed.

  16. Radiometric, SEM and XRD investigation of the Chituc black sands, southern Danube Delta, Romania.

    PubMed

    Margineanu, R M; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Celarel, Aurelia; Gomoiu, Claudia-Mariana; Costea, C; Dumitras, Delia; Ion, Adriana; Duliu, O G

    2014-12-01

    The black sand of the Chituc marine sand bank, northern of the city of Navodari (Romania), presents anomalous high radioactivity. Field measurements recorded in some places dose rate up to 200 nSv/h, significantly overpassing the average value of 44 ± 20 nSv/h along the entire Southern sector of Romanian Black Sea shore. Gamma ray spectrometry performed on both Slanic-Prahova Underground Low Background Laboratory and Geological Institute of Romania Radiometric Facilities showed with clarity the dominance of (228)Ac radioisotope in the 50 microns fraction together with the (226)Ra and traces of (40)K. No significant amount of anthropogenic (137)Cs was identified. Based on radiometric as well as on SEM-EDAX and XRD determinations we come to the conclusion that the evidenced radioactivity could be attributed to both uranium and thorium series in the zircon and monazite fractions and to a lesser extent to potassium in the feldspars.

  17. Radiometric responsivity determination for Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) flown on space shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. G.; Davis, R. E.; Wright, R. E., Jr.; Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Bullock, G. F.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure was developed to obtain the radiometric (radiance) responsivity of the Feature Identification and Local Experiment (FILE) instrument in preparation for its flight on Space Shuttle Mission 41-G (November 1984). This instrument was designed to obtain Earth feature radiance data in spectral bands centered at 0.65 and 0.85 microns, along with corroborative color and color-infrared photographs, and to collect data to evaluate a technique for in-orbit autonomous classification of the Earth's primary features. The calibration process incorporated both solar radiance measurements and radiative transfer model predictions in estimating expected radiance inputs to the FILE on the Shuttle. The measured data are compared with the model predictions, and the differences observed are discussed. Application of the calibration procedure to the FILE over an 18-month period indicated a constant responsivity characteristic. This report documents the calibration procedure and the associated radiometric measurements and predictions that were part of the instrument preparation for flight.

  18. Radiometric calibration of DMSP-OLS sensor using VIIRS day/night band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Zhang, Bin; Qiu, Shi; Elvidge, Christopher; Von Hendy, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) has been collecting global night light imaging data for more than 40 years. With the launch of Suomi-NPP satellite in 2011, the Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities because it surpasses DMSP-OLS in having broader radiometric measurement range, more accurate radiometric calibration, finer spatial resolution, and better geometric quality. DMSP-OLS sensor does not have on-board calibration and data is recorded as digital number (DN). Therefore, VIIRS-DNB provides opportunities to perform quantitative radiometric calibration of DMSP-OLS sensor. In this paper, vicarious radiometric calibration of DMSP-OLS at night under lunar illumination is performed. Events were selected when satellite flies above Dome C in Antarctic at night and the moon illuminates the site with lunar phase being more than quarter moon. Additional event selection criteria to limit solar and lunar zenith angle range have been applied to ensure no influence of stray light effects and adequate lunar illumination. The data from DMSP-OLS and VIIRS-DNB were analyzed to derive the characteristic radiance or DN for the region of interest. The scaling coefficient for converting DMSP-OLS DN values into radiance is determined to optimally merge the observation of DMSP-OLS into VIIRS-DNB radiance data as a function of lunar phases. Calibrating the nighttime light data collected by the DMSP-OLS sensors into radiance unit can enable applications of using both sensor data and advance the applications of night time imagery data.

  19. High-speed radiometric imaging with a gated, intensified, digitally controlled camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Charles C.; Sturz, Richard A.

    1997-05-01

    The development of an advanced instrument for real-time radiometric imaging of high-speed events is described. The Intensified Digitally-Controlled Gated (IDG) camera is a microprocessor-controlled instrument based on an intensified CCD that is specifically designed to provide radiometric optical data. The IDG supports a variety of camera- synchronous and camera-asynchronous imaging tasks in both passive imaging and active laser range-gated applications. It features both automatic and manual modes of operation, digital precision and repeatability, and ease of use. The IDG produces radiometric imagery by digitally controlling the instrument's optical gain and exposure duration, and by encoding and annotating the parameters necessary for radiometric analysis onto the resultant video signal. Additional inputs, such as date, time, GPS, IRIG-B timing, and other data can also be encoded and annotated. The IDG optical sensitivity can be readily calibrated, with calibration data tables stored in the camera's nonvolatile flash memory. The microprocessor then uses this data to provide a linear, calibrated output. The IDG possesses both synchronous and asynchronous imaging modes in order to allow internal or external control of exposure, timing, and direct interface to external equipment such as event triggers and frame grabbers. Support for laser range-gating is implemented by providing precise asynchronous CCD operation and nanosecond resolution of the intensifier photocathode gate duration and timing. Innovative methods used to control the CCD for asynchronous image capture, as well as other sensor and system considerations relevant to high-speed imaging are discussed in this paper.

  20. Reduction of Striping Noise in Overlapping LIDAR Intensity Data by Radiometric Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wai Yeung; Shaker, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    To serve seamless mapping, airborne LiDAR data are usually collected with multiple parallel strips with one or two cross strip(s). Nevertheless, the overlapping regions of LiDAR data strips are usually found with unbalanced intensity values, resulting in the appearance of stripping noise. Despite that physical intensity correction methods are recently proposed, some of the system and environmental parameters are assumed as constant or not disclosed, leading to such an intensity discrepancy. This paper presents a new normalization technique to adjust the radiometric misalignment found in the overlapping LiDAR data strips. The normalization technique is built upon a second-order polynomial function fitted on the joint histogram plot, which is generated with a set of pairwise closest data points identified within the overlapping region. The method was tested on Teledyne Optech's Gemini dataset (at 1064 nm wavelength), where the LiDAR intensity data were first radiometrically corrected based on the radar (range) equation. Five land cover features were selected to evaluate the coefficient of variation (cv) of the intensity values before and after implementing the proposed method. Reduction of cv was found by 19% to 59% in the Gemini dataset, where the striping noise was significantly reduced in the radiometrically corrected and normalized intensity data. The Gemini dataset was also used to conduct land cover classification, and the overall accuracy yielded a notable improvement of 9% to 18%. As a result, LiDAR intensity data should be pre-processed with radiometric correction and normalization prior to any data manipulation.

  1. Initial Radiometric Calibration of the AWiFS using Vicarious Calibration Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Thome, Kurtis; Aaron, David; Leigh, Larry

    2006-01-01

    NASA SSC maintains four ASD FieldSpec FR spectroradiometers: 1) Laboratory transfer radiometers; 2) Ground surface reflectance for V&V field collection activities. Radiometric Calibration consists of a NIST-calibrated integrating sphere which serves as a source with known spectral radiance. Spectral Calibration consists of a laser and pen lamp illumination of integrating sphere. Environmental Testing includes temperature stability tests performed in environmental chamber.

  2. A procedure for radiometric recalibration of Landsat 5 TM reflective-band data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Haque, M.O.; Micijevic, E.; Barsi, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has been benefiting from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for the L5 TM imagery used the detectors' response to the internal calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset for each detector. The IC system degraded with time, causing radiometric calibration errors up to 20%. In May 2003, the L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) were updated to use a lifetime lookup-table (LUT) gain model to radiometrically calibrate TM data instead of using scene-specific IC gains. Further modification of the gain model was performed in 2007. The L5 TM data processed using IC prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the recent calibration revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing level-1 products. The best recalibration results are obtained if the work-order report that was included in the original standard data product delivery is available. However, if users do not have the original work-order report, the IC trends can be used for recalibration. The IC trends were generated using the radiometric gain trends recorded in the NLAPS database. This paper provides the details of the recalibration procedure for the following: 1) data processed using IC where users have the work-order file; 2) data processed using IC where users do not have the work-order file; 3) data processed using prelaunch calibration parameters; and 4) data processed using the previous version of the LUT (e.g., LUT03) that was released before April 2, 2007.

  3. A new automatic system for angular measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements.

  4. In-flight radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper from 1984 to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, Kurtis J.; Gellman, David I.; Parada, Robert J., Jr.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Slater, Philip N.; Moran, M. Susan

    1993-11-01

    The reflectance-based method is used to determine an absolute radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper for the solar reflective portion of the spectrum. Results are given for data collected at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico on 1992-08-15. These results are compared to those obtained from applying a similar processing approach to data collected in 1984, 1985, 1987, and 1988.

  5. Report of Optical Radiometric Instruments and Calibration Panel. [spaceborne instrumentation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Measurement and accuracy needs for remote sensing are analyzed. Topics discussed include: (1) in orbit performance degradation due to contamination; (2) increased radiometric accuracy required for detecting small changes over long periods of time in environmental parameters; (3) references for verifying calibration in orbit; (4) high attenuation neutral density filters; (5) the sun as a radiation source for testing; (6) rejection of stray light; (7) development of spectrally flat detectors for flight sensors; and (8) long term stability of sensor components.

  6. Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The radiometric characteristics of LANDSAT 5 TM data were analyzed. Effects which were found earlier and quantified in LANDSAT 4 TM data were quantified for LANDSAT-5 data as well, including: scan-direction-related signal droop and scan correlated level shifts. Coincident LANDSAT 4 and 5 fully corrected (CCT-PT) TM data were analyzed, and band-by-band relationships between the two sensors were derived in terms of both signal counts and radiance.

  7. Radiometric performance results of the Juno ultraviolet spectrograph (Juno-UVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Michael W.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Slater, David C.; Versteeg, Maarten H.; Persson, Kristian B.; Winters, Gregory S.; Persyn, Steven C.; Eterno, John S.

    2011-09-01

    We describe the radiometric performance and ground calibration results of the Juno mission's Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS) flight model. Juno-UVS is a modest power (9.0 W) ultraviolet spectrograph based on the Alice instruments now in flight aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, and the LAMP instrument aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Its primary job will be to characterize Jupiter's UV auroral emissions and relate them to in situ particle measurements.

  8. Radiometric Characterization of the IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView-3 Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara

    2007-01-01

    The NASA team of University of Arizona, South Dakota State University, and NASA SSC produce consistent results. The OrbView calibration coefficients do not appear to agree well with the NASA team estimate (approx. 20% difference). Discussions with GeoEye (TradeMark) (formerly ORBIMAGE(Registered TradeMark)) personnel are ongoing to update the calibration coefficients. The NASA team will continue to assess OrbView radiometric accuracy.

  9. Prime candidate earth targets for the post-launch radiometric calibration of space-based optical imaging instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Thome, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive list of prime candidate terrestrial targets for consideration as benchmark sites for the post-launch radiometric calibration of space-based instruments. The key characteristics of suitable sites are outlined primarily with respect to selection criteria, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability. The establishment and utilization of such benchmark sites is considered an important element of the radiometric traceability of satellite image data products for use in the accurate monitoring of environmental change.

  10. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

    2014-05-13

    We present successful (81)Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The (81)Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) (85)Kr and (39)Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the (81)Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA (81)Kr analysis requires a 40-80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, (81)Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility. PMID:24753606

  11. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhan; Jupp, David L B; Strahler, Alan H; Schaaf, Crystal B; Howe, Glenn; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A; Paynter, Ian; Saenz, Edward J; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna(®) Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρ(app)), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρ(app) are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρ(app) error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρ(app) from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars. PMID:26950126

  12. Calibrating Late Quaternary terrestrial climate signals: radiometrically dated pollen evidence from the southern Sierra Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litwin, Ronald J.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Durika, Nancy J.; Smith, George I.

    1999-01-01

    We constructed a radiometrically calibrated proxy record of Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate change exceeding 230,000 yr duration, using pollen profiles from two cores taken through age-equivalent dry lakes - one core having greater age control (via 230Th alpha mass-spectrometry) and the other having greater stratigraphic completeness. The better dated of these two serial pollen records (Searles Lake) served as a reference section for improving the effective radiometric age control in a nearby and more complete pollen record (Owens Lake) because they: (1) are situated ~90 km apart in the same drainage system (on, and immediately leeward of, the eastern flank of the Sierra Nevada), and (2) preserved strikingly similar pollen profiles and concordant sequences of sedimentological changes. Pollen assemblages from both lakes are well preserved and diverse, and document serial changes in Late Pleistocene and Holocene plant zone distribution and composition in the westernmost Great Basin; they consist of taxa now inhabiting montane forest, woodland, steppe, and desert-scrub environments. The studied core intervals are interpreted here to be the terrestrial equivalent of marine δ18O stages 1 through 9; these pollen profiles now appear to be among the best radiometrically dated Late Pleistocene records of terrestrial climate change known.

  13. Designing an in-flight airborne calibration site using experience from vicarious radiometric satellite calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livens, Stefan; Debruyn, Walter; Sterckx, Sindy; Reusen, Ils

    2011-11-01

    Laboratory calibration of electro-optical sensors is preferably complemented by regular in-flight verification. This checks whether the lab calibration parameters remain valid or recalibration is necessary. In-flight verification can be achieved by vicarious calibration using in-flight measurements of calibration targets. We intend to identify and design a set of suitable radiometric calibration targets. For this, we borrow from expertise gained with the PROBA-V satellite calibration system, which uses multiple vicarious methods relying on diverse natural on-ground targets. Besides reflectance based calibration using ground measurements, the PROBA-V calibration methods are unproven for use in airborne calibration. The selected targets should be suitable for the calibration of both multispectral and hyperspectral imagers. We start from general requirements for radiometric targets and investigate their applicability to airborne calibration. From this we identify two possible sets of natural calibration sites in Belgium. One set, located in the Campine region, contains small water bodies and sandy lakesides. Another set is located in the Westhoek region near the Belgian coast. It offers better suitable water bodies, as well as sandy areas, grass fields and dark targets. Airborne calibration lends itself to the use of smaller artifical targets. We propose to complement the natural targets with a portable target consisting of agricultural nets with different densities. The definition of sets of calibration targets, both natural and artificial can facilitate the investigation of the usability of vicarious targets and method for inflight radiometric verification.

  14. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Brook, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    We present successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) 85Kr and 39Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the 81Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130–115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA 81Kr analysis requires a 40–80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, 81Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility. PMID:24753606

  15. Relative Radiometric Normalization and Atmospheric Correction of a SPOT 5 Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Hajj, Mahmoud El; Bégué, Agnès; Lafrance, Bruno; Hagolle, Olivier; Dedieu, Gérard; Rumeau, Matthieu

    2008-01-01

    Multi-temporal images acquired at high spatial and temporal resolution are an important tool for detecting change and analyzing trends, especially in agricultural applications. However, to insure a reliable use of this kind of data, a rigorous radiometric normalization step is required. Normalization can be addressed by performing an atmospheric correction of each image in the time series. The main problem is the difficulty of obtaining an atmospheric characterization at a given acquisition date. In this paper, we investigate whether relative radiometric normalization can substitute for atmospheric correction. We develop an automatic method for relative radiometric normalization based on calculating linear regressions between unnormalized and reference images. Regressions are obtained using the reflectances of automatically selected invariant targets. We compare this method with an atmospheric correction method that uses the 6S model. The performances of both methods are compared using 18 images from of a SPOT 5 time series acquired over Reunion Island. Results obtained for a set of manually selected invariant targets show excellent agreement between the two methods in all spectral bands: values of the coefficient of determination (r2 exceed 0.960, and bias magnitude values are less than 2.65. There is also a strong correlation between normalized NDVI values of sugarcane fields (r2 = 0.959). Despite a relative error of 12.66% between values, very comparable NDVI patterns are observed.

  16. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhan; Jupp, David L B; Strahler, Alan H; Schaaf, Crystal B; Howe, Glenn; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A; Paynter, Ian; Saenz, Edward J; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-03-02

    Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna(®) Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρ(app)), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρ(app) are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρ(app) error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρ(app) from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars.

  17. Radiometric Calibration of the AWiFS Using Vicarious Calibration Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara

    2007-01-01

    A radiometric calibration assessment of the AWiFS (Advanced Wide Field Sensor) on the Indian Remote Sensing Resourcesat-1 satellite was performed by the NASA Applied Research & Technology Project Office (formerly the Applied Sciences Directorate) at the John C. Stennis Space Center. A reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, requiring ground-based measurements coincident with satellite acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations, was used to estimate at-sensor radiance. The AWiFS is a 4-band, multispectral, moderate-resolution (60 m) imaging sensor that operates in the visible through short-wave infrared spectrum and is currently being considered as a Landsat-like alternative. Several study sites near the Stennis Space Center that attempted to span the dynamic range of the sensor were employed. Satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of the radiometric accuracy of AWiFS image products, which are commercially available through GeoEye. These results are an extension of an independent assessment made by the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group, the South Dakota State University Satellite Calibration Group & Image Processing Lab, and the NASA Applied Sciences Directorate at the John C. Stennis Space Center the previous year.

  18. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhan; Jupp, David L. B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Howe, Glenn; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A.; Paynter, Ian; Saenz, Edward J.; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρapp), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρapp are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρapp error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρapp from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars. PMID:26950126

  19. Radiometric calibration of Advanced Land Imager using reflectance-based results between 2001 and 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkel, J.; Thome, K.; Biggar, S.; Kuester, M.

    2006-08-01

    The Landsat series of sensors have supplied the remote sensing community with a continuous data set dating to the early 1970s. An important aspect of retaining the continuity of these data is that a Landsat follow-on as well as current Landsat instruments must be understood radiometrically throughout their mission. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI), for example, was developed as a prototype for the next generation of Landsat Instruments, and as such there was a significant effort to understand its radiometric characteristics as well as how it compares with previous Landsat sensors. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has been part of this effort since the late 2000 launch of ALI through the use of the reflectance-based method of vicarious calibration. The reflectance-based approach consists of ground-based measurements of atmospheric conditions and surface reflectance at the time of satellite overpass to predict the at-sensor radiance seen by the sensor under study. The work compares results from the reflectance-based approach obtained from well-characterized test sites such as Railroad Valley Playa in Nevada and Ivanpah Playa in California as applied to ALI, Landsat-5 TM, and Landsat-7 EMT+. The results from the comparison use a total of 14 ALI dates spanning in time from 2001 to late 2005 and show that ALI agrees with the current radiometric results from TM and ETM+ to within 5%.

  20. Radiometric stability assessment of an airborne photogrammetric sensor in a test field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markelin, Lauri; Honkavaara, Eija; Hakala, Teemu; Suomalainen, Juha; Peltoniemi, Jouni

    Radiometric stability is a desired property of digital photogrammetric large-format sensors. This article presents a methodology for determining the radiometric stability of airborne imaging sensors in operational conditions in a test field and the results of stability evaluation of a large-format photogrammetric frame sensor DMC, from Intergraph. The imagery was collected in two days using nine different exposure settings, and images collected with variable exposure time and aperture were compared. The results showed promising stability in many cases, up to a level of 2% of the radiance, but less favorable results also appeared. Possible reasons for the unfavorable results could be the limitations of the experimental set-up or the instability of the sensor. DMC showed high radiometric performance potential, but high sensitivity to the exposure settings. Based on the results, recommendations for the future test field calibration and validation procedures were given. One limitation of the analysis was the insufficient information about the sensor stability potential; proposals were given to sensor manufacturers concerning the necessary information.