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Sample records for ld map comparison

  1. A Review of Story Mapping Instruction for Secondary Students with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Richard T.; Paal, Michael; Hintz, Anna-Maria; Cornelius-Freyre, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a review on the effectiveness of story mapping to improve the reading comprehension skills of middle and high school (Grades 6-12) students with learning disabilities (LD). An extensive review of the special education research-base revealed twelve (N = 12) story mapping intervention studies that met our…

  2. A Review of Story Mapping Instruction for Secondary Students with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Richard T.; Paal, Michael; Hintz, Anna-Maria; Cornelius-Freyre, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a review on the effectiveness of story mapping to improve the reading comprehension skills of middle and high school (Grades 6-12) students with learning disabilities (LD). An extensive review of the special education research-base revealed twelve (N = 12) story mapping intervention studies that met our…

  3. Comparison of the Performance of College Students Classified as ADHD, LD, and LD/ADHD in Foreign Language Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Javorsky, James; Philips, Lois

    2005-01-01

    In this study, college students classified as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had fulfilled the foreign language (FL) requirement were compared with students classified as learning disabled (LD) or both LD and ADHD who had either substituted courses for the college FL requirement petition or had passed FL courses…

  4. Beyond Transition: A Comparison of the Employment Experiences of American and Canadian Adults with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Paul J.; Price, Lynda A.; Mulligan, Robert; Shessel, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in the United States and the Canadian Chartre of Rights and Freedoms, there is a new work environment for individuals with learning disabilities (LD) in North America. This qualitative study sought to compare the employment experiences of 25 U. S. adults with LD and 24 Canadian adults with…

  5. Mapping of PARK2 and PACRG overlapping regulatory region reveals LD structure and functional variants in association with leprosy in unrelated indian population groups.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Rupali; Ali, Shafat; Srivastava, Amit K; Aggarwal, Shweta; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Jena, Mamta; Garg, Vijay K; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, where the host genetic background plays an important role toward the disease pathogenesis. Various studies have identified a number of human genes in association with leprosy or its clinical forms. However, non-replication of results has hinted at the heterogeneity among associations between different population groups, which could be due to differently evolved LD structures and differential frequencies of SNPs within the studied regions of the genome. A need for systematic and saturated mapping of the associated regions with the disease is warranted to unravel the observed heterogeneity in different populations. Mapping of the PARK2 and PACRG gene regulatory region with 96 SNPs, with a resolution of 1 SNP per 1 Kb for PARK2 gene regulatory region in a North Indian population, showed an involvement of 11 SNPs in determining the susceptibility towards leprosy. The association was replicated in a geographically distinct and unrelated population from Orissa in eastern India. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the two significantly associated SNPs, located 63.8 kb upstream of PARK2 gene and represented in a single BIN of 8 SNPs, influenced the gene expression. A comparison of BINs between Indian and Vietnamese populations revealed differences in the BIN structures, explaining the heterogeneity and also the reason for non-replication of the associated genomic region in different populations.

  6. Mapping of PARK2 and PACRG Overlapping Regulatory Region Reveals LD Structure and Functional Variants in Association with Leprosy in Unrelated Indian Population Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rupali; Aggarwal, Shweta; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Jena, Mamta; Garg, Vijay K.; Bhattacharya, Sambit N.; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, where the host genetic background plays an important role toward the disease pathogenesis. Various studies have identified a number of human genes in association with leprosy or its clinical forms. However, non-replication of results has hinted at the heterogeneity among associations between different population groups, which could be due to differently evolved LD structures and differential frequencies of SNPs within the studied regions of the genome. A need for systematic and saturated mapping of the associated regions with the disease is warranted to unravel the observed heterogeneity in different populations. Mapping of the PARK2 and PACRG gene regulatory region with 96 SNPs, with a resolution of 1 SNP per 1 Kb for PARK2 gene regulatory region in a North Indian population, showed an involvement of 11 SNPs in determining the susceptibility towards leprosy. The association was replicated in a geographically distinct and unrelated population from Orissa in eastern India. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the two significantly associated SNPs, located 63.8 kb upstream of PARK2 gene and represented in a single BIN of 8 SNPs, influenced the gene expression. A comparison of BINs between Indian and Vietnamese populations revealed differences in the BIN structures, explaining the heterogeneity and also the reason for non-replication of the associated genomic region in different populations. PMID:23861666

  7. QTL detection for a medium density SNP panel: comparison of different LD and LA methods

    PubMed Central

    Filangi, Olivier; Le Roy, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Background New molecular technologies allow high throughput genotyping for QTL mapping with dense genetic maps. Therefore, the interest of linkage analysis models against linkage disequilibrium could be questioned. As these two strategies are very sensitive to marker density, experimental design structures, linkage disequilibrium extent and QTL effect, we propose to investigate these parameters effects on QTL detection. Methods The XIIIth QTLMAS workshop simulated dataset was analysed using three linkage disequilibrium models and a linkage analysis model. Interval mapping, multivariate and interaction between QTL analyses were performed using QTLMAP. Results The linkage analysis models identified 13 QTL, from which 10 mapped close of the 18 which were simulated and three other positions being falsely mapped as containing a QTL. Most of the QTLs identified by interval mapping analysis are not clearly detected by any linkage disequilibrium model. In addition, QTL effects are evolving during the time which was not observed using the linkage disequilibrium models. Conclusions Our results show that for such a marker density the interval mapping strategy is still better than using the linkage disequilibrium only. While the experimental design structure gives a lot of power to both approaches, the marker density and informativity clearly affect linkage disequilibrium efficiency for QTL detection. PMID:20380753

  8. Comparison of ASAT, CK, CK-MB, and LD for the estimation of acute myocardial infarct size in man.

    PubMed

    Grande, P; Christiansen, C; Alstrup, K

    1983-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to set up a simple and reliable procedure for estimating acute myocardial infarct (AMI) size by measuring serum enzymes in a few daily blood samples. Peak enzyme values and estimated infarct size from one, two, or three daily samples of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB, and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) were compared with the extent of myocardial necrosis measured at autopsy in 22 patients who died from AMI. The correlation between the extent of the necrosis measured and peak serum enzymes from one daily blood sample was highest for CK-MB (r = 0.78) and LD (r = 0.73) compared to CK (r = 0.68) and ASAT (r = 0.67). To obtain a significant correlation, however, two patients had to be excluded from the ASAT and LD analyses. No significant improvement was obtained by more frequent blood sampling. Estimation of infarct size did not improve the correlation significantly for any enzyme, although the coefficient of correlation for CK-MB increased slightly (r = 0.83). Serum CK-MB determination provides a semiquantitative estimate of infarct size, but the other enzymes may give erroneous estimates owing to lesser cardiospecificity.

  9. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects, such as regions of high density, are of interest.

  10. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    PubMed Central

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects, such as regions of high density, are of interest. PMID:25286844

  11. Identification of putative candidate genes for red rot resistance in sugarcane (Saccharum species hybrid) using LD-based association mapping.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram K; Banerjee, Nandita; Khan, M S; Yadav, Sonia; Kumar, Sanjeev; Duttamajumder, S K; Lal, Ram Ji; Patel, Jinesh D; Guo, H; Zhang, Dong; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-06-01

    Red rot is a serious disease of sugarcane caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum that has a colossal damage potential. The fungus, prevalent mainly in the Indian sub-continent, keeps on producing new pathogenic strains leading to breakdown of resistance in newly released varieties and hence the deployment of linked markers for marker-assisted selection for resistance to this disease can fine tune the breeding programme. This study based on a panel of 119 sugarcane genotypes fingerprinted for 944 SSR alleles was undertaken with an aim to identify marker-trait associations (MTAs) for resistance to red rot. Mixed linear model containing population structure and kinship as co-factor detected four MTAs that were able to explain 10-16 % of the trait variation, individually. Among the four MTAs, EST sequences diagnostic of three could be BLAST searched to the sorghum genome with significant sequence homology. Several genes encoding important plant defence related proteins, viz., cytochrome P450, Glycerol-3-phosphate transporter-1, MAP Kinase-4, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Ring finger domain protein and others were localized to the vicinity of these MTAs. These positional candidate genes are worth of further investigation and possibly these could contribute directly to red rot resistance, and may find a potential application in marker-assisted sugarcane breeding.

  12. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    DOE PAGES

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; ...

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects,more » such as regions of high density, are of interest.« less

  13. LD in AD 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    The author discusses potential problems and benefits for learning disabled (LD) students in the year 2000. Considered are developments in three areas: human engineering (such as the role of amniocentesis in prevention of disabilities), education (including new audiovisual technology and a restructuring of secondary education), and human…

  14. Evaluation of LD decay and various LD-decay estimators in simulated and SNP-array data of tetraploid potato.

    PubMed

    Vos, Peter G; Paulo, M João; Voorrips, Roeland E; Visser, Richard G F; van Eck, Herman J; van Eeuwijk, Fred A

    2017-01-01

    The number of SNPs required for QTL discovery is justified by the distance at which linkage disequilibrium has decayed. Simulations and real potato SNP data showed how to estimate and interpret LD decay. The magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and its decay with genetic distance determine the resolution of association mapping, and are useful for assessing the desired numbers of SNPs on arrays. To study LD and LD decay in tetraploid potato, we simulated autotetraploid genotypes and used it to explore the dependence on: (1) the number of haplotypes in the population (the amount of genetic variation) and (2) the percentage of haplotype specific SNPs (hs-SNPs). Several estimators for short-range LD were explored, such as the average r (2), median r (2), and other percentiles of r (2) (80, 90, and 95 %). For LD decay, we looked at LD½,90, the distance at which the short-range LD is halved when using the 90 % percentile of r (2) at short range, as estimator for LD. Simulations showed that the performance of various estimators for LD decay strongly depended on the number of haplotypes, although the real value of LD decay was not influenced very much by this number. The estimator LD½,90 was chosen to evaluate LD decay in 537 tetraploid varieties. LD½,90 values were 1.5 Mb for varieties released before 1945 and 0.6 Mb in varieties released after 2005. LD½,90 values within three different subpopulations ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 Mb. LD½,90 was 2.5 Mb for introgressed regions, indicating large haplotype blocks. In pericentromeric heterochromatin, LD decay was negligible. This study demonstrates that several related factors influencing LD decay could be disentangled, that no universal approach can be suggested, and that the estimation of LD decay has to be performed with great care and knowledge of the sampled material.

  15. PROMPT: a protein mapping and comparison tool

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Thorsten; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2006-01-01

    Background Comparison of large protein datasets has become a standard task in bioinformatics. Typically researchers wish to know whether one group of proteins is significantly enriched in certain annotation attributes or sequence properties compared to another group, and whether this enrichment is statistically significant. In order to conduct such comparisons it is often required to integrate molecular sequence data and experimental information from disparate incompatible sources. While many specialized programs exist for comparisons of this kind in individual problem domains, such as expression data analysis, no generic software solution capable of addressing a wide spectrum of routine tasks in comparative proteomics is currently available. Results PROMPT is a comprehensive bioinformatics software environment which enables the user to compare arbitrary protein sequence sets, revealing statistically significant differences in their annotation features. It allows automatic retrieval and integration of data from a multitude of molecular biological databases as well as from a custom XML format. Similarity-based mapping of sequence IDs makes it possible to link experimental information obtained from different sources despite discrepancies in gene identifiers and minor sequence variation. PROMPT provides a full set of statistical procedures to address the following four use cases: i) comparison of the frequencies of categorical annotations between two sets, ii) enrichment of nominal features in one set with respect to another one, iii) comparison of numeric distributions, and iv) correlation of numeric variables. Analysis results can be visualized in the form of plots and spreadsheets and exported in various formats, including Microsoft Excel. Conclusion PROMPT is a versatile, platform-independent, easily expandable, stand-alone application designed to be a practical workhorse in analysing and mining protein sequences and associated annotation. The availability of the

  16. Developing the Concept of Perimeter and Area in Students with Learning Disabilities (LD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozulin, Alex; Kazaz, Sigalit

    2017-01-01

    The present research is aimed at developing an educational program effective for the development of the concepts of perimeter and area in students with LD and testing this program. The study combined action research with quasi-experimental design involving experimental (LD) and comparison (non-LD) groups. The intervention program consisted of 12…

  17. Comparison IBEX Maps 1 and 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The IBEX science team compares the first and second maps to reveal whether there are time variations in the Ribbon or the more distributed emissions around the ribbon. This animation fades between ...

  18. Power comparison of admixture mapping and direct association analysis in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Qin, Huaizhen; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2012-04-01

    When dense markers are available, one can interrogate almost every common variant across the genome via imputation and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) test, which has become a routine in current genome-wide association studies (GWASs). As a complement, admixture mapping exploits the long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) generated by admixture between genetically distinct ancestral populations. It is then questionable whether admixture mapping analysis is still necessary in detecting the disease associated variants in admixed populations. We argue that admixture mapping is able to reduce the burden of massive comparisons in GWASs; it therefore can be a powerful tool to locate the disease variants with substantial allele frequency differences between ancestral populations. In this report we studied a two-stage approach, where candidate regions are defined by conducting admixture mapping at stage 1, and single SNP association tests are followed at stage 2 within the candidate regions defined at stage 1. We first established the genome-wide significance levels corresponding to the criteria to define the candidate regions at stage 1 by simulations. We next compared the power of the two-stage approach with direct association analysis. Our simulations suggest that the two-stage approach can be more powerful than the standard genome-wide association analysis when the allele frequency difference of a causal variant in ancestral populations, is larger than 0.4. Our conclusion is consistent with a theoretical prediction by Risch and Tang ([2006] Am J Hum Genet 79:S254). Surprisingly, our study also suggests that power can be improved when we use less strict criteria to define the candidate regions at stage 1.

  19. Comparison of Mixed-Model Approaches for Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Stich, Benjamin; Möhring, Jens; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Heckenberger, Martin; Buckler, Edward S.; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

    2008-01-01

    Association-mapping methods promise to overcome the limitations of linkage-mapping methods. The main objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate various methods for association mapping in the autogamous species wheat using an empirical data set, (ii) determine a marker-based kinship matrix using a restricted maximum-likelihood (REML) estimate of the probability of two alleles at the same locus being identical in state but not identical by descent, and (iii) compare the results of association-mapping approaches based on adjusted entry means (two-step approaches) with the results of approaches in which the phenotypic data analysis and the association analysis were performed in one step (one-step approaches). On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic data of 303 soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) inbreds, various association-mapping methods were evaluated. Spearman's rank correlation between P-values calculated on the basis of one- and two-stage association-mapping methods ranged from 0.63 to 0.93. The mixed-model association-mapping approaches using a kinship matrix estimated by REML are more appropriate for association mapping than the recently proposed QK method with respect to (i) the adherence to the nominal α-level and (ii) the adjusted power for detection of quantitative trait loci. Furthermore, we showed that our data set could be analyzed by using two-step approaches of the proposed association-mapping method without substantially increasing the empirical type I error rate in comparison to the corresponding one-step approaches. PMID:18245847

  20. The score statistic of the LD-lod analysis: detecting linkage adaptive to linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Jiang, Y

    2001-01-01

    We study the properties of a modified lod score method for testing linkage that incorporates linkage disequilibrium (LD-lod). By examination of its score statistic, we show that the LD-lod score method adaptively combines two sources of information: (a) the IBD sharing score which is informative for linkage regardless of the existence of LD and (b) the contrast between allele-specific IBD sharing scores which is informative for linkage only in the presence of LD. We also consider the connection between the LD-lod score method and the transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) for triad data and the mean test for affected sib pair (ASP) data. We show that, for triad data, the recessive LD-lod test is asymptotically equivalent to the TDT; and for ASP data, it is an adaptive combination of the TDT and the ASP mean test. We demonstrate that the LD-lod score method has relatively good statistical efficiency in comparison with the ASP mean test and the TDT for a broad range of LD and the genetic models considered in this report. Therefore, the LD-lod score method is an interesting approach for detecting linkage when the extent of LD is unknown, such as in a genome-wide screen with a dense set of genetic markers. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. The Social Acceptance of Secondary School Students with Learning Disabilities (LD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorger, Teja; Schmidt, Majda; Vukman, Karin Bakracevic

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to shed light on the level of social acceptance among students with learning disabilities (LD) in various secondary school vocational programs in comparison with their peers without disabilities. Our findings are based on an empirical study that comprised 417 students, of whom 85 were students with LD. Based on sociometric analyses…

  2. Fibre mapping analysis in composite forming: Experimental and numerical comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmars, J.; Rusanov, A.; Ta, A. T.; Naouar, N.; Boisse, P.

    2016-10-01

    The work presented here is part of European project "FibreMap", which aims at the development of an automatic quality control and feedback mechanism to improve draping of carbon fibres on complex parts. The technology that is being developed in the project include a sensor system for robust detection of fibre orientation combined with a robotic system to scan complex parts. This paper focus on a comparison procedure made to compare experimental fibre orientation with finite element simulations results. First comparison results will be shown on a complex part chosen for the project.

  3. Comparison of satellite and air photo based landslide susceptibility maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, Frank; Blesius, Leonhard

    2007-07-01

    Landslide susceptibility maps can be prepared in a variety of ways. Many geoscientists favour the use of an overlay model approach in which several map layers are combined by some arithmetic rules to determine the potential for sliding in an area or region. The resulting susceptibility maps, although based on a subjective weighting of relevant factors, can often be of high accuracy and utility. In order to obtain the relevant input data for this type of analysis, remotely sensed data are often used. To date, susceptibility mapping, just as the mapping of historic and individual landslides, has tended to require higher-resolution imagery. This has somewhat limited the application of landslide susceptibility mapping. While high-resolution air photo or satellite imagery is superior to lower resolution imagery for the purpose of mapping of historic and individual landslides, such higher levels of resolution may not be required for the development of landslide susceptibility maps. In order to determine if medium-resolution satellite imagery, such as SPOT or ASTER, could provide the needed data for landslide susceptibility mapping, a comparison was undertaken of landslide susceptibility model output resulting from the use of stereo NAPP aerial photography versus the use of data obtained from stereo SPOT imagery. The test area selected for this study consisted of two watersheds, Pena Canyon and Big Rock Canyon, situated west of Santa Monica, California, USA, along the Pacific Coast Highway. Both watersheds have a long and well-documented history of landslide activity and sufficient geologic variability and complexity to provide a good test site. The specific overlay model used in this evaluation required input data consistent with the needs of many other models of this type. The model output derived from the two different data sources and presented here in the form of susceptibility maps were virtually identical. Statistical and difference analysis confirmed that both

  4. Complement binding to Leishmania donovani promastigotes (LD)

    SciTech Connect

    Puentes, S.M.; Bates, P.A.; Dwyer, D.M.; Joiner, K.A.

    1986-03-01

    To study the binding and processing of C3 on LD, parasites in various phases of growth were incubated in human serum deficient in complement component 8 containing /sup 125/I-C3. Uptake of /sup 125/I-C3 is rapid, peaking at 1.7-2.1 x 10/sup 6/ C3 molecules bound per parasite at 15 minutes for all growth phases, and decreases thereafter with continued incubation. One half of total C3 bound is spontaneously released by 90 minutes of incubation with all LD phases and occurs at a similar rate for LD washed free of serum and incubated at 37/sup 0/ C in buffer. As assessed by SDS-PAGE autoradiography, C3 on the surface of LD is present as C3b (36 to 50%) and iC3b (50 to 65%), linked covalently via a bond resistant to hydroxylamine treatment, presumably an amide linkage. Immunoblot analysis of purified membranes from serum-incubated LD, using rabbit antibody to C3 and LD surface constituents, strongly suggests that a major C3 acceptor is the LD acid phosphatase (AP). These results, in conjunction with recent studies, suggest a previously unrecognized role of AP as a C3 acceptor and, thus, as a molecule potentially involved in parasite binding and uptake.

  5. Engineering Synthetic Antibody Inhibitors Specific for LD2 or LD4 Motifs of Paxillin.

    PubMed

    Nocula-Lugowska, Malgorzata; Lugowski, Mateusz; Salgia, Ravi; Kossiakoff, Anthony A

    2015-07-31

    Focal adhesion protein paxillin links integrin and growth factor signaling to actin cytoskeleton. Most of paxillin signaling activity is regulated via leucine-rich LD motifs (LD1-LD5) located at the N-terminus. Here, we demonstrate a method to engineer highly selective synthetic antibodies (sABs) against LD2 and LD4 that are binding sites for focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and other proteins. Phage display selections against peptides were used to generate sABs recognizing each LD motif. In the obtained X-ray crystal structures of the LD-sAB complexes, the LD motifs are helical and bind sABs through a hydrophobic side, similarly as in the structures with natural paxillin partners. The sABs are capable of pulling down endogenous paxillin in complex with FAK and can visualize paxillin in focal adhesions in cells. They were also used as selective inhibitors to effectively compete with focal adhesion targeting domain of FAK for the binding to LD2 and LD4. The sABs are tools for investigation of paxillin LD binding "platforms" and are capable of inhibiting paxillin interactions, thereby useful as potential therapeutics in the future.

  6. Comparison of Solar Energetic Particle Flux Mapping Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, S. L.; Roth, C. M.; Brodowski, C. M.; Kress, B. T.; Johnston, W. R.; Huston, S. L.; McCollough, J. P., II; Wilson, G.; Selesnick, R.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work using the Tsyganenko-Sitnov 2005 (TS05) magnetic field model combined withthe Dartmouth-CISM (DC) cutoff code to map GOES-7 SEM observations to CRRES locationshas demonstrated that, for reasonably static magnetospheric conditions, solar energetic particleobservations at GOES-7 can be mapped relatively accurately to locations inside of geosynchronouswhere L > 4.5. Also a good correlation with observations continues to approximately L = 3.5. Aprevious comparison of the TS05-DC combination with two other cutoff models found it to be themost accurate of the set when compared to SAMPEX observations in a LEO orbit. However, theTS05-DC combination requires significant computational resources compared to other models soit is important to quantify the difference in accuracy for operational purposes. In this study wecharacterize the Smart and Shea (SS) cutoff code and the Selesnick-Neal-Ogliore (SNO) model andcompare them to the TS05-DC cutoff model.

  7. Comparison and mapping facilitate relation discovery and predication.

    PubMed

    Doumas, Leonidas A A; Hummel, John E

    2013-01-01

    Relational concepts play a central role in human perception and cognition, but little is known about how they are acquired. For example, how do we come to understand that physical force is a higher-order multiplicative relation between mass and acceleration, or that two circles are the same-shape in the same way that two squares are? A recent model of relational learning, DORA (Discovery of Relations by Analogy; Doumas, Hummel & Sandhofer, 2008), predicts that comparison and analogical mapping play a central role in the discovery and predication of novel higher-order relations. We report two experiments testing and confirming this prediction.

  8. Secondary and College LD Bypass Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosby, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    The author describes the Developmental By-Pass (DBP) Instructional technology for teaching secondary and college learning disabled (LD) students by allowing students to bypass ordering and organizational deficits. (SB)

  9. Recognizing LD, ADHD and TBI in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotts, Cynthia A.

    2001-01-01

    Basic knowledge of the characteristics of learning disabilities (LD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI) can help adult educators recognize symptoms, make appropriate referrals, and individualize instruction and accommodations. (JOW)

  10. First-Year College Students with ADHD And/or LD: Differences in Engagement, Positive Core Self-Evaluation, School Preparation, and College Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Pinho, Trevor D.; Pollack, Brittany L.; Gormley, Matthew J.; Laracy, Seth D.

    2017-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or learning disabilities (LD) experience significant challenges in making the transition from high school to college. This study examined the ways first-year college students with ADHD, LD, ADHD+LD, and comparison peers differ in engagement, core self-evaluation, high school…

  11. The linkage disequilibrium maps of three human chromosomes across four populations reflect their demographic history and a common underlying recombination pattern

    PubMed Central

    De La Vega, Francisco M.; Isaac, Hadar; Collins, Andrew; Scafe, Charles R.; Halldórsson, Bjarni V.; Su, Xiaoping; Lippert, Ross A.; Wang, Yu; Laig-Webster, Marion; Koehler, Ryan T.; Ziegle, Janet S.; Wogan, Lewis T.; Stevens, Junko F.; Leinen, Kyle M.; Olson, Sheri J.; Guegler, Karl J.; You, Xiaoqing; Xu, Lily H.; Hemken, Heinz G.; Kalush, Francis; Itakura, Mitsuo; Zheng, Yi; de Thé, Guy; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Clark, Andrew G.; Istrail, Sorin; Hunkapiller, Michael W.; Spier, Eugene G.; Gilbert, Dennis A.

    2005-01-01

    The extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) determine the feasibility of association studies to map genes that underlie complex traits. Here we present a comparison of the patterns of LD across four major human populations (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese) with a high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map covering almost the entire length of chromosomes 6, 21, and 22. We constructed metric LD maps formulated such that the units measure the extent of useful LD for association mapping. LD reaches almost twice as far in chromosome 6 as in chromosomes 21 or 22, in agreement with their differences in recombination rates. By all measures used, out-of-Africa populations showed over a third more LD than African-Americans, highlighting the role of the population's demography in shaping the patterns of LD. Despite those differences, the long-range contour of the LD maps is remarkably similar across the four populations, presumably reflecting common localization of recombination hot spots. Our results have practical implications for the rational design and selection of SNPs for disease association studies. PMID:15781572

  12. Comparison of national level biomass maps for conterminous US: understanding pattern and causes of differences.

    PubMed

    Neeti, N; Kennedy, R

    2016-12-01

    As Earth observation satellite data proliferate, so too do maps derived from them. Even when two co-located maps are produced with low overall error, the spatial distribution of error may not be the same. Increasingly, methods will be needed to understand differences among purportedly similar products. For this study, we have used the four aboveground biomass (AGB) maps for conterminous US generated under NASA's Carbon Monitoring System. We have developed systematic approach to (1) assess both the absolute accuracy of individual maps and assess the spatial patterns of agreement among maps, and (2) investigate potential causes of the spatial structure of agreement among maps to gain insight into reliability of methodological choices in map making. The comparison of the four biomass maps with FIA based total biomass estimates at national scale suggest that all the maps have higher biomass estimate compared to FIA. When the four maps were compared among each other, the result shows that the maps S and K have more similar spatial structure whereas the maps K and W have more similar absolute values. Although the maps K and W were generated using completely different methodological workflow, they agree remarkably. All the maps did well in the dominant forest type with maximum agreement between them. The comparison of difference between maps S and K with regional maps suggests that these maps were able to capture the disturbance and not so much regrowth pattern. The study provides a comprehensive systematic approach to compare and evaluate different real data products using examples of four AGB maps. Although ostensibly the four maps map the same variable, they have different spatial distribution at different scale. Except the 2003 map, one can use other maps at the coarser spatial resolution. Finally, the disparate information available through different maps indicates a need for a temporal framework for consistent monitoring of carbon stock at national scale.

  13. First-Year College Students With ADHD and/or LD.

    PubMed

    DuPaul, George J; Pinho, Trevor D; Pollack, Brittany L; Gormley, Matthew J; Laracy, Seth D

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or learning disabilities (LD) experience significant challenges in making the transition from high school to college. This study examined the ways first-year college students with ADHD, LD, ADHD+LD, and comparison peers differ in engagement, core self-evaluation, high school preparation behaviors, and goals/expectations. Participants were from the 2010 Cooperative Institutional Research Program Freshman Survey, including students with ADHD ( n = 5,511), LD ( n = 2,626), ADHD+LD ( n = 1,399), or neither disability ( n = 5,737). Controlling for SAT/ACT scores, family income, and parent education, students with ADHD, LD, or ADHD+LD differed from peers on self-ratings of academic and creative abilities and psychosocial functioning; school disengagement, substance use, and emotional difficulties during their last year of high school; reasons for attending college; and expectations for college activities. Several differences were found between disability groups. Implications for college support services and future research are discussed.

  14. A barley RFLP map: alignment of three barley maps and comparisons to Gramineae species.

    PubMed

    Sherman, J D; Fenwick, A L; Namuth, D M; Lapitan, N L

    1995-09-01

    Several gene linkage maps have been produced for cultivated barley. We have produced a new linkage map for barley, based on a cross between Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum and Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare (Hvs x Hvv), having a higher level of polymorphism than most of the previous barley crosses used for RFLP mapping. Of 133 markers mapped in the Hvs x Hvv F2 population, 69 were previously mapped on other barley maps, and 26 were mapped in rice, maize, or wheat. Two known gene clones were mapped as well as two morphological markers. The distributions of previously mapped markers were compared with their respective barley maps to align the different maps into one consensus map. The distributions of common markers among barley, wheat, rice and maize were also compared, indicating colinear linkage groups among these species.

  15. Comparison of Mixed-Model Approaches for Association Mapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Association-mapping methods promise to overcome the limitations of linkage-mapping methods. The main objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate various methods for association mapping in the autogamous species wheat using an empirical data set, (ii) determine a marker-based kinship matrix using a...

  16. Biochemical Properties and Mechanism of Action of Enterocin LD3 Purified from Enterococcus hirae LD3.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar; Netrebov, Victoria; Chikindas, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Enterocin LD3 was purified using activity-guided multistep chromatography techniques such as cation-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The preparation's purity was tested using reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The specific activity was tested to be 187.5 AU µg(-1) with 13-fold purification. Purified enterocin LD3 was heat stable up to 121 °C (at 15 psi pressure) and pH 2-6. The activity was lost in the presence of papain, reduced by proteinase K, pepsin and trypsin, but was unaffected by amylase and lipase, suggesting proteinaceous nature of the compound and no role of carbohydrate and lipid moieties in the activity. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of purified enterocin LD3 resolved m/z 4114.6, and N-terminal amino acid sequence was found to be H2NQGGQANQ-COOH suggesting a new bacteriocin. Dissipation of membrane potential, loss of internal ATP and bactericidal effect were recorded when indicator strain Micrococcus luteus was treated with enterocin LD3. It inhibited Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, E. coli (urogenic, a clinical isolate) and Vibrio sp. These properties of purified enterocin LD3 suggest its applications as a food biopreservative and as an alternative to clinical antibiotics.

  17. Accuracy, resolution, and cost comparisons between small format and mapping cameras for environmental mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg, R. H.; Scherz, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Successful aerial photography depends on aerial cameras providing acceptable photographs within cost restrictions of the job. For topographic mapping where ultimate accuracy is required only large format mapping cameras will suffice. For mapping environmental patterns of vegetation, soils, or water pollution, 9-inch cameras often exceed accuracy and cost requirements, and small formats may be better. In choosing the best camera for environmental mapping, relative capabilities and costs must be understood. This study compares resolution, photo interpretation potential, metric accuracy, and cost of 9-inch, 70mm, and 35mm cameras for obtaining simultaneous color and color infrared photography for environmental mapping purposes.

  18. OTV aeroassist with low L/D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcockson, W. H.

    1986-10-01

    In an attempt to make the OTV efficient and cost-effective, consideration is given to the aerobraking portion of the mission. It is proposed that the best method for controlling the trajectory in this phase is through the use of a lifting brake. Entry error analysis is used to derive an L/D requirement of 0.12; in addition, a predictor-corrector guidance scheme is developed to control exit apogee and orbital plane geometry in the aeroassist. The guidance includes density feedback functions to compensate for the large atmospheric fluctuations observed in Shuttle entries.

  19. 7 CFR 1737.32 - Loan Design (LD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.32 Loan Design (LD). (a) A loan application requires... studies necessary for the LD, it should be prepared by a competent experienced telecommunications engineer. While the LD is subject to RUS approval, the borrower's selection of an engineer to perform preloan...

  20. Effect of CAI on Achievement of LD Students in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivaram, R. T.; Ramar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental study was undertaken with three objectives in view, (i) to identify students with language learning disabilities (ii) to develop CAI software to teach LD students through computer-assisted instruction and (iii) to measure the effectiveness of CAI with special reference to LD students. Two matched groups of LD students were…

  1. Comparison and quantitative verification of mapping algorithms for whole genome bisulfite sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coupling bisulfite conversion with next-generation sequencing (Bisulfite-seq) enables genome-wide measurement of DNA methylation, but poses unique challenges for mapping. However, despite a proliferation of Bisulfite-seq mapping tools, no systematic comparison of their genomic coverage and quantitat...

  2. Construction of a transfer vector for a clonal isolate of LdNPV

    Treesearch

    Shivanand T. Hiremath; Martha Fikes; Audrey Ichida

    1991-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid from a clonal isolate of LdNPV (CI A2-1), obtained by in vivo cloning procedures, was used to construct genomic libraries in phage (lamda Gem 11) and cosmid (pHC79) vectors. Overlapping clones were selected to generate a restriction enzyme map. The restriction enzyme map, covering about 85% of the CI A2-1 genome, was determined...

  3. Uncertainties in ecosystem service maps: a comparison on the European scale.

    PubMed

    Schulp, Catharina J E; Burkhard, Benjamin; Maes, Joachim; Van Vliet, Jasper; Verburg, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Safeguarding the benefits that ecosystems provide to society is increasingly included as a target in international policies. To support such policies, ecosystem service maps are made. However, there is little attention for the accuracy of these maps. We made a systematic review and quantitative comparison of ecosystem service maps on the European scale to generate insights in the uncertainty of ecosystem service maps and discuss the possibilities for quantitative validation. Maps of climate regulation and recreation were reasonably similar while large uncertainties among maps of erosion protection and flood regulation were observed. Pollination maps had a moderate similarity. Differences among the maps were caused by differences in indicator definition, level of process understanding, mapping aim, data sources and methodology. Absence of suitable observed data on ecosystem services provisioning hampers independent validation of the maps. Consequently, there are, so far, no accurate measures for ecosystem service map quality. Policy makers and other users need to be cautious when applying ecosystem service maps for decision-making. The results illustrate the need for better process understanding and data acquisition to advance ecosystem service mapping, modelling and validation.

  4. Uncertainties in Ecosystem Service Maps: A Comparison on the European Scale

    PubMed Central

    Schulp, Catharina J. E.; Burkhard, Benjamin; Maes, Joachim; Van Vliet, Jasper; Verburg, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Safeguarding the benefits that ecosystems provide to society is increasingly included as a target in international policies. To support such policies, ecosystem service maps are made. However, there is little attention for the accuracy of these maps. We made a systematic review and quantitative comparison of ecosystem service maps on the European scale to generate insights in the uncertainty of ecosystem service maps and discuss the possibilities for quantitative validation. Maps of climate regulation and recreation were reasonably similar while large uncertainties among maps of erosion protection and flood regulation were observed. Pollination maps had a moderate similarity. Differences among the maps were caused by differences in indicator definition, level of process understanding, mapping aim, data sources and methodology. Absence of suitable observed data on ecosystem services provisioning hampers independent validation of the maps. Consequently, there are, so far, no accurate measures for ecosystem service map quality. Policy makers and other users need to be cautious when applying ecosystem service maps for decision-making. The results illustrate the need for better process understanding and data acquisition to advance ecosystem service mapping, modelling and validation. PMID:25337913

  5. Can social stories enhance the interpersonal conflict resolution skills of children with LD?

    PubMed

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Since many children with learning disabilities (LD) face interpersonal conflict resolution problems, this study examines the efficacy of social stories in helping them choose more appropriate interpersonal conflict resolution strategies. A social story was recorded and played to the 31 children with LD in the experimental group twice a week for a period of 1 month, while the 32 children with LD in the control group did not receive any intervention. The effects of the intervention were systematically examined by means of an interview with the participants, while teachers completed the T-MESSY (Matson, J. L. (1990). Matson Evaluation of Social Skills With Youngsters: Manual. Worthington, OR: International Diagnostic Systems). All children chose mainly avoidance and hostile strategies before the intervention, but children in the experimental group chose predominantly positive strategies both after the intervention and at follow-up in comparison to control children. Furthermore, children with LD who received the intervention were rated by their teachers as engaging in significantly less inappropriate social behaviors after the intervention and at follow-up in comparison to control children. The recorded changes in the choice of interpersonal conflict resolution strategies and the more positive teacher ratings for the experimental group indicate that social stories constitute a powerful intervention for the enhancement of the social competence of children with LD.

  6. FRAGMAP--a program for restriction site map comparison.

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, P D; Knowles, N J

    1988-01-01

    A program is described which aligns pairs of linear restriction site maps using an algorithm which maximizes the number of coincident sites through the addition of extra 'padding' fragments; and makes maps of the non-conserved sites between pairs and triplets of input maps. A range of display facilities, hardcopy functions and database management routines are also included. The program runs on a stand-alone microcomputer, and is stored along with a database of several hundred files on a single floppy disc. PMID:2832828

  7. The Leishmania donovani histidine acid ecto-phosphatase LdMAcP: insight into its structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Papadaki, Amalia; Politou, Anastasia S.; Smirlis, Despina; Kotini, Maria P.; Kourou, Konstadina; Papamarcaki, Thomais; Boleti, Haralabia

    2015-01-01

    Acid ecto-phosphatase activity has been implicated in Leishmania donovani promastigote virulence. In the present study, we report data contributing to the molecular/structural and functional characterization of the L. donovani LdMAcP (L. donovani membrane acid phosphatase), member of the histidine acid phosphatase (HAcP) family. LdMAcP is membrane-anchored and shares high sequence identity with the major secreted L. donovani acid phosphatases (LdSAcPs). Sequence comparison of the LdMAcP orthologues in Leishmania sp. revealed strain polymorphism and species specificity for the L. donovani complex, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (Khala azar), proposing thus a potential value of LdMAcP as an epidemiological or diagnostic tool. The extracellular orientation of the LdMAcP catalytic domain was confirmed in L. donovani promastigotes, wild-type (wt) and transgenic overexpressing a recombinant LdMAcP–mRFP1 (monomeric RFP1) chimera, as well as in transiently transfected mammalian cells expressing rLdMAcP–His. For the first time it is demonstrated in the present study that LdMAcP confers tartrate resistant acid ecto-phosphatase activity in live L. donovani promastigotes. The latter confirmed the long sought molecular identity of at least one enzyme contributing to this activity. Interestingly, the L. donovani rLdMAcP–mRFP1 promastigotes generated in this study, showed significantly higher infectivity and virulence indexes than control parasites in the infection of J774 mouse macrophages highlighting thereby a role for LdMAcP in the parasite's virulence. PMID:25695743

  8. Inverse solution mapping of epicardial potentials: quantitative comparison with epicardial contact mapping.

    PubMed

    Sapp, John L; Dawoud, Fady; Clements, John C; Horácek, B Milan

    2012-10-01

    Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is still one of the most challenging procedures in cardiac electrophysiology, limited, in part, by unmappable arrhythmias that are nonsustained or poorly tolerated. Calculation of the inverse solution from body surface potential mapping (sometimes known as ECG imaging) has shown tremendous promise and can rapidly map these arrhythmias, but we lack quantitative assessment of its accuracy in humans. We compared inverse solution mapping with computed tomography-registered electroanatomic epicardial contact catheter mapping to study the resolution of this technique, the influence of myocardial scar, and the ability to map VT. For 4 patients undergoing epicardial catheter mapping and ablation of VT, 120-lead body surface potential mappings were obtained during implantable defibrillator pacing, catheter pacing from 79 epicardial sites, and induced VT. Inverse epicardial electrograms computed using individualized torso/epicardial surface geometries extracted from computed tomography images were compared with registered electroanatomic contact maps. The distance between estimated and actual epicardial pacing sites was 13 ± 9 mm over normal myocardium with no stimulus-QRS delay but increased significantly over scar (P=0.013) or was close to scar (P=0.014). Contact maps during right ventricular pacing correlated closely to inverse solution isochrones. Maps of inverse epicardial potentials during 6 different induced VTs indicated areas of earliest activation, which correlated closely with clinically identified VT exit sites for 2 epicardial VTs. Inverse solution maps can identify sites of epicardial pacing with good accuracy, which diminishes over myocardial scar or over slowly conducting tissue. This approach can also identify epicardial VT exit sites and ventricular activation sequences.

  9. Perception of Nonverbal Social Cues by Regular Education, ADHD, and ADHD/LD Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathy W.; Peterson, Andrea D.; Webster, Raymond E.; Bolen, Larry M.; Brown, Michael B.

    1999-01-01

    Study examined ability of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) children with and without learning disability to perceive nonverbal social cues. ADHD/LD children demonstrated significant difficulty in comparison to their peers in effectively perceiving paralanguage cues. This group also showed significant improvement on the Postures and…

  10. A comparison of contour maps derived from independent methods of measuring lunar magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenstein, B. R.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Russell, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    Computer-generated contour maps of strong lunar remanent magnetic fields are presented and discussed. The maps, obtained by previously described (Eliason and Soderblom, 1977) techniques, are derived from a variety of direct and indirect measurements from Apollo 15 and 16 and Explorer 35 magnetometer and electron reflection data. A common display format is used to facilitate comparison of the maps over regions of overlapping coverage. Most large scale features of either weak or strong magnetic field regions are found to correlate fairly well on all the maps considered.

  11. 1059 and 1328nm LD pumped Nd:S-FAP solid state laser

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Lianke; Zhang Shaojun; Zhao Shengzhi; Wang Qingpu

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the authors introduce a new laser crystal--Nd{sup 3+}:Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F, Nd:S-FAP, and present its optical and physical characteristics. Based on the experiment lasing performance of CW LD pumped Nd:S-FAP crystal is reported here: the threshold and slope efficiency of 1059 nm Nd:S-FAP laser pumped by CW LD at 805nm are 7mW and 41%, and that of 1328nm Nd:S-FAP laser are 19mW and 35%. The comparison between experimental result and theoretical calculation is also discussed in this paper.

  12. Development of pharmacophoric maps for cardiovascular depression by intravenous anaesthetic agents: comparison with maps for immobilizing activity.

    PubMed

    Sear, J W

    2010-06-01

    The molecular basis of the cardiovascular effects of i.v. anaesthetics was investigated using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA). The cardiovascular effects, measured as changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), compared with awake values of continuous infusions of 13 structurally diverse i.v. anaesthetics were compared at EC(50) plasma concentrations, and by determination of plasma-free drug concentrations associated with a 20% decrease in MAP (dMAP(20)). Data were obtained both from the literature and from unpublished data of the author. The results were fitted to a CoMFA activity model using field-fit minimization techniques to maximize similarities in molecular bulk and electrostatic potential to the lead compound, eltanolone. The final model for cardiovascular depression based on free drug concentrations associated with dMAP(20) explained 95.8% of the variance in observed activities, with a cross-validated q(2) of 0.824 (n=12). A second model based on change in MAP at EC(50) plasma concentrations explained 98.3% of the variance in arterial pressure, but performed poorly at cross-validation (q(2) 0.526). The comparative model for immobilizing potency had an r(2) value of 0.987 and q(2) 0.823. Comparison of pharmacophoric maps showed several key electrostatic and steric regions common to both models when isocontours were constructed linking lattice grid points, making the greatest 40% contributions (87.57% for electrostatic fields and 86.16% for steric fields). Comparison of activity models for cardiovascular depression and immobilizing potency for i.v. anaesthetics shows significant commonality, suggesting that it may not be possible to separate those molecular features associated with each of these effects.

  13. Activity density map visualization and dissimilarity comparison for eldercare monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Skubic, Marjorie; Zhu, Yingnan

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present a methodology for analyzing passive infrared motion sensor data logged in the homes of seniors. The objective is to capture activity patterns that represent different health conditions. Recognizing changes in the activity patterns can then be used to provide early detection of health changes. A visualization of motion sensor data is introduced in the form of a density map that uses different colors to show varying levels of activity. For evaluating the activity density level accurately, time away from home is determined first using a system of fuzzy rules. In addition, a dissimilarity between two density maps is computed using texture features for automatically determining changes in activity patterns, which may indicate a health problem. The activity density maps are being used in an aging in place senior housing community to aid clinicians in early illness detection. Three case studies of elderly residents are included to illustrate how the density map and dissimilarity measure can be used to track general activity level and daily patterns over time, showing changes in physical, cognitive, and mental health.

  14. Comparison of Children's Wayfinding, Using Paper Map and Mobile Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergan, Irena; Umek, Maja

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of outdoor education are well known and irreplaceable. Teachers of environmental lessons frequently ask themselves what kind of cartographic support (paper maps or mobile navigators) to offer their students doing fieldwork either navigating to selected points or being engaged in the research of a selected environment. In this article,…

  15. Theoretical analysis of the semi-ring and trapezoid LD side-pumped alkali vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Binglin; Xu, Xingqi; Xia, Chunsheng; Pan, Bailiang

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of two new pump-couplings: semi-ring and trapezoid LD side-pumped configurations in alkali vapor lasers is reported, which mainly includes the numerical approaches for evaluation of the pump intensity and temperature distribution in the cell of these two configurations. Comparison between the simulated results of the semi-ring and trapezoid LD side-pumped Cs vapor lasers and the experimental results of the single-side pumped Cs vapor lasers with a cylindrical white diffuse reflector and a stable or unstable resonator is made. Dependencies of laser power on pump power and flowed velocity for semi-ring, trapezoid, single and double side-pumped configurations are calculated, demonstrating the advantages of the semi-ring and trapezoid LD side-pumped configurations. Thus the model is very helpful for designing high-power side-pumped alkali vapor lasers.

  16. Association mapping of seed oil content in Brassica napus and comparison with quantitative trait loci identified from linkage mapping.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jun; Jiang, Congcong; Cao, Zhengying; Li, Ruiyuan; Long, Yan; Chen, Sheng; Meng, Jinling

    2010-11-01

    Association mapping has been used increasingly in natural populations with rich genetic diversity to detect DNA-based markers that are associated with important agronomic traits. Brassica napus is an important oil crop with limited genetic diversity. "New-type" B. napus that is introgressed with subgenomic components from related species has been developed to broaden the genetic basis of "traditional" B. napus. In this study, new-type B. napus lines and a collection of traditional B. napus varieties from different countries were used as two different populations to evaluate seed oil content and to determine the efficacy of association mapping by comparison with previous study of linkage mapping. Relatively rich genetic diversity, but a higher level of linkage disequilibrium was observed in the new-type B. napus as compared with the traditional B. napus. Similarly, a larger variation in oil content and a greater number of associated markers were detected in the population of new-type B. napus. Meanwhile, more than half of the genetic loci, to which the associated markers corresponded, were located within the quantitative trait loci intervals identified previously in linkage mapping experiments, which demonstrated the power of association mapping in B. napus.

  17. Gains in power for exhaustive analyses of haplotypes using variable-sized sliding window strategy: a comparison of association-mapping strategies.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanfang; Li, Jian; Bonham, Aaron J; Wang, Yuping; Deng, Hongwen

    2009-06-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association mapping is often performed by analyzing either individual SNPs or block-based multi-SNP haplotypes. Sliding windows of several fixed sizes (in terms of SNP numbers) were also applied to a few simulated or real data sets. In comparison, exhaustively testing based on variable-sized sliding windows (VSW) of all possible sizes of SNPs over a genomic region has the best chance to capture the optimum markers (single SNPs or haplotypes) that are most significantly associated with the traits under study. However, the cost is the increased number of multiple tests and computation. Here, a strategy of VSW of all possible sizes is proposed and its power is examined, in comparison with those using only haplotype blocks (BLK) or single SNP loci (SGL) tests. Critical values for statistical significance testing that account for multiple testing are simulated. We demonstrated that, over a wide range of parameters simulated, VSW increased power for the detection of disease variants by approximately 1-15% over the BLK and SGL approaches. The improved performance was more significant in regions with high recombination rates. In an empirical data set, VSW obtained the most significant signal and identified the LRP5 gene as strongly associated with osteoporosis. With the use of computational techniques such as parallel algorithms and clustering computing, it is feasible to apply VSW to large genomic regions or those regions preliminarily identified by traditional SGL/BLK methods.

  18. Morphological mapping of Martian outflow channels. [to facilitate terrestrial landform comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.; Kochel, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Geomorphic mapping of selected portions of Martian outflow channels was performed in order to facilitate comparisons to terrestrial landforms. We interpret the maps to illustrate a correspondence between Martian channel features and terrestrial landforms developed by catastrophic flood erosion in the Channeled Scabland. The following features all occur in remarkably similar arrangements on the flood-channel floors of both planets: streamlined uplands, longitudinal grooves, scour marks, inner channel cataracts, etched zones, and possible pendant bars.

  19. Morphological mapping of Martian outflow channels. [to facilitate terrestrial landform comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.; Kochel, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Geomorphic mapping of selected portions of Martian outflow channels was performed in order to facilitate comparisons to terrestrial landforms. We interpret the maps to illustrate a correspondence between Martian channel features and terrestrial landforms developed by catastrophic flood erosion in the Channeled Scabland. The following features all occur in remarkably similar arrangements on the flood-channel floors of both planets: streamlined uplands, longitudinal grooves, scour marks, inner channel cataracts, etched zones, and possible pendant bars.

  20. Integration Options For The OSI LD1200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Louis G.

    1987-01-01

    Optical drives have unique characteristics that lend themselves to applications that previously were difficult or impossible to satisfy. Obvious examples are: a. Removable storage of huge volumes of data - Transportability - Jukebox use - Security b. Write once - Audit trails that cannot be erased c. Long lasting archives - Do not need to be rewritten every few years - Not vulnerable to magnetic fields - Randomly accessible This paper identifies some features and algorithms that provide high efficiency in achieving the benefits listed above. These features are used in some of the subsystems in which the OSI LD1200 is integrated. Gaining the benefits of optical disks by integrating them into an existing computer system was hampered because existing software drivers were designed for magnetic disk drives. Existing drivers assume the ability to update a file--including the directory--by rewriting in the same sector. The requirement for new and/or modified host adapters and software drivers has provided opportunities for existing adapter houses as well as for new entrepreneurs. This has led to subsystems in which different characteristics of optical drives are emphasized and has resulted in a wide variety of capabilities available for use in applications.

  1. Land cover change map comparisons using open source web mapping technologies

    Treesearch

    Erik Lindblom; Ian Housman; Tony Guay; Mark Finco; Kevin. Megown

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service is evaluating the status of current landscape change maps and assessing gaps in their information content. These activities have been occurring under the auspices of the Landscape Change Monitoring System (LCMS) project, which is a joint effort between USFS Research, USFS Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC), USGS Earth Resources...

  2. Maps of averaged spectral deviations from soil lines and their comparison with traditional soil maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhovich, D. I.; Rukhovich, A. D.; Rukhovich, D. D.; Simakova, M. S.; Kulyanitsa, A. L.; Bryzzhev, A. V.; Koroleva, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of 34 cloudless fragments of Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images (1985-2014) on the territory of Plavsk, Arsen'evsk, and Chern districts of Tula oblast has been performed. It is shown that bare soil surface on the RED-NIR plots derived from the images cannot be described in the form of a sector of spectral plane as it can be done for the NDVI values. The notion of spectral neighborhood of soil line (SNSL) is suggested. It is defined as the sum of points of the RED-NIR spectral space, which are characterized by spectral characteristics of the bare soil applied for constructing soil lines. The way of the SNSL separation along the line of the lowest concentration density of points on the RED-NIR spectral space is suggested. This line separates bare soil surface from vegetating plants. The SNSL has been applied to construct soil line (SL) for each of the 34 images and to delineate bare soil surface on them. Distances from the points with averaged RED-NIR coordinates to the SL have been calculated using the method of moving window. These distances can be referred to as averaged spectral deviations (ASDs). The calculations have been performed strictly for the SNSL areas. As a result, 34 maps of ASDs have been created. These maps contain ASD values for 6036 points of a grid used in the study. Then, the integral map of normalized ASD values has been built with due account for the number of points participating in the calculation (i.e., lying in the SNSL) within the moving window. The integral map of ASD values has been compared with four traditional soil maps on the studied territory. It is shown that this integral map can be interpreted in terms of soil taxa: the areas of seven soil subtypes (soddy moderately podzolic, soddy slightly podzolic, light gray forest. gray forest, dark gray forest, podzolized chernozems, and leached chernozems) belonging to three soil types (soddy-podzolic, gray forest, and chernozemic soils) can be delineated on it.

  3. A comparison of inquiry-based teaching through concept maps and traditional teaching in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Sangeeta

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate affective outcomes and academic achievement for students enrolled in high school biology when instruction included concept-mapping. The research design was quasi-experimental and allowed for a comparison between an experimental group who constructed concept maps and a control group who received traditional biology instruction. The subjects were 140 ninth-grade students, distributed into six intact biology classes, three honors and three general biology classes. Chapter tests and a textbook generated 9-week comprehensive posttest were used to measure achievement. ANCOVA analysis on the comprehensive posttest indicated no significant overall effect of concept mapping on biology achievement across the whole quarter when controlling for the quarter pretest. Chi-square analyses were performed to measure students' attitude toward biology class and activities. The experimental group indicated higher than expected tendency to be positive about the instructional methods, however, the control group indicated fewer than expected positive responses. T-tests were conducted to determine the differences between the experimental and control groups on chapter tests with or without concept mapping. The group with concept mapping scored significantly better than those with traditional methods. Honors class comparisons indicated a significant difference between groups at p<.05 level on the chapter pretest. There was also a significant difference on the chapter test after intervention, but this time at p<.001 level. Although the general class comparisons indicated no significant difference on the chapter pretest, the experimental group scored significantly better than the control group on the chapter test following intervention. This suggests that average ability students benefit from concept mapping more than traditional instruction. In narrative self-evaluations, only a small percentage of participants overall listed concept mapping as the

  4. Analysis and comparison of ozone maps obtained by TOMS and TOVS during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, S.; Krueger, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    The Nimbus 7 TOMS (UV) and NOAA 7 and NOAA 8 TOVS (IR) data have been specially processed for the MAP/GLOBUS campaign (September 1983, over Europe). Comparison of the ozone results shows a general agreement but also some discrepancies due to clouds, emissivity of the surface, and latitude effects. The variability of the ozone field, closely linked to geopotential height field, may have induced a great change in total ozone along the balloon flights, but fortunately trajectories tend to lie parallel to the total ozone contours, so that the total ozone during each flight is nearly constant.

  5. Analysis and comparison of ozone maps obtained by TOMS and TOVS during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, S.; Krueger, A. J.

    1987-05-01

    The Nimbus 7 TOMS (UV) and NOAA 7 and NOAA 8 TOVS (IR) data have been specially processed for the MAP/GLOBUS campaign (September 1983, over Europe). Comparison of the ozone results shows a general agreement but also some discrepancies due to clouds, emissivity of the surface, and latitude effects. The variability of the ozone field, closely linked to geopotential height field, may have induced a great change in total ozone along the balloon flights, but fortunately trajectories tend to lie parallel to the total ozone contours, so that the total ozone during each flight is nearly constant.

  6. Explanatory Style and College Students with ADHD and LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmulsky, Solvegi; Gobbo, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the Attribution Style Questionnaire (ASQ) to measure the causal thinking of 42 college students with diagnosed language-based learning disabilities (LD), ADHD, or co-occurring ADHD and LD. Attribution style, or explanatory style, is a term used to describe the tendencies of individuals to think that the causes of…

  7. Sizing Up a Situation: LD Children's Understanding of Social Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Ruth; Cosden, Merith

    1982-01-01

    After viewing short segments from soap operas revealing subtle emotional and social relationships, the children were questioned to determine their comprehension of the scenarios. The LD group consistently made more social comprehension errors than did their non-LD peers. (Author/SEW)

  8. Social Information Processing and Emotional Understanding in Children with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…

  9. Social Information Processing and Emotional Understanding in Children with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…

  10. Venus and the Earth's Archean: Geological mapping and process comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction. The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities [1-3] and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new perspectives on the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record [4] provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures [5] and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Here we address the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. The Earth's Archean and its Relation to Venus. The Archean period of Earth's history extends from accretion/initial crust formation (sometimes called the Hadean) to 2.5 Ga and is thought of by most workers as being a transitional period between the earliest Earth and later periods largely dominated by plate tectonics (Proterozoic and Phanerozoic) [2, 4]. Thus the Archean is viewed as recording a critical period in Earth's history in which a transition took place from the types of primary and early secondary crusts seen on the Moon, Mars and Mercury [6] (and largely missing in the record of the Earth), to the style of crustal accretion and plate tectonics characterizing later Earth history. The Archean is also characterized by enhanced crustal and mantle temperatures leading to differences in deformation style and volcanism (e.g., komatiites) [2]. The preserved Archean crust is exposed in ~36 different cratons [4], forming the cores of most continental regions, and is composed of gneisses, plutons and

  11. Modeling RNA Secondary Structure with Sequence Comparison and Experimental Mapping Data.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhen; Sharma, Gaurav; Mathews, David H

    2017-07-25

    Secondary structure prediction is an important problem in RNA bioinformatics because knowledge of structure is critical to understanding the functions of RNA sequences. Significant improvements in prediction accuracy have recently been demonstrated though the incorporation of experimentally obtained structural information, for instance using selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) mapping. However, such mapping data is currently available only for a limited number of RNA sequences. In this article, we present a method for extending the benefit of experimental mapping data in secondary structure prediction to homologous sequences. Specifically, we propose a method for integrating experimental mapping data into a comparative sequence analysis algorithm for secondary structure prediction of multiple homologs, whereby the mapping data benefits not only the prediction for the specific sequence that was mapped but also other homologs. The proposed method is realized by modifying the TurboFold II algorithm for prediction of RNA secondary structures to utilize basepairing probabilities guided by SHAPE experimental data when such data are available. The SHAPE-mapping-guided basepairing probabilities are obtained using the RSample method. Results demonstrate that the SHAPE mapping data for a sequence improves structure prediction accuracy of other homologous sequences beyond the accuracy obtained by sequence comparison alone (TurboFold II). The updated version of TurboFold II is freely available as part of the RNAstructure software package. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ERP evidence for conceptual mappings and comparison processes during the comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors.

    PubMed

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Curran, Tim

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive linguists suggest that understanding metaphors requires activation of conceptual mappings between the involved concepts. We tested whether mappings are indeed in use during metaphor comprehension, and what mapping means as a cognitive process with Event-Related Potentials. Participants read literal, conventional metaphorical, novel metaphorical, and anomalous target sentences preceded by primes with related or unrelated mappings. Experiment 1 used sentence-primes to activate related mappings, and Experiment 2 used simile-primes to induce comparison thinking. In the unprimed conditions of both experiments, metaphors elicited N400s more negative than the literals. In Experiment 1, related sentence-primes reduced the metaphor-literal N400 difference in conventional, but not in novel metaphors. In Experiment 2, related simile-primes reduced the metaphor-literal N400 difference in novel, but not clearly in conventional metaphors. We suggest that mapping as a process occurs in metaphors, and the ways in which it can be facilitated by comparison differ between conventional and novel metaphors.

  13. Comparison of Left Ventricular Electromechanical Mapping and Left Ventricular Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento-Leite, Rogerio; Silva, Guilherme V.; Dohman, Hans F.R.; Rocha, Ricardo Mourilhe; Dohman, Hans J.F.; de Mattos, Nelson Durval S.G.; Carvalho, Luis Antonio; Gottschall, Carlos A.M.; Perin, Emerson C.

    2003-01-01

    We performed this prospective cohort study to correlate the findings of left ventricular angiography (LVA) and NOGA™ left ventricular electromechanical mapping (LVEM) in the evaluation of cardiac wall motion and also to establish standards for wall motion assessment by LVEM. Fifty-five patients (35 men; mean age, 60.4 ± 11.8 years) eligible for elective left cardiac catheterization underwent LVA and LVEM. Wall motion scores, LV ejection fractions (LVEF), and LV volumes derived from LVA versus LVEM data were compared and analyzed statistically. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the accuracy of LVEM in distinguishing between normal, hypokinetic, and akinetic/dyskinetic wall motion. Mean LVEM procedure time was 37 ± 11 minutes. The LVEM and LVA findings differed for mean LVEF (55% ± 13% vs 36% ± 9%), mean end-systolic volume (56 ± 13 mL vs 36 ± 10 mL), and mean end-diastolic volume (174 ± 104 mL vs 123 ± 65 mL). Mean wall motion scores (± SD) for normokinetic, hypokinetic, and akinetic/dyskinetic segments were 13.9% ± 5.6%, 8.3% ± 5.2%, and 3.2% ± 3.1%, respectively. Cutpoints for differentiating between wall motion types were 12% and 6%. The ROC curves showed LVEM to have a 93% accuracy in differentiating between normokinetic and akinetic/dyskinetic segments and a 73% accuracy between normokinetic and hypokinetic segments. These data suggest that LVEM can differentiate between normal and abnormal cardiac wall motion, although it is more accurate at differentiating between normokinetic and akinetic/dyskinetic motion than between normokinetic and hypokinetic motion. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:19–26) PMID:12638666

  14. Coastal and submarine features on MSS imagery of Southeastern Massachusetts: Comparison with conventional maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Three ERTS-1, MSS images of southeastern Massachusetts, including Cape Cod Bay, Cape Cod, and Nantucket Sound, show a variety of dynamic geologic and hydrologic phenomena. Coastal features imaged include the coastline at different time in the tidal cycle, harbors, lakes and ponds, marshes (wetlands), and beach and dune areas; submarine features include tidal flats, shoals, dredged and natural channels, and bars. Comparison with conventional maps at 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000 scales show many inaccuracies between the ERTS imagery and the two map scales. The ERTS-1 imagery can be used to increase the accuracy of these maps, portray additional environmental information, and provide the capability for frequent updating of maps at such scales. ERTS-1 imagery provides a very cost effective method for provision of certain types of environmental data for Cape Cod and environs.

  15. Comparison of universal kriging and regression tree modelling for soil property mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempen, Bas

    2013-04-01

    Geostatistical modelling approaches have been dominating the field of digital soil mapping (DSM) since its inception in the early 1980s. In recent years, however, machine learning methods such as classification and regression trees, random forests, and neural networks have quickly gained popularity among researchers in the DSM community. The increased use of these methods has largely gone at the cost of geostatistical approaches. Despite the apparent shift in the application of DSM methods from geostatistics to machine learning, quantitative comparisons of the prediction performance of these methods are largely lacking. The aims of this research, therefore, are: i) to map two soil properties (topsoil organic matter content and thickness of the peat layer in the soil profile) using regression tree (RT) modelling and universal kriging (UK), and ii) to compare the prediction performance of these methods with independent data obtained by probability sampling. Using such data for validation does not only yield a statistically valid and unbiased estimates of the map accuracy, but it also allows a statistical comparison of the accuracies of the maps generated by the two methods. The topsoil organic matter content and the thickness of the peat layer were mapped for a 14,000 ha area in the province of Drenthe, The Netherlands. The calibration dataset contained soil property observations at 1,715 sites. The covariates used include layers derived from soil and paleogeography maps, land cover, relative elevation, drainage class, land reclamation period, elevation change, and historic land use. The validation dataset contained 125 observations selected by stratified simple random sampling of the study area. The root mean squared error (RMSE) of the soil organic matter map obtained by RT modelling was 0.603 log(%), that of the map obtained by UK 0.595 log(%). The difference in map accuracy was not significant (p = 0.377). The RMSE of the peat thickness map obtained by RT

  16. Using Multiple Soil Carbon Maps Facilitates Better Comparisons with Large Scale Modeled Outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. D.; D'Amore, D. V.; Pastick, N. J.; Genet, H.; Mishra, U.; Wylie, B. K.; Bliss, N. B.

    2015-12-01

    The choice of method applied for mapping the soil carbon is an important source of uncertainty when comparing observed soil carbon stocks to modeled outputs. Large scale soil mapping often relies on non-random and opportunistically collected soils data to make predictions over remote areas where few observations are available for independent validation. Addressing model choice and non-random sampling is problematic when models use the data for the calibration and validation of historical outputs. One potential way to address this uncertainty is to compare the modeled outputs to a range of soil carbon observations from different soil carbon maps that are more likely to capture the true soil carbon value than one map alone. The current analysis demonstrates this approach in Alaska, which despite suffering from a non-random sample, still has one of the richest datasets among the northern circumpolar regions. The outputs from 11 ESMs (from the 5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project) and the Dynamic Organic Soil version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (DOS-TEM) were compared to 4 different soil carbon maps. In the most detailed comparison, DOS-TEM simulated total profile soil carbon stocks that were within the range of the 4 maps for 18 of 23 Alaskan ecosystems, whereas the results fell within the 95% confidence interval of only 8 when compared to just one commonly used soil carbon map (NCSCDv2). At the ecoregion level, the range of soil carbon map estimates overlapped the range of ESM outputs in every ecoregion, although the mean value of the soil carbon maps was between 17% (Southern Interior) and 63% (Arctic) higher than the mean of the ESM outputs. For the whole state of Alaska, the DOS-TEM output and 3 of the 11 ESM outputs fell within the range of the 4 soil carbon map estimates. However, when compared to only one map and its 95% confidence interval (NCSCDv2), the DOS-TEM result fell outside the interval and only two ESM's fell within the observed interval

  17. Asymmetric linkage disequilibrium: Tools for assessing multiallelic LD.

    PubMed

    Single, Richard M; Strayer, Nick; Thomson, Glenys; Paunic, Vanja; Albrecht, Mark; Maiers, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Standard measures of linkage disequilibrium (LD) provide an incomplete description of the correlation between two loci. Recently, Thomson and Single (2014) described a new asymmetric pair of LD measures (ALD) that give a more complete description of LD. The ALD measures are symmetric and equivalent to the correlation coefficient r when both loci are bi-allelic. When the numbers of alleles at the two loci differ, the ALD measures capture this asymmetry and provide additional detail about the LD structure. In disease association studies the ALD measures are useful for identifying additional disease genes in a genetic region, by conditioning on known effects. In evolutionary genetic studies ALD measures provide insight into selection acting on individual amino acids of specific genes, or other loci in high LD (see Thomson and Single (2014) for these examples). Here we describe new software for computing and visualizing ALD. We demonstrate the utility of this software using haplotype frequency data from the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP). This enhances our understanding of LD patterns in the NMDP data by quantifying the degree to which LD is asymmetric and also quantifies this effect for individual alleles. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A genetic linkage map for the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Eimeria maxima and comparison with Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Blake, Damer P; Oakes, Richard; Smith, Adrian L

    2011-02-01

    Eimeria maxima is one of the seven Eimeria spp. that infect the chicken and cause the disease coccidiosis. The well characterised immunogenicity and genetic diversity associated with E. maxima promote its use in genetics-led studies on avian coccidiosis. The development of a genetic map for E. maxima, presented here based upon 647 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers typed from 22 clonal hybrid lines and assembled into 13 major linkage groups, is a major new resource for work with this parasite. Comparison with genetic maps produced for other coccidial parasites indicates relatively high levels of genetic recombination. Conversion of ∼14% of the markers representing the major linkage groups to sequence characterised amplified region markers can provide a scaffold for the assembly of future genomic sequences as well as providing a foundation for more detailed genetic maps. Comparison with the Eimeria tenella genetic map produced 10years ago has revealed a less biased marker distribution, with no more than nine markers mapped within any unresolved heritable unit. Nonetheless, preliminary bioinformatic characterisation of the three largest publicly available genomic E. maxima sequences suggest that the feature-poor/feature-rich structure which has previously been found to define the first sequenced E. tenella chromosome also defines the E. maxima genome. The significance of such a segmented genome and the apparent potential for variation in genetic recombination will be relevant to haplotype stability and the longevity of future anticoccidial strategies based upon multiple loci targeted by novel chemotherapeutic drugs or recombinant subunit vaccines.

  19. Mapping biomass with remote sensing: a comparison of methods for the case study of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Assessing biomass is gaining increasing interest mainly for bioenergy, climate change research and mitigation activities, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+). In response to these needs, a number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches but the lack of comparable reference data limits their proper validation. The objectives of this study are to compare the available maps for Uganda and to understand the sources of variability in the estimation. Uganda was chosen as a case-study because it presents a reliable national biomass reference dataset. Results The comparison of the biomass/carbon maps show strong disagreement between the products, with estimates of total aboveground biomass of Uganda ranging from 343 to 2201 Tg and different spatial distribution patterns. Compared to the reference map based on country-specific field data and a national Land Cover (LC) dataset (estimating 468 Tg), maps based on biome-average biomass values, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default values, and global LC datasets tend to strongly overestimate biomass availability of Uganda (ranging from 578 to 2201 Tg), while maps based on satellite data and regression models provide conservative estimates (ranging from 343 to 443 Tg). The comparison of the maps predictions with field data, upscaled to map resolution using LC data, is in accordance with the above findings. This study also demonstrates that the biomass estimates are primarily driven by the biomass reference data while the type of spatial maps used for their stratification has a smaller, but not negligible, impact. The differences in format, resolution and biomass definition used by the maps, as well as the fact that some datasets are not independent from the reference data to which they

  20. Comparison of three methods for materials identification and mapping with imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg; Boardman, Joe; Kruse, Fred

    1993-01-01

    We are comparing three methods of mapping analysis tools for imaging spectroscopy data. The purpose of this comparison is to understand the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm so others would be better able to choose the best algorithm or combinations of algorithms for a particular problem. The three algorithms are: (1) the spectralfeature modified least squares mapping algorithm of Clark et al (1990, 1991): programs mbandmap and tricorder; (2) the Spectral Angle Mapper Algorithm(Boardman, 1993) found in the CU CSES SIPS package; and (3) the Expert System of Kruse et al. (1993). The comparison uses a ground-calibrated 1990 AVIRIS scene of 400 by 410 pixels over Cuprite, Nevada. Along with the test data set is a spectral library of 38 minerals. Each algorithm is tested with the same AVIRIS data set and spectral library. Field work has confirmed the presence of many of these minerals in the AVIRIS scene (Swayze et al. 1992).

  1. Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.

    1979-01-01

    The area of geological mapping in the United States in 1978 increased greatly over that reported in 1977; state geological maps were added for California, Idaho, Nevada, and Alaska last year. (Author/BB)

  2. Comparison between the recent U.S. composite magnetic anomaly map and Magsat anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Taylor, P. T.; Langel, R. A.; Hinze, W. J.; Phillips, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of Magsat data with a Composite Magnetic Anomaly Map (CMAM) of the conterminous U.S. reported by Zietz (1982). The investigation was initiated to test the validity of the satellite measurements, and to provide insights into error or problems in either data set. It is found that upward continuation of the digital CMAM data is not in qualitative agreement with the Magsat map. However, if a least squares fit polynomial surface is taken out prior to upward continuation, there is improved quantitative agreement between a residual CMAM and Magsat. Causes for the remaining differences between the residual, upward continued CMAM and the Magsat map are also considered.

  3. Comparison between the recent U.S. composite magnetic anomaly map and Magsat anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Taylor, P. T.; Langel, R. A.; Hinze, W. J.; Phillips, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of Magsat data with a Composite Magnetic Anomaly Map (CMAM) of the conterminous U.S. reported by Zietz (1982). The investigation was initiated to test the validity of the satellite measurements, and to provide insights into error or problems in either data set. It is found that upward continuation of the digital CMAM data is not in qualitative agreement with the Magsat map. However, if a least squares fit polynomial surface is taken out prior to upward continuation, there is improved quantitative agreement between a residual CMAM and Magsat. Causes for the remaining differences between the residual, upward continued CMAM and the Magsat map are also considered.

  4. Graphic organizers and their effects on the reading comprehension of students with LD: a synthesis of research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ae-Hwa; Vaughn, Sharon; Wanzek, Jeanne; Wei, Shangjin

    2004-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of graphic organizers on reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities (LD) are reviewed. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1963 and June 2001 yielded a total of 21 group design intervention studies that met the criteria for inclusion in the synthesis. Using graphic organizers (i.e., semantic organizers, framed outlines, cognitive maps with and without a mnemonic) was associated with improved reading comprehension overall for students with LD. Compared to standardized reading measures, researcher-developed comprehension measures were associated with higher effect sizes. Initial gains demonstrated when using graphic organizers were not revealed during later comprehension tasks or on new comprehension tasks.

  5. Comparison of two quantitative proton density mapping methods in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gracien, René-Maxime; Reitz, Sarah C; Wagner, Marlies; Mayer, Christoph; Volz, Steffen; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Fleischer, Vinzenz; Droby, Amgad; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Groppa, Sergiu; Hattingen, Elke; Klein, Johannes C; Deichmann, Ralf

    2017-02-01

    Proton density (PD) mapping requires correction for the receive profile (RP), which is frequently performed via bias-field correction. An alternative RP-mapping method utilizes a comparison of uncorrected PD-maps and a value ρ(T1) directly derived from T1-maps via the Fatouros equation. This may be problematic in multiple sclerosis (MS), if respective parameters are only valid for healthy brain tissue. We aimed to investigate whether the alternative method yields correct PD values in MS patients. PD mapping was performed on 27 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 27 healthy controls, utilizing both methods, yielding reference PD values (PDref, bias-field method) and PDalt (alternative method). PDalt-values closely matched PDref, both for patients and controls. In contrast, ρ(T1) differed by up to 3 % from PDref, and the voxel-wise correlation between PDref and ρ(T1) was reduced in a patient subgroup with a higher degree of disability. Still, discrepancies between ρ(T1) and PDref were almost identical across different tissue types, thus translating into a scaling factor, which cancelled out during normalization to 100 % in CSF, yielding a good agreement between PDalt and PDref. RP correction utilizing the auxiliary parameter ρ(T1) derived via the Fatouros equation provides accurate PD results in MS patients, in spite of discrepancies between ρ(T1) and actual PD values.

  6. a Performance Comparison of Feature Detectors for Planetary Rover Mapping and Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, W.; Peng, M.; Xing, Y.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z.; Di, K.; Teng, B.; Mao, X.; Zhao, Q.; Xin, X.; Jia, M.

    2017-07-01

    Feature detection and matching are key techniques in computer vision and robotics, and have been successfully implemented in many fields. So far there is no performance comparison of feature detectors and matching methods for planetary mapping and rover localization using rover stereo images. In this research, we present a comprehensive evaluation and comparison of six feature detectors, including Moravec, Förstner, Harris, FAST, SIFT and SURF, aiming for optimal implementation of feature-based matching in planetary surface environment. To facilitate quantitative analysis, a series of evaluation criteria, including distribution evenness of matched points, coverage of detected points, and feature matching accuracy, are developed in the research. In order to perform exhaustive evaluation, stereo images, simulated under different baseline, pitch angle, and interval of adjacent rover locations, are taken as experimental data source. The comparison results show that SIFT offers the best overall performance, especially it is less sensitive to changes of image taken at adjacent locations.

  7. A comparison of spatial analysis methods for the construction of topographic maps of retinal cell density.

    PubMed

    Garza-Gisholt, Eduardo; Hemmi, Jan M; Hart, Nathan S; Collin, Shaun P

    2014-01-01

    Topographic maps that illustrate variations in the density of different neuronal sub-types across the retina are valuable tools for understanding the adaptive significance of retinal specialisations in different species of vertebrates. To date, such maps have been created from raw count data that have been subjected to only limited analysis (linear interpolation) and, in many cases, have been presented as iso-density contour maps with contour lines that have been smoothed 'by eye'. With the use of stereological approach to count neuronal distribution, a more rigorous approach to analysing the count data is warranted and potentially provides a more accurate representation of the neuron distribution pattern. Moreover, a formal spatial analysis of retinal topography permits a more robust comparison of topographic maps within and between species. In this paper, we present a new R-script for analysing the topography of retinal neurons and compare methods of interpolating and smoothing count data for the construction of topographic maps. We compare four methods for spatial analysis of cell count data: Akima interpolation, thin plate spline interpolation, thin plate spline smoothing and Gaussian kernel smoothing. The use of interpolation 'respects' the observed data and simply calculates the intermediate values required to create iso-density contour maps. Interpolation preserves more of the data but, consequently includes outliers, sampling errors and/or other experimental artefacts. In contrast, smoothing the data reduces the 'noise' caused by artefacts and permits a clearer representation of the dominant, 'real' distribution. This is particularly useful where cell density gradients are shallow and small variations in local density may dramatically influence the perceived spatial pattern of neuronal topography. The thin plate spline and the Gaussian kernel methods both produce similar retinal topography maps but the smoothing parameters used may affect the outcome.

  8. A Comparison of Spatial Analysis Methods for the Construction of Topographic Maps of Retinal Cell Density

    PubMed Central

    Garza-Gisholt, Eduardo; Hemmi, Jan M.; Hart, Nathan S.; Collin, Shaun P.

    2014-01-01

    Topographic maps that illustrate variations in the density of different neuronal sub-types across the retina are valuable tools for understanding the adaptive significance of retinal specialisations in different species of vertebrates. To date, such maps have been created from raw count data that have been subjected to only limited analysis (linear interpolation) and, in many cases, have been presented as iso-density contour maps with contour lines that have been smoothed ‘by eye’. With the use of stereological approach to count neuronal distribution, a more rigorous approach to analysing the count data is warranted and potentially provides a more accurate representation of the neuron distribution pattern. Moreover, a formal spatial analysis of retinal topography permits a more robust comparison of topographic maps within and between species. In this paper, we present a new R-script for analysing the topography of retinal neurons and compare methods of interpolating and smoothing count data for the construction of topographic maps. We compare four methods for spatial analysis of cell count data: Akima interpolation, thin plate spline interpolation, thin plate spline smoothing and Gaussian kernel smoothing. The use of interpolation ‘respects’ the observed data and simply calculates the intermediate values required to create iso-density contour maps. Interpolation preserves more of the data but, consequently includes outliers, sampling errors and/or other experimental artefacts. In contrast, smoothing the data reduces the ‘noise’ caused by artefacts and permits a clearer representation of the dominant, ‘real’ distribution. This is particularly useful where cell density gradients are shallow and small variations in local density may dramatically influence the perceived spatial pattern of neuronal topography. The thin plate spline and the Gaussian kernel methods both produce similar retinal topography maps but the smoothing parameters used may affect

  9. Description and comparison of geologic maps with FRAGSTATS - A spatial statistics program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    FRAGSTATS is a public-domain GIS implementation of a set of spatial statistics that address a fundamental problem in GIS applications, description and comparison of maps. The spatial statistics from the 1:2,500,000-scale United States geologic map of Nevada, the central United States, and the northeastern United States quantify the differences in complexity and variability between these three geologic terranes. Nevada is defined by a large number of patches of small size and low size variability, whereas the Central area has a small number of patches with smaller relative size variability. All three areas have similar map-unit shape complexity with Nevada having the lowest. Based on the density of edges, the areas can be ranked from highest to lowest, as Nevada, Central, and Northeast. The Shannon diversity index ranks the areas from highest to lowest, as Northeast, Nevada, and Central, but the Shannon evenness index ranks them from highest to lowest, as Northeast, Central, and Nevada. These rankings may reflect the influence of folding in the Northeast and Central areas as opposed to basin and range extension in Nevada. The core areas statistic ranks the areas for spatial accuracy from highest to lowest, as Central, Northeast, and Nevada, with Northeast and Nevada being similar. For a scale comparison, the FRAGSTATS statistics quantify the increased complexity and spatial accuracy that is inherent in going from small- to larger-scale maps. For example for 1:2,500,000-1:500,000-scale maps of Nevada, respectively, the area weighted fractal dimension increase from 1.1 to 1.18, and the total core areas index almost doubles from 39.09 to 63.38. In addition, the fractal dimensions discriminate gross lithology and tectonic terranes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. a Comparison of Sub-Pixel Mapping Methods for Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingxiang; Trinder, John; Turner, Ian

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the comparisons of three soft classification methods and three sub-pixel mapping methods for the classification of coastal areas at sub-pixel level. Specifically, SPOT-7 multispectral images covering the coastal area of Perth are selected as the experiment dataset. For the soft classification, linear spectral unmixing model, supervised fully-fuzzy classification method and the support vector machine are applied to generate the fraction map. Then for the sub-pixel mapping, the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model, pixel swapping and wavelets method are compared. Besides, the influence of the correct fraction constraint is explored. Moreover, a post-processing step is implemented according to the known spatial knowledge of coastal areas. The accuracy assessment of the fraction values indicates that support vector machine generates the most accurate fraction result. For sub-pixel mapping, wavelets method outperforms the other two methods with overall classification accuracy of 91.79% and Kappa coefficient of 0.875 after the post-processing step and it also performs best for waterline extraction with mean distance of 0.71m to the reference waterline. In this experiment, the use of correct fraction constraint decreases the classification accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods and waterline extraction. Finally, the post-processing step improves the accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods, especially for those with correct coefficient constraint. The most significant improvement of overall accuracy is as much as 4% for the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model with correct coefficient constraint.

  11. L(d,2,1)-labeling of sun graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriati, Diari; Martini, Titin S.; Herlinawati, Novita

    2014-03-01

    For positive integer d, L(d,2,1)-labeling of a graph G is a function f from V(G) to the positive integers, f:V(G)→{1,2,...} such that |f(u)-f(v)|≥d if the distance between any 2 vertices u and v is 1 (D(u,v) = 1), |f(u)-f(v)|≥2 if D(u,v) = 2, and |f(u)-f(v)|≥1 if D(u,v) = 3. The L(d,2,1)-labeling number kd(G) of a graph G is the smallest positive integer kd such that G has an L(d,2,1)-labeling with kd as the maximum label. This paper presents a general kd-value of sun graphs Sn for any d ≥ 3 and n ≥ 3.

  12. High resolution sub-millimetre mapping of starburst galaxies: Comparison with CO emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. A.; Brand, P. W. J. L.; Puxley, Phil J.; Mountain, C. M.; Nakai, Naomasa

    1990-01-01

    Researchers present first results from a program of submillimeter continuum mapping of starburst galaxies, and comparison of their dust and CO emission. This project was prompted by surprising results from the first target, the nearby starburst M82, which shows in the dust continuum a morphology quite unlike that of its CO emission, in contrast to what might be expected if both CO and dust are accurately tracing the molecular hydrogen. Possible explanations for this striking difference are discussed. In the light of these results, the program has been extended to include sub-mm mapping of the nearby, vigorously star forming spirals, M83 and Maffei 2. The latter were also observed extensively in CO, in order to study excitation conditions in its central regions. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope was used in these studies.

  13. Comparison of CT-derived Ventilation Maps with Deposition Patterns of Inhaled Microspheres in Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Lamm, W. J.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Krueger, Melissa; Glenny, Robb W.; Corley, Richard A.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Computer models for inhalation toxicology and drug-aerosol delivery studies rely on ventilation pattern inputs for predictions of particle deposition and vapor uptake. However, changes in lung mechanics due to disease can impact airflow dynamics and model results. It has been demonstrated that non-invasive, in vivo, 4DCT imaging (3D imaging at multiple time points in the breathing cycle) can be used to map heterogeneities in ventilation patterns under healthy and disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to validate ventilation patterns measured from CT imaging by exposing the same rats to an aerosol of fluorescent microspheres (FMS) and examining particle deposition patterns using cryomicrotome imaging. Materials and Methods: Six male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with elastase to a single lobe to induce a heterogeneous disease. After four weeks, rats were imaged over the breathing cycle by CT then immediately exposed to an aerosol of ~1µm FMS for ~5 minutes. After the exposure, the lungs were excised and prepared for cryomicrotome imaging, where a 3D image of FMS deposition was acquired using serial sectioning. Cryomicrotome images were spatially registered to match the live CT images to facilitate direct quantitative comparisons of FMS signal intensity with the CT-based ventilation maps. Results: Comparisons of fractional ventilation in contiguous, non-overlapping, 3D regions between CT-based ventilation maps and FMS images showed strong correlations in fractional ventilation (r=0.888, p<0.0001). Conclusion: We conclude that ventilation maps derived from CT imaging are predictive of the 1µm aerosol deposition used in ventilation-perfusion heterogeneity inhalation studies.

  14. Comparison of CT-derived ventilation maps with deposition patterns of inhaled microspheres in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Richard E.; Lamm, Wayne J.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Krueger, Melissa A.; Glenny, Robb W.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Computer models for inhalation toxicology and drug-aerosol delivery studies rely on ventilation pattern inputs for predictions of particle deposition and vapor uptake. However, changes in lung mechanics due to disease can impact airflow dynamics and model results. It has been demonstrated that non-invasive, in vivo, 4DCT imaging (3D imaging at multiple time points in the breathing cycle) can be used to map heterogeneities in ventilation patterns under healthy and disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to validate ventilation patterns measured from CT imaging by exposing the same rats to an aerosol of fluorescent microspheres (FMS) and examining particle deposition patterns using cryomicrotome imaging. Materials and Methods Six male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with elastase to a single lobe to induce a heterogeneous disease. After four weeks, rats were imaged over the breathing cycle by CT then immediately exposed to an aerosol of ~1μm FMS for ~5 minutes. After the exposure, the lungs were excised and prepared for cryomicrotome imaging, where a 3D image of FMS deposition was acquired using serial sectioning. Cryomicrotome images were spatially registered to match the live CT images to facilitate direct quantitative comparisons of FMS signal intensity with the CT-based ventilation maps. Results Comparisons of fractional ventilation in contiguous, non-overlapping, 3D regions between CT-based ventilation maps and FMS images showed strong correlations in fractional ventilation (r=0.888, p<0.0001). Conclusion We conclude that ventilation maps derived from CT imaging are predictive of the 1μm aerosol deposition used in ventilation-perfusion heterogeneity inhalation studies. PMID:25513951

  15. Comparison of brass alloys composition by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnotta, Stefano; Grifoni, Emanuela; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lezzerini, Marco; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we face the problem of assessing similarities in the composition of different metallic alloys, using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. The possibility of determining the degree of similarity through the use of artificial neural networks and self-organizing maps is discussed. As an example, we present a case study involving the comparison of two historical brass samples, very similar in their composition. The results of the paper can be extended to many other situations, not necessarily associated with cultural heritage and archeological studies, where objects with similar composition have to be compared.

  16. Comparison of Signals from Gravitational Wave Detectors with Instantaneous Time-Frequency Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeer, A.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J.

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy relies on the use of multiple detectors, so that coincident detections may distinguish real signals from instrumental artifacts, and also so that relative timing of signals can provide the sky position of sources. We show that the comparison of instantaneous time-frequency and time-amplitude maps provided by the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) can be used effectively for relative signal timing of common signals, to discriminate between the case of identical coincident signals and random noise coincidences and to provide a classification of signals based on their time-frequency trajectories. The comparison is done with a X(sup 2) goodness-offit method which includes contributions from both the instantaneous amplitude and frequency components of the HHT to match two signals in the time domain. This approach naturally allows the analysis of waveforms with strong frequency modulation.

  17. Comparison of Signals from Gravitational Wave Detectors with Instantaneous Time-Frequency Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeer, A.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J.

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy relies on the use of multiple detectors, so that coincident detections may distinguish real signals from instrumental artifacts, and also so that relative timing of signals can provide the sky position of sources. We show that the comparison of instantaneous time-frequency and time-amplitude maps provided by the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) can be used effectively for relative signal timing of common signals, to discriminate between the case of identical coincident signals and random noise coincidences and to provide a classification of signals based on their time-frequency trajectories. The comparison is done with a X(sup 2) goodness-offit method which includes contributions from both the instantaneous amplitude and frequency components of the HHT to match two signals in the time domain. This approach naturally allows the analysis of waveforms with strong frequency modulation.

  18. MAPS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-03

    ... Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) data were collected during Space Shuttle flights in 1981, ... Facts Correlative Data  - CDIAC - Spring & Fall 1994 - Field and Aircraft Campaigns SCAR-B Block:  ...

  19. Comparison of RAPD Linkage Maps Constructed For a Single Longleaf Pine From Both Haploid and Diploid Mapping Populations

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Kubisiak; C.Dana Nelson; W.L. Name; M. Stine

    1996-01-01

    Considerable concern has been voiced regarding the reproducibility/transferability of RAPD markers across different genetic backgrounds in genetic mapping experiments. Therefore, separate gametic subsets (mapping populations) were used to construct individual random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) linkage maps for a single longleaf pine (Pinus palustris...

  20. Gden: An indicator for European noise maps comparison and to support action plans.

    PubMed

    Licitra, Gaetano; Ascari, Elena

    2014-06-01

    Ten years after the approval of the Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END) a large experience have been acquired to develop noise maps and action plans: the Noise Observation and Information Service for Europe maintained by the European Environment Agency (EEA) on behalf of the European Commission contains all data delivered in accordance with the END by Members States within the first round of implementation of the END. This large database should be useful to evaluate the pollution of Europe and to guide policy makers to establish best practices. However, local procedures and national methods do not permit a direct comparison of data reported. A comparison within agglomerations in EU is here carried out in order to find suitable indicators to identify most polluted cities despite different methods used. Critical and quiet areas have been assessed in action plans, but national laws and requirements are various, as different indicators used for their identification. The analysis was performed on noise exposure classes distribution, grouping them together using Gden and Gnight indicators to offer a new tool for presenting noise maps of the cities to the public permitting their comparison and for drawing detailed action plans. Strong relationship between these indicators and highly annoyed and highly sleep-disturbed people percentages are obtained. Furthermore, a comparison between Gden and Qcity Noise Scoring for local hot spot identification is carried out for the agglomeration of Pisa, where different transportation noise sources are present. The final goal is to define faster methods for suitable indicators calculation in hot spot identifications.

  1. Visualization of Learning Scenarios with UML4LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laforcade, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Present Educational Modelling Languages are used to formally specify abstract learning scenarios in a machine-interpretable format. Current tooling does not provide teachers/designers with some graphical facilities to help them in reusing existent scenarios. They need human-readable representations. This paper discusses the UML4LD experimental…

  2. LD's Expressions of Anxiety in Terms of Minor Somatic Complaints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margalit, M.; Raviv, A.

    1984-01-01

    Prevalence of minor somatic complaints for learning-disabled children (N=30) was compared to that of two control groups: normal (N=559) and educable mentally retarded children (N=69). LD Ss demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence of complaints, but the extent of resulting absenteeism was less than that of nonhandicapped children. (Author/CL)

  3. Geological Mapping of Fortuna Tessera (V-2): Venus and Earth's Archean Process Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Hurwitz,D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Kumar, P. Senthil

    2008-01-01

    The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new insight into the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Elsewhere we have addressed the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. Here we present the major goals of the Venus-Archean comparison and show how preliminary mapping of the geology of the V-2 Fortuna Tessera quadrangle is providing insight on these problems. We have identified five key themes and questions common to both the Archean and Venus, the assessment of which could provide important new insights into the history and processes of both planets.

  4. Corrections for multiple comparisons in voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping.

    PubMed

    Mirman, Daniel; Landrigan, Jon-Frederick; Kokolis, Spiro; Verillo, Sean; Ferrara, Casey; Pustina, Dorian

    2017-08-26

    Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) is an important method for basic and translational human neuroscience research. VLSM leverages modern neuroimaging analysis techniques to build on the classic approach of examining the relationship between location of brain damage and cognitive deficits. Testing an association between deficit severity and lesion status in each voxel involves very many individual tests and requires statistical correction for multiple comparisons. Several strategies have been adapted from analysis of functional neuroimaging data, though VLSM faces a more difficult trade-off between avoiding false positives and statistical power (missing true effects). We used simulated and real deficit scores from a sample of approximately 100 individuals with left hemisphere stroke to evaluate two such permutation-based approaches. Using permutation to set a minimum cluster size identified a region that systematically extended well beyond the true region, making it ill-suited to identifying brain-behavior relationships. In contrast, generalizing the standard permutation-based family-wise error correction approach provided a principled way to balance false positives and false negatives. Comparison with the widely-used parametric false discovery rate (FDR) correction showed that FDR produces anti-conservative results at smaller sample sizes (N = 30-60). An implementation of the continuous permutation-based FWER correction method described here is included in the lesymap package for lesion-symptom mapping (https://dorianps.github.io/LESYMAP/). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analogical-mapping-based comparison tasks as a scaffold for argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emig, Brandon R.

    Given the centrality of the argumentation process to science and consequent importance to science education, inviting science students to engage in argumentation and scaffolding that argumentation in order that it lead to learning and not frustration is important. The present research invites small groups of science content learners (54 preservice elementary teachers at a large research university) to use analogical-mapping-based comparison tasks in service of argumentation to determine which of two possible analogues, in this case simple machines, is most closely related to a third. These activities and associated instruction scaffolded student small-groups' argumentation in four ways: (1) supporting new analogical correspondences on the heels of prior correspondences; (2) discerning definitions and descriptions for simple machine elements; (3) identifying and dealing with ambiguity in potential correspondences; and (4) making reflections on prior analogical correspondences in service of their final arguments. Analogical-mapping-based comparison activities scaffolded student small groups both in their argumentation and in content learning about simple machines. Implications, limitations, and directions for future related research are also discussed.

  6. Mapping the Large Millimeter Telescope primary reflector using photogrammetry: a first comparison with 12 GHz holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, David M.; Leon-Huerta, Andrea; Cabrera Cuevas, Lizeth; Castro Santos, David; Hernández Ríos, Emilio; Lucero Álvarez, Maribel; Tecuapetla Sosa, Esteban; Tzile Torres, Carlos; Sánchez-Argüelles, David; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F. Peter; Wilson, Grant W.; Smith, David R.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) makes extensive use of 12 GHz holography during maintenance periods to finetune the alignment of primary reflector segments to the best-fit design parabola. Tracker measurements have also been used for this task, however the technique is severely limited by environmental noise and large data collection times, on the order of many hours for a single map. In 2015 we started photogrammetry trials as a complimentary measurement technique. Photogrammetry can offer reduced mapping times compared with laser trackers, and like holography, allows maps to be made at arbitrary elevation angles. Depending on the placement of reflecting targets, the technique can also provide higher spatial resolution than currently achieved using our holography system. Accurate photogrammetry requires a robust strategy for the incorporation of multiple camera stations, a task complicated by the size of the antenna, obstructions of the surface by the sub-reflector and tetrapod legs, and the practicability of using the site tower crane as a moving camera platform. Image scaling is also a major consideration, since photogrammetry lacks any inherent distance reference. Therefore appropriate scale bars must be fabricated and located within the camera field of view. Additional considerations relate to the size and placement of reflective targets, and the optimization of camera settings. In this paper we present some initial comparisons of laser tracker, holography and photogrammetry measurements taken in 2015, showing clearly the status of alignment for distinct zones of the currently operating 32.5 m primary collecting area.

  7. Comparison of the Reliability and Validity of Scores from Two Concept-Mapping Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Schultz, Susan E.; Li, Min; Shavelson, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of a study that compared two concept-mapping techniques, one high-directed, "fill-in-the-map" and one low-directed, "construct-a-map-from-scratch". Examines whether: (1) skeleton map scores were sensitive to the sample; (2) the two types of skeleton maps were equivalent; and (3) the two mapping techniques provided similar…

  8. Comparison of the Reliability and Validity of Scores from Two Concept-Mapping Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Schultz, Susan E.; Li, Min; Shavelson, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of a study that compared two concept-mapping techniques, one high-directed, "fill-in-the-map" and one low-directed, "construct-a-map-from-scratch". Examines whether: (1) skeleton map scores were sensitive to the sample; (2) the two types of skeleton maps were equivalent; and (3) the two mapping techniques provided similar…

  9. A third-generation microsatellite-based linkage map of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, and its comparison with the sequence-based physical map.

    PubMed

    Solignac, Michel; Mougel, Florence; Vautrin, Dominique; Monnerot, Monique; Cornuet, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    The honey bee is a key model for social behavior and this feature led to the selection of the species for genome sequencing. A genetic map is a necessary companion to the sequence. In addition, because there was originally no physical map for the honey bee genome project, a meiotic map was the only resource for organizing the sequence assembly on the chromosomes. We present the genetic (meiotic) map here and describe the main features that emerged from comparison with the sequence-based physical map. The genetic map of the honey bee is saturated and the chromosomes are oriented from the centromeric to the telomeric regions. The map is based on 2,008 markers and is about 40 Morgans (M) long, resulting in a marker density of one every 2.05 centiMorgans (cM). For the 186 megabases (Mb) of the genome mapped and assembled, this corresponds to a very high average recombination rate of 22.04 cM/Mb. Honey bee meiosis shows a relatively homogeneous recombination rate along and across chromosomes, as well as within and between individuals. Interference is higher than inferred from the Kosambi function of distance. In addition, numerous recombination hotspots are dispersed over the genome. The very large genetic length of the honey bee genome, its small physical size and an almost complete genome sequence with a relatively low number of genes suggest a very promising future for association mapping in the honey bee, particularly as the existence of haploid males allows easy bulk segregant analysis.

  10. A study of an orbital radar mapping mission to Venus. Volume 2: Configuration comparisons and systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Configuration comparisons and systems evaluation for the orbital radar mapping mission of the planet Venus are discussed. Designs are recommended which best satisfy the science objectives of the Venus radar mapping concept. Attention is given to the interaction and integration of those specific mission-systems recommendations with one another, and the final proposed designs are presented. The feasibility, cost, and scheduling of these configurations are evaluated against assumptions of reasonable state-of-the-art growth and space funding expectations.

  11. A study of an orbital radar mapping mission to Venus. Volume 3: Parametric studies and subsystem comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Parametric studies and subsystem comparisons for the orbital radar mapping mission to planet Venus are presented. Launch vehicle requirements and primary orbiter propulsion system requirements are evaluated. The systems parametric analysis indicated that orbit size and orientation interrelated with almost all of the principal spacecraft systems and influenced significantly the definition of orbit insertion propulsion requirements, weight in orbit capability, radar system design, and mapping strategy.

  12. New vegetation type map of India prepared using satellite remote sensing: Comparison with global vegetation maps and utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. S.; Behera, M. D.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Roy, Arijit; Singh, Sarnam; Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Jha, C. S.; Sudhakar, S.; Joshi, P. K.; Reddy, Ch. Sudhakar; Gupta, Stutee; Pujar, Girish; Dutt, C. B. S.; Srivastava, V. K.; Porwal, M. C.; Tripathi, Poonam; Singh, J. S.; Chitale, Vishwas; Skidmore, A. K.; Rajshekhar, G.; Kushwaha, Deepak; Karnatak, Harish; Saran, Sameer; Giriraj, A.; Padalia, Hitendra; Kale, Manish; Nandy, Subrato; Jeganathan, C.; Singh, C. P.; Biradar, C. M.; Pattanaik, Chiranjibi; Singh, D. K.; Devagiri, G. M.; Talukdar, Gautam; Panigrahy, Rabindra K.; Singh, Harnam; Sharma, J. R.; Haridasan, K.; Trivedi, Shivam; Singh, K. P.; Kannan, L.; Daniel, M.; Misra, M. K.; Niphadkar, Madhura; Nagabhatla, Nidhi; Prasad, Nupoor; Tripathi, O. P.; Prasad, P. Rama Chandra; Dash, Pushpa; Qureshi, Qamer; Tripathi, S. K.; Ramesh, B. R.; Gowda, Balakrishnan; Tomar, Sanjay; Romshoo, Shakil; Giriraj, Shilpa; Ravan, Shirish A.; Behera, Soumit Kumar; Paul, Subrato; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Ranganath, B. K.; Singh, T. P.; Sahu, T. R.; Shankar, Uma; Menon, A. R. R.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Neeti; Sharma, Subrat; Mohapatra, U. B.; Peddi, Ashok; Rashid, Humayun; Salroo, Irfan; Krishna, P. Hari; Hajra, P. K.; Vergheese, A. O.; Matin, Shafique; Chaudhary, Swapnil A.; Ghosh, Sonali; Lakshmi, Udaya; Rawat, Deepshikha; Ambastha, Kalpana; Malik, Akhtar H.; Devi, B. S. S.; Gowda, Balakrishna; Sharma, K. C.; Mukharjee, Prashant; Sharma, Ajay; Davidar, Priya; Raju, R. R. Venkata; Katewa, S. S.; Kant, Shashi; Raju, Vatsavaya S.; Uniyal, B. P.; Debnath, Bijan; Rout, D. K.; Thapa, Rajesh; Joseph, Shijo; Chhetri, Pradeep; Ramachandran, Reshma M.

    2015-07-01

    A seamless vegetation type map of India (scale 1: 50,000) prepared using medium-resolution IRS LISS-III images is presented. The map was created using an on-screen visual interpretation technique and has an accuracy of 90%, as assessed using 15,565 ground control points. India has hitherto been using potential vegetation/forest type map prepared by Champion and Seth in 1968. We characterized and mapped further the vegetation type distribution in the country in terms of occurrence and distribution, area occupancy, percentage of protected area (PA) covered by each vegetation type, range of elevation, mean annual temperature and precipitation over the past 100 years. A remote sensing-amenable hierarchical classification scheme that accommodates natural and semi-natural systems was conceptualized, and the natural vegetation was classified into forests, scrub/shrub lands and grasslands on the basis of extent of vegetation cover. We discuss the distribution and potential utility of the vegetation type map in a broad range of ecological, climatic and conservation applications from global, national and local perspectives. We used 15,565 ground control points to assess the accuracy of products available globally (i.e., GlobCover, Holdridge's life zone map and potential natural vegetation (PNV) maps). Hence we recommend that the map prepared herein be used widely. This vegetation type map is the most comprehensive one developed for India so far. It was prepared using 23.5 m seasonal satellite remote sensing data, field samples and information relating to the biogeography, climate and soil. The digital map is now available through a web portal (http://bis.iirs.gov.in).

  13. AOTV Low L/D Preliminary Aeroheating Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    The aerothermal environment to a configuration with a brake face which exhibits a low lift to drag ratio (L/D) of below 0.75 is emphasized. The five times geosynchronous (5 x Geo) orbit entry was selected as the design trajectory. The available data base and math model is discussed. The resulting preliminary design environment is documented. Recommendations as to how the design environment may be improved through technological advances are given.

  14. Social comparison processes, narrative mapping and their shaping of the cancer experience: a case study of an elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, Andrew C; Pérez-Samaniego, Víctor; Smith, Brett

    2012-09-01

    Drawing on data generated by life history interviews and fieldwork observations we illuminate the ways in which a young elite athlete named David (a pseudonym) gave meaning to his experiences of cancer that eventually led to his death. Central to this process were the ways in which David utilized both social comparisons and a narrative map provided by the published autobiography of Lance Armstrong (2000). Our analysis reveals the selective manner in which social comparison processes operated around the following key dimensions: mental attitude to treatment; the sporting body; the ageing body; and physical appearance. The manner in which different comparison targets were chosen, the ways in which these were framed by Armstrong's autobiography, and the work that the restitution narrative as an actor did in this process are also examined. Some reflections are offered regarding the experiential consequences of the social comparison processes utilized by David when these are shaped by specific forms of embodiment and selective narrative maps of cancer survival.

  15. Comparison of in situ stratospheric ozone measurements obtained during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aimedieu, P.; Matthews, W. A.; Attmannspacher, W.; Hartmannsgruber, R.; Cisneros, J.; Komhyr, W.; Robbins, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    Data from five types of in situ ozone sensors flown aboard ballons during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign were found to agree to within 5 percent uncertainty throughout the middle atmosphere. A description of the individual techniques and the error budget is given in addition to explanations for the discrepancies found at higher and lower altitudes. In comparison to UV photometry values, results from two electrochemical techniques were found to be greater in the lower atmosphere and to be lower in the upper atmosphere. In general, olefin chemiluminescence results were within 8 percent of the UV photometry results. Ozone column contents measured by the indigo colorization technique for two altitude regions of about 6 km height were greater than measurements from other techniques by 52 and 17 percent, respectively.

  16. Optimization with artificial neural network systems - A mapping principle and a comparison to gradient based methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Harrison Monfook

    1988-01-01

    General formulae for mapping optimization problems into systems of ordinary differential equations associated with artificial neural networks are presented. A comparison is made to optimization using gradient-search methods. The performance measure is the settling time from an initial state to a target state. A simple analytical example illustrates a situation where dynamical systems representing artificial neural network methods would settle faster than those representing gradient-search. Settling time was investigated for a more complicated optimization problem using computer simulations. The problem was a simplified version of a problem in medical imaging: determining loci of cerebral activity from electromagnetic measurements at the scalp. The simulations showed that gradient based systems typically settled 50 to 100 times faster than systems based on current neural network optimization methods.

  17. Optimization with artificial neural network systems - A mapping principle and a comparison to gradient based methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Harrison Monfook

    1988-01-01

    General formulae for mapping optimization problems into systems of ordinary differential equations associated with artificial neural networks are presented. A comparison is made to optimization using gradient-search methods. The performance measure is the settling time from an initial state to a target state. A simple analytical example illustrates a situation where dynamical systems representing artificial neural network methods would settle faster than those representing gradient-search. Settling time was investigated for a more complicated optimization problem using computer simulations. The problem was a simplified version of a problem in medical imaging: determining loci of cerebral activity from electromagnetic measurements at the scalp. The simulations showed that gradient based systems typically settled 50 to 100 times faster than systems based on current neural network optimization methods.

  18. An integrated map of the genome of the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and comparison with Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, W J; Poulet, S; Eiglmeier, K; Pascopella, L; Balasubramanian, V; Heym, B; Bergh, S; Bloom, B R; Jacobs, W R; Cole, S T

    1996-01-01

    An integrated map of the genome of the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was constructed by using a twin-pronged approach. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis enabled cleavage sites for Asn I and Dra I to be positioned on the 4.4-Mb circular chromosome, while, in parallel, clones from two cosmid libraries were ordered into contigs by means of fingerprinting and hybridization mapping. The resultant contig map was readily correlated with the physical map of the genome via the landmarked restriction sites. Over 165 genes and markers were localized on the integrated map, thus enabling comparisons with the leprosy bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae, to be undertaken. Mycobacterial genomes appear to have evolved as mosaic structures since extended segments with conserved gene order and organization are interspersed with different flanking regions. Repetitive sequences and insertion elements are highly abundant in M. tuberculosis, but the distribution of IS6110 is apparently nonrandom. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8610181

  19. Comparison of peptide mass mapping and electron capture dissociation as assays for histone posttranslational modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Freitas, Michael A.

    2004-05-01

    Posttranslational modifications of core histones play a critical role in the structure of chromatin and the regulation of gene activities. Improved techniques for determining these modification sites may lead to a better understanding of histone regulation at the molecular level. LC-MS peptide mass mapping was performed on pepsin, trypsin and Glu-C digests of bovine thymus H4 using a QqTOF instrument. The well established modification sites of H4 (acetylation of K8, 12, 16 and methylation of K20) were observed in addition to several recently discovered modifications including: methylation of K31, 44, 59 and acetylation of K20, 77, 79. For comparison, electron capture dissociation (ECD) was performed on intact H4 along with several peptides from enzymatic digestion. The results from the ECD experiments of histone H4 indicated the acetylation of K5, 12, 16, 31, 91 and the methylation of K20 and 59 in good agreement with the result from peptide mapping. The work is dedicated to Alan G. Marshall on his 60th birthday. His endeavors in the advancement of FT-ICR facilitated experiments reported herein.

  20. Comparison of Different EO Sensors for Mapping Tree Species- A Case Study in Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enβle, Fabian; Kattenborn, Teja; Koch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The variety of different remote sensing sensors and thus the types of data specifications which are available is increasing continuously. Especially the differences in geometric, radiometric and temporal resolutions of different platforms affect their ability for the mapping of forests. These differences hinder the comparability and application of uniform methods of different remotely sensed data across the same region of interest. The quality and quantity of retrieved forest parameters is directly dependent on the data source, and therefore the objective of this project is to analyse the relationship between the data source and its derived parameters. A comparison of different optical EO-data (e.g. spatial resolution and spectral resolution of specific bands) will help to define the optimum data sets to produce a reproducible method to provide additional inputs to the Dragon cooperative project, specifically to method development for woody biomass estimation and biodiversity assessment services. This poster presents the first results on tree species mapping in a mixed temperate forest by satellite imagery taken from four different sensors. Tree species addressed in this pilot study are: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and red oak (Quercus rubra). The spatial resolution varies from 2m to 30m and the spectral resolutions range from 8bands up to 155bands.

  1. Comparison of Different EO Sensors for Mapping Tree Species- A Case Study in Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enßle, Fabian; Kattenborn, Teja; Koch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The variety of different remote sensing sensors and thus the types of data specifications which are available is increasing continuously. Especially the differences in geometric, radiometric and temporal resolutions of different platforms affect their ability for the mapping of forests. These differences hinder the comparability and application of uniform methods of different remotely sensed data across the same region of interest. The quality and quantity of retrieved forest parameters is directly dependent on the data source, and therefore the objective of this project is to analyse the relationship between the data source and its derived parameters. A comparison of different optical EO-data (e.g. spatial resolution and spectral resolution of specific bands) will help to define the optimum data sets to produce a reproducible method to provide additional inputs to the Dragon cooperative project, specifically to method development for woody biomass estimation and biodiversity assessment services. This poster presents the first results on tree species mapping in a mixed temperate forest by satellite imagery taken from four different sensors. Tree species addressed in this pilot study are Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and red oak (Quercus rubra). The spatial resolution varies from 2m to 30m and the spectral resolutions range from 8bands up to 155bands.

  2. SPIRAL field mapping on NSTX for comparison to divertor RF heat deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosea, J. C.; Perkins, R.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kramer, G. J.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bertelli, N.; Gerhardt, S.; Gray, T. K.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Roquemore, L.; Ryan, P. M.; Sabbagh, S.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; Wilson, J. R.; NSTX Team

    2014-02-01

    Field-aligned losses of HHFW power in the SOL of NSTX have been studied with IR cameras and probes, but the interpretation of the data depends somewhat on the magnetic equilibrium reconstruction. Both EFIT02 and LRDFIT04 magnetic equilibria have been used with the SPIRAL code to provide field mappings in the scrape off layer (SOL) on NSTX from the midplane SOL in front of the HHFW antenna to the divertor regions, where the heat deposition spirals are measured. The field-line mapping spiral produced at the divertor plate with LRDFIT04 matches the HHFW-produced heat deposition best, in general. An independent method for comparing the field-line strike patterns on the outer divertor for the two equilibria is provided by measuring Langmuir probe characteristics in the vicinity of the outer vessel strike radius (OVSR) and observing the effect on floating potential, saturation current, and zero-probe-voltage current (IV=0) with the crossing of the OVSR over the probe. Interestingly, these comparisons also reveal that LRDFIT04 gives the more accurate location of the predicted OVSR, and confirm that the RF power flow in the SOL is essentially along the magnetic field lines. Also, the probe characteristics and IV=0 data indicate that current flows under the OVSR in the divertor tiles in most cases studied.

  3. Comparison of ArcToolbox and Terrain Tiles processing procedures for inundation mapping in mountainous terrain.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Andrew; Wise, Richard; Quaranta, John

    2013-01-01

    Floodplain management consists of efforts to reduce flood damage to critical infrastructure and to protect the life and health of individuals from flooding. A major component of this effort is the monitoring of flood control structures such as dams because the potential failure of these structures may have catastrophic consequences. To prepare for these threats, engineers use inundation maps that illustrate the flood resulting from high river stages. To create the maps, the structure and river systems are modeled using engineering software programs, and hydrologic events are used to simulate the conditions leading to the failure of the structure. The output data are then exported to other software programs for the creation of inundation maps. Although the computer programs for this process have been established, the processing procedures vary and yield inconsistent results. Thus, these processing methods need to be examined to determine the functionality of each in floodplain management practices. The main goal of this article is to present the development of a more integrated, accurate, and precise graphical interface tool for interpretation by emergency managers and floodplain engineers. To accomplish this purpose, a potential dam failure was simulated and analyzed for a candidate river system using two processing methods: ArcToolbox and Terrain Tiles. The research involved performing a comparison of the outputs, which revealed that both procedures yielded similar inundations for single river reaches. However, the results indicated key differences when examining outputs for large river systems. On the basis of criteria involving the hydrologic accuracy and effects on infrastructure, the Terrain Tiles inundation surpassed the ArcToolbox inundation in terms of following topography and depicting flow rates and flood extents at confluences, bends, and tributary streams. Thus, the Terrain Tiles procedure is a more accurate representation of flood extents for use by

  4. A multifaceted comparison of ArcGIS and MapMarker for automated geocoding.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjaya; Liu, Ming; Hwang, Syni-An

    2012-11-01

    Geocoding is increasingly being used for public health surveillance and spatial epidemiology studies. Public health departments in the United States of America (USA) often use this approach to investigate disease outbreaks and clusters or assign health records to appropriate geographic units. We evaluated two commonly used geocoding software packages, ArcGIS and MapMarker, for automated geocoding of a large number of residential addresses from health administrative data in New York State, USA to better understand their features, performance and limitations. The comparison was based on three metrics of evaluation: completeness (or match rate), geocode similarity and positional accuracy. Of the 551,798 input addresses, 318,302 (57.7%) were geocoded by MapMarker and 420,813 (76.3%) by the ArcGIS composite address locator. High similarity between the geocodes assigned by the two methods was found, especially in suburban and urban areas. Among addresses with a distance of greater than 100 m between the geocodes assigned by the two packages, the point assigned by ArcGIS was closer to the associated parcel centroid ("true" location) compared with that assigned by MapMarker. In addition, the composite address locator in ArcGIS allows users to fully utilise available reference data, which consequently results in better geocoding results. However, the positional differences found were minimal, and a large majority of addresses were placed on the same locations by both geocoding packages. Using both methods and combining the results can maximise match rates and save the time needed for manual geocoding.

  5. Recombinant Leishmania Rab6 (rLdRab6) is recognized by sera from visceral leishmaniasis patients.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Indira Singh; Shukla, Rantidev; Krishna, Shagun; Sekhri, Savita; Kaushik, Umesh; Baby, Sabitha; Pal, Chiranjib; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Sundar, Shyam; Singh, Neeloo

    2016-11-01

    Rab proteins form the largest branch of the Ras superfamily. Rab proteins are key regulators of intracellular vesicular transport and membrane trafficking. Although RabGTPases are well-recognized targets in human diseases but are under-explored therapeutically in the Leishmania parasite. Using a quantitative cytofluorimetric assay, we analyzed the composition and organization of Rab6GTPase protein which was found to be primarily localized on the parasite subpellicular membrane and flagellum due to its association with kinesin motor proteins in the cytoskeletal microtubules. Our aim was to also assess the diagnostic role of recombinant Rab6 protein from Leishmania donovani (rLdRab6) using sera/plasma of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for rLdRab6-based ELISA which was almost similar in comparison to recombinant K39-based ELISA (95.83% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Sera of patients from another intracellular pathogenic infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, did not contain any significant levels of anti-rLdRab6 antibody. Thus rLdRab6 accuracy in visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis makes it a promising antigen for clinical use.

  6. Genome contact map explorer: a platform for the comparison, interactive visualization and analysis of genome contact maps.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajendra; Sobhy, Haitham; Stenberg, Per; Lizana, Ludvig

    2017-09-29

    Hi-C experiments generate data in form of large genome contact maps (Hi-C maps). These show that chromosomes are arranged in a hierarchy of three-dimensional compartments. But to understand how these compartments form and by how much they affect genetic processes such as gene regulation, biologists and bioinformaticians need efficient tools to visualize and analyze Hi-C data. However, this is technically challenging because these maps are big. In this paper, we remedied this problem, partly by implementing an efficient file format and developed the genome contact map explorer platform. Apart from tools to process Hi-C data, such as normalization methods and a programmable interface, we made a graphical interface that let users browse, scroll and zoom Hi-C maps to visually search for patterns in the Hi-C data. In the software, it is also possible to browse several maps simultaneously and plot related genomic data. The software is openly accessible to the scientific community. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. ReVeaLD: a user-driven domain-specific interactive search platform for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Maulik R; Zeginis, Dimitris; Hasnain, Ali; Decker, Stefan; Deus, Helena F

    2014-02-01

    Bioinformatics research relies heavily on the ability to discover and correlate data from various sources. The specialization of life sciences over the past decade, coupled with an increasing number of biomedical datasets available through standardized interfaces, has created opportunities towards new methods in biomedical discovery. Despite the popularity of semantic web technologies in tackling the integrative bioinformatics challenge, there are many obstacles towards its usage by non-technical research audiences. In particular, the ability to fully exploit integrated information needs using improved interactive methods intuitive to the biomedical experts. In this report we present ReVeaLD (a Real-time Visual Explorer and Aggregator of Linked Data), a user-centered visual analytics platform devised to increase intuitive interaction with data from distributed sources. ReVeaLD facilitates query formulation using a domain-specific language (DSL) identified by biomedical experts and mapped to a self-updated catalogue of elements from external sources. ReVeaLD was implemented in a cancer research setting; queries included retrieving data from in silico experiments, protein modeling and gene expression. ReVeaLD was developed using Scalable Vector Graphics and JavaScript and a demo with explanatory video is available at http://www.srvgal78.deri.ie:8080/explorer. A set of user-defined graphic rules controls the display of information through media-rich user interfaces. Evaluation of ReVeaLD was carried out as a game: biomedical researchers were asked to assemble a set of 5 challenge questions and time and interactions with the platform were recorded. Preliminary results indicate that complex queries could be formulated under less than two minutes by unskilled researchers. The results also indicate that supporting the identification of the elements of a DSL significantly increased intuitiveness of the platform and usability of semantic web technologies by domain users

  8. rasbhari: Optimizing Spaced Seeds for Database Searching, Read Mapping and Alignment-Free Sequence Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Lars; Leimeister, Chris-André; Morgenstern, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Many algorithms for sequence analysis rely on word matching or word statistics. Often, these approaches can be improved if binary patterns representing match and don’t-care positions are used as a filter, such that only those positions of words are considered that correspond to the match positions of the patterns. The performance of these approaches, however, depends on the underlying patterns. Herein, we show that the overlap complexity of a pattern set that was introduced by Ilie and Ilie is closely related to the variance of the number of matches between two evolutionarily related sequences with respect to this pattern set. We propose a modified hill-climbing algorithm to optimize pattern sets for database searching, read mapping and alignment-free sequence comparison of nucleic-acid sequences; our implementation of this algorithm is called rasbhari. Depending on the application at hand, rasbhari can either minimize the overlap complexity of pattern sets, maximize their sensitivity in database searching or minimize the variance of the number of pattern-based matches in alignment-free sequence comparison. We show that, for database searching, rasbhari generates pattern sets with slightly higher sensitivity than existing approaches. In our Spaced Words approach to alignment-free sequence comparison, pattern sets calculated with rasbhari led to more accurate estimates of phylogenetic distances than the randomly generated pattern sets that we previously used. Finally, we used rasbhari to generate patterns for short read classification with CLARK-S. Here too, the sensitivity of the results could be improved, compared to the default patterns of the program. We integrated rasbhari into Spaced Words; the source code of rasbhari is freely available at http://rasbhari.gobics.de/ PMID:27760124

  9. The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): A comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat-based, and lidar-based habitat maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackers, Steven H.; Davis, Raymond J.; Olsen, K.; Dugger, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    performance of the Landsat-based map was within acceptable limits (AUC = 0.717 ± 0.021). As is common with photo-interpreted maps, there was no accuracy assessment available for comparison. The photo-interpreted map produced the highest and lowest estimates of habitat area, depending on which habitat classes were included (nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat = 9962 ha, nesting habitat only = 6036 ha). The Landsat-based map produced an estimate of habitat area that was within this range (95% CI: 6679–9592 ha), while the lidar-based map produced an area estimate similar to what was interpreted by local wildlife biologists as nesting (i.e., high quality) habitat using aerial imagery (95% CI: 5453–7216). Confidence intervals of habitat area estimates from the SDMs based on Landsat and lidar overlapped.We concluded that both Landsat- and lidar-based SDMs produced reasonable maps and area estimates for northern spotted owl habitat within the study area. The lidar-based map was more precise and spatially similar to what local wildlife biologists considered spotted owl nesting habitat. The Landsat-based map provided a less precise spatial representation of habitat within the relatively small geographic confines of the study area, but habitat area estimates were similar to both the photo-interpreted and lidar-based maps.Photo-interpreted maps are time consuming to produce, subjective in nature, and difficult to replicate. SDMs provide a framework for efficiently producing habitat maps that can be replicated as habitat conditions change over time, provided that comparable remotely sensed data are available. When the SDM uses predictor variables extracted from lidar data, it can produce a habitat map that is both accurate and useful at large and small spatial scales. In comparison, SDMs using Landsat-based data are more appropriate for large scale analyses of amounts and general spatial patterns of habitat at regional scales.

  10. Three-tesla functional MR language mapping: comparison with direct cortical stimulation in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Kuchcinski, Grégory; Mellerio, Charles; Pallud, Johan; Dezamis, Edouard; Turc, Guillaume; Rigaux-Viodé, Odile; Malherbe, Caroline; Roca, Pauline; Leclerc, Xavier; Varlet, Pascale; Chrétien, Fabrice; Devaux, Bertrand; Meder, Jean-Francois; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2015-02-10

    To evaluate the accuracy of functional MRI (fMRI) at 3T, as currently used in the preoperative mapping of language areas, compared with direct cortical stimulation (DCS) during awake surgery, in patients with supratentorial gliomas; and to identify clinical, histopathologic,and radiologic factors associated with fMRI/DCS discrepancies. Language mapping with fMRI and DCS of 40 consecutive patients with gliomas(24 low-grade, 16 high-grade) in functional areas were retrospectively analyzed. Three block designed tasks were performed during fMRI (letter word generation, category word generation,semantic association). During awake surgery, eloquent areas were mapped using DCS, blinded to fMRI. A site-by-site comparison of the 2 techniques was performed using a cortical grid. fMRI sensitivity and specificity were calculated using DCS as the reference. Associations of clinical,histopathologic, and radiologic features (including relative cerebral blood volume [rCBV] measured with dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI) with fMRI false-positive and false-negative occurrence were assessed using hierarchical logistic regressions. Of 2,114 stimulated cortical sites, 103 were positive for language during DCS. Sensitivity and specificity of language fMRI combining the 3 tasks reached 37.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 20.7–57.2) and 83.4% (95% CI 77.1–88.3), respectively. Astrocytoma subtype(odds ratio [OR] 2.50 [1.32–4.76]; p 5 0.007), tumor rCBV ,1.5 (OR 2.17 [1.08–4.35]; p 50.03), higher cortical rCBV (OR 2.22 [1.15–4.17]; p 5 0.02), and distance to tumor .1 cm (OR2.46 [1.82–3.32]; p # 0.001) were independently associated with fMRI false-positive occurrence. There are pitfalls in preoperative fMRI as currently used in preoperative language mapping in glioma patients, made more complicated when high-grade and hyperperfused tumors are evaluated.

  11. Comprehending Speaker Intent in Rebuttal Analogy Use: The Role of Irony Mapping, Absurdity Comparison and Argumentative Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colston, Herbert L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the role that irony mapping, absurdity comparison, and argumentative convention play in interpreters' derivations of speaker's intentions in using rebuttal analogies. Three rebuttal types were rated on argumentativeness and social attack in verbal conflict and nonverbal conflict scenarios. Results found that analogies with ironic…

  12. A Multivariate Map-Comparison Method for Model Evaluation and Spatial Model-Data Comparison - A Synthesis Tool for CMIP-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trantow, T.; Astarita, M.; Markle, M. J.; Herzfeld, U. C.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations resultant from ISMIP6, SIMIP and other CMIP6 projects will produce many different spatial variables, from a number of models, from a number of experiments for several scenarios. The typical approaches for analysis of multi-variate multi-model spatial experiment results, given as maps, used to date (see the publications from SeaRISE and ice2sea) are difference maps or visual comparison based on a pair of the resultant maps, or alternatively, plots of a summarizing parameter for several maps. The spatial map comparison tool MAPCOMP facilitates spatial analysis of results from multi-variate multi-model experiments for any number of model variables and can be specifically designed to match the goals and geographic regions of ISMIP6 and SIMIP, the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets, the Arctic Ocean or the Circum-Antarctic Ocean, without first reducing the wealth of information from those spatial experiments to single parameters per map. MAPCOMP combines many input maps into one output map showing regions of similarities and dissimilarities among any number of input variables, which can be maps of model-output variables or observations or a combination of both. MAPCOMP allows to determine regions where results from different models diverge and thus point at physical processes that need to be addressed to reduce model uncertainties across the models that participate in ISMIP6 and across the many planned different numerical experiments, as well as aid in evaluating climatic forcing from AGCMs and AOGCMs over ice surfaces. A third possibility is the application in model-data comparison, using e.g. ice surface elevation change derived from satellite altimeter data for Greenland and Antarctica, and generally any geophysical variable derived from any spatial remotely sensed or other data set. Here we present demonstrations of the MAPCOMP approach (1) for ice surface elevation data and model results for Bering Glacier, Alaska, based on 6 input maps of

  13. Linkage and Association Mapping for Two Major Traits Used in the Maritime Pine Breeding Program: Height Growth and Stem Straightness

    PubMed Central

    Bink, Marco CAM; van Heerwaarden, Joost; Chancerel, Emilie; Boury, Christophe; Lesur, Isabelle; Isik, Fikret; Bouffier, Laurent; Plomion, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits, through analyses of genotype-phenotype associations and of the genes/polymorphisms accounting for trait variation, is crucial, to improve the integration of molecular markers into forest tree breeding. In this study, two full-sib families and one breeding population of maritime pine were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for height growth and stem straightness, through linkage analysis (LA) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping approaches. Results The populations used for LA consisted of two unrelated three-generation full-sib families (n = 197 and n = 477). These populations were assessed for height growth or stem straightness and genotyped for 248 and 217 markers, respectively. The population used for LD mapping consisted of 661 founders of the first and second generations of the breeding program. This population was phenotyped for the same traits and genotyped for 2,498 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers corresponding to 1,652 gene loci. The gene-based reference genetic map of maritime pine was used to localize and compare the QTLs detected by the two approaches, for both traits. LA identified three QTLs for stem straightness and two QTLs for height growth. The LD study yielded seven significant associations (P ≤ 0.001): four for stem straightness and three for height growth. No colocalisation was found between QTLs identified by LA and SNPs detected by LD mapping for the same trait. Conclusions This study provides the first comparison of LA and LD mapping approaches in maritime pine, highlighting the complementary nature of these two approaches for deciphering the genetic architecture of two mandatory traits of the breeding program. PMID:27806077

  14. Two phase choke flow in tubes with very large L/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Data were obtained for two phase and gaseous choked flow nitrogen in a long constant area duct of 16200 L/D with a diverging diffuser attached to the exit. Flow rate data were taken along five isotherms (reduced temperature of 0.81, 0.96, 1.06, 1.12, and 2.34) for reduced pressures to 3. The flow rate data were mapped in the usual manner using stagnation conditions at the inlet mixing chamber upstream of the entrance length. The results are predictable by a two phase homogeneous equilibrium choking flow model which includes wall friction. A simplified theory which in essence decouples the long tube region from the high acceleration choking region also appears to predict the data resonably well, but about 15 percent low.

  15. The caspase-independent algorithm of programmed cell death in Leishmania induced by baicalein: the role of LdEndoG, LdFEN-1 and LdTatD as a DNA 'degradesome'.

    PubMed

    BoseDasgupta, S; Das, B B; Sengupta, S; Ganguly, A; Roy, A; Dey, S; Tripathi, G; Dinda, B; Majumder, H K

    2008-10-01

    In the post-genomic perspective, the quest of programmed cell death (PCD) mechanisms in kinetoplastid parasites lies in the identification and characterization of cell death executer proteins. Here, we show that baicalein (BLN), a potent topoisomerase IB inhibitor, generates an oxidative stress in the parasites leading to altered physiological and morphological parameters, which are characteristic of PCD. For the first time we elucidate that, caspase-independent activation of a novel effector molecule, endonuclease G (LdEndoG), mediates BLN-induced cell death. Functional characterization of LdEndoG identifies Flap endonuclease-1 (LdFEN-1) and LdTatD-like nuclease as other effector molecules. BLN treatment translocates LdEndoG from mitochondria to nucleus, where it forms separate complexes with LdFEN-1 and LdTatD to constitute a DNA 'degradesome' unique to these parasites. Conditional antisense knockdown of LdEndoG provides protection against PCD. This knowledge paves the path toward a better understanding of the PCD pathway in simpler systems, which could be exploited in anti-leishmanial chemotherapy.

  16. Comparison of the Reliability and Validity of Scores from Two Concept-Mapping Techniques. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Schultz, Susan E.; Li, Min; Shavelson, Richard J.

    A concept map is a graph in which the nodes represent concepts, the lines between the nodes represent relations, and the labels on the lines represent the nature of the relations. Concept maps have been used to assess students' knowledge structures, especially in science education. Two concept mapping techniques, constructing a map and filling in…

  17. Does the Flynn Effect Affect IQ Scores of Students Classified as LD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, Stephen D.; Frank, Alicia J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines two samples of students classified as learning disabled (LD) for evidence of the phenomenon known as the Flynn effect (FE). Results indicate that the FE does affect Wechsler IQ and component scores of students classified as LD. Suggests that LD classification may be substantially impacted by the FE over the life of an IQ test version.…

  18. College Writing Labs: Are They Meeting the Needs of Students with LD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sally S.

    1991-01-01

    Guidelines are offered for serving learning-disabled (LD) students in college writing labs. LD student characteristics identified by clinical observation and data-based research are reported for spelling, cohesion/coherence, and syntactic complexity/maturity. LD writers are distinguished from basic writers. Current practice in writing centers is…

  19. Understanding School Dropout for Urban, Ethnic Minority Teenage Mothers with Learning Disabilities (LD). Disability Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Ritzler, Tina; Balcazar, Fabricio E.; McDonald, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Youth who experience either LD or teenage motherhood often drop out of school. Further, about 50% of young girls with LD become mothers by their early 20s compared to 28% of young women in the general population. There is therefore a high likelihood that teenage mothers with LD will drop out of school. Dropping out of school is of concern because…

  20. Understanding School Dropout for Urban, Ethnic Minority Teenage Mothers with Learning Disabilities (LD). Disability Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Ritzler, Tina; Balcazar, Fabricio E.; McDonald, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Youth who experience either LD or teenage motherhood often drop out of school. Further, about 50% of young girls with LD become mothers by their early 20s compared to 28% of young women in the general population. There is therefore a high likelihood that teenage mothers with LD will drop out of school. Dropping out of school is of concern because…

  1. A synteny map and disease resistance gene comparison between barley and the model monocot Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Drader, Tom; Kleinhofs, Andris

    2010-05-01

    Grass species have coevolved with current economically important crop pathogens over millions of years. During this time, speciation of current domestic crops has occurred, resulting in related yet divergent genomes. Here, we present a synteny map between the crop species Hordeum vulgare and the recently sequenced Brachypodium distachyon genome, focusing on regions known to harbor important barley disease resistance genes. The resistance genes have orthologous genes in Brachypodium that show conservation of the form and likely the function of the genes. The level of colinearity between the genomes is highly dependent on the region of interest and, at the DNA level or protein level, the gene of interest. The stem rust resistance gene Rpg1 has an ortholog with a high level of identity at the amino acid level, while the stem rust resistance gene Rpg5 has two orthologs with a high level of identity, one corresponding to the NBS-LRR domain and the other to the serine/threonine protein kinase domain, on different contigs. Interestingly, the predicted product of the Brachypodium Rpg1 ortholog contained a WD40 domain at the C-terminal end. The stem rust resistance gene rpg4 (actin depolymerizing factor 2) also has an ortholog with a high level of identity, in which one of the three residues indicated by allele sequencing in barley cultivars to be important in disease resistance is conserved. The syntenous region of the seedling spot blotch resistance locus, Rcs5, has a high level of colinearity that may prove useful in efforts to identify and clone this gene. A synteny map and orthologous resistance gene comparisons are presented.

  2. Genetic Map of Diploid Wheat, Triticum Monococcum L., and Its Comparison with Maps of Hordeum Vulgare L

    PubMed Central

    Dubcovsky, J.; Luo, M. C.; Zhong, G. Y.; Bransteitter, R.; Desai, A.; Kilian, A.; Kleinhofs, A.; Dvorak, J.

    1996-01-01

    A genetic map of diploid wheat, Triticum monococcum L., involving 335 markers, including RFLP DNA markers, isozymes, seed storage proteins, rRNA, and morphological loci, is reported. T. monococcum and barley linkage groups are remarkably conserved. They differ by a reciprocal translocation involving the long arms of chromosomes 4 and 5, and paracentric inversions in the long arm of chromosomes 1 and 4; the latter is in a segment of chromosome arm 4L translocated to 5L in T. monococcum. The order of the markers in the inverted segments in the T. monococcum genome is the same as in the B and D genomes of T. aestivum L. The T. monococcum map differs from the barley maps in the distribution of recombination within chromosomes. The major 5S rRNA loci were mapped on the short arms of T. monococcum chromosomes 1 and 5 and the long arms of barley chromosomes 2 and 3. Since these chromosome arms are colinear, the major 5S rRNA loci must be subjected to positional changes in the evolving Triticeae genome that do not perturb chromosome colinearity. The positional changes of the major 5S rRNA loci in Triticeae genomes are analogous to those of the 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA loci. PMID:8725244

  3. A 1.4-Mb interval RH map of horse chromosome 17 provides detailed comparison with human and mouse homologues.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Joon; Raudsepp, Terje; Kata, Srinivas R; Adelson, David; Womack, James E; Skow, Loren C; Chowdhary, Bhanu P

    2004-02-01

    Comparative genomics has served as a backbone for the rapid development of gene maps in domesticated animals. The integration of this approach with radiation hybrid (RH) analysis provides one of the most direct ways to obtain physically ordered comparative maps across evolutionarily diverged species. We herein report the development of a detailed RH and comparative map for horse chromosome 17 (ECA17). With markers distributed at an average interval of every 1.4 Mb, the map is currently the most informative among the equine chromosomes. It comprises 75 markers (56 genes and 19 microsatellites), of which 50 gene specific and 5 microsatellite markers were generated in this study and typed to our 5000-rad horse x hamster whole genome RH panel. The markers are dispersed over six RH linkage groups and span 825 cR(5000). The map is among the most comprehensive whole chromosome comparative maps currently available for domesticated animals. It finely aligns ECA17 to human and mouse homologues (HSA13 and MMU1, 3, 5, 8, and 14, respectively) and homologues in other domesticated animals. Comparisons provide insight into their relative organization and help to identify evolutionarily conserved segments. The new ECA17 map will serve as a template for the development of clusters of BAC contigs in regions containing genes of interest. Sequencing of these regions will help to initiate studies aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms for various diseases and inherited disorders in horse as well as human.

  4. Lens models under the microscope: comparison of Hubble Frontier Field cluster magnification maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priewe, Jett; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Liesenborgs, Jori; Coe, Dan; Rodney, Steven A.

    2017-02-01

    Using the power of gravitational lensing magnification by massive galaxy clusters, the Hubble Frontier Fields provide deep views of six patches of the high-redshift Universe. The combination of deep Hubble imaging and exceptional lensing strength has revealed the greatest numbers of multiply-imaged galaxies available to constrain models of cluster mass distributions. However, even with O(100) images per cluster, the uncertainties associated with the reconstructions are not negligible. The goal of this paper is to show the diversity of model magnification predictions. We examine seven and nine mass models of Abell 2744 and MACS J0416, respectively, submitted to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes for public distribution in 2015 September. The dispersion between model predictions increases from 30 per cent at common low magnifications (μ ˜ 2) to 70 per cent at rare high magnifications (μ ˜ 40). MACS J0416 exhibits smaller dispersions than Abell 2744 for 2 < μ < 10. We show that magnification maps based on different lens inversion techniques typically differ from each other by more than their quoted statistical errors. This suggests that some models underestimate the true uncertainties, which are primarily due to various lensing degeneracies. Though the exact mass sheet degeneracy is broken, its generalized counterpart is not broken at least in Abell 2744. Other local degeneracies are also present in both clusters. Our comparison of models is complementary to the comparison of reconstructions of known synthetic mass distributions. By focusing on observed clusters, we can identify those that are best constrained, and therefore provide the clearest view of the distant Universe.

  5. Substrate-Driven Mapping of the Degradome by Comparison of Sequence Logos

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Julian E.; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Huber, Roland G.; Kramer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequence logos are frequently used to illustrate substrate preferences and specificity of proteases. Here, we employed the compiled substrates of the MEROPS database to introduce a novel metric for comparison of protease substrate preferences. The constructed similarity matrix of 62 proteases can be used to intuitively visualize similarities in protease substrate readout via principal component analysis and construction of protease specificity trees. Since our new metric is solely based on substrate data, we can engraft the protease tree including proteolytic enzymes of different evolutionary origin. Thereby, our analyses confirm pronounced overlaps in substrate recognition not only between proteases closely related on sequence basis but also between proteolytic enzymes of different evolutionary origin and catalytic type. To illustrate the applicability of our approach we analyze the distribution of targets of small molecules from the ChEMBL database in our substrate-based protease specificity trees. We observe a striking clustering of annotated targets in tree branches even though these grouped targets do not necessarily share similarity on protein sequence level. This highlights the value and applicability of knowledge acquired from peptide substrates in drug design of small molecules, e.g., for the prediction of off-target effects or drug repurposing. Consequently, our similarity metric allows to map the degradome and its associated drug target network via comparison of known substrate peptides. The substrate-driven view of protein-protein interfaces is not limited to the field of proteases but can be applied to any target class where a sufficient amount of known substrate data is available. PMID:24244149

  6. Derivation of a restriction map of bacteriophage T3 DNA and comparison with the map of bacteriophage T7 DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, J N; Dembinski, D R; McAllister, W T

    1980-01-01

    The DNA of bacteriophage T3 was characterized by cleavage with seven restriction endonucleases. AvaI, XbaI, BglII, and HindIII each cut T3 DNA at 1 site, KpnI cleaved it at 2 sites, MboI cleaved it at 9 sites, and HpaI cleaved it at 17 sites. The sizes of the fragments produced by digestion with these enzymes were determined by using restriction fragments of T7 DNA as molecular weight standards. As a result of this analysis, the size of T3 DNA was estimated to be 38.74 kilobases. The fragments were ordered with respect to each other and to the genetic map to produce a restriction map of T3 DNA. The location and occurrence of the restriction sites in T3 DNA are compared with those in the DNA of the closely related bacteriophage T7. Images PMID:6251266

  7. Comparison of stochastic and deterministic methods for mapping groundwater level spatial variability in sparsely monitored basins.

    PubMed

    Varouchakis, Epsilon A; Hristopulos, D T

    2013-01-01

    In sparsely monitored basins, accurate mapping of the spatial variability of groundwater level requires the interpolation of scattered data. This paper presents a comparison of deterministic interpolation methods, i.e. inverse distance weight (IDW) and minimum curvature (MC), with stochastic methods, i.e. ordinary kriging (OK), universal kriging (UK) and kriging with Delaunay triangulation (DK). The study area is the Mires Basin of Mesara Valley in Crete (Greece). This sparsely sampled basin has limited groundwater resources which are vital for the island's economy; spatial variations of the groundwater level are important for developing management and monitoring strategies. We evaluate the performance of the interpolation methods with respect to different statistical measures. The Spartan variogram family is applied for the first time to hydrological data and is shown to be optimal with respect to stochastic interpolation of this dataset. The three stochastic methods (OK, DK and UK) perform overall better than the deterministic counterparts (IDW and MC). DK, which is herein for the first time applied to hydrological data, yields the most accurate cross-validation estimate for the lowest value in the dataset. OK and UK lead to smooth isolevel contours, whilst DK and IDW generate more edges. The stochastic methods deliver estimates of prediction uncertainty which becomes highest near the southeastern border of the basin.

  8. Marine habitat mapping of the Milford Haven Waterway, Wales, UK: Comparison of facies mapping and EUNIS classification for monitoring sediment habitats in an industrialized estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Drew A.; Hayn, Melanie; Germano, Joseph D.; Little, David I.; Bullimore, Blaise

    2015-06-01

    A detailed map and dataset of sedimentary habitats of the Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) was compiled for the Milford Haven Waterway Environmental Surveillance Group (MHWESG) from seafloor images collected in May, 2012 using sediment-profile and plan-view imaging (SPI/PV) survey techniques. This is the most comprehensive synoptic assessment of sediment distribution and benthic habitat composition available for the MHW, with 559 stations covering over 40 km2 of subtidal habitats. In the context of the MHW, an interpretative framework was developed that classified each station within a 'facies' that included information on the location within the waterway and inferred sedimentary and biological processes. The facies approach provides critical information on landscape-scale habitats including relative location and inferred sediment transport processes and can be used to direct future monitoring activities within the MHW and to predict areas of greatest potential risk from contaminant transport. Intertidal sediment 'facies' maps have been compiled in the past for MHW; this approach was expanded to map the subtidal portions of the waterway. Because sediment facies can be projected over larger areas than individual samples (due to assumptions based on physiography, or landforms) they represent an observational model of the distribution of sediments in an estuary. This model can be tested over time and space through comparison with additional past or future sample results. This approach provides a means to evaluate stability or change in the physical and biological conditions of the estuarine system. Initial comparison with past results for intertidal facies mapping and grain size analysis from grab samples showed remarkable stability over time for the MHW. The results of the SPI/PV mapping effort were cross-walked to the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) classification to provide a comparison of locally derived habitat mapping with European-standard habitat

  9. A first-generation metric linkage disequilibrium map of bovine chromosome 6.

    PubMed

    Khatkar, Mehar S; Collins, Andrew; Cavanagh, Julie A L; Hawken, Rachel J; Hobbs, Matthew; Zenger, Kyall R; Barris, Wes; McClintock, Alexander E; Thomson, Peter C; Nicholas, Frank W; Raadsma, Herman W

    2006-09-01

    We constructed a metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) map of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6) on the basis of data from 220 SNPs genotyped on 433 Australian dairy bulls. This metric LD map has distances in LD units (LDUs) that are analogous to centimorgans in linkage maps. The LD map of BTA6 has a total length of 8.9 LDUs. Within the LD map, regions of high LD (represented as blocks) and regions of low LD (steps) are observed, when plotted against the integrated map in kilobases. At the most stringent block definition, namely a set of loci with zero LDU increase over the span of these markers, BTA6 comprises 40 blocks, accounting for 41% of the chromosome. At a slightly lower stringency of block definition (a set of loci covering a maximum of 0.2 LDUs on the LD map), up to 81% of BTA6 is spanned by 46 blocks and with 13 steps that are likely to reflect recombination hot spots. The mean swept radius (the distance over which LD is likely to be useful for mapping) is 13.3 Mb, confirming extensive LD in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, which makes such populations ideal for whole-genome association studies.

  10. Improving the Historical Knowledge and Writing of Students With or At Risk for LD.

    PubMed

    De La Paz, Susan; Wissinger, Daniel R

    2016-07-25

    In this study, we explored the potential of two forms of discussion (disciplinary vs. traditional) for 39 sixth- and seventh-grade students with or at risk for learning disabilities (LD), before writing historical arguments. Nine teachers who led small group discussions in six heterogeneous social studies classrooms implemented the intervention. Students who were involved in disciplinary discussions (n = 19) scored statistically higher than their peers who engaged in traditional discussions (n = 20) on a measure of historical knowledge (partial η(2) = .23); they also wrote essays with better persuasive quality (partial η(2) = .43) and greater evidence of historical thinking (partial η(2) = .40). A delayed posttest delivered 8 weeks after instruction ended revealed that students in the experimental condition continued to write in more historically sophisticated ways than did students in the comparison condition (partial η(2) = .19). Challenges, however, remain for struggling learners who must now meet basic and advanced disciplinary literacy goals. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2016.

  11. LD dual-end-pumped CW Tm:YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin-yu; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Yong-ji; Wang, Chao; Jin, Guang-yong

    2013-09-01

    We report on a LD dual-end-pumped 792nm continuous wave operation Tm:YLF laser. Firstly, the rate equation of LD end-pumped CW operation Tm:YLF laser were established, in which the energy transfer upconversion and without energy transfer upconversion under continuous-wave considerate were considered, as well the pump threshold and the slope efficiency of the laser system were analyzed. Simultaneously, the cavity stability condition and the pattern matching of the plano- concave resonator were analyzed according to ABCD Matrix theory. Comparing respectively the laser threshold and the slope efficiency and optical-optical conversion efficiency under circumstances which the output mirror transmittance of 15% and 23%. In addition, the M2 of the output laser were contrasted and analyzed in adjusting the resonator cavity length by using different radius of curvature of the output mirror in 150mm, 200mm and 300mm all in the above case. As the process of thermal lens focal length changing greater than 90mm, it exhibited that the two fundamental modes in the cavity resonator matched well in numerical simulation when the radius of curvature of the output mirror was 300mm, as well the two fundamental modes matched well when it more than 100mm in a certain pump power. We designed a single LD dual-end-pumped continuous wave operation Tm:YLF laser. Using Tm:YLF (3 at.%) crystal for gain medium, which the size was 3×3×14mm3. In experiments, the Tm:YLF laser crystal keeps 291K and the temperature control method is water cooling. The length of the resonator was 135mm when L shape plano-concave resonator was applied, and the radius of curvature output mirror was 300mm, as well as the temperature of the Tm:YLF laser crystal was 291K. The output laser we observed by this system and the central laser wavelength was 1944nm. The threshold power was 8.11W and the highest output power reaches to 4.01W when the totally input pump power was 17W, and the optical conversion efficiency was 23

  12. Comparison of peanut gentics and physical maps provided insights on collinearity, reversions and translocations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic and physical maps are the valuable resources for peanut research community in understanding genome organization and serving as the basis for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection. Physical maps of two diploid wild peanut progenitor species, Arachis duranensis (A genome) and A. ipae...

  13. Comparisons of Four Approximation Algorithms for Large-Scale Linkage Map Construction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efficient construction of large-scale linkage maps is highly desired in current gene mapping projects. To evaluate the performance of available approaches in the literature, four published methods, the insertion, seriation (SER), neighbor mapping (NM), and unidirectional growth (UG) were compared on...

  14. A Comparison of Alternate Formats for the Portrayal of Terrain Relief on Military Maps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    Experiments I and 11 22 Effects of User Experience Level .. ....................... 23 Interactions Between Map Format and User Experience Level . 23... user experience levels ..... ................ 19 4. Experiment 11: Summary of statistically significant effects of map format for time scores...must be identified. - 14- Experiment II was essentially a replication of Experiment I, but the overall map user experience level was lower. The

  15. Comparison of the Kriging and neural network methods for modeling foF2 maps over North China region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Jing; Lan, Ting; Yang, Guobin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhu, Peng; Sun, Hengqing; Cui, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    The F2 layer critical frequency of the ionosphere (foF2) is one of the most significant parameters for studying the ionosphere. To investigate the large-scale characteristics of the ionosphere over particular regions, modeling foF2 is an effective method. In this paper, we use both the Kriging (KG) and neural network (NN) methods to reconstruct foF2 maps over North China. The neural network is trained by the genetic algorithm (GA) to avoid the 'local minimum' phenomenon in most NN applications. We then carry out a comparison between foF2 provided by both the KG and NN methods with vertical model operation of ionosonde data including Beijing, Qingdao, Suzhou, and Changchun. All of the foF2 data used in the comparison are obtained from the oblique and vertical mode operation of ionosonde from the China Ground-based Seismo-ionospheric Monitoring Network. To allow for a possible seasonal and diurnal variation, data obtained from summer, winter, and equinox months are applied in the present comparison. In addition, we make a comparison during a magnetic storm period. The results of our comparisons demonstrate that both the KG and NN methods are appropriate tools for modeling foF2 maps. However, when the data set is spare, the performance of the NN method is better than the KG method. On the other hand, the KG method is more robust than the NN method during a magnetic storm.

  16. Comparison between one day and two days protocols for sentinel node mapping of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Jangijoo; Alireza, Rezapanah; Mostafa, Mehrabibahar; Naser, Forghani Mohammad; Bahram, Memar; Ramin, Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy can decrease the morbidity of breast cancer treatment significantly by sparing many patients of axillary lymph node dissection and resulting arm lymphedema. Despite widespread use of sentinel node mapping for breast cancer patients almost all aspects of this procedure are controversial; such as: type of the radiotracer, eligibility, time of injection, etc. One of these controversial issues is the efficacy of 2 days protocol (injection of the tracer on one day and sentinel node mapping and surgery on the following day). The main reason to perform 2 days protocol is the ease of operation room scheduling the patient does not need to complete injection and imaging in the nuclear medicine department. Despite widespread use of 2 days protocol for sentinel node mapping, very few studies have specifically evaluated this protocol in comparison to 1 day protocol and also the false negative rate which is the better index of sentinel node mapping success. Most of the above studies used tracers with large particle size such as (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid. Tracers with small particle size can theoretically be washed out from the real sentinel nodes and move to the second echelon nodes, so some recommended using large particle size radiotracers for the 2 days protocol. In this study, we compared the false negative rate of sentinel node mapping between 1 and 2 days protocols using intradermal injection of (99m)Tc-antimony sulfide colloid ((99m)Tc-SbSC) which has very small particle size. Eighty patients with early stage breast cancer (clinical stages of I and II) were evaluated. The diagnosis of the breast cancer was established by either excisional or core needle biopsy. The patients didn't take any chemotherapeutic drug before surgery and were divided into two groups: 1 day (Group I) and 2 days (Group II) protocols (45 in Group I and 35 in Group II). For Group I, periareolar intradermal injections of 0.5Bq/0.2mL (99m)Tc-SbSC were applied for patients without

  17. Vanadium removal from LD converter slag using bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Mirazimi, S M J; Abbasalipour, Z; Rashchi, F

    2015-04-15

    Removal of vanadium from Linz-Donawits (LD) converter slag was investigated by means of three different species of microbial systems: Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (autotrophic bacteria), Pseudomonas putida (heterotrophic bacteria) and Aspergillus niger (fungi). The bioleaching process was carried out in both one-step and two-step process and the leaching efficiencies in both cases were compared. Formation of inorganic and organic acids during the leaching process caused mobilization of vanadium. In order to reduce toxic effects of the metal species on the above mentioned microorganisms, a prolonged adaptation process was performed. Both bacteria, A. thiooxidans and P. putida were able to remove more than 90% of vanadium at slag concentrations of 1-5 g L(-1) after 15 days. Also, the maximum achievable vanadium removal in the fungal system was approximately 92% at a slag concentration of 1 g L(-1) after 22 days.

  18. Analysis and mapping of mountain permafrost data: a comparison between two machine learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluigi, Nicola; Lambiel, Christophe; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    , producing results less optimistic than other simple topo-climatic model simulations (and more consistent with the field reality). The present research deals with the analysis and mapping of alpine permafrost patterns at the micro-scale for data gathered in the Western part of the Alps (Valais, Switzerland). An input dataset was constructed using local topographic variables derived from a digital elevation model, geology, climate data, etc. The permafrost data were taken from rock glacier inventories and completed by the geophysical and thermal data collected during the field campaigns. As poor permafrost evidences are available for rockwalls, we mainly focused the prediction in loose sediments. A comparison between RF and SVM algorithms will be presented as well as the classification results (distribution maps) along with corresponding model uncertainties.

  19. Multi-marker linkage disequilibrium mapping of quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soyoun; Yang, Jie; Huang, Jiayu; Chen, Hao; Hou, Wei; Wu, Song

    2017-03-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most common genetic markers in genome-wide association studies, are usually in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other within a small genomic region. Both single- and two-marker-based LD mapping methods have been developed by taking advantage of the LD structures. In this study, a more general LD mapping framework with an arbitrary number of markers has been developed to further improve LD mapping and its detection power. This method is referred as multi-marker linkage disequilibrium mapping (mmLD). For the parameter estimation, we implemented a two-phase estimation procedure: first, haplotype frequencies were estimated for known markers; then, haplotype frequencies were updated to include the unknown quantitative trait loci based on estimates from the first step. For the hypothesis testing, we proposed a novel sequential likelihood ratio test procedure, which iteratively removed haplotypes with zero frequency and subsequently determined the proper degree of freedom. To compare the proposed mmLD method with other existing mapping methods, e.g. the adjusted single-marker LD mapping and the SKAT_C, we performed extensive simulations under various scenarios. The simulation results demonstrated that the mmLD has the same or higher power than the existing methods, while maintaining the correct type I errors. We further applied the mmLD to a public data set, 'GAW17', to investigate its applicability. The result showed the good performance of mmLD. We concluded that this improved mmLD method will be useful for future genome-wide association studies and genetic association analyses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A comparison of two conformal mapping techniques applied to an aerobrake body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hommel, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Conformal mapping is a classical technique which has been utilized for solving problems in aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. Conformal mapping has been successfully applied in the construction of grids around airfoils, engine inlets and other aircraft configurations. Conformal mapping techniques were applied to an aerobrake body having an axis of symmetry. Two different approaches were utilized: (1) Karman-Trefftz transformation; and (2) Point Wise Schwarz Christoffel transformation. In both cases, the aerobrake body was mapped onto a near circle, and a grid was generated in the mapped plane. The mapped body and grid were then mapped back into physical space and the properties of the associated grids were examined. Advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed.

  1. Comprehensive Comparison of Two Image-Based Point Clouds from Aerial Photos with Airborne LIDAR for Large-Scale Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyaningrum, E.; Gorte, B. G. H.

    2017-09-01

    The integration of computer vision and photogrammetry to generate three-dimensional (3D) information from images has contributed to a wider use of point clouds, for mapping purposes. Large-scale topographic map production requires 3D data with high precision and accuracy to represent the real conditions of the earth surface. Apart from LiDAR point clouds, the image-based matching is also believed to have the ability to generate reliable and detailed point clouds from multiple-view images. In order to examine and analyze possible fusion of LiDAR and image-based matching for large-scale detailed mapping purposes, point clouds are generated by Semi Global Matching (SGM) and by Structure from Motion (SfM). In order to conduct comprehensive and fair comparison, this study uses aerial photos and LiDAR data that were acquired at the same time. Qualitative and quantitative assessments have been applied to evaluate LiDAR and image-matching point clouds data in terms of visualization, geometric accuracy, and classification result. The comparison results conclude that LiDAR is the best data for large-scale mapping.

  2. Comparison of Sea Floor Character in Two Areas Mapped by the California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    Since the California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program (CSCMP) began in 2008 multibeam echo sounder (MBES) data have been acquired in all mainland State Waters (shoreline to 3 nautical miles). As of this writing a suite of map products derived from the data has been published for 22 of the network of 83 CSCMP map blocks along the mainland coast. These publications provide the first opportunity to contrast physical habitats in different areas; here we compare the seafloor character in a set of 6 blocks along the mainland coast of the Santa Barbara Channel (Hueneme Canyon to Refugio Beach), with that of a similarly sized subset of blocks along the more energetic coast of Northern California (Salt Point to Drakes Bay). Seafloor character, one of the products being produced for the CSCMP, is a raster with a small number of substrate classes (soft-flat, hard-flat, and hard-rugose) designed for inclusion in multi-variant analysis of fisheries data that include visual observations of substrate type. Seafloor character is derived with bottom-video supervised maximum likelihood classification of MBES backscatter intensity data and vector ruggedness derived from the MBES bathymetry data. Typically areas of fine-grained sand and mud with infauna occupy the soft-flat areas, hard-flat areas are a mix of low-relief coarse sediment and flat bedrock pavement with sparse epifauna, and hard-rugose areas are highly valued rocky reef habitat with a diverse assemblage of epifauna. In the Northern California area waters less than 100 m deep the percentage of hard-rugose habitat is 8% of the seafloor whereas in the Santa Barbara area it is 0.2%. In both areas Marine Protected Areas contain a higher percentage of hard-rugose habitat than is found in the larger surrounding region. The scarcity of hard-rugose habitat in the Santa Barbara area increases the value of protected habitat in the Channel Islands bounding the channel as well as artificial habitat created by offshore oil rigs.

  3. A Comparison of Five FMRI Protocols for Mapping Speech Comprehension Systems

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Jeffrey R.; Swanson, Sara J.; Hammeke, Thomas A.; Sabsevitz, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Many fMRI protocols for localizing speech comprehension have been described, but there has been little quantitative comparison of these methods. We compared five such protocols in terms of areas activated, extent of activation, and lateralization. Methods FMRI BOLD signals were measured in 26 healthy adults during passive listening and active tasks using words and tones. Contrasts were designed to identify speech perception and semantic processing systems. Activation extent and lateralization were quantified by counting activated voxels in each hemisphere for each participant. Results Passive listening to words produced bilateral superior temporal activation. After controlling for pre-linguistic auditory processing, only a small area in the left superior temporal sulcus responded selectively to speech. Active tasks engaged an extensive, bilateral attention and executive processing network. Optimal results (consistent activation and strongly lateralized pattern) were obtained by contrasting an active semantic decision task with a tone decision task. There was striking similarity between the network of brain regions activated by the semantic task and the network of brain regions that showed task-induced deactivation, suggesting that semantic processing occurs during the resting state. Conclusions FMRI protocols for mapping speech comprehension systems differ dramatically in pattern, extent, and lateralization of activation. Brain regions involved in semantic processing were identified only when an active, non-linguistic task was used as a baseline, supporting the notion that semantic processing occurs whenever attentional resources are not controlled. Identification of these lexical-semantic regions is particularly important for predicting language outcome in patients undergoing temporal lobe surgery. PMID:18513352

  4. Establishing mass balance observation at Austre Grønfjordbreen, Nordenskjöld land, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elagina, Nelly; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Chernov, Robert; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Vasilyeva, Tatiana; Mavlyudov, Bulat; Kudikov, Arseny

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic archipelago Svalbard consists of a vast glacierized area which contributes significantly to the sea level rise outside of Greenland and Antarctica due to recent warming. The glaciers of Svalbard have already experienced an unprecedented increase in average summer temperatures, melt periods, and rainfall in late autumn and early summer. Glaciers of the Nordenskjöld land were the subject of glaciological studies conducted through the Soviet scientific program at the Institute of Geography RAS, Moscow starting in the 1960s. However, with the collapse of the Soviet Union glaciological monitoring was stopped in the late 1980s. It was resumed in 2003 with direct observations of winter accumulation and summer melt at a number of glaciers in Nordenskjöld land. However, until now snow pit and stake data were inconsistent and were reported randomly. Recent efforts by the Institute of Geography RAS have been aimed at establishing mass balance observation at Austre Grønfjordbreen (7 km2) located 16 km south of Barentsburg. Starting from 2014 observations have included a new ablation stake network of 15 stakes measured biannually, two automatic weather stations located at the glacier tongue and at the accumulation area, and annual high resolution GPR surveys of snow thickness together with snow pit measurements repeated every spring. Special attention has been paid to the evaluation of refreezing ice and superimposed ice distribution. Active layer (10 m) borehole temperatures are measured annually at stake locations. The obtained mass balance gradients are compared with the geodetic mass balance changes in 1990-2005 and recent Arctic DEM data. Additionally glacier bedrock, polythermal structure and surface topography maps have been completed using GPR data and DGPS measurements. All available satellite imagery has been used to reconstruct the snowline elevation changes from 1986 to 2016. Remarkably almost a total absence of accumulation area has been registered in

  5. The relation of LD and gender with emotional intelligence in college students.

    PubMed

    Reiff, H B; Hatzes, N M; Bramel, M H; Gibbon, T

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the relation of learning disabilities (LD) and gender with emotional intelligence in 128 college students. Fifty-four students with LD (32 men and 22 women) and 74 without LD (34 men and 40 women) attending two colleges and one university participated in the study. Emotional intelligence was assessed using the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i; BarOn,1997), a self-report instrument designed to measure interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, stress management, adaptability, and general mood. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed to examine the main effects of LD and gender and the interaction of the two main effects on the five composites of the EQ-i. Students with LD had fewer credits and lower scholastic aptitude test (SAT) scores, high school grade point averages (GPAs), and college GPAs than students without LD; women students were older and had higher college GPAs than men students. Results of the MANOVA indicated significant main effects of both LD and gender; no significant interaction occurred. Post hoc univariate analyses of the five composites revealed significant differences between students with LD and students without LD on stress management and adaptability, significant differences between men and women students on interpersonal skills, and significant differences of the interaction of LD and gender on interpersonal skills.

  6. Enhanced genetic maps from family-based disease studies: population-specific comparisons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Accurate genetic maps are required for successful and efficient linkage mapping of disease genes. However, most available genome-wide genetic maps were built using only small collections of pedigrees, and therefore have large sampling errors. A large set of genetic studies genotyped by the NHLBI Mammalian Genotyping Service (MGS) provide appropriate data for generating more accurate maps. Results We collected a large sample of uncleaned genotype data for 461 markers generated by the MGS using the Weber screening sets 9 and 10. This collection includes genotypes for over 4,400 pedigrees containing over 17,000 genotyped individuals from different populations. We identified and cleaned numerous relationship and genotyping errors, as well as verified the marker orders. We used this dataset to test for population-specific genetic maps, and to re-estimate the genetic map distances with greater precision; standard errors for all intervals are provided. The map-interval sizes from the European (or European descent), Chinese, and Hispanic samples are in quite good agreement with each other. We found one map interval on chromosome 8p with a statistically significant size difference between the European and Chinese samples, and several map intervals with significant size differences between the African American and Chinese samples. When comparing Palauan with European samples, a statistically significant difference was detected at the telomeric region of chromosome 11p. Several significant differences were also identified between populations in chromosomal and genome lengths. Conclusions Our new population-specific screening set maps can be used to improve the accuracy of disease-mapping studies. As a result of the large sample size, the average length of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for a 10 cM map interval is only 2.4 cM, which is considerably smaller than on previously published maps. PMID:21247494

  7. Comparison of Kriging and coKriging for soil contamination mapping in abandoned mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon

    2015-04-01

    Soil contamination mapping around abandoned mines is an important task for the planning and design of mine reclamation. This study compared the ordinary Kriging and the co-Kriging methods for the soil contamination mapping in abandoned mine sites. Four approaches were conducted as follows: (1) soil contamination mapping using the ordinary Kriging and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) data only; (2) soil contamination mapping using the ordinary Kriging and Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (PXRF) data only; (3) soil contamination mapping using the ordinary Kriging and integrated data from ICP and PXRF; and (4) soil contamination mapping using the co-Kriging and integrated data from ICP and PXRF. Results indicate that the approach 3 provides substantial improvements over other three approaches including a more reasonable spatial pattern of soil contamination and reduction in the error of its estimates.

  8. Levodropropizine (LD) activity in allergic asthmatic patients, challenged with ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, metacholine and allergen-induced bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Bossi, R; Banfi, P; Filipazzi, V; Castelli, C; Braga, P C

    1994-04-01

    The antitussive compound Levodropropizine (LD) is active in animal bronchoconstriction induced by histamine and capsaicin and in man protects from bronchoconstriction induced by capsaicin. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of action of LD given at 60 mg t.i.d. as oral drops, for 8 days by means of specific bronchial challenges (allergens) and of aspecific challenges acting via different receptors and fibers (i.e. metacholine via cholinergic receptors and ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW) via histamine and neuropeptide release). The study design is randomized, double-blind, cross-over versus placebo in 30 allergic asthmatic patients. Baseline bronchial tone and bronchoconstrictor response to metacholine (MCh) were not modified by active treatment nor by placebo. On the contrary, in airway responsiveness to UNDW, the active treatment showed an antagonist effect against induced bronchoconstriction of 59% [activity ratio (AR) as antilog = 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.54; p < or = 0.05] in comparison to no effect for placebo. Similarly, in airway responsiveness to specific allergen, active treatment antagonized the bronchoconstrictor effect of grass pollen by 83% and of various allergens (dermatophagoides and grass pollen) by 72%, i.e. AR of 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.045-0.65; p < 0.01) and of 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.07-1.04; p < 0.05), respectively. No antagonist effect was evident with placebo at all times. Besides inhibiting cough, LD is also partially effective in inhibiting bronchial hyperreactive response against specific allergen and UNDW bronchoconstriction. Hence, LD might act by partly inhibiting histamine and neuropeptide release.

  9. Characteristic behaviors of students with LD who have teacher-identified math weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R; Hammill, D D

    2000-01-01

    Mathematics learning disabilities (LD) have gained increased attention over the last decade from both researchers and practitioners. A large percentage of students receiving learning disability services experience difficulties with mathematics, but little research has examined the specific mathematics behaviors of students with LD who have teacher-identified math weaknesses. This study examines the literature on mathematics LD and identifies specific behaviors from that body of research for the purpose of determining the extent to which those behaviors are observed in students with LD. Data are presented from observations of 391 special education professionals on 1724 students with LD, 870 of whom had identified math weaknesses and 854 of whom did not. Our results validate the existing literature and provide implications for teachers, researchers, and others interested in studying mathematics LD.

  10. Development of a commercial cigarette "market map" comparison methodology for evaluating new or non-conventional cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Counts, M E; Hsu, F S; Tewes, F J

    2006-12-01

    A "market map" comparison methodology for cigarette smoke chemistry yields is presented. Federal Trade Commission machine-method smoke chemistry was determined for a range of filtered cigarettes from the US marketplace. These data were used to develop illustrative market maps for each smoke constituent as analytical tools for comparing new or non-conventional cigarettes to a sampling of the broader range of marketplace cigarettes. Each market map contained best-estimate "market-means," showing the relationship between commercial cigarette constituent and tar yields, and yield "market ranges" defined by prediction intervals. These market map means and ranges are the basis for comparing new cigarette smoke yields to those of conventional cigarettes. The potential utility of market maps for evaluating differences in smoke chemistry was demonstrated with 1R4F and 2R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes, an Accord cigarette, and an Advance cigarette. Conventional cigarette tobacco nicotine, nitrate, soluble ammonia, and tobacco specific nitrosamine levels are reported. Differences among conventional cigarette constituent yields at similar tar levels were explained in part by the chemical composition range of those cigarette tobaccos. The study also included a comparison of smoke constituent yields and in vitro smoke cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assay results for the 1R4F Kentucky reference cigarette and its replacement 2R4F. Significant smoke yield differences were noted for lead, NNK, and NNN. The majority of their smoke constituent yields were within the market range developed from the sampled conventional cigarettes. Within the sensitivity and specificity of the in vitro bioassays used, smoke toxic activity differences for the two reference cigarettes were not statistically significant. These results add to the limited information available for the 2R4F reference cigarette.

  11. Comparison of Geostatistical Kriging Algorithms for Intertidal Surface Sediment Facies Mapping with Grain Size Data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the predictive performance of different geostatistical kriging algorithms for intertidal surface sediment facies mapping using grain size data. Indicator kriging, which maps facies types from conditional probabilities of predefined facies types, is first considered. In the second approach, grain size fractions are first predicted using cokriging and the facies types are then mapped. As grain size fractions are compositional data, their characteristics should be considered during spatial prediction. For efficient prediction of compositional data, additive log-ratio transformation is applied before cokriging analysis. The predictive performance of cokriging of the transformed variables is compared with that of cokriging of raw fractions in terms of both prediction errors of fractions and facies mapping accuracy. From a case study of the Baramarae tidal flat, Korea, the mapping method based on cokriging of log-ratio transformation of fractions outperformed the one based on cokriging of untransformed fractions in the prediction of fractions and produced the best facies mapping accuracy. Indicator kriging that could not account for the variation of fractions within each facies type showed the worst mapping accuracy. These case study results indicate that the proper processing of grain size fractions as compositional data is important for reliable facies mapping. PMID:24688362

  12. Comparison of geostatistical kriging algorithms for intertidal surface sediment facies mapping with grain size data.

    PubMed

    Park, No-Wook; Jang, Dong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the predictive performance of different geostatistical kriging algorithms for intertidal surface sediment facies mapping using grain size data. Indicator kriging, which maps facies types from conditional probabilities of predefined facies types, is first considered. In the second approach, grain size fractions are first predicted using cokriging and the facies types are then mapped. As grain size fractions are compositional data, their characteristics should be considered during spatial prediction. For efficient prediction of compositional data, additive log-ratio transformation is applied before cokriging analysis. The predictive performance of cokriging of the transformed variables is compared with that of cokriging of raw fractions in terms of both prediction errors of fractions and facies mapping accuracy. From a case study of the Baramarae tidal flat, Korea, the mapping method based on cokriging of log-ratio transformation of fractions outperformed the one based on cokriging of untransformed fractions in the prediction of fractions and produced the best facies mapping accuracy. Indicator kriging that could not account for the variation of fractions within each facies type showed the worst mapping accuracy. These case study results indicate that the proper processing of grain size fractions as compositional data is important for reliable facies mapping.

  13. Numerical ragweed pollen forecasts using different source maps: a comparison for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Katrin; Kaufmann, Pirmin; Petitpierre, Blaise; Broennimann, Olivier; Guisan, Antoine; Gentilini, Eros; Rotach, Mathias W.

    2017-01-01

    One of the key input parameters for numerical pollen forecasts is the distribution of pollen sources. Generally, three different methodologies exist to assemble such distribution maps: (1) plant inventories, (2) land use data in combination with annual pollen counts, and (3) ecological modeling. We have used six exemplary maps for all of these methodologies to study their applicability and usefulness in numerical pollen forecasts. The ragweed pollen season of 2012 in France has been simulated with the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-ART using each of the distribution maps in turn. The simulated pollen concentrations were statistically compared to measured values to derive a ranking of the maps with respect to their performance. Overall, approach (2) resulted in the best correspondence between observed and simulated pollen concentrations for the year 2012. It is shown that maps resulting from ecological modeling that does not include a sophisticated estimation of the plant density have a very low predictive skill. For inventory maps and the maps based on land use data and pollen counts, the results depend very much on the observational site. The use of pollen counts to calibrate the map enhances the performance of the model considerably.

  14. Comparison of 1:1 and 1:m CSCL Environment for Collaborative Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, C.-P.; Wong, L.-H.; Shao, Y.-J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the effects of collaborative concept mapping in a digital learning environment, in terms of students' overall learning gains, knowledge retention, quality of student artefacts (the collaboratively created concept maps), interactive patterns, and learning perceptions. Sixty-four 12-year-old students from two…

  15. Comparison and assessment of coarse resolution land cover maps for Northern Eurasia

    Treesearch

    Dirk Pflugmacher; Olga N. Krankina; Warren B. Cohen; Mark A. Friedl; Damien Sulla-Menashe; Robert E. Kennedy; Peder Nelson; Tatiana V. Loboda; Tobias Kuemmerle; Egor Dyukarev; Vladimir Elsadov; Viacheslav I. Kharuk

    2011-01-01

    Information on land cover at global and continental scales is critical for addressing a range of ecological, socioeconomic and policy questions. Global land cover maps have evolved rapidly in the last decade, but efforts to evaluate map uncertainties have been limited, especially in remote areas like Northern Eurasia. Northern Eurasia comprises a particularly diverse...

  16. Analysing Concept Maps as an Assessment Tool in Teaching Physics and Comparison with the Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingec, Sebnem Kandil

    2009-01-01

    Concept mapping is a technique that paves the way to represent knowledge schematically. In this research, concept mapping was used as an assessment method on the impulse-momentum topic. The purpose of this study was to determine teacher candidates' knowledge about understanding of the concepts of impulse and momentum by comparing and contrasting…

  17. Numerical ragweed pollen forecasts using different source maps: a comparison for France.

    PubMed

    Zink, Katrin; Kaufmann, Pirmin; Petitpierre, Blaise; Broennimann, Olivier; Guisan, Antoine; Gentilini, Eros; Rotach, Mathias W

    2017-01-01

    One of the key input parameters for numerical pollen forecasts is the distribution of pollen sources. Generally, three different methodologies exist to assemble such distribution maps: (1) plant inventories, (2) land use data in combination with annual pollen counts, and (3) ecological modeling. We have used six exemplary maps for all of these methodologies to study their applicability and usefulness in numerical pollen forecasts. The ragweed pollen season of 2012 in France has been simulated with the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-ART using each of the distribution maps in turn. The simulated pollen concentrations were statistically compared to measured values to derive a ranking of the maps with respect to their performance. Overall, approach (2) resulted in the best correspondence between observed and simulated pollen concentrations for the year 2012. It is shown that maps resulting from ecological modeling that does not include a sophisticated estimation of the plant density have a very low predictive skill. For inventory maps and the maps based on land use data and pollen counts, the results depend very much on the observational site. The use of pollen counts to calibrate the map enhances the performance of the model considerably.

  18. Uncertainty in the spatial distribution of tropical forest biomass: a comparison of pan-tropical maps.

    PubMed

    Mitchard, Edward Ta; Saatchi, Sassan S; Baccini, Alessandro; Asner, Gregory P; Goetz, Scott J; Harris, Nancy L; Brown, Sandra

    2013-10-26

    Mapping the aboveground biomass of tropical forests is essential both for implementing conservation policy and reducing uncertainties in the global carbon cycle. Two medium resolution (500 m - 1000 m) pantropical maps of vegetation biomass have been recently published, and have been widely used by sub-national and national-level activities in relation to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). Both maps use similar input data layers, and are driven by the same spaceborne LiDAR dataset providing systematic forest height and canopy structure estimates, but use different ground datasets for calibration and different spatial modelling methodologies. Here, we compare these two maps to each other, to the FAO's Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) 2010 country-level data, and to a high resolution (100 m) biomass map generated for a portion of the Colombian Amazon. We find substantial differences between the two maps, in particular in central Amazonia, the Congo basin, the south of Papua New Guinea, the Miombo woodlands of Africa, and the dry forests and savannas of South America. There is little consistency in the direction of the difference. However, when the maps are aggregated to the country or biome scale there is greater agreement, with differences cancelling out to a certain extent. When comparing country level biomass stocks, the two maps agree with each other to a much greater extent than to the FRA 2010 estimates. In the Colombian Amazon, both pantropical maps estimate higher biomass than the independent high resolution map, but show a similar spatial distribution of this biomass. Biomass mapping has progressed enormously over the past decade, to the stage where we can produce globally consistent maps of aboveground biomass. We show that there are still large uncertainties in these maps, in particular in areas with little field data. However, when used at a regional scale, different maps appear to converge, suggesting we can provide

  19. Mapping patent classifications: portfolio and statistical analysis, and the comparison of strengths and weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Kogler, Dieter Franz; Yan, Bowen

    2017-01-01

    The Cooperative Patent Classifications (CPC) recently developed cooperatively by the European and US Patent Offices provide a new basis for mapping patents and portfolio analysis. CPC replaces International Patent Classifications (IPC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization. In this study, we update our routines previously based on IPC for CPC and use the occasion for rethinking various parameter choices. The new maps are significantly different from the previous ones, although this may not always be obvious on visual inspection. We provide nested maps online and a routine for generating portfolio overlays on the maps; a new tool is provided for "difference maps" between patent portfolios of organizations or firms. This is illustrated by comparing the portfolios of patents granted to two competing firms-Novartis and MSD-in 2016. Furthermore, the data is organized for the purpose of statistical analysis.

  20. The diagnosis of LD in English learners: is it nondiscriminatory?

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Richard A; Newsome, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the operationalization of one of the key reforms initiated by the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (U.S. Congress, 1975) and continued through the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (U.S. Congress, 2004)--namely, nondiscriminatory assessment. The original and current specifications in federal law require that tests be selected and administered so as not to be racially, culturally, or sexually discriminatory. The specific dimensions studied here pertain to the nondiscriminatory diagnosis of learning disabilities (LD) in English learners. A checklist of legal and professional guidelines for making assessments of English learners was used to evaluate 19 psychological reports made on English learners as part of the assessment process for special education eligibility in a small, urban elementary school district in California. The results of this study present a fairly compelling profile of how the writers of psychological reports--school psychologists--do not use extant legal or professional guidelines for making nondiscriminatory assessments of bilingual children.

  1. A first generation whole genome RH map of the river buffalo with comparison to domestic cattle

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, M Elisabete J; Grant, Jason R; Riggs, Penny K; Stafuzza, Nedenia B; Filho, Edson A Rodrigues; Goldammer, Tom; Weikard, Rosemarie; Brunner, Ronald M; Kochan, Kelli J; Greco, Anthony J; Jeong, Jooha; Cai, Zhipeng; Lin, Guohui; Prasad, Aparna; Kumar, Satish; Saradhi, G Pardha; Mathew, Boby; Kumar, M Aravind; Miziara, Melissa N; Mariani, Paola; Caetano, Alexandre R; Galvão, Stephan R; Tantia, Madhu S; Vijh, Ramesh K; Mishra, Bina; Kumar, ST Bharani; Pelai, Vanderlei A; Santana, Andre M; Fornitano, Larissa C; Jones, Brittany C; Tonhati, Humberto; Moore, Stephen; Stothard, Paul; Womack, James E

    2008-01-01

    Background The recently constructed river buffalo whole-genome radiation hybrid panel (BBURH5000) has already been used to generate preliminary radiation hybrid (RH) maps for several chromosomes, and buffalo-bovine comparative chromosome maps have been constructed. Here, we present the first-generation whole genome RH map (WG-RH) of the river buffalo generated from cattle-derived markers. The RH maps aligned to bovine genome sequence assembly Btau_4.0, providing valuable comparative mapping information for both species. Results A total of 3990 markers were typed on the BBURH5000 panel, of which 3072 were cattle derived SNPs. The remaining 918 were classified as cattle sequence tagged site (STS), including coding genes, ESTs, and microsatellites. Average retention frequency per chromosome was 27.3% calculated with 3093 scorable markers distributed in 43 linkage groups covering all autosomes (24) and the X chromosomes at a LOD ≥ 8. The estimated total length of the WG-RH map is 36,933 cR5000. Fewer than 15% of the markers (472) could not be placed within any linkage group at a LOD score ≥ 8. Linkage group order for each chromosome was determined by incorporation of markers previously assigned by FISH and by alignment with the bovine genome sequence assembly (Btau_4.0). Conclusion We obtained radiation hybrid chromosome maps for the entire river buffalo genome based on cattle-derived markers. The alignments of our RH maps to the current bovine genome sequence assembly (Btau_4.0) indicate regions of possible rearrangements between the chromosomes of both species. The river buffalo represents an important agricultural species whose genetic improvement has lagged behind other species due to limited prior genomic characterization. We present the first-generation RH map which provides a more extensive resource for positional candidate cloning of genes associated with complex traits and also for large-scale physical mapping of the river buffalo genome. PMID:19108729

  2. Comparison of Ground-Based 3-Dimensional Lightning Mapping Observations with Satellite-Based LIS Observations in Oklahoma: Comparison of LMS and LIS Lightning Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Hamlin, Timothy; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    3-dimensional lightning mapping observations obtained during the MEaPRS program in central Oklahoma during June, 1998 have been compared with observations of the discharges from space, obtained by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the TRMM satellite. Excellent spatial and temporal correlations were observed between the two sets of observations. Most of the detected optical events were associated with intracloud discharges that developed into the upper part of the storm. Cloud-to-ground discharges that were confined to mid- and lower-altitudes tended not to be detected by LIS. Extensive illumination tended to occur in impulsive bursts toward the end or part way through intracloud flashes and appeared to be produced by energetic K-changes that typically occur at these times.

  3. Direct comparison of three different methods of volcanic edifice identification from bathymetry maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J.; White, S. M.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Miller, D.

    2009-12-01

    The detection of volcanic edifices from bathymetric sonar data is often used in studies of seamount distribution near arcs, ridges and hotspots to interpret volcanic spacing and alignment. Such studies form the basis for the ongoing debate on the structural controls on volcanism and our understanding of linkages between tectonics and volcanism. Until recently, manually picking closed-contour peaks from maps was the only method of volcanic edifice identification, however this can be subjective and time consuming. In this study we have compared the results from three separate methods: manually picking closed contours, using a peakshed method based on a widely used algorithm for detecting sinkholes in topographic data, and a closed-contour picking computer algorithm. Bathymetry from the western Aleutian backarc collected in 2005, the Galapagos Spreading Centers collected in 2006 and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge collected in 1990 was used as the comparison data. To each dataset, we applied a common set of criteria: minimum peak to base heights must be greater than 25 meters and aspect ratios (long to short axis of the basal contour) must be less than 1.5. The peakshed method begins by looking for local bathymetric peaks remaining after removing regional bathymetry using a median filter. The median filtered bathymetry grid was subtracted from the original bathymetric grid to obtain the residual bathymetry representing the volcanic edifices. We use a novel application of the method used to detect and remove local sinkholes from digital terrain models to define the basal boundary of each edifice. The residual bathymetry is first inverted, so that local peaks become local sinks, and then the area of the basin that drains into each sink is calculated using a GIS algorithm and returned as a closed polygon that represents the basal area of each edifice. This method has the advantage of using the full resolution of the gridded data to determine the volume of an edifice. The closed

  4. Development and Comparison of Techniques for Generating Permeability Maps using Independent Experimental Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingerl, Ferdinand; Romanenko, Konstantin; Pini, Ronny; Balcom, Bruce; Benson, Sally

    2014-05-01

    We have developed and evaluated methods for creating voxel-based 3D permeability maps of a heterogeneous sandstone sample using independent experimental data from single phase flow (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI) and two-phase flow (X-ray Computed Tomography, CT) measurements. Fluid velocities computed from the generated permeability maps using computational fluid dynamics simulations fit measured velocities very well and significantly outperform empirical porosity-permeability relations, such as the Kozeny-Carman equation. Acquiring images on the meso-scale from porous rocks using MRI has till recently been a great challenge, due to short spin relaxation times and large field gradients within the sample. The combination of the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme with three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE) - a technique recently developed at the UNB MRI Center - can overcome these challenges and enables obtaining quantitative 3 dimensional maps of porosities and fluid velocities. Using porosity and (single-phase) velocity maps from MRI and (multi-phase) saturation maps from CT measurements, we employed three different techniques to obtain permeability maps. In the first approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to porosities measured using MRI. In the second approach, we computed permeabilities using a J-Leverett scaling method, which is based on saturation maps obtained from N2-H2O multi-phase experiments. The third set of permeabilities was generated using a new inverse iterative-updating technique, which is based on porosities and measured velocities obtained in single-phase flow experiments. The resulting three permeability maps provided then input for computational fluid dynamics simulations - employing the Stanford CFD code AD-GPRS - to generate velocity maps, which were compared to velocity maps measured by MRI. The J-Leveret scaling method and the iterative-updating method

  5. Leveling the Playing Field in Homozygosity Mapping Using Map Distances.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Cagirici, Halise Busra; Horpaopan, Sukanya; Ott, Jurg; Imai, Atsuko; Majewski, Jacek; Lathrop, Mark

    2015-07-15

    Studies of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and its variation in the genome are of central importance for understanding evolutionary history, population structure, and selective sweeps. Extreme forms of the latter may result in runs of homozygosity (ROH). In human gene mapping, long ROHs are the basis for homozygosity mapping (HM) with length measured in terms of Mb (10(6) base pairs physical distance). LD varies greatly over the human genome so that long ROHs tend to occur preferentially in regions of high LD and ROHs of the same length in different regions are not strictly comparable. Thus, in human gene mapping, LD appears as a confounder that needs to be taken into account in the interpretation of ROHs. The effect of varying LD can be mitigated by working on a scale of centimorgans (cM, genetic distance) instead of Mb. We demonstrate this effect for HapMap 3 data on chromosome 19 and show examples with different ROH lengths depending on whether physical or genetic lengths are used. These results suggest that HM should preferably be done on genetic rather than physical distances. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  6. Quality of life in newly diagnosed children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) and differences from typically developing children: a study of child and parent reports.

    PubMed

    Ginieri-Coccossis, M; Rotsika, V; Skevington, S; Papaevangelou, S; Malliori, M; Tomaras, V; Kokkevi, A

    2013-07-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of school children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) and their parents is scarce. The present study explores QoL deficits in newly diagnosed children with SpLD and their parents, in comparison to a similar age group of typically developing children. Possible associations between parental and child QoL were statistically explored in both groups of children. 70 newly diagnosed children with SpLD [International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) criteria] (38 boys, 32 girls, mean age 10.1 years) and a control group of 69 typically developing children of the same age (40 boys, 29 girls, mean age 10.6 years) were recruited. Children were of normal intelligence quotient, attending mainstream schools. Their parents were also recruited so a child's scores could be associated with corresponding parental scores (mother or father). Children's QoL was assessed by the German questionnaire for measuring quality of life in children and adolescents (KINDL(R) ) questionnaire and parental QoL by World Health Organization Quality of Life brief questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) of the World Health Organization. Children with SpLD in comparison to typically developing children reported according to the KINDL(R) measurement poorer emotional well-being, lower self-esteem and satisfaction in their relationships with family and friends. Surprisingly, school functioning was not reported by these children as an area of concern. Parents of children with SpLD indicated experiencing lower satisfaction in the WHOQOL-BREF domains of social relationships and environment. Correlational and regression analysis with parental-child QoL scores provided evidence that in the SpLD group, parental scores on WHOQOL-BREF social relationships and psychological health domains could be predictors of the child's emotional well-being, satisfaction with family, friends and school functioning. Stepwise regression analysis verified the effect of parents' WHOQOL-BREF social

  7. Visual map and instruction-based bicycle navigation: a comparison of effects on behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Dick; Westerhuis, Frank; Joling, Danielle; Weiland, Stella; Stadtbäumer, Ronja; Kaltofen, Leonie

    2017-09-01

    Cycling with a classic paper map was compared with navigating with a moving map displayed on a smartphone, and with auditory, and visual turn-by-turn route guidance. Spatial skills were found to be related to navigation performance, however only when navigating from a paper or electronic map, not with turn-by-turn (instruction based) navigation. While navigating, 25% of the time cyclists fixated at the devices that present visual information. Navigating from a paper map required most mental effort and both young and older cyclists preferred electronic over paper map navigation. In particular a turn-by-turn dedicated guidance device was favoured. Visual maps are in particular useful for cyclists with higher spatial skills. Turn-by-turn information is used by all cyclists, and it is useful to make these directions available in all devices. Practitioner Summary: Electronic navigation devices are preferred over a paper map. People with lower spatial skills benefit most from turn-by-turn guidance information, presented either auditory or on a dedicated device. People with higher spatial skills perform well with all devices. It is advised to keep in mind that all users benefit from turn-by-turn information when developing a navigation device for cyclists.

  8. Comparison of manually produced and automated cross country movement maps using digital image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynn, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Image-Based Information System (IBIS) was used to automate the cross country movement (CCM) mapping model developed by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). Existing terrain factor overlays and a CCM map, produced by DMA for the Fort Lewis, Washington area, were digitized and reformatted into geometrically registered images. Terrain factor data from Slope, Soils, and Vegetation overlays were entered into IBIS, and were then combined utilizing IBIS-programmed equations to implement the DMA CCM model. The resulting IBIS-generated CCM map was then compared with the digitized manually produced map to test similarity. The numbers of pixels comprising each CCM region were compared between the two map images, and percent agreement between each two regional counts was computed. The mean percent agreement equalled 86.21%, with an areally weighted standard deviation of 11.11%. Calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded +9.997. In some cases, the IBIS-calculated map code differed from the DMA codes: analysis revealed that IBIS had calculated the codes correctly. These highly positive results demonstrate the power and accuracy of IBIS in automating models which synthesize a variety of thematic geographic data.

  9. Validation of the SCIAN LD-735 wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Qi; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor SCIAN LD-735 for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured sequentially in 33 adult Chinese participants (10 women, mean age 44.8 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the SCIAN LD-735 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The SCIAN LD-735 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 86/99, 97/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure and 85/99, 98/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. In total, 30 and 33 participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). No participant had all of the three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg for systolic or diastolic blood pressure. The SCIAN wrist blood pressure monitor LD-735 has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  10. Green tagging in displaying color Doppler aliasing: a comparison to standard color mapping in renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Mennitt, Kevin; Belfi, Lily; Zheng, Yuan-Yi; Chen, Zong; Rubin, Jonathan M

    2013-11-01

    To quantitatively assess the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of green tagging and standard color flow images in displaying fast flow velocity, we retrospectively reviewed 20 cases of hemodynamically significant renal artery stenosis (RAS) detected by renal color Doppler ultrasound and confirmed with digital subtraction angiography. At the site of RAS, blood flow with high velocity that appeared as aliasing on color flow images was computationally analyzed with both green tagging and standard color mapping. To assess the difference in the CNR between normal background flow and the aliased signal as a function of visualizing aliasing between the two color mappings, we used GetColorpixels (Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China) to count the values in the color channels after segmenting color pixels from gray-scale pixels. We then calculated the CNR in each color channel-red, green, and blue (RGB)--in the aliasing region on green tagging and standard color mapping. The CNRs in the red, green and blue channels were 0.35 ± 0.44, 1.11 ± 0.41 and 0.51 ± 0.19, respectively, on standard color mapping, and 0.97 ± 0.80, 4.01 ± 1.36 and 0.64 ± 0.29, respectively, on green tagging. We used a single-factor analysis of variance and two-tailed t-test to assess the difference in CNR in each color channel between the two color mappings at the site of RAS. With these comparisons, there was no significant difference in the CNR in the red or blue channel between green tagging and standard color mapping (p > 0.05). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the CNR in the green channel between the two color mappings (p = 0.00019). Furthermore, the CNR measured in the green channel on the green tagging image was significantly higher than the CNRs in all other color channels on both color mapping images (p = 0.000). Hence, we conclude that green tagging has significantly higher visibility as a function of high-velocity flow than standard color mapping. The

  11. Electron microscopy mapping of pBR322 DNA curvature. Comparison with theoretical models.

    PubMed Central

    Muzard, G; Théveny, B; Révet, B

    1990-01-01

    A map of local curvature of the pBR322 DNA has been established by electron microscopy analysis of linearized plasmid molecules. To determine their polarity these molecules are one end labelled with an avidin-ferritin-biotin complex and the images are digitized. Local curvature is calculated from two mathematical treatments of the DNA trajectory and expressed in term of a mean dinucleotide wedge angle. Eight regions of curvature are distinguished. The four main regions of curvature have a high content of phased AA runs. The experimental curvature map is compared to theoretical maps of curvature obtained from four available models for DNA curvature. Images Fig. 2. PMID:2323339

  12. Comparison of User-Directed and Automatic Mapping of the Planned Isocenter to Treatment Space for Prostate IGRT.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zijie; Chen, Ronald; Wang, Andrew; Kress, Andrea; Foskey, Mark; Qin, An; Cullip, Timothy; Tracton, Gregg; Chang, Sha; Tepper, Joel; Yan, Di; Chaney, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), adaptive radiotherapy (ART), and online reoptimization rely on accurate mapping of the radiation beam isocenter(s) from planning to treatment space. This mapping involves rigid and/or nonrigid registration of planning (pCT) and intratreatment (tCT) CT images. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare a fully automatic approach, including a non-rigid step, against a user-directed rigid method implemented in a clinical IGRT protocol for prostate cancer. Isocenters resulting from automatic and clinical mappings were compared to reference isocenters carefully determined in each tCT. Comparison was based on displacements from the reference isocenters and prostate dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Ten patients with a total of 243 tCTs were investigated. Fully automatic registration was found to be as accurate as the clinical protocol but more precise for all patients. The average of the unsigned x, y, and z offsets and the standard deviations ( σ ) of the signed offsets computed over all images were (avg. ±   σ  (mm)): 1.1 ± 1.4, 1.8 ± 2.3, 2.5 ± 3.5 for the clinical protocol and 0.6 ± 0.8, 1.1 ± 1.5 and 1.1 ± 1.4 for the automatic method. No failures or outliers from automatic mapping were observed, while 8 outliers occurred for the clinical protocol.

  13. Comparison of User-Directed and Automatic Mapping of the Planned Isocenter to Treatment Space for Prostate IGRT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Andrew; Kress, Andrea; Qin, An; Cullip, Timothy; Tracton, Gregg; Yan, Di; Chaney, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), adaptive radiotherapy (ART), and online reoptimization rely on accurate mapping of the radiation beam isocenter(s) from planning to treatment space. This mapping involves rigid and/or nonrigid registration of planning (pCT) and intratreatment (tCT) CT images. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare a fully automatic approach, including a non-rigid step, against a user-directed rigid method implemented in a clinical IGRT protocol for prostate cancer. Isocenters resulting from automatic and clinical mappings were compared to reference isocenters carefully determined in each tCT. Comparison was based on displacements from the reference isocenters and prostate dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Ten patients with a total of 243 tCTs were investigated. Fully automatic registration was found to be as accurate as the clinical protocol but more precise for all patients. The average of the unsigned x, y, and z offsets and the standard deviations (σ) of the signed offsets computed over all images were (avg. ±  σ (mm)): 1.1 ± 1.4, 1.8 ± 2.3, 2.5 ± 3.5 for the clinical protocol and 0.6 ± 0.8, 1.1 ± 1.5 and 1.1 ± 1.4 for the automatic method. No failures or outliers from automatic mapping were observed, while 8 outliers occurred for the clinical protocol. PMID:24348526

  14. Face recognition using 3D facial shape and color map information: comparison and combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godil, Afzal; Ressler, Sandy; Grother, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of 3D surface geometry for face recognition and compare it to one based on color map information. The 3D surface and color map data are from the CAESAR anthropometric database. We find that the recognition performance is not very different between 3D surface and color map information using a principal component analysis algorithm. We also discuss the different techniques for the combination of the 3D surface and color map information for multi-modal recognition by using different fusion approaches and show that there is significant improvement in results. The effectiveness of various techniques is compared and evaluated on a dataset with 200 subjects in two different positions.

  15. Influence of mapping function parameters on global GPS network analyses: Comparisons between NMF and IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vey, S.; Dietrich, R.; Fritsche, M.; Rülke, A.; Rothacher, M.; Steigenberger, P.

    2006-01-01

    One major part in the error budget of GPS measurements is the imperfect modeling of the tropospheric delay. By processing a global network of 195 stations we have compared two different mapping techniques: (1) the commonly used Niell hydrostatic mapping function (NMF) and (2) the isobaric hydrostatic mapping function (IMF) based on numerical weather fields. The two solutions reveal significant differences in the derived zenith total delay (ZTD) parameters and site positions. The largest differences occur in Antarctica, where the annual mean heights differ by up to 15 mm. We infer that the significant differences are related to model deficiencies in NMF since a) IMF improves the repeatability in station heights in high southern latitudes significantly, and b) using IMF reduces the dependence of the solution on the elevation cut-off angle by about 20%. In conclusion, the use of mapping function (MF) parameters based on meteorological data is strongly recommended for global GPS analyses.

  16. Comparison of Sub-pixel Classification Approaches for Crop-specific Mapping

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data has been increasingly used for crop mapping and other agricultural applications. Phenology-based classification approaches using the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) 16-day composite (250 m) data product...

  17. Comparison of Sub-pixel Classification Approaches for Crop-specific Mapping

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data has been increasingly used for crop mapping and other agricultural applications. Phenology-based classification approaches using the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) 16-day composite (250 m) data product...

  18. Comparisons by peptide mapping of proteins specified by Kunjin, West Nile and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Wright, P J; Warr, H M; Westaway, E G

    1983-12-01

    The relationships among virus-specified proteins of Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE), Kunjin (KUN) and West Nile (WN) viruses were investigated by peptide mapping of exhaustive proteolytic digests of radioactively labelled polypeptides. Maps of the three structural proteins (E, C and M) derived from purified virions and of two non-structural proteins (NV5 and NV4) obtained from infected cells were compared. For each polypeptide considered, the peptide maps of the KUN and WN virus-specified proteins were more similar to each other than either was to the map of the corresponding MVE virus-specified protein. Since the polypeptides considered together account for approximately 60% of the coding capacity of the flavivirus genome, our results suggested that, for the three viruses examined, the genomes of KUN and WN viruses are the most closely related.

  19. Comparison of four Vulnerability Approaches to Mapping of Shallow Aquifers of Eastern Dahomey Basin of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, Saheed; Vermeulen, Danie

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the outcome of mapping the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin of southwestern Nigeria vulnerability studies. The basin is a coastal transboundary aquifer extending from eastern Ghana to southwestern Nigeria. The study aimed to examine the most suitable method for mapping the basin shallow aquifers by comparing the results of four different vulnerability approaches. This is most important due to differences in vulnerability assessment parameters, approaches and results derived from most vulnerability methods on a particular aquifer. The methodology involves using vulnerability techniques that assess the intrinsic properties of the aquifer. Two methods from travel time approach (AVI and RTt) and index approach (DRASTIC and PI) were employed in the mapping of the basin. The results show the AVI has the least mapping parameters with 75% of the basin classified as very high vulnerability and 25% with high vulnerability. The DRASTIC mapping shows 18% as low vulnerability, 61% as moderate vulnerability and 21% reveal high vulnerability. Mapping with the PI method which has highest parameters shows 66% of the aquifer as low vulnerability and 34% reveal moderate vulnerability. The RTt method shows 18% as very high vulnerability, 8% as high vulnerability, 64% as moderate vulnerability and 10% reveal very low vulnerability. Further analysis involving correlation plots shows the highest correlation of 62% between the RTt and DRASTIC method than within any others methods. The analysis shows that the PI method is the mildest of all the vulnerability methods while the AVI method is the strictest of the methods considered in this vulnerability mapping. The significance of using four different approaches to the mapping of the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin will guide in the recommendation of the best vulnerability method for subsequent future assessment of this and other shallow aquifers. Keywords: Aquifer vulnerability, Dahomey Basin

  20. Single-molecule approach to bacterial genomic comparisons via optical mapping.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Shiguo; Kile, A.; Bechner, M.; Kvikstad, E.; Deng, W.; Wei, J.; Severin, J.; Runnheim, R.; Churas, C.; Forrest, D.; Dimalanta, E.; Lamers, C.; Burland, V.; Blattner, F. R.; Schwartz, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Modern comparative genomics has been established, in part, by the sequencing and annotation of a broad range of microbial species. To gain further insights, new sequencing efforts are now dealing with the variety of strains or isolates that gives a species definition and range; however, this number vastly outstrips our ability to sequence them. Given the availability of a large number of microbial species, new whole genome approaches must be developed to fully leverage this information at the level of strain diversity that maximize discovery. Here, we describe how optical mapping, a single-molecule system, was used to identify and annotate chromosomal alterations between bacterial strains represented by several species. Since whole-genome optical maps are ordered restriction maps, sequenced strains of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a (2457T and 301), Yersinia pestis (CO 92 and KIM), and Escherichia coli were aligned as maps to identify regions of homology and to further characterize them as possible insertions, deletions, inversions, or translocations. Importantly, an unsequenced Shigella flexneri strain (serotype Y strain AMC[328Y]) was optically mapped and aligned with two sequenced ones to reveal one novel locus implicated in serotype conversion and several other loci containing insertion sequence elements or phage-related gene insertions. Our results suggest that genomic rearrangements and chromosomal breakpoints are readily identified and annotated against a prototypic sequenced strain by using the tools of optical mapping.

  1. Mapping and monitoring carbon stocks with satellite observations: a comparison of methods

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Scott J; Baccini, Alessandro; Laporte, Nadine T; Johns, Tracy; Walker, Wayne; Kellndorfer, Josef; Houghton, Richard A; Sun, Mindy

    2009-01-01

    Mapping and monitoring carbon stocks in forested regions of the world, particularly the tropics, has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years as deforestation and forest degradation account for up to 30% of anthropogenic carbon emissions, and are now included in climate change negotiations. We review the potential for satellites to measure carbon stocks, specifically aboveground biomass (AGB), and provide an overview of a range of approaches that have been developed and used to map AGB across a diverse set of conditions and geographic areas. We provide a summary of types of remote sensing measurements relevant to mapping AGB, and assess the relative merits and limitations of each. We then provide an overview of traditional techniques of mapping AGB based on ascribing field measurements to vegetation or land cover type classes, and describe the merits and limitations of those relative to recent data mining algorithms used in the context of an approach based on direct utilization of remote sensing measurements, whether optical or lidar reflectance, or radar backscatter. We conclude that while satellite remote sensing has often been discounted as inadequate for the task, attempts to map AGB without satellite imagery are insufficient. Moreover, the direct remote sensing approach provided more coherent maps of AGB relative to traditional approaches. We demonstrate this with a case study focused on continental Africa and discuss the work in the context of reducing uncertainty for carbon monitoring and markets. PMID:19320965

  2. SSR-based genetic maps of Miscanthus sinensis and M. sacchariflorus, and their comparison to sorghum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changsoo; Zhang, Dong; Auckland, Susan A; Rainville, Lisa K; Jakob, Katrin; Kronmiller, Brent; Sacks, Erik J; Deuter, Martin; Paterson, Andrew H

    2012-05-01

    We present SSR-based genetic maps from a cross between Miscanthus sacchariflorus Robustus and M. sinensis, the progenitors of the promising cellulosic biofuel feedstock Miscanthus × giganteus. cDNA-derived SSR markers were mapped by the two-way pseudo-testcross model due to the high heterozygosity of each parental species. A total of 261 loci were mapped in M. sacchariflorus, spanning 40 linkage groups and 1,998.8 cM, covering an estimated 72.7% of the genome. For M. sinensis, a total of 303 loci were mapped, forming 23 linkage groups and 2,238.3 cM, covering 84.9% of the genome. The use of cDNA-derived SSR loci permitted alignment of the Miscanthus linkage groups to the sorghum chromosomes, revealing a whole genome duplication affecting the Miscanthus lineage after the divergence of subtribes Sorghinae and Saccharinae, as well as traces of the pan-cereal whole genome duplication. While the present maps provide for many early research needs in this emerging crop, additional markers are also needed to improve map density and to further characterize the structural changes of the Miscanthus genome since its divergence from sorghum and Saccharum.

  3. Cytogenetic anchoring of radiation hybrid and virtual maps of sheep chromosome X and comparison of X chromosomes in sheep, cattle, and human.

    PubMed

    Goldammer, Tom; Brunner, Ronald M; Rebl, Alexander; Wu, Chun Hua; Nomura, Ko; Hadfield, Tracy; Maddox, Jill F; Cockett, Noelle E

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive physical map was generated for Ovis aries chromosome X (OARX) based on a cytogenomics approach. DNA probes were prepared from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the CHORI-243 sheep library and were assigned to G-banded metaphase spreads via fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). A total of 22 BACs gave a single hybridization signal to the X chromosome and were assigned out of 32 tested. The positioned BACs contained 16 genes and a microsatellite marker which represent new cytogenetically mapped loci in the sheep genome. The gene and microsatellite loci serve to anchor between the existing radiation hybrid (RH) and virtual sheep genome (VSG) maps to the cytogenetic OARX map, whilst the BACs themselves also serve as anchors between the VSG and the cytogenetic maps. An additional 17 links between the RH and cytogenetic maps are provided by BAC end sequence (BES) derived markers that have also been positioned on the RH map. Comparison of the map orders for the cytogenetic, RH, and virtual maps reveals that the orders for the cytogenetic and RH maps are most similar, with only one locus, represented by BAC CH243-330E18, mapping to relatively different positions. Several discrepancies, including an inverted segment are found when comparing both the cytogenetic and RH maps with the virtual map. These discrepancies highlight the value of using physical mapping methods to inform the process of future in silico map construction. A detailed comparative analysis of sheep, human, and cattle mapping data allowed the construction of a comparative map that confirms and expands the knowledge about evolutionary conservation and break points between the X chromosomes of the three mammalian species.

  4. Combined noninvasive language mapping by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional MRI and its comparison with direct cortical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ille, Sebastian; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Maurer, Stefanie; Tanigawa, Noriko; Obermueller, Thomas; Negwer, Chiara; Droese, Doris; Zimmer, Claus; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2015-07-01

    Repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is now increasingly used for preoperative language mapping in patients with lesions in language-related areas of the brain. Yet its correlation with intraoperative direct cortical stimulation (DCS) has to be improved. To increase rTMS's specificity and positive predictive value, the authors aim to provide thresholds for rTMS's positive language areas. Moreover, they propose a protocol for combining rTMS with functional MRI (fMRI) to combine the strength of both methods. The authors performed multimodal language mapping in 35 patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions by using rTMS, fMRI, and DCS. The rTMS mappings were conducted with a picture-to-trigger interval (PTI, time between stimulus presentation and stimulation onset) of either 0 or 300 msec. The error rates (ERs; that is, the number of errors per number of stimulations) were calculated for each region of the cortical parcellation system (CPS). Subsequently, the rTMS mappings were analyzed through different error rate thresholds (ERT; that is, the ER at which a CPS region was defined as language positive in terms of rTMS), and the 2-out-of-3 rule (a stimulation site was defined as language positive in terms of rTMS if at least 2 out of 3 stimulations caused an error). As a second step, the authors combined the results of fMRI and rTMS in a predefined protocol of combined noninvasive mapping. To validate this noninvasive protocol, they correlated its results to DCS during awake surgery. The analysis by different rTMS ERTs obtained the highest correlation regarding sensitivity and a low rate of false positives for the ERTs of 15%, 20%, 25%, and the 2-out-of-3 rule. However, when comparing the combined fMRI and rTMS results with DCS, the authors observed an overall specificity of 83%, a positive predictive value of 51%, a sensitivity of 98%, and a negative predictive value of 95%. In comparison with fMRI, rTMS is a more sensitive but less specific

  5. Effects of Low-Dose Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR-ld) on Working Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klatt, Maryanna D.; Buckworth, Janet; Malarkey, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has produced behavioral, psychological, and physiological benefits, but these programs typically require a substantial time commitment from the participants. This study assessed the effects of a shortened (low-dose [ld]) work-site MBSR intervention (MBSR-ld) on indicators of stress in healthy working…

  6. Refining Diagnoses: Applying the DC-LD to an Irish Population with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felstrom, A.; Mulryan, N.; Reidy, J.; Staines, M.; Hillery, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders for use with adults with learning disabilities/mental retardation (DC-LD) is a diagnostic tool developed in 2001 to improve upon existing classification systems for adults with learning disability. The aim of this study was to apply the classification system described by the DC-LD to a…

  7. Introducing Algebra through the Graphical Representation of Functions: A Study among LD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauriol, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study evaluates the impact of a new Algebra 1 course at a High School for language-based learning-disabled (LD) students. The new course prioritized the teaching of relationship graphs and functions as an introduction to algebra. Across three studies, the dissertation documents and evaluates the progress made by LD high school…

  8. A Nationwide Epidemiologic Modeling Study of LD: Risk, Protection, and Unintended Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Paul A.; Goldberg, Michelle M.; Watkins, Marley W.; Stanley, Jeanne L.; Glutting, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    Through multiple logistic regression modeling, this article explores the relative importance of risk and protective factors associated with learning disabilities (LD). A representative national sample of 6- to 17-year-old students (N = 1,268) was drawn by random stratification and classified by the presence versus absence of LD in reading,…

  9. Introducing Algebra through the Graphical Representation of Functions: A Study among LD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauriol, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study evaluates the impact of a new Algebra 1 course at a High School for language-based learning-disabled (LD) students. The new course prioritized the teaching of relationship graphs and functions as an introduction to algebra. Across three studies, the dissertation documents and evaluates the progress made by LD high school…

  10. Crafting an Argument in Steps: A Writing Process Model for Graduate and Professional Students with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallestinova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses argument pedagogy for graduate and professional students with learning disabilities (LD) in the context of academic writing. To understand the nature and types of writing problems that graduate and professional students with LD experience, the author presents results of a university-wide survey with the students who did and did…

  11. Impact of enhancin genes on potency of LdNPV in gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Kelli Hoover; Jim McNeil; Alyssa Gendron; James. Slavicek

    2011-01-01

    Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdNPV) contains two enhancin genes (E1 and E2) encoding proteases that degrade key peritrophic matrix (PM) proteins, thereby promoting infection and mortality by the virus. In a previous study, gypsy moth larvae inoculated with LdNPV in which both E1 and E2 were deleted (double deletion virus) resulted in a non-...

  12. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  13. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  14. A Nationwide Epidemiologic Modeling Study of LD: Risk, Protection, and Unintended Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Paul A.; Goldberg, Michelle M.; Watkins, Marley W.; Stanley, Jeanne L.; Glutting, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    Through multiple logistic regression modeling, this article explores the relative importance of risk and protective factors associated with learning disabilities (LD). A representative national sample of 6- to 17-year-old students (N = 1,268) was drawn by random stratification and classified by the presence versus absence of LD in reading,…

  15. Computer Literate LD Students Shine at Lakewood Elementary School in Silicon Valley, CA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Mildred

    1983-01-01

    In Sunnyvale, California (the computer industry's "Silicon Valley") two teachers of elementary learning disabled (LD) students took a course in microcomputers, acquired three microcomputers with a grant, and trained the students to use computer-assisted instruction, with such results as that in one year, 37 LD students tutored 100 primary…

  16. Effects of Low-Dose Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR-ld) on Working Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klatt, Maryanna D.; Buckworth, Janet; Malarkey, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has produced behavioral, psychological, and physiological benefits, but these programs typically require a substantial time commitment from the participants. This study assessed the effects of a shortened (low-dose [ld]) work-site MBSR intervention (MBSR-ld) on indicators of stress in healthy working…

  17. Refining Diagnoses: Applying the DC-LD to an Irish Population with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felstrom, A.; Mulryan, N.; Reidy, J.; Staines, M.; Hillery, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders for use with adults with learning disabilities/mental retardation (DC-LD) is a diagnostic tool developed in 2001 to improve upon existing classification systems for adults with learning disability. The aim of this study was to apply the classification system described by the DC-LD to a…

  18. The Relation of LD and Gender with Emotional Intelligence in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Henry B.; Hatzes, Nanette M.; Bramel, Michael H.; Gibbon, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the relation of learning disabilities (LD) and gender with emotional intelligence (as measured by the Emotional Quotient Inventory) in 128 college students. Analyses indicated significant differences between students with and without LD on stress management and adaptability, between men and women students on interpersonal…

  19. Assistive Technology Use by Students with LD in Postsecondary Education: A Case of Application before Investigation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alana; Silvestri, Robert

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of students with Learning Disabilities (LD) are enrolling in postsecondary education (PSE). Assistive technology (AT) is often provided to these students to circumvent academic deficits. This article will focus on research at the PSE level and students with LD to (a) identify AT service delivery practices, (b) describe the…

  20. Psychometric Approaches to the Identification of LD: IQ and Achievement Scores Are Not Sufficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis,David J; Fletcher,Jack M.; Stuebing,Karla K.; Lyon,G. Reid; Shaywitz,Bennett A; Shaywitz,Sally E.

    2005-01-01

    Simulated data were used to demonstrate that groups formed by imposing cut-points based on either discrepancy or low-achievement definitions of learning disabilities (LD) are unstable over time. Similar problems were demonstrated in longitudinal data from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study, where 39% of the children designated as having LD in…

  1. Discriminative Effectiveness of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for LD Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Richard D.; Lorion, Raymond P.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery's utility in distinguishing between 30 male adolescents diagnosed as learning disabled (LD) and 30 matched non-LD students indicated that the battery correctly classified 90 percent of the sample with 6.7 percent false positives and 13.3 percent false negatives. (Author/DB)

  2. A Comparison of Lightning Flashes as Observed by the Lightning Imaging Sensor and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Mach, D. M.; McCaul, M. G.; Bailey, J. C.; Christian, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the TRMM satellite has been collecting optical lightning data since November 1997. A Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) that senses VHF impulses from lightning was installed in North Alabama in the Fall of 2001. A dataset has been compiled to compare data from both instruments for all times when the LIS was passing over the domain of our LMA. We have algorithms for both instruments to group pixels or point sources into lightning flashes. This study presents the comparison statistics of the flash data output (flash duration, size, and amplitude) from both algorithms. We will present the results of this comparison study and show "point-level" data to explain the differences. AS we head closer to realizing a Global Lightning Mapper (GLM) on GOES-R, better understanding and ground truth of each of these instruments and their respective flash algorithms is needed.

  3. A Comparison of Lightning Flashes as Observed by the Lightning Imaging Sensor and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Mach, D. M.; McCaul, M. G.; Bailey, J. C.; Christian, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the TRMM satellite has been collecting optical lightning data since November 1997. A Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) that senses VHF impulses from lightning was installed in North Alabama in the Fall of 2001. A dataset has been compiled to compare data from both instruments for all times when the LIS was passing over the domain of our LMA. We have algorithms for both instruments to group pixels or point sources into lightning flashes. This study presents the comparison statistics of the flash data output (flash duration, size, and amplitude) from both algorithms. We will present the results of this comparison study and show "point-level" data to explain the differences. AS we head closer to realizing a Global Lightning Mapper (GLM) on GOES-R, better understanding and ground truth of each of these instruments and their respective flash algorithms is needed.

  4. Whole-Genome Mapping as a Novel High-Resolution Typing Tool for Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Thijs; Euser, Sjoerd M; Landman, Fabian; Bruin, Jacob P; IJzerman, Ed P; den Boer, Jeroen W; Schouls, Leo M

    2015-10-01

    Legionella is the causative agent for Legionnaires' disease (LD) and is responsible for several large outbreaks in the world. More than 90% of LD cases are caused by Legionella pneumophila, and studies on the origin and transmission routes of this pathogen rely on adequate molecular characterization of isolates. Current typing of L. pneumophila mainly depends on sequence-based typing (SBT). However, studies have shown that in some outbreak situations, SBT does not have sufficient discriminatory power to distinguish between related and nonrelated L. pneumophila isolates. In this study, we used a novel high-resolution typing technique, called whole-genome mapping (WGM), to differentiate between epidemiologically related and nonrelated L. pneumophila isolates. Assessment of the method by various validation experiments showed highly reproducible results, and WGM was able to confirm two well-documented Dutch L. pneumophila outbreaks. Comparison of whole-genome maps of the two outbreaks together with WGMs of epidemiologically nonrelated L. pneumophila isolates showed major differences between the maps, and WGM yielded a higher discriminatory power than SBT. In conclusion, WGM can be a valuable alternative to perform outbreak investigations of L. pneumophila in real time since the turnaround time from culture to comparison of the L. pneumophila maps is less than 24 h.

  5. Effects of low-dose mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR-ld) on working adults.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Maryanna D; Buckworth, Janet; Malarkey, William B

    2009-06-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has produced behavioral, psychological, and physiological benefits, but these programs typically require a substantial time commitment from the participants. This study assessed the effects of a shortened (low-dose [ld]) work-site MBSR intervention (MBSR-ld) on indicators of stress in healthy working adults to determine if results similar to those obtained in traditional MBSR could be demonstrated. Participants were randomized into MBSR-ld and wait-list control groups. Self-reported perceived stress, sleep quality, and mindfulness were measured at the beginning and end of the 6-week intervention. Salivary cortisol was assessed weekly. Significant reductions in perceived stress (p = .0025) and increases in mindfulness (p = .0149) were obtained for only the MBSR-ld group (n = 22). Scores on the global measure of sleep improved for the MBSR-ld group (p = .0018) as well as for the control group (p = .0072; n = 20). Implications and future research are discussed.

  6. Profiles of Asian American students with LD at initial referral, assessment, and placement in special education.

    PubMed

    Poon-McBrayer, K F; García, S B

    2000-01-01

    Alhough Asian American students are underrepresented in special education, recent studies have highlighted concerns about the cultural and linguistic appropriateness of the identification and placement process. This study examined the characteristics of Asian American elementary students with learning disabilities (LD) in a school district in the Southwest that was selected because it served the largest number of Asian American students with LD in the state. Due to the small numbers of students served, the sample included all Asian American students with LD in Grades K to 5 (N = 26). Variables of interest included students' demographic characteristics, factors associated with referral, assessment practices and student profiles, and instructional recommendations for special education services. The results suggest that the experiences of Asian American students with LD are similar to those of Mexican American students with LD reported in earlier studies. These findings also reflect the challenges faced by educators in providing appropriate educational services for language minority students.

  7. Risk and resilience for substance abuse among adolescents and adults with LD.

    PubMed

    Cosden, M

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major problem affecting the health and well-being of many people in our society. Although anecdotal evidence concerning linkages between learning disabilities (LD) and substance abuse has been common, this association is not well documented or understood. This article reviews the current research on substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD, interpreting findings within a risk and resilience framework. Integrating these studies with the broader literatures on substance abuse and the needs of individuals with LD, the author develops hypotheses regarding specific risk and protective factors that could affect the occurrence of substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD. Potential risk factors include a poor understanding of one's disability, a lack of skills for developing peer relationships, and the need for prolonged family support. Future directions for research in relation to prevention of and intervention regarding substance abuse among individuals with LD are discussed.

  8. A comparison of VerifyNowR with PlateletMappingR--detected aspirin resistance and correlation with urinary thromboxane.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Roger C; Craft, Robert M; Snider, Carolyn C; Aligeti, Venkata R; Wortham, Dale C

    2013-02-01

    Aspirin-resistant platelet activation in whole blood is attributable to a transcellular pathway not detected by isolated platelet aggregometry. Aspirin resistance as defined by urinary thromboxane levels is associated with increased risk for myocardial infarction or cardiac death. Whole blood point-of-care assays may also detect aspirin resistance. We compared PlateletMapping® with VerifyNow® for detecting aspirin resistance in 200 patients undergoing invasive cardiac procedures. This included 10 patients not receiving aspirin therapy for comparison. The assay results were correlated with urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 collected 2 to 8 hours after the procedure. PlateletMapping detected aspirin resistance in 32% of patients. VerifyNow detected aspirin resistance in 6% of patients. A patient's compliance with aspirin therapy was confirmed by a <20% aggregation response to arachidonic acid by light transmission aggregometry. Aspirin-resistant patients as determined by PlateletMapping had significantly (P<0.001) higher urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 levels than aspirin-sensitive patients but significantly (P=0.001) lower levels than patients not receiving aspirin therapy. There was no significant difference in urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 for aspirin-resistant compared with aspirin-sensitive patients as determined by VerifyNow, but the confidence intervals were wide. There was no significant correlation of resistance as defined by PlateletMapping with aspirin dose. However, there was significant increased aspirin sensitivity with clopidogrel (0.0006) or statin (0.004) cotherapies. There also was a significant correlation of smoking with aspirin resistance. These results indicate that PlateletMapping could be a useful point-of-care assay to identify aspirin-resistant patients for better perioperative risk stratification and management.

  9. Comparison of Synoptic Maps of Solar Soft X-Ray Features, Photospheric Magnetic Fields, and Helium 1083 NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Slater, G.; Nitta, N.; Shibata, K.; Tsuneta, S.; Sakurai, T.; Hara, H.

    1994-12-01

    We studied the wealth of structural features visible in Yohkoh/SXT and NSO/KP synoptic maps of the Sun that cover Carrington rotations 1847 through 1879. In order to do this comparison, various methods to reduce soft X-ray maps to simple structural elements were explored. In the end, the best way of comparing the various data sets turned out to be to filter the X-ray maps to emphasize high-spatial frequencies and then to either simply blink the various images or to make colorized composite maps that distinctively assign different colors to various quantities. Among the results are: 1. Active regions exhibit normal or "anemone" (fountain-like) X-ray loop structure tendency depending on whether the surrounding large-scale unipolarity of the magnetic field is small or large. 2. There is a systematic twist of the coronal loops around magnetic concentrations in the southern hemisphere and vice-versa in the north. The sense is the same as one would expect from the action of differential rotation. 3. Dark lanes in the X-ray images are centered over large-scale polarity patterns of one sign or the other. 4. The X-ray loops at the boundaries between large-scale opposite polarity patterns are frequently strongly sheared. The presence or absence of a filament in these locations may be related in a complicated way to the amount of shear. 5. At the resolution of the synoptic maps, the footpoints of X-ray loops are almost always rooted in locally strong magnetic concentrations and also in extra-dark 1083 nm elements.

  10. A comprehensive comparison of atmospheric mapping functions for GPS measurements in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, S. A.; Elmezayen, A. G.

    2012-11-01

    The principal limiting error source in the Global Positioning System (GPS) is the mismodeling of the delay experienced by radio waves in propagating through the atmosphere. The atmosphere causing the delay in GPS signals consists of two main layers: the ionosphere and the troposphere. The ionospheric delay can be mitigated using dual frequency receivers, but the tropospheric delay is often corrected using a standard tropospheric model. The tropospheric delay can be described as a product of the delay at the zenith and a mapping function, which models the elevation dependence of the propagation delay. A large number of mapping functions have been developed for use in the analysis of space geodetic data. An assessment of most of these mapping functions including those developed by Niell (NMF), Herring (MTT), Davis (CfA-2.2), Ifadis, Chao, Black & Eisner (B & E), Yang & Ping, Moffett, Vienna (VMF), and Isobaric (IMF) have been performed. The behavior of these mapping functions was assessed by comparing their results with highly accurate Numerical Integration based Models (NIM) for three different stations in Egypt (Aswan, Helwan, and Mersa Matrouh) at different times throughout the year. The meteorological data used in this study was taken from the Egyptian Meteorological Authority (EMA) as average values between 1990 and 2005. It can be concluded that the Black & Eisner mapping function is recommended for dry tropospheric delay prediction for low zenith angles, whereas VMF will be the choice for elevation angles up to 10°.

  11. The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): A comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat-based, and lidar-based habitat maps

    Treesearch

    Steven H. Ackers; Raymond J. Davis; Keith A. Olsen; Katie M. Dugger

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife habitat mapping has evolved at a rapid pace over the last fewdecades. Beginning with simple, often subjective, hand-drawn maps, habitat mapping now involves complex species distribution models (SDMs) using mapped predictor variables derived from remotely sensed data. For species that inhabit large geographic areas, remote sensing technology is often...

  12. Mapping of wheat mitochondrial mRNA termini and comparison with breakpoints in DNA homology among plants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Boyoung; Acero, Maria M; Bonen, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Mitochondrial DNA rearrangements occur very frequently in flowering plants and when close to genes there must be concomitant acquisition of new regulatory cis-elements. To explore whether there might be limits to such DNA shuffling, we have mapped the termini of mitochondrial mRNAs in wheat, a monocot, and compared them to the known positions for counterpart genes in the eudicot Arabidopsis. Nine genes share homologous 3' UTRs over their full-length and for six of them, the termini map very close to the site of wheat/Arabidopsis DNA rearrangements. Only one such case was seen for comparisons of 5' UTRs, and the 5' ends of mRNAs are typically more heterogeneous than 3' termini. Approximately half of the thirty-one wheat mitochondrial transcriptional units are preceded by CRTA promoter-like motifs, and of the potential stem-loop or tRNA-like structures identified as candidate RNA processing/stability signals near the 5' or 3' ends, several are shared with Arabidopsis. Comparison of the mitochondrial gene flanking sequences from normal fertile wheat (Triticum aestivum) with those of Aegilops kotschyi which is the source of mitochondria present in K-type cytoplasmic male sterile wheat, revealed six cases where mRNAs are precluded from sharing full-length homologous UTRs because of genomic reorganization events, and the presence of short repeats located at the sites of discontinuity points to a reciprocal recombination-mediated mode of rearrangement.

  13. Critical point representations of electron density maps for the comparison of benzodiazepine-type ligands.

    PubMed

    Leherte, L; Meurice, N; Vercauteren, D P

    2000-01-01

    A procedure for the comparison of three-dimensional electron density distributions is proposed for similarity searches between pharmacological ligands at various levels of crystallographic resolution. First, a graph representation of molecular electron density distributions is generated using a critical point analysis approach. Pairwise as well as multiple comparisons between the obtained graphs of critical points are then carried out using a Monte Carlo/simulated annealing technique, and results are compared with genetic algorithm solutions.

  14. Comparison of blocked and event-related fMRI designs for pre-surgical language mapping.

    PubMed

    Tie, Yanmei; Suarez, Ralph O; Whalen, Stephen; Radmanesh, Alireza; Norton, Isaiah H; Golby, Alexandra J

    2009-08-01

    Language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising non-invasive technique for pre-surgical planning in patients whose lesions are adjacent to or within critical language areas. Most language fMRI studies in patients use blocked experimental design. In this study, we compared a blocked design and a rapid event-related design with a jittered inter-stimulus-interval (ISI) (or stochastic design) for language fMRI in six healthy controls, and eight brain tumor patients, using a vocalized antonym generation task. Comparisons were based on visual inspection of fMRI activation maps and degree of language lateralization, both of which were assessed at a constant statistical threshold for each design. The results indicated a relatively high degree of discordance between the two task designs. In general, the event-related design provided maps with more robust activations in the putative language areas than the blocked design, especially for brain tumor patients. Our results suggest that the rapid event-related design has potential for providing comparable or even higher detection power over the blocked design for localizing language function in brain tumor patients, and therefore may be able to generate more sensitive language maps. More patient studies, and further investigation and optimization of language fMRI paradigms will be needed to determine the utility and validity of this approach for pre-surgical planning.

  15. Comparison of Very High-Frequency Ultrasound and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Corneal and Epithelial Thickness Maps

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Raksha; Lloyd, Harriet O.; Reinstein, Dan Z.; Silverman, Ronald H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare measurements of corneal thickness (CT) and epithelial thickness (ET) in maps obtained by the RTVue spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system with those obtained from the Artemis 2 immersion arc-scanning very high-frequency ultrasound system. Setting Department of Ophthalmology of the Columbia University Medical Center Design A method-comparison study design to examine the agreement between two systems for measurement and mapping of CT and ET. Methods Both eyes of 12 normal volunteers were scanned with RTVue followed by Artemis and then by repeated RTVue. For each map, the minimum CT and mean values of CT and ET in the 3 mm radius zone and in 0.5 mm-wide concentric annuli of up to 3 mm radius around the corneal vertex were determined. Results The CT values from both devices were highly correlated and in the 3-mm radius zone (R>0.96) they were not statistically significantly different. There was no statistically significant change in ET or CT in RTVue measurements made before versus after immersion ultrasound. While highly correlated (R>0.76), RTVue ET values were systematically thinner (1.7 ± 2.1 µm) than Artemis 2 measurements (p<0.01) in the 3 mm radius zone. Conclusions Artemis and RTVue CT measurements in the 3 mm radius zone are equivalent in normal eyes. While correlated, Artemis ET measurements were systemically thicker than RTVue values. PMID:26948783

  16. 3D volume MR temperature mapping for HIFU heating trajectory comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Nick; Vyas, Urvi; de Bever, Josh; Payne, Allison; Parker, Dennis L.

    2012-10-01

    Many areas of MR-guided thermal therapy research would benefit from temperature maps with high spatial and temporal resolution that cover a large 3-D volume. This paper describes an approach to achieve these goals that is suitable for research applications where retrospective reconstruction of the temperature maps is acceptable. The method acquires undersampled data from a modified 3-D segmented EPI sequence and creates images using a temporally constrained reconstruction algorithm. The 3-D images can be zero-filled to arbitrarily small voxel spacing in all directions and then converted into temperature maps using the standard proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift technique. During HIFU heating experiments, the proposed method was used to obtain temperature maps with 1.5×1.5×3.0 mm resolution, 288×162×78 mm field of view, and 1.7 second temporal resolution. The approach is validated to demonstrate that it can accurately capture the spatial characteristics and time dynamics of rapidly changing HIFU-induced temperature distributions. An example application is presented where the method is used to analyze and compare different HIFU volumetric heating trajectories.

  17. A COMPARISON OF MAPPED ESTIMATES OF LONG-TERM RUNOFF IN THE NORTHEAST UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the relative accuracy of four methods of producing maps of long-term runoff for part of the northeast United States: MAN, a manual procedure that incorporates expert opinion in contour placement; RPRIS, an automated procedure based on water balance considerations, Pn...

  18. A comparison of linkage disequilibrium measures for fine-scale mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, B.; Risch, N.

    1995-09-20

    Linkage mapping generally localizes disease genes to 1-to 2-cM regions of chromosome. In theory, further refinement of location can be achieved by population-based studies of linkage diequilibrium between disease locus alleles at adjacent markers. One approach to localization, dubbed simple disequilibrium mapping, is to determine the relative location of the disease locus by plotting disequilibrium values against marker locations. We investigate the simple mapping properties of five disequilibrium measures, the correlation coefficient {Delta}, Lewontin`s D`, the robust formulation of the population attribute risk {delta}, Yule`s Q, and Kaplan and Weir`s proportional difference d under the assumption of initial complete disequilibrium between disease and marker loci. The studies indicate that {delta} is a superior measure for fine mapping because it is directly related to the recombination fraction between the disease and the marker sampled at a rate higher than their population frequencies, as in a case-control study. D` yields results of comparable to those of {delta} in many realistic settings. Of the remaining three measures, Q,{Delta}, and d, Q yields the best results. From simulations of short-term evolution, all measures show some sensitivity to marker allele frequencies; however, as predicted by analytic results, Q, {Delta}, and d exhibit the greatest sensitivity to variation in marker allele frequencies across loci. 56 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  19. Comparison of wet/dry mapping and electrical resistivity sensors to characterize patterns of intermittency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costigan, K. H.; Goss, C. W.; Jaeger, K. L.; Goebel, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent rivers are those that cease to flow at some point(s) in space and time along their course and are present in all climates and terrestrial biomes. The prevalence of drying is increasing, even in temperate biomes that we typically do not associate with river drying or dry climates. There have been several techniques employed to characterize patterns of intermittency but field mapping and use of electrical resistivity (ER) sensors are the most common. Field mapping has long been used to study intermittency, but this method is limited by its inability to capture the rapidly changing configuration of intermittent streams that often occur during wetting and drying events. ER sensors enable researchers to remotely record channel-water presence at fine spatiotemporal scales which will better capture seasonal dynamics in transient lotic systems. Here, we compare field mapping and ER sensor recordings of stream intermittency for 10 forested headwater streams in northeastern Ohio. Field mapping occurred approximately biweekly while the ER sensors recorded at 30-minute intervals from April through November 2014. Although ER sensors offer many advantages to stream mapping, our study revealed several limitations of ER sensors including requiring re-securing after flows moved sensors, burial in sediment that results them in recording subsurface water, and the small spatial scale the sensors are representative of. Nevertheless, ER sensors provide a low cost, high performance, and method that requires minimal data interpretation to monitor the presence and absence of water in channels at a specific location. The latest generation of ER sensors also record temperature, which can help in differentiate standing and flowing water. Aspects other than timing, duration, and frequency of flow such as the resumption (advancing) and recession (retreating) rates or magnitudes can be characterized with ER sensor arrays.

  20. Mapping the spatial variability of plant diversity in a tropical forest: comparison of spatial interpolation methods.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Stefanoni, J Luis; Ponce-Hernandez, Raul

    2006-06-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of plant species is essential to conservation and forest managers in order to identify high priority areas such as vulnerable species and habitats, and designate areas for reserves, refuges and other protected areas. A reliable map of the diversity of plant species over the landscape is an invaluable tool for such purposes. In this study, the number of species, the exponent Shannon and the reciprocal Simpson indices, calculated from 141 quadrat sites sampled in a tropical forest were used to compare the performance of several spatial interpolation techniques used to prepare a map of plant diversity, starting from sample (point) data over the landscape. Means of mapped classes, inverse distance functions, kriging and co-kriging, both, applied over the entire studied landscape and also applied within vegetation classes, were the procedures compared. Significant differences in plant diversity indices between classes demonstrated the usefulness of boundaries between vegetation types, mapped through satellite image classification, in stratifying the variability of plant diversity over the landscape. These mapped classes, improved the accuracy of the interpolation methods when they were used as prior information for stratification of the area. Spatial interpolation by co-kriging performed among the poorest interpolators due to the poor correlation between the plant diversity variables and vegetation indices computed by remote sensing and used as covariables. This indicated that the latter are not suitable covariates of plant diversity indices. Finally, a within-class kriging interpolator yielded the most accurate estimates of plant diversity values. This interpolator not only provided the most accurate estimates by accounting for the indices' intra-class variability, but also provided additional useful interpretations of the structure of spatial variability of diversity values through the interpretation of their semi-variograms. This

  1. Validation of the HONSUN LD-578 blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jie; Huang, Qi-Fang; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper arm blood pressure monitor LD-578 (HONSUN Group, Shanghai, China) for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the LD-578 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 15 participants in phase 1 and a further 18 participants in phase 2 of the validation study. Data analysis was performed using the ESHIP Analyzer. The LD-578 device successfully passed phase 1 of the validation study with a number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for at least 32 of 45, 41 of 45, and 45 of 45 measurements (required 25, 35, and 40), respectively. The device also achieved the targets for phase 2.1, with 67 of 99, 90 of 99, and 98 of 99 differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and with 69 of 99, 95 of 99, and 98 of 99 within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. In phase 2.2, 24 participants had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required >or=22) for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The HONSUN upper arm blood pressure monitor LD-578 can be recommended for home use in adults.

  2. Tunable single frequency fiber laser based on FP-LD injection locking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aiqin; Feng, Xinhuan; Wan, Minggui; Li, Zhaohui; Guan, Bai-ou

    2013-05-20

    We propose and demonstrate a tunable single frequency fiber laser based on Fabry Pérot laser diode (FP-LD) injection locking. The single frequency operation principle is based on the fact that the output from a FP-LD injection locked by a multi-longitudinal-mode (MLM) light can have fewer longitudinal-modes number and narrower linewidth. By inserting a FP-LD in a fiber ring laser cavity, single frequency operation can be possibly achieved when stable laser oscillation established after many roundtrips through the FP-LD. Wavelength switchable single frequency lasing can be achieved by adjusting the tunable optical filter (TOF) in the cavity to coincide with different mode of the FP-LD. By adjustment of the drive current of the FP-LD, the lasing modes would shift and wavelength tunable operation can be obtained. In experiment, a wavelength tunable range of 32.4 nm has been obtained by adjustment of the drive current of the FP-LD and a tunable filter in the ring cavity. Each wavelength has a side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of at least 41 dB and a linewidth of about 13 kHz.

  3. Comparison of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging for preoperative mapping in rolandic tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Coburger, Jan; Musahl, Christian; Henkes, Hans; Horvath-Rizea, Diana; Bittl, Markus; Weissbach, Claudia; Hopf, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a novel tool for preoperative functional mapping. It detects eloquent cortical areas directly, comparable to intraoperative direct cortical stimulation (DCS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantage of nTMS in comparison with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the clinical setting. Special focus was placed on accuracy of motor cortex localization in patients with rolandic lesions. Thirty consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. All patients received an fMRI and nTMS examination preoperatively. Feasibility of the technique and spatial resolution of upper and lower extremity cortical mapping were compared with fMRI. Consistency of preoperative mapping with intraoperative DCS was assessed via the neuronavigation system. nTMS was feasible in all 30 patients. fMRI was impossible in 7 out of 30 patients with special clinical conditions, pediatric patients, central vascular lesions, or compliance issues. The mean accuracy to localize motor cortex of nTMS was higher than in fMRI. In the subgroup of intrinsic tumors, nTMS produced statistically significant higher accuracy scores of the lower extremity localization than fMRI. fMRI failed to localize hand or leg areas in 6 out of 23 cases. Using nTMS, a preoperative localization of the central sulcus was possible in all patients. Verification of nTMS motor cortex localization with DCS was achieved in all cases. The fMRI localization of the hand area proved to be postcentral in one case. nTMS has fewer restrictions for preoperative functional mapping than fMRI and requires only a limited level of compliance. nTMS scores higher on the accuracy scale than fMRI. nTMS represents a highly valuable supplement for the preoperative functional planning in the clinical routine.

  4. Comparison of High Resolution Topographic Data Sources (SAR, IfSAR, and LiDAR) for Storm Surge Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, J. K. B.; Santiago, J. T.; Muldong, T. M. M.; Lagmay, A. M. A.; Caro, C. V.; Ramos, M.

    2014-12-01

    As an archipelagic country, the Philippines has experienced multiple storm surge threats. Moreover, the country's location, adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, results in an average of eight to nine typhoons that make landfall in a year. Storm surge hazard maps require high resolution topographic data to illustrate water inflow in the event of storm surges in vulnerable coastal areas and for accurate boundaries and coastline. Furthermore, potential hazard areas tend to be generalized in lower resolution data. The objective of this research is to compare three sources where accurate and quality storm surge hazard maps will draw bases from. For this purpose, the researcher used and compared SAR, IfSAR and LiDAR. The study involved comparing maps from different topographic data sources in Tacloban, in the province of Leyte. This area was one of the most heavily stricken areas during typhoon Haiyan where more than 6,000 people died and P34.37 billion worth of property was destroyed. In the comparison of the three sources, the following had be taken into consideration: cost of acquiring data, processing time, purpose, and the results. The research learned the following: Synthetic Aperture Radar or SAR produces data with a 30 meter resolution, while Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) offers a resolution of 5 meters. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has the highest resolution of the three with 1 meter. In addition, higher costs are paid for more detailed topographic data. Also, processing time takes longer for finer details due to the memory of the computer units used for modelling. The sources were also evaluated on the necessity of the scale at which the maps are needed for specific purposes such as practicality and direct disaster response. Results from the maps have been validated through interviews with the locals on the experience of actual storm surges. Through this study, the researcher concluded that although LiDAR can offer a more detailed and

  5. The LD50 associated with exposure to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Fujita, S; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-03-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to estimate the distance at which 50% of the individuals exposed to the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki died, ostensibly from their exposure to ionizing radiation. It is difficult to convert most of these distance estimates to a dose-related LD50, since radiation shielding was ignored. The recent reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry has provided an opportunity for the estimation of the bone marrow LD50. There is a surprising concordance in the various estimates that have been made given the different groups of survivors involved and the methods used to estimate the LD50/60.

  6. Uniform pump scheme for a LD face-pumped Nd:YAG slab amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Dan; Fan, Zhongwei; Chen, Yanzhong; Guo, Guangyan; He, Jianguo; Zhao, Tianzhuo

    2016-10-01

    A new pump-shaping scheme for a LD face-pumped Nd:YAG slab laser amplifier is proposed, aiming to achieve uniform pump distributions. Plano-concave cylindrical mirror arrays are used to homogenize the pump distributions in the LD slow axes, and meanwhile optical-waveguide structures are used for the LD fast axes. Simulations based on ray tracing method indicate that the scheme effectively realizes uniform pump intensity distributions. The fluorescence distributions and small signal gains at different locations both verify the pump uniformity reaches higher than 90%.

  7. LD Score regression distinguishes confounding from polygenicity in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan K; Loh, Po-Ru; Finucane, Hilary K; Ripke, Stephan; Yang, Jian; Patterson, Nick; Daly, Mark J; Price, Alkes L; Neale, Benjamin M

    2015-03-01

    Both polygenicity (many small genetic effects) and confounding biases, such as cryptic relatedness and population stratification, can yield an inflated distribution of test statistics in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, current methods cannot distinguish between inflation from a true polygenic signal and bias. We have developed an approach, LD Score regression, that quantifies the contribution of each by examining the relationship between test statistics and linkage disequilibrium (LD). The LD Score regression intercept can be used to estimate a more powerful and accurate correction factor than genomic control. We find strong evidence that polygenicity accounts for the majority of the inflation in test statistics in many GWAS of large sample size.

  8. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    PubMed Central

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data. Images PMID:6264109

  9. Analyzing Large-Scale Structural Change in Proteins: Comparison of Principal Component Projection and Sammon Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Mesentean, Sidonia; Fischer, S.; Smith, Jeremy C

    2006-04-01

    Effective analysis of large-scale conformational transitions in macromolecules requires transforming them into a lower dimensional representation that captures the dominant motions. Herein, we apply and compare two different dimensionality reduction techniques, namely, principal component analysis (PCA), a linear method, and Sammon mapping, which is nonlinear. The two methods are used to analyze four different protein transition pathways of varying complexity, obtained by using either the conjugate peak refinement method or constrained molecular dynamics. For the return-stroke in myosin, both Sammon mapping and PCA show that the conformational change is dominated by a simple rotation of a rigid body. Also, in the case of the T{yields}R transition in hemoglobin, both methods are able to identify the two main quaternary transition events. In contrast, in the cases of the unfolding transition of staphylococcal nuclease or the signaling switch of Ras p21, which are both more complex conformational transitions, only Sammon mapping is able to identify the distinct phases of motion.

  10. Performance comparison of LUR and OK in PM2.5 concentration mapping: a multidimensional perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Bin; Luo, Yanqing; Wan, Neng; Zheng, Zhong; Sternberg, Troy; Liao, Yilan

    2015-01-01

    Methods of Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling and Ordinary Kriging (OK) interpolation have been widely used to offset the shortcomings of PM2.5 data observed at sparse monitoring sites. However, traditional point-based performance evaluation strategy for these methods remains stagnant, which could cause unreasonable mapping results. To address this challenge, this study employs ‘information entropy’, an area-based statistic, along with traditional point-based statistics (e.g. error rate, RMSE) to evaluate the performance of LUR model and OK interpolation in mapping PM2.5 concentrations in Houston from a multidimensional perspective. The point-based validation reveals significant differences between LUR and OK at different test sites despite the similar end-result accuracy (e.g. error rate 6.13% vs. 7.01%). Meanwhile, the area-based validation demonstrates that the PM2.5 concentrations simulated by the LUR model exhibits more detailed variations than those interpolated by the OK method (i.e. information entropy, 7.79 vs. 3.63). Results suggest that LUR modeling could better refine the spatial distribution scenario of PM2.5 concentrations compared to OK interpolation. The significance of this study primarily lies in promoting the integration of point- and area-based statistics for model performance evaluation in air pollution mapping. PMID:25731103

  11. Comparison of Image Restoration Methods for Lunar Epithermal Neutron Emission Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Ivatury, V.; Milikh, G.; Nandikotkur, G.; Puetter, R. C.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Usikov, D.; Mitrofanov, I. G.

    2009-01-01

    Orbital measurements of neutrons by the Lunar Exploring Neutron Detector (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter are being used to quantify the spatial distribution of near surface hydrogen (H). Inferred H concentration maps have low signal-to-noise (SN) and image restoration (IR) techniques are being studied to enhance results. A single-blind. two-phase study is described in which four teams of researchers independently developed image restoration techniques optimized for LEND data. Synthetic lunar epithermal neutron emission maps were derived from LEND simulations. These data were used as ground truth to determine the relative quantitative performance of the IR methods vs. a default denoising (smoothing) technique. We review and used factors influencing orbital remote sensing of neutrons emitted from the lunar surface to develop a database of synthetic "true" maps for performance evaluation. A prior independent training phase was implemented for each technique to assure methods were optimized before the blind trial. Method performance was determined using several regional root-mean-square error metrics specific to epithermal signals of interest. Results indicate unbiased IR methods realize only small signal gains in most of the tested metrics. This suggests other physically based modeling assumptions are required to produce appreciable signal gains in similar low SN IR applications.

  12. Comparison results of forest cover mapping of Peninsular Malaysia using geospatial technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Wan Abdul; Abd Rahman, Shukri B. Wan

    2016-06-01

    Climate change and global warming transpire due to several factors. Among them is deforestation which occur mostly in developing countries including Malaysia where forested areas are converted to other land use for tangible economic returns and to a smaller extent, as subsistence for local communities. As a cause for concern, efforts have been taken by the World Resource Institute (WRI) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF) to monitor forest loss using geospatial technology - interpreting time-based remote sensing imageries and producing statistics of forested areas lost since 2001. In Peninsular Malaysia, the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia(FDPM) has conducted forest cover mapping for the region using the same technology since 2011, producing GIS maps for 2009-2010,2011-2012,2013-2014 and 2015. This paper focuses on the comparative study of the results generated from WRI,WWF and FDPM interpretations between 2010 and 2015, the methodologies used, the similarities and differences, challenges and recommendations for future enhancement of forest cover mapping technique.

  13. Flood mapping using VHR satellite imagery: a comparison between different classification approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franci, Francesca; Boccardo, Piero; Mandanici, Emanuele; Roveri, Elena; Bitelli, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Various regions in Europe have suffered from severe flooding over the last decades. Flood disasters often have a broad extent and a high frequency. They are considered the most devastating natural hazards because of the tremendous fatalities, injuries, property damages, economic and social disruption that they cause. In this context, Earth Observation techniques have become a key tool for flood risk and damage assessment. In particular, remote sensing facilitates flood surveying, providing valuable information, e.g. flood occurrence, intensity and progress of flood inundation, spurs and embankments affected/threatened. The present work aims to investigate the use of Very High Resolution satellite imagery for mapping flood-affected areas. The case study is the November 2013 flood event which occurred in Sardinia region (Italy), affecting a total of 2,700 people and killing 18 persons. The investigated zone extends for 28 km2 along the Posada river, from the Maccheronis dam to the mouth in the Tyrrhenian sea. A post-event SPOT6 image was processed by means of different classification methods, in order to produce the flood map of the analysed area. The unsupervised classification algorithm ISODATA was tested. A pixel-based supervised technique was applied using the Maximum Likelihood algorithm; moreover, the SPOT 6 image was processed by means of object-oriented approaches. The produced flood maps were compared among each other and with an independent data source, in order to evaluate the performance of each method, also in terms of time demand.

  14. About L.D. Landau — the Great Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, V. L.

    If not all, then very much can be known from comparison. Every time, when we call somebody: "great person", "a man of genius" —we make a comparison with other people. Although each person is unrepeatable it is clear, that some people differ from the average very much. At the same time all words undergo depreciation to some extent; we can observe the inflation of the epithets. Besides making an appearance we tend to speak well of everybody. This was understood even by ancients - they used to say that about people, who had passed away one should speak "either well or nothing". Surely this is the reason, why reading numerous memoirs we have the impression, that there are so many distinguished people. Indeed there are not so many…

  15. Comparison of Results Analyzed by China and European Laboratories for the FOREGS Geochemical Baselines Mapping Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Wang, X.; Nie, L.

    2010-12-01

    The geochemical data obtained from China and European laboratories for the subsoil samples of FOREGS Geochemical Baselines Mapping Project were compared. 190 sub soil samples were composed from 787 samples remained after the analysis campaign of the FOREGS Project. In addition to the FOREGS elemental analysis package, Au, Pt, Pd, B, Ge, Br, Cl, Se, N, Li and F were also analyzed by using the IGGE 76 element analytical scheme. In this study, the geochemical data statistics, scatter plotting, and the geochemical map compilation techniques were employed to investigate the differences between the analysis results. The results of the two dataset agree extremely well for about 23 elements, viz: SiO2, Sr, Al2O3, Zr, Ba, Fe2O3, Ti, Rb, Mn, Gd, CaO, Ga, MgO, P, Pb, Na2O, Y, Th, As, U Sc, Cr, and Co. The slight proportional errors exist between the datasets for the elements of Ni, K2O, Tb, Tl, Cu, S, Sm, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Ta, Nb, Hf, Dy. For the elements of Cd, Cs, Be, Sb, In, Mo, I, Sn, and Te, their geochemical maps are normal similarity, but the obvious biases exist between the two dataset for the values near the detection limits. The sensitivities of FOREGS analytical methods for W, Bi, Sn, Te, Be, and I are insufficient to produce reportable values at least 80% of the samples. Although the detection limits of Ag for both method are all sufficient to give out enough reportable values, but the big bias were found between the two datasets. This study demonstrated that the comparable analytical data of the certain elements for the global geochemical mapping samples can be achieved by the different laboratories. But for other elements, such as Ag, the further research on the selection of the proper analytical methods and on the quality control methods should to be undertaken and the final recommendation should be commonly obeyed by all participates of the global geochemical mapping program.

  16. Comparison of Probabilistic Coastal Inundation Maps Based on Historical Storms and Statistically Modeled Storm Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Sheng, Y.; Condon, A. J.; Paramygin, V. A.; Hall, T.

    2012-12-01

    A cost effective method, JPM-OS (Joint Probability Method with Optimal Sampling), for determining storm response and inundation return frequencies was developed and applied to quantify the hazard of hurricane storm surges and inundation along the Southwest FL,US coast (Condon and Sheng 2012). The JPM-OS uses piecewise multivariate regression splines coupled with dimension adaptive sparse grids to enable the generation of a base flood elevation (BFE) map. Storms are characterized by their landfall characteristics (pressure deficit, radius to maximum winds, forward speed, heading, and landfall location) and a sparse grid algorithm determines the optimal set of storm parameter combinations so that the inundation from any other storm parameter combination can be determined. The end result is a sample of a few hundred (197 for SW FL) optimal storms which are simulated using a dynamically coupled storm surge / wave modeling system CH3D-SSMS (Sheng et al. 2010). The limited historical climatology (1940 - 2009) is explored to develop probabilistic characterizations of the five storm parameters. The probability distributions are discretized and the inundation response of all parameter combinations is determined by the interpolation in five-dimensional space of the optimal storms. The surge response and the associated joint probability of the parameter combination is used to determine the flood elevation with a 1% annual probability of occurrence. The limited historical data constrains the accuracy of the PDFs of the hurricane characteristics, which in turn affect the accuracy of the BFE maps calculated. To offset the deficiency of limited historical dataset, this study presents a different method for producing coastal inundation maps. Instead of using the historical storm data, here we adopt 33,731 tracks that can represent the storm climatology in North Atlantic basin and SW Florida coasts. This large quantity of hurricane tracks is generated from a new statistical model

  17. Investigation of watercourses by comparison of successive historical map surveys of Western Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Gábor

    2010-05-01

    The Second (Timár et al., 2006) and Third Military Survey (Biszak et al., 2007) of the Habsburg Empire, completed in the 19th century (1806-69 and 1869-87), can be very useful in different scientific investigations because of their accuracy and data content. The mapmakers used geodetic projections and survey technologies provided high accuracy. Therefore, scientists can use these maps and the represented objects in retrospective studies. The streams were drawn with very thin lines that also ascertain the high accuracy of their location. Previous study used the Second Military Survey to examine the neotectonic evaluation of the western part of the Pannonian Basin, bordered by Pinka, Rába and Répce Rivers (Kovács, 2010). The watercourses, especially alluvial ones, react very sensitively to tectonic forcing (Schumm & Khan, 1972; Ouchi, 1985). However, the present-day course of the creeks and rivers are mostly regulated, therefore they are unsuitable for such studies. The watercourses have reconstructed from maps surveyed prior to the main water control measures. The Second Military Survey was a perfect source for such studies. The investigated streams were free meandering ones. They could flood their banks, and only natural levees were present. After georeferencing the maps of the area, the streams were digitized, and their sinuosity values were computed. Where significant sinuosity changes have been detected along the streams, it can be considered as indicators of differential uplift or subsidence of the bedrock/alluvium. The goal of this study is to decide the character of several stream sections: were they free meandering ones or not? Some of the sections are antecedent ones, especially at the Vas Mountain at the present Austrian-Hungarian border. If the shapes of the watercourses on the different surveys are almost the same, the sinuosity refers to a prior, forced state of the stream. After digitizing the watercourses on the Third Military Survey sheets, some

  18. Mapping extracellular pH in rat brain gliomas in vivo by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging: comparison with maps of metabolites.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, M L; Hérigault, G; Rémy, C; Farion, R; Ballesteros, P; Coles, J A; Cerdán, S; Ziegler, A

    2001-09-01

    The value of extracellular pH (pH(e)) in tumors is an important factor in prognosisand choice of therapy. We demonstrate here that pH(e) can be mappedin vivo in a rat brain glioma by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (SI) of the pH buffer (+/-)2-imidazole-1-yl-3-ethoxycarbonylpropionic acid (IEPA). (1)H SI also allowed us to map metabolites, and, to better understand the determinants of pH(e), we compared maps of pH(e), metabolites, and the distribution of the contrast agent gadolinium1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N",N"'-tetraaceticacid (Gd-DOTA). C6 cells injected in caudate nuclei of four Wistar rats gave rise to gliomas of approximately 10 mm in diameter. Three mmols of IEPA were injected in the right jugular vein from t = 0 to t = 60 min. From t = 50 min to t = 90 min, spin-echo (1)H SI was performed with an echo time of 40 ms in a 2.5-mm slice including the glioma (nominal voxel size, 2.2 microl). IEPA resonances were detected only within the glioma and were intense enough for pH(e) to be calculated from the chemical shift of the H2 resonance in almost all voxels of the glioma. (1)H spectroscopic images with an echo time of 136 ms were then acquired to map metabolites: lactate, choline-containing compounds (tCho), phosphocreatine/creatine, and N-acetylaspartate. Finally, T(1)-weighted imaging after injection of a bolus of Gd-DOTA gave a map indicative of extravasation. On average, the gradient of pH(e) (measured where sufficient IEPA was present) from the center to the periphery was not statistically significant. Mean pH(e) was calculated for each of the four gliomas, and the average was 7.084 +/- 0.017 (+/- SE; n = 4 rats), which is acid with respect to pH(e) of normal tissue. After normalization of spectra to their water peak, voxel-by-voxel comparisons of peak areas showed that N-acetylaspartate, a marker of neurons, correlated negatively with IEPA (P < 0.0001) and lactate (P < 0.05), as expected of a glioma surrounded by normal tissue. t

  19. Individual and combined effects of LD and ADHD on computerized neurocognitive concussion test performance: evidence for separate norms.

    PubMed

    Elbin, R J; Kontos, Anthony P; Kegel, Nate; Johnson, Eric; Burkhart, Scott; Schatz, Philip

    2013-08-01

    Decreased neurocognitive performance in individuals with self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) is well documented in the neuropsychological research literature. Previous studies employing paper-and-pencil neurocognitive assessments report lower performance in individuals with ADHD and LD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and combined LD/ADHD on baseline computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT) used for the concussion assessment. Results revealed athletes with a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and/or combined LD/ADHD demonstrated lower performance on baseline CNT and reported larger numbers of symptoms than did control athletes without these diagnoses. These findings provide evidence for the development of separate normative data for athletes with LD, ADHD, and LD/ADHD diagnoses on CNT batteries commonly used for concussion management.

  20. LdFlabarin, a New BAR Domain Membrane Protein of Leishmania Flagellum

    PubMed Central

    Thonnus, Magali; Salin, Bénédicte; Boissier, Fanny; Blancard, Corinne; Sauvanet, Cécile; Metzler, Christelle; Espiau, Benoît; Sahin, Annelise; Merlin, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    During the Leishmania life cycle, the flagellum undergoes successive assembly and disassembly of hundreds of proteins. Understanding these processes necessitates the study of individual components. Here, we investigated LdFlabarin, an uncharacterized L. donovani flagellar protein. The gene is conserved within the Leishmania genus and orthologous genes only exist in the Trypanosoma genus. LdFlabarin associates with the flagellar plasma membrane, extending from the base to the tip of the flagellum as a helicoidal structure. Site-directed mutagenesis, deletions and chimera constructs showed that LdFlabarin flagellar addressing necessitates three determinants: an N-terminal potential acylation site and a central BAR domain for membrane targeting and the C-terminal domain for flagellar specificity. In vitro, the protein spontaneously associates with liposomes, triggering tubule formation, which suggests a structural/morphogenetic function. LdFlabarin is the first characterized Leishmania BAR domain protein, and the first flagellum-specific BAR domain protein. PMID:24086735

  1. Rectangular pulsed LD pumped saturable output coupler (SOC) Q-switched microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-biao; Wang, Sha; Feng, Guo-ying; Zhou, Shou-huan

    2017-02-01

    We studied the cw LD and rectangular pulsed LD pumped saturable output coupler (SOC) passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 transmission microchip laser experimentally. We demonstrated that the SOC passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 transmission microchip laser pumped by a highly stabilized narrow bandwidth pulsed LD has a much lower timing jitter than pumped by a continuous wave (CW) LD, especially at low output frequency regime. By changing the pump beam size in the rectangular shape pulsed pump scheme, the output frequency can be achieved from 333.3 kHz to 71.4 kHz, while the relative timing jitter decreased from 0.09865% to 0.03115% accordingly. Additionally, the microchip laser has a good stability of output power, the power fluctuation below 2%.

  2. Permethrin and malathion LD90 values for Culex quinquefasciatus vary with topical application site.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, R L; Kaufman, P E; Bloomquist, J R; Gezan, S A; Linthicum, K J

    2017-09-01

    Prior research in multiple insect species has demonstrated that insecticide-induced mortality varies according to the body region exposed on the insect. This variation has been demonstrated in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), but has not been quantified using dose-response curves. Applications of technical permethrin or malathion to one of three body regions on Cx. quinquefasciatus resulted in dose-response curves that were not equivalent to one another. The generated LD90 values and curves for each body region were compared with previously reported LD values for analogous sites in several mosquito species, specifically the mesothorax. Based on the present results, the permethrin and malathion LD50 and LD90 concentrations required for droplets impinging on the abdomen and mesothorax of Cx. quinquefasciatus when applied through ground-based spray systems utilized by mosquito control programmes were calculated. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. PLC Software Program for Leak Detector Station A1 SALW-LD-ST-A1

    SciTech Connect

    KOCH, M.R.

    2001-01-25

    This document describes the software program for the programmable logic controller for the leak detector station ''SALW-LD-ST-A1''. The appendices contains a copy of the printout of the software program.

  4. Comparison of point counts and territory mapping for detecting effects of forest management on songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, Felicity L.; Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Buehler, David A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Beachy, Tiffany A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Boves, Than J.; Evans, Andrea; George, Gregory A.; McDermott, Molly E.; Perkins, Kelly A.; White, Matthew; Wigley, T. Bently

    2013-01-01

    Point counts are commonly used to assess changes in bird abundance, including analytical approaches such as distance sampling that estimate density. Point-count methods have come under increasing scrutiny because effects of detection probability and field error are difficult to quantify. For seven forest songbirds, we compared fixed-radii counts (50 m and 100 m) and density estimates obtained from distance sampling to known numbers of birds determined by territory mapping. We applied point-count analytic approaches to a typical forest management question and compared results to those obtained by territory mapping. We used a before–after control impact (BACI) analysis with a data set collected across seven study areas in the central Appalachians from 2006 to 2010. Using a 50-m fixed radius, variance in error was at least 1.5 times that of the other methods, whereas a 100-m fixed radius underestimated actual density by >3 territories per 10 ha for the most abundant species. Distance sampling improved accuracy and precision compared to fixed-radius counts, although estimates were affected by birds counted outside 10-ha units. In the BACI analysis, territory mapping detected an overall treatment effect for five of the seven species, and effects were generally consistent each year. In contrast, all point-count methods failed to detect two treatment effects due to variance and error in annual estimates. Overall, our results highlight the need for adequate sample sizes to reduce variance, and skilled observers to reduce the level of error in point-count data. Ultimately, the advantages and disadvantages of different survey methods should be considered in the context of overall study design and objectives, allowing for trade-offs among effort, accuracy, and power to detect treatment effects.

  5. A Comparison of Spatial and Spectral Image Resolution for Mapping Invasive Plants in Coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Emma C.; Ustin, Susan L.; Ramirez, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    We explored the potential of detecting three target invasive species: iceplant ( Carpobrotus edulis), jubata grass ( Cortaderia jubata), and blue gum ( Eucalyptus globulus) at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. We compared the accuracy of mapping six communities (intact coastal scrub, iceplant invaded coastal scrub, iceplant invaded chaparral, jubata grass invaded chaparral, blue gum invaded chaparral, and intact chaparral) using four images with different combinations of spatial and spectral resolution: hyperspectral AVIRIS imagery (174 wavebands, 4 m spatial resolution), spatially degraded AVIRIS (174 bands, 30 m), spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 4 m), and both spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 30 m, i.e., simulated Landsat ETM data). Overall success rates for classifying the six classes was 75% (kappa 0.7) using full resolution AVIRIS, 58% (kappa 0.5) for the spatially degraded AVIRIS, 42% (kappa 0.3) for the spectrally degraded AVIRIS, and 37% (kappa 0.3) for the spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS. A true Landsat ETM image was also classified to illustrate that the results from the simulated ETM data were representative, which provided an accuracy of 50% (kappa 0.4). Mapping accuracies using different resolution images are evaluated in the context of community heterogeneity (species richness, diversity, and percent species cover). Findings illustrate that higher mapping accuracies are achieved with images possessing high spectral resolution, thus capturing information across the visible and reflected infrared solar spectrum. Understanding the tradeoffs in spectral and spatial resolution can assist land managers in deciding the most appropriate imagery with respect to target invasives and community characteristics.

  6. A comparison of spatial and spectral image resolution for mapping invasive plants in coastal california.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Emma C; Ustin, Susan L; Ramirez, Carlos M

    2007-01-01

    We explored the potential of detecting three target invasive species: iceplant (Carpobrotus edulis), jubata grass (Cortaderia jubata), and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. We compared the accuracy of mapping six communities (intact coastal scrub, iceplant invaded coastal scrub, iceplant invaded chaparral, jubata grass invaded chaparral, blue gum invaded chaparral, and intact chaparral) using four images with different combinations of spatial and spectral resolution: hyperspectral AVIRIS imagery (174 wavebands, 4 m spatial resolution), spatially degraded AVIRIS (174 bands, 30 m), spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 4 m), and both spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 30 m, i.e., simulated Landsat ETM data). Overall success rates for classifying the six classes was 75% (kappa 0.7) using full resolution AVIRIS, 58% (kappa 0.5) for the spatially degraded AVIRIS, 42% (kappa 0.3) for the spectrally degraded AVIRIS, and 37% (kappa 0.3) for the spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS. A true Landsat ETM image was also classified to illustrate that the results from the simulated ETM data were representative, which provided an accuracy of 50% (kappa 0.4). Mapping accuracies using different resolution images are evaluated in the context of community heterogeneity (species richness, diversity, and percent species cover). Findings illustrate that higher mapping accuracies are achieved with images possessing high spectral resolution, thus capturing information across the visible and reflected infrared solar spectrum. Understanding the tradeoffs in spectral and spatial resolution can assist land managers in deciding the most appropriate imagery with respect to target invasives and community characteristics.

  7. A comparison of two downscaling procedures to increase the spatial resolution of mapping actual evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahour, Milad; Tolpekin, Valentyn; Stein, Alfred; Sharifi, Ali

    2017-04-01

    This research addressed the effects of downscaling cokriging Land Surface Temperature (LST) on estimation of Actual Evapotranspiration (AET) from remote sensing images. Two procedures were followed. We first applied downscaling cokriging to a coarse resolution LST product of MODIS at 1000 m. With its outcome, daily AET of a medium spatial resolution (250 m) was obtained using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS). Second, we downscaled a coarse AET map to medium spatial resolution (250 m). For both procedures, the 250 m resolution MODIS NDVI product was used as a co-variable. Validation was carried out using Landsat 8 images, from which LST was derived from the thermal bands. The two procedures were applied to an agricultural area with a traditional irrigation network in Iran. We obtained an average LST value of 305.8 K as compared to a downscaled LST value of 307.0 K. Reference AET estimated with SEBS using Landsat 8 data was equal to 5.756 mm day-1, as compared with a downscaled AET value of 5.571 mm day-1. The RMSE between reference AET and downscaled AET was equal to 1.26 mm day-1 (r = 0.49) and between reference and downscaled LST to 3.67 K (r = 0.48). The study showed that AET values obtained with the two downscaling procedures were similar to each other, but that AET showed a higher spatial variability if obtained with downscaled LST. We concluded that LST had a large effect on producing AET maps from Remote Sensing (RS) images, and that downscaling cokriging was helpful to provide daily AET maps at medium spatial resolution.

  8. Comparison of grain to grain orientation and stiffness mapping by spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy and EBSD.

    PubMed

    Mark, A F; Li, W; Sharples, S; Withers, P J

    2017-07-01

    Our aim was to establish the capability of spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) to map grain orientations and the anisotropy in stiffness at the sub-mm to micron scale by comparing the method with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) undertaken within a scanning electron microscope. In the former the grain orientations are deduced by measuring the spatial variation in elastic modulus; conversely, in EBSD the elastic anisotropy is deduced from direct measurements of the crystal orientations. The two test-cases comprise mapping the fusion zones for large TIG and MMA welds in thick power plant austenitic and ferritic steels, respectively; these are technologically important because, among other things, elastic anisotropy can cause ultrasonic weld inspection methods to become inaccurate because it causes bending in the paths of sound waves. The spatial resolution of SRAS is not as good as that for EBSD (∼100 μm vs. ∼a few nm), nor is the angular resolution (∼1.5° vs. ∼0.5°). However the method can be applied to much larger areas (currently on the order of 300 mm square), is much faster (∼5 times), is cheaper and easier to perform, and it could be undertaken on the manufacturing floor. Given these advantages, particularly to industrial users, and the on-going improvements to the method, SRAS has the potential to become a standard method for orientation mapping, particularly in cases where the elastic anisotropy is important over macroscopic/component length scales. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  9. Effect of water/fuel emulsions and a cerium-based combustion improver additive on HD and LD diesel exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Farfaletti, Arianna; Astorga, Covadonga; Martini, Giorgio; Manfredi, Urbano; Mueller, Anne; Rey, Maria; De Santi, Giovanni; Krasenbrink, Alois; Larsen, Bo R

    2005-09-01

    One of the major technological challenges for the transport sector is to cut emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) simultaneously from diesel vehicles to meet future emission standards and to reduce their contribution to the pollution of ambient air. Installation of particle filters in all existing diesel vehicles (for new vehicles, the feasibility is proven) is an efficient but expensive and complicated solution; thus other short-term alternatives have been proposed. It is well known that water/diesel (W/ D) emulsions with up to 20% water can reduce PM and NOx emissions in heavy-duty (HD) engines. The amount of water that can be used in emulsions for the technically more susceptible light-duty (LD) vehicles is much lower, due to risks of impairing engine performance and durability. The present study investigates the potential emission reductions of an experimental 6% W/D emulsion with EURO-3 LD diesel vehicles in comparison to a commercial 12% W/D emulsion with a EURO-3 HD engine and to a Cerium-based combustion improver additive. For PM, the emulsions reduced the emissions with -32% for LD vehicles (mass/km) and -59% for the HD engine (mass/ kWh). However, NOx emissions remained unchanged, and emissions of other pollutants were actually increased forthe LD vehicles with +26% for hydrocarbons (HC), +18% for CO, and +25% for PM-associated benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalents (TEQ). In contrast, CO (-32%), TEQ (-14%), and NOx (-6%) were reduced by the emulsion for the HD engine, and only hydrocarbons were slightly increased (+16%). Whereas the Cerium-based additive was inefficient in the HD engine for all emissions except for TEQ (-39%), it markedly reduced all emissions for the LD vehicles (PM -13%, CO -18%, HC -26%, TEQ -25%) except for NOx, which remained unchanged. The presented data indicate a strong potential for reductions in PM emissions from current diesel engines by optimizing the fuel composition.

  10. Analysis of ligand-protein exchange by Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs (CoLD-CoP).

    PubMed

    Snyder, David A; Chantova, Mihaela; Chaudhry, Saadia

    2015-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool in describing protein structures and protein activity for pharmaceutical and biochemical development. This study describes a method to determine weak binding ligands in biological systems by using hierarchic diffusion coefficient clustering of multidimensional data obtained with a 400 MHz Bruker NMR. Comparison of DOSY spectrums of ligands of the chemical library in the presence and absence of target proteins show translational diffusion rates for small molecules upon interaction with macromolecules. For weak binders such as compounds found in fragment libraries, changes in diffusion rates upon macromolecular binding are on the order of the precision of DOSY diffusion measurements, and identifying such subtle shifts in diffusion requires careful statistical analysis. The "CoLD-CoP" (Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs) method presented here uses SAHN clustering to identify protein-binders in a chemical library or even a not fully characterized metabolite mixture. We will show how DOSY NMR and the "CoLD-CoP" method complement each other in identifying the most suitable candidates for lysozyme and wheat germ acid phosphatase.

  11. Analysis of ligand-protein exchange by Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs (CoLD-CoP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David A.; Chantova, Mihaela; Chaudhry, Saadia

    2015-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool in describing protein structures and protein activity for pharmaceutical and biochemical development. This study describes a method to determine weak binding ligands in biological systems by using hierarchic diffusion coefficient clustering of multidimensional data obtained with a 400 MHz Bruker NMR. Comparison of DOSY spectrums of ligands of the chemical library in the presence and absence of target proteins show translational diffusion rates for small molecules upon interaction with macromolecules. For weak binders such as compounds found in fragment libraries, changes in diffusion rates upon macromolecular binding are on the order of the precision of DOSY diffusion measurements, and identifying such subtle shifts in diffusion requires careful statistical analysis. The "CoLD-CoP" (Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs) method presented here uses SAHN clustering to identify protein-binders in a chemical library or even a not fully characterized metabolite mixture. We will show how DOSY NMR and the "CoLD-CoP" method complement each other in identifying the most suitable candidates for lysozyme and wheat germ acid phosphatase.

  12. Comparison of interferometric and stereo-radargrammetric 3D metrics in mapping of forest resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karila, K.; Karjalainen, M.; Yu, X.; Vastaranta, M.; Holopainen, M.; Hyyppa, J.

    2015-04-01

    Accurate forest resources maps are needed in diverse applications ranging from the local forest management to the global climate change research. In particular, it is important to have tools to map changes in forest resources, which helps us to understand the significance of the forest biomass changes in the global carbon cycle. In the task of mapping changes in forest resources for wide areas, Earth Observing satellites could play the key role. In 2013, an EU/FP7-Space funded project "Advanced_SAR" was started with the main objective to develop novel forest resources mapping methods based on the fusion of satellite based 3D measurements and in-situ field measurements of forests. During the summer 2014, an extensive field surveying campaign was carried out in the Evo test site, Southern Finland. Forest inventory attributes of mean tree height, basal area, mean stem diameter, stem volume, and biomass, were determined for 91 test plots having the size of 32 by 32 meters (1024 m2). Simultaneously, a comprehensive set of satellite and airborne data was collected. Satellite data also included a set of TanDEM-X (TDX) and TerraSAR-X (TSX) X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, suitable for interferometric and stereo-radargrammetric processing to extract 3D elevation data representing the forest canopy. In the present study, we compared the accuracy of TDX InSAR and TSX stereo-radargrammetric derived 3D metrics in forest inventory attribute prediction. First, 3D data were extracted from TDX and TSX images. Then, 3D data were processed as elevations above the ground surface (forest canopy height values) using an accurate Digital Terrain Model (DTM) based on airborne laser scanning survey. Finally, 3D metrics were calculated from the canopy height values for each test plot and the 3D metrics were compared with the field reference data. The Random Forest method was used in the forest inventory attributes prediction. Based on the results InSAR showed slightly better

  13. Language dominance and mapping based on neuromagnetic oscillatory changes: comparison with invasive procedures.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Masayuki; Goto, Tetsu; Barnes, Gareth; Umekawa, Yuka; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Kato, Amami; Oshino, Satoru; Kishima, Haruhiko; Hashimoto, Naoya; Saitoh, Youichi; Tani, Naoki; Yorifuji, Shiro; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2010-03-01

    Event-related cerebral oscillatory changes reflect regional brain activation. In a previous study, the authors proposed a new method to determine language dominance: examine frontal oscillatory changes during silent reading by using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM). The authors' aims in the present study were to establish a normal template for this method, to confirm the results of their previous study with a larger patient population, and to evaluate their method with respect to language localization. A statistical group analysis of 14 healthy volunteers was conducted to establish a normal control. Language dominance and localization were then evaluated in a larger population of 123 consecutive patients. Study participants were instructed to silently read 100 visually presented words. Using SAM, the spatial distribution of the oscillatory changes was obtained as the Student t statistic by comparing the current density for each voxel between 1 second before and 1 second after each word presentation. Group analyses of the healthy volunteers were performed using statistical nonparametric mapping. Language dominance in the patients was determined according to the laterality index (LI) calculated using peak t values of the left and right frontal desynchronizations. Language dominance was prospectively assessed, and the results were compared with those of the Wada test (63 patients). Language localization results were quantitatively compared with those of stimulation mapping (17 patients). Group analysis of the healthy volunteers indicated beta to low gamma band desynchronization in the left frontal area and alpha to beta desynchronization in the left parietotemporal areas. In patients, the frontal language areas were detected in 118 persons (95.9%). Lateralization of beta or low gamma desynchronization in the inferior or middle frontal gyri corresponded well with language dominance. The introduction of the LI resulted in a quantitative evaluation of language

  14. An initial assessment of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in coffee trees: LD patterns in groups of Coffea canephora Pierre using microsatellite analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A reciprocal recurrent selection program has been under way for the Coffea canephora coffee tree for approximately thirty years in the Ivory Coast. Association genetics would help to speed up this program by more rapidly selecting zones of interest in the genome. However, prior to any such studies, the linkage disequilibrium (LD) needs to be assessed between the markers on the genome. These data are essential for guiding association studies. Results This article describes the first results of an LD assessment in a coffee tree species. Guinean and Congolese breeding populations of C. canephora have been used for this work, with the goal of identifying ways of using these populations in association genetics. We identified changes in the LD along the genome within the different C. canephora diversity groups. In the different diversity groups studied, the LD was variable. Some diversity groups displayed disequilibria over long distances (up to 25 cM), whereas others had disequilibria not exceeding 1 cM. We also discovered a fine structure within the Guinean group. Conclusions Given these results, association studies can be used within the species C. canephora. The coffee recurrent selection scheme being implemented in the Ivory Coast can thus be optimized. Lastly, our results could be used to improve C. arabica because one of its parents is closely related to C. canephora. PMID:23324026

  15. Comparison of the Experimental Performance of Ferroelectric CPW Circuits with Method of Moment Simulations and Conformal Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanKeuls, Fred W.; Chevalier, Chris T.; Miranda, Felix A.; Carlson, C. M.; Rivkin, T. V.; Parilla, P. A.; Perkins, J. D.; Ginley, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental measurements of coplanar waveguide (CPW) circuits atop thin films of ferroelectric Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 (BST) were made as a function bias from 0 to 200 V and frequency from 0.045 to 20 GHz. The resulting phase shifts are compared with method of moments electromagnetic simulations and a conformal mapping analysis to determine the dielectric constant of the BST films. Based on the correlation between the experimental and the modeled data, an analysis of the extent to which the electromagnetic simulators provide reliable values for the dielectric constant of the ferroelectric in these structures has been performed. In addition, to determine how well the modeled data compare with experimental data, the dielectric constant values were also compared to low frequency measurements of interdigitated capacitor circuits on the same films. Results of these comparisons will be presented.

  16. Effectiveness of Steroid/Antibiotic Treatment in Primates Administered LD100 Escherichia coli.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    probability for survival of baboons given LD100 E . coli . The present study was designed to determine if baboons would recover when initiation of treatment...was delayed until they had sustained E . coli -induced systemic hypotension for a period of approximately three hours. Sixteen adult baboons were each...administered a two-hour infusion of LD100 E . coli . All eight untreated animals died within 42 hours. Five of the eight baboons treated after

  17. Comparisons of radial plume mapping algorithms for locating gaseous emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-fu; Chang, Shih-ying

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the simulation and field evaluation results for two mathematical algorithms applied in the horizontal radial plume mapping (HRPM) technique with optical remote sensing instruments. In the simulation study, 450 test maps with skewed distributions (i.e., bivariate lognormal distribution) were generated in a two-dimensional domain. The HRPM techniques with the smooth basis function minimization (SBFM) algorithm and non-negative least square (NNLS) algorithm were then applied to reconstruct the plumes, assuming a nine-beam scanning beam geometry. The SBFM algorithm was able to identify the peak locations better than the NNLS algorithm when the plumes were near the origin. On the other hand, the NNLS performed better when the plumes were away from the origin. In the field validation study, four experiments were conducted in an open space with the same nine-beam geometry. In each experiment, two tracer gases were released simultaneously at two different locations, and an OP-FTIR was set up to collect the IR spectra. The collected path-integrated concentration data were then used to reconstruct the source locations. The results confirm the conclusions obtained in the simulation study of a better performance from the SBFM algorithm than from the NNLS algorithm for plumes near the origin. We also developed a screening criterion to determine which algorithm results should be chosen as the final estimates in future field applications.

  18. A comparison of solar ALMA maps with solar images obtained at other wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brajsa, Roman; Sudar, Davor; Skokic, Ivica; Benz, Arnold; Kuhar, Matej; White, Stephen M.

    2017-08-01

    We use recently released Commissioning and Science Verification data of the Sun from the observing campaigns perfomed with the ALMA radio telescope in December 2014 and in December 2015. The dataset consists of calibrated maps of the Sun recorded in ALMA observing band 3 (corresponding to a wavelength of 3 mm) and band 6 (1.2 mm) which show both bright and dark areas and a background of highly structured pattern. Solar ALMA maps are compared with images in EUV (SDO/AIA), H-alpha (NISP, Cerro Tololo) and He 1083 nm (NSO/SOLIS), as well as with magnetograms (SDO/HMI) recorded at times closest to the ALMA observations. With a special software the images are overlapped and a correspondence of identified structures is checked in both ways. The visibility of active regions, sunspots, inversion lines of global magnetic field, prominences on the disc, coronal holes and coronal bright points is investigated in ALMA images at mm wavelengths. Single-dish ALMA images of the Sun reveal large-scale structures in the solar atmosphere, while high resolution interferometric images are used to analyse the fine-scale chromospheric structure. The intensities (the brightness temperatures) of identified structures were determined and compared with selected model-based predictions.

  19. Landslide susceptibility mapping in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: a comparison of different statistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, A. A.; Gloaguen, R.; Andreani, L.; Rahnama, M.

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, expansion of settlements into areas prone to landslides in Iraq has increased the importance of accurate hazard assessment. Susceptibility mapping provides information about hazardous locations and thus helps to potentially prevent infrastructure damage due to mass wasting. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare frequency ratio (FR), weight of evidence (WOE), logistic regression (LR) and probit regression (PR) approaches in combination with new geomorphological indices to determine the landslide susceptibility index (LSI). We tested these four methods in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, where landslides occur frequently. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 geomorphological, geological and environmental predicting factors mainly derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The available reference inventory includes 351 landslides representing a cumulative surface of 3.127 km2. This reference inventory was mapped from QuickBird data by manual delineation and partly verified by field survey. The areas under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and relative landslide density (R index) show that all models perform similarly and that focus should be put on the careful selection of proxies. The results indicate that the lithology and the slope aspects play major roles for landslide occurrences. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that using hypsometric integral as a prediction factor instead of slope curvature gives better results and increases the accuracy of the LSI.

  20. Subicular place cells generate the same "map" for different environments: comparison with hippocampal cells.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Patricia E

    2006-11-11

    Since the initial discovery of place cells in the hippocampus proper, similar spatial firing has been observed in additional regions throughout the hippocampal formation. One such region is the subiculum. Here, most cells show a significant, consistent variation in rate relative to location. Thus, subicular and hippocampal cells are similar, in providing a representation of momentary location in space. However, there are also some fundamental differences. First, many subicular cells have a directional signal superimposed on the place-related patterns. In contrast, hippocampal cells in the open field paradigm used here typically do not show a genuine directional component. The second critical difference has to do with how the cells code different environments. As is well known, hippocampal cells show different spatial patterns in environments which offer distinctly different stimulus properties. For example, a hippocampal cell which fires in the northwest portion of a striped cylinder will likely display a different field, or no field, when recorded in a gray square. In contrast, subicular cells are likely to show the same behavior across environments, such as choosing the northwest region of both enclosures. Further, if two environments differ in size, the subicular patterns will expand/shrink to fit. Thus, it appears that subicular cells form a rigid framework of interrelated firing fields which is fit into each new enclosure. In contrast, hippocampal cells create a new "map" specific to each environment. This suggests that the hippocampal and subicular regions work together to help provide the overall cognitive mapping abilities of the animal.

  1. A comparison of infrared, radar, and geologic mapping of lunar craters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, T.W.; Masursky, H.; Shorthill, R.W.; Tyler, G.L.; Zisk, S.H.

    1974-01-01

    Between 1000 and 2000 infrared (eclipse) and radar anomalies have been mapped on the nearside hemisphere of the Moon. A study of 52 of these anomalies indicates that most are related to impact craters and that the nature of the infrared and radar responses is compatible with a previously developed geologic model of crater aging processes. The youngest craters are pronounced thermal and radar anomalies; that is, they have enhanced eclipse temperatures and are strong radar scatterers. With increasing crater age, the associated thermal and radar responses become progressively less noticeable until they assume values for the average lunar surface. The last type of anomaly to disappear is radar enhancement at longer wavelengths. A few craters, however, have infrared and radar behaviors not predicted by the aging model. One previously unknown feature - a field strewn with centimeter-sized rock fragments - has been identified by this technique of comparing maps at the infrared, radar, and visual wavelengths. ?? 1974 D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht-Holland.

  2. The impact of map orientation and generalisation on congestion decisions: a comparison of schematic-egocentric and topographic-allocentric maps.

    PubMed

    Crundall, David; Crundall, Elizabeth; Burnett, Gary; Shalloe, Sally; Sharples, Sarah

    2011-08-01

    Map information for drivers is usually presented in an allocentric-topographic form (as with printed maps) or in an egocentric-schematic form (as with road signs). The advent of new variable message boards on UK motorways raises the possibility of presenting road maps to reflect congestion ahead. Should these maps be allocentric-topographic or egocentric-schematic? This was assessed in an eye tracking study, with participants viewing maps of a motorway network in order to identify whether any congestion was relevant to their intended route. The schematic-egocentric maps were responded to most accurately with shorter fixation durations suggesting easier processing. In particular, the driver's entrance and intended exit from the map were attended to more in the allocentric maps. Individual differences in mental rotation ability also seem to contribute to poor performance on allocentric maps. The results favour schematic-egocentric maps for roadside congestion information, but also provide theoretical insights into map-rotation and individual differences. Statement of Relevance: This study informs designers and policy makers about optimum representations of traffic congestion on roadside variable message signs and, furthermore, demonstrates that individual differences contribute to problems with processing certain sign types. Schematic-egocentric representations of a motorway network produced the best results, as noted in behavioural and eye movement measures.

  3. Structure and expression of a mouse major histocompatibility antigen gene, H-2Ld.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, G A; Margulies, D H; Camerini-Otero, R D; Ozato, K; Seidman, J G

    1982-01-01

    A genomic clone encoding H-2Ld, a mouse major transplantation antigen, has been identified and the structure of the H-2Ld gene has been partially determined. We isolated 35 genomic clones from a BALB/c (H-2d) genomic library by hybridization to mouse or human probes. One of these clones encodes H-2Ld as determined by two criteria. First, the gene encodes a protein that is identical at the 76 known amino acid positions for H-2Ld. Second, when introduced into L cells by DNA-mediated gene transfer, a new H-2 antigen is expressed that is recognized by anti-H-2Ld monoclonal antibodies. The sequence of the H-2Ld protein predicted by the DNA sequences shows more than 80% homology to known H-2 antigens. H-2L-like sequences are found in mutant H-2Kb molecules, suggesting that gene conversion or reciprocal recombination may play a role in the development of H-2 polymorphism. PMID:6952248

  4. Comparison of BOLD cerebrovascular reactivity mapping and DSC MR perfusion imaging for prediction of neurovascular uncoupling potential in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Jay J; Zacà, Domenico

    2012-08-01

    metrics obtained by T2* gadolinium perfusion MR imaging were compared to BOLD percentage signal change on BH CVR maps in a group of 19 patients with intracranial brain tumors of different nature and grade. Single pixel maximum rCBV and rCBF within holotumoral regions of interest (i.e., "ipsilesional" ROIs) were normalized to contralateral hemispheric homologous (i.e., "contralesional") normal tissue. Furthermore, percentage signal change on BH CVR maps within ipsilesional ROIs were normalized to the percentage signal change within contralesional homologous ROIs. Inverse linear correlation was found between normalized rCBF (r(flow)) or rCBV (r(vol)) and normalized CVR percentage signal change (r(CVR)) in grade IV lesions. In the grade III lesions a less steep inverse linear trend was seen that did not reach statistical significance, whereas no correlation at all was seen in the grade II group. Statistically significant difference was present for r(flow) and r(vol) between the grade II and IV groups and between the grade III and IV groups but not for r(CVR). The r(CVR) was significantly lower than 1 in every group. Our results demonstrate that while T2*MR perfusion maps and CVR maps are both adequate to map tumoral regions at risk of NVU in high grade gliomas, CVR maps can detect areas of decreased CVR also in low and intermediate grade gliomas where NVU may be caused by factors other than tumor neovascularity alone. Comparison of areas of abnormally decreased regional CVR with areas of absent BOLD task-based activation in expected eloquent cortical regions infiltrated by or adjacent to the tumors revealed overall 95% concordance, thus confirming the capability of BH CVR mapping to effectively demonstrate areas of NVU. ed by factors other than tumor neovascularity alone. Comparison of areas of abnormally decreased regional CVR with areas of absent BOLD task-based activation in expected eloquent cortical regions infiltrated by or adjacent to the tumors revealed overall 95

  5. Comparison of four magnetic resonance methods for mapping small temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, W; Hentschel, M; Wust, P; Noeske, R; Hosten, N; Rinneberg, H; Felix, R

    1999-02-01

    Non-invasive detection of small temperature changes (< 1 degree C) is pivotal to the further advance of regional hyperthermia as a treatment modality for deep-seated tumours. Magnetic resonance (MR) thermography methods are considered to be a promising approach. Four methods exploiting temperature-dependent parameters were evaluated in phantom experiments. The investigated temperature indicators were spin-lattice relaxation time T1, diffusion coefficient D, shift of water proton resonance frequency (water PRF) and resonance frequency shift of the methoxy group of the praseodymium complex (Pr probe). The respective pulse sequences employed to detect temperature-dependent signal changes were the multiple readout single inversion recovery (T One by Multiple Read Out Pulses; TOMROP), the pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE), the fast low-angle shot (FLASH) with phase difference reconstruction, and the classical chemical shift imaging (CSI). Applying these sequences, experiments were performed in two separate and consecutive steps. In the first step, calibration curves were recorded for all four methods. In the second step, applying these calibration data, maps of temperature changes were generated and verified. With the equal total acquisition time of approximately 4 min for all four methods, the uncertainties of temperature changes derived from the calibration curves were less than 1 degree C (Pr probe 0.11 degrees C, water PRF 0.22 degrees C, D 0.48 degrees C and T1 0.93 degrees C). The corresponding maps of temperature changes exhibited slightly higher errors but still in the range or less than 1 degree C (0.97 degrees C, 0.41 degrees C, 0.70 degrees C, 1.06 degrees C respectively). The calibration results indicate the Pr probe method to be most sensitive and accurate. However, this advantage could only be partially transferred to the thermographic maps because of the coarse 16 x 16 matrix of the classical CSI sequence. Therefore, at present the water PRF method appears

  6. Comparison of current map data with data from STS-99 SRTM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-04

    JSC2000E01552 (January 2000) --- This chart compares currently available global map data with the data which will be provided by SRTM during STS-99. The area depicted is the California coast. The SRTM mission will have approximately 1,000 scheduled data takes (every time Endeavour is over land). Data acquisition will be conducted in excess of 80 hours. The recording rate for data will be 180 Mbits/sec for C-band, 90 Mbits/sec for X-band. Total raw radar data will be approximately 9.8 terabytes (15,000 CDs). The mission will utilize some 300 high-density tapes (each tape records 30 min. of C-band, or 60 min. of X-band data).

  7. Technical Note: Downscaling RCM precipitation to the station scale using quantile mapping - a comparison of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Bremnes, J. B.; Haugen, J. E.; Engen Skaugen, T.

    2012-05-01

    The impact of climate change on water resources is usually assessed at the local scale. However, regional climate models (RCM) are known to exhibit systematic biases in precipitation. Hence, RCM simulations need to be post-processed in order to produce reliable estimators of local scale climate. A popular post-processing approach is quantile mapping (QM), which is designed to adjust the distribution of modeled data, such that it matches observed climatologies. However, the diversity of suggested QM methods renders the selection of optimal techniques difficult and hence there is a need for clarification. In this paper, QM methods are reviewed and classified into: (1) distribution derived transformations, (2) parametric transformations and (3) nonparametric transformations; each differing with respect to their underlying assumptions. A real world application, using observations of 82 precipitation stations in Norway, showed that nonparametric transformations have the highest skill in systematically reducing biases in RCM precipitation.

  8. Mapping Antarctic Crustal Thickness using Gravity Inversion and Comparison with Seismic Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusznir, Nick; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Jordan, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Using gravity anomaly inversion, we produce comprehensive regional maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Crustal thicknesses derived from gravity inversion are consistent with seismic estimates. We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning (1-1/β) and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Chappell & Kusznir 2008). The gravity anomaly contribution from ice thickness is included in the gravity inversion, as is the contribution from sediments which assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. Data used in the gravity inversion are elevation and bathymetry, free-air gravity anomaly, the Bedmap 2 ice thickness and bedrock topography compilation south of 60 degrees south and relatively sparse constraints on sediment thickness. Ocean isochrons are used to define the cooling age of oceanic lithosphere. Crustal thicknesses from gravity inversion are compared with independent seismic estimates, which are still relatively sparse over Antarctica. Our gravity inversion study predicts thick crust (> 45 km) under interior East Antarctica, which is penetrated by narrow continental rifts featuring relatively thinner crust. The largest crustal thicknesses predicted from gravity inversion lie in the region of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, and are consistent with seismic estimates. The East Antarctic Rift System (EARS), a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system, is imaged by our inversion and appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km. Offshore an extensive region of either thick oceanic crust or highly thinned continental crust lies adjacent to Oates Land and north Victoria Land, and also off West Antarctica around the Amundsen Ridges. Thin crust is

  9. Mapping species distributions: a comparison of skilled naturalist and lay citizen science recording.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, René; Anderson, Helen; Robinson, Annie; Sharma, Nirwan; Mellish, Chris; Roberts, Stuart; Darvill, Ben; Siddharthan, Advaith

    2015-11-01

    To assess the ability of traditional biological recording schemes and lay citizen science approaches to gather data on species distributions and changes therein, we examined bumblebee records from the UK's national repository (National Biodiversity Network) and from BeeWatch. The two recording approaches revealed similar relative abundances of bumblebee species but different geographical distributions. For the widespread common carder (Bombus pascuorum), traditional recording scheme data were patchy, both spatially and temporally, reflecting active record centre rather than species distribution. Lay citizen science records displayed more extensive geographic coverage, reflecting human population density, thus offering better opportunities to account for recording effort. For the rapidly spreading tree bumblebee (Bombus hypnorum), both recording approaches revealed similar distributions due to a dedicated mapping project which overcame the patchy nature of naturalist records. We recommend, where possible, complementing skilled naturalist recording with lay citizen science programmes to obtain a nation-wide capability, and stress the need for timely uploading of data to the national repository.

  10. Comprehending speaker intent in rebuttal analogy use: the role of irony mapping, absurdity comparison and argumentative convention.

    PubMed

    Colston, H L

    2000-01-01

    Rebuttal analogies (e.g., "Politicians arguing over the renaming of an airport is like watering your petunias when your house is on fire") are commonly used as responses in verbal conflicts. The following study investigated the role that irony mapping, absurdity comparison, and argumentative convention play in interpreters' derivations of speaker's intentions in using rebuttal analogies. In general, these intentions are to demonstrate the unsoundness of the opposed proposition ("argument") and its advocate ("social attack"), (Whaley & Holloway, 1996). Three rebuttal analogy types were rated on argumentativeness and social attack in verbal conflict and nonverbal conflict scenarios. The results of six experiments on 120 participants found that analogies with ironic bases (e.g., "Doubling the defense budget in order to intimidate North Korea is like using a chainsaw to file your nails") were perceived as more of a social attack and as more argumentative than analogies with absurd (e.g., "... using ketchup to wax your car") and nonironic (e.g., "... using a nailfile to file your nails") bases. No difference was found between the two scenario types. Norming data confirmed equivalence of absurdity of ironic and absurd bases, and greater irony of ironic over absurd bases. The results thus implicate hearers' use of the ironic structure between bases and targets in the interpretation of rebuttal analogies rather than mere absurdity comparison or argumentative convention.

  11. Comparison of bivariate and multivariate statistical approaches in landslide susceptibility mapping at a regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schicker, Renée; Moon, Vicki

    2012-08-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment was undertaken for the Waikato Region, New Zealand. Landslide inventory data were extracted from a pre-existing database that included few landslides in the region (1.4% of area), and is limited in terms of completeness of record and location uncertainty. This database is in contrast to those normally used for research, which are derived for the research project and are complete and accurate, but is representative of those that may exist within government bodies. This paper applies statistical methods to derive a meaningful predictive map for planning purposes from such a relatively poorly defined database. Susceptibility maps for both logistic regression and weights of evidence were derived and evaluated using success, prediction, and ROC curves. Both statistical methods gave models with fair predictive capacity for validation samples from the original database with areas under ROC curves (AUC) of 0.71 to 0.75. An independent set of landslide data compiled from observations made in Google Earth showed lower overall prediction quality, with the logistic regression method giving the best prediction (AUC = 0.71). For this regional assessment, categorical data proved a major constraint on the application of logistic regression as the area considered has complex geology and geomorphology. As a result, the large number of categories required led to a complex and unwieldy statistical model, whereas division into fewer categories meant that real variability in the area could not be adequately represented. This limited the result to a model with two continuous variables, slope and mean monthly rainfall. The incomplete record in the database proved of little concern for the logistic regression method as the model was able to generalise landslide locations from the known sites well, giving a similar AUC value for the original and independent data; the same was not true for the weights of evidence method which was not successful at

  12. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Dewar D; Nugent, Chris D; McCullagh, Paul J; Black, Norman D

    2005-01-01

    Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM) acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC) based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS) based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI). Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a) features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b) lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however that in this study

  13. Comparison of the Biological Impacts of the Fluoride Compounds by Graphical Risk Visualization Map Technique.

    PubMed

    Usuda, Kan; Kono, Rei; Ueno, Takaaki; Ito, Yuichi; Dote, Tomotaro; Yokoyama, Hirotaka; Kono, Koichi; Tamaki, Junko

    2015-09-01

    Various fluoride compounds are widely used in industry. The present risk assessment study was conducted using a series of inorganic binary fluorides of the type XFn, where X(n) = Na(+), K(+), Li(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Al(3+), Nd(3+), La(3+), Ce(3+), Sm(3+), Gd(3+), Y(3+), Yb(2+), and Zn(2+). The aqueous solutions of these salts were orally administrated to 16 experimental groups (one for each of the salts tested). The levels of fluoride, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase in cumulative 24-h urine samples and creatinine clearance were measured to assess possible acute renal damages. The levels of fluoride, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase were also determined in serum samples to assess possible acute hepatic damages. The results reveal that sodium fluoride (NaF), potassium fluoride (KF), and zinc fluoride tetrahydrate (ZnF2 (.)4H2O) can carry the fluoride ion into the bloodstream and that it is excreted via urine more readily than the other compounds tested. These fluorides were assigned the highest risk impact factor. Most of the rare earth fluorides are insoluble in water while those groups 2 and 13 of the periodic table are slightly soluble, so that they do not have a significant negative risk. These findings suggest that the biological impact of fluoride depends on the accompanying counter ion and its solubility. The risk map obtained in the present study shows that the graphical visualization map technique employed is a valuable new tool to assess the toxicological risk of chemical compounds.

  14. Magnetic field inversions at 1 AU: Comparisons between mapping predictions and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Owens, M. J.; Neudegg, D.; Lobzin, V. V.; Steward, G.

    2016-11-01

    Large-scale magnetic field configurations are important for the transport of solar wind strahl electrons, which are suprathermal and directed along the field outward from the Sun. Strahl electrons are routinely used to infer not only the field configurations between the Sun and Earth but also local field structures, i.e., field inversions, where the magnetic field is locally folded back or inverted. Using solar wind data from ACE observations and a 2-D data-driven solar wind model with nonzero azimuthal magnetic field at the solar wind source surface, magnetic field lines are mapped between the Sun and Earth and beyond, in the solar equatorial plane. Standard verification metrics are used to assess, for five solar rotations at different phases of solar cycle 23, the performance of the mapping predictions for observed inversions, which are inferred from solar wind suprathermal electrons and magnetic fields measured by ACE. The probability of detection is consistently ≈0.70 across the different phases. The success ratio, the Hanssen-Kuipers skill score, and the Heidke skill score are ≈0.55-0.70 for the four rotations in the rising, solar maximum, and declining phases, but ≈0.35-0.60 for the rotation near solar minimum, during which almost half of the samples have undetermined field configurations. Our analyses confirm the persistence of inversions throughout solar cycle 23, suggest for most observed inversions a solar/coronal origin at the wind's source surface or below, and predict that inversions should be less common for larger heliocentric distance r ˜> 3 AU than for smaller r.

  15. Comparison study of Lightning VHF interferometric and LF time-of-arival maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, A.; Stock, M.; Kawasaki, Z.; Ushio, T.

    2016-12-01

    Lightning discharges radiate broad band frequency electromagnetic waves from ULF to UHF. Using sensors which detect this radiation is an effective technique to detect lightning flashes, even if they are in a cloud. If multiple sensors are present, a lightning flash can be located using various techniques. At low frequencies, the power radiated by lightning is very high, but because the wavelengths are long, the location resolution is somewhat low. At very high frequencies, the wavelengths are much shorter allowing for much better location resolution, but the power radiation is also much lower, making it more difficult to detect. The VHF band is a good compromise between good location resolution, and good detection efficiency. One technique to locate VHF signals from lightning is interferometry. Using this technique, the signals arriving at three or more VHF broadband antennas are coherently combined to produce an image of the lightning flash. The current generation broadband lightning interferometer being developed in Japan by RAIRAN and the University of Osaka called Lightning Interferometer via VHF Emission (LIVE). Currently, LIVE is installed in Kaizuka, a city to the south of Osaka, near Osaka Bay to observe Japanese summer lightning. In the current study, we are comparing the high detail, 2-dimensional lightning maps produced by LIVE to the lower detail, 3-dimensional maps produced by a low frequency time-of-arrival system called the Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorms (BOLT). In order to better compare the data, a new GPS timing device is being developed for LIVE to allow high absolute timing accuracy without sacrificing one of the 4 high speed digitizer channels. The objectives of the study are to better understand Japanese summer lightning, and to prepare for a future campaign as part of the GLM validation study.

  16. Mapping soil particle-size fractions: A comparison of compositional kriging and log-ratio kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zong; Shi, Wenjiao

    2017-03-01

    Soil particle-size fractions (psf) as basic physical variables need to be accurately predicted for regional hydrological, ecological, geological, agricultural and environmental studies frequently. Some methods had been proposed to interpolate the spatial distributions of soil psf, but the performance of compositional kriging and different log-ratio kriging methods is still unclear. Four log-ratio transformations, including additive log-ratio (alr), centered log-ratio (clr), isometric log-ratio (ilr), and symmetry log-ratio (slr), combined with ordinary kriging (log-ratio kriging: alr_OK, clr_OK, ilr_OK and slr_OK) were selected to be compared with compositional kriging (CK) for the spatial prediction of soil psf in Tianlaochi of Heihe River Basin, China. Root mean squared error (RMSE), Aitchison's distance (AD), standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) and right ratio of the predicted soil texture types (RR) were chosen to evaluate the accuracy for different interpolators. The results showed that CK had a better accuracy than the four log-ratio kriging methods. The RMSE (sand, 9.27%; silt, 7.67%; clay, 4.17%), AD (0.45), STRESS (0.60) of CK were the lowest and the RR (58.65%) was the highest in the five interpolators. The clr_OK achieved relatively better performance than the other log-ratio kriging methods. In addition, CK presented reasonable and smooth transition on mapping soil psf according to the environmental factors. The study gives insights for mapping soil psf accurately by comparing different methods for compositional data interpolation. Further researches of methods combined with ancillary variables are needed to be implemented to improve the interpolation performance.

  17. Measuring the potency labelling of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox(®)) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin (®)) in an LD50 assay.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Dirk; Mander, Gerd; Fink, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The biological potency of botulinum toxin (BT) drugs is determined by a standardised LD50 assay. However, the potency labelling varies vary amongst different BT drugs. One reason for this may be differences in the LD50 assays applied. When five unexpired batches of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox(®)) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin(®)) are compared in the Xeomin(®) batch release assay, the potency variability of both BT drugs fell within the range allowed by the European Pharmacopoiea. Statistical analyses failed to detect differences in the potency labelling of both products. Although the existence of a conversion ratio has been questioned recently, our experimental data are in line with previous clinical experience showing that Botox(®) and Xeomin(®) can be compared using a 1:1 conversion ratio. Identical potency labelling allows easy exchange of both BT drugs in a therapeutic setting, and direct comparison of efficacy, adverse effects and costs.

  18. Functional mapping of human memory using PET: comparisons of conceptual and perceptual tasks.

    PubMed

    Blaxton, T A; Bookheimer, S Y; Zeffiro, T A; Figlozzi, C M; Gaillard, W D; Theodore, W H

    1996-03-01

    An experiment is reported in which regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as measured using positron emission tomography (PET) as participants performed conceptual and perceptual memory tasks. Blood flow during two conceptual tests of semantic cued recall and semantic association was compared to a control condition in which participants made semantic associations to nonstudied words. Analogously, rCBF during two perceptual tasks of word fragment cued recall and word fragment completion was compared to a word fragment nonstudied control condition. A direct comparison of conceptual and perceptual tasks showed that conceptual tasks activated medial and lateral left hemisphere in frontal and temporal regions as well as the lateral aspect of bilateral inferior parietal lobule. Perceptual tasks, in contrast, produced relatively greater activation in right frontal and temporal cortex as well as bilateral activation in more posterior regions. Comparisons of the memory tasks with their control conditions revealed memory-specific deactivations in left medial and superior temporal cortex as well as left frontal cortex for both conceptual tasks. In contrast, memory-specific deactivations for both perceptual fragment completion tests were localized in posterior regions including occipital cortex. Results from this and other functional imaging experiments provide evidence that conceptual and perceptual memory processes are subserved, at least in part, by different neurological structures in the human brain.

  19. Development and psychometric validation of a Health Literacy in Dentistry scale (HeLD).

    PubMed

    Jones, K; Parker, E; Mills, H; Brennan, D; Jamieson, L M

    2014-03-01

    Oral health literacy is emerging as a new public health challenge and poor oral health literacy is increasingly seen as an important predictor of poor oral health outcomes. Within Indigenous populations, there may be benefits to research in using a culturally acceptable, internally consistent and valid instrument to assess oral health literacy. We translated a general health literacy measure, the Health Literacy Management (HeLM) scale to make a dentally relevant scale; Health Literacy in Dentistry (HeLD). This study describes the development and assessment of the reliability and validity of the HeLD in an Indigenous Australian population. The 29 item HeLD scale assesses the components of oral health literacy. The reliability and validity of the seven HeLD subscales were evaluated in a convenience sample of 209 Indigenous Australians with mean age 35 years (range 17-81) and of which 139 were female. The scale was supported by exploratory factor analysis and established seven distinct and internally consistent domains of oral health literacy: Communication, Access, Receptivity, Understanding, Utilisation, Support and Economic Barriers (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91). Discriminative ability was confirmed by HeLD associations with socio-demographic variables and self-reported health ratings in the expected direction. The convergent validity and predictive validity were confirmed by HeLD scores being significantly associated with toothbrush ownership, use of a toothbrush, time since last dental visit and knowledge of the effect of cordial on the teeth. The HeLD appears to be an internally valid and reliable instrument and can be used for measuring oral health literacy among rural Indigenous Australian adults.

  20. Geologic Interpretation of Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Geology Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping. Part 1; A Comparison Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Bleacher, Jacob F.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Feng, Wanda; Gruener, John; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Whitson, Peggy; Janoiko, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Geologic maps integrate the distributions, contacts, and compositions of rock and sediment bodies as a means to interpret local to regional formative histories. Applying terrestrial mapping techniques to other planets is challenging because data is collected primarily by orbiting instruments, with infrequent, spatiallylimited in situ human and robotic exploration. Although geologic maps developed using remote data sets and limited "Apollo-style" field access likely contain inaccuracies, the magnitude, type, and occurrence of these are only marginally understood. This project evaluates the interpretative and cartographic accuracy of both field- and remote-based mapping approaches by comparing two 1:24,000 scale geologic maps of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. The first map is based on traditional field mapping techniques, while the second is based on remote data sets, augmented with limited field observations collected during NASA Desert Research & Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 exercises. The RATS mission used Apollo-style methods not only for pre-mission traverse planning but also to conduct geologic sampling as part of science operation tests. Cross-comparison demonstrates that the Apollo-style map identifies many of the same rock units and determines a similar broad history as the field-based map. However, field mapping techniques allow markedly improved discrimination of map units, particularly unconsolidated surficial deposits, and recognize a more complex eruptive history than was possible using Apollo-style data. Further, the distribution of unconsolidated surface units was more obvious in the remote sensing data to the field team after conducting the fieldwork. The study raises questions about the most effective approach to balancing mission costs with the rate of knowledge capture, suggesting that there is an inflection point in the "knowledge capture curve" beyond which additional resource investment yields progressively

  1. Comparison between simulated annealing algorithms and rapid chain delineation in the construction of genetic maps

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of simulated annealing algorithms and rapid chain delineation in establishing the best linkage order, when constructing genetic maps, was evaluated. Linkage refers to the phenomenon by which two or more genes, or even more molecular markers, can be present in the same chromosome or linkage group. In order to evaluate the capacity of algorithms, four F2 co-dominant populations, 50, 100, 200 and 1000 in size, were simulated. For each population, a genome with four linkage groups (100 cM) was generated. The linkage groups possessed 51, 21, 11 and 6 marks, respectively, and a corresponding distance of 2, 5, 10 and 20 cM between adjacent marks, thereby causing various degrees of saturation. For very saturated groups, with an adjacent distance between marks of 2 cM and in greater number, i.e., 51, the method based upon stochastic simulation by simulated annealing presented orders with distances equivalent to or lower than rapid chain delineation. Otherwise, the two methods were commensurate through presenting the same SARF distance. PMID:21637501

  2. Pixel-based flood mapping from SAR imagery: a comparison of approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landuyt, Lisa; Van Wesemael, Alexandra; Van Coillie, Frieke M. B.; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2017-04-01

    Due to their all-weather, day and night capabilities, SAR sensors have been shown to be particularly suitable for flood mapping applications. Thus, they can provide spatially-distributed flood extent data which are valuable for calibrating, validating and updating flood inundation models. These models are an invaluable tool for water managers, to take appropriate measures in times of high water levels. Image analysis approaches to delineate flood extent on SAR imagery are numerous. They can be classified into two categories, i.e. pixel-based and object-based approaches. Pixel-based approaches, e.g. thresholding, are abundant and in general computationally inexpensive. However, large discrepancies between these techniques exist and often subjective user intervention is needed. Object-based approaches require more processing but allow for the integration of additional object characteristics, like contextual information and object geometry, and thus have significant potential to provide an improved classification result. As means of benchmark, a selection of pixel-based techniques is applied on a ERS-2 SAR image of the 2006 flood event of River Dee, United Kingdom. This selection comprises Otsu thresholding, Kittler & Illingworth thresholding, the Fine To Coarse segmentation algorithm and active contour modelling. The different classification results are evaluated and compared by means of several accuracy measures, including binary performance measures.

  3. Comparison of antibody responses to different forms of HIV-1 core antigens by epitope mapping.

    PubMed

    Truong, C; Brand, D; Mallet, F; Roingeard, P; Barin, F

    1997-03-01

    The specificity of antibodies to HIV-1 capsid (p24CA) and matrix (p17MA) proteins, produced in mice against unprocessed immature assembled polyprotein (wild-type p55 virus-like particles or chimeric p55 virus-like particles) or against the monomeric mature form (rp24CA/rp17MA), was analyzed by a microplate epitope mapping assay using a panel of synthetic peptides covering the entire p24CA plus p17MA sequences of HIV-1LAI. All immunized mice developed anti-p24CA and anti-p17MA antibodies, although the spectrum of specificity of these antibodies was different. Four p24 CA epitopes (residues 176-192, 201-218, 233-253, 285-304) were recognized by anti-rp24CA/rp17MA antibodies, whereas one p17MA epitope (residues 11-25) and one p24CA epitope (residues 176-192) were constantly recognized by anti-p55 virus-like particle antibodies. These results suggest a different specificity pattern of anti-p24CA and anti-p17MA antibodies depending on whether they are produced against the soluble mature form or the immature assembled form of the gag proteins.

  4. Comparison of BiLinearly Interpolated Subpixel Sensitivity Mapping and Pixel-Level Decorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challener, Ryan C.; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Foster, Andrew S.; Deming, Drake; WASP Consortium

    2016-10-01

    Exoplanet eclipse signals are weaker than the systematics present in the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), and thus the correction method can significantly impact a measurement. BiLinearly Interpolated Subpixel Sensitivity (BLISS) mapping calculates the sensitivity of the detector on a subpixel grid and corrects the photometry for any sensitivity variations. Pixel-Level Decorrelation (PLD) removes the sensitivity variations by considering the relative intensities of the pixels around the source. We applied both methods to WASP-29b, a Saturn-sized planet with a mass of 0.24 ± 0.02 Jupiter masses and a radius of 0.84 ± 0.06 Jupiter radii, which we observed during eclipse twice with the 3.6 µm and once with the 4.5 µm channels of IRAC aboard Spitzer in 2010 and 2011 (programs 60003 and 70084, respectively). We compared the results of BLISS and PLD, and comment on each method's ability to remove time-correlated noise. WASP-29b exhibits a strong detection at 3.6 µm and no detection at 4.5 µm. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  5. A comparison of automated anatomical–behavioural mapping methods in a rodent model of stroke☆

    PubMed Central

    Crum, William R.; Giampietro, Vincent P.; Smith, Edward J.; Gorenkova, Natalia; Stroemer, R. Paul; Modo, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Neurological damage, due to conditions such as stroke, results in a complex pattern of structural changes and significant behavioural dysfunctions; the automated analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and discovery of structural–behavioural correlates associated with these disorders remains challenging. Voxel lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) has been used to associate behaviour with lesion location in MRI, but this analysis requires the definition of lesion masks on each subject and does not exploit the rich structural information in the images. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) has been used to perform voxel-wise structural analyses over the entire brain; however, a combination of lesion hyper-intensities and subtle structural remodelling away from the lesion might confound the interpretation of TBM. In this study, we compared and contrasted these techniques in a rodent model of stroke (n = 58) to assess the efficacy of these techniques in a challenging pre-clinical application. The results from the automated techniques were compared using manually derived region-of-interest measures of the lesion, cortex, striatum, ventricle and hippocampus, and considered against model power calculations. The automated TBM techniques successfully detect both lesion and non-lesion effects, consistent with manual measurements. These techniques do not require manual segmentation to the same extent as VLSM and should be considered part of the toolkit for the unbiased analysis of pre-clinical imaging-based studies. PMID:23727124

  6. Engineering and characterization of a stabilized alpha1/alpha2 module of the class I major histocompatibility complex product Ld.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lindsay L; Brophy, Susan E; Bankovich, Alexander J; Colf, Leremy A; Hanick, Nicole A; Garcia, K Christopher; Kranz, David M

    2006-09-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the most polymorphic locus known, with thousands of allelic variants. There is considerable interest in understanding the diversity of structures and peptide-binding features represented by this class of proteins. Although many MHC proteins have been crystallized, others have not been amenable to structural or biochemical studies due to problems with expression or stability. In the present study, yeast display was used to engineer stabilizing mutations into the class I MHC molecule, Ld. The approach was based on previous studies that showed surface levels of yeast-displayed fusion proteins are directly correlated with protein stability. To engineer a more stable Ld, we selected Ld mutants with increased surface expression from randomly mutated yeast display libraries using anti-Ld antibodies or high affinity, soluble T-cell receptors (TCRs). The most stable Ld mutant, Ld-m31, consisted of a single-chain MHC module containing only the alpha1 and alpha2 domains. The enhanced stability was in part due to a single mutation (Trp-97 --> Arg), shown previously to be present in the allele Lq. Mutant Ld-m31 could bind to Ld peptides, and the specific peptide.Ld-m31 complex (QL9.Ld-m31) was recognized by alloreactive TCR 2C. A soluble form of the Ld-m31 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and refolded from inclusion bodies at high yields. Surface plasmon resonance showed that TCRs bound to peptide.Ld-m31 complexes with affinities similar to those of native full-length Ld. The TCR and QL9.Ld-m31 formed complexes that could be resolved by native gel electrophoresis, suggesting that stabilized alpha1/alpha2 class I platforms may enable various structural studies.

  7. The Effectiveness of Concept Maps in Teaching Physics Concepts Applied to Engineering Education: Experimental Comparison of the Amount of Learning Achieved with and without Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Guadalupe; Perez, Angel Luis; Suero, Maria Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of concept maps in learning physics in engineering degrees. The following research question was posed: What was the difference in learning results from the use of concept maps to study a particular topic in an engineering course? The study design was quasi-experimental and used a post-test as a…

  8. The Effectiveness of Concept Maps in Teaching Physics Concepts Applied to Engineering Education: Experimental Comparison of the Amount of Learning Achieved with and without Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Guadalupe; Perez, Angel Luis; Suero, Maria Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of concept maps in learning physics in engineering degrees. The following research question was posed: What was the difference in learning results from the use of concept maps to study a particular topic in an engineering course? The study design was quasi-experimental and used a post-test as a…

  9. Evaluation of the User Strategy on 2d and 3d City Maps Based on Novel Scanpath Comparison Method and Graph Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolezalova, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealing with scanpath comparison of eye-tracking data recorded during case study focused on the evaluation of 2D and 3D city maps. The experiment contained screenshots from three map portals. Two types of maps were used - standard map and 3D visualization. Respondents' task was to find particular point symbol on the map as fast as possible. Scanpath comparison is one group of the eye-tracking data analyses methods used for revealing the strategy of the respondents. In cartographic studies, the most commonly used application for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns that output is hierarchical clustering and a tree graph representing the relationships between analysed sequences. During an analysis of the algorithm generating a tree graph, it was found that the outputs do not correspond to the reality. We proceeded to the creation of a new tool called ScanGraph. This tool uses visualization of cliques in simple graphs and is freely available at www.eyetracking.upol.cz/scangraph. Results of the study proved the functionality of the tool and its suitability for analyses of different strategies of map readers. Based on the results of the tool, similar scanpaths were selected, and groups of respondents with similar strategies were identified. With this knowledge, it is possible to analyse the relationship between belonging to the group with similar strategy and data gathered from the questionnaire (age, sex, cartographic knowledge, etc.) or type of stimuli (2D, 3D map).

  10. Comparison of three orientation and mobility aids for individuals with blindness: Verbal description, audio-tactile map and audio-haptic map.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Koukourikos, Panagiotis; Kartasidou, Lefkothea; Barouti, Marialena; Varveris, Asimis; Misiou, Marina; Zacharogeorga, Timoclia; Anastasiadis, Theocharis

    2017-01-01

    Disorientation and inability of wayfinding are phenomena with a great frequency for individuals with visual impairments during the process of travelling novel environments. Orientation and mobility aids could suggest important tools for the preparation of a more secure and cognitively mapped travelling. The aim of the present study was to examine if spatial knowledge structured after an individual with blindness had studied the map of an urban area that was delivered through a verbal description, an audio-tactile map or an audio-haptic map, could be used for detecting in the area specific points of interest. The effectiveness of the three aids with reference to each other was also examined. The results of the present study highlight the effectiveness of the audio-tactile and the audio-haptic maps as orientation and mobility aids, especially when these are compared to verbal descriptions.

  11. Mapping stream habitats with a global positioning system: Accuracy, precision, and comparison with traditional methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.; Belt, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    We tested the precision and accuracy of the Trimble GeoXT??? global positioning system (GPS) handheld receiver on point and area features and compared estimates of stream habitat dimensions (e.g., lengths and areas of riffles and pools) that were made in three different Oklahoma streams using the GPS receiver and a tape measure. The precision of differentially corrected GPS (DGPS) points was not affected by the number of GPS position fixes (i.e., geographic location estimates) averaged per DGPS point. Horizontal error of points ranged from 0.03 to 2.77 m and did not differ with the number of position fixes per point. The error of area measurements ranged from 0.1% to 110.1% but decreased as the area increased. Again, error was independent of the number of position fixes averaged per polygon corner. The estimates of habitat lengths, widths, and areas did not differ when measured using two methods of data collection (GPS and a tape measure), nor did the differences among methods change at three stream sites with contrasting morphologies. Measuring features with a GPS receiver was up to 3.3 times faster on average than using a tape measure, although signal interference from high streambanks or overhanging vegetation occasionally limited satellite signal availability and prolonged measurements with a GPS receiver. There were also no differences in precision of habitat dimensions when mapped using a continuous versus a position fix average GPS data collection method. Despite there being some disadvantages to using the GPS in stream habitat studies, measuring stream habitats with a GPS resulted in spatially referenced data that allowed the assessment of relative habitat position and changes in habitats over time, and was often faster than using a tape measure. For most spatial scales of interest, the precision and accuracy of DGPS data are adequate and have logistical advantages when compared to traditional methods of measurement. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media

  12. A comparison of two-dimensional techniques for converting magnetocardiogram maps into effective current source distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, K.; Kandori, A.; Miyashita, T.; Sekihara, K.; Tsukada, K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for converting the pseudo two-dimensional current given by a current-arrow map (CAM) into the physical current. The physical current distribution is obtained by the optimal solution in a least mean square sense with Tikhonov regularization (LMSTR). In the current dipole simulation, the current pattern differences (ΔJ) between the results of the CAM and the LMSTR with several regularization parameters (α = 10-1-10-15) are calculated. In magnetocardiographic (MCG) analysis, the depth (zd) of a reconstruction plane is chosen by using the coordinates of the sinus node, which is estimated from MCG signals at the early p-wave. The ΔJs at p-wave peaks, QRS-complex peaks, and T-wave peaks of MCG signals for healthy subjects are calculated. Furthermore, correlation coefficients and regression lines are also calculated from the current values of the CAM and the LMSTR during p-waves, QRS-complex, and T-waves of MCG signals. In the simulation, the ΔJs (α ≈ 10-10) had a minimal value. The ΔJs (α = 10-10) at p-wave peaks, QRS-complex peaks, and T-wave peaks of MCG signals for healthy subjects also had minimal value. The correlation coefficients of the current values given by the CAM and the LMSTR (α = 10-10) were greater than 0.9. Furthermore, slopes (y) of the regression lines are correlated with the depth (zd) (r = -0.93). Consequently, the CAM value can be transformed into the LMSTR current value by multiplying it by the slope (y) obtained from the depth (zd). In conclusion, the result given by the CAM can be converted into an effective physical current distribution by using the depth (zd).

  13. Quantitative susceptibility mapping at 3 T: comparison of acquisition methodologies.

    PubMed

    Lauzon, M Louis; McCreary, Cheryl R; McLean, D Adam; Salluzzi, Marina; Frayne, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is fast becoming a routine clinical tool in the evaluation and assessment of neurological diseases. Unfortunately, there is currently no established standard scanning protocol, and it is uncertain whether different acquisition strategies alter the derived estimates of magnetic susceptibility. Here, we compare some key deep grey matter susceptibility values in healthy adults acquired from various QSM sequences using either unipolar or bipolar readout gradients, accelerated imaging or not, and gradient-warp correction or not. Four healthy adult volunteers were scanned three times each within 4 days at 3 T. The eight different QSM combinations were acquired in different randomised order for each session, and then co-registered to an anatomical atlas. The average and standard deviations of magnetic susceptibilities in the caudate, putamen, red nucleus, internal and external globus pallidus were used in a linear mixed effects model to determine the influence of the various acquisition parameters. Gradient-warp correction was the only statistically significant fixed effect (p < 0.01), but its impact was small (~5% change) compared with the overall fixed effects. The random effects coefficients (i.e. the various tissues) were statistically significant. Based on our limited multiple observations in healthy adult volunteers, the susceptibilities in deep grey matter are statistically equivalent when QSM source data are acquired with or without accelerated imaging using either unipolar or bipolar readout gradients. There is, however, a statistically meaningful, but small, difference if gradient-warp correction is used or not. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Chemical and mineralogical characterizations of LD converter steel slags: A multi-analytical techniques approach

    SciTech Connect

    Waligora, J.; Bulteel, D.; Degrugilliers, P.; Damidot, D.; Potdevin, J.L.; Measson, M.

    2010-01-15

    The use of LD converter steel slags (coming from Linz-Donawitz steelmaking process) as aggregates in road construction can in certain cases lead to dimensional damage due to a macroscopic swelling that is the consequence of chemical reactions. The aim of this study was to couple several analytical techniques in order to carefully undertake chemical and mineralogical characterizations of LD steel slags and identify the phases that are expected to be responsible for their instability. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses revealed that LD steel slags mainly contain calcium silicates, dicalcium ferrites, iron oxides and lime. However, as a calcium silicate phase is heterogeneous, Raman microspectrometry and transmitted electron microscopy had to be used to characterize it more precisely. Results showed that lime is present under two forms in slag grains: some nodules observed in the matrix whose size ranges from 20 to 100 {mu}m and some micro-inclusions, enclosed in the heterogeneous calcium silicate phase whose size ranges from 1 to 3 {mu}m. It was also established that without the presence of magnesia, lime is expected to be the only phase responsible for LD steel slags instability. Nevertheless, the distribution of lime between nodules and micro-inclusions may play a major role and could explain that similar amounts of lime can induce different instabilities. Thus, it appears that lime content of LD steel slags is not the only parameter to explain their instability.

  15. Identification of a Functional Type IA Topoisomerase, LdTopIIIβ, from Kinetoplastid Parasite Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Bijoylaxmi; Sen, Nilkantha; Majumder, Hemanta K.

    2011-01-01

    DNA topoisomerases of kinetoplastids represent a family of DNA processing enzymes that essentially solve the topological problems not only in nuclear DNA but also in kinetoplast DNA. We have, for the first time, identified a Leishmania donovani homologue of bacterial and eukaryotic IA type of topoisomerase III protein and termed as LdTopIIIβ. Complementation study of wild-type and mutant LdTopIIIβ with slow-growing topoisomerase III mutant yeast S. cerevisiae revealed the functional conservation of the leishmanial counterpart of topoisomerase IIIβ protein, the 327 tyrosine being the active site amino acid. A C-terminal deletion construct of LdTopIIIβ could not suppress the slow-growth phenotype of mutant yeast, indicating the requirement of C-terminal region for the enzyme function in vivo.LdTopIIIβ localized inside the nucleus and kinetoplast of the parasite. Taken together, our study indicates functional conservation and possible role of LdTopIIIβ in parasite DNA processing. PMID:21637326

  16. A Comparison of Genotype-Phenotype Maps for RNA and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ferrada, Evandro; Wagner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the genotype (sequence) and the phenotype (structure) of macromolecules affects their ability to evolve new structures and functions. We here compare the genotype space organization of proteins and RNA molecules to identify differences that may affect this ability. To this end, we computationally study the genotype-phenotype relationship for short RNA and lattice proteins of a reduced monomer alphabet size, to make exhaustive analysis and direct comparison of their genotype spaces feasible. We find that many fewer protein molecules than RNA molecules fold, but they fold into many more structures than RNA. In consequence, protein phenotypes have smaller genotype networks whose member genotypes tend to be more similar than for RNA phenotypes. Neighborhoods in sequence space of a given radius around an RNA molecule contain more novel structures than for protein molecules. We compare this property to evidence from natural RNA and protein molecules, and conclude that RNA genotype space may be more conducive to the evolution of new structure phenotypes. PMID:22768948

  17. NO2 inter-comparison between Pandora spectrometer and in-situ measurements during MAPS campaign in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, H.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.; Lee, H.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, M.; Jeong, U.; Koo, J. H.; Herman, J. R.; Abuhassan, N.; Lee, S.; Park, R.; Ahn, J. Y.; Park, J.; Hong, J.; Kim, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    To improve the accuracy of air quality information from satellite retrieval algorithm and model simulations, National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) in Korea and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the United States performed the Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS) campaign from May to June, 2015 as a preliminary work for the KORUS-AQ campaign in 2016. In this study we investigate and evaluate the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data at six sites obtained from the ground-based remote sensing using Pandora spectrometers and Air Korea surface in-situ measurements during MAPS campaign. Basically measured NO2 shows spatially large differences among sites and also temporally larger diurnal variations, particularly in urban areas. To conduct inter-comparisons between Pandora and in-situ NO2, we need to estimate the tropospheric portion of NO2 from Pandora total column measurements. First we simply use the ratio between tropospheric and total column NO2 density obtained from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements to calculate the tropospheric NO2 density from Pandora total column density. As a result, correlation coefficients between Pandora tropospheric NO2 and in-situ surface NO2 are in the range from 0.13 to 0.61. To enhance a correlation, next we use NO2 vertical profiles obtained from chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) in the process of Pandora tropospheric NO2 estimation, and also compare with in-situ NO2 data. Since planetary boundary layer (PBL) height is known as another key factor to capture the near-surface signal from the total column information, we will calculate a ground-level NO2 using PBL height information from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis dataset.

  18. Hair-MAP: a prototype automated system for forensic hair comparison and analysis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mool S; Pratt, Lorien; Ganesh, Chidamber; Medina, Christy

    2002-10-09

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of the automation of forensic hair analysis and comparison task using neural network explanation systems (NNESs). Our system takes as input microscopic images of two hairs and produces a classification decision as to whether or not the hairs came from the same person. Hair images were captured using a NEXTDimension video board in a NEXTDimension color turbo computer, connected to a video camera. Image processing was done on an SGI indigo workstation. Each image is segmented into a number of pieces appropriate for classification of different features. A variety of image processing techniques are used to enhance this information. Use of wavelet analysis and the Haralick texture algorithm to pre-process data has allowed us to compress large amounts of data into smaller, yet representative data. Neural networks are then used for feature classification. Finally, statistical tests determine the degree of match between the resulting collection of hair feature vectors. An important issue in automation of any task in criminal investigations is the reliability and understandability of the resulting system. To address this concern, we have developed methods to facilitate explanation of neural network's behavior using a decision tree. The system was able to achieve a performance of 83% hair match accuracy, using 5 of the 21 morphological characteristics used by experts. This shows promise for the usefulness of a fuller scale system. While an automated system would not replace the expert, it would make the task easier by providing a means for pre-processing the large amount of data with which the expert must contend. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  19. Mapping Snow Depth From Ka-Band Interferometry: Proof Of Concept And Comparison With Scanning Lidar Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, D.; Andreadis, K.; Bormann, K. J.; Painter, T. H.; Hensley, S.

    2016-12-01

    Snow cover and its melt dominate sources in many of the world's mountainous regions, and in adjacent areas dependent on river flows originating from mountain basins. However, snow water equivalent (SWE) across Earth is very poorly known. Our inability to measure and track distribution of SWE severely hampers our skill in modeling snow cover for climate and hydrology. In 2013, NASA/JPL began an ambitious program to solve the need for distributed SWE and coincident snow albedo, developing the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO). The SWE component of the ASO comes from the scanning lidar, which is used to map distributed topography for snow-free and snow-on conditions and in turn snow depth with an unbiased uncertainty of 8 cm. SWE is generated then with modeling of snow density, constrained by available in situ measurements. ASO has provided full basin and distributed mapping of SWE leading to unique discoveries for water cycle science. While these measurements provide critical measurements, an identical path to space with lidar is not presently available and suffers from cloud cover. We investigate the capacity of a Ka-band single pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) GLISTIN (Glacier and Ice Surface Topography Interferometer) to map snow topography/snow depth in a complex mountain basin independent of cloud cover. As a proof-of-concept, GLISTIN overflew a portion of the ASO site in the Sierra Nevada in August 2012 (snow-off) and again in April 2013 (snow-on). Despite it being a "low-snow year"whereby the snow-depth is largely decimetric in a region of high topographic complexity, the quantitative and qualitative comparisons of GLISTIN and ASO are encouraging. Our methodology includes: 1) classification of tree-contaminated regions using the InSAR correlation data at high spatial resolution; 2) data calibration of the InSAR height-data; and 3) generation of bare-Earth digital elevation models at coarsened resolution. Our initial GLISTIN

  20. A process-based 222radon flux map for Europe and its comparison to long-term observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstens, U.; Schwingshackl, C.; Schmithüsen, D.; Levin, I.

    2015-11-01

    Detailed 222radon (222Rn) flux maps are an essential pre-requisite for the use of radon in atmospheric transport studies. Here we present a high-resolution 222Rn flux map for Europe, based on a parameterization of 222Rn production and transport in the soil. The 222Rn exhalation rate is parameterized based on soil properties, uranium content, and modelled soil moisture from two different land-surface reanalysis data sets. Spatial variations in exhalation rates are primarily determined by the uranium content of the soil, but also influenced by soil texture and local water-table depth. Temporal variations are related to soil moisture variations as the molecular diffusion in the unsaturated soil zone depends on available air-filled pore space. The implemented diffusion parameterization was tested against campaign-based 222Rn soil profile measurements. Monthly 222Rn exhalation rates from European soils were calculated with a nominal spatial resolution of 0.083° × 0.083° and compared to long-term direct measurements of 222Rn exhalation rates in different areas of Europe. The two realizations of the 222Rn flux map, based on the different soil moisture data sets, both realistically reproduce the observed seasonality in the fluxes but yield considerable differences for absolute flux values. The mean 222Rn flux from soils in Europe is estimated to be 10 mBq m-2 s-1 (ERA-Interim/Land soil moisture) or 15 mBq m-2 s-1 (GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) Noah soil moisture) for the period 2006-2010. The corresponding seasonal variations with low fluxes in winter and high fluxes in summer range in the two realizations from ca. 7 to ca. 14 mBq m-2 s-1 and from ca. 11 to ca. 20 mBq m-2 s-1, respectively. These systematic differences highlight the importance of realistic soil moisture data for a reliable estimation of 222Rn exhalation rates. Comparison with observations suggests that the flux estimates based on the GLDAS Noah soil moisture model on average better

  1. A Comparison of Eligibility Criteria and Their Impact on Minority Representation in LD Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarusso, Ronald P.; Keel, Marie C.; Dangel, Harry L.

    2001-01-01

    A review of 6,036 learning disabilities eligibility reports found the application of a regression equation to a standard score formula and the use of two different low-achievement cut-off criteria significantly increased the number of eligible white and African-American students, but neither alternative equalized the proportion of white to…

  2. English language learners who struggle with reading: language acquisition or LD?

    PubMed

    Klingner, Janette K; Artiles, Alfredo J; Barletta, Laura Méndez

    2006-01-01

    We review empirical research on English language learners (ELLs) who struggle with reading and who may have learning disabilities (LD). We sought to determine research indicators that can help us better differentiate between ELLs who struggle to acquire literacy because of their limited proficiency in English and ELLs who have actual LD. We conclude that more research is warranted to further elucidate the strengths and learning needs of subgroups of underachieving ELLs, to help us determine who should qualify for special education, and to clarify why some ELLs who do not have LD still struggle with language and literacy acquisition. Future research should account for the complexities involved in becoming literate in another language and focus more on cultural and contextual factors that affect student achievement.

  3. Comorbidity of LD and ADHD: implications of DSM-5 for assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    DuPaul, George J; Gormley, Matthew J; Laracy, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) can co-occur for a significant minority of children with each disorder. A total of 17 studies (2001-2011) examining ADHD-LD comorbidity were reviewed, revealing a higher mean comorbidity rate (45.1%) than has been obtained previously. Higher comorbidity may be the result of including students with writing disorders, not just reading and/or math disabilities. Proposed DSM-5 criteria for both disorders will likely affect comorbidity rates; however, it is unclear whether such rates will increase or decrease. Regardless of the specific impact of DSM revisions, academic skill and/or performance deficits should be assessed for students with ADHD as part of screening, comprehensive evaluation, and treatment monitoring. Comprehensive intervention services for students with comorbid ADHD and LD will require empirically supported treatment strategies that address both disorders and that are implemented across school and home settings.

  4. The impact of the Flynn effect on LD diagnoses in special education.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Because of the Flynn effect, IQ scores rise as a test norm ages but drop on the introduction of a newly revised test norm. The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact of the Flynn effect on learning disability (LD) diagnoses, the most prevalent special education diagnosis in the United States. Using a longitudinal sample of 875 school children who were initially diagnosed with LD on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), children experienced a significant decline in IQ when retested on the third edition of the WISC (WISC-III) compared to peers who were tested on the WISC-R twice. Furthermore, results from logistic regression analyses revealed that the probability of a rediagnosis of LD on reevaluation significantly decreased, in part, because of this decline on the WISC-III. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for both basic research and educational policy.

  5. Self-efficacy from the perspective of adolescents with LD and their specialist teachers.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Robert M; Lynch, Shane L

    2007-01-01

    This study used qualitative methodology to investigate the self-efficacy beliefs of early adolescents with learning disabilities (LD). We conducted a series of focus group interviews with 28 Grade 8 and 9 students with LD and individual interviews with 7 specialist LD teachers. Content analyses of the student and teacher data resulted in 2 a priori and 3 inductive themes: self-efficacy, calibration and levels of self-efficacy, students' self-awareness, attributions for failure, and problems and solutions. The students viewed themselves as low in self-efficacy and generally accurate in the calibration of their efficacy and performance, whereas the teachers viewed the students as overconfident about academic tasks. In contrast to the teachers, the students viewed verbal persuasion as a valued source of self-efficacy. Students attributed their failures to lack of effort, whereas their teachers attributed student failure to uncontrollable deficits. Problems and solutions related to student motivation were discussed from student and teacher perspectives.

  6. Global snow cover: comparison of modeling results with satellite-derived snow cover maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, E.; Adam, J. C.; Claps, P.

    2010-12-01

    Snow processes play an important role in the hydrologic cycle. Snowpack accumulation and depletion not only influence annual water availability and runoff seasonality, but also the functioning of ecosystems and the interactions between human activities and surface water systems. Moreover, at the large scale, snow cover influences the climate system due to its high albedo which affects the surface energy balance. Therefore, a global-scale hydrologic model that is able to predict snow cover extent (SCE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) in response to changes in climate can provide crucial information that is needed to plan for changes in water resources availability but also on potential feedbacks to the climate system. In this study, snow depth time series are simulated for the period 1950-1999 using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. In order to evaluate the performance of the VIC model in simulating SCE, results from the VIC model over the northern hemisphere (NH) are compared with satellite-derived SCE from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) NH EASE-Grid Weekly Snow Cover and Sea Ice Extent database. The comparison is focused on both temporal and spatial agreement between model and satellite-derived SCE. Temporal agreement is assessed by comparing the number of days with snow cover for both annual and seasonal periods. Spatial agreement is assessed by comparing SCE for a few large river basins. We demonstrate that there is a reasonable agreement between model and satellite-derived SCE, particularly if a 1 cm snow depth threshold is used when designating each VIC grid cell as "snow covered". However, some consistent biases are evident, particularly during the snowmelt season when the VIC model predicts a faster ablation period than the satellite data. It is possible that biases may also be attributed to the satellite-data, particularly in regards to a coarser spatial resolution than the VIC model results as well as the processing of the

  7. Knockdown of a nutrient amino acid transporter gene LdNAT1 reduces free neutral amino acid contents and impairs Leptinotarsa decemlineata pupation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A Leptinotarsa decemlineata SLC6 NAT gene (LdNAT1) was cloned. LdNAT1 was highly expressed in the larval alimentary canal especially midgut. LdNAT1 mRNA levels were high right after the molt and low just before the molt. JH and a JH analog pyriproxyfen activated LdNAT1 expression. RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C increased JH and upregulated LdNAT1 transcription. Conversely, silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT decreased JH and reduced LdNAT1 expression. Moreover, 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide repressed LdNAT1 expression, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNAi of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and disruption of 20E signaling by knockdown of LdE75 and LdFTZ-F1 activated LdNAT1 expression. Thus, LdNAT1 responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdNAT1 reduced the contents of cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and serine in the larval bodies and increased the contents of these amino acids in the larval feces. Furthermore, RNAi of LdNAT1 inhibited insulin/target of rapamycin pathway, lowered 20E and JH titers, reduced 20E and JH signaling, retarded larval growth and impaired pupation. These data showed that LdNAT1 was involved in the absorption of several neutral amino acids critical for larval growth and metamorphosis. PMID:26657797

  8. Evaluation of a Multi-Decadal Simulation of Stratospheric Ozone by Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Steenrod, Steven; Pawson, Steven

    2003-01-01

    One key application of atmospheric chemistry and transport models is prediction of the response of ozone and other constituents to various natural and anthropogenic perturbations. These include changes in composition, such as the previous rise and recent decline in emission of man-made chlorofluorcarbons, changes in aerosol loading due to volcanic eruption, and changes in solar forcing. Comparisons of hindcast model results for the past few decades with observations are a key element of model evaluation and provide a sense of the reliability of model predictions. The 25 year data set from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers is a cornerstone of such model evaluation. Here we report evaluation of three-dimensional multi-decadal simulation of stratospheric composition. Meteorological fields for this off-line calculation are taken from a 50 year simulation of a general circulation model. Model fields are compared with observations from TOMS and also with observations from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES), and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE). This overall evaluation will emphasize the spatial, seasonal, and interannual variability of the simulation compared with observed atmospheric variability.

  9. Evaluation of a Multi-Decadal Simulation of Stratospheric Ozone by Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Steenrod, Steven; Pawson, Steven

    2003-01-01

    One key application of atmospheric chemistry and transport models is prediction of the response of ozone and other constituents to various natural and anthropogenic perturbations. These include changes in composition, such as the previous rise and recent decline in emission of man-made chlorofluorcarbons, changes in aerosol loading due to volcanic eruption, and changes in solar forcing. Comparisons of hindcast model results for the past few decades with observations are a key element of model evaluation and provide a sense of the reliability of model predictions. The 25 year data set from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers is a cornerstone of such model evaluation. Here we report evaluation of three-dimensional multi-decadal simulation of stratospheric composition. Meteorological fields for this off-line calculation are taken from a 50 year simulation of a general circulation model. Model fields are compared with observations from TOMS and also with observations from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES), and the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE). This overall evaluation will emphasize the spatial, seasonal, and interannual variability of the simulation compared with observed atmospheric variability.

  10. Inter-comparison of remote sensing sensing-based shoreline mapping techniques at different coastal stretches of India.

    PubMed

    Sunder, Swathy; Ramsankaran, Raaj; Ramakrishnan, Balaji

    2017-06-01

    Many techniques are available for detection of shorelines from multispectral satellite imagery, but the choice of a certain technique for a particular study area can be tough. Hence, for the first time in literature, an inter-comparison of the most widely used shoreline mapping techniques such as Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified NDWI (MNDWI), Improved Band Ratio (IBR) Method, and Automatic Water Extraction Index (AWEI) has been done along four different coastal stretches of India using multitemporal Landsat data. The obtained results have been validated with the high-resolution images of Cartosat-2 (panchromatic) and multispectral images from Google Earth. Performance of the above indices has been analyzed based on the statistics, such as overall accuracy, kappa coefficient, user's accuracy, producer's accuracy, and the average deviation from the reference line. It is observed that the performance of NDWI and IBR techniques are dependent on the physical characteristics of the sites, and therefore, it varies from one site to another. Results indicate that unlike these two indices, the AWEI algorithm performs consistently well followed by MNDWI irrespective of the land cover types.

  11. A metric linkage disequilibrium map of a human chromosome.

    PubMed

    Tapper, W J; Maniatis, N; Morton, N E; Collins, A

    2003-11-01

    We used LDMAP (Maniatis et al. 2002) to analyse SNP data spanning chromosome 22 (Dawson et al. 2002), to obtain a whole-chromosome metric LD map. The LD map, with map distances analogous to the centiMorgan scale of linkage maps, identifies regions of high LD as plateaus ('blocks') and characterises steps which define the relationship between these regions. From this map we estimate that block regions comprise between 32% and 55% of the euchromatic portion of chromosome 22 and that increasing marker density within steps may increase block coverage. Steps are regions of low LD which correspond to areas of variable recombination intensity. The intensity of recombination is related to the height of the step and thus intense recombination hot-spots can be distinguished from more randomly distributed historical events. The LD maps are more closely related to the high-resolution linkage map (Kong et al. 2002) than average measures of rho with recombination accounting for between 34% and 52% of the variance in patterns of LD (r=0.58 - 0.71, p=0.0001). Step regions are closely correlated with a range of sequence motifs including GT/CA repeats. The LD map identifies holes in which greater marker density is required and defines the optimal SNP spacing for positional cloning, which suggests that some multiple of around 50,000 SNPs will be required to efficiently screen Caucasian genomes. Further analyses which investigate selection of informative SNPs and the effect of SNP allele frequency and marker density will refine this estimate.

  12. Thinking Maps Enhance Metaphoric Competence in Children with Autism and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashal, Nira; Kasirer, Anat

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to examine the ability of children with autism (ASD) and children with learning disabilities (LD) to improve their metaphoric competence by an intervention program using "thinking maps". Twenty ASD children, 20 LD, and 20 typically developed (TD) children were tested on metaphors and idioms…

  13. Thinking Maps Enhance Metaphoric Competence in Children with Autism and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashal, Nira; Kasirer, Anat

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to examine the ability of children with autism (ASD) and children with learning disabilities (LD) to improve their metaphoric competence by an intervention program using "thinking maps". Twenty ASD children, 20 LD, and 20 typically developed (TD) children were tested on metaphors and idioms…

  14. Perspectives on Inclusion: Students with LD, Their Parents, and Their Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmiliar, Linda

    2009-01-01

    One of the most significant changes in education over the last few decades is the movement toward inclusive education. Many schools have adopted an inclusive approach of educating students with learning disabilities (LD) in the regular classroom. The present study utilized a multiple case study approach to examine the perspectives of stakeholders…

  15. Pluralizing Methodologies in the Field of LD: From "What Works" to What Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.; Gallagher, Deborah; Connor, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The field of learning disabilities (LD) has a complex and complicated history. Tensions over definitions, eligibility criteria, service delivery models, and best practices, as well as epistemological debates, have been a part of that history from its inception. Given our collective struggles, as well as the current realities facing the field,…

  16. Pluralizing Methodologies in the Field of LD: From "What Works" to What Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.; Gallagher, Deborah; Connor, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The field of learning disabilities (LD) has a complex and complicated history. Tensions over definitions, eligibility criteria, service delivery models, and best practices, as well as epistemological debates, have been a part of that history from its inception. Given our collective struggles, as well as the current realities facing the field,…

  17. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The College-Bound L.D. Student--Let's Bury the Myths Forever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeDecker, Sally

    This paper addresses myths about college students with learning disabilities (LD) which may give false hope to students very unlikely to succeed in college but more often place limitations on students who could succeed with some support services, based on the experience of Project Achieve at Southern Illinois University. The "myths"…

  19. The middle school experience: effects on the math and science achievement of adolescents with LD.

    PubMed

    Anderman, E M

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between middle school transitions and achievement gaps in math and science between adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). An abundance of research indicates that motivation and achievement decline during the early adolescent years, and that this decline is often attributable to the transition from elementary to middle grade schools during early adolescence. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, it was found that, on average, there was a strong gap in achievement between the two groups of early adolescents. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine school effects on these achievement gaps. Results indicated that although there were achievement gaps in math and science between adolescents with LD and non-LD adolescents, this gap was greatly reduced for adolescents who did not make a school transition until at least the ninth grade. It is proposed that the policies and practices of typical middle-grade schools are particularly incompatible with the educational and psychological needs of young adolescents with LD.

  20. Practices and Attitudes of Postsecondary LD Service Providers in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Deborah S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A nationwide survey of 510 postsecondary learning disability (LD) service providers revealed that an educationally diverse group of professionals is developing programs and providing direct instruction to students with learning disabilities. Service providers are encouraged to utilize interventions that lead to self-determination and independence…

  1. Orthographic Processing and Reading Comprehension among Arabic Speaking Mainstream and LD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Al-Diyar, Mosaad Abu; Taibah, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Two cohorts of mainstream children (grades 2-5) and one cohort of children with learning disabilities (LD; grades 3-5), all Arabic speaking children in Kuwait, were given measures of reading comprehension fluency and orthographic discrimination to assess the relationship between the two. Additional measures of phonological processing (decoding and…

  2. Individual and Longitudinal Differences among High and Low-Achieving, LD, and ADHD L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Humbach, Nancy; Javorsky, James

    2008-01-01

    High-achieving (HA) and low-achieving (LA), learning disabled (LD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) high school students were followed over two years of L2 study and compared on measures of L1 literacy (reading and writing) in elementary school, L1 cognitive ability, L2 aptitude, oral and written L2 proficiency, and L2 word…

  3. Mathematics Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities (LD) in Secondary School: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jonté A.; Wang, Jun; Brownell, Mary T.; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our literature review was to extend and update Maccini, Mulcahy, and Wilson's (2007) review of the literature on mathematics interventions for secondary students with learning disabilities (LD). An extensive search of the research literature netted 15 research studies that focused on mathematics interventions for secondary students…

  4. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, ALCIDE LD 4:1:1 - BASE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... kill (1)' tIn L'},llhillg. h'l'dl" gnggle~, fiH .. 'l' ... hil'ld ,.,' 'If,,I'' gl" ... ,S. 11,1..,il til",'''ghl\\' \\,'til ""'I' :rnd \\,alL'I' 'Iftl'r h.llHllillg. Kt'I!hl\\"l' l..-l'llLlmin;Ilt-'d l]llthill..:. ...

  5. The Impact of the Flynn Effect on LD Diagnoses in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Because of the Flynn effect, IQ scores rise as a test norm ages but drop on the introduction of a newly revised test norm. The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact of the Flynn effect on learning disability (LD) diagnoses, the most prevalent special education diagnosis in the United States. Using a longitudinal sample of 875…

  6. Mothers of Children with LD and ADHD: Empowerment through Online Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margalit, Malka; Raskind, Marshall H.

    2009-01-01

    Mothers of children with learning disabilities (LD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were notified of the possibility that their online community was going to be closed. They immediately responded with messages about the significance of the community to their lives and distress that the site would not continue to be available.…

  7. The End of Innocence: Historiography and Representation in the Discursive Practice of LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, I discuss two interrelated sets of challenges that the discursive practice of learning disability (LD) will need to address, namely, issues associated with the development of a historiography of special education and a more complex understanding of representation issues. I use social theory to address these challenges and raise…

  8. The Impact of the Flynn Effect on LD Diagnoses in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Because of the Flynn effect, IQ scores rise as a test norm ages but drop on the introduction of a newly revised test norm. The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact of the Flynn effect on learning disability (LD) diagnoses, the most prevalent special education diagnosis in the United States. Using a longitudinal sample of 875…

  9. Linear-dichroic infrared spectral (IR-LD) analysis of codeine and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Bojidarka; Kolev, Tsonko; Bakalska, Rumyana

    2007-05-01

    By means of IR-LD spectroscopy of oriented as suspension in nematic liquid crystal solids, a detailed IR-bands assignment and a stereo-structural prediction of codeine, codeinone and N-norcodeine have been carried out. The data are compared with known crystallographic ones of codeine and codeinone obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  10. Comorbid LD and ADHD in Childhood: Socioemotional and Behavioural Adjustment and Parents' Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how vulnerability and protective factors at the individual level (child's disabilities; patterns of attachment), and at the family level (fathers'/mothers' affect), help explain differences in socioemotional and behavioural adjustment among children aged 8-12 years with comorbid learning disability (LD) and attention…

  11. Use of the adaptive classifier for determination of LD50 in the acute radiation disease.

    PubMed

    Vodicka, I; Hanus, J; Hradil, J

    1989-01-01

    In experiments on female Wistar rats a new method for the determination of LD50 is demonstrated and compared with the classical probit method using the same experimental animals. The method is applicable for the computation of LD50 and analogical quantities in man, too. The method is based on the application of an adaptive logical circuit (ADALINE) trained for the dichotomous prognostic classification of irradiated individuals quod vitam according to a set of clinical and laboratory indicators registered on the third day after irradiation. After the training procedure has been finished, the classifier makes possible an individual prognosis of survival or death. The analogue output signal according to which the classification is performed changes continually from negative to positive values and exhibits S-shaped relation to the radiation dose. Its zero value corresponds to the position of LD50 on the abscissa. For the construction of the searched function, i.e. for the optimum approximation of experimentally obtained values of the output signal, the method of the changeable polyhedron was applied belonging to the optimalization numerical methods used in the regulation technics. The computed value of LD50 was 7.80 Gy in rats very closely corresponding with the value 7.61 Gy determined by means of the classical probit method.

  12. Comparison of UAV and WorldView-2 imagery for mapping leaf area index of mangrove forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jinyan; Wang, Le; Li, Xiaojuan; Gong, Huili; Shi, Chen; Zhong, Ruofei; Liu, Xiaomeng

    2017-09-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing has opened the door to new sources of data to effectively characterize vegetation metrics at very high spatial resolution and at flexible revisit frequencies. Successful estimation of the leaf area index (LAI) in precision agriculture with a UAV image has been reported in several studies. However, in most forests, the challenges associated with the interference from a complex background and a variety of vegetation species have hindered research using UAV images. To the best of our knowledge, very few studies have mapped the forest LAI with a UAV image. In addition, the drawbacks and advantages of estimating the forest LAI with UAV and satellite images at high spatial resolution remain a knowledge gap in existing literature. Therefore, this paper aims to map LAI in a mangrove forest with a complex background and a variety of vegetation species using a UAV image and compare it with a WorldView-2 image (WV2). In this study, three representative NDVIs, average NDVI (AvNDVI), vegetated specific NDVI (VsNDVI), and scaled NDVI (ScNDVI), were acquired with UAV and WV2 to predict the plot level (10 × 10 m) LAI. The results showed that AvNDVI achieved the highest accuracy for WV2 (R2 = 0.778, RMSE = 0.424), whereas ScNDVI obtained the optimal accuracy for UAV (R2 = 0.817, RMSE = 0.423). In addition, an overall comparison results of the WV2 and UAV derived LAIs indicated that UAV obtained a better accuracy than WV2 in the plots that were covered with homogeneous mangrove species or in the low LAI plots, which was because UAV can effectively eliminate the influence from the background and the vegetation species owing to its high spatial resolution. However, WV2 obtained a slightly higher accuracy than UAV in the plots covered with a variety of mangrove species, which was because the UAV sensor provides a negative spectral response function(SRF) than WV2 in terms of the mangrove LAI estimation.

  13. T1 mapping in dilated cardiomyopathy with cardiac magnetic resonance: quantification of diffuse myocardial fibrosis and comparison with endomyocardial biopsy.

    PubMed

    aus dem Siepen, Fabian; Buss, Sebastian J; Messroghli, Daniel; Andre, Florian; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Seitz, Sebastian; Keller, Marius; Schnabel, Philipp A; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Katus, Hugo A; Steen, Henning

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the value of extracellular volume fraction (ECV) for the non-invasive assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis (MF) in different stages of systolic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in comparison with endomyocardial biopsy. Non-invasive ECV assessment using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping reflects diffuse MF in patients with severe DCM, but earlier stages of DCM with mild LV functional impairment have not been investigated yet. Forty-five subjects with mild functional impairment and LV dilation ['early DCM', ejection fraction (EF) 45-55%], 29 with LV dysfunction and volume dilatation ('DCM', EF <45%) and 56 healthy volunteers (controls) underwent standard CMR imaging, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 mapping for the calculation of ECV. The collagen volume fraction (CVF) was quantified histologically from endomyocardial biopsies of 24 DCM patients out of the study cohort. The ECV between 'early DCM' (25 ± 4%), 'DCM' (27 ± 4%), and controls (23 ± 3; P < 0.05 for all) differed significantly. There was a weak inverse correlation between ECV and EF (r = -0.35; P < 0.01). A strong correlation between ECV and CVF could be detected (r = 0.85; P = 0.01). The cut-off value for ECV to differentiate between healthy myocardium and DCM was 26% (specificity 91.1%, sensitivity 62.1%, area under the curve 0.8, P < 0.0001). ECV is already elevated at early stages of functional impairment, whereby an overlap between early DCM and controls is present. But 31% of the early DCM patients had an ECV fraction above the mean ±2 SD ECV of controls. ECV measurement with CMR reflects myocardial collagen content in DCM. Therefore, CMR-based assessment of ECV may have the potential to serve as a non-invasive tool for the quantification of diffuse MF in order to monitor therapy response and aid risk stratification in different stages of DCM. Published on behalf of the European Society of

  14. Mapping soil water content under sparse vegetation and changeable sky conditions: comparison of two thermal inertia approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2013-01-01

    A critical analysis of a thermal inertia approach to map surface soil water content on bare and sparsely vegetated soils by means of remotely sensed data is reported. The study area is an experimental field located in Barrax, Spain. In situ data were acquired within the Barrax 2011 research project. An advanced hyperspectral scanner airborne imager provides images in the visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared bands. Images were acquired both in day and night times by the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial between 12th and 13th of June 2011. The scene covers a corn irrigation pivot surrounded by bare soil, where a set of in situ data have been collected both previously and simultaneously to overpasses. To validate remotely sensed estimations, an ad hoc dataset has been produced by measuring spectra, radiometric temperatures, surface soil water content, and soil thermal properties. These data were collected on two transects covering bare and sparsely vegetated soils. This ground dataset was used (1) to verify if a thermal inertia method can be applied to map the water content on soil covered by sparse vegetation and (2) to quantify a correction factor accounting for solar radiation reduction due to sky cloudiness. The experiment intended to test a spatially constant and a spatially distributed approach to estimate the phase difference. Both methods were then applied to the airborne images collected during the following days to obtain the spatial distribution of surface soil water content. Results confirm that the thermal inertia method can be applied to sparsely vegetated soil characterized by low fractional cover if the solar radiation reaching the ground is accurately estimated. A spatially constant value of the phase difference allows a good assessment of thermal inertia, whereas the comparison with the three-temperature approach did not give conclusive responses. Results also show that clear sky, only at the time of the acquisition, does not provide

  15. A Comparison of Techniques for Mapping the Distribution of Sediment on the Bed of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, E.; Kaplinski, M.; Rubin, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center is charged with establishing and implementing monitoring projects to provide scientific information to the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) on the effects of operating Glen Canyon Dam on the downstream resources of the Colorado River ecosystem. One primary resource of concern to the GCDAMP is fine-grained sediment. Glen Canyon Dam traps approximately 94% of the pre-dam sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, resulting in a decline in the size of eddy sand bars (25% decline in surface area over the past 15 years). Sand bars are an important resource because they provide habitat for endangered native fish, protect archeological sites, provide substrate for vegetation, are used as campsites and are a distinctive feature of the pre-dam environment. A combination of traditional survey techniques and multi-beam bathymetry has been used to determine the size and elevation of sandbars and to obtain topographic maps of the riverbed. These techniques have proven useful in evaluating the spatial changes and channel morphology along the Colorado River ecosystem. While previous studies have been very effective in measuring volumetric and spatial changes, a method is needed map the distribution of sediment along the submerged portion of the river channel. The distribution of fine-grained sediment is needed to evaluate the potential for deposition onto high elevation sand bars during proposed experimental high flows. This study used high-resolution multibeam bathymetry, acoustic backscatter and underwater video images collected on expeditions in 2002 and 2004 to evaluate the different methodologies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible technologies to be used in determining the distribution of sediment along the bed of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. These technologies include: 1) visual interpretation of shaded relief images produced from multibeam bathymetry; 2) visual

  16. Comparison of ASTER- and AVIRIS-Derived Mineraland Vegetation Maps of the White Horse Replacement Alunite Deposit and Surrounding Area, Marysvale Volcanic Field, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents and compares mineral and vegetation maps of parts of the Marysvale volcanic field in west-central Utah that were published in a recent paper describing the White Horse replacement alunite deposit. Detailed, field-verified maps of the deposit were produced from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data acquired from a low-altitude Twin Otter turboprop airborne platform. Reconnaissance-level maps of surrounding areas including the central and northern Tushar Mountains, Pahvant Range, and portions of the Sevier Plateau to the east were produced from visible, near-infrared, and shortwave-infrared data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried aboard the Terra satellite platform. These maps are also compared to a previously published mineral map of the same area generated from AVIRIS data acquired from the high-altitude NASA ER-2 jet platform. All of the maps were generated by similar analysis methods, enabling the direct comparison of the spatial scale and mineral composition of surface geologic features that can be identified using the three types of remote sensing data. The high spatial (2-17 meter) and spectral (224 bands) resolution AVIRIS data can be used to generate detailed mineral and vegetation maps suitable for geologic and geoenvironmental studies of individual deposits, mines, and smelters. The lower spatial (15-30 meter) and spectral (9 bands) resolution ASTER data are better suited to less detailed mineralogical studies of lithology and alteration across entire hydrothermal systems and mining districts, including regional mineral resource and geoenvironmental assessments. The results presented here demonstrate that minerals and mineral mixtures can be directly identified using AVIRIS and ASTER data to elucidate spatial patterns of mineralogic zonation; AVIRIS data can enable the generation of maps with significantly greater detail and accuracy. The

  17. Differential Diagnosis of Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Virginia W; Richards, Todd; Abbott, Robert D

    2015-10-01

    In Study 1, children in grades 4 to 9 (N= 88, 29 females and 59 males) with persisting reading and/or writing disabilities, despite considerable prior specialized instruction in and out of school, were given an evidence-based comprehensive assessment battery at the university while parents completed questionnaires regarding past and current history of language learning and other difficulties. Profiles (patterns) of normed measures for different levels of oral and written language used to categorize participants into diagnostic groups for dysgraphia (impaired subword handwriting) (n=26), dyslexia (impaired word spelling and reading) (n=38), or oral and written language learning disability OWL LD (impaired oral and written syntax comprehension and expression) (n=13) or control oral and written language learners (OWLs) without SLDs (n=11) were consistent withreported history. Impairments in working memory components supporting language learning were also examined. In Study 2, right handed children from Study 1 who did not wear braces (controls, n=9, dysgraphia, n= 14; dyslexia, n=17, OWL LD, n=5) completed an fMRI functional connectivity brain imaging study in which they performed a word-specific spelling judgment task, which is related to both word reading and spelling, and may be impaired in dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD for different reasons. fMRI functional connectivity from 4 seed points in brain locations involved in written word processing to other brain regions also differentiated dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD; both specific regions to which connected and overall number of functional connections differed. Thus, results provide converging neurological and behavioral evidence, for dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD being different, diagnosable specific learning disabilities (SLDs) for persisting written language problems during middle childhood and early adolescence. Translation of the research findings into practice at policy and administrative levels and

  18. Differential Diagnosis of Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Richards, Todd; Abbott, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In Study 1, children in grades 4 to 9 (N= 88, 29 females and 59 males) with persisting reading and/or writing disabilities, despite considerable prior specialized instruction in and out of school, were given an evidence-based comprehensive assessment battery at the university while parents completed questionnaires regarding past and current history of language learning and other difficulties. Profiles (patterns) of normed measures for different levels of oral and written language used to categorize participants into diagnostic groups for dysgraphia (impaired subword handwriting) (n=26), dyslexia (impaired word spelling and reading) (n=38), or oral and written language learning disability OWL LD (impaired oral and written syntax comprehension and expression) (n=13) or control oral and written language learners (OWLs) without SLDs (n=11) were consistent withreported history. Impairments in working memory components supporting language learning were also examined. In Study 2, right handed children from Study 1 who did not wear braces (controls, n=9, dysgraphia, n= 14; dyslexia, n=17, OWL LD, n=5) completed an fMRI functional connectivity brain imaging study in which they performed a word-specific spelling judgment task, which is related to both word reading and spelling, and may be impaired in dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD for different reasons. fMRI functional connectivity from 4 seed points in brain locations involved in written word processing to other brain regions also differentiated dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD; both specific regions to which connected and overall number of functional connections differed. Thus, results provide converging neurological and behavioral evidence, for dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD being different, diagnosable specific learning disabilities (SLDs) for persisting written language problems during middle childhood and early adolescence. Translation of the research findings into practice at policy and administrative levels and

  19. Oxidative stress and apoptosis in a pig model of brain death (BD) and living donation (LD)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As organ shortage is increasing, the acceptance of marginal donors increases, which might result in poor organ function and patient survival. Mostly, organ damage is caused during brain death (BD), cold ischemic time (CIT) or after reperfusion due to oxidative stress or the induction of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to study a panel of genes involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis and compare these findings with immunohistochemistry from a BD and living donation (LD) pig model and after cold ischemia time (CIT). Methods BD was induced in pigs; after 12 h organ retrieval was performed; heart, liver and kidney tissue specimens were collected in the BD (n = 6) and in a LD model (n = 6). PCR analysis for NFKB1, GSS, SOD2, PPAR-alpha, OXSR1, BAX, BCL2L1, and HSP 70.2 was performed and immunohistochemistry used to show apoptosis and nitrosative stress induced cell damage. Results In heart tissue of BD BAX, BCL2L1 and HSP 70.2 increased significantly after CIT. Only SOD2 was over-expressed after CIT in BD liver tissue. In kidney tissue, BCL2L1, NFKB, OXSR1, SOD2 and HSP 70.2 expression was significantly elevated in LD. Immunohistochemistry showed a significant increase in activated Caspase 3 and nitrotyrosine positive cells after CIT in BD in liver and in kidney tissue but not in heart tissue. Conclusion The up-regulation of protective and apoptotic genes seems to be divergent in the different organs in the BD and LD setting; however, immunohistochemistry revealed more apoptotic and nitrotyrosine positive cells in the BD setting in liver and kidney tissue whereas in heart tissue both BD and LD showed an increase. PMID:24088575

  20. Comparison of Northern Ireland radon maps based on indoor radon measurements and geology with maps derived by predictive modelling of airborne radiometric and ground permeability data.

    PubMed

    Appleton, J D; Miles, J C H; Young, M

    2011-03-15

    Publicly available information about radon potential in Northern Ireland is currently based on indoor radon results averaged over 1-km grid squares, an approach that does not take into account the geological origin of the radon. This study describes a spatially more accurate estimate of the radon potential of Northern Ireland using an integrated radon potential mapping method based on indoor radon measurements and geology that was originally developed for mapping radon potential in England and Wales. A refinement of this method was also investigated using linear regression analysis of a selection of relevant airborne and soil geochemical parameters from the Tellus Project. The most significant independent variables were found to be eU, a parameter derived from airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of radon decay products in the top layer of soil and exposed bedrock, and the permeability of the ground. The radon potential map generated from the Tellus data agrees in many respects with the map based on indoor radon data and geology but there are several areas where radon potential predicted from the airborne radiometric and permeability data is substantially lower. This under-prediction could be caused by the radon concentration being lower in the top 30 cm of the soil than at greater depth, because of the loss of radon from the surface rocks and soils to air. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The Effectiveness of Concept Maps in Teaching Physics Concepts Applied to Engineering Education: Experimental Comparison of the Amount of Learning Achieved With and Without Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Guadalupe; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2013-04-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of concept maps in learning physics in engineering degrees. The following research question was posed: What was the difference in learning results from the use of concept maps to study a particular topic in an engineering course? The study design was quasi-experimental and used a post-test as a measuring instrument. The sample included 114 university students from the School of Industrial Engineering who were divided into two equivalent homogeneous groups of 57 students each. The amount of learning attained by the students in each group was compared, with the independent variable being the teaching method; the experimental group (E.G.) used concept maps, while the control group (C.G.) did not. We performed a crossover study with the two groups of students, with one group acting as the E.G. for the topic of optical fibers and as the C.G. for the topic of the fundamental particles of matter and vice versa for the other group. For each of the two topics studied, the evaluation instrument was a test of 100 dichotomous items. The resulting data were subjected to a comparative statistical analysis, which revealed a significant difference in the amount of learning attained by the E.G. students as compared with the C.G. students. The results allow us to state that for the use of concept maps, the average increment in the E.G. students' learning was greater than 19 percentage points.

  2. Aerial image measuring system at 193 nm: a tool-to-tool comparison and global CD mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibold, Axel M.; Schmid, Rainer; Boehm, Klaus; Birkner, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Reticle inspection and qualification is getting very important due to the overall shrinking feature sizes on chips and CD values less than the exposure wavelength. Mask defects will matter increasingly and successful defect disposition and image qualification is becoming essential to improve yield. Currently ongoing studies demonstrate the beneficial use of AIMSTM* (Aerial Image Measuring System) -besides its application in mask shops like repair verification- for various wafer fab applications like Incoming Qualitiy Check (IQC), Automated Reticle Defect Disposition (ARDD), OPC verification or litho process evaluation in engineering without the use of stepper time and image qualification through wafer SEM evaluation. Among the important questions for the use of an aerial image measuring system is the level on which different tools compare to each other in terms of critical system performance parameters in order to judge the results of the data analysis in a global way. In this work we conducted a tool to tool comparison study of AIMSTM fab 193 systems investigating parameters like: Normalized illumination uniformity, CD (critical dimension) uniformity over field, and static CD repeatability over time in x- and y-directions. The study is based on the evaluation of a data base collected with typical feature sizes of 1μm on the mask, ensuring with such feature sizes that tool results are independent of mask features being close to the resolution limit or the printability capability. Typical settings are NA = 0.7 and circular sigma = 0.6 on a set of tools in the field as well as in-house. In addition the performance of the tools will be discussed in terms of a specific application, global CD mapping, for use in process control. It can be applied for different use in wafer fab and mask shop environment. *TM:trademark of Carl Zeiss

  3. A Comparison of Satellite-Derived Snow Maps with a Focus on Ephemeral Snow in North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Fuhrmann, Christopher M.; Perry, L. Baker; Riggs, George A.; Robinson, David A.; Foster, James L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the attributes and limitations of four commonly-used daily snowcover products with respect to their ability to map ephemeral snow in central and eastern North Carolina. We show that the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fractional snow-cover maps can delineate the snow-covered area very well through the use of a fully-automated algorithm, but suffer from the limitation that cloud cover precludes mapping some ephemeral snow. The semi-automated Interactive Multi-sensor Snow and ice mapping system (IMS) and Rutgers Global Snow Lab (GSL) snow maps are often able to capture ephemeral snow cover because ground-station data are employed to develop the snow maps, The Rutgers GSL maps are based on the IMS maps. Finally, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) provides some good detail of snow-water equivalent especially in deeper snow, but may miss ephemeral snow cover because it is often very thin or wet; the AMSR-E maps also suffer from coarse spatial resolution. We conclude that the southeastern United States represents a good test region for validating the ability of satellite snow-cover maps to capture ephemeral snow cover,

  4. Cost, accuracy, and consistency comparisons of land use maps made from high-altitutde aircraft photography and ERTS imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Katherine A.

    1975-01-01

    Accuracy analyses for the land use maps of the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site were performed for a 1-percent sample of the area. Researchers compared Level II land use maps produced at three scales, 1:24,000, 1:100,000, and 1:250,000 from high-altitude photography, with each other and with point data obtained in the field. They employed the same procedures to determine the accuracy of the Level I land use maps produced at 1:250,000 from high-altitude photography and color composite ERTS imagery. The accuracy of the Level II maps was 84.9 percent at 1:24,000, 77.4 percent at 1:100,000, and 73.0 percent at 1:250,000. The accuracy of the Level I 1:250,000 maps produced from high-altitude aircraft photography was 76.5 percent and for those produced from ERTS imagery was 69.5 percent The cost of Level II land use mapping at 1:24,000 was found to be high ($11.93 per km2 ). The cost of mapping at 1:100,000 ($1.75) was about 2 times as expensive as mapping at 1:250,000 ($.88), and the accuracy increased by only 4.4 percent. Level I land use maps, when mapped from highaltitude photography, were about 4 times as expensive as the maps produced from ERTS imagery, although the accuracy is 7.0 percent greater. The Level I land use category that is least accurately mapped from ERTS imagery is urban and built-up land in the non-urban areas; in the urbanized areas, built-up land is more reliably mapped.

  5. Profiles of Elementary-Age English Language Learners with Reading-Related Learning Disabilities (LD) Identified as Speech and Language Impaired Prior to, at, or after Identification as LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Belinda Maria Despujols

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics of 14 English Language Learners classified as having learning disabilities (LD) who were also identified as having speech and language impairments (SI) prior to, at, or after initial identification as LD. Data were collected under the auspices of a longitudinal study, Bilingual Exceptional Students:…

  6. Profiles of Elementary-Age English Language Learners with Reading-Related Learning Disabilities (LD) Identified as Speech and Language Impaired Prior to, at, or after Identification as LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Belinda Maria Despujols

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics of 14 English Language Learners classified as having learning disabilities (LD) who were also identified as having speech and language impairments (SI) prior to, at, or after initial identification as LD. Data were collected under the auspices of a longitudinal study, Bilingual Exceptional Students:…

  7. Effect of solvents on the spectroscopic properties of LD-489 & LD-473: Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moments by solvatochromic shift method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepa, H. R.; Thipperudrappa, J.; Suresh Kumar, H. M.

    2013-05-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6,8,9-trimethyl-4-(trifluoro methyl)-2H-pyrano[2,3-b][1,8]naphthyridin-2-one (LD-489) and 1,2,3,8-tetrahydro-1,2,3,3,8-pentamethyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-7H-pyrrolo[3,2-g]quinolin-7-one (LD-473) have been recorded at room temperature in different solvents and 1,4-dioxane-acetonitrile solvent mixtures. The UV-Visible absorption spectra are less sensitive to solvent polarity than the corresponding fluorescence spectra in both the dyes which show pronounced solvatochromic effect. The effects of solvents upon the spectral properties are analyzed using Lippert-Mataga polarity function, Richardts microscopic solvent polarity parameter and Catalán's multiple linear regression approach. Both general solute-solvent interactions and specific interactions are operative in these systems. The solvatochromic correlations are used to estimate excited state dipole moments using experimentally determined ground state dipole moments. The excited state dipole moment for both the dyes are found to be larger than their corresponding ground state dipole moment and is interpreted based on their resonance structures.

  8. Comparison of glomerular activity patterns by fMRI and wide-field calcium imaging: Implications for principles underlying odor mapping.

    PubMed

    Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Rebello, Michelle R; Herman, Peter; Papademetris, Xenophon; Shepherd, Gordon M; Verhagen, Justus V; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2016-02-01

    Functional imaging signals arise from distinct metabolic and hemodynamic events at the neuropil, but how these processes are influenced by pre- and post-synaptic activities need to be understood for quantitative interpretation of stimulus-evoked mapping data. The olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli, spherical neuropil regions with well-defined neuronal circuitry, can provide insights into this issue. Optical calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye imaging (OICa(2+)) reflects dynamics of pre-synaptic input to glomeruli, whereas high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using deoxyhemoglobin contrast reveals neuropil function within the glomerular layer where both pre- and post-synaptic activities contribute. We imaged odor-specific activity patterns of the dorsal OB in the same anesthetized rats with fMRI and OICa(2+) and then co-registered the respective maps to compare patterns in the same space. Maps by each modality were very reproducible as trial-to-trial patterns for a given odor, overlapping by ~80%. Maps evoked by ethyl butyrate and methyl valerate for a given modality overlapped by ~80%, suggesting activation of similar dorsal glomerular networks by these odors. Comparison of maps generated by both methods for a given odor showed ~70% overlap, indicating similar odor-specific maps by each method. These results suggest that odor-specific glomerular patterns by high-resolution fMRI primarily tracks pre-synaptic input to the OB. Thus combining OICa(2+) and fMRI lays the framework for studies of OB processing over a range of spatiotemporal scales, where OICa(2+) can feature the fast dynamics of dorsal glomerular clusters and fMRI can map the entire glomerular sheet in the OB.

  9. Development of a black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] linkage map and its comparison with an azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi] linkage map.

    PubMed

    Chaitieng, B; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Isemura, T; Kuroda, Y; Vaughan, D A

    2006-11-01

    The Asian Vigna group of grain legumes consists of six domesticated species, among them black gram is widely grown in South Asia and to a lesser extent in Southeast Asia. We report the first genetic linkage map of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper], constructed using a BC(1)F(1) population consisting of 180 individuals. The BC(1)F(1) population was analyzed in 61 SSR primer pairs, 56 RFLP probes, 27 AFLP loci and 1 morphological marker. About 148 marker loci could be assigned to the 11 linkage groups, which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of black gram. The linkage groups cover a total of 783 cM of the black gram genome. The number of markers per linkage group ranges from 6 to 23. The average distance between adjacent markers varied from 3.5 to 9.3 cM. The results of comparative genome mapping between black gram and azuki bean show that the linkage order of markers is highly conserved. However, inversions, insertions, deletions/duplications and a translocation were detected between the black gram and azuki bean linkage maps. The marker order on parts of linkage groups 1, 2 and 5 is reversed between the two species. One region on black gram linkage group 10 appears to correspond to part of azuki bean linkage group 1. The present study suggests that the azuki bean SSR markers can be widely used for Asian Vigna species and the black gram genetic linkage map will assist in improvement of this crop.

  10. A Synthesis on the Research of the Comorbidity of ADHD and LD in Korea: Perspective and Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Koh, Eunyoung; Jeong, Sora; Lee, Kijyung; Kim, Boongnyun; Kim, Ienai

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD) are the most commonly diagnosed childhood disorders, and they frequently co-occur with each other. It has been found that students with comorbidity of ADHD and LD experience more difficulties in school. Even though the research interests in the comorbidity of ADHD and…

  11. Using Prompt Fading to Teach Self-Questioning to Fifth Graders with LD: Effects on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Christina A.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Cullen, Jennifer M.; Sawyer, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Students with LD who struggle with reading comprehension can benefit from instruction on how to read strategically. One strategy that has been demonstrated to increase reading comprehension is self-questioning. In this study, two fifth graders with LD were taught to self-generate questions using a prompt fading procedure. The participants were…

  12. Lymantria dispar iflavirus 1 (LdIV1), a new model to study iflaviral persistence in lepidopterans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cell line IPLB-LD-652Y derived from the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Linn.) is routinely used to study insect virus-host interactions. Here we report the full genome sequence and biological characteristics of a small RNA virus, designated Lymantria dispar iflavirus 1 (LdIV1), that was discovere...

  13. A Synthesis on the Research of the Comorbidity of ADHD and LD in Korea: Perspective and Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Koh, Eunyoung; Jeong, Sora; Lee, Kijyung; Kim, Boongnyun; Kim, Ienai

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD) are the most commonly diagnosed childhood disorders, and they frequently co-occur with each other. It has been found that students with comorbidity of ADHD and LD experience more difficulties in school. Even though the research interests in the comorbidity of ADHD and…

  14. Impact of the Personal Strengths Program on Self-Determination Levels of College Students with LD and/or ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Jennie L.; Allsopp, David H.; Ferron, John M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of The Personal Strengths Program (PSP) on seven college students with learning disabilities and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (LD/ADHD) using a multiple baseline design. Students with LD/ADHD experience increased challenges in school settings and decreased post-secondary outcomes when compared with…

  15. Impact of the Social Construction of LD on Culturally Diverse Families: A Response to Reid and Valle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyanpur, Maya; Harry, Beth

    2004-01-01

    This response focuses on the effects of the current construction of learning disabilities (LD) on families of children from devalued racial/ethnic groups. Agreeing with the arguments of Reid and Valle, we add that parents from such groups are further disenfranchised because they are not participants in the critical discourse surrounding LD and…

  16. 75 FR 5071 - Mississippi L&D 21, LLC, Mississippi River No. 21 Hydropower Company Lock + TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mississippi L&D 21, LLC, Mississippi River No. 21 Hydropower Company Lock..., Mississippi L&D 21, LLC (Mississippi LLC) filed an application for a preliminary permit for the proposed Mississippi River Lock and Dam No. 21 Hydroelectric Project No. 13636. On December 2, 2009, Mississippi...

  17. Impact of the Personal Strengths Program on Self-Determination Levels of College Students with LD and/or ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Jennie L.; Allsopp, David H.; Ferron, John M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of The Personal Strengths Program (PSP) on seven college students with learning disabilities and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (LD/ADHD) using a multiple baseline design. Students with LD/ADHD experience increased challenges in school settings and decreased post-secondary outcomes when compared with…

  18. Helping Students with LD to Succeed: The Role of Teachers' Hope, Sense of Coherence and Specific Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Uzi; Einav, Michal; Raskind, Ilana; Ziv, Orit; Margalit, Malka

    2013-01-01

    Teachers play a critical role in facilitating the academic achievements of students with learning disabilities (LD). The personal resources of teachers, such as sense of coherence (SOC) and hopeful thinking, may predict self-perception of the competency and efficacy they possess to help students with LD acquire needed learning skills. Several…

  19. Generalization of Spelling Strategies by LD Students as a Result of Contingent Imitation/Modeling and Mastery Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Michael M.

    1986-01-01

    Two studies required 11 learning disabled (LD) elementary students to spell unknown words using standard written dictation and imitation-modeling. When the LD students were permitted sufficient, though individually variable, exposure to minimal correction procedures, they spontaneously generalized what had been learned from one spelling list to…

  20. Comparison of CT perfusion summary maps to early diffusion-weighted images in suspected acute middle cerebral artery stroke.

    PubMed

    Benson, John; Payabvash, Seyedmehdi; Salazar, Pascal; Jagadeesan, Bharathi; Palmer, Christopher S; Truwit, Charles L; McKinney, Alexander M

    2015-04-01

    To assess the accuracy and reliability of one vendor's (Vital Images, Toshiba Medical, Minnetonka, MN) automated CT perfusion (CTP) summary maps in identification and volume estimation of infarcted tissue in patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) distribution infarcts. From 1085 CTP examinations over 5.5 years, 43 diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-positive patients were included who underwent both CTP and DWI <12 h after symptom onset, with another 43 age-matched patients as controls (DWI-negative). Automated delay-corrected postprocessing software (DC-SVD) generated both infarct "core only" and "core+penumbra" CTP summary maps. Three reviewers independently tabulated Alberta Stroke Program Early CT scores (ASPECTS) of both CTP summary maps and coregistered DWI. Of 86 included patients, 36 had DWI infarct volumes ≤70 ml, 7 had volumes >70 ml, and 43 were negative; the automated CTP "core only" map correctly classified each as >70 ml or ≤70 ml, while the "core+penumbra" map misclassified 4 as >70 ml. There were strong correlations between DWI volume with both summary map-based volumes: "core only" (r=0.93), and "core+penumbra" (r=0.77) (both p<0.0001). Agreement between ASPECTS scores of infarct core on DWI with summary maps was 0.65-0.74 for "core only" map, and 0.61-0.65 for "core+penumbra" (both p<0.0001). Using DWI-based ASPECTS scores as the standard, the accuracy of the CTP-based maps were 79.1-86.0% for the "core only" map, and 83.7-88.4% for "core+penumbra." Automated CTP summary maps appear to be relatively accurate in both the detection of acute MCA distribution infarcts, and the discrimination of volumes using a 70 ml threshold. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inviting Argument by Analogy: Analogical-Mapping-Based Comparison Activities as a Scaffold for Small-Group Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emig, Brandon R.; McDonald, Scott; Zembal-Saul, Carla; Strauss, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    This study invited small groups to make several arguments by analogy about simple machines. Groups were first provided training on analogical (structure) mapping and were then invited to use analogical mapping as a scaffold to make arguments. In making these arguments, groups were asked to consider three simple machines: two machines that they had…

  2. Comparison of a fully mapped plot design to three alternative designs for volume and area estimates using Maine inventory data

    Treesearch

    Stanford L. Arner

    1998-01-01

    A fully mapped plot design is compared to three alternative designs using data collected for the recent inventory of Maine's forest resources. Like the fully mapped design, one alternative eliminates the bias of previous procedures, and should be less costly and more consistent. There was little difference in volume and area estimates or in sampling errors among...

  3. A sequence-based genetic map of Medicago truncatula and comparison of marker colinearity with M. sativa.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Dongjin; Uhm, Taesik; Limpens, Eric; Lim, Hyunju; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kalo, Peter; Penmetsa, R Varma; Seres, Andrea; Kulikova, Olga; Roe, Bruce A; Bisseling, Ton; Kiss, Gyorgy B; Cook, Douglas R

    2004-01-01

    A core genetic map of the legume Medicago truncatula has been established by analyzing the segregation of 288 sequence-characterized genetic markers in an F(2) population composed of 93 individuals. These molecular markers correspond to 141 ESTs, 80 BAC end sequence tags, and 67 resistance gene analogs, covering 513 cM. In the case of EST-based markers we used an intron-targeted marker strategy with primers designed to anneal in conserved exon regions and to amplify across intron regions. Polymorphisms were significantly more frequent in intron vs. exon regions, thus providing an efficient mechanism to map transcribed genes. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis produced eight well-resolved linkage groups, which have been previously correlated with eight chromosomes by means of FISH with mapped BAC clones. We anticipated that mapping of conserved coding regions would have utility for comparative mapping among legumes; thus 60 of the EST-based primer pairs were designed to amplify orthologous sequences across a range of legume species. As an initial test of this strategy, we used primers designed against M. truncatula exon sequences to rapidly map genes in M. sativa. The resulting comparative map, which includes 68 bridging markers, indicates that the two Medicago genomes are highly similar and establishes the basis for a Medicago composite map. PMID:15082563

  4. Inviting Argument by Analogy: Analogical-Mapping-Based Comparison Activities as a Scaffold for Small-Group Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emig, Brandon R.; McDonald, Scott; Zembal-Saul, Carla; Strauss, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    This study invited small groups to make several arguments by analogy about simple machines. Groups were first provided training on analogical (structure) mapping and were then invited to use analogical mapping as a scaffold to make arguments. In making these arguments, groups were asked to consider three simple machines: two machines that they had…

  5. Sequential method of estimating the LD50 using a modified up-and-down rule.

    PubMed

    Jung, H; Choi, S C

    1994-03-01

    In this paper, the original up-and-down method, modified up-and-down method, the Robbins-Monro method, and a fixed-sample Spearman-Kärber method are compared for the point estimator as well as the confidence interval of LD50. In particular, three different designs of the modified up-and-down approach based on the combination of experiments on one test space and reduced test space are investigated. The standard normal distribution and chi-square distribution are used as tolerance distributions. Simulation results indicate that the modified up-and-down method tends to be somewhat better than the original up-and-down method in terms of the mean squared error under normal tolerance distribution. In case of chi-square distribution, the modified method is shown to be substantially better when the test space is wide and the initial dose is further away from the LD50.

  6. Quantitation of the cell surface level of Ld resulting in positive versus negative selection of the 2C transgenic T cell receptor in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cook, J R; Wormstall, E M; Hornell, T; Russell, J; Connolly, J M; Hansen, T H

    1997-08-01

    The 2C transgenic TCR is positively selected on Kb and is alloreactive for and negatively selected on Ld. To test an avidity model for positive selection, mice were bred to express different levels of surface Ld by varying the number of gene copies encoding beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) or Ld heavy chain. Whereas mice expressing 35% Ld (beta 2m+/- Ld+/-) negatively selected the 2C TCR, mice expressing 2% Ld (beta 2m-/- Ld+/-) positively selected the 2C TCR. Furthermore, 2C cytotoxic T lymphocytes selected on 2% Ld showed peptide-specific cytolytic activity against Ld/p2Ca targets. These findings provide clear in vivo evidence that positive selection can occur on very low levels of the same class I antigen capable of negative selection when expressed at higher levels.

  7. GLOBAL INTEGRATED ISR: A BETTER ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRUCT FOR AIR FORCE LD/HD ISR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-06

    624 OC and 625 OC into a MDOC and then declare it the Air Force C-NAF to CYBERCOM once this newly authorized FCC is separated from STRATCOM. This... AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY GLOBAL INTEGRATED ISR: A BETTER ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRUCT FOR AIR FORCE LD/HD ISR by Nicholas A. Nobriga...Lieutenant Colonel, United States Air Force A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements Advisor

  8. Structural Basis for the Interaction between Pyk2-FAT Domain and Leupaxin LD Repeats

    DOE PAGES

    Vanarotti, Murugendra S.; Finkelstein, David B.; Guibao, Cristina D.; ...

    2016-02-11

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase and belongs to the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family. Like FAK, the C-terminal focal adhesion-targeting (FAT) domain of Pyk2 binds to paxillin, a scaffold protein in focal adhesions; however, the interaction between the FAT domain of Pyk2 and paxillin is dynamic and unstable. Leupaxin is another member in the paxillin family and was suggested to be the native binding partner of Pyk2; Pyk2 gene expression is strongly correlated with that of leupaxin in many tissues including primary breast cancer. Here, we report that leupaxin interacts with Pyk2-FAT. Leupaxin has fourmore » leucine–aspartate (LD) motifs. The first and third LD motifs of leupaxin preferably target the two LD-binding sites on the Pyk2-FAT domain, respectively. Moreover, the full-length leupaxin binds to Pyk2-FAT as a stable one-to-one complex. Together, we propose that there is an underlying selectivity between leupaxin and paxillin for Pyk2, which may influence the differing behavior of the two proteins at focal adhesion sites.« less

  9. Structural Basis for the Interaction between Pyk2-FAT Domain and Leupaxin LD Repeats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase and belongs to the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family. Like FAK, the C-terminal focal adhesion-targeting (FAT) domain of Pyk2 binds to paxillin, a scaffold protein in focal adhesions; however, the interaction between the FAT domain of Pyk2 and paxillin is dynamic and unstable. Leupaxin is another member in the paxillin family and was suggested to be the native binding partner of Pyk2; Pyk2 gene expression is strongly correlated with that of leupaxin in many tissues including primary breast cancer. Here, we report that leupaxin interacts with Pyk2-FAT. Leupaxin has four leucine–aspartate (LD) motifs. The first and third LD motifs of leupaxin preferably target the two LD-binding sites on the Pyk2-FAT domain, respectively. Moreover, the full-length leupaxin binds to Pyk2-FAT as a stable one-to-one complex. Together, we propose that there is an underlying selectivity between leupaxin and paxillin for Pyk2, which may influence the differing behavior of the two proteins at focal adhesion sites. PMID:26866573

  10. An electrodynamics-Langevin dynamics (ED-LD) approach to simulate metal nanoparticle interactions and motion.

    PubMed

    Sule, N; Rice, S A; Gray, S K; Scherer, N F

    2015-11-16

    Understanding the formation of electrodynamically interacting assemblies of metal nanoparticles requires accurate computational methods for determining the forces and propagating trajectories. However, since computation of electromagnetic forces occurs on attosecond to femtosecond timescales, simulating the motion of colloidal nanoparticles on milliseconds to seconds timescales is a challenging multi-scale computational problem. Here, we present a computational technique for performing accurate simulations of laser-illuminated metal nanoparticles. In the simulation, we self-consistently combine the finite-difference time-domain method for electrodynamics (ED) with Langevin dynamics (LD) for the particle motions. We demonstrate the ED-LD method by calculating the 3D trajectories of a single 100-nm-diameter Ag nanoparticle and optical trapping and optical binding of two and three 150-nm-diameter Ag nanoparticles in simulated optical tweezers. We show that surface charge on the colloidal metal nanoparticles plays an important role in their optically driven self-organization. In fact, these simulations provide a more complete understanding of the assembly of different structures of two and three Ag nanoparticles that have been observed experimentally, demonstrating that the ED-LD method will be a very useful tool for understanding the self-organization of optical matter.

  11. Thrombolytic effects of Douchi Fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Today, thrombosis is one of the most widely occurring diseases in modern life. Drugs with thrombolytic functions are the most effective methods in the treatment of thrombosis. Among them, Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme (DFE) is a promising agent. DFE was isolated from Douchi, a typical and popular soybean-fermented food in China, and it can dissolve fibrin directly and efficiently. A strain, Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 produced DFE with high fibrinolytic activity has been isolated in our lab previously. Results In the study, thrombolytic effect of DFE from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 was studied in vitro and in vivo systematically. The results showed that DFE played a significant role in thrombolysis and anticoagulation in vitro. And the thrombolytic effects correlated with DFE in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, the acute toxicity assay showed that DFE had no obvious acute toxicity to mice. Test of carrageenan-induced thrombosis in mice indicated that the DFE significantly prevented tail thrombosis, and arterial thrombosis model test indicated that Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme DFE had thrombolytic effect on carotid thrombosis of rabbits in vivo. Other results in vivo indicated that DFE could increase bleeding and clotting time obviously. Conclusions The DFE isolated from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 has obvious thrombolytic effects in vitro and in vivo. This function demonstrates that this enzyme can be a useful tool for preventing and treating clinical thrombus. PMID:22748219

  12. LD50 and repellent effects of essential oils from Argentinian wild plant species on Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Ruffinengo, Sergio; Eguaras, Martin; Floris, Ignazio; Faverin, Claudia; Bailac, Pedro; Ponzi, Marta

    2005-06-01

    The repellent and acaricidal effects of some essential oils from the most typical wild plant species of northern Patagonia, Argentina, on Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated using a complete exposure test. Honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and mites (five specimens of each per dish) were introduced in petri dishes having different oil concentrations (from 0.1 to 25 micro per cage). Survival of bees and mites was registered after 24, 48, and 72 h. An attraction/repellence test was performed using a wax tube impregnated with essential oil and another tube containing wax only. The lowest LD50 values for mites were registered for Acantholippia seriphioides (A. Gray) Mold. (1.27 microl per cage) and Schinus molle L. (2.65 microl per cage) after 24 h, and for Wedelia glauca (Ortega) O. Hoffm. ex Hicken (0.59 microl per cage) and A. seriphioides (1.09 microl per cage) after 72 h of treatment. The oil with the highest selectivity ratio (A. mellifera LD50/V. destructor LD50) was the one extracted from S. molle (>16). Oils of Lippia junelliana (Mold.) Troncoso, Minthostachys mollis (HBK) Grieseb., and Lippia turbinata Grieseb. mixed with wax had repellent properties. None of the oils tested had attractive effects on Varroa mites.

  13. Personnel launch system (PLS) lifting body and low lift-to-drag (L/D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Harry O.

    1990-01-01

    The Personnel Launch System (PLS) is a small transportation system designed to transport people, but no cargo, to and from low-earth orbit. The PLS is being considered as an addition to the manned launch capability of the United States for three main reasons: (1) to assure manned access to space, (2) to achieve a first-stage abort ability, and (3) to reduce operations costs. To those ends, two designs are being considered for the PLS that differ in their lift-to-drag (L/D) ratio. The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center was assigned the task of examining low L/D capsules with no wings and a parachute landing capability. The Langley Research Center is studying a higher L/D PLS with wings and runway landings. Whichever design is selected, the PLS will act as a complement to the Space Shuttle fleet and will enhance the ability of our Nation to achieve reliable, safe, and cost-effective access to space flight, thus furthering the goals of the U.S. space program and increasing the safety of the human crews manning a future space station.

  14. Personnel launch system (PLS) lifting body and low lift-to-drag (L/D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, Harry O.

    1990-09-01

    The Personnel Launch System (PLS) is a small transportation system designed to transport people, but no cargo, to and from low-earth orbit. The PLS is being considered as an addition to the manned launch capability of the United States for three main reasons: (1) to assure manned access to space, (2) to achieve a first-stage abort ability, and (3) to reduce operations costs. To those ends, two designs are being considered for the PLS that differ in their lift-to-drag (L/D) ratio. The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center was assigned the task of examining low L/D capsules with no wings and a parachute landing capability. The Langley Research Center is studying a higher L/D PLS with wings and runway landings. Whichever design is selected, the PLS will act as a complement to the Space Shuttle fleet and will enhance the ability of our Nation to achieve reliable, safe, and cost-effective access to space flight, thus furthering the goals of the U.S. space program and increasing the safety of the human crews manning a future space station.

  15. Epoxy matrix composites filled with micro-sized LD sludge: wear characterization and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Abhilash; Satapathy, Alok

    2016-02-01

    Owing to the very high cost of conventional filler materials in polymer composites, exploring the possibility of using low cost minerals and industrial wastes for this purpose has become the need of the hour. In view of this, the present work includes the development and the wear performance evaluation of a new class of composites consisting of epoxy and microsized LD sludge. LD sludge or the Linz-Donawitz Sludge (LDS) are the fine solid particles recovered after wet cleaning of the gas emerging from LD convertors during steel making. Epoxy composites filled with different proportions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %) of LDS are fabricated by conventional hand lay-up technique. Dry sliding wear trials are performed on the composite specimens under different test conditions as per ASTM G 99 following a design of experiment approach based on Taguchi's orthogonal arrays. The Taguchi approach leads to the recognition of most powerful variables that predominantly control the wear rate. This parametric analysis reveals that LDS content and sliding velocity affects the specific wear rate more significantly than normal load and sliding distance. Furthermore with increase in LDS content specific wear rate of the composite decreases for a constant sliding velocity. The sliding wear behavior of these composites under an extended range of test conditions is predicted by a model based on the artificial neural network (ANN).

  16. Association mapping of fiber quality traits in Gossypium arboreum accessions.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Application of association mapping to germplasm resources has a potential to revolutionize plant genetics. Information about the genome distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is of fundamental importance for association mapping. In addition, genetic diversity is desirable for long-term crop imp...

  17. Systematic Fine-Mapping of Association with BMI and Type 2 Diabetes at the FTO Locus by Integrating Results from Multiple Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chakrawarthy, Sureka; Nguyen, Quang Ngoc; Wen, Wanqing; Yamamoto, Ken; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Pham, Son Thai; Zheng, Wei; Matsushita, Yumi; Kishimoto, Miyako; Do, Loi Doan; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R.; Kajio, Hiroshi; Kato, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective The 16q12.2 locus in the first intron of FTO has been robustly associated with body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To improve the resolution of fine-scale mapping at FTO, we performed a systematic approach consisting of two parts. Methods The first part is to partition the associated variants into linkage disequilibrium (LD) clusters, followed by conditional and haplotype analyses. The second part is to filter the list of potential causal variants through trans-ethnic comparison. Results We first examined the LD relationship between FTO SNPs showing significant association with type 2 diabetes in Japanese GWAS and between those previously reported in European GWAS. We could partition all the assayed or imputed SNPs showing significant association in the target FTO region into 7 LD clusters. Assaying 9 selected SNPs in 4 Asian-descent populations—Japanese, Vietnamese, Sri Lankan and Chinese (n≤26,109 for BMI association and n≤24,079 for type 2 diabetes association), we identified a responsible haplotype tagged by a cluster of SNPs and successfully narrowed the list of potential causal variants to 25 SNPs, which are the smallest in number among the studies conducted to date for FTO. Conclusions Our data support that the power to resolve the causal variants from those in strong LD increases consistently when three distant populations—Europeans, Asians and Africans—are included in the follow-up study. It has to be noted that this fine-mapping approach has the advantage of applicability to the existing GWAS data set in combination with direct genotyping of selected variants. PMID:24978468

  18. Physical and genetic map of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 chromosome: comparison with that of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 1403 reveals a large genome inversion.

    PubMed Central

    Le Bourgeois, P; Lautier, M; van den Berghe, L; Gasson, M J; Ritzenthaler, P

    1995-01-01

    A physical and genetic map of the chromosome of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris reference strain MG1363 was established. The physical map was constructed for NotI, ApaI, and SmaI enzymes by using a strategy that combines creation of new rare restriction sites by the random-integration vector pRL1 and ordering of restriction fragments by indirect end-labeling experiments. The MG1363 chromosome appeared to be circular and 2,560 kb long. Seventy-seven chromosomal markers were located on the physical map by hybridization experiments. Integration via homologous recombination of pRC1-derived plasmids allowed a more precise location of some lactococcal genes and determination of their orientation on the chromosome. The MG1363 chromosome contains six rRNA operons; five are clustered within 15% of the chromosome and transcribed in the same direction. Comparison of the L. lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 physical map with those of the two L. lactis subsp. lactis strains IL1403 and DL11 revealed a high degree of restriction polymorphism. At the genetic organization level, despite an overall conservation of gene organization, strain MG1363 presents a large inversion of half of the genome in the region containing the rRNA operons. PMID:7751295

  19. Aerothermodynamic performance and thermal protection design for blunt re-entry bodies at L/D = 0.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caram, Jose M.; Kowal, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Aerodynamic heating and thermal protection design analyses were performed for three blunt re-entry bodies at an L/D = 0.3 returning from low earth orbit. These configurations consisted of a scaled up Apollo command module, a Viking re-entry vehicle, and an Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) aerobrake, each with a maximum diameter of 4.42 m. The aerothermodynamic analysis determined the equilibrium stagnation point heating rate and heat load for nominal and 3-sigma re-entry trajectories and the distribution of heating along the pitch and yaw planes for each of the vehicles at the time of highest heat flux. Using the predicted heating rates and heating distributions, a Thermal Protection System (TPS) design with flight certified materials was tailored for each of the configurations. Results indicated that the heating to the corner of the Viking aeroshell would exceed current limits of reusable tile material. Also, the maximum heating for the AFE would be 15 percent greater than the maximum heating for the Apollo flying the same trajectory. TPS designs showed no significant advantage in TPS weight between the different vehicles; however, heat-shield areal density comparisons showed the Apollo configuration to be the most efficient in terms of TPS weight.

  20. Geological Mapping of the North Polar Region of Venus (V-1 Snegurochka Planitia): Significant Problems and Comparisons to the Earth's Archean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Kumar, P. Senthil

    2008-01-01

    The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by perspectives from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new insight into both. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures and Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. We have problems on which progress might be made through comparison. Here we present the major goals of the geological mapping of the V-1 Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle, and themes that could provide important insights into both planets:

  1. An automated land-use mapping comparison of the Bayesian maximum likelihood and linear discriminant analysis algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tom, C. H.; Miller, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Bayesian maximum likelihood parametric classifier has been tested against the data-based formulation designated 'linear discrimination analysis', using the 'GLIKE' decision and "CLASSIFY' classification algorithms in the Landsat Mapping System. Identical supervised training sets, USGS land use/land cover classes, and various combinations of Landsat image and ancilliary geodata variables, were used to compare the algorithms' thematic mapping accuracy on a single-date summer subscene, with a cellularized USGS land use map of the same time frame furnishing the ground truth reference. CLASSIFY, which accepts a priori class probabilities, is found to be more accurate than GLIKE, which assumes equal class occurrences, for all three mapping variable sets and both levels of detail. These results may be generalized to direct accuracy, time, cost, and flexibility advantages of linear discriminant analysis over Bayesian methods.

  2. An automated land-use mapping comparison of the Bayesian maximum likelihood and linear discriminant analysis algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tom, C. H.; Miller, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Bayesian maximum likelihood parametric classifier has been tested against the data-based formulation designated 'linear discrimination analysis', using the 'GLIKE' decision and "CLASSIFY' classification algorithms in the Landsat Mapping System. Identical supervised training sets, USGS land use/land cover classes, and various combinations of Landsat image and ancilliary geodata variables, were used to compare the algorithms' thematic mapping accuracy on a single-date summer subscene, with a cellularized USGS land use map of the same time frame furnishing the ground truth reference. CLASSIFY, which accepts a priori class probabilities, is found to be more accurate than GLIKE, which assumes equal class occurrences, for all three mapping variable sets and both levels of detail. These results may be generalized to direct accuracy, time, cost, and flexibility advantages of linear discriminant analysis over Bayesian methods.

  3. How to find a leucine in a haystack? Structure, ligand recognition and regulation of leucine-aspartic acid (LD) motifs.

    PubMed

    Alam, Tanvir; Alazmi, Meshari; Gao, Xin; Arold, Stefan T

    2014-06-15

    LD motifs (leucine-aspartic acid motifs) are short helical protein-protein interaction motifs that have emerged as key players in connecting cell adhesion with cell motility and survival. LD motifs are required for embryogenesis, wound healing and the evolution of multicellularity. LD motifs also play roles in disease, such as in cancer metastasis or viral infection. First described in the paxillin family of scaffolding proteins, LD motifs and similar acidic LXXLL interaction motifs have been discovered in several other proteins, whereas 16 proteins have been reported to contain LDBDs (LD motif-binding domains). Collectively, structural and functional analyses have revealed a surprising multivalency in LD motif interactions and a wide diversity in LDBD architectures. In the present review, we summarize the molecular basis for function, regulation and selectivity of LD motif interactions that has emerged from more than a decade of research. This overview highlights the intricate multi-level regulation and the inherently noisy and heterogeneous nature of signalling through short protein-protein interaction motifs.

  4. Comparison of HapMap and 1000 Genomes Reference Panels in a Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Paul S.; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chasman, Daniel I.; Trompet, Stella; Kleber, Marcus E.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Wang, Jie Jin; Attia, John R.; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Weng, Lu-Chen; Grossmann, Vera; Brody, Jennifer A.; Venturini, Cristina; Tanaka, Toshiko; Rose, Lynda M.; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Mazur, Johanna; Basu, Saonli; Yang, Qiong; Ligthart, Symen; Hottenga, Jouke J.; Rumley, Ann; Mulas, Antonella; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Grotevendt, Anne; Taylor, Kent D.; Delgado, Graciela E.; Kifley, Annette; Lopez, Lorna M.; Berentzen, Tina L.; Mangino, Massimo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hamsten, Anders; Tofler, Geoffrey; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; Draisma, Harmen H. M.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sattar, Naveed; Lackner, Karl J.; Völker, Uwe; McKnight, Barbara; Huang, Jie; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; McEvoy, Mark A.; Starr, John M.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Guan, Weihua; Rivadeneira, Fernando; McArdle, Wendy L.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Zeller, Tanja; Psaty, Bruce M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Stott, David J.; Binder, Harald; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Spector, Tim D.; Deary, Ian J.; März, Winfried; Greinacher, Andreas; Wild, Philipp S.; Cucca, Francesco; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Watkins, Hugh; Tang, Weihong; Ridker, Paul M.; Jukema, Jan W.; Scott, Rodney J.; Mitchell, Paul; Hansen, Torben; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Strachan, David P.

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA) studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G) for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In order to assess the improvement of 1000G over HapMap imputation in identifying associated loci, we compared the results of GWA studies of circulating fibrinogen based on the two reference panels. Using both HapMap and 1000G imputation we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies comprising the same 91,953 individuals. We identified six additional signals using 1000G imputation, while 29 loci were associated using both HapMap and 1000G imputation. One locus identified using HapMap imputation was not significant using 1000G imputation. The genome-wide significance threshold of 5×10−8 is based on the number of independent statistical tests using HapMap imputation, and 1000G imputation may lead to further independent tests that should be corrected for. When using a stricter Bonferroni correction for the 1000G GWA study (P-value < 2.5×10−8), the number of loci significant only using HapMap imputation increased to 4 while the number of loci significant only using 1000G decreased to 5. In conclusion, 1000G imputation enabled the identification of 20% more loci than HapMap imputation, although the advantage of 1000G imputation became less clear when a stricter Bonferroni correction was used. More generally, our results provide insights that are applicable to the implementation of other dense reference panels that are under development. PMID:28107422

  5. Comparison of HapMap and 1000 Genomes Reference Panels in a Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Study.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Paul S; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chasman, Daniel I; Trompet, Stella; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Teumer, Alexander; Kleber, Marcus E; Chen, Ming-Huei; Wang, Jie Jin; Attia, John R; Marioni, Riccardo E; Steri, Maristella; Weng, Lu-Chen; Pool, Rene; Grossmann, Vera; Brody, Jennifer A; Venturini, Cristina; Tanaka, Toshiko; Rose, Lynda M; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Mazur, Johanna; Basu, Saonli; Frånberg, Mattias; Yang, Qiong; Ligthart, Symen; Hottenga, Jouke J; Rumley, Ann; Mulas, Antonella; de Craen, Anton J M; Grotevendt, Anne; Taylor, Kent D; Delgado, Graciela E; Kifley, Annette; Lopez, Lorna M; Berentzen, Tina L; Mangino, Massimo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Morrison, Alanna C; Hamsten, Anders; Tofler, Geoffrey; de Maat, Moniek P M; Draisma, Harmen H M; Lowe, Gordon D; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sattar, Naveed; Lackner, Karl J; Völker, Uwe; McKnight, Barbara; Huang, Jie; Holliday, Elizabeth G; McEvoy, Mark A; Starr, John M; Hysi, Pirro G; Hernandez, Dena G; Guan, Weihua; Rivadeneira, Fernando; McArdle, Wendy L; Slagboom, P Eline; Zeller, Tanja; Psaty, Bruce M; Uitterlinden, André G; de Geus, Eco J C; Stott, David J; Binder, Harald; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Rotter, Jerome I; Ferrucci, Luigi; Spector, Tim D; Deary, Ian J; März, Winfried; Greinacher, Andreas; Wild, Philipp S; Cucca, Francesco; Boomsma, Dorret I; Watkins, Hugh; Tang, Weihong; Ridker, Paul M; Jukema, Jan W; Scott, Rodney J; Mitchell, Paul; Hansen, Torben; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Smith, Nicholas L; Strachan, David P; Dehghan, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA) studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G) for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In order to assess the improvement of 1000G over HapMap imputation in identifying associated loci, we compared the results of GWA studies of circulating fibrinogen based on the two reference panels. Using both HapMap and 1000G imputation we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies comprising the same 91,953 individuals. We identified six additional signals using 1000G imputation, while 29 loci were associated using both HapMap and 1000G imputation. One locus identified using HapMap imputation was not significant using 1000G imputation. The genome-wide significance threshold of 5×10-8 is based on the number of independent statistical tests using HapMap imputation, and 1000G imputation may lead to further independent tests that should be corrected for. When using a stricter Bonferroni correction for the 1000G GWA study (P-value < 2.5×10-8), the number of loci significant only using HapMap imputation increased to 4 while the number of loci significant only using 1000G decreased to 5. In conclusion, 1000G imputation enabled the identification of 20% more loci than HapMap imputation, although the advantage of 1000G imputation became less clear when a stricter Bonferroni correction was used. More generally, our results provide insights that are applicable to the implementation of other dense reference panels that are under development.

  6. Anatomical mapping for atrial fibrillation ablation: a head-to-head comparison of ultrasound-assisted reconstruction versus fast anatomical mapping.

    PubMed

    Rordorf, Roberto; Chieffo, Enrico; Savastano, Simone; Vicentini, Alessandro; Petracci, Barbara; De Regibus, Valentina; Valentini, Adele; Klersy, Catherine; Dore, Roberto; Landolina, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    Accuracy in left atrial (LA) anatomical reconstruction is crucial to the safe and effective performance of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of LA reconstruction performed with intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) as compared to fast anatomical mapping (FAM) both integrated in the CARTO mapping system (Biosense Webster, Diamond Bar, CA, USA). A multislice computed tomography (MSCT) was preacquired from 29 patients with AF who underwent catheter ablation and 3D-LA geometry was reconstructed using both ICE and FAM separately. The accuracy of the LA anatomical definition was evaluated by comparing LA volumes, LA and pulmonary vein (PV) diameters obtained using ICE and FAM versus MSCT (gold standard). Anterior-posterior and superior-inferior LA diameters were shorter in ICE versus MSCT (32 ± 10 vs 46 ± 9 mm and 48 ± 7 vs 53 ± 7 mm, P < 0.01) but similar in FAM versus MSCT (45 ± 9 vs 46 ± 9 mm and 52 ± 10 vs 53 ± 7 mm). Latero-septal LA diameter was similar in ICE versus MSCT (63 ± 11 vs 63 ± 9 mm) but larger in FAM versus MSCT (69 ± 9 vs 63 ± 9 mm, P < 0.001). LA volume was lower in ICE versus MSCT (73 ± 30 mL vs 116 ± 45 mL, P < 0.0001) and slightly larger in FAM versus MSCT (132 ± 45 vs 116 ± 45 mL, P = 0.06). PV diameters were similar in FAM versus MSCT but significantly underestimated with ICE. Overall accuracy in the LA and PV anatomical reconstruction was found to be superior with FAM compared to ICE-guided approach. ICE resulted in a significant underestimate of both LA and PV dimensions, while FAM slightly overestimated LA geometry. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Comparison between sketch map and pointing methods for evaluating spatial cognitive ability of secondary school students with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Murakoshi, Shin; Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Kumi

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to clarify the spatial ability of secondary school students with mental retardation. Two Experiments-1 and 2-were carried out to test the students' spatial knowledge using a sketch map and a pointing task. In Experiment 1, 14 students (mean IQ and SD, 57.69 and 14.13 respectively) participated and were asked to draw sketch maps of their school, and their route from school to home, and to point to landmarks displayed in photos with their finger. Only five of 13 maps of the school, and four of 14 maps of the route home were drawn without heavy distortion. However, the results for pointing out landmarks were fairly good (mean angular error, 26.86). In Experiment 2, 10 students at a different school (mean IQ and SD, 35.4 and 10.3 respectively) participated and were asked to complete the same tasks. Although the sketch maps and pointing performance were not accurate, the difference in accuracy between landmarks inside and outside the school indicated that the students had a better grasp of spatial representation when space was familiar and limited. The difference in results between the sketch map and pointing tasks implies that the two tasks require different spatial representations and cognitive processes.

  8. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-06

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  9. A SNP and SSR Based Genetic Map of Asparagus Bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and Comparison with the Broader Species

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D.; Close, Timothy J.; Roberts, Philip A.; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as ‘long beans’ or ‘asparagus beans’. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level. PMID:21253606

  10. Statistical Parametric Mapping of HR-pQCT Images: A Tool for Population-Based Local Comparisons of Micro-Scale Bone Features.

    PubMed

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bonaretti, Serena; Kazakia, Galateia J; Khosla, Sundeep; Majumdar, Sharmila; Lang, Thomas F; Burghardt, Andrew J

    2017-04-01

    HR-pQCT enables in vivo multi-parametric assessments of bone microstructure in the distal radius and distal tibia. Conventional HR-pQCT image analysis approaches summarize bone parameters into global scalars, discarding relevant spatial information. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) techniques for HR-pQCT studies, which enable population-based local comparisons of bone properties. We present voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess trabecular and cortical bone voxel-based features, and a surface-based framework to assess cortical bone features both in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In addition, we present tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to assess trabecular and cortical bone structural changes. The SPM techniques were evaluated based on scan-rescan HR-pQCT acquisitions with repositioning of the distal radius and distal tibia of 30 subjects. For VBM and surface-based SPM purposes, all scans were spatially normalized to common radial and tibial templates, while for TBM purposes, rescans (follow-up) were spatially normalized to their corresponding scans (baseline). VBM was evaluated based on maps of local bone volume fraction (BV/TV), homogenized volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and homogenized strain energy density (SED) derived from micro-finite element analysis; while the cortical bone framework was evaluated based on surface maps of cortical bone thickness, vBMD, and SED. Voxel-wise and vertex-wise comparisons of bone features were done between the groups of baseline and follow-up scans. TBM was evaluated based on mean square errors of determinants of Jacobians at baseline bone voxels. In both anatomical sites, voxel- and vertex-wise uni- and multi-parametric comparisons yielded non-significant differences, and TBM showed no artefactual bone loss or apposition. The presented SPM techniques demonstrated robust specificity thus warranting their application in future clinical HR

  11. SU-E-T-80: Comparison of Fluence-Based RapidArc QAs Using EPID and MapCHECK 2

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, H; Jesseph, F; Ahmad, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the Varian aS-1000 EPID imager to the isocentrically mounted MapCHECK 2 diode array for RapidArc QAs as a function of photon beam energy. Methods: A Varian TrueBeam STx with an aS-1000 digital imaging panel was used to acquire RapidArc QA images for 13 patient plans; each plan QA was performed at 6, 8, 10 and 15MV energies. The Portal Dose Image Prediction algorithm in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) was used to create the comparison image for the EPID acquisition. A Sun Nuclear MapCHECK 2 diode array on an isocentric mounting fixture with 5 cm water-equivalent buildup was also used for the RapidArc QAs. A composite dose plane was taken from the Eclipse TPS for comparison to the MapCHECK 2 measurements. A gamma test was implemented in the Sun Nuclear Patient software with 10% threshold and absolute comparison for both QA methods. The two-tailed paired t-test was employed to analyze the statistical significance between two methods at the 95% confidence level. Results: The average gamma passing rates were greater than 95% at 3%/3mm using both methods for all four energies. The average passing rates were within 2.5% and 1.1% of each other when analyzed at 2%/2mm and 3%/3mm conditions, respectively. The EPID passing rates were somewhat better than the MapCHECK 2 when analyzed at 1%/1mm condition; this difference decreased with increasing energy (9.1% at 6MV to 2.7% at 15MV). The differences were not statistically significant for all criteria and energies (p-value ã 0.05). Conclusion: EPID-based RapidArc QA results are comparable to MapCHECK 2 when using 3%/3mm criteria at all four energies. EPID-based QA shows potential for being the superior device under strict gamma criteria.

  12. Genetic epidemiology, genetic maps and positional cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Newton E

    2003-01-01

    Genetic epidemiology developed in the middle of the last century, focused on inherited causes of disease but with methods and results applicable to other traits and even forensics. Early success with linkage led to the localization of genes contributing to disease, and ultimately to the Human Genome Project. The discovery of millions of DNA markers has encouraged more efficient positional cloning by linkage disequilibrium (LD), using LD maps and haplotypes in ways that are rapidly evolving. This has led to large international programmes, some promising and others alarming, with laws about DNA patenting and ethical guidelines for responsible research still struggling to be born. PMID:14561327

  13. A comparison of genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium between 15 polymorphic dinucleotide repeat loci in two populations

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.; Long, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    Linkage disequilibrium has recently been used to map the diastrophic dysplasia gene in a Finnish sample. One advantage of this method is that the large pedigrees required by some other methods are unnecessary. Another advantage is that linkage disequilibrium mapping capitalizes on the cumulative history of recombination events, rather than those occurring within the sampled individuals. A potential limitation of linkage disequilibrium mapping is that linkage equilibrium is likely to prevail in all but the most isolated populations, e.g., those which have recently experienced founder effects or severe population bottlenecks. In order to test the method`s generality, we examined patterns of linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci within a known genetic map. Two populations were analyzed. The first population, Navajo Indians (N=45), is an isolate that experienced a severe bottleneck in the 1860`s. The second population, Maryland Caucasians (N=45), is cosmopolitan. We expected the Navajo sample to display more linkage disequilibrium than the Caucasian sample, and possibly that the Navajo disequilibrium pattern would reflect the genetic map. Linkage disequilibrium coefficients were estimated between pairs of alleles at different loci using maximum likelihood. The genetic isolate structure of Navajo Indians is confirmed by the DNA typings. Heterozygosity is lower than in the Caucasians, and fewer different alleles are observed. However, a relationship between genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium could be discerned in neither the Navajo nor the Maryland samples. Slightly more linkage disequilibrium was observed in the Navajos, but both data sets were characterized by very low disequilibrium levels. We tentatively conclude that linkage disequilibrium mapping with dinucleotide repeats will only be useful with close linkage between markers and diseases, even in very isolated populations.

  14. A comparison of urban heat islands mapped using skin temperature, air temperature, and apparent temperature (Humidex), for the greater Vancouver area.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Xu, Yongming; Hodul, Matus; Aminipouri, Mehdi

    2016-02-15

    Apparent temperature is more closely related to mortality during extreme heat events than other temperature variables, yet spatial epidemiology studies typically use skin temperature (also known as land surface temperature) to quantify heat exposure because it is relatively easy to map from satellite data. An empirical approach to map apparent temperature at the neighborhood scale, which relies on publicly available weather station observations and spatial data layers combined in a random forest regression model, was demonstrated for greater Vancouver, Canada. Model errors were acceptable (cross-validated RMSE=2.04 °C) and the resulting map of apparent temperature, calibrated for a typical hot summer day, corresponded well with past temperature research in the area. A comparison with field measurements as well as similar maps of skin temperature and air temperature revealed that skin temperature was poorly correlated with both air temperature (R(2)=0.38) and apparent temperature (R(2)=0.39). While the latter two were more similar (R(2)=0.87), apparent temperature was predicted to exceed air temperature by more than 5 °C in several urban areas as well as around the confluence of the Pitt and Fraser rivers. We conclude that skin temperature is not a suitable proxy for human heat exposure, and that spatial epidemiology studies could benefit from mapping apparent temperature, using an approach similar to the one reported here, to better quantify differences in heat exposure that exist across an urban landscape. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of mixed-model approaches for association mapping in rapeseed, potato, sugar beet, maize, and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stich, Benjamin; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2009-02-27

    In recent years, several attempts have been made in plant genetics to detect QTL by using association mapping methods. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate various methods for association mapping in five plant species and (ii) for three traits in each of the plant species compare the Topt, the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimate of the conditional probability that two genotypes carry at the same locus alleles that are identical in state but not identical by descent. In order to compare the association mapping methods based on scenarios with realistic estimates of population structure and familial relatedness, we analyzed phenotypic and genotypic data of rapeseed, potato, sugar beet, maize, and Arabidopsis. For the same reason, QTL effects were simulated on top of the observed phenotypic values when examining the adjusted power for QTL detection. The correlation between the Topt values identified using REML deviance profiles and profiles of the mean of squared difference between observed and expected P values was 0.83. The mixed-model association mapping approaches using a kinship matrix, which was based on Topt, were more appropriate for association mapping than the recently proposed QK method with respect to the adherence to the nominal alpha level and the adjusted power for QTL detection. Furthermore, we showed that Topt differs considerably among the five plant species but only marginally among different traits.

  16. Assignment of 112 microsatellite markers to 23 chromosome 11 subregions delineated by somatic hybrids: Comparison with the genetic map

    SciTech Connect

    Couillin, Ph.; Reguigne, I. ); Le Guern, E.; Ravise, N. ); Vignal, A.; Fizames, C.; Delportes, D. ); Rosier, M.F. ); Junien, C. ); Heyningen, V. van )

    1994-05-15

    Using a panel of 25 somatic cell hybrids, the authors have regionally localized 112 microsatellite markers generated by Genethon and assigned to chromosome 11. A genetic map of 74 of them was produced using linkage analysis of the eight largest CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) families. They could be ordered on chromosome 11 with an average distance of 2.1 cM. The tight correlation observed between the genetic order and the physical assignment of these microsatellites reinforces the genetic map data. These newly localized markers identified by the PCR method using a standardized protocol represent useful tools for mapping YAC clones and establishing YAC contigs and for studying genetic diseases or cancers associated with specific genes and/or germinal/somatic rearrangements of chromosome 11. 60 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Comparison of Ground-Based 3-Dimensional Lightning Mapping Observation with Satellite-Based LIS Observations in Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Hamlin, Timothy; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    3-dimensional lightning mapping observations were obtained in central Oklahoma during June 1998, using New Mexico Tech's Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). The results have been compared with observations of the discharges from space obtained by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. Excellent spatial and temporal correlations were obtained between the two sets of observations. All discharges seen by LIS were mapped by the LMA. Most of the detected optical events were associated with lightning channels that extended into the upper part of the storm. Cloud-to-ground discharges that were confined to mid- and lower-altitudes tended to be detected by LIS at the time of late-stage return strokes. Extensive illumination tended to occur in impulsive bursts toward the end or part way through intracloud discharges and appeared to be produced by energetic K-changes that typically occur at these times.

  18. Comparison of Ground-Based 3-Dimensional Lightning Mapping Observation with Satellite-Based LIS Observations in Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Hamlin, Timothy; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    3-dimensional lightning mapping observations were obtained in central Oklahoma during June 1998, using New Mexico Tech's Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). The results have been compared with observations of the discharges from space obtained by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. Excellent spatial and temporal correlations were obtained between the two sets of observations. All discharges seen by LIS were mapped by the LMA. Most of the detected optical events were associated with lightning channels that extended into the upper part of the storm. Cloud-to-ground discharges that were confined to mid- and lower-altitudes tended to be detected by LIS at the time of late-stage return strokes. Extensive illumination tended to occur in impulsive bursts toward the end or part way through intracloud discharges and appeared to be produced by energetic K-changes that typically occur at these times.

  19. The GEOTAIL HEP-LD: The Work Of Berend Wilken Remembered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Q.

    Berend Wilken had published 32 refereed papers on Geotail project, we have co- operated 26 papers among them. In September 1992 the Japanese spacecraft GEOTAIL was launched to explore the nature of the magnetosphere's tail region (often referred to as magnetotail) over a large range in radial distance. Initially, the spacecraft was operated in a sequence of non-periodic orbits with apogees between 80 and 220 R_E in the magnetotail and perigees around 10 to 20 R_E at the day-side of the magnetosphere. Complex manoeuver in the gravitational fields of the Earth and the Moon made these kind of 'slingshot' orbits possible and kept apogee consistently in the tail region. In November 1994, GEOTAIL was directed to a standard elliptical 8 by 30 R_E orbit in which the satellite circulates Earth in the ecliptic plane. The scientific payload of GEOTAIL is composed of advanced instruments for the complete determination of electric and magnetic fields, waves, and plasma composition. The low energy particle spectrometer LD is part of the comprehensive HEP particle detector package. Energy range, mass resolution, and angular coverage makes the LD spectrometer ideal for studies of the energetic plasma component in geospace. The combined time-of-flight / energy tech- nique allows identification of ions between hydrogen and the Si-Fe group. The useful energy range extends up to 1500 keV for all species, however, the lower threshold is mass dependent (e.g. 50 keV for protons). The LD spectrometer returned a wealth of measurements both from the deep tail phase and from the near-Earth orbit. The main emphasis of this review is (a) on so-called plasmoids and their formation in the tail region and associated oxygen beams and (b) on particle beams of similar structure ob- served in the dayside magnetosheath during periods of magnetospheric disturbance. (c) Energetic particles behaviour in the tail during CIR/CME encounter the Earth.

  20. Safety of high volume lipid emulsion infusion: a first approximation of LD50 in rats.

    PubMed

    Hiller, David B; Di Gregorio, Guido; Kelly, Kemba; Ripper, Richard; Edelman, Lucas; Boumendjel, Redouane; Drasner, Kenneth; Weinberg, Guy L

    2010-01-01

    Lipid infusion reverses systemic local anesthetic toxicity. The acceptable upper limit for lipid administration is unknown and has direct bearing on clinical management. We hypothesize that high volumes of lipid could have undesirable effects and sought to identify the dose required to kill 50% of the animals (LD(50)) of large volume lipid administration. Intravenous lines and electrocardiogram electrodes were placed in anesthetized, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty percent lipid emulsion (20, 40, 60, or 80 mL/kg) or saline (60 or 80 mL/kg), were administered over 30 mins; lipid dosing was assigned by the Dixon "up-and-down" method. Rats were recovered and observed for 48 hrs then euthanized for histologic analysis of major organs. Three additional rats were administered 60 mL/kg lipid emulsion and euthanized at 1, 4, and 24 hrs to identify progression of organ damage. The maximum likelihood estimate for LD(50) was 67.72 (SE, 10.69) mL/kg. Triglycerides were elevated immediately after infusion but returned to baseline by 48 hrs when laboratory abnormalities included elevated amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, and serum urea nitrogen for all lipid doses. Histologic diagnosis of myocardium, brain, pancreas, and kidneys was normal at all doses. Microscopic abnormalities in lung and liver were observed at 60 and 80 mL/kg; histopathology in the lung and liver was worse at 1 hr than at 4 and 24 hrs. The LD(50) of rapid, high volume lipid infusion is an order of magnitude greater than doses typically used for lipid rescue in humans and supports the safety of lipid infusion at currently recommended doses for toxin-induced cardiac arrest. Lung and liver histopathology was observed at the highest infused volumes.

  1. High Density LD-Based Structural Variations Analysis in Cattle Genome

    PubMed Central

    Salomon-Torres, Ricardo; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Villa-Angulo, Carlos; Gonzalez-Vizcarra, Víctor M.; Villa-Angulo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Genomic structural variations represent an important source of genetic variation in mammal genomes, thus, they are commonly related to phenotypic expressions. In this work, ∼770,000 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes from 506 animals from 19 cattle breeds were analyzed. A simple LD-based structural variation was defined, and a genome-wide analysis was performed. After applying some quality control filters, for each breed and each chromosome we calculated the linkage disequilibrium (r2) of short range (≤100 Kb). We sorted SNP pairs by distance and obtained a set of LD means (called the expected means) using bins of 5 Kb. We identified 15,246 segments of at least 1 Kb, among the 19 breeds, consisting of sets of at least 3 adjacent SNPs so that, for each SNP, r2 within its neighbors in a 100 Kb range, to the right side of that SNP, were all bigger than, or all smaller than, the corresponding expected mean, and their P-value were significant after a Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing correction. In addition, to account just for homogeneously distributed regions we considered only SNPs having at least 15 SNP neighbors within 100 Kb. We defined such segments as structural variations. By grouping all variations across all animals in the sample we defined 9,146 regions, involving a total of 53,137 SNPs; representing the 6.40% (160.98 Mb) from the bovine genome. The identified structural variations covered 3,109 genes. Clustering analysis showed the relatedness of breeds given the geographic region in which they are evolving. In summary, we present an analysis of structural variations based on the deviation of the expected short range LD between SNPs in the bovine genome. With an intuitive and simple definition based only on SNPs data it was possible to discern closeness of breeds due to grouping by geographic region in which they are evolving. PMID:25050984

  2. Field comparison of impingers and treated filters for sampling of total aliphatic isocyanates with the MAP reagent.

    PubMed

    Bello, D; Streicher, R P; Liu, Y C; Sparer, J; Young, F; Woskie, S R

    2002-01-01

    Results of a comparative field study on the performance of 25-mm inhalable samplers (Institute of Occupational Medicine [IOM]) and midget impingers for the collection of total isocyanates in air using the 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine (MAP) reagent are presented. Air sampling and analysis was performed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health MAP draft method 5525. Midget impingers filled with 15 mL of 1 x 10(-4) M MAP in butyl benzoate were operated at 1 L/min. IOM cassettes loaded with 25-mm quartz fiber filters impregnated with 500 microg MAP, were operated at 2 L/min. Filters were field extracted with 10 mL of 1 x 10(-4) M MAP in acetonitrile. Thirty-four impinger-IOM pairs were collected in three autobody shops during spray painting tasks. Regression analysis [Ln (IOM) = 1.0 Ln (impinger), R2 = 0.98] and a paired t-test (Pr > 0.9) demonstrated that impingers and IOMs perform equally in their collection efficiency for the monomer and total oligomeric hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). IOM performance did not deteriorate at longer sampling times compared with the impinger performance. Within-sampler variability was calculated from the individual coefficients of variation (CV) of the 17 pairs of like samplers. The mean of CVs (SD)% for the monomer and total oligomeric HDI was approximately 12 (12)% and 15 (13)% for the IOM and the impinger sampler, respectively. Poor correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient < 0.3) and statistically nonsignificant differences (P > 0.74 two-sided) were found for the between-sampler CVs. Factors that might have influenced the observed sampler agreement are also discussed. It is concluded that MAP impregnated filters can be successfully used for sampling of slow curing total aliphatic isocyanates in air.

  3. The Same Major Histocompatibility Complex Polymorphism Involved in Control of HIV Influences Peptide Binding in the Mouse H-2Ld System*

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Samanthi; Kranz, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-site polymorphisms in human class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) products (HLA-B) have recently been shown to correlate with HIV disease progression or control. An identical single-site polymorphism (at residue 97) in the mouse class I product H-2Ld influences stability of the complex. To gain insight into the human polymorphisms, here we examined peptide binding, stability, and structures of the corresponding Ld polymorphisms, Trp97 and Arg97. Expression of LdW97 and LdR97 genes in a cell line that is antigen-processing competent showed that LdR97 was expressed at higher levels than LdW97, consistent with enhanced stability of self-peptide·LdR97 complexes. To further examine peptide-binding capacities of these two allelic variants, we used a high affinity pep-Ld specific probe to quantitatively examine a collection of self- and foreign peptides that bind to Ld. LdR97 bound more effectively than LdW97 to most peptides, although LdW97 bound more effectively to two peptides. The results support the view that many self-peptides in the Ld system (or the HLA-B system) would exhibit enhanced binding to Arg97 alleles compared with Trp97 alleles. Accordingly, the self-peptide·MHC-Arg97 complexes would influence T-cell selection behavior, impacting the T-cell repertoire of these individuals, and could also impact peripheral T cell activity through effects of self-peptide·Ld interacting with TCR and/or CD8. The structures of several peptide·LdR97 and peptide·LdW97 complexes provided a framework of how this single polymorphism could impact peptide binding. PMID:24064213

  4. Comparison of marker types and map assumptions using Markov chain Monte Carlo-based linkage analysis of COGA data.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Weiva; Basu, Saonli; Fu, Audrey Q; Rothstein, Joseph H; Scheet, Paul A; Stewart, William C L; Sung, Yun J; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Wijsman, Ellen M

    2005-12-30

    We performed multipoint linkage analysis of the electrophysiological trait ECB21 on chromosome 4 in the full pedigrees provided by the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Three Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-based approaches were applied to the provided and re-estimated genetic maps and to five different marker panels consisting of microsatellite (STRP) and/or SNP markers at various densities. We found evidence of linkage near the GABRB1 STRP using all methods, maps, and marker panels. Difficulties encountered with SNP panels included convergence problems and demanding computations.

  5. Comparison of a Fixed-Wing and Multi-Rotor Uav for Environmental Mapping Applications: a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, M. A.; Drijfhout, A. P.; Tesfamichael, S.

    2017-08-01

    The advent and evolution of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and photogrammetric techniques has provided the possibility for on-demand high-resolution environmental mapping. Orthoimages and three dimensional products such as Digital Surface Models (DSMs) are derived from the UAV imagery which is amongst the most important spatial information tools for environmental planning. The two main types of UAVs in the commercial market are fixed-wing and multi-rotor. Both have their advantages and disadvantages including their suitability for certain applications. Fixed-wing UAVs normally have longer flight endurance capabilities while multi-rotors can provide for stable image capturing and easy vertical take-off and landing. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the performance of a fixed-wing versus a multi-rotor UAV for environmental mapping applications by conducting a specific case study. The aerial mapping of the Cors-Air model aircraft field which includes a wetland ecosystem was undertaken on the same day with a Skywalker fixed-wing UAV and a Raven X8 multi-rotor UAV equipped with similar sensor specifications (digital RGB camera) under the same weather conditions. We compared the derived datasets by applying the DTMs for basic environmental mapping purposes such as slope and contour mapping including utilising the orthoimages for identification of anthropogenic disturbances. The ground spatial resolution obtained was slightly higher for the multi-rotor probably due to a slower flight speed and more images. The results in terms of the overall precision of the data was noticeably less accurate for the fixed-wing. In contrast, orthoimages derived from the two systems showed small variations. The multi-rotor imagery provided better representation of vegetation although the fixed-wing data was sufficient for the identification of environmental factors such as anthropogenic disturbances. Differences were observed utilising the respective DTMs for the mapping

  6. English language learners with reading-related LD: linking data from multiple sources to make eligibility determinations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Cheryl Y; Ortiz, Alba A; Robertson, Phyllis M; Kushner, Millicent I

    2006-01-01

    Results are reported for an exploratory study of eligibility decisions made for 21 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities (LD) and no secondary disabilities who received special education support in reading. Eligibility determinations by an expert panel resulted in decisions that differed significantly from those of school multidisciplinary teams. The panel agreed that some students appeared to have reading-related LD (n = 5) but also identified students that they believed had disabilities, but not necessarily reading-related LD (n = 6). Another group of students (n = 10) had learning problems that the panel believed could be attributed to factors other than LD or for whom substantive additional data would be required to validate eligibility. Issues associated with referral, assessment, and eligibility determinations for ELLs are discussed, and recommendations for improving practice are offered, with an emphasis on the importance of linking data from multiple sources when deciding whether ELLs qualify for special education.

  7. Lateral directional requirements for a low L/D aeromaneuvering orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, J. D.; Spratlin, K. M.; Skalecki, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    The lateral-directional aerodynamics and control requirements for a low L/D (0.3) aeromaneuvering orbital transfer vehicle are evaluated. A lateral directional RCS control concept that permits a linearized analysis is utilized to evaluate the effect of Dutch Roll frequency and damping on the atmospheric guidance and control performance. The bank rate and acceleration requirements for acceptable performance are defined and the sensitivity to a parameter similar to the lateral control departure parameter but involving the RCS jets is evaluated.

  8. An automated method for producing synoptic regional maps of river gradient variation: Procedure, accuracy tests, and comparison with other knickpoint mapping methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonga-Saholiariliva, Nahossio; Gunnell, Yanni; Harbor, David; Mering, Catherine

    2011-11-01

    The study of abrupt changes in longitudinal river profiles, or knickpoints, is currently approached through an empirical power law: the slope-area relationship. Results based on digital elevation model (DEM) analyses and stream extractions are generally intended to determine crustal uplift rates and identify transient landscape conditions. In this article, we present an alternative geomorphometric method for locating knickpoints and knickzones based on local slope gradient and curvature attributes. Intended as a rapid, regional scale, automated knickpoint detection technique, the accuracy of this slope-curvature method is tested on two digital elevation grids, NASA's SRTM (ground resolution of 90 m, resampled here to 75 m) and the ASTER DEM (15 m) in the Sierra Nacimiento (New Mexico, USA), a basement-cored mountain range recently exhumed by waves of headward drainage integration in response to remote tectonic deformation in the adjacent Rio Grande rift. Out of every 10 gradient anomalies detected by the SRTM-derived numeric routine, up to 8 are certifiable knickpoints recognized among a population of georeferenced occurrences surveyed in the field. An independent comparison with the slope-area method provided a further accuracy test, which was particularly useful at sites that could not be validated in the field for practical reasons. Given the low tectonic activity of the study area, the majority of knickpoints was also found to coincide with lithologic boundaries, making it difficult without further geomorphological data to single out dynamic knickpoints directly caused by the upstream propagation of channel instabilities relating to base level change.

  9. Genome evolution in the fish family salmonidae: generation of a brook charr genetic map and comparisons among charrs (Arctic charr and brook charr) with rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Salmonids are regarded as 4R derivative species, having experienced 4 whole genome duplication events in their ancestry. Many duplicated chromosome regions still share extensive homology with one another which is maintained primarily through male-based homeologous chromosome pairings during meiosis. The formation of quadrivalents during meiosis leads to pseudolinkage. This phenomenon is more prevalent within 5 of the 12 ancestral teleost linkage groups in salmonids. Results We constructed a genetic linkage map for brook charr and used this in combination with the genetic map from Arctic charr, to make comparisons with the genetic map of rainbow trout. Although not all chromosome arms are currently mapped, some homologous chromosome rearrangements were evident between Arctic charr and brook charr. Notably, 10 chromosome arms in brook charr representing 5 metacentric chromosomes in Arctic charr have undergone rearrangements. Three metacentrics have one arm translocated and fused with another chromosome arm in brook charr to a make a new metacentrics while two metacentrics are represented by 4 acrocentric pairs in brook charr. In two cases (i.e., BC-4 and BC-16), an apparent polymorphism was observed with the identification of both a putative metacentric structure (similar to metacentric AC-4 = BC-4 and a joining of acrocentric AC-16 + one arm of AC-28 = BC-16), as well as two separate acrocentric linkage groups evident in the mapping parents. Forty-six of the expected 50 karyotypic arms could be inter-generically assigned. SEX in brook charr (BC-4) was localized to the same homologous linkage group region as in Arctic charr (AC-4). The homeologous affinities detected in the two charr species facilitated the identification of 20 (expected number = 25) shared syntenic regions with rainbow trout, although it is likely that some of these regions were partial or overlapping arm regions. Conclusions Inter-generic comparisons among 2 species of charr (genus

  10. Real-time functional mapping with electrocorticography in pediatric epilepsy: comparison with fMRI and ESM findings.

    PubMed

    Korostenskaja, Milena; Wilson, Adam J; Rose, Douglas F; Brunner, Peter; Schalk, Gerwin; Leach, James; Mangano, Francesco T; Fujiwara, Hisako; Rozhkov, Leonid; Harris, Elana; Chen, Po-Ching; Seo, Joo-Hee; Lee, Ki H

    2014-07-01

    SIGFRIED (SIGnal modeling For Real-time Identification and Event Detection) software provides real-time functional mapping (RTFM) of eloquent cortex for epilepsy patients preparing to undergo resective surgery. This study presents the first application of paradigms used in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and electrical cortical stimulation mapping (ESM) studies for shared functional cortical mapping in the context of RTFM. Results from the 3 modalities are compared. A left-handed 13-year-old male with intractable epilepsy participated in functional mapping for localization of eloquent language cortex with fMRI, ESM, and RTFM. For RTFM, data were acquired over the frontal and temporal cortex. Several paradigms were sequentially presented: passive (listening to stories) and active (picture naming and verb generation). For verb generation and story processing, fMRI showed atypical right lateralizing language activation within temporal lobe regions of interest and bilateral frontal activation with slight right lateralization. Left hemisphere ESM demonstrated no eloquent language areas. RTFM procedures using story processing and picture naming elicited activity in the right lateral and basal temporal regions. Verb generation elicited strong right lateral temporal lobe activation, as well as left frontal lobe activation. RTFM results confirmed atypical language lateralization evident from fMRI and ESM. We demonstrated the feasibility and usefulness of a new RTFM stimulation paradigm during presurgical evaluation. Block design paradigms used in fMRI may be optimal for this purpose. Further development is needed to create age-appropriate RTFM test batteries.

  11. Comparison of regression and geostatistical methods for mapping Leaf Area Index (LAI) with Landsat ETM+ data over a boreal forest.

    Treesearch

    Mercedes Berterretche; Andrew T. Hudak; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maiersperger; Stith T. Gower; Jennifer Dungan

    2005-01-01

    This study compared aspatial and spatial methods of using remote sensing and field data to predict maximum growing season leaf area index (LAI) maps in a boreal forest in Manitoba, Canada. The methods tested were orthogonal regression analysis (reduced major axis, RMA) and two geostatistical techniques: kriging with an external drift (KED) and sequential Gaussian...

  12. A comparison of male and female recombination frequency in wheat using RFLP maps of homoeologous group 6 and 7 chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Hyne, V; Chao, S; Gale, M D; Henry, Y; De Buyser, J; Snape, J W

    1995-10-01

    A novel approach was used to compare male and female recombination rates in wheat. Doubled haploid lines were developed from an F1 using two distinct approaches: the anther-culture technique and the Hordeum bulbosum system, from which sets of lines were developed from "male" and "female" meioses, respectively. The genotype of the lines was established at RFLP and isozyme markers polymorphic on chromosomes of homoeologous groups 6 and 7, and "male" and "female" linkage maps were calculated using this information. The markers in one segment of chromosome 6B exhibited disturbed segregation frequencies in the anther-culture population. The "male" and "female" maps differed significantly in recombination frequency between some markers on two chromosomes, and these were consistent in direction within chromosomes and inconsistent in direction between chromosomes. In two of the four chromosomes studied the "male" map was much longer than the "female" map. These results suggest that significant differences may exist in male and female recombination frequencies in bread wheat which are specific to certain chromosomal segments but are inconsistent in direction between chromosomes. Other factors, such as environmental influences, may also be important in creating differences.

  13. Comparison of quantitative trait loci for adaptive traits between oak and chestnut based on an expressed sequence tag consensus map.

    PubMed

    Casasoli, Manuela; Derory, Jeremy; Morera-Dutrey, Caroline; Brendel, Oliver; Porth, Ilga; Guehl, Jean-Marc; Villani, Fiorella; Kremer, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    A comparative genetic and QTL mapping was performed between Quercus robur L. and Castanea sativa Mill., two major forest tree species belonging to the Fagaceae family. Oak EST-derived markers (STSs) were used to align the 12 linkage groups of the two species. Fifty-one and 45 STSs were mapped in oak and chestnut, respectively. These STSs, added to SSR markers previously mapped in both species, provided a total number of 55 orthologous molecular markers for comparative mapping within the Fagaceae family. Homeologous genomic regions identified between oak and chestnut allowed us to compare QTL positions for three important adaptive traits. Colocation of the QTL controlling the timing of bud burst was significant between the two species. However, conservation of QTL for height growth was not supported by statistical tests. No QTL for carbon isotope discrimination was conserved between the two species. Putative candidate genes for bud burst can be identified on the basis of colocations between EST-derived markers and QTL.

  14. Comparison of Quantitative Trait Loci for Adaptive Traits Between Oak and Chestnut Based on an Expressed Sequence Tag Consensus Map

    PubMed Central

    Casasoli, Manuela; Derory, Jeremy; Morera-Dutrey, Caroline; Brendel, Oliver; Porth, Ilga; Guehl, Jean-Marc; Villani, Fiorella; Kremer, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    A comparative genetic and QTL mapping was performed between Quercus robur L. and Castanea sativa Mill., two major forest tree species belonging to the Fagaceae family. Oak EST-derived markers (STSs) were used to align the 12 linkage groups of the two species. Fifty-one and 45 STSs were mapped in oak and chestnut, respectively. These STSs, added to SSR markers previously mapped in both species, provided a total number of 55 orthologous molecular markers for comparative mapping within the Fagaceae family. Homeologous genomic regions identified between oak and chestnut allowed us to compare QTL positions for three important adaptive traits. Colocation of the QTL controlling the timing of bud burst was significant between the two species. However, conservation of QTL for height growth was not supported by statistical tests. No QTL for carbon isotope discrimination was conserved between the two species. Putative candidate genes for bud burst can be identified on the basis of colocations between EST-derived markers and QTL. PMID:16204213

  15. Comparison between WorldView-2 and SPOT-5 images in mapping the bracken fern using the random forest algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odindi, John; Adam, Elhadi; Ngubane, Zinhle; Mutanga, Onisimo; Slotow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Plant species invasion is known to be a major threat to socioeconomic and ecological systems. Due to high cost and limited extents of urban green spaces, high mapping accuracy is necessary to optimize the management of such spaces. We compare the performance of the new-generation WorldView-2 (WV-2) and SPOT-5 images in mapping the bracken fern [Pteridium aquilinum (L) kuhn] in a conserved urban landscape. Using the random forest algorithm, grid-search approaches based on out-of-bag estimate error were used to determine the optimal ntree and mtry combinations. The variable importance and backward feature elimination techniques were further used to determine the influence of the image bands on mapping accuracy. Additionally, the value of the commonly used vegetation indices in enhancing the classification accuracy was tested on the better performing image data. Results show that the performance of the new WV-2 bands was better than that of the traditional bands. Overall classification accuracies of 84.72 and 72.22% were achieved for the WV-2 and SPOT images, respectively. Use of selected indices from the WV-2 bands increased the overall classification accuracy to 91.67%. The findings in this study show the suitability of the new generation in mapping the bracken fern within the often vulnerable urban natural vegetation cover types.

  16. Comparison of Object-Based Image Analysis Approaches to Mapping New Buildings in Accra, Ghana Using Multi-Temporal QuickBird Satellite Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu Hsin; Stow, Douglas; Weeks, John

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to map and quantify the number of newly constructed buildings in Accra, Ghana between 2002 and 2010 based on high spatial resolution satellite image data. Two semi-automated feature detection approaches for detecting and mapping newly constructed buildings based on QuickBird very high spatial resolution satellite imagery were analyzed: (1) post-classification comparison; and (2) bi-temporal layerstack classification. Feature Analyst software based on a spatial contextual classifier and ENVI Feature Extraction that uses a true object-based image analysis approach of image segmentation and segment classification were evaluated. Final map products representing new building objects were compared and assessed for accuracy using two object-based accuracy measures, completeness and correctness. The bi-temporal layerstack method generated more accurate results compared to the post-classification comparison method due to less confusion with background objects. The spectral/spatial contextual approach (Feature Analyst) outperformed the true object-based feature delineation approach (ENVI Feature Extraction) due to its ability to more reliably delineate individual buildings of various sizes. Semi-automated, object-based detection followed by manual editing appears to be a reliable and efficient approach for detecting and enumerating new building objects. A bivariate regression analysis was performed using neighborhood-level estimates of new building density regressed on a census-derived measure of socio-economic status, yielding an inverse relationship with R2 = 0.31 (n = 27; p = 0.00). The primary utility of the new building delineation results is to support spatial analyses of land cover and land use and demographic change. PMID:24415810

  17. A comparison of drug-treated and untreated HCT-116 human colon adenocarcinoma cells using a 2-D liquid separation mapping method based upon chromatofocusing PI fractionation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Subramanian, Balanehru; Nakeff, Alexander; Barder, Timothy J; Parus, Steven J; Lubman, David M

    2003-05-15

    A multidimensional chromatographic 2-D liquid-phase separation method has been developed for differential display of proteins from cell lysates and applied to a comparison of protein expression between Peninsularinone-treated and untreated HCT-116 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. The method involves fractionation according to pI using chromatofocusing with analytical columns in the first dimension followed by separation of the proteins in each pI fraction using nonporous reversed-phase HPLC. A 2-D map of the protein content of each cell line based upon pI versus hydrophobicity as detected by UV absorption was generated and a differential display map indicating the presence of up- or downregulated proteins displayed using ProteoVue and DeltaVue software. Using this method, > 1000 protein bands could be detected in 0.2 pH fractions over a pH range of 4-7. In addition, the liquid eluent from the separation was directed on-line into an electrospray TOF-MS to obtain an accurate molecular weight of the intact proteins. An accurate molecular weight together with the peptide map was used to obtain protein identification using database searching. The method has been shown to have high reproducibility for quantitative differential display analysis of interlysate comparisons, generation of accurate protein identifications, and ease of data interpretation. It has been used herein to identify proteins that change as a function of drug treatment. The relative simplicity of the current procedure and the potential for full automation will make this technique an essential tool in future proteomic studies.

  18. Randomized comparison between objective-based lectures and outcome-based concept mapping for teaching neurological care to nursing students.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Ling; Pan, Hui-Ching; Hsieh, Suh-Ing

    2016-02-01

    Pre-registration programs have been found to insufficiently prepare nurses for working in the neurosciences specialism. Effective approaches to neurology education are important, not only to enhance motivation to learn, but also for learners to develop basic competence in handling patients with neurological problems. To demonstrate that outcome-based course design using concept mapping would bring about significant differences in the nursing students' competency, cognitive load, and learning satisfaction with the neurological care course. A two-group pretest and post-test experimental study was administered. Two of the four clusters of participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group for experiencing an outcome-based course design using concept mapping, and the rest were designated the control group to be given objective-based lectures only. The Competency Inventory of Nursing Students, Cognitive Load Scale of Neurological Nursing, and Learning Satisfaction Scale of Neurological Nursing were used in this study for the students to rate their own performance. In addition, The Concept Map Scoring Scale was used in the experimental group for examining students' concept mapping ability. Significant increases of mean nursing competency scores in both groups from pre-test to post-test were found. There was no statistically significant difference in mean nursing competency score between the experimental group and the control groups at post-test. The mean cognitive load score of the experimental group was lower than the control group at post-test. The mean learning satisfaction scores of the experimental group were higher than the control group. This article provides that outcome-based concept mapping as educational method could encourage a group of nursing students to take a bio-psycho-social approach to medicine, which might ultimately result in better nursing care quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An alternative approach to the optimal design of an LD50 bioassay.

    PubMed

    Markus, R A; Frank, J; Groshen, S; Azen, S P

    1995-04-30

    In this paper we propose an alternative approach to the optimal design of an LD50 bioassay. We adopt a Bayesian approach to make use of prior information about the location and scale parameters of the tolerance distribution function to select the design parameters (number of doses, total number of animals, centre of doses, space between doses), and we adopt a frequentist approach using the Spearman-Karber statistic to estimate the LD50. We define the optimal design as the one that produces the minimum expected mean squared error E(MSE) with respect to the joint prior distribution of the parameters of the tolerance distribution. For the design parameters investigated, we found: (i) the shape of the E(MSE) is relatively smooth and continuous, the magnitude of which is influenced by the underlying tolerance distribution; (ii) the amount of prior information about the location and scale parameters independently and jointly affect the optimal design; and (iii) as the amount of prior information decreases, one requires more doses and/or animals. Finally, we show the proposed method is robust for an incorrectly assumed tolerance distribution function.

  20. Structure of the LdcB LD-carboxypeptidase reveals the molecular basis of peptidoglycan recognition.

    PubMed

    Hoyland, Christopher N; Aldridge, Christine; Cleverley, Robert M; Duchêne, Marie-Clémence; Minasov, George; Onopriyenko, Olena; Sidiq, Karzan; Stogios, Peter J; Anderson, Wayne F; Daniel, Richard A; Savchenko, Alexei; Vollmer, Waldemar; Lewis, Richard J

    2014-07-08

    Peptidoglycan surrounds the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane to protect the cell against osmolysis. The biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, made of glycan strands crosslinked by short peptides, is the target of antibiotics like β-lactams and glycopeptides. Nascent peptidoglycan contains pentapeptides that are trimmed by carboxypeptidases to tetra- and tripeptides. The well-characterized DD-carboxypeptidases hydrolyze the terminal D-alanine from the stem pentapeptide to produce a tetrapeptide. However, few LD-carboxypeptidases that produce tripeptides have been identified, and nothing is known about substrate specificity in these enzymes. We report biochemical properties and crystal structures of the LD-carboxypeptidases LdcB from Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus subtilis. The enzymes are active against bacterial cell wall tetrapeptides and adopt a zinc-carboxypeptidase fold characteristic of the LAS superfamily. We have also solved the structure of S. pneumoniae LdcB with a product mimic, elucidating the residues essential for peptidoglycan recognition and the conformational changes that occur on ligand binding.

  1. Study on the output of LD-pumped passively Q-switched subnanosecond microlasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, He-jiao; Chen, Hui-min; Ding, Bo-sheng; Cai, De

    2013-09-01

    Caliber mortar projectiles and bombs are now tend to use the laser fuze because of its high accuracy in distance measurement,the strong ability to resist electromagnetic interference, the high angular resolution and the good concealment. Otherwise, the microlaser can bring about some alluring benefits. For instance, it can generate high quality laser beam, which has small divergence angle and high power. So, This paper summarizes some key factors which have impacts on the output of LD-pumped passively Q-switched subnanosecond microlasers, including the initial transmission of the absorber, the reflection of output coupler, the length of the cavity and the radius of the pumping laser beam, and gives the conclusion of the simulation based on the variation of the density of the reversal particle in the resonant cavity derived from the oscillation equation of the LD-pumped passively Q-switched Cr4+:YAG/ Nd:YAG laser, which provides the basis for the design of the passive Q-switched micro lasers which have high power, high repetition frequency and narrow pulse width.

  2. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD): adolescents perspective.

    PubMed

    Brook, Uzi; Boaz, Mona

    2005-08-01

    Three hundred and eight pupils in the age group 12-18 years were interviewed and examined. They had been diagnosed as having attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD), and were attending a high school devoted to special education. Their classification into subgroups was as follows: ADHD - inattentive (I) = 22.1%, ADHD - hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) = 12.3% and combined = 42.2%. Only 25% of them were treated by methylphenidate (Ritalin). Ninety-four percent of them were diagnosed with comorbidity of 'learning disabilities'. Thirty-four percent of them reported being severely stressed when going to school and sitting in class. Their complaints were: tiredness and excessive needs to sleep, frequent quarrelling with close friends, feeling different from other classmates and having low self-esteem (SE). They complaint that their parents don't understand them. Things that irritated them the most were being lied to and coercion by others. The authors suggest to consider ADHD/LD as neurobehavioral disability. It is mandatory to prepare them for adult life with proper social skills and a suitable occupation.

  3. Why are students with LD depressed? A goal orientation model of depression vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Sideridis, Georgios D

    2007-01-01

    The thesis of the present study was that failure in achievement tasks may constitute a stress factor that can trigger a depression episode, particularly for students with learning disabilities (LD), and that a particular motivational pattern may constitute a cognitive diathesis for depression. Participants were 104 students referred for LD who were drawn from a pool of approximately 900 students from Grades 5 and 6. Students were challenged with a series of difficult math exercises, and their achievement behaviors were examined as a function of achievement goal orientations. Results from structural equation modeling provided empirical support of the contention that performance-avoidance goals may account for a series of negative cognitions and affect. Direct positive paths linked performance-avoidance goals to anxiety, depression, and negative affect; negative paths were revealed with regard to self-esteem and positive affect. Thus, performance-avoidance goals may possess elements of the diathesis mechanism described by Dykman, constituting a vulnerability factor that triggers the mechanism of depression when negative events are in place.

  4. Genomic variation by whole-genome SNP mapping arrays predicts time-to-event outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a comparison of CLL and HapMap genotypes.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Carmen D; Coombes, Kevin R; Majewski, Tadeusz; Barron, Lynn L; Lerner, Susan; Sargent, Rachel L; O'Brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wierda, William G; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Keating, Michael J; Abruzzo, Lynne V

    2013-03-01

    Genomic abnormalities, such as deletions in 11q22 or 17p13, are associated with poorer prognosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We hypothesized that unknown regions of copy number variation (CNV) affect clinical outcome and can be detected by array-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We compared SNP genotypes from 168 untreated patients with CLL with genotypes from 73 white HapMap controls. We identified 322 regions of recurrent CNV, 82 of which occurred significantly more often in CLL than in HapMap (CLL-specific CNV), including regions typically aberrant in CLL: deletions in 6q21, 11q22, 13q14, and 17p13 and trisomy 12. In univariate analyses, 35 of total and 11 of CLL-specific CNVs were associated with unfavorable time-to-event outcomes, including gains or losses in chromosomes 2p, 4p, 4q, 6p, 6q, 7q, 11p, 11q, and 17p. In multivariate analyses, six CNVs (ie, CLL-specific variations in 11p15.1-15.4 or 6q27) predicted time-to-treatment or overall survival independently of established markers of prognosis. Moreover, genotypic complexity (ie, the number of independent CNVs per patient) significantly predicted prognosis, with a median time-to-treatment of 64 months versus 23 months in patients with zero to one versus two or more CNVs, respectively (P = 3.3 × 10(-8)). In summary, a comparison of SNP genotypes from patients with CLL with HapMap controls allowed us to identify known and unknown recurrent CNVs and to determine regions and rates of CNV that predict poorer prognosis in patients with CLL.

  5. A modulated closed form solution for quantitative susceptibility mapping--a thorough evaluation and comparison to iterative methods based on edge prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Khabipova, Diana; Wiaux, Yves; Gruetter, Rolf; Marques, José P

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study is to perform a thorough comparison of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) techniques and their dependence on the assumptions made. The compared methodologies were: two iterative single orientation methodologies minimizing the l2, l1TV norm of the prior knowledge of the edges of the object, one over-determined multiple orientation method (COSMOS) and a newly proposed modulated closed-form solution (MCF). The performance of these methods was compared using a numerical phantom and in-vivo high resolution (0.65 mm isotropic) brain data acquired at 7 T using a new coil combination method. For all QSM methods, the relevant regularization and prior-knowledge parameters were systematically changed in order to evaluate the optimal reconstruction in the presence and absence of a ground truth. Additionally, the QSM contrast was compared to conventional gradient recalled echo (GRE) magnitude and R2* maps obtained from the same dataset. The QSM reconstruction results of the single orientation methods show comparable performance. The MCF method has the highest correlation (corr MCF=0.95, r(2)MCF=0.97) with the state of the art method (COSMOS) with additional advantage of extreme fast computation time. The L-curve method gave the visually most satisfactory balance between reduction of streaking artifacts and over-regularization with the latter being overemphasized when the using the COSMOS susceptibility maps as ground-truth. R2* and susceptibility maps, when calculated from the same datasets, although based on distinct features of the data, have a comparable ability to distinguish deep gray matter structures.

  6. A comparison of top-down and bottom-up approaches to benthic habitat mapping to inform offshore wind energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFrance, Monique; King, John W.; Oakley, Bryan A.; Pratt, Sheldon

    2014-07-01

    Recent interest in offshore renewable energy within the United States has amplified the need for marine spatial planning to direct management strategies and address competing user demands. To assist this effort in Rhode Island, benthic habitat classification maps were developed for two sites in offshore waters being considered for wind turbine installation. Maps characterizing and representing the distribution and extent of benthic habitats are valuable tools for improving understanding of ecosystem patterns and processes, and promoting scientifically-sound management decisions. This project presented the opportunity to conduct a comparison of the methodologies and resulting map outputs of two classification approaches, “top-down” and “bottom-up” in the two study areas. This comparison was undertaken to improve understanding of mapping methodologies and their applicability, including the bottom-up approach in offshore environments where data density tends to be lower, as well as to provide case studies for scientists and managers to consider for their own areas of interest. Such case studies can offer guidance for future work for assessing methodologies and translating them to other areas. The traditional top-down mapping approach identifies biological community patterns based on communities occurring within geologically defined habitat map units, under the concept that geologic environments contain distinct biological assemblages. Alternatively, the bottom-up approach aims to establish habitat map units centered on biological similarity and then uses statistics to identify relationships with associated environmental parameters and determine habitat boundaries. When applied to the two study areas, both mapping approaches produced habitat classes with distinct macrofaunal assemblages and each established statistically strong and significant biotic-abiotic relationships with geologic features, sediment characteristics, water depth, and/or habitat

  7. Preliminary comparisons of VHF radar maps of F-region irregularities with scintillations in the equatorial region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Aarons, J.; Mcclure, J. P.; Lahoz, C.; Bushby, A.; Woodman, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Multiantenna 50 MHz radar backscatter maps of echo power from night-time F-region equatiorial irregularities obtained at Jicamarca, Peru were compared with simultaneous VHF scintillation observations from Huancayo at 137 and 254 MHz during the period 20 November to 12 December 1975. Saturation of VHF scintillations in excess of 20 dB was observed at both these frequencies during times when radar maps showed large intense plume structures rising into the topside ionosphere. On nights when only thin layers of bottomside irregularities were observed, moderate to weak scintillations were recorded at VHF. Preliminary values of east-west horizontal irregularity drift velocities were obtained and compared with scintillation rate observations. Using the 1.5-deg and 4.5-deg longitudinal separation between the Jicamarca radar and ionospheric observation points of the two satellites from Huancayo, information was derived regarding large-scale east-west structure during the development phase of the irregularities.

  8. Online versus in-person comparison of Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) assessments: reliability of alternate methods.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christine B; Engelberg, Jessa K; Geremia, Carrie M; Zhu, Wenfei; Kurka, Jonathan M; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F; Conway, Terry L; Adams, Marc A

    2017-08-04

    An online version of the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (Abbreviated) tool was adapted to virtually audit built environment features supportive of physical activity. The current study assessed inter-rater reliability of MAPS Online between in-person raters and online raters unfamiliar with the regions. In-person and online audits were conducted for a total of 120 quarter-mile routes (60 per site) in Phoenix, AZ and San Diego, CA. Routes in each city included 40 residential origins stratified by walkability and SES, and 20 commercial centers. In-person audits were conducted by raters residing in their region. Online audits were conducted by raters in the alternate location using Google Maps (Aerial and Street View) images. The MAPS Abbreviated Online tool consisted of four sections: overall route, street segments, crossings and cul-de-sacs. Items within each section were grouped into subscales, and inter-rater reliability (ICCs) was assessed for subscales at multiple levels of aggregation. Online and in-person audits showed excellent agreement for overall positive microscale (ICC = 0.86, 95% CI [0.80, 0.90]) and grand scores (ICC = 0.93, 95% CI [0.89, 0.95]). Substantial to near-perfect agreement was found for 21 of 30 (70%) subscales, valence, and subsection scores, with ICCs ranging from 0.62, 95% CI [0.50, 0.72] to 0.95, 95% CI [0.93, 0.97]. Lowest agreement was found for the aesthetics and social characteristics scores, with ICCs ranging from 0.07, 95% CI [-0.12, 0.24] to 0.27, 95% CI [0.10, 0.43]. Results support use of the MAPS Abbreviated Online tool to reliably assess microscale neighborhood features that support physical activity and may be used by raters residing in different geographic regions and unfamiliar with the audit areas.

  9. Mapping Potassium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    During the first year of NASA MESSENGER orbital mission, the spacecraft GRS instrument measured the elemental composition of Mercury surface materials. mong the most important discoveries from the GRS was the observation of higher abundances of the moderately volatile elements potassium, sodium, and chlorine than expected from previous scientific models and theories. Particularly high concentrations of these elements were observed at high northern latitudes, as illustrated in this potassium abundance map, which provides a view of the surface centered at 60° N latitude and 120° E longitude. This map was the first elemental map ever made of Mercury's surface and is to-date the only map to report absolute elemental concentrations, in comparison to element ratios. Prior to MESSENGER's arrival at Mercury, scientists expected that the planet would be depleted in moderately volatile elements, as is the case for our Moon. The unexpectedly high abundances observed with the GRS have forced a reevaluation of our understanding of the formation and evolution of Mercury. In addition, the K map provided the first evidence for distinct geochemical terranes on Mercury, as the high-potassium region was later found to also be distinct in its low Mg/Si, Ca/Si, S/Si, and high Na/Si and Cl/Si abundances. Instrument: Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19414

  10. A comparison of RFLP maps based on anther culture derived, selfed, and hybrid progenies of Solanum chacoense.

    PubMed

    Rivard, S R; Cappadocia, M; Landry, B S

    1996-08-01

    Comparative RFLP linkage maps were constructed using five segregating populations derived from two self-incompatible lines (termed PI 230582 and PI 458314) of diploid tuber-bearing Solanum chacoense Bitt. The analysis was based on 84 RFLP loci identified by 73 different cDNA clones. Distortion of expected Mendelian segregation ratios was observed; less than 10% of the markers showed a skewed segregation in the gametes forming the F1, hybrid population compared with 30% in the selfed population and 46 and 70% in the two populations produced by anther culture. For the anther culture derived populations, most of the skewed loci were scattered throughout the genome, whereas in the populations derived from selfing, they were found primarily in linkage group 1, around the S locus. In this study, we also found that the rate of meiotic recombination could differ between the male and female gametes produced by our parental lines. Thus, male gametes of line PI 458314 showed significantly less recombination as assessed by the total length of the map (206 cM for male gametes vs. 375 cM for female gametes) and the phenomenon was genome-wide. In contrast, the maps from the gametes of PI 230582 had about the same length, but some linkage groups were longer in the female gametes, while others were longer in the male gametes. Key words : Solanum chacoense, RFLP, anther culture, skewed segregation, self-incompatibility, sex differences in recombination.

  11. Comparison of VTEC from ground-based space geodetic techniques based on ray-traced mapping factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinkelmann, Robert; Alizadeh, M. Mahdi; Schuh, Harald; Deng, Zhiguo; Zus, Florian; Etemadfard, M. Hossein

    2016-07-01

    For the derivation of vertical total electron content (VTEC) from slant total electron content (STEC), usually a standard approach is used based on mapping functions that assume a single-layer model of the ionosphere (e.g. IERS Conventions 2010). In our study we test the standard approach against a recently developed alternative which is based on station specific ray-traced mapping factors. For the evaluation of this new mapping concept, we compute VTEC at selected Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) stations using the dispersive delays and the corresponding formal errors obtained by observing extra-galactic radio sources at two radio frequencies in S- and X-bands by the permanent geodetic/astrometric program organized by the IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry). Additionally, by applying synchronous sampling and a consistent analysis configuration, we determine VTEC at Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) antennas using GPS (Global Positioning System) and/or GLONASS (Globalnaja nawigazionnaja sputnikowaja Sistema) observations provided by the IGS (International GNSS Service) that are operated in the vicinity of the VLBI antennas. We compare the VTEC time series obtained by the individual techniques over a period of about twenty years and describe their characteristics qualitatively and statistically. The length of the time series allows us to assess the long-term climatology of ionospheric VTEC during the last twenty years.

  12. Lumbar intervertebral disc abnormalities: comparison of quantitative T2 mapping with conventional MR at 3.0 T.

    PubMed

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Stelzeneder, David; Goed, Sabine; Reissegger, Michael; Mamisch, Tallal C; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Weber, Michael; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Welsch, Goetz H

    2010-11-01

    To assess the relationship of morphologically defined lumbar disc abnormalities with quantitative T2 mapping. Fifty-three patients, mean age 39 years, with low back pain were examined by MRI at 3 T (sagittal T1-fast spin echo (FSE), three-plane T2-FSE for morphological MRI, multi-echo spin echo for T2 mapping). All discs were classified morphologically. Regions of interest (ROIs) for the annulus were drawn. The space in between was defined as the nucleus pulposus (NP). To evaluate differences between the classified groups, univariate ANOVA with post hoc Games-Howell and paired two-tailed t tests were used. In 265 discs we found 39 focal herniations, 10 annular tears, 123 bulging discs and 103 "normal discs". T2 values of the NP between discs with annular tear and all other groups were statistically significantly different (all p ≤ 0.01). Discs with annular tears showed markedly lower NP T2 values than discs without. The difference in NP T2 values between discs with focal herniation and normal discs (p = 0.005) was statistically significant. There was no difference in NP T2 values between bulging and herniated discs (p = 0.11) Quantitative T2 mapping of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc in the lumbar spine at 3 T reveals significant differences in discs with herniation and annular tears compared with discs without these abnormalities.

  13. Comparisons of mapped magnetic field lines with the source path of the 7 April 1995 type III solar radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Gosling, J. T.; Malaspina, D. M.; Neudegg, D.; Steward, G.; Lobzin, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    Ideally, the sources of type III solar radio bursts, which are produced mainly by flare-accelerated electron beams, trace the magnetic field lines along which the beams propagate from the Sun to interplanetary space. A recently developed 2-D approach for large-scale mapping of magnetic field lines between the Sun and Earth in the solar equatorial plane is applied to the sources of the 7 April 1995 type III radio burst imaged by Ulysses and Wind. The approach uses near-Earth solar wind data and a solar wind model with intrinsic nonradial magnetic field at the source surface of the solar wind. Quantitative agreement is found between the mapped field lines, the observed path of the radio source centroids, and the field configurations inferred from solar wind suprathermal electrons observed by Wind. Moreover, the mapped field lines are consistent with Wind not observing the in situ type III electron beam, Langmuir waves, and local radio emission for this type III event.

  14. In-vivo iMap IVUS comparison of in-stent neointima and native coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Trusinskis, Karlis; Strenge, Karlis; Juhnevica, Dace; Erglis, Andrejs

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare plaque characteristics of native coronary atherosclerosis and in-stent neointima ten months after ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using iMap intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). In 49 patients in-stent neointima and the coronary segment proximal to the stent were analyzed with iMap intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) ten months after primary PCI for STEMI. A higher percentage of necrotic tissue was observed in the proximal coronary segment compared to the in-stent neointima by iMap IVUS (25.5% ± 12.8% vs 12.3% ± 3.3%, p < 0.0001) ten months after STEMI. The proportion of fibrotic tissue in the proximal segment was lower (63.6% ± 14.8% vs 72.0% ± 5.7%, p = 0.002) and the proportion of the lipidic tissue was higher (8.8% ± 3.0% vs 5.9% ± 2.0%, p < 0.0001) than in-stent neointima. In patients ten months after STEMI, in-stent neointima contained a higher proportion of fibrotic tissue and lower proportion of necrotic and lipidic tissue compared the native atherosclerotic lesion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MRI-based elastic-mapping method for inter-subject comparison of brain FDG-PET images

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Huang, S.C.; Lin, K.P.; Small, G.; Phelps, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Inter-subject anatomic differences prohibits direct image-wise statistical evaluation of brain FDG-PET images of Alzheimer`s disease (AD) patients. In this study, we propose a MRI-based elastic-mapping method which enables image-wise evaluation. The method involves intra-subject MR-PET registration, 3-D elastic mapping of two set of MR images, and elastically transforming the co-registered PET images. The MR-PET registration used simulated PET images, which were based on segmentation of MR images. In the 3-D elastic mapping stage, first a global linear scaling was applied to compensate for brain size difference, then a deformation field was obtained by minimizing the regional sum of squared difference between the two sets of MR images. Two groups (AD patient and normal control), each with three subjects, were included in the current study. After processing, images from all subjects have similar shapes. Averaging the images across all subjects (either within the individual group or for both groups) give images indistinguishable from original single subject FDG images (i.e. without much spatial resolution loss), except with lower image noise level. The method is expected to allow statistical image-wise analysis to be performed across different subjects.

  16. A comparison of anisotropic statistical properties of CMB maps based on the WMAP and planck space mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Naiden, Ya. V.

    2016-10-01

    We compare the anisotropic properties of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps constructed based on the data of NASA's WMAP (9th year of observations) and ESA's Planck (2015 release) space missions. In our analysis, we use two two-dimensional estimators of the scatter of the signal on a sphere, which amount to algorithms of mapping the ratio of the scatter in the Northern and Southern hemispheres depending on the method of dividing (specifically, rotating and cutting) the sky into hemispheres. The scatter is computed either as a standard deviation σ, or as the difference between the minimum and maximum values on a given hemisphere. Applying both estimators to the CMB anisotropy datameasured by two spacemissions, Planck and WMAP, we compared the variations of the background at different angular scales.Maps with a resolution of l ≤ 100 show that the division into regions with different levels of statistical anisotropy lies close to the ecliptic plane, and after preliminary removal of the l ≤ 20 harmonics from the CMB data, the anisotropic signal related to the Galaxy begins to dominate.

  17. DArT markers: diversity analyses, genomes comparison, mapping and integration with SSR markers in Triticum monococcum

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Hai-Chun; Bayon, Carlos; Kanyuka, Kostya; Berry, Simon; Wenzl, Peter; Huttner, Eric; Kilian, Andrzej; E Hammond-Kosack, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Background Triticum monococcum (2n = 2x = 14) is an ancient diploid wheat with many useful traits and is used as a model for wheat gene discovery. DArT (Diversity Arrays Technology) employs a hybridisation-based approach to type thousands of genomic loci in parallel. DArT markers were developed for T. monococcum to assess genetic diversity, compare relationships with hexaploid genomes, and construct a genetic linkage map integrating DArT and microsatellite markers. Results A DArT array, consisting of 2304 hexaploid wheat, 1536 tetraploid wheat, 1536 T. monococcum as well as 1536 T. boeoticum representative genomic clones, was used to fingerprint 16 T. monococcum accessions of diverse geographical origins. In total, 846 polymorphic DArT markers were identified, of which 317 were of T. monococcum origin, 246 of hexaploid, 157 of tetraploid, and 126 of T. boeoticum genomes. The fingerprinting data indicated that the geographic origin of T. monococcum accessions was partially correlated with their genetic variation. DArT markers could also well distinguish the genetic differences amongst a panel of 23 hexaploid wheat and nine T. monococcum genomes. For the first time, 274 DArT markers were integrated with 82 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and two morphological trait loci in a genetic map spanning 1062.72 cM in T. monococcum. Six chromosomes were represented by single linkage groups, and chromosome 4Am was formed by three linkage groups. The DArT and SSR genetic loci tended to form independent clusters along the chromosomes. Segregation distortion was observed for one third of the DArT loci. The Ba (black awn) locus was refined to a 23.2 cM region between the DArT marker locus wPt-2584 and the microsatellite locus Xgwmd33 on 1Am; and the Hl (hairy leaf) locus to a 4.0 cM region between DArT loci 376589 and 469591 on 5Am. Conclusion DArT is a rapid and efficient approach to develop many new molecular markers for genetic studies in T. monococcum. The constructed genetic

  18. Surface and thickness variations of Brenva Glacier tongue (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) in the second half of the 20th century by historical maps and aerial photogrammetry comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D Agata, C.; Zanutta, A.; Muzzu Martis, D.; Mancini, F.; Smiraglia, C.

    2003-04-01

    a digital surface model with a degree of accuracy varing among the glacier and the surrounding area. Comparison with available cartography may be performed if digital ortophoto is being generated from the photogrammetric processing in a well defined reference system. Accuracy in volumetric changes estimations is nevertheless of fundamental importance being derived from the comparison of different metodologies with related single accuracies. By using GIS sofware the maps and ortophotos were managed after digitalisation; Digital Elevation Models were produced and their comparison allowed: 1) to quantify surface and volume variations 2) to elaborate thematic maps about ice thickness and debris areal distribution variations 4) to elaborate topographic longitudinal and transverse profiles to underline glacier changes The preliminary results about volumetric and thickness variations obtained from maps are the following: a) 1959-1971: the glacier tongue increased in volume of about 15 millions mc of ice that correspond to an increase in thickness of about 20 m of ice with maximum values of about 40-50 m. b)1971-1983: the glacier tongue increased in volume of about 18 millions mc of ice that is to say a mean increase in thickness of a little more than 20 m of ice. In the same time the glacier advanced of about 200 m (Italian Glaciological Committee data), probably this advancing phase was related to the ablation reduction caused by the emispheric climate cooling occurred during the second half of the 20th century. It influenced the mass balance trend of a large number of glaciers in the North Emisphere between the 70s and the 80s of the 20 th century c)1983-1991: for this period a negative volumetric variation of about 8 millions mc of ice was calculated equal to a thickness decreasing of about 10 m of ice. The managing of orthopotos by GIS software to obtain DEMs is in progress and its results will confirm or add arguments to discuss them. The final results will allow to

  19. Spatial Distributed Seismicity Model of Seismic Hazard Mapping in the North-China Region: A Comparison with the GSHAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.; Meng, L.

    2010-12-01

    The North China is one of the most seismically active regions in the mainland China. The moderate to large earthquakes have occurred here throughout history, resulting in huge losses of human life and properties. With the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach, we investigate the influence of different seismic environments, incorporating both near surface soil properties and distributed historical and modern seismicity. A simplified seismic source model, derived with the consideration of regional active fault distributions, is presented for the North China region. The spatial distributed seismicity model of PSHA is used to calculate the level of ground motion likely to be exceeded in a given time period. Following Frankel (1995) approach of circular Gaussian smoothing procedure, in the PSHA’s calculation, we proposed the fault-rupture-oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing with the assumptions that earthquakes occur on faults or fault zones of past earthquakes to delineate the potential seismic zones (Lapajine et al., 2003). This is combined with regional active fault strike directions and the seismicity distribution patterns. Next Generation Attenuation model ((NGA), Boore et al., 2007) is used in generating hazard map for PGA with 2%, 5%, and 10 % probability of being exceeded in 50 years, and the resultant hazard map is compared with the result given by Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP). There is general agreement for PGA distribution patterns between the results of this study and the GSHAP map that used the same seismic source zones. However, peak ground accelerations predicted in this study are typically 10-20% less than those of the GSHAP, and the seismic source models, such as fault distributions and regional seismicity used in the GSHAP seem to be oversimplified. We believe this study represents an improvement on prior seismic hazard evaluations for the region. In addition to the updated input data, we believe that, by

  20. Comparison of Methods to Map and Measure River Terraces using High-Resolution Airborne LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, A. J.; Snyder, N. P.

    2013-12-01

    Fluvial terraces are important recorders of land-use, climate, and tectonic history that form in both erosional and depositional landscapes and consist of a flat surface bounded by valley walls and a steep-sloping scarp adjacent to the river channel. Combining these defining characteristics with high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys, several methods have been developed to identify and map terraces. The goals of this research are to compare some of these existing techniques and develop an objective approach to map terraces over entire watersheds using lidar DEMs. Additionally, we aim to quantify the thickness and volume of fill terrace deposits. Our preliminary application is to the Sheepscot River watershed, Maine, where strath and fill terraces are present and record Pleistocene deglaciation, Holocene eustatic forcing, and Anthropocene land-use change. We identify terraces along the longitudinal profile using an algorithm developed by Finnegan and Balco (2013), that computes the elevation frequency distribution at regularly spaced cross-sections normal to the channel. Next, we delineate terrace spatial extent using three separate methodologies: (1) image processing using Matlab, (2) feature classification algorithms developed by Wood (1996), and (3) image interpretation using manually placed points on known terraces to construct interpolated surfaces (Walter and Merritts, 2008). Lastly, we determine the thickness and volume of fill terrace sediments by subtracting an interpolated, adjacent water surface elevation from the defined terrace points. We compare our LiDAR-based results with field mapping, stratigraphic columns of terrace landforms, and ground penetrating radar over terrace surfaces. These findings suggest powerful new ways to rapidly analyze landscape history over large regions using high-resolution lidar DEMs, with less reliance on detailed and costly field data collection.

  1. Development of a Listeria monocytogenes EGDe Partial Proteome Reference Map and Comparison with the Protein Profiles of Food Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ramnath, Manilduth; Rechinger, K. Björn; Jänsch, Lothar; Hastings, John W.; Knøchel, Susanne; Gravesen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    A partially annotated proteome reference map of the food pathogen Listeria monocytogenes was developed for exponentially growing cells under standardized, optimal conditions by using the sequenced strain EGDe (serotype 1/2a) as a model organism. The map was developed by using a reproducible total protein extraction and two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis procedure, and it contained 33 identified proteins representing the four main protein functional classes. In order to facilitate analysis of membrane proteins, a protein compartmentalization procedure was assessed. The method used provided partial fractionation of membrane and cytosolic proteins. The total protein 2-D profiles of three serotype 1/2a strains and one serotype 1/2b strain isolated from food were compared to the L. monocytogenes EGDe proteome. An average of 13% of the major protein spots in the food strain proteomes were not matched in the strain EGDe proteome. The variation was greater for the less intense spots, and on average 28% of these spots were not matched. Two of the proteins identified in L. monocytogenes EGDe were missing in one or more of the food isolates. These two proteins were proteins involved in the main glycolytic pathway and in metabolism of coenzymes and prosthetic groups. The two corresponding genes were found by PCR amplification to be present in the four food isolates. Our results show that the L. monocytogenes EGDe reference map is a valuable starting point for analyses of strains having various origins and could be useful for analyzing the proteomes of different isolates of this pathogen. PMID:12788738

  2. Using Hadoop MapReduce for Parallel Genetic Algorithms: A Comparison of the Global, Grid and Island Models.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Filomena; Salza, Pasquale; Sarro, Federica

    2017-06-29

    The need to improve the scalability of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) has motivated the research on Parallel Genetic Algorithms (PGAs), and different technologies and approaches have been used. Hadoop MapReduce represents one of the most mature technologies to develop parallel algorithms. Based on the fact that parallel algorithms introduce communication overhead, the aim of the present work is to understand if, and possibly when, the parallel GAs solutions using Hadoop MapReduce show better performance than sequential versions in terms of execution time. Moreover, we are interested in understanding which PGA model can be more effective among the global, grid and island models. We empirically assessed the performance of these three parallel models with respect to a sequential GA on a software engineering problem, evaluating the execution time and the achieved speedup. We also analysed the behaviour of the parallel models in relation to the overhead produced by the use of Hadoop MapReduce and the GAs' computational effort, which gives a more machine-independent measure of these algorithms. We exploited three problem instances to differentiate the computation load and three cluster configurations based on 2, 4 and 8 parallel nodes. Moreover, we estimated the costs of the execution of the experimentation on a potential cloud infrastructure, based on the pricing of the major commercial cloud providers. The empirical study revealed that the use of PGA based on the island model outperforms the other parallel models and the sequential GA for all the considered instances and clusters. Using 2, 4 and 8 nodes, the island model achieves an average speedup over the three datasets of 1.8×, 3.4× and 7.0× times, respectively. Hadoop MapReduce has a set of different constraints that need to be considered during the design and the implementation of parallel algorithms. The overhead of data store (i.e., HDFS) accesses, communication and latency requires solutions that reduce data store

  3. Comparison of different landform classification methods for digital landform and soil mapping of the Iranian loess plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Kramm, Tanja; Curdt, Constanze; Maleki, Sedigheh; Khormali, Farhad; Kehl, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Iranian loess plateau is covered by loess deposits, up to 70 m thick. Tectonic uplift triggered deep erosion and valley incision into the loess and underlying marine deposits. Soil development strongly relates to the aspect of these incised slopes, because on northern slopes vegetation protects the soil surface against erosion and facilitates formation and preservation of a Cambisol, whereas on south-facing slopes soils were probably eroded and weakly developed Entisols formed. While the whole area is intensively stocked with sheep and goat, rain-fed cropping of winter wheat is practiced on the valley floors. Most time of the year, the soil surface is unprotected against rainfall, which is one of the factors promoting soil erosion and serious flooding. However, little information is available on soil distribution, plant cover and the geomorphological evolution of the plateau, as well as on potentials and problems in land use. Thus, digital landform and soil mapping is needed. As a requirement of digital landform and soil mapping, four different landform classification methods were compared and evaluated. These geomorphometric classifications were run on two different scales. On the whole area an ASTER GDEM and SRTM dataset (30 m pixel resolution) was used. Likewise, two high-resolution digital elevation models were derived from Pléiades satellite stereo-imagery (< 1m pixel resolution, 10 by 10 km). The high-resolution information of this dataset was aggregated to datasets of 5 and 10 m scale. The applied classification methods are the Geomorphons approach, an object-based image approach, the topographical position index and a mainly slope based approach. The accuracy of the classification was checked with a location related image dataset obtained in a field survey (n ~ 150) in September 2015. The accuracy of the DEMs was compared to measured DGPS trenches and map-based elevation data. The overall derived accuracy of the landform classification based on the

  4. Stream Morphologic Measurements from Airborne Laser Swath Mapping: Comparisons with Field Surveys, Traditional DEMs, and Aerial Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, N. P.; Schultz, L. L.

    2005-12-01

    Precise measurement of stream morphology over entire watersheds is one of the great research opportunities provided by airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM). ALSM surveys allow for rapid quantification of factors, such as channel width and gradient, that control stream hydraulic and ecologic properties. We compare measurements from digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from ALSM data collected by the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) to field surveys, traditional DEMs (rasterized from topographic maps), and aerial photographs. The field site is in the northern Black Mountains in arid Death Valley National Park (California). The area is unvegetated, and therefore is excellent for testing DEM analysis methods because the ALSM data required minimal filtering, and the resulting DEM contains relatively few unphysical sinks. Algorithms contained in geographic information systems (GIS) software used to extract stream networks from DEMs yield best results where streams are steep enough for resolvable pixel-to-pixel elevation change, and channel width is on the order of pixel resolution. This presents a new challenge with ALSM-derived DEMs because the pixel size (1 m) is often an order of magnitude or more smaller than channel width. We find the longitudinal profile of Gower Gulch in the northern Black Mountains (~4 km total length) extracted using the ALSM DEM and a flow accumulation algorithm is 14% longer than a traditional 10-m DEM, and 13% longer than a field survey. These differences in length (and therefore gradient) are due to the computed channel path following small-scale topographic variations within the channel bottom that are not relevant during high flows. However, visual analysis of shaded-relief images created from high-resolution ALSM data is an excellent method for digitizing channel banks and thalweg paths. We used these lines to measure distance, elevation, and width. In Gower Gulch, the algorithm-derived profile is 10% longer than that

  5. General comparison of ozone vertical profiles obtained by various techniques during the 1983 MAP/GLOBUS campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, W. A.; Aimedieu, P.; Megie, G.; Pelon, J.; Attmannspacher, W.; Komhyr, W.; Marche, P.; De La Noe, J.; Rigaud, P.; Robbins, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the 1983 MAP/GLOBUS campaign, atmospheric ozone profile measurements were made using a large variety of different techniques both from balloon platforms and the ground. It is shown that, for most techniques, the measured height distributions agree to within + or - 5 percent with the exception of the remote visible absorption method. This + or - 5 percent uncertainty is of the order of the individual intersystem accuracy. It is suggested that since the differences with the visible absorption method are in magnitude rather than in form, the absorption cross-section data could be the possible cause for the discrepancy.

  6. Comparison of the peptide map and functional properties of monooxygenases induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and. beta. -naphthoflavone

    SciTech Connect

    Chasovnikova, O.B.; Mishin, V.M.; Tsyrlov, I.B.

    1987-02-20

    The similarity of the catalytic, spectral, electrophoretic, and immunochemical properties of microsomal cytochromes P-448 (molecular weight 56,000), synthesized de novo after administration of 3-methylcholanthrene and ..beta..-naphthoflavone to rats, was demonstrated. The identity of the peptide maps of the microsomal and isolated cytochrome P-448 is evidence of adequacy of the method of limited proteolysis for establishing the homogeneity and comparing the structure of the microsomal hemoproteins. The data obtained substantiate the approach for the study of the similarity and differences in the structure and enzymatic activity of various forms of monooxygenases without their preliminary isolation from the microsomal membrane.

  7. Comparison between electric-field-navigated and line-navigated TMS for cortical motor mapping in patients with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Sollmann, Nico; Goblirsch-Kolb, Moritz F; Ille, Sebastian; Butenschoen, Vicki M; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-12-01

    For the navigation of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), various techniques are available. Yet, there are two basic principles underlying them all: electric-field-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (En-TMS) and line-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (Ln-TMS). The current study was designed to compare both methods. To explore whether there is a difference in clinical applicability, workflow, and mapping results of both techniques, we systematically compared motor mapping via En-TMS and Ln-TMS in 12 patients suffering from brain tumors. The number of motor-positive stimulation spots and the ratio of positive spots per overall stimulation numbers were significantly higher for En-TMS (motor-positive spots: En-TMS vs. Ln-TMS: 128.3 ± 35.0 vs. 41.3 ± 26.8, p < 0.0001; ratio of motor-positive spots per number of stimulations: En-TMS vs. Ln-TMS: 38.0 ± 9.2 % vs. 20.0 ± 14.4 %, p = 0.0031). Distances between the En-TMS and Ln-TMS motor hotspots were 8.3 ± 4.4 mm on the ipsilesional and 8.6 ± 4.5 mm on the contralesional hemisphere (p = 0.9124). The present study compares En-TMS and Ln-TMS motor mapping in the neurosurgical context for the first time. Although both TMS systems tested in the present study are explicitly designed for application during motor mapping in patients with brain lesions, there are differences in applicability, workflow, and results between En-TMS and Ln-TMS, which should be distinctly considered during clinical use of the technique. However, to draw final conclusions about accuracy, confirmation of motor-positive Ln-TMS spots by intraoperative stimulation is crucial within the scope of upcoming investigations.

  8. Attenuation correction methods suitable for brain imaging with a PET/MRI scanner: a comparison of tissue atlas and template attenuation map approaches.

    PubMed

    Malone, Ian B; Ansorge, Richard E; Williams, Guy B; Nestor, Peter J; Carpenter, T Adrian; Fryer, Tim D

    2011-07-01

    Modeled attenuation correction (AC) will be necessary for combined PET/MRI scanners not equipped with transmission scanning hardware. We compared 2 modeled AC approaches that use nonrigid registration with rotating (68)Ge rod-based measured AC for 10 subjects scanned with (18)F-FDG. Two MRI and attenuation map pairs were evaluated: tissue atlas-based and measured templates. The tissue atlas approach used a composite of the BrainWeb and Zubal digital phantoms, whereas the measured templates were produced by averaging spatially normalized measured MR image and coregistered attenuation maps. The composite digital phantom was manually edited to include 2 additional tissue classes (paranasal sinuses, and ethmoidal air cells or nasal cavity). In addition, 3 attenuation values for bone were compared. The MRI and attenuation map pairs were used to generate subject-specific attenuation maps via nonrigid registration of the MRI to the MR image of the subject. SPM2 and a B-spline free-form deformation algorithm were used for the nonrigid registration. To determine the accuracy of the modeled AC approaches, radioactivity concentration was assessed on a voxelwise and regional basis. The template approach produced better spatial consistency than the phantom-based atlas, with an average percentage error in radioactivity concentration across the regions, compared with measured AC, of -1.2% ± 1.2% and -1.5% ± 1.9% for B-spline and SPM2 registration, respectively. In comparison, the tissue atlas method with B-spline registration produced average percentage errors of 0.0% ± 3.0%, 0.9% ± 2.9%, and 2.9% ± 2.8% for bone attenuation values of 0.143 cm(-1), 0.152 cm(-1), and 0.172 cm(-1), respectively. The largest errors for the template AC method were found in parts of the frontal cortex (-3%) and the cerebellar vermis (-5%). Intersubject variability was higher with SPM2 than with B-spline. Compared with measured AC, template AC with B-spline and SPM2 achieved a correlation

  9. Comparison of Stem Map Developed from Crown Geometry Allometry Linked Census Data to Airborne and Terrestrial Lidar at Harvard Forest, MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, F.; Palace, M. W.; Ducey, M. J.; David, O.; Cook, B. D.; Lepine, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    , high quality field-based stem maps with species and crown geometry information will allow for better comparisons and interpretations of individual tree spectra from the G-LiHT hyperspectral sensor as estimated by automated crown delineation of the G-LiHT lidar canopy height model.

  10. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder/learning disabilities (ADHD/LD): parental characterization and perception.

    PubMed

    Brook, Uzi; Boaz, Mona

    2005-04-01

    Sixty-six parents of adolescents (mean age, 14.8 years), who attended special education classes and who were diagnosed as having attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder/learning disabilities (ADHD/LD), were interviewed. The comorbidity of the ADHD group included emotional lability and/or depression, 70%; oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), 67%; obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 44%; addiction to buying, 44%; and aggressiveness, 62%. Twenty-one percent were either involved in the past or presently using drugs. Nine percent had attempted suicide. According to their parents, the main characteristic of these adolescents was low self-image. Parents enumerated five negative characteristics: impulsiveness; nervousness; angered easily ('short fused'); aggressiveness with cursing and outbursts; and impaired sociability with impoliteness.

  11. LD bar corner-pumped TEM00 CW composite Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Liu, Huan; Wang, Dongsheng; Gong, Mali

    2009-11-23

    Ray-tracing algorithm was used to simulate the pump absorption efficiency and pump absorption distribution of LD corner-pumped laser with different parameters of Nd:YAG composite slab crystal. Resonator experiment was performed to suppress the oscillation of higher-order modes and realize TEM(00) operation. Experiment results showed that the output power was 11.94 W with an optical-optical efficiency of over 26%, and the M2 factors of beam quality at width and thickness directions were 1.18 and 1.34, respectively. It has been proven that the corner-pumped configuration could obtain laser output with good beam quality as a result of high pump efficiency and good pump uniformity.

  12. Polymorphs of Aspirin Solid-state IR-LD spectroscopic and quantitative determination in solid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Bojidarka B.

    2006-12-01

    Solid-state linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscopy, using an orientation technique as a suspension in nematic liquid crystal, has been carried out of Aspirin polymorphs (forms I and II). Reducing-difference procedure for polarized IR-spectra interpretation has been applied for structural analysis of both modifications and the data have been compared with known crystallographic ones. A vibration assignment of forms I and II has been included and on this basis, a quantitative determination by FT-IR spectra for form I in mixtures with second one has been presented, using intensity ratio of 1606 cm -1 peak (characteristic for both forms) to 599 cm -1 one (attributed to form I). The obtained reliability is 99.78%.

  13. LD-cladding-pumped 50 pm linewidth Tm 3+ -doped silica fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yunjun, Zhang; Baoquan, Yao; Youlun, Ju; Hui, Zhou; Yuezhu, Wang

    2008-05-26

    We report on a Tm(3+)-doped fiber laser source operating at 1936.4 nm with a very narrow linewidth (50 pm) laser output. Up to 2.4 W cw laser power was obtained from an 82 cm long Tm(3+)-doped multimode-core fiber cladding pumped by a 792 nm laser diode (LD). The fiber laser cavity included a high-reflective dichroic and a low-reflective FBG output coupler. The multimode fiber Bragg grating (FBG) transmission spectrum and output laser spectrum were measured. By adjusting the distance between the dichroic and the Tm(3+)-doped fiber end, the multipeak laser spectrum changed to a single-peak laser spectrum.

  14. A Comparison of the Detection Sensitivity of the Poisson Clutter Split and Region of Interest Algorithms on the RadMAP Mobile System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, T. H.; Cooper, R. J.; Curtis, J.; Bandstra, M.; Cosofret, B. R.; Shokhirev, K.; Konno, D.

    2016-04-01

    This analysis uses source injection into background data collected by the Radiological Multi-sensor Analysis Platform (RadMAP) to characterize the performance of the Poisson Clutter Split algorithm and compare it with a region-of-interest algorithm. This comparison is performed for varying detector array sizes and false alarm rates using data from Sodium Iodide and High Purity Germanium detector arrays. The application of the Poisson Clutter Split algorithm is found to yield significant performance gains for both medium- and high-resolution detector arrays. Furthermore, trade-offs between energy resolution, array size, cost, and detection performance are explored. In doing so, it is shown that the choice of detection algorithm is a key factor in determining the overall system performance and should be an important consideration in system design.

  15. Social interaction and sex differences influence rat temperature circadian rhythm under LD cycles and constant light.

    PubMed

    Cambras, T; Castejón, L; Díez-Noguera, A

    2011-06-01

    Circadian rhythms produce an efficient organization of animal behaviour over the 24h day. In some species, social cues have been found to have a role as synchronizers of these rhythms. Here, the influence of social interaction on rat circadian behaviour was investigated, addressing the question of whether cohabitation would produce a delay in the appearance of arrhythmicity under constant light conditions. To this end, the circadian rhythms of male and female rat body temperature were studied for 10days under light-dark conditions, followed by 33days under constant bright light. Half of the animals were maintained in individual cages, whilst the others were maintained in larger cages in groups of three rats of the same sex. Results showed that individual circadian rhythms under 24hour light-dark (LD) cycles were more stable and with higher amplitude in grouped than in isolated animals, and higher in males than in females. During the first days under constant light (LL), the stability of the rhythm was also higher in males than in females, but there were no differences according to the group. Moreover, we did not find significant differences in the time of circadian rhythm loss under LL, since high individual variability was found for this variable. On the other hand, female rats living in isolation showed a delayed acrophase in the circadian rhythm under LD conditions compared with those living in groups. These results suggest that cohabitation increases the internal coherence of circadian behaviour, and could be interpreted as indicating that living in isolation may induce a level of stress that disturbs manifestation of the circadian rhythm, especially in females, which are also more reactive than males to external signals.

  16. Oral LD50 toxicity modeling and prediction of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals on rat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-05-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses were performed using the LD(50) oral toxicity data of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) on rodents: rat and mouse. PFCs are studied under the EU project CADASTER which uses the available experimental data for prediction and prioritization of toxic chemicals for risk assessment by using the in silico tools. The methodology presented here applies chemometrical analysis on the existing experimental data and predicts the toxicity of new compounds. QSAR analyses were performed on the available 58 mouse and 50 rat LD(50) oral data using multiple linear regression (MLR) based on theoretical molecular descriptors selected by genetic algorithm (GA). Training and prediction sets were prepared a priori from available experimental datasets in terms of structure and response. These sets were used to derive statistically robust and predictive (both internally and externally) models. The structural applicability domain (AD) of the models were verified on 376 per- and polyfluorinated chemicals including those in REACH preregistration list. The rat and mouse endpoints were predicted by each model for the studied compounds, and finally 30 compounds, all perfluorinated, were prioritized as most important for experimental toxicity analysis under the project. In addition, cumulative study on compounds within the AD of all four models, including two earlier published models on LC(50) rodent analysis was studied and the cumulative toxicity trend was observed using principal component analysis (PCA). The similarities and the differences observed in terms of descriptors and chemical/mechanistic meaning encoded by descriptors to prioritize the most toxic compounds are highlighted.

  17. Characterization and comparison of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum in China using saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Deng, Yong; Lin, Peng-Cheng; Wei, Feng; Lv, Xiao-Jie; Long, Ze-Rong; Zhao, Jing; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-12-10

    Water-soluble polysaccharides from 51 batches of fruits of L. barbarum (wolfberry) in China were investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, partial acid hydrolysis, single and composite enzymatic digestion, followed by polysaccharide analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) analysis and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis, respectively. Results showed that multiple PACE and HPTLC fingerprints of partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in China were similar, respectively. In addition, results indicated that β-1,3-glucosidic, α-1,4-galactosiduronic and α-1,5-arabinosidic linkages existed in polysaccharides from L. barbarum collected in China, and the similarity of polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from different regions of China was pretty high, which are helpful for the improvement of the performance of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in functional/health foods area. Furthermore, polysaccharides from Panax notoginseng, Angelica sinensis, and Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus were successfully distinguished from those of L. barbarum based on their PACE fingerprints. These results were beneficial to improve the quality control of polysaccharides from L. barabrum and their products, which suggested that saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC analysis could be a routine approach for quality control of polysaccharides.

  18. Comparison of Tropical Ozone from SHADOZ with Remote Sensing Retrievals from Suomi-npp Ozone Mapping Profile Suite (OMPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The Ozone Mapping Profile Suite (OMPS) was launched October 28, 2011 on-board the Suomi NPP satellite (http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov). OMPS is the next generation total column ozone mapping instrument for monitoring the global distribution of stratospheric ozone. OMPS includes a limb profiler to measure the vertical structure of stratosphere ozone down to the mid-troposphere. This study uses tropical ozonesonde profile measurements from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ, http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz) archive to evaluate total column ozone retrievals from OMPS and concurrent measurements from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the predecessor of OMPS with a data record going back to 2004. We include ten SHADOZ stations that contain data overlapping the OMPS time period (2012-2013). This study capitalizes on the ozone profile measurements from SHADOZ to evaluate OMPS limb profile retrievals. Finally, we use SHADOZ sondes and OMPS retrievals to examine the agreement with the GEOS-5 Ozone Assimilation System (GOAS). The GOAS uses data from the OMI and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) to constrain the total column and stratospheric profiles of ozone. The most recent version of the assimilation system is well constrained to the total column compared with SHADOZ ozonesonde data.

  19. Language mapping in children using resting-state functional connectivity: comparison with a task-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Anne; Tremblay, Julie; Vannasing, Phetsamone

    2016-12-01

    Patients with brain tumor or refractory epilepsy may be candidates for neurosurgery. Presurgical evaluation often includes language investigation to prevent or reduce the risk of postsurgical language deficits. Current techniques involve significant limitations with pediatric populations. Recently, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been shown to be a valuable neuroimaging technique for language localization in children. However, it typically requires the child to perform a task (task-based NIRS), which may constitute a significant limitation. Resting-state functional connectivity NIRS (fcNIRS) is an approach that can be used to identify language networks at rest. This study aims to assess the utility of fcNIRS in children by comparing fcNIRS to more conventional task-based NIRS for language mapping in 33 healthy participants: 25 children (ages 3 to 16) and 8 adults. Data were acquired at rest and during a language task. Results show very good concordance between both approaches for language localization (Dice similarity coefficient=0.81±0.13) and hemispheric language dominance (kappa=0.86, p<0.006). The fcNIRS technique may be a valuable tool for language mapping in clinical populations, including children and patients with cognitive and behavioral impairments.

  20. A comparison of policy and direct practice stakeholder perceptions of factors affecting evidence-based practice implementation using concept mapping.

    PubMed

    Green, Amy E; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-09-07

    The goal of this study was to assess potential differences between administrators/policymakers and those involved in direct practice regarding factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation in a large public mental health service system in the United States. Participants included mental health system county officials, agency directors, program managers, clinical staff, administrative staff, and consumers. As part of concept mapping procedures, brainstorming groups were conducted with each target group to identify specific factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to EBP implementation in a large public mental health system. Statements were sorted by similarity and rated by each participant in regard to their perceived importance and changeability. Multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to analyze the data. A total of 105 statements were distilled into 14 clusters using concept-mapping procedures. Perceptions of importance of factors affecting EBP implementation varied between the two groups, with those involved in direct practice assigning significantly higher ratings to the importance of Clinical Perceptions and the impact of EBP implementation on clinical practice. Consistent with previous studies, financial concerns (costs, funding) were rated among the most important and least likely to change by both groups. EBP implementation is a complex process, and different stakeholders may hold different opinions regarding the relative importance of the impact of EBP implementation. Implementation efforts must include input from stakeholders at multiple levels to bring divergent and convergent perspectives to light.

  1. A comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using global positioning system and beacon satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, Gabor E.; Roth, Titus

    1988-01-01

    Total ionospheric electron contents (TEC) were measured by global positioning system (GPS) dual-frequency receivers developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The measurements included P-code (precise ranging code) and carrier phase data for six GPS satellites during multiple five-hour observing sessions. A set of these GPS TEC measurements were mapped from the GPS lines of sight to the line of sight of a Faraday beacon satellite by statistically fitting the TEC data to a simple model of the ionosphere. The mapped GPS TEC values were compared with the Faraday rotation measurements. Because GPS transmitter offsets are different for each satellite and because some GPS receiver offsets were uncalibrated, the sums of the satellite and receiver offsets were estimated simultaneously with the TEC in a least squares procedure. The accuracy of this estimation procedure is evaluated indicating that the error of the GPS-determined line of sight TEC can be at or below 1 x 10 to the 16th el/sq cm. Consequently, the current level of accuracy is comparable to the Faraday rotation technique; however, GPS provides superior sky coverage.

  2. Detecting tactical patterns in basketball: comparison of merge self-organising maps and dynamic controlled neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Matthias; Grunz, Andreas; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The soaring amount of data, especially spatial-temporal data, recorded in recent years demands for advanced analysis methods. Neural networks derived from self-organizing maps established themselves as a useful tool to analyse static and temporal data. In this study, we applied the merge self-organising map (MSOM) to spatio-temporal data. To do so, we investigated the ability of MSOM's to analyse spatio-temporal data and compared its performance to the common dynamical controlled network (DyCoN) approach to analyse team sport position data. The position data of 10 players were recorded via the Ubisense tracking system during a basketball game. Furthermore, three different pre-selected plays were recorded for classification. Following data preparation, the different nets were trained with the data of the first half. The training success of both networks was evaluated by achieved entropy. The second half of the basketball game was presented to both nets for automatic classification. Both approaches were able to present the trained data extremely well and to detect the pre-selected plays correctly. In conclusion, MSOMs are a useful tool to analyse spatial-temporal data, especially in team sports. By their direct inclusion of different time length of tactical patterns, they open up new opportunities within team sports.

  3. A comparison of phase imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping in the imaging of multiple sclerosis lesions at ultrahigh field.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew John; Wharton, Samuel; Al-Radaideh, Ali; Constantinescu, Cris; Evangelou, Nikos; Bowtell, Richard; Gowland, Penny Anne

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the use of high-resolution phase and QSM images acquired at ultra-high field in the investigation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions with peripheral rings, and to discuss their usefulness for drawing inferences about underlying tissue composition. Thirty-nine Subjects were scanned at 7 T, using 3D T 2*-weighted and T 1-weighted sequences. Phase images were then unwrapped and filtered, and quantitative susceptibility maps were generated using a thresholded k-space division method. Lesions were compared visually and using a 1D profiling algorithm. Lesions displaying peripheral rings in the phase images were identified in 10 of the 39 subjects. Dipolar projections were apparent in the phase images outside of the extent of several of these lesions; however, QSM images showed peripheral rings without such projections. These projections appeared ring-like in a small number of phase images where no ring was observed in QSM. 1D profiles of six well-isolated example lesions showed that QSM contrast corresponds more closely to the magnitude images than phase contrast. Phase images contain dipolar projections, which confounds their use in the investigation of tissue composition in MS lesions. Quantitative susceptibility maps correct these projections, providing insight into the composition of MS lesions showing peripheral rings.

  4. Comparison of elevation derived from insar data with dem from topography map in Son Dong, Bac Giang, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duy

    2012-07-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are used in many applications in the context of earth sciences such as in topographic mapping, environmental modeling, rainfall-runoff studies, landslide hazard zonation, seismic source modeling, etc. During the last years multitude of scientific applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) techniques have evolved. It has been shown that InSAR is an established technique of generating high quality DEMs from space borne and airborne data, and that it has advantages over other methods for the generation of large area DEM. However, the processing of InSAR data is still a challenging task. This paper describes InSAR operational steps and processing chain for DEM generation from Single Look Complex (SLC) SAR data and compare a satellite SAR estimate of surface elevation with a digital elevation model (DEM) from Topography map. The operational steps are performed in three major stages: Data Search, Data Processing, and product Validation. The Data processing stage is further divided into five steps of Data Pre-Processing, Co-registration, Interferogram generation, Phase unwrapping, and Geocoding. The Data processing steps have been tested with ERS 1/2 data using Delft Object-oriented Interferometric (DORIS) InSAR processing software. Results of the outcome of the application of the described processing steps to real data set are presented.

  5. A comparison of rock and soil samples for geochemical mapping of two porphyry-metal systems in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuerburg, George J.; Barton, H.N.; Watterson, J.R.; Welsch, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    Paired rock and soil samples were collected at widely spaced locations in large segments of the porphyry-metal systems of the Montezuma district in central Colorado and of a northwestward extension of the Summitville district into Crater Creek in southern Colorado. The paired samples do not covary closely enough for one sample medium to proxy for the other. However, the areal distributions of elements in both rocks and soils in these two districts conform to alteration zoning as defined by mineralogy. Differing geochemical patterns of rocks and soils reflect species-dependent responses to weathering. Soils appear to be statistically enriched in ore elements and depleted in rock elements as compared to the matching rocks. These differences are largely artificial s owing to different methods of sample preparation and chemical analysis for rocks and for soils. The distributions of metals in soils delineate the occurrence of ore-metal minerals mostly from vein deposits whereas the distributions of metals in rocks conform to zones of pervasive hydrothermal alteration and to the distribution of varied mineral deposits among these zones. Rock and soil samples are equally useful s of comparable map resolution and complement one another as a basis for geochemically mapping these porphyry-metal systems.

  6. Atomic far-IR fine-structure line mapping of L1630, M17, and W3: Comparison of (O I) and (C II) distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, J. E.; Jaffe, Dan T.; Zhou, Shudong

    1995-01-01

    We mapped the distribution of atomic far-IR line emission from (O I) and (C II) over parsec scales in the Galactic star-forming regions L1630, M17, and W3 using the MPE Far-Infrared Fabry-Perot Imaging spectrometer (FIFI) on board the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The lines mapped include (O I) 63 microns, (O I) 146 microns, and (C II) 158 microns. Comparison of the intensities and ratios of these lines with models of photodissociation regions (e.g., Tielens & Hollenbach 1985, ApJ, 344, 770) allows us to derive temperatures and densities of the primarily neutral atomic gas layers lying on the surfaces of UV-illuminated molecular gas. In general, the (C II) line arises ubiquitously throughout the molecular clouds while the (O I) lines are mainly confined to warm, dense gas (T is greater than 100 K, n is greater than 10(exp 4)/cu cm) near the sites of O and B stars. The distribution of (C II) in the star-forming clouds implies that the (C II) emission arises on the surfaces of molecular clumps throughout the clouds, rather than only at the boundary layer between molecular gas and H II regions.

  7. Investigation of techniques to quantify in vivo lesion volume based on comparison of water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with histology in focal cerebral ischemia of rats.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mark; Silva, Matthew D; Li, Fuhai; Fisher, Marc; Sotak, Christopher H

    2004-06-01

    Stroke lesion-volume estimates derived from calculated water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps provide a quantitative surrogate end-point for investigating the efficacy of drug treatment or studying the temporal evolution of cerebral ischemia. Methodology is described for estimating ischemic lesion volumes in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) based on absolute and percent-reduction threshold values of the water ADC at 3 h post-MCAO. Volume estimates derived from average ADC (ADC(av)) maps were compared with those derived from post-mortem histological sections. Optimum ADC thresholds were established as those that provided the best correlation and one-to-one correspondence between ADC- and histologically derived lesion-volume estimates. At 3 h post-MCAO, an absolute-ADC(av) threshold of 47 x 10(-5) mm(2)/s (corresponding to a 33% reduction in ADC(av) based on a contralateral hemisphere comparison) provided the most accurate estimate of percent hemispheric lesion volume (%HLV). Experimental and data analysis issues for improving and validating the usefulness of DWI as a surrogate endpoint for the quantification of ischemic lesion volume are discussed.

  8. Comparison of 2D temperature maps recorded during laser-induced thermal tissue treatment with corresponding temperature distributions calculated from 3D Monte-Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, Harald; Bublat, Martin; Ratering, Ralf; Rassek, Margarethe; Schwarzmaier, Hans-Joachim; Kahn, Thomas

    2000-05-01

    Minimally invasive techniques often require special biomedical monitoring schemes. In the case of laser coagulation of tumors accurate temperature mapping is desirable for therapy control. While magnetic resonance (MR)-based thermometry can easily yield qualitative results it is still difficult to calibrate this technique with independent temperature probes for the entire 2D field of view. Calculated temperature maps derived from Monte-Carlo simulations (MCS), on the other hand, are suitable for therapy planning and dosimetry but typically can not account for the extract individual tissue parameters and physiological changes upon heating. In this work, online thermometry was combined with MCS techniques to explore the feasibility and potential of such a biomodal approach for surgical assist systems. For the first time, the result of a 3D simulation were evaluated with MR techniques. An MR thermometry system was used to monitor the temperature evolution during laser-induced thermal treatment of bovine liver using a commercially available water-cooled applicator. A systematic comparison between MR-derived 2D temperature maps in different orientations and corresponding snapshots of a 3D MCS of the laser-induced processes is presented. The MCS is capable of resolving the complex temperature patterns observed in the MR-derived images and yields a good agreement with respect to absolute temperatures and damage volume dimensions. The observed quantitative agreement is around 10 degrees C and on the order of 10 percent, respectively. The integrated simulation-and-monitoring approach has the potential to improve surgical assistance during thermal interventions.

  9. The subunit gene Ldα1 of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors plays important roles in the toxicity of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam against Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Chenge; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Wenchao; Han, Zhaojun; Jiang, Weihua

    2016-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ACh-gated ion channels. It is believed that nAChRs composed of different subunits may vary in their function and toxicological characteristics. Neonicotinoids are activators of nAChRs and important insecticides that are extensively used for crop protection and resistance has been developed by some pests. They are also major insecticides for the control of Leptinotarsa decemlineata, which is a destructive defoliator pest that invaded the Xinjiang region of China in the 1990s. However, little is known about the constitution or subunits of the target in this pest. In this study, the full-length cDNAs encoding four new nAChR subunits (named Ldα3, Ldα6, Ldα10, and Ldβ1) were cloned from L. decemlineata. These genes encode 822-, 753-, 672-, and 759-amino acid proteins, respectively, which share typical features of insect nAChRs subunits and closely resemble the corresponding subunits of the nAChRs from Tribolium castaneum. Temporal and spatial expression analyses showed that these genes, as well as the previously identified Ldα1, Ldα2, and Ldα8 genes, are widely expressed in all developmental stages, including eggs, larvae of various instars, pupae, and adults. All genes monitored were expressed at higher levels in the head than in the thorax and abdomen, except for Ldα10. Dietary ingestion of double-stranded RNA bacterially expressed for Ldα1 (dsLdα1) significantly reduced the mRNA level of Ldα1 in treated larvae and adults by 48.0% and 78.6%, respectively. Among the non-target genes, Ldα3, Ldα9, and Ldβ1 were significantly up-regulated in larvae. A toxicity bioassay showed that dsLdα1 treatment greatly decreased the sensitivity to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in adults. The larval susceptibility to thiamethoxam but not to imidacloprid was also reduced because of the lower down-regulation of Ldα1. Thus, our results suggest that Ldα1 encodes a subunit of a functional nAChR that mediates the

  10. Comparison of Discrete-return ranging and Full-waveform digitization for Bathymetric Lidar Mapping of a Shallow Water Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starek, M. J.; Fernandez-diaz, J.; Pan, Z.; Glennie, C. L.; Shrestha, R. L.; Gibeaut, J. C.; Singhania, A.

    2013-12-01

    Researchers with the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) at the University of Houston (UH) and the Coastal and Marine Geospatial Sciences Lab (CMGL) of the Harte Research Institute at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi conducted a coordinated airborne and field-based survey of the Redfish Bay State Scientific Area to investigate the capabilities of shallow water bathymetric lidar for benthic mapping. Redfish Bay, located along the middle Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico, is a state scientific area designated for the purposes of protecting and studying the native seagrasses. The mapped region is very shallow (< 1 m in most locations) and consists of a variety of benthic cover including sandy bottom, oyster reef, subaqueous vegetation, and submerged structures. For this survey, UH acquired high resolution (2.5 shots per square meter) bathymetry data using their new Optech Aquarius 532 nm green lidar. The field survey conducted by CMGL used an airboat to collect in-situ radiometer measurements, GPS position, depth, and ground-truth data of benthic type at over 80 locations within the bay. The return signal of an Aquarius lidar pulse is analyzed in real time by a hardware-based constant fraction discriminator (CFD) to detect returns from the surface and determine ranges (x,y,z points). This approach is commonly called discrete-return ranging, and Aquarius can record up to 4 returns per an emitted laser pulse. In contrast, full-waveform digitization records the incoming energy of an emitted pulse by sampling it at very high-frequency. Post-processing algorithms can then be applied to detect returns (ranges) from the digitized waveform. For this survey, a waveform digitizer was simultaneously operated to record the return waveforms at a rate of 1GHz with 12 bit dynamic range. High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of the topo-bathymetry were derived from the discrete-return and full-waveform data to evaluate the relative and absolute accuracy

  11. Average 3-dimensional models for the comparison of Orbscan II and Pentacam pachymetry maps in normal corneas.

    PubMed

    Bourges, Jean-Louis; Alfonsi, Nicolas; Laliberté, Jean-François; Chagnon, Miguel; Renard, Gilles; Legeais, Jean-Marc; Brunette, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    To assess the reliability of Orbscan (Bausch & Lomb, Salt Lake City, UT) and Pentacam (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) central corneal thickness (CCT) and peripheral corneal thickness (PCT) measurements based on 2 methodologies. Evaluation of a diagnostic technology. Thirty healthy volunteers were recruited prospectively at the Department of Ophthalmology of the Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, Paris, France. Central corneal thickness and PCT were assessed, using ultrasound pachymetry (USP) as the gold standard. Two methodologies were used: (1) the traditional analysis of pachymetry data from 1 central and 8 peripheral reference positions on the cornea, and (2) a 3-dimensional (3-D) analysis based on average corneal pachymetry maps constructed for each system (Orbscan, Pentacam, and USP), each operator (operators 1 and 2), and each visit (visits A and B). Repeatability, intersystem reproducibility, interoperator reproducibility, reproducibility over time, and accuracy of Orbscan and Pentacam CCT and PCT measurements. Distribution and statistical significance of the differences between 3-D average maps. Repeatability (Orbscan intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs], 0.967-0.992; Pentacam ICCs, 0.986-0.997), interoperator reproducibility, and reproducibility over time (ICCs, 0.976-0.997) were excellent to almost perfect for both systems. Intersystem agreement was almost perfect for CCT (ICC, 0.980), but less strong for PCT (ICCs, 0.928-0.979). Despite a good to excellent agreement between the optical systems and USP (ICCs, 0.608-0.958), USP CCT readings were thicker (mean difference, up to 15.2 microm; P<0.05), and USP PCT readings were thinner (P<0.05). Orbscan and Pentacam average maps allowed comprehensive interpretation of differences between populations according to the magnitude, distribution, and statistical significance, minimizing the risk of giving excessive weight to few data measured at specific locations on the cornea. Both methodologies showed that Orbscan and

  12. Screening for specific learning difficulties (SpLD): the impact upon the progression of pre-registration nursing students.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jane; Aspland, Jo; Taghzouit, Jayne; Pace, Kerry; Harrison, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the impact of screening pre-registration nursing students for an SpLD at entry to an education programme, and the provision of specialist support for those identified as 'at risk'. Progression was monitored using a multiple method approach. 242 (98%) students completed and returned the Adult Dyslexia Check List (ADCL). 69 scored 7 or above (28.5% of responses) and 36 (52%) went on for further assessment. 48% of students who scored 7+ did not go on to contact Disability Services at all. 11% of the cohort was formally identified as having a SpLD at the end of the year compared to 3.9% of students with a declared disability entering pre-registration nurse education in 2007. 54% of the students who scored 7+ successfully progressed into year two, compared with 41% of students with SpLD from a previous cohort.

  13. A Comparison of In Vitro Nucleosome Positioning Mapped with Chicken, Frog and a Variety of Yeast Core Histones☆

    PubMed Central

    Allan, James; Fraser, Ross M.; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Docherty, Kevin; Singh, Vijender

    2013-01-01

    Using high-throughput sequencing, we have mapped sequence-directed nucleosome positioning in vitro on four plasmid DNAs containing DNA fragments derived from the genomes of sheep, drosophila, human and yeast. Chromatins were prepared by reconstitution using chicken, frog and yeast core histones. We also assembled yeast chromatin in which histone H3 was replaced by the centromere-specific histone variant, Cse4. The positions occupied by recombinant frog and native chicken histones were found to be very similar. In contrast, nucleosomes containing the canonical yeast octamer or, in particular, the Cse4 octamer were assembled at distinct populations of locations, a property that was more apparent on particular genomic DNA fragments. The factors that may contribute to this variation in nucleosome positioning and the implications of the behavior are discussed. PMID:23871836

  14. Techniques of low technology sampling of air pollution by metals: a comparison of concentrations and map patterns.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, O L; Gailey, F A

    1987-07-01

    During a 17 month survey of air pollution in the town of Armadale, central Scotland, the concentrations of some metals (iron, manganese, zinc, lead, copper, chrome, nickel, cadmium, and cobalt) were measured in seven types of low technology sampler--four indigenous and three transplanted--at 47 sites. The geographical patterns of the concentrations in the samplers were compared on two types of map. For most metals, sites with high concentrations were present close to the foundry and also in the north of the town. The differences between the patterns of pollution shown by the various types of sampler probably reflected differing mechanisms for collection and different affinities for various sizes and types of metal particle.

  15. Techniques of low technology sampling of air pollution by metals: a comparison of concentrations and map patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, O L; Gailey, F A

    1987-01-01

    During a 17 month survey of air pollution in the town of Armadale, central Scotland, the concentrations of some metals (iron, manganese, zinc, lead, copper, chrome, nickel, cadmium, and cobalt) were measured in seven types of low technology sampler--four indigenous and three transplanted--at 47 sites. The geographical patterns of the concentrations in the samplers were compared on two types of map. For most metals, sites with high concentrations were present close to the foundry and also in the north of the town. The differences between the patterns of pollution shown by the various types of sampler probably reflected differing mechanisms for collection and different affinities for various sizes and types of metal particle. Images PMID:3620375

  16. A comparison of in vitro nucleosome positioning mapped with chicken, frog and a variety of yeast core histones.

    PubMed

    Allan, James; Fraser, Ross M; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Docherty, Kevin; Singh, Vijender

    2013-11-15

    Using high-throughput sequencing, we have mapped sequence-directed nucleosome positioning in vitro on four plasmid DNAs containing DNA fragments derived from the genomes of sheep, drosophila, human and yeast. Chromatins were prepared by reconstitution using chicken, frog and yeast core histones. We also assembled yeast chromatin in which histone H3 was replaced by the centromere-specific histone variant, Cse4. The positions occupied by recombinant frog and native chicken histones were found to be very similar. In contrast, nucleosomes containing the canonical yeast octamer or, in particular, the Cse4 octamer were assembled at distinct populations of locations, a property that was more apparent on particular genomic DNA fragments. The factors that may contribute to this variation in nucleosome positioning and the implications of the behavior are discussed.

  17. Mapping trees outside forests using high-resolution aerial imagery: a comparison of pixel- and object-based classification approaches.

    PubMed

    Meneguzzo, Dacia M; Liknes, Greg C; Nelson, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    Discrete trees and small groups of trees in nonforest settings are considered an essential resource around the world and are collectively referred to as trees outside forests (ToF). ToF provide important functions across the landscape, such as protecting soil and water resources, providing wildlife habitat, and improving farmstead energy efficiency and aesthetics. Despite the significance of ToF, forest and other natural resource inventory programs and geospatial land cover datasets that are available at a national scale do not include comprehensive information regarding ToF in the United States. Additional ground-based data collection and acquisition of specialized imagery to inventory these resources are expensive alternatives. As a potential solution, we identified two remote sensing-based approaches that use free high-resolution aerial imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) to map all tree cover in an agriculturally dominant landscape. We compared the results obtained using an unsupervised per-pixel classifier (independent component analysis-[ICA]) and an object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure in Steele County, Minnesota, USA. Three types of accuracy assessments were used to evaluate how each method performed in terms of: (1) producing a county-level estimate of total tree-covered area, (2) correctly locating tree cover on the ground, and (3) how tree cover patch metrics computed from the classified outputs compared to those delineated by a human photo interpreter. Both approaches were found to be viable for mapping tree cover over a broad spatial extent and could serve to supplement ground-based inventory data. The ICA approach produced an estimate of total tree cover more similar to the photo-interpreted result, but the output from the OBIA method was more realistic in terms of describing the actual observed spatial pattern of tree cover.

  18. Whole body magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography angiography in the vascular mapping of head and neck: an intraindividual comparison

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    I