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Sample records for ld map comparison

  1. A Review of Story Mapping Instruction for Secondary Students with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Richard T.; Paal, Michael; Hintz, Anna-Maria; Cornelius-Freyre, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a review on the effectiveness of story mapping to improve the reading comprehension skills of middle and high school (Grades 6-12) students with learning disabilities (LD). An extensive review of the special education research-base revealed twelve (N = 12) story mapping intervention studies that met our…

  2. Comparison study on effectiveness of pentoxifyllin with LD to prevent recurrent endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghahiri, Ataollah; Najafian, Aida; Ghasemi, Mojdeh; Najafian, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Background: About 75% of the symptomatic patients who involved with endometriosis have pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. Pentoxifyllin is one of the drugs that according to its mechanism could be effective for pain relief of endometriosis which has been used for endometriosis treatment recently. Objective: We conducted a comparative study for detecting the effect of pentoxifylin (as an immonomodelator) in preventing recurrence endometriotic pain with pentoxifylin plus a combined contraceptive pill with low dose estrogen (LD) and also the LD pill alone. Materials and Methods: This was a comparative clinical trial on 83 patients with the chief complaint (CC) of pain (dysmenorrheal /or pelvic pain) and with the end diagnosis of endometriosis, in an operative laparoscopy. Patients, dividing to 3 groups, were treated with pentoxifylin, pentoxifylin+LD and LD alone for 10 months. The severity of pain (dismenorhea and/or pelvic pain) was detected by visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the treatment. The severity of endometriosis in the patients was: I in class I and II in class II and III in class III. The groups were matched for the pain. The number of the patients in group 1, 2 and 3 were 28, 28 and 27 respectively. Results: The pain was reduced in the groups of pentoxifylin+LD (p<0.001) and LD alone (p=0.00). The pain relief was not significant in the group of pentoxifylin alone (p=0.136). After treatment, the severity of pain was not significantly different between the LD group and the LD+penthoxyfillin group, but there was difference between these two groups and the group of penthoxyfillin alone. Conclusion: This study showed that penthoxyfillin actually could not have any effect on the pain relief of endometriosis. It also made it clear that penthoxyfillin could not increase the efficacy of LD when used with this medication. PMID:25242996

  3. Mapping of PARK2 and PACRG overlapping regulatory region reveals LD structure and functional variants in association with leprosy in unrelated indian population groups.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Rupali; Ali, Shafat; Srivastava, Amit K; Aggarwal, Shweta; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Jena, Mamta; Garg, Vijay K; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, where the host genetic background plays an important role toward the disease pathogenesis. Various studies have identified a number of human genes in association with leprosy or its clinical forms. However, non-replication of results has hinted at the heterogeneity among associations between different population groups, which could be due to differently evolved LD structures and differential frequencies of SNPs within the studied regions of the genome. A need for systematic and saturated mapping of the associated regions with the disease is warranted to unravel the observed heterogeneity in different populations. Mapping of the PARK2 and PACRG gene regulatory region with 96 SNPs, with a resolution of 1 SNP per 1 Kb for PARK2 gene regulatory region in a North Indian population, showed an involvement of 11 SNPs in determining the susceptibility towards leprosy. The association was replicated in a geographically distinct and unrelated population from Orissa in eastern India. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the two significantly associated SNPs, located 63.8 kb upstream of PARK2 gene and represented in a single BIN of 8 SNPs, influenced the gene expression. A comparison of BINs between Indian and Vietnamese populations revealed differences in the BIN structures, explaining the heterogeneity and also the reason for non-replication of the associated genomic region in different populations.

  4. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects, such as regions of high density, are of interest.

  5. Identification of putative candidate genes for red rot resistance in sugarcane (Saccharum species hybrid) using LD-based association mapping.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram K; Banerjee, Nandita; Khan, M S; Yadav, Sonia; Kumar, Sanjeev; Duttamajumder, S K; Lal, Ram Ji; Patel, Jinesh D; Guo, H; Zhang, Dong; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-06-01

    Red rot is a serious disease of sugarcane caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum that has a colossal damage potential. The fungus, prevalent mainly in the Indian sub-continent, keeps on producing new pathogenic strains leading to breakdown of resistance in newly released varieties and hence the deployment of linked markers for marker-assisted selection for resistance to this disease can fine tune the breeding programme. This study based on a panel of 119 sugarcane genotypes fingerprinted for 944 SSR alleles was undertaken with an aim to identify marker-trait associations (MTAs) for resistance to red rot. Mixed linear model containing population structure and kinship as co-factor detected four MTAs that were able to explain 10-16 % of the trait variation, individually. Among the four MTAs, EST sequences diagnostic of three could be BLAST searched to the sorghum genome with significant sequence homology. Several genes encoding important plant defence related proteins, viz., cytochrome P450, Glycerol-3-phosphate transporter-1, MAP Kinase-4, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Ring finger domain protein and others were localized to the vicinity of these MTAs. These positional candidate genes are worth of further investigation and possibly these could contribute directly to red rot resistance, and may find a potential application in marker-assisted sugarcane breeding.

  6. Identification of putative candidate genes for red rot resistance in sugarcane (Saccharum species hybrid) using LD-based association mapping.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram K; Banerjee, Nandita; Khan, M S; Yadav, Sonia; Kumar, Sanjeev; Duttamajumder, S K; Lal, Ram Ji; Patel, Jinesh D; Guo, H; Zhang, Dong; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-06-01

    Red rot is a serious disease of sugarcane caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum that has a colossal damage potential. The fungus, prevalent mainly in the Indian sub-continent, keeps on producing new pathogenic strains leading to breakdown of resistance in newly released varieties and hence the deployment of linked markers for marker-assisted selection for resistance to this disease can fine tune the breeding programme. This study based on a panel of 119 sugarcane genotypes fingerprinted for 944 SSR alleles was undertaken with an aim to identify marker-trait associations (MTAs) for resistance to red rot. Mixed linear model containing population structure and kinship as co-factor detected four MTAs that were able to explain 10-16 % of the trait variation, individually. Among the four MTAs, EST sequences diagnostic of three could be BLAST searched to the sorghum genome with significant sequence homology. Several genes encoding important plant defence related proteins, viz., cytochrome P450, Glycerol-3-phosphate transporter-1, MAP Kinase-4, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Ring finger domain protein and others were localized to the vicinity of these MTAs. These positional candidate genes are worth of further investigation and possibly these could contribute directly to red rot resistance, and may find a potential application in marker-assisted sugarcane breeding. PMID:26961118

  7. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    DOE PAGES

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects,more » such as regions of high density, are of interest.« less

  8. Large-Scale East-Asian eQTL Mapping Reveals Novel Candidate Genes for LD Mapping and the Genomic Landscape of Transcriptional Effects of Sequence Variants

    PubMed Central

    Narahara, Maiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Ishii, Miho; Matsubara, Kenichi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamada, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Profiles of sequence variants that influence gene transcription are very important for understanding mechanisms that affect phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility. Using genotypes at 1.4 million SNPs and a comprehensive transcriptional profile of 15,454 coding genes and 6,113 lincRNA genes obtained from peripheral blood cells of 298 Japanese individuals, we mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). We identified 3,804 cis-eQTLs (within 500 kb from target genes) and 165 trans-eQTLs (>500 kb away or on different chromosomes). Cis-eQTLs were often located in transcribed or adjacent regions of genes; among these regions, 5′ untranslated regions and 5′ flanking regions had the largest effects. Epigenetic evidence for regulatory potential accumulated in public databases explained the magnitude of the effects of our eQTLs. Cis-eQTLs were often located near the respective target genes, if not within genes. Large effect sizes were observed with eQTLs near target genes, and effect sizes were obviously attenuated as the eQTL distance from the gene increased. Using a very stringent significance threshold, we identified 165 large-effect trans-eQTLs. We used our eQTL map to assess 8,069 disease-associated SNPs identified in 1,436 genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We identified genes that might be truly causative, but GWAS might have failed to identify for 148 out of the GWAS-identified SNPs; for example, TUFM (P = 3.3E-48) was identified for inflammatory bowel disease (early onset); ZFP90 (P = 4.4E-34) for ulcerative colitis; and IDUA (P = 2.2E-11) for Parkinson's disease. We identified four genes (P<2.0E-14) that might be related to three diseases and two hematological traits; each expression is regulated by trans-eQTLs on a different chromosome than the gene. PMID:24956270

  9. LD in AD 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    The author discusses potential problems and benefits for learning disabled (LD) students in the year 2000. Considered are developments in three areas: human engineering (such as the role of amniocentesis in prevention of disabilities), education (including new audiovisual technology and a restructuring of secondary education), and human…

  10. A Spanish perspective on LD.

    PubMed

    González, J E; Valle, I H

    1999-01-01

    This article offers an overview of special education in Spain, specifically in the area of learning disabilities (LD). The term LD in Spain implies a different conception of the definition that enjoys considerable international agreement and consensus. We give a historical perspective of Spanish legislation and place the proposed definition of LD in the context of recent school reform in Spain. The support services model and the assessment practices and instructional approaches in the LD field are described. Finally, some educational implications of the new school reform regarding teacher training programs to assist special educational needs are presented. PMID:15508246

  11. Comparison IBEX Maps 1 and 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    The IBEX science team compares the first and second maps to reveal whether there are time variations in the Ribbon or the more distributed emissions around the ribbon. This animation fades between ...

  12. Comparison of traditional burn wound mapping with a computerized program.

    PubMed

    Williams, James F; King, Booker T; Aden, James K; Serio-Melvin, Maria; Chung, Kevin K; Fenrich, Craig A; Salinas, José; Renz, Evan M; Wolf, Steven E; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2013-01-01

    Accurate burn estimation affects the use of burn resuscitation formulas and treatment strategies, and thus can affect patient outcomes. The objective of this process-improvement project was to compare the accuracy of a computer-based burn mapping program, WoundFlow (WF), with the widely used hand-mapped Lund-Browder (LB) diagram. Manikins with various burn representations (from 1% to more than 60% TBSA) were used for comparison of the WF system and LB diagrams. Burns were depicted on the manikins using red vinyl adhesive. Healthcare providers responsible for mapping of burn patients were asked to perform burn mapping of the manikins. Providers were randomized to either an LB or a WF group. Differences in the total map area between groups were analyzed. Also, direct measurements of the burn representations were taken and compared with LB and WF results. The results of 100 samples, compared using Bland-Altman analysis, showed no difference between the two methods. WF was as accurate as LB mapping for all burn surface areas. WF may be additionally beneficial in that it can track daily progress until complete wound closure, and can automatically calculate burn size, thus decreasing the chances of mathematical errors.

  13. Complement binding to Leishmania donovani promastigotes (LD)

    SciTech Connect

    Puentes, S.M.; Bates, P.A.; Dwyer, D.M.; Joiner, K.A.

    1986-03-01

    To study the binding and processing of C3 on LD, parasites in various phases of growth were incubated in human serum deficient in complement component 8 containing /sup 125/I-C3. Uptake of /sup 125/I-C3 is rapid, peaking at 1.7-2.1 x 10/sup 6/ C3 molecules bound per parasite at 15 minutes for all growth phases, and decreases thereafter with continued incubation. One half of total C3 bound is spontaneously released by 90 minutes of incubation with all LD phases and occurs at a similar rate for LD washed free of serum and incubated at 37/sup 0/ C in buffer. As assessed by SDS-PAGE autoradiography, C3 on the surface of LD is present as C3b (36 to 50%) and iC3b (50 to 65%), linked covalently via a bond resistant to hydroxylamine treatment, presumably an amide linkage. Immunoblot analysis of purified membranes from serum-incubated LD, using rabbit antibody to C3 and LD surface constituents, strongly suggests that a major C3 acceptor is the LD acid phosphatase (AP). These results, in conjunction with recent studies, suggest a previously unrecognized role of AP as a C3 acceptor and, thus, as a molecule potentially involved in parasite binding and uptake.

  14. Secondary and College LD Bypass Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosby, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    The author describes the Developmental By-Pass (DBP) Instructional technology for teaching secondary and college learning disabled (LD) students by allowing students to bypass ordering and organizational deficits. (SB)

  15. Noninvasive Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI): Comparison to intraoperative mapping in patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Raja N.; Jia, Ping; Ramanathan, Charulatha; Ryu, Kyungmoo; Markowitz, Alan; Rudy, Yoram

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND Cardiac arrhythmias are a leading cause of death and disability. Electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) is a noninvasive imaging modality that reconstructs potentials, electrograms, and isochrones on the epicardial surface from body surface measurements. We previously demonstrated in animal experiments through comparison with simultaneously measured epicardial data the high accuracy of ECGI in imaging cardiac electrical events. Here, images obtained by noninvasive ECGI are compared to invasive direct epicardial mapping in open heart surgery patients. METHODS Three patients were studied during sinus rhythm and right ventricular endocardial and epicardial pacing (total of five datasets). Body surface potentials were acquired preoperatively or postoperatively using a 224-electrode vest. Heart-torso geometry was determined preoperatively using computed tomography. Intraoperative mapping was performed with two 100-electrode epicardial patches. RESULTS Noninvasive potential maps captured epicardial breakthrough sites and reflected general activation and repolarization patterns, localized pacing sites to ∼1 cm and distinguished between epicardial and endocardial origin of activation. Noninvasively reconstructed electrogram morphologies correlated moderately with their invasive counterparts (cross correlation = 0.72 ± 0.25 [sinus rhythm], 0.67 ± 0.23 [endocardial pacing], 0.71 ± 0.21 [epicardial pacing]). Noninvasive isochrones captured the sites of earliest activation, areas of slow conduction, and the general excitation pattern. CONCLUSIONS Despite limitations due to nonsimultaneous acquisition of the surgical and noninvasive data under different conditions, the study demonstrates that ECGI can capture important features of cardiac electrical excitation in humans noninvasively during a single beat. It also shows that general excitation patterns and electrogram morphologies are largely preserved in open chest conditions. PMID:15851333

  16. Comparison of the genetic maps of variola and vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed

    Shchelkunov, S N; Resenchuk, S M; Totmenin, A V; Blinov, V M; Marennikova, S S; Sandakhchiev, L S

    1993-08-01

    The complete genetic map of the variola major virus strain India-1967 is built basing on the sequence data. The suggested map is compared with the maps of the sequenced genomic regions of Copenhagen and Western Reserve strains of vaccinia virus and Harvey strain of variola major virus. The principle differences revealed in the genomic organization of these viruses are discussed.

  17. "My LD": Children's Voices on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskind, Marshall H.; Margalit, Malka; Higgins, Eleanor L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined children's presentations of the "LD experience" as expressed in online messages on a public website designed for children with learning and attention problems. Earlier research has demonstrated that children view the Internet as a social medium that enables communication and promotes personal relationships. In the current…

  18. L-D dependence for supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanković, M.; Tešić, Lj.; Urošević, D.

    2003-10-01

    We discuss here the L-D relation (the possible dependence of the radio luminosity on linear diameter) for the supernova remnants (SNRs) in order to see wether determination of SNR distances on the basis of Σ-D relation is possible.

  19. Visualization and comparison of classical structures and quantum states of four-dimensional maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Martin; Lange, Steffen; Bäcker, Arnd; Ketzmerick, Roland

    2014-02-01

    For generic 4D symplectic maps we propose the use of 3D phase-space slices, which allow for the global visualization of the geometrical organization and coexistence of regular and chaotic motion. As an example, we consider two coupled standard maps. The advantages of the 3D phase-space slices are presented in comparison to standard methods, such as 3D projections of orbits, the frequency analysis, and a chaos indicator. Quantum mechanically, the 3D phase-space slices allow for the comparison of Husimi functions of eigenstates of 4D maps with classical phase-space structures. This confirms the semiclassical eigenfunction hypothesis for 4D maps.

  20. Accuracy, resolution, and cost comparisons between small format and mapping cameras for environmental mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg, R. H.; Scherz, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Successful aerial photography depends on aerial cameras providing acceptable photographs within cost restrictions of the job. For topographic mapping where ultimate accuracy is required only large format mapping cameras will suffice. For mapping environmental patterns of vegetation, soils, or water pollution, 9-inch cameras often exceed accuracy and cost requirements, and small formats may be better. In choosing the best camera for environmental mapping, relative capabilities and costs must be understood. This study compares resolution, photo interpretation potential, metric accuracy, and cost of 9-inch, 70mm, and 35mm cameras for obtaining simultaneous color and color infrared photography for environmental mapping purposes.

  1. DNA sequence of a gene encoding a BALB/c mouse Ld transplantation antigen.

    PubMed

    Moore, K W; Sher, B T; Sun, Y H; Eakle, K A; Hood, L

    1982-02-01

    The sequence of a gene, denoted 27.5, encoding a transplantation antigen for the BALB/c mouse has been determined. Gene transfer studies and comparison of the translated sequence with the partial amino acid sequence of the Ld transplantation antigen establish that gene 27.5 encodes an Ld polypeptide. A comparison of the gene 27.5 sequence with several complementary DNA sequences suggests that the BALB/c mouse may contain a number of closely related L-like genes. Gene 27.5 has eight exons that correlate with the structural domains of the transplantation antigen. PMID:7058332

  2. Uncertainties in ecosystem service maps: a comparison on the European scale.

    PubMed

    Schulp, Catharina J E; Burkhard, Benjamin; Maes, Joachim; Van Vliet, Jasper; Verburg, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Safeguarding the benefits that ecosystems provide to society is increasingly included as a target in international policies. To support such policies, ecosystem service maps are made. However, there is little attention for the accuracy of these maps. We made a systematic review and quantitative comparison of ecosystem service maps on the European scale to generate insights in the uncertainty of ecosystem service maps and discuss the possibilities for quantitative validation. Maps of climate regulation and recreation were reasonably similar while large uncertainties among maps of erosion protection and flood regulation were observed. Pollination maps had a moderate similarity. Differences among the maps were caused by differences in indicator definition, level of process understanding, mapping aim, data sources and methodology. Absence of suitable observed data on ecosystem services provisioning hampers independent validation of the maps. Consequently, there are, so far, no accurate measures for ecosystem service map quality. Policy makers and other users need to be cautious when applying ecosystem service maps for decision-making. The results illustrate the need for better process understanding and data acquisition to advance ecosystem service mapping, modelling and validation.

  3. Uncertainties in Ecosystem Service Maps: A Comparison on the European Scale

    PubMed Central

    Schulp, Catharina J. E.; Burkhard, Benjamin; Maes, Joachim; Van Vliet, Jasper; Verburg, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Safeguarding the benefits that ecosystems provide to society is increasingly included as a target in international policies. To support such policies, ecosystem service maps are made. However, there is little attention for the accuracy of these maps. We made a systematic review and quantitative comparison of ecosystem service maps on the European scale to generate insights in the uncertainty of ecosystem service maps and discuss the possibilities for quantitative validation. Maps of climate regulation and recreation were reasonably similar while large uncertainties among maps of erosion protection and flood regulation were observed. Pollination maps had a moderate similarity. Differences among the maps were caused by differences in indicator definition, level of process understanding, mapping aim, data sources and methodology. Absence of suitable observed data on ecosystem services provisioning hampers independent validation of the maps. Consequently, there are, so far, no accurate measures for ecosystem service map quality. Policy makers and other users need to be cautious when applying ecosystem service maps for decision-making. The results illustrate the need for better process understanding and data acquisition to advance ecosystem service mapping, modelling and validation. PMID:25337913

  4. Uncertainties in ecosystem service maps: a comparison on the European scale.

    PubMed

    Schulp, Catharina J E; Burkhard, Benjamin; Maes, Joachim; Van Vliet, Jasper; Verburg, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Safeguarding the benefits that ecosystems provide to society is increasingly included as a target in international policies. To support such policies, ecosystem service maps are made. However, there is little attention for the accuracy of these maps. We made a systematic review and quantitative comparison of ecosystem service maps on the European scale to generate insights in the uncertainty of ecosystem service maps and discuss the possibilities for quantitative validation. Maps of climate regulation and recreation were reasonably similar while large uncertainties among maps of erosion protection and flood regulation were observed. Pollination maps had a moderate similarity. Differences among the maps were caused by differences in indicator definition, level of process understanding, mapping aim, data sources and methodology. Absence of suitable observed data on ecosystem services provisioning hampers independent validation of the maps. Consequently, there are, so far, no accurate measures for ecosystem service map quality. Policy makers and other users need to be cautious when applying ecosystem service maps for decision-making. The results illustrate the need for better process understanding and data acquisition to advance ecosystem service mapping, modelling and validation. PMID:25337913

  5. Coronal Modeling with Flux-Evolved Maps: Comparison with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, J.; Downs, C.; Lionello, R.; Caplan, R. M.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.; Henney, C. J.; Arge, C. N.

    2014-12-01

    MHD simulations of the solar corona rely on maps of the solar magnetic field for input as boundary conditions. These "synoptic" maps (available from a number of ground-based and space-based solar observatories) are built up over a solar rotation. A well-known problem with this approach is that the maps contain data that is as much as 27 days old. The Sun's magnetic flux is always evolving, and these changes in the flux affect coronal and heliospheric structure. Flux evolution models can in principle provide a more accurate specification, by estimating the likely state of the photospheric magnetic field on unobserved portions of the Sun. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport (ADAPT) model (Arge et al. 2010) is especially well suited for this purpose. ADAPT can also incorporate information from helioseismic acoustic images to estimate the emergence of new active regions on the Sun's far side. In this presentation we describe MHD models with boundary conditions derived from ADAPT maps. We investigate the June-August 2010 time period, when there was significant coronal hole evolution observed by the STEREO and SDO spacecraft. We compare model results using ADAPT maps, including those with far side data, as well as models using traditional synoptic maps, to STEREO EUVI and SDO AIA data. Research supported by AFOSR & NASA.

  6. Biochemical Properties and Mechanism of Action of Enterocin LD3 Purified from Enterococcus hirae LD3.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar; Netrebov, Victoria; Chikindas, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Enterocin LD3 was purified using activity-guided multistep chromatography techniques such as cation-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The preparation's purity was tested using reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The specific activity was tested to be 187.5 AU µg(-1) with 13-fold purification. Purified enterocin LD3 was heat stable up to 121 °C (at 15 psi pressure) and pH 2-6. The activity was lost in the presence of papain, reduced by proteinase K, pepsin and trypsin, but was unaffected by amylase and lipase, suggesting proteinaceous nature of the compound and no role of carbohydrate and lipid moieties in the activity. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of purified enterocin LD3 resolved m/z 4114.6, and N-terminal amino acid sequence was found to be H2NQGGQANQ-COOH suggesting a new bacteriocin. Dissipation of membrane potential, loss of internal ATP and bactericidal effect were recorded when indicator strain Micrococcus luteus was treated with enterocin LD3. It inhibited Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, E. coli (urogenic, a clinical isolate) and Vibrio sp. These properties of purified enterocin LD3 suggest its applications as a food biopreservative and as an alternative to clinical antibiotics. PMID:27145777

  7. Social Persistence Following Failure in Boys and Girls with LD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settle, Shirley A.; Milich, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the response of intermediate-grade boys (N=18) and girls (N=20) with (N=20) or without (N=18) learning disabilities (LD) to experimental dyadic interactions, either friendly or unfriendly. Children with LD were hypersensitive to both situations and girls with LD appeared most negatively affected by the unfriendly interaction.…

  8. Maps as Representations: Expert Novice Comparison of Projection Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathleen C.; Leinhardt, Gaea

    2002-01-01

    Examined how varying levels of geographic expertise facilitated reasoning with maps as representations of the earth's surface. Found that geography experts performed significantly better than novices and preservice teachers, and experts' performance was differentiated by the reasoning in which they engaged. Explored implications for understanding…

  9. Morphological mapping of Martian outflow channels. [to facilitate terrestrial landform comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.; Kochel, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Geomorphic mapping of selected portions of Martian outflow channels was performed in order to facilitate comparisons to terrestrial landforms. We interpret the maps to illustrate a correspondence between Martian channel features and terrestrial landforms developed by catastrophic flood erosion in the Channeled Scabland. The following features all occur in remarkably similar arrangements on the flood-channel floors of both planets: streamlined uplands, longitudinal grooves, scour marks, inner channel cataracts, etched zones, and possible pendant bars.

  10. The Use of Legendre and Zernike Moment Functions for the Comparison of 2-D PAGE Maps.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Demartini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The comparison of 2-D maps is not trivial, the main difficulties being the high complexity of the sample and the large experimental variability characterizing 2-D gel electrophoresis. The comparison of maps from control and treated samples is usually performed by specific software, providing the so-called spot volume dataset where each spot of a specific map is matched to its analogous in other maps, and they are described by their optical density, which is supposed to be related to the underlying protein amount. Here, a different approach is presented, based on the direct comparison of 2-D map images: each map is decomposed in terms of moment functions, successively applying the multivariate tools usually adopted in image analysis problems. The moments calculated are then treated with multivariate classification techniques. Here, two types of moment functions are presented (Legendre and Zernike moments), while linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis are exploited as classification tools to provide the classification of the samples. The procedure is applied to a sample dataset to prove its effectiveness.

  11. Theoretical analysis of the semi-ring and trapezoid LD side-pumped alkali vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Binglin; Xu, Xingqi; Xia, Chunsheng; Pan, Bailiang

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of two new pump-couplings: semi-ring and trapezoid LD side-pumped configurations in alkali vapor lasers is reported, which mainly includes the numerical approaches for evaluation of the pump intensity and temperature distribution in the cell of these two configurations. Comparison between the simulated results of the semi-ring and trapezoid LD side-pumped Cs vapor lasers and the experimental results of the single-side pumped Cs vapor lasers with a cylindrical white diffuse reflector and a stable or unstable resonator is made. Dependencies of laser power on pump power and flowed velocity for semi-ring, trapezoid, single and double side-pumped configurations are calculated, demonstrating the advantages of the semi-ring and trapezoid LD side-pumped configurations. Thus the model is very helpful for designing high-power side-pumped alkali vapor lasers.

  12. A Comparison of Fuzzy Models in Similarity Assessment of Misregistered Area Class Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Scott

    Spatial uncertainty refers to unknown error and vagueness in geographic data. It is relevant to land change and urban growth modelers, soil and biome scientists, geological surveyors and others, who must assess thematic maps for similarity, or categorical agreement. In this paper I build upon prior map comparison research, testing the effectiveness of similarity measures on misregistered data. Though several methods compare uncertain thematic maps, few methods have been tested on misregistration. My objective is to test five map comparison methods for sensitivity to misregistration, including sub-pixel errors in both position and rotation. Methods included four fuzzy categorical models: fuzzy kappa's model, fuzzy inference, cell aggregation, and the epsilon band. The fifth method used conventional crisp classification. I applied these methods to a case study map and simulated data in two sets: a test set with misregistration error, and a control set with equivalent uniform random error. For all five methods, I used raw accuracy or the kappa statistic to measure similarity. Rough-set epsilon bands report the most similarity increase in test maps relative to control data. Conversely, the fuzzy inference model reports a decrease in test map similarity.

  13. Maps of averaged spectral deviations from soil lines and their comparison with traditional soil maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhovich, D. I.; Rukhovich, A. D.; Rukhovich, D. D.; Simakova, M. S.; Kulyanitsa, A. L.; Bryzzhev, A. V.; Koroleva, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of 34 cloudless fragments of Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images (1985-2014) on the territory of Plavsk, Arsen'evsk, and Chern districts of Tula oblast has been performed. It is shown that bare soil surface on the RED-NIR plots derived from the images cannot be described in the form of a sector of spectral plane as it can be done for the NDVI values. The notion of spectral neighborhood of soil line (SNSL) is suggested. It is defined as the sum of points of the RED-NIR spectral space, which are characterized by spectral characteristics of the bare soil applied for constructing soil lines. The way of the SNSL separation along the line of the lowest concentration density of points on the RED-NIR spectral space is suggested. This line separates bare soil surface from vegetating plants. The SNSL has been applied to construct soil line (SL) for each of the 34 images and to delineate bare soil surface on them. Distances from the points with averaged RED-NIR coordinates to the SL have been calculated using the method of moving window. These distances can be referred to as averaged spectral deviations (ASDs). The calculations have been performed strictly for the SNSL areas. As a result, 34 maps of ASDs have been created. These maps contain ASD values for 6036 points of a grid used in the study. Then, the integral map of normalized ASD values has been built with due account for the number of points participating in the calculation (i.e., lying in the SNSL) within the moving window. The integral map of ASD values has been compared with four traditional soil maps on the studied territory. It is shown that this integral map can be interpreted in terms of soil taxa: the areas of seven soil subtypes (soddy moderately podzolic, soddy slightly podzolic, light gray forest. gray forest, dark gray forest, podzolized chernozems, and leached chernozems) belonging to three soil types (soddy-podzolic, gray forest, and chernozemic soils) can be delineated on it.

  14. Venus and the Earth's Archean: Geological mapping and process comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction. The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities [1-3] and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new perspectives on the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record [4] provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures [5] and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Here we address the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. The Earth's Archean and its Relation to Venus. The Archean period of Earth's history extends from accretion/initial crust formation (sometimes called the Hadean) to 2.5 Ga and is thought of by most workers as being a transitional period between the earliest Earth and later periods largely dominated by plate tectonics (Proterozoic and Phanerozoic) [2, 4]. Thus the Archean is viewed as recording a critical period in Earth's history in which a transition took place from the types of primary and early secondary crusts seen on the Moon, Mars and Mercury [6] (and largely missing in the record of the Earth), to the style of crustal accretion and plate tectonics characterizing later Earth history. The Archean is also characterized by enhanced crustal and mantle temperatures leading to differences in deformation style and volcanism (e.g., komatiites) [2]. The preserved Archean crust is exposed in ~36 different cratons [4], forming the cores of most continental regions, and is composed of gneisses, plutons and

  15. A comparison of inquiry-based teaching through concept maps and traditional teaching in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Sangeeta

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate affective outcomes and academic achievement for students enrolled in high school biology when instruction included concept-mapping. The research design was quasi-experimental and allowed for a comparison between an experimental group who constructed concept maps and a control group who received traditional biology instruction. The subjects were 140 ninth-grade students, distributed into six intact biology classes, three honors and three general biology classes. Chapter tests and a textbook generated 9-week comprehensive posttest were used to measure achievement. ANCOVA analysis on the comprehensive posttest indicated no significant overall effect of concept mapping on biology achievement across the whole quarter when controlling for the quarter pretest. Chi-square analyses were performed to measure students' attitude toward biology class and activities. The experimental group indicated higher than expected tendency to be positive about the instructional methods, however, the control group indicated fewer than expected positive responses. T-tests were conducted to determine the differences between the experimental and control groups on chapter tests with or without concept mapping. The group with concept mapping scored significantly better than those with traditional methods. Honors class comparisons indicated a significant difference between groups at p<.05 level on the chapter pretest. There was also a significant difference on the chapter test after intervention, but this time at p<.001 level. Although the general class comparisons indicated no significant difference on the chapter pretest, the experimental group scored significantly better than the control group on the chapter test following intervention. This suggests that average ability students benefit from concept mapping more than traditional instruction. In narrative self-evaluations, only a small percentage of participants overall listed concept mapping as the

  16. Comparison of association mapping methods in a complex pedigreed population.

    PubMed

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Janss, Luc; Lund, Mogens S

    2010-07-01

    Association mapping methods were compared using a simulation with a complex pedigree structure. The pedigree was simulated while keeping the present Danish Holstein population pedigree in view. A total of 15 quantitative trait loci (QTL) with varying effect sizes (10%, 5% and 2% of total genetic variance) were simulated. We compared the single-marker test, haplotype-based analysis, mixed model approach, and Bayesian analysis. The methods were compared for power, precision of location estimates, and type I error rates. Results found the best performance in a Bayesian method that included genetic background effects and simultaneously fitted all single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a variable selection method. A mixed model analysis that fitted genetic background effects and tested one SNP at a time performed nearly as well as the Bayesian method. For the Bayesian method, it proved necessary to collect SNP signals in intervals, to avoid the scattering of a QTL signal over multiple neighboring SNPs. Methods not accounting for genetic background (full pedigree information) performed worse, and methods using haplotypes were considerably worse with a high false-positive rate, probably due to the presence of low-frequency haplotypes. It was necessary to account for full relationships among individuals to avoid excess false discovery. Although the methods were tested on a cattle pedigree, the results are applicable to any population with a complex pedigree structure.

  17. Psychotropic drug profiles: comparisons by topographic maps of absolute power.

    PubMed

    Coppola, R; Herrmann, W M

    1987-01-01

    In a double-blind fourfold crossover design, 11 subjects were randomly assigned to placebo, 10 mg diazepam, 75 mg amitriptyline, and 75 mg chlorpromazine. During a simple vigilance task, 12 midline and left hemisphere leads were recorded before and 3 h after drug administration. The EEG was quantified by spectrum analysis, the topographic structure displayed by brain mapping techniques, and the results compared with earlier studies which used the same design and drugs. Diazepam showed the expected increase in beta; however, fast beta was increased as much as slow beta. Amitriptyline showed an increase of slow wave power and a reduction of alpha. In contrast to earlier studies, a decrease of fast beta was found. In addition, the spatial pattern of alpha changed from an occipital to a parietal maximum. Chlorpromazine showed an increase in the theta band. In occipital regions, there was a small decrease of fast beta; however, centrally there was an increase of both slow and fast beta. These results were confirmed by a multivariate analysis of variance.

  18. Comparison of some isoparametric mappings for curved triangular spectral elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquetti, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Using the spectral element method (SEM), or more generally hp-finite elements (hp-FEM), it is possible to solve with high accuracy various kinds of problems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs), see e.g. [1,2]. However, as soon as the physical domain is not polygonal, the accuracy quickly deteriorates if curved elements are not implemented. This is the reason why various methods have been developed during the last decades, starting from the celebrated transfinite interpolation proposed for quadrangular elements in [3]. In this note we revisit this problem for triangular elements, based on the use of Fekete points for interpolations and of Gauss points for quadratures, i.e. when using the so-called Fekete-Gauss approximation. As detailed in [4], such an approach shows the so-called spectral accuracy. However, differently to the quadrangles based SEM, it does not involve diagonal mass matrices, see e.g. [5-7] and references herein for works trying to preserve this nice property that is especially useful when addressing evolution problems with an explicit time marching. In the frame of the Fekete-Gauss TSEM (T, for triangle), the present study clearly points out the importance of a good choice of the bending procedure by comparing different isoparametric mappings for the Poisson and Grad-Shafranov PDEs.

  19. Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM): Universal Tool for Data Visualization, Structure-Activity Modeling and Dataset Comparison.

    PubMed

    Kireeva, N; Baskin, I I; Gaspar, H A; Horvath, D; Marcou, G; Varnek, A

    2012-04-01

    Here, the utility of Generative Topographic Maps (GTM) for data visualization, structure-activity modeling and database comparison is evaluated, on hand of subsets of the Database of Useful Decoys (DUD). Unlike other popular dimensionality reduction approaches like Principal Component Analysis, Sammon Mapping or Self-Organizing Maps, the great advantage of GTMs is providing data probability distribution functions (PDF), both in the high-dimensional space defined by molecular descriptors and in 2D latent space. PDFs for the molecules of different activity classes were successfully used to build classification models in the framework of the Bayesian approach. Because PDFs are represented by a mixture of Gaussian functions, the Bhattacharyya kernel has been proposed as a measure of the overlap of datasets, which leads to an elegant method of global comparison of chemical libraries.

  20. Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.

    1978-01-01

    Geologic mapping in the United States increased by about one-quarter in the past year. Examinations of mapping trends were in the following categories: (1) Mapping at scales of 1:100, 000; (2) Metric-scale base maps; (3) International mapping, and (4) Planetary mapping. (MA)

  1. ERP evidence for conceptual mappings and comparison processes during the comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors.

    PubMed

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Curran, Tim

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive linguists suggest that understanding metaphors requires activation of conceptual mappings between the involved concepts. We tested whether mappings are indeed in use during metaphor comprehension, and what mapping means as a cognitive process with Event-Related Potentials. Participants read literal, conventional metaphorical, novel metaphorical, and anomalous target sentences preceded by primes with related or unrelated mappings. Experiment 1 used sentence-primes to activate related mappings, and Experiment 2 used simile-primes to induce comparison thinking. In the unprimed conditions of both experiments, metaphors elicited N400s more negative than the literals. In Experiment 1, related sentence-primes reduced the metaphor-literal N400 difference in conventional, but not in novel metaphors. In Experiment 2, related simile-primes reduced the metaphor-literal N400 difference in novel, but not clearly in conventional metaphors. We suggest that mapping as a process occurs in metaphors, and the ways in which it can be facilitated by comparison differ between conventional and novel metaphors.

  2. Plantaricin LD1: a bacteriocin produced by food isolate of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Plantaricin LD1, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum LD1, was characterized for biochemical and antimicrobial properties. Bacteriocin showed stability at high temperatures (100 °C for 20 min and 121 °C for 15 min under 15 psi pressure), in a pH range of 2.0-8.0 and also in the presence of organic solvents, surfactants and detergents. The crude preparation was not affected by catalase, amylase and lipase but activity was reduced in the presence of pepsin, trypsin and proteinase K showing proteinaceous nature of the compound. The molecular weight of bacteriocin was found to be ∼6.5 kDa, and antimicrobial activity was confirmed by bioassay. It inhibited not only related strains but also other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria such as Lactobacillus curvatus NRRL B-4562, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NRRL B-1821, Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354, Enterobacter cloacae NRRL B-14298, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, urogenic Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri and Vibrio sp. These properties of plantaricin LD1 suggest its applications not only in food safety but in therapeutics as well. PMID:24522411

  3. Coastal and submarine features on MSS imagery of Southeastern Massachusetts: Comparison with conventional maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Three ERTS-1, MSS images of southeastern Massachusetts, including Cape Cod Bay, Cape Cod, and Nantucket Sound, show a variety of dynamic geologic and hydrologic phenomena. Coastal features imaged include the coastline at different time in the tidal cycle, harbors, lakes and ponds, marshes (wetlands), and beach and dune areas; submarine features include tidal flats, shoals, dredged and natural channels, and bars. Comparison with conventional maps at 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000 scales show many inaccuracies between the ERTS imagery and the two map scales. The ERTS-1 imagery can be used to increase the accuracy of these maps, portray additional environmental information, and provide the capability for frequent updating of maps at such scales. ERTS-1 imagery provides a very cost effective method for provision of certain types of environmental data for Cape Cod and environs.

  4. Comparison of two landslide inventory maps in the Cervaro basin, Puglia, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossa, S.; Cardinali, M.

    2003-04-01

    Reliable and accurate landslide inventory maps are mandatory elements of any landslide hazard or risk assessment. However, the quality, completeness, resolution and reliability of the landslide inventory maps are rarely ascertained. The lack of proper information on the quality of the inventory maps and on the reliability of the techniques used to complete the inventories may compromise the hazard or risk assessment. We present the results of a comparison of two landslide inventory maps prepared for an area of 132 km2, in the Cervaro River basin, in the NW Puglia Region of Southern Italy. The two landslide maps were prepared by different techniques. The first map (Map A) was prepared through the analysis of the literature on slope movements in the study area. Single landslides and landslide areas for which information was available where identified and sites where landslides were studied or where slope failures were reported were checked the field. Landslides were identified and mapped in the field at 1:25,000 scale. Field checks concentrated mostly in the urban areas and along the main roads. The second map (Map B) was obtained through the systematic interpretation of two sets of black and white aerial photographs, flown at a nominal scale of 1:33,000 scale, in 1954 and in 1990-91, respectively. When interpreting the two sets of aerial photographs care was taken in the identification of sites where landslides had changed (reactivations) or where new landslides had occurred. Analysis of the aerial photographs was carried out by two geomorphologists, using a discussion (or double) stereoscope. The methodology guarantees a cross check on the photo-interpretation and a more reliable landslide map. Comparison of the two landslide maps in a GIS allows for a quantitative estimate of the differences between the two inventories. Map A shows 27 landslides, for a total landslide area of 10.51 km2, 7.96% of the study area. Map B portrays 645 landslides, for a total landslide

  5. Social Information Processing and Emotional Understanding in Children with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…

  6. Reality Therapy: Helping LD Chilren Make Better Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gerald B.; Fuller, Diane L.

    1982-01-01

    Learning disabled (LD) children react to hurt and rejection by selecting from a number of poor choices, including giving up or throwing a tantrum. A teacher can help the LD child through a reality program which includes 10 steps to better control. (CL)

  7. Common Core State Standards, Writing, and Students with LD: Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the Common Core State Standards as they apply to writing and students with learning disabilities (LD). We first consider why the implementation of these standards is advantageous to writing instruction for students with LD as well as the challenges in implementing them. Next, we make the following four recommendations in…

  8. Mapping biomass with remote sensing: a comparison of methods for the case study of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Assessing biomass is gaining increasing interest mainly for bioenergy, climate change research and mitigation activities, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+). In response to these needs, a number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches but the lack of comparable reference data limits their proper validation. The objectives of this study are to compare the available maps for Uganda and to understand the sources of variability in the estimation. Uganda was chosen as a case-study because it presents a reliable national biomass reference dataset. Results The comparison of the biomass/carbon maps show strong disagreement between the products, with estimates of total aboveground biomass of Uganda ranging from 343 to 2201 Tg and different spatial distribution patterns. Compared to the reference map based on country-specific field data and a national Land Cover (LC) dataset (estimating 468 Tg), maps based on biome-average biomass values, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default values, and global LC datasets tend to strongly overestimate biomass availability of Uganda (ranging from 578 to 2201 Tg), while maps based on satellite data and regression models provide conservative estimates (ranging from 343 to 443 Tg). The comparison of the maps predictions with field data, upscaled to map resolution using LC data, is in accordance with the above findings. This study also demonstrates that the biomass estimates are primarily driven by the biomass reference data while the type of spatial maps used for their stratification has a smaller, but not negligible, impact. The differences in format, resolution and biomass definition used by the maps, as well as the fact that some datasets are not independent from the reference data to which they

  9. Comparison between the recent U.S. composite magnetic anomaly map and Magsat anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Taylor, P. T.; Langel, R. A.; Hinze, W. J.; Phillips, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of Magsat data with a Composite Magnetic Anomaly Map (CMAM) of the conterminous U.S. reported by Zietz (1982). The investigation was initiated to test the validity of the satellite measurements, and to provide insights into error or problems in either data set. It is found that upward continuation of the digital CMAM data is not in qualitative agreement with the Magsat map. However, if a least squares fit polynomial surface is taken out prior to upward continuation, there is improved quantitative agreement between a residual CMAM and Magsat. Causes for the remaining differences between the residual, upward continued CMAM and the Magsat map are also considered.

  10. Comparison between the recent U.S. composite magnetic anomaly map and Magsat anomaly data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Taylor, P. T.; Langel, R. A.; Hinze, W. J.; Phillips, J. D.

    1985-02-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of Magsat data with a Composite Magnetic Anomaly Map (CMAM) of the conterminous U.S. reported by Zietz (1982). The investigation was initiated to test the validity of the satellite measurements, and to provide insights into error or problems in either data set. It is found that upward continuation of the digital CMAM data is not in qualitative agreement with the Magsat map. However, if a least squares fit polynomial surface is taken out prior to upward continuation, there is improved quantitative agreement between a residual CMAM and Magsat. Causes for the remaining differences between the residual, upward continued CMAM and the Magsat map are also considered.

  11. Monitoring air quality with lichens: a comparison between mapping in forest sites and in open areas.

    PubMed

    Policnik, Helena; Simoncic, Primoz; Batic, Franc

    2008-01-01

    Four different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping were used for the assessment of air quality in the region under the influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (Salek Valley, Slovenia). Three methods were based on the presence of different lichen species (VDI, EU and ICP-Forest), the fourth on a frequency and coverage assessment of different growth forms of epiphytic lichens, e.g. crustose, foliose and fruticose (SI). A comparison of the results from the assessment of air quality between forest sites (ICP-Forest, SI) and open areas (VDI, EU and SI), obtained by the different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping, is presented in the contribution. Data showed that lichen species richness is worse in forest sites in comparison with open areas. From the data obtained it can be concluded that epiphytic lichen mapping in open areas is a better method for the assessment of air pollution in a given area than mapping in forest sites. The species-based methods in open areas are more powerful and useful for air quality assessment in polluted research areas than the SI and ICP-Forest methods.

  12. Asymmetric linkage disequilibrium: Tools for assessing multiallelic LD.

    PubMed

    Single, Richard M; Strayer, Nick; Thomson, Glenys; Paunic, Vanja; Albrecht, Mark; Maiers, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Standard measures of linkage disequilibrium (LD) provide an incomplete description of the correlation between two loci. Recently, Thomson and Single (2014) described a new asymmetric pair of LD measures (ALD) that give a more complete description of LD. The ALD measures are symmetric and equivalent to the correlation coefficient r when both loci are bi-allelic. When the numbers of alleles at the two loci differ, the ALD measures capture this asymmetry and provide additional detail about the LD structure. In disease association studies the ALD measures are useful for identifying additional disease genes in a genetic region, by conditioning on known effects. In evolutionary genetic studies ALD measures provide insight into selection acting on individual amino acids of specific genes, or other loci in high LD (see Thomson and Single (2014) for these examples). Here we describe new software for computing and visualizing ALD. We demonstrate the utility of this software using haplotype frequency data from the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP). This enhances our understanding of LD patterns in the NMDP data by quantifying the degree to which LD is asymmetric and also quantifies this effect for individual alleles.

  13. A Comparison of Spatial Analysis Methods for the Construction of Topographic Maps of Retinal Cell Density

    PubMed Central

    Garza-Gisholt, Eduardo; Hemmi, Jan M.; Hart, Nathan S.; Collin, Shaun P.

    2014-01-01

    Topographic maps that illustrate variations in the density of different neuronal sub-types across the retina are valuable tools for understanding the adaptive significance of retinal specialisations in different species of vertebrates. To date, such maps have been created from raw count data that have been subjected to only limited analysis (linear interpolation) and, in many cases, have been presented as iso-density contour maps with contour lines that have been smoothed ‘by eye’. With the use of stereological approach to count neuronal distribution, a more rigorous approach to analysing the count data is warranted and potentially provides a more accurate representation of the neuron distribution pattern. Moreover, a formal spatial analysis of retinal topography permits a more robust comparison of topographic maps within and between species. In this paper, we present a new R-script for analysing the topography of retinal neurons and compare methods of interpolating and smoothing count data for the construction of topographic maps. We compare four methods for spatial analysis of cell count data: Akima interpolation, thin plate spline interpolation, thin plate spline smoothing and Gaussian kernel smoothing. The use of interpolation ‘respects’ the observed data and simply calculates the intermediate values required to create iso-density contour maps. Interpolation preserves more of the data but, consequently includes outliers, sampling errors and/or other experimental artefacts. In contrast, smoothing the data reduces the ‘noise’ caused by artefacts and permits a clearer representation of the dominant, ‘real’ distribution. This is particularly useful where cell density gradients are shallow and small variations in local density may dramatically influence the perceived spatial pattern of neuronal topography. The thin plate spline and the Gaussian kernel methods both produce similar retinal topography maps but the smoothing parameters used may affect

  14. Description and comparison of geologic maps with FRAGSTATS - A spatial statistics program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    FRAGSTATS is a public-domain GIS implementation of a set of spatial statistics that address a fundamental problem in GIS applications, description and comparison of maps. The spatial statistics from the 1:2,500,000-scale United States geologic map of Nevada, the central United States, and the northeastern United States quantify the differences in complexity and variability between these three geologic terranes. Nevada is defined by a large number of patches of small size and low size variability, whereas the Central area has a small number of patches with smaller relative size variability. All three areas have similar map-unit shape complexity with Nevada having the lowest. Based on the density of edges, the areas can be ranked from highest to lowest, as Nevada, Central, and Northeast. The Shannon diversity index ranks the areas from highest to lowest, as Northeast, Nevada, and Central, but the Shannon evenness index ranks them from highest to lowest, as Northeast, Central, and Nevada. These rankings may reflect the influence of folding in the Northeast and Central areas as opposed to basin and range extension in Nevada. The core areas statistic ranks the areas for spatial accuracy from highest to lowest, as Central, Northeast, and Nevada, with Northeast and Nevada being similar. For a scale comparison, the FRAGSTATS statistics quantify the increased complexity and spatial accuracy that is inherent in going from small- to larger-scale maps. For example for 1:2,500,000-1:500,000-scale maps of Nevada, respectively, the area weighted fractal dimension increase from 1.1 to 1.18, and the total core areas index almost doubles from 39.09 to 63.38. In addition, the fractal dimensions discriminate gross lithology and tectonic terranes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Description and comparison of geologic maps with FRAGSTATS—a spatial statistics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raines, Gary L.

    2002-02-01

    FRAGSTATS is a public-domain GIS implementation of a set of spatial statistics that address a fundamental problem in GIS applications, description and comparison of maps. The spatial statistics from the 1 : 2,500,000-scale United States geologic map of Nevada, the central United States, and the northeastern United States quantify the differences in complexity and variability between these three geologic terranes. Nevada is defined by a large number of patches of small size and low size variability, whereas the Central area has a small number of patches with smaller relative size variability. All three areas have similar map-unit shape complexity with Nevada having the lowest. Based on the density of edges, the areas can be ranked from highest to lowest, as Nevada, Central, and Northeast. The Shannon diversity index ranks the areas from highest to lowest, as Northeast, Nevada, and Central, but the Shannon evenness index ranks them from highest to lowest, as Northeast, Central, and Nevada. These rankings may reflect the influence of folding in the Northeast and Central areas as opposed to basin and range extension in Nevada. The core areas statistic ranks the areas for spatial accuracy from highest to lowest, as Central, Northeast, and Nevada, with Northeast and Nevada being similar. For a scale comparison, the FRAGSTATS statistics quantify the increased complexity and spatial accuracy that is inherent in going from small- to larger-scale maps. For example for 1 : 2,500,000-1 : 500,000-scale maps of Nevada, respectively, the area weighted fractal dimension increases from 1.1 to 1.18, and the total core areas index almost doubles from 39.09 to 63.38. In addition, the fractal dimensions discriminate gross lithology and tectonic terranes.

  16. Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.

    1979-01-01

    The area of geological mapping in the United States in 1978 increased greatly over that reported in 1977; state geological maps were added for California, Idaho, Nevada, and Alaska last year. (Author/BB)

  17. Validating Flood Mapping Products Using a Digital Elevation Model Comparison Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayne, J.

    2014-12-01

    This preliminary study assessed the validity of a pixel analysis elevation comparison technique and determined necessary steps for improvement. The pixel analysis sought to assess the probability of a flood occurring in a particular area by comparing the spatial extent of flood mapping products to the local elevation. The method was developed to determine if the physical relationship between elevation and floods as shown in satellite images is accurately represented in a flood mapping product. The data incorporated in this study are raster digital elevation model (DEM) tiles, a scene from Landsat 5 during a flood period, and a scene from the NASA DEVELOP Flood Disasters Team Flood Product. Pixels representing flooded areas were compared to the elevation height pixels using horizontal transect lines to create pixel value profiles across a 727 km transect of Vietnam and Cambodia. The elevation model comparison validates the Flood Product by depicting water presence in alignment with areas of low elevation. Initial findings indicate that the technique can be used to improve the assessment of flood mapping products in transects less than 10 km. Future research will focus on streamlining the pixel analysis process to yield comprehensive results for larger areas.

  18. a Comparison of Sub-Pixel Mapping Methods for Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingxiang; Trinder, John; Turner, Ian

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the comparisons of three soft classification methods and three sub-pixel mapping methods for the classification of coastal areas at sub-pixel level. Specifically, SPOT-7 multispectral images covering the coastal area of Perth are selected as the experiment dataset. For the soft classification, linear spectral unmixing model, supervised fully-fuzzy classification method and the support vector machine are applied to generate the fraction map. Then for the sub-pixel mapping, the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model, pixel swapping and wavelets method are compared. Besides, the influence of the correct fraction constraint is explored. Moreover, a post-processing step is implemented according to the known spatial knowledge of coastal areas. The accuracy assessment of the fraction values indicates that support vector machine generates the most accurate fraction result. For sub-pixel mapping, wavelets method outperforms the other two methods with overall classification accuracy of 91.79% and Kappa coefficient of 0.875 after the post-processing step and it also performs best for waterline extraction with mean distance of 0.71m to the reference waterline. In this experiment, the use of correct fraction constraint decreases the classification accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods and waterline extraction. Finally, the post-processing step improves the accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods, especially for those with correct coefficient constraint. The most significant improvement of overall accuracy is as much as 4% for the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model with correct coefficient constraint.

  19. Learned Helplessness: Perceived Effects of Ability and Effort on Academic Performance Among EH and LD/EH Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchow, Jed P.; And Others

    The Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire, which measures perceived locus of control of academic outcomes, was administered to 28 emotionally handicapped (EH) and 25 learning disabled (LD)/EH children. Between group comparison revealed that EH children took significantly more personal responsibility for academic failure than did…

  20. A molecular hybrid of the H-2Dd and H-2Ld genes expressed in the dm1 mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Burnside, S S; Hunt, P; Ozato, K; Sears, D W

    1984-01-01

    Sequential immunoprecipitates show that H-2dm1 mutant cells express a hybrid "H-2D/L" antigen exhibiting determinants normally associated with two different gene products of the parental d haplotype-i.e., the H-2Dd and H-2Ld antigens. The hybrid H-2D/Ldm1 antigen appears to consist of a portion of the NH2-terminal extracellular half of the H-2Dd antigen "fused" to a portion of the COOH-terminal extracellular half of the H-2Ld antigen. This structure is inferred from the reactivity of dm1 antigens with cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for H-2Ld determinants and with monoclonal antibodies specific for determinants in the structural domains of H-2Ld or H-2Dd. The H-2D/Ldm1 molecule apparently retains all of the third external domain (C2 or alpha 3) and part of the second external domain (C1 or alpha 2) of H-2Ld, but its first external domain (N or alpha 1) derives from H-2Dd. From these findings and from previous peptide mapping studies, we propose that the H-2D/Ldm1 antigen is the product of a hybrid gene that has resulted from an unequal crossover between the parental H-2Dd and H-2Ld genes, leaving the N exon and part of the C1 exon of the H-2Dd gene joined to the H-2Ld gene beginning somewhere within its C1 exon. PMID:6206494

  1. High resolution sub-millimetre mapping of starburst galaxies: Comparison with CO emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. A.; Brand, P. W. J. L.; Puxley, Phil J.; Mountain, C. M.; Nakai, Naomasa

    1990-01-01

    Researchers present first results from a program of submillimeter continuum mapping of starburst galaxies, and comparison of their dust and CO emission. This project was prompted by surprising results from the first target, the nearby starburst M82, which shows in the dust continuum a morphology quite unlike that of its CO emission, in contrast to what might be expected if both CO and dust are accurately tracing the molecular hydrogen. Possible explanations for this striking difference are discussed. In the light of these results, the program has been extended to include sub-mm mapping of the nearby, vigorously star forming spirals, M83 and Maffei 2. The latter were also observed extensively in CO, in order to study excitation conditions in its central regions. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope was used in these studies.

  2. Comparison of CT-derived Ventilation Maps with Deposition Patterns of Inhaled Microspheres in Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Lamm, W. J.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Krueger, Melissa; Glenny, Robb W.; Corley, Richard A.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Computer models for inhalation toxicology and drug-aerosol delivery studies rely on ventilation pattern inputs for predictions of particle deposition and vapor uptake. However, changes in lung mechanics due to disease can impact airflow dynamics and model results. It has been demonstrated that non-invasive, in vivo, 4DCT imaging (3D imaging at multiple time points in the breathing cycle) can be used to map heterogeneities in ventilation patterns under healthy and disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to validate ventilation patterns measured from CT imaging by exposing the same rats to an aerosol of fluorescent microspheres (FMS) and examining particle deposition patterns using cryomicrotome imaging. Materials and Methods: Six male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with elastase to a single lobe to induce a heterogeneous disease. After four weeks, rats were imaged over the breathing cycle by CT then immediately exposed to an aerosol of ~1µm FMS for ~5 minutes. After the exposure, the lungs were excised and prepared for cryomicrotome imaging, where a 3D image of FMS deposition was acquired using serial sectioning. Cryomicrotome images were spatially registered to match the live CT images to facilitate direct quantitative comparisons of FMS signal intensity with the CT-based ventilation maps. Results: Comparisons of fractional ventilation in contiguous, non-overlapping, 3D regions between CT-based ventilation maps and FMS images showed strong correlations in fractional ventilation (r=0.888, p<0.0001). Conclusion: We conclude that ventilation maps derived from CT imaging are predictive of the 1µm aerosol deposition used in ventilation-perfusion heterogeneity inhalation studies.

  3. Comparison of CT-derived ventilation maps with deposition patterns of inhaled microspheres in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Richard E.; Lamm, Wayne J.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Krueger, Melissa A.; Glenny, Robb W.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Computer models for inhalation toxicology and drug-aerosol delivery studies rely on ventilation pattern inputs for predictions of particle deposition and vapor uptake. However, changes in lung mechanics due to disease can impact airflow dynamics and model results. It has been demonstrated that non-invasive, in vivo, 4DCT imaging (3D imaging at multiple time points in the breathing cycle) can be used to map heterogeneities in ventilation patterns under healthy and disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to validate ventilation patterns measured from CT imaging by exposing the same rats to an aerosol of fluorescent microspheres (FMS) and examining particle deposition patterns using cryomicrotome imaging. Materials and Methods Six male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with elastase to a single lobe to induce a heterogeneous disease. After four weeks, rats were imaged over the breathing cycle by CT then immediately exposed to an aerosol of ~1μm FMS for ~5 minutes. After the exposure, the lungs were excised and prepared for cryomicrotome imaging, where a 3D image of FMS deposition was acquired using serial sectioning. Cryomicrotome images were spatially registered to match the live CT images to facilitate direct quantitative comparisons of FMS signal intensity with the CT-based ventilation maps. Results Comparisons of fractional ventilation in contiguous, non-overlapping, 3D regions between CT-based ventilation maps and FMS images showed strong correlations in fractional ventilation (r=0.888, p<0.0001). Conclusion We conclude that ventilation maps derived from CT imaging are predictive of the 1μm aerosol deposition used in ventilation-perfusion heterogeneity inhalation studies. PMID:25513951

  4. Comparison of brass alloys composition by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnotta, Stefano; Grifoni, Emanuela; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lezzerini, Marco; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we face the problem of assessing similarities in the composition of different metallic alloys, using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. The possibility of determining the degree of similarity through the use of artificial neural networks and self-organizing maps is discussed. As an example, we present a case study involving the comparison of two historical brass samples, very similar in their composition. The results of the paper can be extended to many other situations, not necessarily associated with cultural heritage and archeological studies, where objects with similar composition have to be compared.

  5. Comparison of Signals from Gravitational Wave Detectors with Instantaneous Time-Frequency Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeer, A.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J.

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy relies on the use of multiple detectors, so that coincident detections may distinguish real signals from instrumental artifacts, and also so that relative timing of signals can provide the sky position of sources. We show that the comparison of instantaneous time-frequency and time-amplitude maps provided by the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) can be used effectively for relative signal timing of common signals, to discriminate between the case of identical coincident signals and random noise coincidences and to provide a classification of signals based on their time-frequency trajectories. The comparison is done with a X(sup 2) goodness-offit method which includes contributions from both the instantaneous amplitude and frequency components of the HHT to match two signals in the time domain. This approach naturally allows the analysis of waveforms with strong frequency modulation.

  6. Comparison of signals from gravitational wave detectors with instantaneous time-frequency maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroeer, A.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J.

    2011-08-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy relies on the use of multiple detectors, so that coincident detections may distinguish real signals from instrumental artifacts, and also so that relative timing of signals can provide the sky position of sources. We show that the comparison of instantaneous time-frequency and time-amplitude maps provided by the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) can be used effectively for relative signal timing of common signals, to discriminate between the case of identical coincident signals and random noise coincidences and to provide a classification of signals based on their time-frequency trajectories. The comparison is done with a χ2 goodness-of-fit method which includes contributions from both the instantaneous amplitude and frequency components of the HHT to match two signals in the time domain. This approach naturally allows the analysis of waveforms with strong frequency modulation.

  7. Comparison of mapping algorithms used in high-throughput sequencing: application to Ion Torrent data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapid evolution in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies has opened up new perspectives in several research fields and led to the production of large volumes of sequence data. A fundamental step in HTS data analysis is the mapping of reads onto reference sequences. Choosing a suitable mapper for a given technology and a given application is a subtle task because of the difficulty of evaluating mapping algorithms. Results In this paper, we present a benchmark procedure to compare mapping algorithms used in HTS using both real and simulated datasets and considering four evaluation criteria: computational resource and time requirements, robustness of mapping, ability to report positions for reads in repetitive regions, and ability to retrieve true genetic variation positions. To measure robustness, we introduced a new definition for a correctly mapped read taking into account not only the expected start position of the read but also the end position and the number of indels and substitutions. We developed CuReSim, a new read simulator, that is able to generate customized benchmark data for any kind of HTS technology by adjusting parameters to the error types. CuReSim and CuReSimEval, a tool to evaluate the mapping quality of the CuReSim simulated reads, are freely available. We applied our benchmark procedure to evaluate 14 mappers in the context of whole genome sequencing of small genomes with Ion Torrent data for which such a comparison has not yet been established. Conclusions A benchmark procedure to compare HTS data mappers is introduced with a new definition for the mapping correctness as well as tools to generate simulated reads and evaluate mapping quality. The application of this procedure to Ion Torrent data from the whole genome sequencing of small genomes has allowed us to validate our benchmark procedure and demonstrate that it is helpful for selecting a mapper based on the intended application, questions to be addressed, and the

  8. Modeling of the static and flowing-gas ring-LD side-pumped alkali vapor amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Binglin; Xu, Xingqi; Xia, Chunsheng; Pan, Bailiang

    2016-07-01

    A new method of pump-coupling in diode-pumped alkali vapor amplifier is reported, which uses ring-LD to tightly surround the alkali vapor cell for directly coupled side-pumping. The kinetic and fluid dynamic modeling, numerical approaches of the ring-LD side-pumped configuration are proposed and applied to the static and the flowing-gas Cs vapor amplifiers. Pump intensity and temperature distribution in the cell are simulated. Influences of some important factors on laser power are calculated and analyzed. Comparisons of different pumped configurations are made, demonstrating the highest utilizing efficiency of pump power of the ring-LD side-pumped configuration. Thus the model is very helpful for designing high-power side-pumped alkali vapor amplifiers.

  9. Analogical-mapping-based comparison tasks as a scaffold for argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emig, Brandon R.

    Given the centrality of the argumentation process to science and consequent importance to science education, inviting science students to engage in argumentation and scaffolding that argumentation in order that it lead to learning and not frustration is important. The present research invites small groups of science content learners (54 preservice elementary teachers at a large research university) to use analogical-mapping-based comparison tasks in service of argumentation to determine which of two possible analogues, in this case simple machines, is most closely related to a third. These activities and associated instruction scaffolded student small-groups' argumentation in four ways: (1) supporting new analogical correspondences on the heels of prior correspondences; (2) discerning definitions and descriptions for simple machine elements; (3) identifying and dealing with ambiguity in potential correspondences; and (4) making reflections on prior analogical correspondences in service of their final arguments. Analogical-mapping-based comparison activities scaffolded student small groups both in their argumentation and in content learning about simple machines. Implications, limitations, and directions for future related research are also discussed.

  10. Geological Mapping of Fortuna Tessera (V-2): Venus and Earth's Archean Process Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Hurwitz,D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Kumar, P. Senthil

    2008-01-01

    The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new insight into the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Elsewhere we have addressed the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. Here we present the major goals of the Venus-Archean comparison and show how preliminary mapping of the geology of the V-2 Fortuna Tessera quadrangle is providing insight on these problems. We have identified five key themes and questions common to both the Archean and Venus, the assessment of which could provide important new insights into the history and processes of both planets.

  11. Lo/Ld phase coexistence modulation induced by GM1.

    PubMed

    Puff, Nicolas; Watanabe, Chiho; Seigneuret, Michel; Angelova, Miglena I; Staneva, Galya

    2014-08-01

    Lipid rafts are assumed to undergo biologically important size-modulations from nanorafts to microrafts. Due to the complexity of cellular membranes, model systems become important tools, especially for the investigation of the factors affecting "raft-like" Lo domain size and the search for Lo nanodomains as precursors in Lo microdomain formation. Because lipid compositional change is the primary mechanism by which a cell can alter membrane phase behavior, we studied the effect of the ganglioside GM1 concentration on the Lo/Ld lateral phase separation in PC/SM/Chol/GM1 bilayers. GM1 above 1mol % abolishes the formation of the micrometer-scale Lo domains observed in GUVs. However, the apparently homogeneous phase observed in optical microscopy corresponds in fact, within a certain temperature range, to a Lo/Ld lateral phase separation taking place below the optical resolution. This nanoscale phase separation is revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy, including C12NBD-PC self-quenching and Laurdan GP measurements, and is supported by Gaussian spectral decomposition analysis. The temperature of formation of nanoscale Lo phase domains over an Ld phase is determined, and is shifted to higher values when the GM1 content increases. A "morphological" phase diagram could be made, and it displays three regions corresponding respectively to Lo/Ld micrometric phase separation, Lo/Ld nanometric phase separation, and a homogeneous Ld phase. We therefore show that a lipid only-based mechanism is able to control the existence and the sizes of phase-separated membrane domains. GM1 could act on the line tension, "arresting" domain growth and thereby stabilizing Lo nanodomains. PMID:24835016

  12. Mapping of RFLP and qualitative trait loci in Brassica rapa and comparison to the linkage maps of B. napus, B. oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Teutonico, R A; Osborn, T C

    1994-12-01

    A linkage map of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) was constructed for oilseed, Brassica rapa, using anonymous genomic DNA and cDNA clones from Brassica and cloned genes from the crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana. We also mapped genes controlling the simply inherited traits, yellow seeds, low seed erucic acid, and pubescence. The map included 139 RFLP loci organized into ten linkage groups (LGs) and one small group covering 1785 cM. Each of the three traits mapped to a single locus on three different LGs. Many of the RFLP loci were detected with the same set of probes used to construct maps in the diploid B. oleracea and the amphidiploid B. napus. Comparisons of the linkage arrangements between the diploid species B. rapa and B. oleracea revealed six LGs with at least two loci in common. Nine of the B. rapa LGs had conserved linkage arrangements with B. napus LGs. The majority of loci in common were in the same order among the three species, although the distances between loci were largest on the B. rapa map. We also compared the genome organization between B. rapa and A. thaliana using RFLP loci detected with 12 cloned genes in the two species and found some evidence for a conservation of the linkage arrangements. This B. rapa map will be used to test for associations between segregation of RFLPs, detected by cloned genes of known function, and traits of interest.

  13. Comparison of the Reliability and Validity of Scores from Two Concept-Mapping Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Schultz, Susan E.; Li, Min; Shavelson, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of a study that compared two concept-mapping techniques, one high-directed, "fill-in-the-map" and one low-directed, "construct-a-map-from-scratch". Examines whether: (1) skeleton map scores were sensitive to the sample; (2) the two types of skeleton maps were equivalent; and (3) the two mapping techniques provided similar…

  14. A study of an orbital radar mapping mission to Venus. Volume 2: Configuration comparisons and systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Configuration comparisons and systems evaluation for the orbital radar mapping mission of the planet Venus are discussed. Designs are recommended which best satisfy the science objectives of the Venus radar mapping concept. Attention is given to the interaction and integration of those specific mission-systems recommendations with one another, and the final proposed designs are presented. The feasibility, cost, and scheduling of these configurations are evaluated against assumptions of reasonable state-of-the-art growth and space funding expectations.

  15. A study of an orbital radar mapping mission to Venus. Volume 3: Parametric studies and subsystem comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Parametric studies and subsystem comparisons for the orbital radar mapping mission to planet Venus are presented. Launch vehicle requirements and primary orbiter propulsion system requirements are evaluated. The systems parametric analysis indicated that orbit size and orientation interrelated with almost all of the principal spacecraft systems and influenced significantly the definition of orbit insertion propulsion requirements, weight in orbit capability, radar system design, and mapping strategy.

  16. Visualization of Learning Scenarios with UML4LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laforcade, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Present Educational Modelling Languages are used to formally specify abstract learning scenarios in a machine-interpretable format. Current tooling does not provide teachers/designers with some graphical facilities to help them in reusing existent scenarios. They need human-readable representations. This paper discusses the UML4LD experimental…

  17. 7 CFR 1737.32 - Loan Design (LD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plan, see 7 CFR part 1751, subpart B). (b) Because of the importance and complexity of the engineering... to perform both services. See 7 CFR 1753.17. (c) An LD for initial loans or for any exchange areas... growth, must be discussed. Reasons for growth projections which vary from historic trends must...

  18. 7 CFR 1737.32 - Loan Design (LD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plan, see 7 CFR part 1751, subpart B). (b) Because of the importance and complexity of the engineering... to perform both services. See 7 CFR 1753.17. (c) An LD for initial loans or for any exchange areas... growth, must be discussed. Reasons for growth projections which vary from historic trends must...

  19. Parental Strategies for Reducing Learned Helpless Behavior among LD Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Nona

    A reformulated theory of learned helplessness posits that helplessness may be the outcome of a learning disabled (LD) student's belief of personal or universal helplessness. Motivational, cognitive, and emotional deficits may result. Research on locus of control and persistence as well as on the contrast between mastery (achievement)-oriented…

  20. 7 CFR 1737.32 - Loan Design (LD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... plan, see 7 CFR part 1751, subpart B). (b) Because of the importance and complexity of the engineering... to perform both services. See 7 CFR 1753.17. (c) An LD for initial loans or for any exchange areas... growth, must be discussed. Reasons for growth projections which vary from historic trends must...

  1. 7 CFR 1737.32 - Loan Design (LD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... plan, see 7 CFR part 1751, subpart B). (b) Because of the importance and complexity of the engineering... to perform both services. See 7 CFR 1753.17. (c) An LD for initial loans or for any exchange areas... growth, must be discussed. Reasons for growth projections which vary from historic trends must...

  2. 7 CFR 1737.32 - Loan Design (LD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plan, see 7 CFR part 1751, subpart B). (b) Because of the importance and complexity of the engineering... to perform both services. See 7 CFR 1753.17. (c) An LD for initial loans or for any exchange areas... growth, must be discussed. Reasons for growth projections which vary from historic trends must...

  3. Comparison of in situ stratospheric ozone measurements obtained during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aimedieu, P.; Matthews, W. A.; Attmannspacher, W.; Hartmannsgruber, R.; Cisneros, J.; Komhyr, W.; Robbins, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    Data from five types of in situ ozone sensors flown aboard ballons during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign were found to agree to within 5 percent uncertainty throughout the middle atmosphere. A description of the individual techniques and the error budget is given in addition to explanations for the discrepancies found at higher and lower altitudes. In comparison to UV photometry values, results from two electrochemical techniques were found to be greater in the lower atmosphere and to be lower in the upper atmosphere. In general, olefin chemiluminescence results were within 8 percent of the UV photometry results. Ozone column contents measured by the indigo colorization technique for two altitude regions of about 6 km height were greater than measurements from other techniques by 52 and 17 percent, respectively.

  4. Comparison of synoptic and climatologically mapped sections in the south Pacific ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Bindoff, N.L.; Wunsch, C. )

    1992-06-01

    To understand the extent to which oceanic climate shifts could be detected, a South Pacific climatology has been used to create pseudosections of temperature, salinity, and other tracers along a zonal and meridional lines at 15[degrees]S and 90[degrees]W, respectively. Interpolations from the climatology were made using combined empirical orthogonal functions and objective mapping. Comparisons are made with independent measurements, taken in 1987, of temperature and salinity at 15[degrees]S. Temperature and salinity fields between the surface and 300 db along the 15[degrees]S section are predicted with an uncertainty sufficiently small to display significant differences in temperature and salinity related to El Nino of 1987. The 90[degrees]W pseudosection is a forecast of a synoptic section to be obtained as part of WOCE in 1992. Explicit values for the smallest temperature shift with depth that could be detected are produced. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Optimization with artificial neural network systems - A mapping principle and a comparison to gradient based methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Harrison Monfook

    1988-01-01

    General formulae for mapping optimization problems into systems of ordinary differential equations associated with artificial neural networks are presented. A comparison is made to optimization using gradient-search methods. The performance measure is the settling time from an initial state to a target state. A simple analytical example illustrates a situation where dynamical systems representing artificial neural network methods would settle faster than those representing gradient-search. Settling time was investigated for a more complicated optimization problem using computer simulations. The problem was a simplified version of a problem in medical imaging: determining loci of cerebral activity from electromagnetic measurements at the scalp. The simulations showed that gradient based systems typically settled 50 to 100 times faster than systems based on current neural network optimization methods.

  6. New vegetation type map of India prepared using satellite remote sensing: Comparison with global vegetation maps and utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. S.; Behera, M. D.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Roy, Arijit; Singh, Sarnam; Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Jha, C. S.; Sudhakar, S.; Joshi, P. K.; Reddy, Ch. Sudhakar; Gupta, Stutee; Pujar, Girish; Dutt, C. B. S.; Srivastava, V. K.; Porwal, M. C.; Tripathi, Poonam; Singh, J. S.; Chitale, Vishwas; Skidmore, A. K.; Rajshekhar, G.; Kushwaha, Deepak; Karnatak, Harish; Saran, Sameer; Giriraj, A.; Padalia, Hitendra; Kale, Manish; Nandy, Subrato; Jeganathan, C.; Singh, C. P.; Biradar, C. M.; Pattanaik, Chiranjibi; Singh, D. K.; Devagiri, G. M.; Talukdar, Gautam; Panigrahy, Rabindra K.; Singh, Harnam; Sharma, J. R.; Haridasan, K.; Trivedi, Shivam; Singh, K. P.; Kannan, L.; Daniel, M.; Misra, M. K.; Niphadkar, Madhura; Nagabhatla, Nidhi; Prasad, Nupoor; Tripathi, O. P.; Prasad, P. Rama Chandra; Dash, Pushpa; Qureshi, Qamer; Tripathi, S. K.; Ramesh, B. R.; Gowda, Balakrishnan; Tomar, Sanjay; Romshoo, Shakil; Giriraj, Shilpa; Ravan, Shirish A.; Behera, Soumit Kumar; Paul, Subrato; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Ranganath, B. K.; Singh, T. P.; Sahu, T. R.; Shankar, Uma; Menon, A. R. R.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Neeti; Sharma, Subrat; Mohapatra, U. B.; Peddi, Ashok; Rashid, Humayun; Salroo, Irfan; Krishna, P. Hari; Hajra, P. K.; Vergheese, A. O.; Matin, Shafique; Chaudhary, Swapnil A.; Ghosh, Sonali; Lakshmi, Udaya; Rawat, Deepshikha; Ambastha, Kalpana; Malik, Akhtar H.; Devi, B. S. S.; Gowda, Balakrishna; Sharma, K. C.; Mukharjee, Prashant; Sharma, Ajay; Davidar, Priya; Raju, R. R. Venkata; Katewa, S. S.; Kant, Shashi; Raju, Vatsavaya S.; Uniyal, B. P.; Debnath, Bijan; Rout, D. K.; Thapa, Rajesh; Joseph, Shijo; Chhetri, Pradeep; Ramachandran, Reshma M.

    2015-07-01

    A seamless vegetation type map of India (scale 1: 50,000) prepared using medium-resolution IRS LISS-III images is presented. The map was created using an on-screen visual interpretation technique and has an accuracy of 90%, as assessed using 15,565 ground control points. India has hitherto been using potential vegetation/forest type map prepared by Champion and Seth in 1968. We characterized and mapped further the vegetation type distribution in the country in terms of occurrence and distribution, area occupancy, percentage of protected area (PA) covered by each vegetation type, range of elevation, mean annual temperature and precipitation over the past 100 years. A remote sensing-amenable hierarchical classification scheme that accommodates natural and semi-natural systems was conceptualized, and the natural vegetation was classified into forests, scrub/shrub lands and grasslands on the basis of extent of vegetation cover. We discuss the distribution and potential utility of the vegetation type map in a broad range of ecological, climatic and conservation applications from global, national and local perspectives. We used 15,565 ground control points to assess the accuracy of products available globally (i.e., GlobCover, Holdridge's life zone map and potential natural vegetation (PNV) maps). Hence we recommend that the map prepared herein be used widely. This vegetation type map is the most comprehensive one developed for India so far. It was prepared using 23.5 m seasonal satellite remote sensing data, field samples and information relating to the biogeography, climate and soil. The digital map is now available through a web portal (http://bis.iirs.gov.in).

  7. Social comparison processes, narrative mapping and their shaping of the cancer experience: a case study of an elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, Andrew C; Pérez-Samaniego, Víctor; Smith, Brett

    2012-09-01

    Drawing on data generated by life history interviews and fieldwork observations we illuminate the ways in which a young elite athlete named David (a pseudonym) gave meaning to his experiences of cancer that eventually led to his death. Central to this process were the ways in which David utilized both social comparisons and a narrative map provided by the published autobiography of Lance Armstrong (2000). Our analysis reveals the selective manner in which social comparison processes operated around the following key dimensions: mental attitude to treatment; the sporting body; the ageing body; and physical appearance. The manner in which different comparison targets were chosen, the ways in which these were framed by Armstrong's autobiography, and the work that the restitution narrative as an actor did in this process are also examined. Some reflections are offered regarding the experiential consequences of the social comparison processes utilized by David when these are shaped by specific forms of embodiment and selective narrative maps of cancer survival.

  8. Comparison of Different EO Sensors for Mapping Tree Species- A Case Study in Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enβle, Fabian; Kattenborn, Teja; Koch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The variety of different remote sensing sensors and thus the types of data specifications which are available is increasing continuously. Especially the differences in geometric, radiometric and temporal resolutions of different platforms affect their ability for the mapping of forests. These differences hinder the comparability and application of uniform methods of different remotely sensed data across the same region of interest. The quality and quantity of retrieved forest parameters is directly dependent on the data source, and therefore the objective of this project is to analyse the relationship between the data source and its derived parameters. A comparison of different optical EO-data (e.g. spatial resolution and spectral resolution of specific bands) will help to define the optimum data sets to produce a reproducible method to provide additional inputs to the Dragon cooperative project, specifically to method development for woody biomass estimation and biodiversity assessment services. This poster presents the first results on tree species mapping in a mixed temperate forest by satellite imagery taken from four different sensors. Tree species addressed in this pilot study are: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and red oak (Quercus rubra). The spatial resolution varies from 2m to 30m and the spectral resolutions range from 8bands up to 155bands.

  9. A multifaceted comparison of ArcGIS and MapMarker for automated geocoding.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjaya; Liu, Ming; Hwang, Syni-An

    2012-11-01

    Geocoding is increasingly being used for public health surveillance and spatial epidemiology studies. Public health departments in the United States of America (USA) often use this approach to investigate disease outbreaks and clusters or assign health records to appropriate geographic units. We evaluated two commonly used geocoding software packages, ArcGIS and MapMarker, for automated geocoding of a large number of residential addresses from health administrative data in New York State, USA to better understand their features, performance and limitations. The comparison was based on three metrics of evaluation: completeness (or match rate), geocode similarity and positional accuracy. Of the 551,798 input addresses, 318,302 (57.7%) were geocoded by MapMarker and 420,813 (76.3%) by the ArcGIS composite address locator. High similarity between the geocodes assigned by the two methods was found, especially in suburban and urban areas. Among addresses with a distance of greater than 100 m between the geocodes assigned by the two packages, the point assigned by ArcGIS was closer to the associated parcel centroid ("true" location) compared with that assigned by MapMarker. In addition, the composite address locator in ArcGIS allows users to fully utilise available reference data, which consequently results in better geocoding results. However, the positional differences found were minimal, and a large majority of addresses were placed on the same locations by both geocoding packages. Using both methods and combining the results can maximise match rates and save the time needed for manual geocoding.

  10. Comparison of ArcToolbox and Terrain Tiles processing procedures for inundation mapping in mountainous terrain.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Andrew; Wise, Richard; Quaranta, John

    2013-01-01

    Floodplain management consists of efforts to reduce flood damage to critical infrastructure and to protect the life and health of individuals from flooding. A major component of this effort is the monitoring of flood control structures such as dams because the potential failure of these structures may have catastrophic consequences. To prepare for these threats, engineers use inundation maps that illustrate the flood resulting from high river stages. To create the maps, the structure and river systems are modeled using engineering software programs, and hydrologic events are used to simulate the conditions leading to the failure of the structure. The output data are then exported to other software programs for the creation of inundation maps. Although the computer programs for this process have been established, the processing procedures vary and yield inconsistent results. Thus, these processing methods need to be examined to determine the functionality of each in floodplain management practices. The main goal of this article is to present the development of a more integrated, accurate, and precise graphical interface tool for interpretation by emergency managers and floodplain engineers. To accomplish this purpose, a potential dam failure was simulated and analyzed for a candidate river system using two processing methods: ArcToolbox and Terrain Tiles. The research involved performing a comparison of the outputs, which revealed that both procedures yielded similar inundations for single river reaches. However, the results indicated key differences when examining outputs for large river systems. On the basis of criteria involving the hydrologic accuracy and effects on infrastructure, the Terrain Tiles inundation surpassed the ArcToolbox inundation in terms of following topography and depicting flow rates and flood extents at confluences, bends, and tributary streams. Thus, the Terrain Tiles procedure is a more accurate representation of flood extents for use by

  11. rasbhari: Optimizing Spaced Seeds for Database Searching, Read Mapping and Alignment-Free Sequence Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Lars; Leimeister, Chris-André; Morgenstern, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Many algorithms for sequence analysis rely on word matching or word statistics. Often, these approaches can be improved if binary patterns representing match and don’t-care positions are used as a filter, such that only those positions of words are considered that correspond to the match positions of the patterns. The performance of these approaches, however, depends on the underlying patterns. Herein, we show that the overlap complexity of a pattern set that was introduced by Ilie and Ilie is closely related to the variance of the number of matches between two evolutionarily related sequences with respect to this pattern set. We propose a modified hill-climbing algorithm to optimize pattern sets for database searching, read mapping and alignment-free sequence comparison of nucleic-acid sequences; our implementation of this algorithm is called rasbhari. Depending on the application at hand, rasbhari can either minimize the overlap complexity of pattern sets, maximize their sensitivity in database searching or minimize the variance of the number of pattern-based matches in alignment-free sequence comparison. We show that, for database searching, rasbhari generates pattern sets with slightly higher sensitivity than existing approaches. In our Spaced Words approach to alignment-free sequence comparison, pattern sets calculated with rasbhari led to more accurate estimates of phylogenetic distances than the randomly generated pattern sets that we previously used. Finally, we used rasbhari to generate patterns for short read classification with CLARK-S. Here too, the sensitivity of the results could be improved, compared to the default patterns of the program. We integrated rasbhari into Spaced Words; the source code of rasbhari is freely available at http://rasbhari.gobics.de/ PMID:27760124

  12. A DArT marker genetic map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) integrated with detailed comparative mapping information; comparison with existing DArT marker genetic maps of Lolium perenne, L. multiflorum and Festuca pratensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ryegrasses and fescues (genera, Lolium and Festuca) are species of forage and turf grasses which are used widely in agricultural and amenity situations. They are classified within the sub-family Pooideae and so are closely related to Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, barley, rye and oats. Recently, a DArT array has been developed which can be used in generating marker and mapping information for ryegrasses and fescues. This represents a potential common marker set for ryegrass and fescue researchers which can be linked through to comparative genomic information for the grasses. Results A F2 perennial ryegrass genetic map was developed consisting of 7 linkage groups defined by 1316 markers and deriving a total map length of 683 cM. The marker set included 866 DArT and 315 gene sequence-based markers. Comparison with previous DArT mapping studies in perennial and Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) identified 87 and 105 DArT markers in common, respectively, of which 94% and 87% mapped to homoeologous linkage groups. A similar comparison with meadow fescue (F. pratensis) identified only 28 DArT markers in common, of which c. 50% mapped to non-homoelogous linkage groups. In L. perenne, the genetic distance spanned by the DArT markers encompassed the majority of the regions that could be described in terms of comparative genomic relationships with rice, Brachypodium distachyon, and Sorghum bicolor. Conclusions DArT markers are likely to be a useful common marker resource for ryegrasses and fescues, though the success in aligning different populations through the mapping of common markers will be influenced by degrees of population interrelatedness. The detailed mapping of DArT and gene-based markers in this study potentially allows comparative relationships to be derived in future mapping populations characterised using solely DArT markers. PMID:23819624

  13. AOTV Low L/D Preliminary Aeroheating Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    The aerothermal environment to a configuration with a brake face which exhibits a low lift to drag ratio (L/D) of below 0.75 is emphasized. The five times geosynchronous (5 x Geo) orbit entry was selected as the design trajectory. The available data base and math model is discussed. The resulting preliminary design environment is documented. Recommendations as to how the design environment may be improved through technological advances are given.

  14. Optimization irradiation conditions for determination of LD50 in pigs.

    PubMed

    Procházka, Z; Hampl, J; Sedlácek, M; Rodák, L

    1975-11-01

    Radiation LD50/30 values were determined in 36 twelve-week-old pigs (with a mean body weigth of 21 kg) exposed to whole-body X-ray irradiation on a revolvable table rotated at a rate of 2.5 rpm using the following conditions: 180 kV, 15 mA, focal distance 79 cm, HVT 0.9 mm Cu, dose rate 2.42 X 10(-3) to 2.68 X 10(-3) C kg-1 min-1 (9.4 to 10.4 R/min) depending upon the animal size. The coefficient of mean irradiation uniformity was 1.4. Under these conditions the LD50/30 for pigs was found to be 5.89 X 10(-2) C kg-1 min-1 (228.3 R) with the biological range of effectiveness being 5.22 X 10(-2) to 6.90 X 10-(2) C kg-1 (202.4 to 267.6 R). Furthermore experiments on 77 pigs showed that LD50 determined in this study had actually the median lethal effect.

  15. A Comparison of Web-Based Concept Mapping Tasks for Alternative Assessment in Distance Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Three sections of the same distance education class completed a series of Web-based concept map assessments using one of two methods. Open-ended maps applied in section 1 led students to conduct more relational thinking overall, but variance in map items was very high introducing more subjectivity in scoring. Pre-selected term mapping applied in…

  16. The construction of a tetraploid cotton genome-wide comprehensive reference map and the comparison with cotton physical mapping information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integration of multiple genomic maps provides a higher density of markers and greater genome coverage, which not only facilitates the identification and positioning of QTLs and candidate genes, but also provides a basic structure for the genome sequence assembly. However, the diversity in marke...

  17. Substrate-Driven Mapping of the Degradome by Comparison of Sequence Logos

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Julian E.; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Huber, Roland G.; Kramer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequence logos are frequently used to illustrate substrate preferences and specificity of proteases. Here, we employed the compiled substrates of the MEROPS database to introduce a novel metric for comparison of protease substrate preferences. The constructed similarity matrix of 62 proteases can be used to intuitively visualize similarities in protease substrate readout via principal component analysis and construction of protease specificity trees. Since our new metric is solely based on substrate data, we can engraft the protease tree including proteolytic enzymes of different evolutionary origin. Thereby, our analyses confirm pronounced overlaps in substrate recognition not only between proteases closely related on sequence basis but also between proteolytic enzymes of different evolutionary origin and catalytic type. To illustrate the applicability of our approach we analyze the distribution of targets of small molecules from the ChEMBL database in our substrate-based protease specificity trees. We observe a striking clustering of annotated targets in tree branches even though these grouped targets do not necessarily share similarity on protein sequence level. This highlights the value and applicability of knowledge acquired from peptide substrates in drug design of small molecules, e.g., for the prediction of off-target effects or drug repurposing. Consequently, our similarity metric allows to map the degradome and its associated drug target network via comparison of known substrate peptides. The substrate-driven view of protein-protein interfaces is not limited to the field of proteases but can be applied to any target class where a sufficient amount of known substrate data is available. PMID:24244149

  18. ReVeaLD: a user-driven domain-specific interactive search platform for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Maulik R; Zeginis, Dimitris; Hasnain, Ali; Decker, Stefan; Deus, Helena F

    2014-02-01

    Bioinformatics research relies heavily on the ability to discover and correlate data from various sources. The specialization of life sciences over the past decade, coupled with an increasing number of biomedical datasets available through standardized interfaces, has created opportunities towards new methods in biomedical discovery. Despite the popularity of semantic web technologies in tackling the integrative bioinformatics challenge, there are many obstacles towards its usage by non-technical research audiences. In particular, the ability to fully exploit integrated information needs using improved interactive methods intuitive to the biomedical experts. In this report we present ReVeaLD (a Real-time Visual Explorer and Aggregator of Linked Data), a user-centered visual analytics platform devised to increase intuitive interaction with data from distributed sources. ReVeaLD facilitates query formulation using a domain-specific language (DSL) identified by biomedical experts and mapped to a self-updated catalogue of elements from external sources. ReVeaLD was implemented in a cancer research setting; queries included retrieving data from in silico experiments, protein modeling and gene expression. ReVeaLD was developed using Scalable Vector Graphics and JavaScript and a demo with explanatory video is available at http://www.srvgal78.deri.ie:8080/explorer. A set of user-defined graphic rules controls the display of information through media-rich user interfaces. Evaluation of ReVeaLD was carried out as a game: biomedical researchers were asked to assemble a set of 5 challenge questions and time and interactions with the platform were recorded. Preliminary results indicate that complex queries could be formulated under less than two minutes by unskilled researchers. The results also indicate that supporting the identification of the elements of a DSL significantly increased intuitiveness of the platform and usability of semantic web technologies by domain users.

  19. Optimization of bacteriocin ST311LD production by Enterococcus faecium ST311LD, isolated from spoiled black olives.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Svetoslav D; Dicks, Leon M T

    2005-08-01

    Bacteriocin ST311LD is approximately 2.3 kDa in size. Low levels of bacteriocin activity were recorded in BHI and M17 broth (800 AU/ml) and in 10% (w/v) soy milk (3,200 AU/ml). No bacteriocin production was recorded in 10% (w/v) molasses, despite good growth. Optimal levels (12,800 AU/ml) were detected in MRS broth which had been supplemented with tryptone (20.0 g/l), saccharose (5.0 or 10.0 g/l) or vitamin C (1 ppm). Increased potassium levels did not result in higher levels of activity, and glycerol (1.0 g/l) inhibited the production of bacteriocin ST311LD.

  20. Genetic mapping of expressed sequences in onion and in silico comparisons with rice show scant colinearity.

    PubMed

    Martin, William J; McCallum, John; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Jakse, Jernej; Kuhl, Joseph C; Yamane, Naoko; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Gokce, Ali Fuat; Sink, Kenneth C; Town, Christopher D; Havey, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    The Poales (which include the grasses) and Asparagales [which include onion (Allium cepa L.) and other Allium species] are the two most economically important monocot orders. Enormous genomic resources have been developed for the grasses; however, their applicability to other major monocot groups, such as the Asparagales, is unclear. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from onion that showed significant similarities (80% similarity over at least 70% of the sequence) to single positions in the rice genome were selected. One hundred new genetic markers developed from these ESTs were added to the intraspecific map derived from the BYG15-23xAC43 segregating family, producing 14 linkage groups encompassing 1,907 cM at LOD 4. Onion linkage groups were assigned to chromosomes using alien addition lines of Allium fistulosum L. carrying single onion chromosomes. Visual comparisons of genetic linkage in onion with physical linkage in rice revealed scant colinearity; however, short regions of colinearity could be identified. Our results demonstrate that the grasses may not be appropriate genomic models for other major monocot groups such as the Asparagales; this will make it necessary to develop genomic resources for these important plants. PMID:16025250

  1. Evaluation of multiple comparison correction procedures in drug assessment studies using LORETA maps.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Joan Francesc; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel Ángel; Rojas, Mónica; Riba, Jordi; Barbanoj, Manel José

    2015-10-01

    The identification of the brain regions involved in the neuropharmacological action is a potential procedure for drug development. These regions are commonly determined by the voxels showing significant statistical differences after comparing placebo-induced effects with drug-elicited effects. LORETA is an electroencephalography (EEG) source imaging technique frequently used to identify brain structures affected by the drug. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for the correction of multiple comparisons in the LORETA maps. These methods which have been commonly used in neuroimaging and also simulated studies have been applied on a real case of pharmaco-EEG study where the effects of increasing benzodiazepine doses on the central nervous system measured by LORETA were investigated. Data consisted of EEG recordings obtained from nine volunteers who received single oral doses of alprazolam 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg, and placebo in a randomized crossover double-blind design. The identification of active regions was highly dependent on the selected multiple test correction procedure. The combined criteria approach known as cluster mass was useful to reveal that increasing drug doses led to higher intensity and spread of the pharmacologically induced changes in intracerebral current density.

  2. Improving Protocols for Protein Mapping through Proper Comparison to Crystallography Data

    PubMed Central

    Lexa, Katrina W.; Carlson, Heather A.

    2013-01-01

    Computational approaches to fragment-based drug design (FBDD) can complement experiments and facilitate the identification of potential hot spots along the protein surface. However, the evaluation of computational methods for mapping binding sites frequently focuses upon the ability to reproduce crystallographic coordinates to within a low RMSD threshold. This dependency on the deposited coordinate data overlooks the original electron density from the experiment, thus techniques may be developed based upon subjective - or even erroneous - atomic coordinates. This can become a significant drawback in applications to systems where the location of hot spots is unknown. Based on comparison to crystallographic density, we previously showed that mixed-solvent molecular dynamics (MixMD) accurately identifies the active site for HEWL, with acetonitrile as an organic solvent. Here, we concentrated on the influence of protic solvent on simulation and refined the optimal MixMD approach for extrapolation of the method to systems without established sites. Our results establish an accurate approach for comparing simulations to experiment. We have outlined the most efficient strategy for MixMD, based on simulation length and number of runs. The development outlined here makes MixMD a robust method which should prove useful across a broad range of target structures. Lastly, our results with MixMD match experimental data so well that consistency between simulations and density may be a useful way to aid the identification of probes vs waters during the refinement of future MSCS crystallographic structures. PMID:23327200

  3. Improving protocols for protein mapping through proper comparison to crystallography data.

    PubMed

    Lexa, Katrina W; Carlson, Heather A

    2013-02-25

    Computational approaches to fragment-based drug design (FBDD) can complement experiments and facilitate the identification of potential hot spots along the protein surface. However, the evaluation of computational methods for mapping binding sites frequently focuses upon the ability to reproduce crystallographic coordinates to within a low RMSD threshold. This dependency on the deposited coordinate data overlooks the original electron density from the experiment, thus techniques may be developed based upon subjective-or even erroneous-atomic coordinates. This can become a significant drawback in applications to systems where the location of hot spots is unknown. On the basis of comparison to crystallographic density, we previously showed that mixed-solvent molecular dynamics (MixMD) accurately identifies the active site for HEWL, with acetonitrile as an organic solvent. Here, we concentrated on the influence of protic solvent on simulation and refined the optimal MixMD approach for extrapolation of the method to systems without established sites. Our results establish an accurate approach for comparing simulations to experiment. We have outlined the most efficient strategy for MixMD, based on simulation length and number of runs. The development outlined here makes MixMD a robust method which should prove useful across a broad range of target structures. Lastly, our results with MixMD match experimental data so well that consistency between simulations and density may be a useful way to aid the identification of probes vs waters during the refinement of future multiple solvent crystallographic structures. PMID:23327200

  4. A genome-wide Asian genetic map and ethnic comparison: The GENDISCAN study

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Young Seok; Park, Hansoo; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Kim, Jong-Il; Sung, Joohon; Cho, Sung-Il; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2008-01-01

    Background Genetic maps provide specific positions of genetic markers, which are required for performing genetic studies. Linkage analyses of Asian families have been performed with Caucasian genetic maps, since appropriate genetic maps of Asians were not available. Different ethnic groups may have different recombination rates as a result of genomic variations, which would generate misspecification of the genetic map and reduce the power of linkage analyses. Results We constructed the genetic map of a Mongolian population in Asia with CRIMAP software. This new map, called the GENDISCAN map, is based on genotype data collected from 1026 individuals of 73 large Mongolian families, and includes 1790 total and 1500 observable meioses. The GENDISCAN map provides sex-averaged and sex-specific genetic positions of 1039 microsatellite markers in Kosambi centimorgans (cM) with physical positions. We also determined 95% confidence intervals of genetic distances of the adjacent marker intervals. Genetic lengths of the whole genome, chromosomes and adjacent marker intervals are compared with those of Rutgers Map v.2, which was constructed based on Caucasian populations (Centre d'Etudes du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) and Icelandic families) by mapping methods identical to those of the GENDISCAN map, CRIMAP software and the Kosambi map function. Mongolians showed approximately 1.9 fewer recombinations per meiosis than Caucasians. As a result, genetic lengths of the whole genome and chromosomes of the GENDISCAN map are shorter than those of Rutgers Map v.2. Thirty-eight marker intervals differed significantly between the Mongolian and Caucasian genetic maps. Conclusion The new GENDISCAN map is applicable to the genetic study of Asian populations. Differences in the genetic distances between the GENDISCAN and Caucasian maps could facilitate elucidation of genomic variations between different ethnic groups. PMID:19025666

  5. Marine habitat mapping of the Milford Haven Waterway, Wales, UK: Comparison of facies mapping and EUNIS classification for monitoring sediment habitats in an industrialized estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Drew A.; Hayn, Melanie; Germano, Joseph D.; Little, David I.; Bullimore, Blaise

    2015-06-01

    A detailed map and dataset of sedimentary habitats of the Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) was compiled for the Milford Haven Waterway Environmental Surveillance Group (MHWESG) from seafloor images collected in May, 2012 using sediment-profile and plan-view imaging (SPI/PV) survey techniques. This is the most comprehensive synoptic assessment of sediment distribution and benthic habitat composition available for the MHW, with 559 stations covering over 40 km2 of subtidal habitats. In the context of the MHW, an interpretative framework was developed that classified each station within a 'facies' that included information on the location within the waterway and inferred sedimentary and biological processes. The facies approach provides critical information on landscape-scale habitats including relative location and inferred sediment transport processes and can be used to direct future monitoring activities within the MHW and to predict areas of greatest potential risk from contaminant transport. Intertidal sediment 'facies' maps have been compiled in the past for MHW; this approach was expanded to map the subtidal portions of the waterway. Because sediment facies can be projected over larger areas than individual samples (due to assumptions based on physiography, or landforms) they represent an observational model of the distribution of sediments in an estuary. This model can be tested over time and space through comparison with additional past or future sample results. This approach provides a means to evaluate stability or change in the physical and biological conditions of the estuarine system. Initial comparison with past results for intertidal facies mapping and grain size analysis from grab samples showed remarkable stability over time for the MHW. The results of the SPI/PV mapping effort were cross-walked to the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) classification to provide a comparison of locally derived habitat mapping with European-standard habitat

  6. Comparison of the Kriging and neural network methods for modeling foF2 maps over North China region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Jing; Lan, Ting; Yang, Guobin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhu, Peng; Sun, Hengqing; Cui, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    The F2 layer critical frequency of the ionosphere (foF2) is one of the most significant parameters for studying the ionosphere. To investigate the large-scale characteristics of the ionosphere over particular regions, modeling foF2 is an effective method. In this paper, we use both the Kriging (KG) and neural network (NN) methods to reconstruct foF2 maps over North China. The neural network is trained by the genetic algorithm (GA) to avoid the 'local minimum' phenomenon in most NN applications. We then carry out a comparison between foF2 provided by both the KG and NN methods with vertical model operation of ionosonde data including Beijing, Qingdao, Suzhou, and Changchun. All of the foF2 data used in the comparison are obtained from the oblique and vertical mode operation of ionosonde from the China Ground-based Seismo-ionospheric Monitoring Network. To allow for a possible seasonal and diurnal variation, data obtained from summer, winter, and equinox months are applied in the present comparison. In addition, we make a comparison during a magnetic storm period. The results of our comparisons demonstrate that both the KG and NN methods are appropriate tools for modeling foF2 maps. However, when the data set is spare, the performance of the NN method is better than the KG method. On the other hand, the KG method is more robust than the NN method during a magnetic storm.

  7. Comparison of peanut gentics and physical maps provided insights on collinearity, reversions and translocations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and physical maps are the valuable resources for peanut research community in understanding genome organization and serving as the basis for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection. Physical maps of two diploid wild peanut progenitor species, Arachis duranensis (A genome) and A. ipae...

  8. Two phase choke flow in tubes with very large L/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Data were obtained for two phase and gaseous choked flow nitrogen in a long constant area duct of 16200 L/D with a diverging diffuser attached to the exit. Flow rate data were taken along five isotherms (reduced temperature of 0.81, 0.96, 1.06, 1.12, and 2.34) for reduced pressures to 3. The flow rate data were mapped in the usual manner using stagnation conditions at the inlet mixing chamber upstream of the entrance length. The results are predictable by a two phase homogeneous equilibrium choking flow model which includes wall friction. A simplified theory which in essence decouples the long tube region from the high acceleration choking region also appears to predict the data resonably well, but about 15 percent low.

  9. Two phase choke flow in tubes with very large L/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Two phase and gaseous choked flow data for fluid nitrogen were obtained for a test section which was a long constant area duct of 16 200 L/D with a diverging diffuser attached to the exit. Flow rate data were taken along five isotherms (reduced temperature of 0.81, 0.96, 1.06, 1.12, and 2.34) for reduced pressures to 3. The flow rate data were mapped in the usual manner using stagnation conditions at the inlet mixing chamber upstream of the entrance length. The results are predictable by a two-phase homogeneous equilibrium choking flow model which includes wall fraction. A simplified theory which in essence decouples the long tube region from the high acceleration choking region also appears to predict the data reasonably well, but about 15 percent low.

  10. Understanding School Dropout for Urban, Ethnic Minority Teenage Mothers with Learning Disabilities (LD). Disability Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Ritzler, Tina; Balcazar, Fabricio E.; McDonald, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Youth who experience either LD or teenage motherhood often drop out of school. Further, about 50% of young girls with LD become mothers by their early 20s compared to 28% of young women in the general population. There is therefore a high likelihood that teenage mothers with LD will drop out of school. Dropping out of school is of concern because…

  11. A comparison of two conformal mapping techniques applied to an aerobrake body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hommel, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Conformal mapping is a classical technique which has been utilized for solving problems in aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. Conformal mapping has been successfully applied in the construction of grids around airfoils, engine inlets and other aircraft configurations. Conformal mapping techniques were applied to an aerobrake body having an axis of symmetry. Two different approaches were utilized: (1) Karman-Trefftz transformation; and (2) Point Wise Schwarz Christoffel transformation. In both cases, the aerobrake body was mapped onto a near circle, and a grid was generated in the mapped plane. The mapped body and grid were then mapped back into physical space and the properties of the associated grids were examined. Advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed.

  12. BodyMap-Xs: anatomical breakdown of 17 million animal ESTs for cross-species comparison of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Osamu; Otsuji, Makiko; Watanabe, Kouji; Iizuka, Takayasu; Tamura, Takuro; Hishiki, Teruyoshi; Kawamoto, Shoko; Okubo, Kousaku

    2006-01-01

    BodyMap-Xs (http://bodymap.jp) is a database for cross-species gene expression comparison. It was created by the anatomical breakdown of 17 million animal expressed sequence tag (EST) records in DDBJ using a sorting program tailored for this purpose. In BodyMap-Xs, users are allowed to compare the expression patterns of orthologous and paralogous genes in a coherent manner. This will provide valuable insights for the evolutionary study of gene expression and identification of a responsive motif for a particular expression pattern. In addition, starting from a concise overview of the taxonomical and anatomical breakdown of all animal ESTs, users can navigate to obtain gene expression ranking of a particular tissue in a particular animal. This method may lead to the understanding of the similarities and differences between the homologous tissues across animal species. BodyMap-Xs will be automatically updated in synchronization with the major update in DDBJ, which occurs periodically.

  13. Comparison of global ionospheric maps, high-orbital and low-orbital radio tomography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunitsyn, Viacheslav E.; Andreeva, Elena S.; Nesterov, Ivan A.; Kalashnikova, Svetlana A.; Padokhin, Artem M.

    2010-05-01

    Observations on the GPS receivers networks which are being actively developed at present provide the input data for constructing global ionospheric maps (GIM) of the distributions of total electron content (TEC) in the ionosphere. The methods applied in the GIM construction at several data processing centers are different although all based on the common idea of finding the appropriate model parameters to fit the selected model of the vertical distribution of electron density to the observed GPS data. At the same time, the existing global IGS network together with several regional GPS networks open the possibility for solving the problem of 4D (spatiotemporal) ionospheric radio tomography (RT) based on the data of high-orbiting navigational satellite systems (the high orbital radio tomography, HORT). The approaches used in HORT are similar to those applied and found highly efficient in 2D low-orbital radio tomography (LORT). The purpose of the present work is to compare TEC estimations based on GIMs, calculated by different centers, with HORT and LORT reconstructions observed at different geomagnetic activity. The results of such comparison along RT systems in Russia and Alaska during the periods of geomagnetic storms of 2003-2004 are reported and discussed. The reconstructions for quiet periods are basically similar, although higher GIM and HORT TEC compared to LORT TEC, which might be due to the plasmaspheric contribution, are still noteworthy. However, during the geomagnetic storms, GIM TEC significantly differs from either LORT and HORT TEC. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants nos. 10-05-01126, 08-05-00676). The authors acknowledge IGS for GNSS data. We are also grateful to our colleagues in PGI and NWRS for the shared raw RT data.

  14. Peptide Map Comparison of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus-Specific Polypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Dobos, Peter; Rowe, David

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of virus-specific protein synthesis in infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV)-infected rainbow trout gonad cells was undertaken to find a relationship between the coding capacity of the virus genome (two segments of double-stranded RNA of 2.5 × 106 and 2.3 × 106 molecular weight) and the sizes and relative amounts of virus-specific proteins. Using polyacrylamide slabgel electrophoresis and autoradiography, eight distinct virus-specific polypeptides were detected in infected, [35S]methionine-labeled cells. These proteins may be grouped into three size classes on the basis of molecular weight: (i) large, α (90,000); (ii) medium, β1 (59,000), β2 (58,000), and β3 (57,000); and (iii) small, γ1 (29,000), γ1A (28,000), γ2 (27,000), and γ3 (25,000). The combined molecular weight of these polypetides (373,000) is beyond the coding capacity of the virus genome. Purified IPNV contained polypeptides α, β3, γ1, and γ1A. Pulse-chase experiments and tryptic peptide map comparisons revealed that only four of the eight intracellular proteins were primary gene products, namely, α, β1, γ1, and β2, with a combined molecular weight of 205,000. Of these primary gene products only the α polypeptide was found to be stable, whereas the other three underwent intracellular proteolytic cleavage during virus morphogenesis. Polypeptide β1 was cleaved to generate β2 and β3; γ1 was trimmed to produce γ1A, and the only nonstructural primary gene product, γ2, was found to be a precursor of γ3. These results suggest that IPNV possesses a unique mechanism to synthesize three size classes of proteins using mRNA transcripts from two high-molecular-weight double-stranded RNA genome segments. Images PMID:563479

  15. Comparison of Kriging and coKriging for soil contamination mapping in abandoned mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon

    2015-04-01

    Soil contamination mapping around abandoned mines is an important task for the planning and design of mine reclamation. This study compared the ordinary Kriging and the co-Kriging methods for the soil contamination mapping in abandoned mine sites. Four approaches were conducted as follows: (1) soil contamination mapping using the ordinary Kriging and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) data only; (2) soil contamination mapping using the ordinary Kriging and Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (PXRF) data only; (3) soil contamination mapping using the ordinary Kriging and integrated data from ICP and PXRF; and (4) soil contamination mapping using the co-Kriging and integrated data from ICP and PXRF. Results indicate that the approach 3 provides substantial improvements over other three approaches including a more reasonable spatial pattern of soil contamination and reduction in the error of its estimates.

  16. Comparison between one day and two days protocols for sentinel node mapping of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Jangijoo; Alireza, Rezapanah; Mostafa, Mehrabibahar; Naser, Forghani Mohammad; Bahram, Memar; Ramin, Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy can decrease the morbidity of breast cancer treatment significantly by sparing many patients of axillary lymph node dissection and resulting arm lymphedema. Despite widespread use of sentinel node mapping for breast cancer patients almost all aspects of this procedure are controversial; such as: type of the radiotracer, eligibility, time of injection, etc. One of these controversial issues is the efficacy of 2 days protocol (injection of the tracer on one day and sentinel node mapping and surgery on the following day). The main reason to perform 2 days protocol is the ease of operation room scheduling the patient does not need to complete injection and imaging in the nuclear medicine department. Despite widespread use of 2 days protocol for sentinel node mapping, very few studies have specifically evaluated this protocol in comparison to 1 day protocol and also the false negative rate which is the better index of sentinel node mapping success. Most of the above studies used tracers with large particle size such as (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid. Tracers with small particle size can theoretically be washed out from the real sentinel nodes and move to the second echelon nodes, so some recommended using large particle size radiotracers for the 2 days protocol. In this study, we compared the false negative rate of sentinel node mapping between 1 and 2 days protocols using intradermal injection of (99m)Tc-antimony sulfide colloid ((99m)Tc-SbSC) which has very small particle size. Eighty patients with early stage breast cancer (clinical stages of I and II) were evaluated. The diagnosis of the breast cancer was established by either excisional or core needle biopsy. The patients didn't take any chemotherapeutic drug before surgery and were divided into two groups: 1 day (Group I) and 2 days (Group II) protocols (45 in Group I and 35 in Group II). For Group I, periareolar intradermal injections of 0.5Bq/0.2mL (99m)Tc-SbSC were applied for patients without

  17. Numerical ragweed pollen forecasts using different source maps: a comparison for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Katrin; Kaufmann, Pirmin; Petitpierre, Blaise; Broennimann, Olivier; Guisan, Antoine; Gentilini, Eros; Rotach, Mathias W.

    2016-06-01

    One of the key input parameters for numerical pollen forecasts is the distribution of pollen sources. Generally, three different methodologies exist to assemble such distribution maps: (1) plant inventories, (2) land use data in combination with annual pollen counts, and (3) ecological modeling. We have used six exemplary maps for all of these methodologies to study their applicability and usefulness in numerical pollen forecasts. The ragweed pollen season of 2012 in France has been simulated with the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-ART using each of the distribution maps in turn. The simulated pollen concentrations were statistically compared to measured values to derive a ranking of the maps with respect to their performance. Overall, approach (2) resulted in the best correspondence between observed and simulated pollen concentrations for the year 2012. It is shown that maps resulting from ecological modeling that does not include a sophisticated estimation of the plant density have a very low predictive skill. For inventory maps and the maps based on land use data and pollen counts, the results depend very much on the observational site. The use of pollen counts to calibrate the map enhances the performance of the model considerably.

  18. Analysing Concept Maps as an Assessment Tool in Teaching Physics and Comparison with the Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingec, Sebnem Kandil

    2009-01-01

    Concept mapping is a technique that paves the way to represent knowledge schematically. In this research, concept mapping was used as an assessment method on the impulse-momentum topic. The purpose of this study was to determine teacher candidates' knowledge about understanding of the concepts of impulse and momentum by comparing and contrasting…

  19. Comparison of 1:1 and 1:m CSCL Environment for Collaborative Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, C.-P.; Wong, L.-H.; Shao, Y.-J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the effects of collaborative concept mapping in a digital learning environment, in terms of students' overall learning gains, knowledge retention, quality of student artefacts (the collaboratively created concept maps), interactive patterns, and learning perceptions. Sixty-four 12-year-old students from two…

  20. Comparison of Ground-Based 3-Dimensional Lightning Mapping Observations with Satellite-Based LIS Observations in Oklahoma: Comparison of LMS and LIS Lightning Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Hamlin, Timothy; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    3-dimensional lightning mapping observations obtained during the MEaPRS program in central Oklahoma during June, 1998 have been compared with observations of the discharges from space, obtained by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the TRMM satellite. Excellent spatial and temporal correlations were observed between the two sets of observations. Most of the detected optical events were associated with intracloud discharges that developed into the upper part of the storm. Cloud-to-ground discharges that were confined to mid- and lower-altitudes tended not to be detected by LIS. Extensive illumination tended to occur in impulsive bursts toward the end or part way through intracloud flashes and appeared to be produced by energetic K-changes that typically occur at these times.

  1. Uncertainty in the spatial distribution of tropical forest biomass: a comparison of pan-tropical maps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mapping the aboveground biomass of tropical forests is essential both for implementing conservation policy and reducing uncertainties in the global carbon cycle. Two medium resolution (500 m – 1000 m) pantropical maps of vegetation biomass have been recently published, and have been widely used by sub-national and national-level activities in relation to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). Both maps use similar input data layers, and are driven by the same spaceborne LiDAR dataset providing systematic forest height and canopy structure estimates, but use different ground datasets for calibration and different spatial modelling methodologies. Here, we compare these two maps to each other, to the FAO’s Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) 2010 country-level data, and to a high resolution (100 m) biomass map generated for a portion of the Colombian Amazon. Results We find substantial differences between the two maps, in particular in central Amazonia, the Congo basin, the south of Papua New Guinea, the Miombo woodlands of Africa, and the dry forests and savannas of South America. There is little consistency in the direction of the difference. However, when the maps are aggregated to the country or biome scale there is greater agreement, with differences cancelling out to a certain extent. When comparing country level biomass stocks, the two maps agree with each other to a much greater extent than to the FRA 2010 estimates. In the Colombian Amazon, both pantropical maps estimate higher biomass than the independent high resolution map, but show a similar spatial distribution of this biomass. Conclusions Biomass mapping has progressed enormously over the past decade, to the stage where we can produce globally consistent maps of aboveground biomass. We show that there are still large uncertainties in these maps, in particular in areas with little field data. However, when used at a regional scale, different maps appear to

  2. Vanadium removal from LD converter slag using bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Mirazimi, S M J; Abbasalipour, Z; Rashchi, F

    2015-04-15

    Removal of vanadium from Linz-Donawits (LD) converter slag was investigated by means of three different species of microbial systems: Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (autotrophic bacteria), Pseudomonas putida (heterotrophic bacteria) and Aspergillus niger (fungi). The bioleaching process was carried out in both one-step and two-step process and the leaching efficiencies in both cases were compared. Formation of inorganic and organic acids during the leaching process caused mobilization of vanadium. In order to reduce toxic effects of the metal species on the above mentioned microorganisms, a prolonged adaptation process was performed. Both bacteria, A. thiooxidans and P. putida were able to remove more than 90% of vanadium at slag concentrations of 1-5 g L(-1) after 15 days. Also, the maximum achievable vanadium removal in the fungal system was approximately 92% at a slag concentration of 1 g L(-1) after 22 days.

  3. The penetration performance of short L/D projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Charles E.; Littlefield, David L.; Blaylock, Neil W.; Bless, Stephan J.; Subramanian, Ravi

    1994-07-01

    The depths of penetration normalized by the original projectile length for steel, tungsten alloy, and aluminum projectiles, as a function of impact velocity have been studied to obtain scaling relationships of projectile and target densities, impact velocity, and target flow stress for relatively short length-to-diameter ratio (L/D≤6) projectiles. It is demonstrated, using a fairly extensive set of experimental data, the nondimensional terms can ``collapse'' the data into a family of curves that differ only by the aspect ratio (L/D) of the projectiles. Regression fits were performed to provide analytical expressions for the reduced penetration efficiency in terms of the nondimensional impact terms. Finally, the results of numerical simulations and independent experiments were found to agree quite well with the regression fits.

  4. Development and Comparison of Techniques for Generating Permeability Maps using Independent Experimental Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingerl, Ferdinand; Romanenko, Konstantin; Pini, Ronny; Balcom, Bruce; Benson, Sally

    2014-05-01

    We have developed and evaluated methods for creating voxel-based 3D permeability maps of a heterogeneous sandstone sample using independent experimental data from single phase flow (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI) and two-phase flow (X-ray Computed Tomography, CT) measurements. Fluid velocities computed from the generated permeability maps using computational fluid dynamics simulations fit measured velocities very well and significantly outperform empirical porosity-permeability relations, such as the Kozeny-Carman equation. Acquiring images on the meso-scale from porous rocks using MRI has till recently been a great challenge, due to short spin relaxation times and large field gradients within the sample. The combination of the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme with three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE) - a technique recently developed at the UNB MRI Center - can overcome these challenges and enables obtaining quantitative 3 dimensional maps of porosities and fluid velocities. Using porosity and (single-phase) velocity maps from MRI and (multi-phase) saturation maps from CT measurements, we employed three different techniques to obtain permeability maps. In the first approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to porosities measured using MRI. In the second approach, we computed permeabilities using a J-Leverett scaling method, which is based on saturation maps obtained from N2-H2O multi-phase experiments. The third set of permeabilities was generated using a new inverse iterative-updating technique, which is based on porosities and measured velocities obtained in single-phase flow experiments. The resulting three permeability maps provided then input for computational fluid dynamics simulations - employing the Stanford CFD code AD-GPRS - to generate velocity maps, which were compared to velocity maps measured by MRI. The J-Leveret scaling method and the iterative-updating method

  5. The relation of LD and gender with emotional intelligence in college students.

    PubMed

    Reiff, H B; Hatzes, N M; Bramel, M H; Gibbon, T

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the relation of learning disabilities (LD) and gender with emotional intelligence in 128 college students. Fifty-four students with LD (32 men and 22 women) and 74 without LD (34 men and 40 women) attending two colleges and one university participated in the study. Emotional intelligence was assessed using the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i; BarOn,1997), a self-report instrument designed to measure interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, stress management, adaptability, and general mood. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed to examine the main effects of LD and gender and the interaction of the two main effects on the five composites of the EQ-i. Students with LD had fewer credits and lower scholastic aptitude test (SAT) scores, high school grade point averages (GPAs), and college GPAs than students without LD; women students were older and had higher college GPAs than men students. Results of the MANOVA indicated significant main effects of both LD and gender; no significant interaction occurred. Post hoc univariate analyses of the five composites revealed significant differences between students with LD and students without LD on stress management and adaptability, significant differences between men and women students on interpersonal skills, and significant differences of the interaction of LD and gender on interpersonal skills. PMID:15497273

  6. Comparison of manually produced and automated cross country movement maps using digital image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynn, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Image-Based Information System (IBIS) was used to automate the cross country movement (CCM) mapping model developed by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). Existing terrain factor overlays and a CCM map, produced by DMA for the Fort Lewis, Washington area, were digitized and reformatted into geometrically registered images. Terrain factor data from Slope, Soils, and Vegetation overlays were entered into IBIS, and were then combined utilizing IBIS-programmed equations to implement the DMA CCM model. The resulting IBIS-generated CCM map was then compared with the digitized manually produced map to test similarity. The numbers of pixels comprising each CCM region were compared between the two map images, and percent agreement between each two regional counts was computed. The mean percent agreement equalled 86.21%, with an areally weighted standard deviation of 11.11%. Calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded +9.997. In some cases, the IBIS-calculated map code differed from the DMA codes: analysis revealed that IBIS had calculated the codes correctly. These highly positive results demonstrate the power and accuracy of IBIS in automating models which synthesize a variety of thematic geographic data.

  7. Comparison between historical yield and soybean crop EVI values using correlation map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, G. K.; Rocha, J. V.; Lamparelli, R. A.; Brunsell, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    Timely and accurate yield estimates using remote sensing represents an important advance towards objective crop forecasting in Brazil. Vegetation index values integrated over a period have been used to generate agronomic parameters such as crop yield. Several studies showed the strong relationship between accumulated vegetation index and historical yield, once it represents crop photosynthetic activity. The main goal of this study was to create correlation maps between Modis/TERRA EVI and historical yield during the soybean crop cycle in Paraná state, Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. The soybean cycle was separated in four variables corresponding to the crop stage: emergence to maturity, emergence to flowering, flowering to maturity, flowering to the grain filling. For each variable a correlation map was created between the accumulated EVI and soybean yield at pixel level. All variables showed a good correlation, but among all of them the best correlation was the period between flowering to maturity. This happened because of exclusion of months where EVI response was low, corresponding to period of crop emergence (October and November). A percentage map of soybean crop was confronted with the correlation map to check out whether the highest correlation was corresponding to soybean pixel. On the percentage map pixels showing above 70% of soybean were selected, then on the correlation map pixels with correlation coefficients above 0.7 were selected. Within the data set 43% of pixels from the correlation map had land cover greater than or equal to 70% of soybean crop.

  8. Fractal mapping of digitized images - Application to the topography of Arizona and comparisons with synthetic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.; Turcotte, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of fractal mapping is introduced and applied to digitized topography of Arizona. It is shown that the fractal statistics satisfy the topography of the state to a good approximation. The fractal dimensions and roughness amplitudes from subregions are used to construct maps of these quantities. It is found that the fractal dimension of actual two-dimensional topography is not affected by the adding unity to the fractal dimension of one-dimensional topographic tracks. In addition, consideration is given to the production of fractal maps from synthetically derived topography.

  9. Green tagging in displaying color Doppler aliasing: a comparison to standard color mapping in renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Mennitt, Kevin; Belfi, Lily; Zheng, Yuan-Yi; Chen, Zong; Rubin, Jonathan M

    2013-11-01

    To quantitatively assess the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of green tagging and standard color flow images in displaying fast flow velocity, we retrospectively reviewed 20 cases of hemodynamically significant renal artery stenosis (RAS) detected by renal color Doppler ultrasound and confirmed with digital subtraction angiography. At the site of RAS, blood flow with high velocity that appeared as aliasing on color flow images was computationally analyzed with both green tagging and standard color mapping. To assess the difference in the CNR between normal background flow and the aliased signal as a function of visualizing aliasing between the two color mappings, we used GetColorpixels (Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China) to count the values in the color channels after segmenting color pixels from gray-scale pixels. We then calculated the CNR in each color channel-red, green, and blue (RGB)--in the aliasing region on green tagging and standard color mapping. The CNRs in the red, green and blue channels were 0.35 ± 0.44, 1.11 ± 0.41 and 0.51 ± 0.19, respectively, on standard color mapping, and 0.97 ± 0.80, 4.01 ± 1.36 and 0.64 ± 0.29, respectively, on green tagging. We used a single-factor analysis of variance and two-tailed t-test to assess the difference in CNR in each color channel between the two color mappings at the site of RAS. With these comparisons, there was no significant difference in the CNR in the red or blue channel between green tagging and standard color mapping (p > 0.05). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the CNR in the green channel between the two color mappings (p = 0.00019). Furthermore, the CNR measured in the green channel on the green tagging image was significantly higher than the CNRs in all other color channels on both color mapping images (p = 0.000). Hence, we conclude that green tagging has significantly higher visibility as a function of high-velocity flow than standard color mapping. The

  10. Logarithmic 3-Band Color Encoding: Robust Method for Display and Comparison of Compositional Maps in Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Newbury; Bright

    1999-09-01

    : Electron-excited X-ray maps recorded with the scanning electron microscope (SEM)/electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA) are a major method of presenting compositional information. Digitally recorded maps are processed in a variety of ways to improve the visibility of features. Scaling of the recorded signal to match the 8-bit gray-scale intensity range of a typical computer display system is almost always necessary. Inherent limitations of gray-scale displays have led to other intensity-encoding methods for X-ray maps, including clipping, histogram normalization, and pseudocolor scales. While feature visibility is improved by applying these scales, comparisons among image sets are difficult. Quantitative comparisons must be based on standardized intensities corrected for background to produce intensity ratio (k-value) maps. We have developed a new logarithmic, multiband color-encoding method to view these k-value maps more effectively. Three color bands are defined, starting with a dark primary color and grading to a bright pastel: blue = trace (0.001 to 0.01); green = minor (0.01 to 0.1); and red = major (0.1 to 1.0). Within each band, the color is assigned according to a logarithmic scale that depends on intensity ratio or compositional measurements. Logarithmic multiband color encoding permits direct comparisons of maps, such as maps of different elements in the same field of view or maps of the same element in different areas, because the color scale is identical for all maps.

  11. Logarithmic 3-Band Color Encoding: Robust Method for Display and Comparison of Compositional Maps in Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbury, Dale E.; Bright, David S.

    1999-10-01

    Electron-excited X-ray maps recorded with the scanning electron microscope (SEM)/electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA) are a major method of presenting compositional information. Digitally recorded maps are processed in a variety of ways to improve the visibility of features. Scaling of the recorded signal to match the 8-bit gray-scale intensity range of a typical computer display system is almost always necessary. Inherent limitations of gray-scale displays have led to other intensity-encoding methods for X-ray maps, including clipping, histogram normalization, and pseudocolor scales. While feature visibility is improved by applying these scales, comparisons among image sets are difficult. Quantitative comparisons must be based on standardized intensities corrected for background to produce intensity ratio (k-value) maps. We have developed a new logarithmic, multiband color-encoding method to view these k-value maps more effectively. Three color bands are defined, starting with a dark primary color and grading to a bright pastel: blue = trace (0.001 to 0.01); green = minor (0.01 to 0.1); and red = major (0.1 to 1.0). Within each band, the color is assigned according to a logarithmic scale that depends on intensity ratio or compositional measurements. Logarithmic multiband color encoding permits direct comparisons of maps, such as maps of different elements in the same field of view or maps of the same element in different areas, because the color scale is identical for all maps.

  12. Levodropropizine (LD) activity in allergic asthmatic patients, challenged with ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, metacholine and allergen-induced bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Bossi, R; Banfi, P; Filipazzi, V; Castelli, C; Braga, P C

    1994-04-01

    The antitussive compound Levodropropizine (LD) is active in animal bronchoconstriction induced by histamine and capsaicin and in man protects from bronchoconstriction induced by capsaicin. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of action of LD given at 60 mg t.i.d. as oral drops, for 8 days by means of specific bronchial challenges (allergens) and of aspecific challenges acting via different receptors and fibers (i.e. metacholine via cholinergic receptors and ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW) via histamine and neuropeptide release). The study design is randomized, double-blind, cross-over versus placebo in 30 allergic asthmatic patients. Baseline bronchial tone and bronchoconstrictor response to metacholine (MCh) were not modified by active treatment nor by placebo. On the contrary, in airway responsiveness to UNDW, the active treatment showed an antagonist effect against induced bronchoconstriction of 59% [activity ratio (AR) as antilog = 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.54; p < or = 0.05] in comparison to no effect for placebo. Similarly, in airway responsiveness to specific allergen, active treatment antagonized the bronchoconstrictor effect of grass pollen by 83% and of various allergens (dermatophagoides and grass pollen) by 72%, i.e. AR of 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.045-0.65; p < 0.01) and of 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.07-1.04; p < 0.05), respectively. No antagonist effect was evident with placebo at all times. Besides inhibiting cough, LD is also partially effective in inhibiting bronchial hyperreactive response against specific allergen and UNDW bronchoconstriction. Hence, LD might act by partly inhibiting histamine and neuropeptide release.

  13. Levodropropizine (LD) activity in allergic asthmatic patients, challenged with ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, metacholine and allergen-induced bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Bossi, R; Banfi, P; Filipazzi, V; Castelli, C; Braga, P C

    1994-04-01

    The antitussive compound Levodropropizine (LD) is active in animal bronchoconstriction induced by histamine and capsaicin and in man protects from bronchoconstriction induced by capsaicin. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of action of LD given at 60 mg t.i.d. as oral drops, for 8 days by means of specific bronchial challenges (allergens) and of aspecific challenges acting via different receptors and fibers (i.e. metacholine via cholinergic receptors and ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW) via histamine and neuropeptide release). The study design is randomized, double-blind, cross-over versus placebo in 30 allergic asthmatic patients. Baseline bronchial tone and bronchoconstrictor response to metacholine (MCh) were not modified by active treatment nor by placebo. On the contrary, in airway responsiveness to UNDW, the active treatment showed an antagonist effect against induced bronchoconstriction of 59% [activity ratio (AR) as antilog = 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.54; p < or = 0.05] in comparison to no effect for placebo. Similarly, in airway responsiveness to specific allergen, active treatment antagonized the bronchoconstrictor effect of grass pollen by 83% and of various allergens (dermatophagoides and grass pollen) by 72%, i.e. AR of 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.045-0.65; p < 0.01) and of 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.07-1.04; p < 0.05), respectively. No antagonist effect was evident with placebo at all times. Besides inhibiting cough, LD is also partially effective in inhibiting bronchial hyperreactive response against specific allergen and UNDW bronchoconstriction. Hence, LD might act by partly inhibiting histamine and neuropeptide release. PMID:10184318

  14. Comparison of Sub-pixel Classification Approaches for Crop-specific Mapping

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data has been increasingly used for crop mapping and other agricultural applications. Phenology-based classification approaches using the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) 16-day composite (250 m) data product...

  15. Comparisons of four approximation algorithms for large-scale linkage map construction

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Johnie N.; McCarty, Jack C.; Lou, Xiang-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Efficient construction of large-scale linkage maps is highly desired in current gene mapping projects. To evaluate the performance of available approaches in the literature, four published methods, the insertion (IN), seriation (SER), neighbor mapping (NM), and unidirectional growth (UG) were compared on the basis of simulated F2 data with various population sizes, interferences, missing genotype rates, and mis-genotyping rates. Simulation results showed that the IN method outperformed, or at least was comparable to, the other three methods. These algorithms were also applied to a real data set and results showed that the linkage order obtained by the IN algorithm was superior to the other methods. Thus, this study suggests that the IN method should be used when constructing large-scale linkage maps. PMID:21611760

  16. Face recognition using 3D facial shape and color map information: comparison and combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godil, Afzal; Ressler, Sandy; Grother, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of 3D surface geometry for face recognition and compare it to one based on color map information. The 3D surface and color map data are from the CAESAR anthropometric database. We find that the recognition performance is not very different between 3D surface and color map information using a principal component analysis algorithm. We also discuss the different techniques for the combination of the 3D surface and color map information for multi-modal recognition by using different fusion approaches and show that there is significant improvement in results. The effectiveness of various techniques is compared and evaluated on a dataset with 200 subjects in two different positions.

  17. Comparison of Mapping Tessera Terrain in the Phoebe Regio (V-41) and Tellus Tessera (V-10) Quadrangles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senske, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Tessera terrain was first described from data collected by the Venera 15/16 spacecraft. These high standing crustal plateaus are characterized by enhanced radar-scale roughness (i.e. at the 12-cm Magellan radar wavelength), low radar reflectivity and multiple episodes of deformation. Outcrops range from local exposures (100s of km across) to continent sized (e.g. Aphrodite Terra). To understand the tectonic history of these relatively old terrains, detailed geologic and stratigraphic relations have been assessed by a number of investigators. Tessera is typically mapped as a global-scale unit although significant variations in both geologic setting and character are observed. This leads to the suggestion that the rock material making up these terrains may vary across the planet. As such, we are carrying out geologic mapping of both the Phoebe Regio (V-41) and Tellus Tessera (V-10) quadrangles to ascertain their geologic history and make comparisons between these distinct upland plateaus.

  18. Comparison of four Vulnerability Approaches to Mapping of Shallow Aquifers of Eastern Dahomey Basin of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, Saheed; Vermeulen, Danie

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the outcome of mapping the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin of southwestern Nigeria vulnerability studies. The basin is a coastal transboundary aquifer extending from eastern Ghana to southwestern Nigeria. The study aimed to examine the most suitable method for mapping the basin shallow aquifers by comparing the results of four different vulnerability approaches. This is most important due to differences in vulnerability assessment parameters, approaches and results derived from most vulnerability methods on a particular aquifer. The methodology involves using vulnerability techniques that assess the intrinsic properties of the aquifer. Two methods from travel time approach (AVI and RTt) and index approach (DRASTIC and PI) were employed in the mapping of the basin. The results show the AVI has the least mapping parameters with 75% of the basin classified as very high vulnerability and 25% with high vulnerability. The DRASTIC mapping shows 18% as low vulnerability, 61% as moderate vulnerability and 21% reveal high vulnerability. Mapping with the PI method which has highest parameters shows 66% of the aquifer as low vulnerability and 34% reveal moderate vulnerability. The RTt method shows 18% as very high vulnerability, 8% as high vulnerability, 64% as moderate vulnerability and 10% reveal very low vulnerability. Further analysis involving correlation plots shows the highest correlation of 62% between the RTt and DRASTIC method than within any others methods. The analysis shows that the PI method is the mildest of all the vulnerability methods while the AVI method is the strictest of the methods considered in this vulnerability mapping. The significance of using four different approaches to the mapping of the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin will guide in the recommendation of the best vulnerability method for subsequent future assessment of this and other shallow aquifers. Keywords: Aquifer vulnerability, Dahomey Basin

  19. Single-molecule approach to bacterial genomic comparisons via optical mapping.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Shiguo; Kile, A.; Bechner, M.; Kvikstad, E.; Deng, W.; Wei, J.; Severin, J.; Runnheim, R.; Churas, C.; Forrest, D.; Dimalanta, E.; Lamers, C.; Burland, V.; Blattner, F. R.; Schwartz, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Modern comparative genomics has been established, in part, by the sequencing and annotation of a broad range of microbial species. To gain further insights, new sequencing efforts are now dealing with the variety of strains or isolates that gives a species definition and range; however, this number vastly outstrips our ability to sequence them. Given the availability of a large number of microbial species, new whole genome approaches must be developed to fully leverage this information at the level of strain diversity that maximize discovery. Here, we describe how optical mapping, a single-molecule system, was used to identify and annotate chromosomal alterations between bacterial strains represented by several species. Since whole-genome optical maps are ordered restriction maps, sequenced strains of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a (2457T and 301), Yersinia pestis (CO 92 and KIM), and Escherichia coli were aligned as maps to identify regions of homology and to further characterize them as possible insertions, deletions, inversions, or translocations. Importantly, an unsequenced Shigella flexneri strain (serotype Y strain AMC[328Y]) was optically mapped and aligned with two sequenced ones to reveal one novel locus implicated in serotype conversion and several other loci containing insertion sequence elements or phage-related gene insertions. Our results suggest that genomic rearrangements and chromosomal breakpoints are readily identified and annotated against a prototypic sequenced strain by using the tools of optical mapping.

  20. Structures of human genes coding for cytokine LD78 and their expression.

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, M; Nomiyama, H; Shimada, K

    1990-01-01

    LD78 is a member of a newly identified superfamily of small inducible proteins involved in inflammatory responses, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Southern blot analysis of the EcoRI-digested human genomic DNAs, using previously isolated LD78 cDNA as a probe, showed that in each individual there are 4.2- and 4.8-kilobase-pair (kb) fragments and that some have an additional 6.5-kb fragment. The 4.2-kb fragment contained genomic DNA sequences corresponding to the LD78 cDNA and was named the LD78 alpha gene. The 4.8-kb fragment contained similar sequences, showing 94% homology to the LD78 alpha gene, and was named the LD78 beta gene. The LD78 alpha gene was present in a single or a few copies per haploid genome, whereas the copy number of the LD78 beta gene and of the 6.5-kb fragment hybridizable to LD78 cDNA varied among the samples tested. Treatment of human myeloid cell lines HL-60 and U937 with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased within 2 h cellular levels of the RNA hybridizable to LD78 cDNA. The human glioma cell line U105MG and primary culture of human fibroblasts also expressed the hybridizable RNA in response to PMA. Addition of cycloheximide had no apparent effect on this response in U937 cells and inhibited the response in fibroblasts, whereas it stimulated the response in HL-60 and U105MG cells. mRNA phenotyping experiments revealed that the LD78 alpha and LD78 beta genes were both transcribed in PMA-stimulated U937 cells. Images PMID:1694014

  1. ArchiLD: hierarchical visualization of linkage disequilibrium in human populations.

    PubMed

    Melchiotti, Rossella; Rötzschke, Olaf; Poidinger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is an essential metric for selecting single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to use in genetic studies and identifying causal variants from significant tag SNPs. The explosion in the number of polymorphisms that can now be genotyped by commercial arrays makes the interpretation of triangular correlation plots, commonly used for visualizing LD, extremely difficult in particular when large genomics regions need to be considered or when SNPs in perfect LD are not adjacent but scattered across a genomic region. We developed ArchiLD, a user-friendly graphical application for the hierarchical visualization of LD in human populations. The software provides a powerful framework for analyzing LD patterns with a particular focus on blocks of SNPs in perfect linkage as defined by r(2). Thanks to its integration with the UCSC Genome Browser, LD plots can be easily overlapped with additional data on regulation, conservation and expression. ArchiLD is an intuitive solution for the visualization of LD across large or highly polymorphic genomic regions. Its ease of use and its integration with the UCSC Genome Browser annotation potential facilitates the interpretation of association results and enables a more informed selection of tag SNPs for genetic studies.

  2. Comparison of false-discovery rate for genome-wide and fine mapping regions.

    PubMed

    Tabangin, Meredith E; Woo, Jessica G; Liu, Chunyan; Nick, Todd G; Martin, Lisa J

    2007-01-01

    With technological advances in high-throughput genotyping, it is not unusual to perform hundreds of thousands of tests for each phenotype. Thus, correction to control type I error is essential. The false-discovery rate (FDR) has been successfully used in genome-wide expression data. However, its performance has not been evaluated for association analysis. Our objective was to analyze the Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 simulated data set, with answers, to evaluate FDR for genome-wide association and fine mapping. In genome-wide analysis, FDR performed well, with good localization of positive results. However, in fine mapping, all tested methods performed poorly, producing a high proportion of significant results. Thus, caution should be used when employing FDR for fine mapping.

  3. High resolution scanning near field mapping of enhancement on SERS substrates: comparison with photoemission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Awada, C; Plathier, J; Dab, C; Charra, F; Douillard, L; Ruediger, A

    2016-04-14

    The need for a dedicated spectroscopic technique with nanoscale resolution to characterize SERS substrates pushed us to develop a proof of concept of a functionalized tip-surface enhanced Raman scattering (FTERS) technique. We have been able to map hot spots on semi-continuous gold films; in order to validate our approach we compare our results with photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) data, the complementary electron microscopy tool to map hot spots on random metallic surfaces. Enhanced Raman intensity maps at high spatial resolution reveal the localisation of hotspots at gaps for many neighboring nanostructures. Finally, we compare our findings with theoretical simulations of the enhancement factor distribution, which confirms a dimer effect as the dominant origin of hot spots. PMID:26979589

  4. Mapping of wheat mitochondrial mRNA termini and comparison with breakpoints in DNA homology among plants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Boyoung; Acero, Maria M; Bonen, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Mitochondrial DNA rearrangements occur very frequently in flowering plants and when close to genes there must be concomitant acquisition of new regulatory cis-elements. To explore whether there might be limits to such DNA shuffling, we have mapped the termini of mitochondrial mRNAs in wheat, a monocot, and compared them to the known positions for counterpart genes in the eudicot Arabidopsis. Nine genes share homologous 3' UTRs over their full-length and for six of them, the termini map very close to the site of wheat/Arabidopsis DNA rearrangements. Only one such case was seen for comparisons of 5' UTRs, and the 5' ends of mRNAs are typically more heterogeneous than 3' termini. Approximately half of the thirty-one wheat mitochondrial transcriptional units are preceded by CRTA promoter-like motifs, and of the potential stem-loop or tRNA-like structures identified as candidate RNA processing/stability signals near the 5' or 3' ends, several are shared with Arabidopsis. Comparison of the mitochondrial gene flanking sequences from normal fertile wheat (Triticum aestivum) with those of Aegilops kotschyi which is the source of mitochondria present in K-type cytoplasmic male sterile wheat, revealed six cases where mRNAs are precluded from sharing full-length homologous UTRs because of genomic reorganization events, and the presence of short repeats located at the sites of discontinuity points to a reciprocal recombination-mediated mode of rearrangement.

  5. Disruption of the lipid-transporting LdMT-LdRos3 complex in Leishmania donovani affects membrane lipid asymmetry but not host cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Weingärtner, Adrien; Drobot, Björn; Herrmann, Andreas; Sánchez-Cañete, María P; Gamarro, Francisco; Castanys, Santiago; Günther Pomorski, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance and regulation of the asymmetric lipid distribution across eukaryotic plasma membranes is governed by the concerted action of specific membrane proteins controlling lipid movement across the bilayer. Here, we show that the miltefosine transporter (LdMT), a member of the P4-ATPase subfamily in Leishmania donovani, and the Cdc50-like protein LdRos3 form a stable complex that plays an essential role in maintaining phospholipid asymmetry in the parasite plasma membrane. Loss of either LdMT or LdRos3 abolishes ATP-dependent transport of NBD-labelled phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine from the outer to the inner plasma membrane leaflet and results in an increased cell surface exposure of endogenous PE. We also find that promastigotes of L. donovani lack any detectable amount of phosphatidylserine (PS) but retain their infectivity in THP-1-derived macrophages. Likewise, infectivity was unchanged for parasites without LdMT-LdRos3 complexes. We conclude that exposure of PS and PE to the exoplasmic leaflet is not crucial for the infectivity of L. donovani promastigotes. PMID:20865154

  6. 3D volume MR temperature mapping for HIFU heating trajectory comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Nick; Vyas, Urvi; de Bever, Josh; Payne, Allison; Parker, Dennis L.

    2012-10-01

    Many areas of MR-guided thermal therapy research would benefit from temperature maps with high spatial and temporal resolution that cover a large 3-D volume. This paper describes an approach to achieve these goals that is suitable for research applications where retrospective reconstruction of the temperature maps is acceptable. The method acquires undersampled data from a modified 3-D segmented EPI sequence and creates images using a temporally constrained reconstruction algorithm. The 3-D images can be zero-filled to arbitrarily small voxel spacing in all directions and then converted into temperature maps using the standard proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift technique. During HIFU heating experiments, the proposed method was used to obtain temperature maps with 1.5×1.5×3.0 mm resolution, 288×162×78 mm field of view, and 1.7 second temporal resolution. The approach is validated to demonstrate that it can accurately capture the spatial characteristics and time dynamics of rapidly changing HIFU-induced temperature distributions. An example application is presented where the method is used to analyze and compare different HIFU volumetric heating trajectories.

  7. A COMPARISON OF MAPPED ESTIMATES OF LONG-TERM RUNOFF IN THE NORTHEAST UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the relative accuracy of four methods of producing maps of long-term runoff for part of the northeast United States: MAN, a manual procedure that incorporates expert opinion in contour placement; RPRIS, an automated procedure based on water balance considerations, Pn...

  8. A comparison of linkage disequilibrium measures for fine-scale mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, B.; Risch, N.

    1995-09-20

    Linkage mapping generally localizes disease genes to 1-to 2-cM regions of chromosome. In theory, further refinement of location can be achieved by population-based studies of linkage diequilibrium between disease locus alleles at adjacent markers. One approach to localization, dubbed simple disequilibrium mapping, is to determine the relative location of the disease locus by plotting disequilibrium values against marker locations. We investigate the simple mapping properties of five disequilibrium measures, the correlation coefficient {Delta}, Lewontin`s D`, the robust formulation of the population attribute risk {delta}, Yule`s Q, and Kaplan and Weir`s proportional difference d under the assumption of initial complete disequilibrium between disease and marker loci. The studies indicate that {delta} is a superior measure for fine mapping because it is directly related to the recombination fraction between the disease and the marker sampled at a rate higher than their population frequencies, as in a case-control study. D` yields results of comparable to those of {delta} in many realistic settings. Of the remaining three measures, Q,{Delta}, and d, Q yields the best results. From simulations of short-term evolution, all measures show some sensitivity to marker allele frequencies; however, as predicted by analytic results, Q, {Delta}, and d exhibit the greatest sensitivity to variation in marker allele frequencies across loci. 56 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  9. Comparison of wet/dry mapping and electrical resistivity sensors to characterize patterns of intermittency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costigan, K. H.; Goss, C. W.; Jaeger, K. L.; Goebel, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent rivers are those that cease to flow at some point(s) in space and time along their course and are present in all climates and terrestrial biomes. The prevalence of drying is increasing, even in temperate biomes that we typically do not associate with river drying or dry climates. There have been several techniques employed to characterize patterns of intermittency but field mapping and use of electrical resistivity (ER) sensors are the most common. Field mapping has long been used to study intermittency, but this method is limited by its inability to capture the rapidly changing configuration of intermittent streams that often occur during wetting and drying events. ER sensors enable researchers to remotely record channel-water presence at fine spatiotemporal scales which will better capture seasonal dynamics in transient lotic systems. Here, we compare field mapping and ER sensor recordings of stream intermittency for 10 forested headwater streams in northeastern Ohio. Field mapping occurred approximately biweekly while the ER sensors recorded at 30-minute intervals from April through November 2014. Although ER sensors offer many advantages to stream mapping, our study revealed several limitations of ER sensors including requiring re-securing after flows moved sensors, burial in sediment that results them in recording subsurface water, and the small spatial scale the sensors are representative of. Nevertheless, ER sensors provide a low cost, high performance, and method that requires minimal data interpretation to monitor the presence and absence of water in channels at a specific location. The latest generation of ER sensors also record temperature, which can help in differentiate standing and flowing water. Aspects other than timing, duration, and frequency of flow such as the resumption (advancing) and recession (retreating) rates or magnitudes can be characterized with ER sensor arrays.

  10. Students with LD in higher education: use and contribution of assistive technology and website courses and their correlation to students' hope and well-being.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Tali; Shemesh, Dorit Olenik

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent and patterns of usage of web courses, and their contribution to the academic and social perceptions of 964 undergraduate students with and without learning disabilities studying in higher education. Students were asked to complete four questionnaires examining the usage patterns of various adaptive technologies and their contribution to the student. The questionnaires assessed Perceptions of Learning through Online Usage; Accessibility of Campus Computing; Hope Scale and Subjective Well-being Scale. A detailed examination of the usage patterns of online courses revealed that, compared to the comparison group, students with LD log more often into the course sites, going into the forum more frequently and leaving significantly more messages on the forum than students in the comparison group. Findings indicated that students with LD are more familiar with assistive technology and use it more than the comparison group. Students with LD reported higher scores on the Hope scale, they felt an increased drive to find different pathways to attain their goals, as well as being motivated to pursue those goals, and their subjective well-being was higher that of the students in the comparison group.

  11. Can Social Stories Enhance the Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Skills of Children with LD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Since many children with learning disabilities (LD) face interpersonal conflict resolution problems, this study examines the efficacy of social stories in helping them choose more appropriate interpersonal conflict resolution strategies. A social story was recorded and played to the 31 children with LD in the experimental group twice a week for a…

  12. Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis LD61

    PubMed Central

    Falentin, Hélène; Naquin, Delphine; Loux, Valentin; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Loubière, Pascal; Nouaille, Sébastien; Lavenier, Dominique; Le Bourgeois, Pascal; François, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; Hernandez, David; Even, Sergine

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is widely used in the dairy industry. We report the draft genome sequence of L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis LD61, an industrial and extensively studied strain. In contrast to the closely related and plasmidless strain IL1403, LD61 contains 6 plasmids, and the genome sequence provides additional information related to adaptation to the dairy environment. PMID:24435871

  13. Effects of Low-Dose Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR-ld) on Working Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klatt, Maryanna D.; Buckworth, Janet; Malarkey, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has produced behavioral, psychological, and physiological benefits, but these programs typically require a substantial time commitment from the participants. This study assessed the effects of a shortened (low-dose [ld]) work-site MBSR intervention (MBSR-ld) on indicators of stress in healthy working…

  14. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  15. A Nationwide Epidemiologic Modeling Study of LD: Risk, Protection, and Unintended Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Paul A.; Goldberg, Michelle M.; Watkins, Marley W.; Stanley, Jeanne L.; Glutting, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    Through multiple logistic regression modeling, this article explores the relative importance of risk and protective factors associated with learning disabilities (LD). A representative national sample of 6- to 17-year-old students (N = 1,268) was drawn by random stratification and classified by the presence versus absence of LD in reading,…

  16. Introducing Algebra through the Graphical Representation of Functions: A Study among LD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauriol, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study evaluates the impact of a new Algebra 1 course at a High School for language-based learning-disabled (LD) students. The new course prioritized the teaching of relationship graphs and functions as an introduction to algebra. Across three studies, the dissertation documents and evaluates the progress made by LD high school…

  17. Discriminative Effectiveness of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for LD Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Richard D.; Lorion, Raymond P.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery's utility in distinguishing between 30 male adolescents diagnosed as learning disabled (LD) and 30 matched non-LD students indicated that the battery correctly classified 90 percent of the sample with 6.7 percent false positives and 13.3 percent false negatives. (Author/DB)

  18. Ten Years of Research: A Systematic Review of Three Refereed LD Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Laura; Williams, Jacob; Miciak, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Content analyses of journals in the field of LD provide a means of surveying research and publication trends, the knowledge of which may inform policy and practice related to future research agendas. As the first decade of the current millennium was particularly contentious for the field of LD, we felt that a content review would be timely. In…

  19. Computer Literate LD Students Shine at Lakewood Elementary School in Silicon Valley, CA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Mildred

    1983-01-01

    In Sunnyvale, California (the computer industry's "Silicon Valley") two teachers of elementary learning disabled (LD) students took a course in microcomputers, acquired three microcomputers with a grant, and trained the students to use computer-assisted instruction, with such results as that in one year, 37 LD students tutored 100 primary…

  20. Study on LD-pumped Nd:YAG laser cutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jianfeng; Zhao, Jing; Fan, Zhongwei; Zhao, Cunhua; Bi, Yong; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Gang; Shi, Zhaohui; Pei, Bo; Zhang, Guoxin; Xue, Yan; Qi, Yan

    2005-12-01

    The theory of laser cutter and the technology neck is analyzed. We can conclude that it is almost impossible to deal with the waste thick silicon wafers which are yielded in producing silicon wafers by conventional eroding or diamond cutting, while it is also unperfected with ecumenical laser cutter without good beam quality or precise laser and optics system. It is represented that high average power and high repetition rate laser with good beam quality and precise laser and optics system are pivotal to obtain excellent cutting effect such as thick groove depth, rapid cutting speed, fine kerf section without considering the effect of technique. Considering laser medium thermal lens effect and thermal focal length changing with pumping power, using plano-convex high reflectivity mirror as the back cavity mirror to compensate the heat lens influence, aλ/4 waveplate to compensate heat-induced birefraction, utilize the Nd:YAG self-aperture effect, more than 50 W average power 1.064 um IR output is obtained with beam quality factor (M2) equals 3.19. Through the LD-Pumped Nd:YAG laser cutter we developed with short focus length negative spherical aberration focusing lens, double axis linear step motor positioning system, suitable beam expander multiplying factor, appropriate diameter of exit beam aperture, proper repetition rate, when the cutting velocity equals 400mm/min, 0.75mm thick silicon wafer can be penetrated; when the cutting velocity equals 100mm/min, double-layer 0.75mm thick silicon wafer can be penetrated. The cross section is fine and the groove is narrow, the cutting quality meets the expecting demand.

  1. Comparison of High Resolution Topographic Data Sources (SAR, IfSAR, and LiDAR) for Storm Surge Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, J. K. B.; Santiago, J. T.; Muldong, T. M. M.; Lagmay, A. M. A.; Caro, C. V.; Ramos, M.

    2014-12-01

    As an archipelagic country, the Philippines has experienced multiple storm surge threats. Moreover, the country's location, adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, results in an average of eight to nine typhoons that make landfall in a year. Storm surge hazard maps require high resolution topographic data to illustrate water inflow in the event of storm surges in vulnerable coastal areas and for accurate boundaries and coastline. Furthermore, potential hazard areas tend to be generalized in lower resolution data. The objective of this research is to compare three sources where accurate and quality storm surge hazard maps will draw bases from. For this purpose, the researcher used and compared SAR, IfSAR and LiDAR. The study involved comparing maps from different topographic data sources in Tacloban, in the province of Leyte. This area was one of the most heavily stricken areas during typhoon Haiyan where more than 6,000 people died and P34.37 billion worth of property was destroyed. In the comparison of the three sources, the following had be taken into consideration: cost of acquiring data, processing time, purpose, and the results. The research learned the following: Synthetic Aperture Radar or SAR produces data with a 30 meter resolution, while Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) offers a resolution of 5 meters. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has the highest resolution of the three with 1 meter. In addition, higher costs are paid for more detailed topographic data. Also, processing time takes longer for finer details due to the memory of the computer units used for modelling. The sources were also evaluated on the necessity of the scale at which the maps are needed for specific purposes such as practicality and direct disaster response. Results from the maps have been validated through interviews with the locals on the experience of actual storm surges. Through this study, the researcher concluded that although LiDAR can offer a more detailed and

  2. Comparison results of forest cover mapping of Peninsular Malaysia using geospatial technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Wan Abdul; Abd Rahman, Shukri B. Wan

    2016-06-01

    Climate change and global warming transpire due to several factors. Among them is deforestation which occur mostly in developing countries including Malaysia where forested areas are converted to other land use for tangible economic returns and to a smaller extent, as subsistence for local communities. As a cause for concern, efforts have been taken by the World Resource Institute (WRI) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF) to monitor forest loss using geospatial technology - interpreting time-based remote sensing imageries and producing statistics of forested areas lost since 2001. In Peninsular Malaysia, the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia(FDPM) has conducted forest cover mapping for the region using the same technology since 2011, producing GIS maps for 2009-2010,2011-2012,2013-2014 and 2015. This paper focuses on the comparative study of the results generated from WRI,WWF and FDPM interpretations between 2010 and 2015, the methodologies used, the similarities and differences, challenges and recommendations for future enhancement of forest cover mapping technique.

  3. Comparison of Lesion Detection and Quantification in MAP Reconstruction with Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Priors

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Statistical image reconstruction methods based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) principle have been developed for emission tomography. The prior distribution of the unknown image plays an important role in MAP reconstruction. The most commonly used prior are Gaussian priors, whose logarithm has a quadratic form. Gaussian priors are relatively easy to analyze. It has been shown that the effect of a Gaussian prior can be approximated by linear filtering a maximum likelihood (ML) reconstruction. As a result, sharp edges in reconstructed images are not preserved. To preserve sharp transitions, non-Gaussian priors have been proposed. However, their effect on clinical tasks is less obvious. In this paper, we compare MAP reconstruction with Gaussian and non-Gaussian priors for lesion detection and region of interest quantification using computer simulation. We evaluate three representative priors: Gaussian prior, Huber prior, and Geman-McClure prior. We simulate imaging a prostate tumor using positron emission tomography (PET). The detectability of a known tumor in either a fixed background or a random background is measured using a channelized Hotelling observer. The bias-variance tradeoff curves are calculated for quantification of the total tumor activity. The results show that for the detection and quantification tasks, the Gaussian prior is as effective as non-Gaussian priors. PMID:23165056

  4. Comparison of Image Restoration Methods for Lunar Epithermal Neutron Emission Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Ivatury, V.; Milikh, G.; Nandikotkur, G.; Puetter, R. C.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Usikov, D.; Mitrofanov, I. G.

    2009-01-01

    Orbital measurements of neutrons by the Lunar Exploring Neutron Detector (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter are being used to quantify the spatial distribution of near surface hydrogen (H). Inferred H concentration maps have low signal-to-noise (SN) and image restoration (IR) techniques are being studied to enhance results. A single-blind. two-phase study is described in which four teams of researchers independently developed image restoration techniques optimized for LEND data. Synthetic lunar epithermal neutron emission maps were derived from LEND simulations. These data were used as ground truth to determine the relative quantitative performance of the IR methods vs. a default denoising (smoothing) technique. We review and used factors influencing orbital remote sensing of neutrons emitted from the lunar surface to develop a database of synthetic "true" maps for performance evaluation. A prior independent training phase was implemented for each technique to assure methods were optimized before the blind trial. Method performance was determined using several regional root-mean-square error metrics specific to epithermal signals of interest. Results indicate unbiased IR methods realize only small signal gains in most of the tested metrics. This suggests other physically based modeling assumptions are required to produce appreciable signal gains in similar low SN IR applications.

  5. Analyzing Large-Scale Structural Change in Proteins: Comparison of Principal Component Projection and Sammon Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Mesentean, Sidonia; Fischer, S.; Smith, Jeremy C

    2006-04-01

    Effective analysis of large-scale conformational transitions in macromolecules requires transforming them into a lower dimensional representation that captures the dominant motions. Herein, we apply and compare two different dimensionality reduction techniques, namely, principal component analysis (PCA), a linear method, and Sammon mapping, which is nonlinear. The two methods are used to analyze four different protein transition pathways of varying complexity, obtained by using either the conjugate peak refinement method or constrained molecular dynamics. For the return-stroke in myosin, both Sammon mapping and PCA show that the conformational change is dominated by a simple rotation of a rigid body. Also, in the case of the T{yields}R transition in hemoglobin, both methods are able to identify the two main quaternary transition events. In contrast, in the cases of the unfolding transition of staphylococcal nuclease or the signaling switch of Ras p21, which are both more complex conformational transitions, only Sammon mapping is able to identify the distinct phases of motion.

  6. Performance comparison of LUR and OK in PM2.5 concentration mapping: a multidimensional perspective.

    PubMed

    Zou, Bin; Luo, Yanqing; Wan, Neng; Zheng, Zhong; Sternberg, Troy; Liao, Yilan

    2015-03-03

    Methods of Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling and Ordinary Kriging (OK) interpolation have been widely used to offset the shortcomings of PM2.5 data observed at sparse monitoring sites. However, traditional point-based performance evaluation strategy for these methods remains stagnant, which could cause unreasonable mapping results. To address this challenge, this study employs 'information entropy', an area-based statistic, along with traditional point-based statistics (e.g. error rate, RMSE) to evaluate the performance of LUR model and OK interpolation in mapping PM2.5 concentrations in Houston from a multidimensional perspective. The point-based validation reveals significant differences between LUR and OK at different test sites despite the similar end-result accuracy (e.g. error rate 6.13% vs. 7.01%). Meanwhile, the area-based validation demonstrates that the PM2.5 concentrations simulated by the LUR model exhibits more detailed variations than those interpolated by the OK method (i.e. information entropy, 7.79 vs. 3.63). Results suggest that LUR modeling could better refine the spatial distribution scenario of PM2.5 concentrations compared to OK interpolation. The significance of this study primarily lies in promoting the integration of point- and area-based statistics for model performance evaluation in air pollution mapping.

  7. Performance comparison of LUR and OK in PM2.5 concentration mapping: a multidimensional perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Bin; Luo, Yanqing; Wan, Neng; Zheng, Zhong; Sternberg, Troy; Liao, Yilan

    2015-03-01

    Methods of Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling and Ordinary Kriging (OK) interpolation have been widely used to offset the shortcomings of PM2.5 data observed at sparse monitoring sites. However, traditional point-based performance evaluation strategy for these methods remains stagnant, which could cause unreasonable mapping results. To address this challenge, this study employs `information entropy', an area-based statistic, along with traditional point-based statistics (e.g. error rate, RMSE) to evaluate the performance of LUR model and OK interpolation in mapping PM2.5 concentrations in Houston from a multidimensional perspective. The point-based validation reveals significant differences between LUR and OK at different test sites despite the similar end-result accuracy (e.g. error rate 6.13% vs. 7.01%). Meanwhile, the area-based validation demonstrates that the PM2.5 concentrations simulated by the LUR model exhibits more detailed variations than those interpolated by the OK method (i.e. information entropy, 7.79 vs. 3.63). Results suggest that LUR modeling could better refine the spatial distribution scenario of PM2.5 concentrations compared to OK interpolation. The significance of this study primarily lies in promoting the integration of point- and area-based statistics for model performance evaluation in air pollution mapping.

  8. Trace element mapping of pyrite from Archean gold deposits - A comparison between PIXE and EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agangi, A.; Przybyłowicz, W.; Hofmann, A.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical zoning of pyrites can record the evolution of mineralising fluids at widely varying P-T conditions ranging from diagenesis to medium-grade metamorphism. If preserved, zoning can reveal growth textures, brecciation and veining, resorption and recrystallisation events, thus shedding light on the processes that contributed to ore formation. Chemical zoning of sulfides is invisible in optical microscopy, but can be studied by chemical etching, high-contrast back-scattering electron images, and elemental imaging. In this study we compared micro-PIXE and WDS-EPMA elemental maps on the chemically zoned pyrites in mineralised vein-bearing samples from the Sheba and Fairview gold mines in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Elemental images show complex distribution of trace elements, suggesting multiple events of pyrite crystallisation and gold deposition. EPMA maps show fine-scale variations reflecting growth and recrystallisation textures marked, in particular, by variations of As, Ni, and Co. In PIXE maps, gold occurs both as finely-distributed and discrete inclusions, suggesting incorporation in the pyrite structure as solid solution, and deposition as electrum inclusions, respectively. Micro-PIXE and EPMA provide complementary information, forming together a powerful tool to obtain information on chemical zoning of pyrites in ore deposits.

  9. Effects of low-dose mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR-ld) on working adults.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Maryanna D; Buckworth, Janet; Malarkey, William B

    2009-06-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has produced behavioral, psychological, and physiological benefits, but these programs typically require a substantial time commitment from the participants. This study assessed the effects of a shortened (low-dose [ld]) work-site MBSR intervention (MBSR-ld) on indicators of stress in healthy working adults to determine if results similar to those obtained in traditional MBSR could be demonstrated. Participants were randomized into MBSR-ld and wait-list control groups. Self-reported perceived stress, sleep quality, and mindfulness were measured at the beginning and end of the 6-week intervention. Salivary cortisol was assessed weekly. Significant reductions in perceived stress (p = .0025) and increases in mindfulness (p = .0149) were obtained for only the MBSR-ld group (n = 22). Scores on the global measure of sleep improved for the MBSR-ld group (p = .0018) as well as for the control group (p = .0072; n = 20). Implications and future research are discussed.

  10. Risk and resilience for substance abuse among adolescents and adults with LD.

    PubMed

    Cosden, M

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major problem affecting the health and well-being of many people in our society. Although anecdotal evidence concerning linkages between learning disabilities (LD) and substance abuse has been common, this association is not well documented or understood. This article reviews the current research on substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD, interpreting findings within a risk and resilience framework. Integrating these studies with the broader literatures on substance abuse and the needs of individuals with LD, the author develops hypotheses regarding specific risk and protective factors that could affect the occurrence of substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD. Potential risk factors include a poor understanding of one's disability, a lack of skills for developing peer relationships, and the need for prolonged family support. Future directions for research in relation to prevention of and intervention regarding substance abuse among individuals with LD are discussed.

  11. Comparison of point counts and territory mapping for detecting effects of forest management on songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, Felicity L.; Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Buehler, David A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Beachy, Tiffany A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Boves, Than J.; Evans, Andrea; George, Gregory A.; McDermott, Molly E.; Perkins, Kelly A.; White, Matthew; Wigley, T. Bently

    2013-01-01

    Point counts are commonly used to assess changes in bird abundance, including analytical approaches such as distance sampling that estimate density. Point-count methods have come under increasing scrutiny because effects of detection probability and field error are difficult to quantify. For seven forest songbirds, we compared fixed-radii counts (50 m and 100 m) and density estimates obtained from distance sampling to known numbers of birds determined by territory mapping. We applied point-count analytic approaches to a typical forest management question and compared results to those obtained by territory mapping. We used a before–after control impact (BACI) analysis with a data set collected across seven study areas in the central Appalachians from 2006 to 2010. Using a 50-m fixed radius, variance in error was at least 1.5 times that of the other methods, whereas a 100-m fixed radius underestimated actual density by >3 territories per 10 ha for the most abundant species. Distance sampling improved accuracy and precision compared to fixed-radius counts, although estimates were affected by birds counted outside 10-ha units. In the BACI analysis, territory mapping detected an overall treatment effect for five of the seven species, and effects were generally consistent each year. In contrast, all point-count methods failed to detect two treatment effects due to variance and error in annual estimates. Overall, our results highlight the need for adequate sample sizes to reduce variance, and skilled observers to reduce the level of error in point-count data. Ultimately, the advantages and disadvantages of different survey methods should be considered in the context of overall study design and objectives, allowing for trade-offs among effort, accuracy, and power to detect treatment effects.

  12. Extreme rainfall distribution mapping: Comparison of two approaches in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthou, G.; Vischel, T.; Lebel, T.; Blanchet, J.; Quantin, G.; Ali, A.

    2012-12-01

    In a world where populations are increasingly exposed to natural hazards, extreme rainfall mapping remains an important subject of research. Extreme rainfall maps are required for both flood risk management and civil engineering structure design, the challenge being to take into account the local information provided by point rainfall series as well as the necessity of some regional coherency. Such a coherency is not guaranteed when extreme value distributions are fitted separately to individual maximum rainfall series. Two approaches based on the extreme value theory (Block Maxima Analysis) are compared here, with an application to extreme rainfall mapping in West Africa. Annual daily rainfall maxima are extracted from rain-gauges series and modeled over the study region by GEV (Generalized Extreme Value) distributions. These two approaches are the following: (i) The Local Fit and Interpolation (LFI) approach which consists of a spatial interpolation of the GEV distribution parameters estimated independently at each raingauge serie. (ii) The Spatial Maximum Likelihood Estimation (SMLE) which directly estimates the GEV distribution over the entire region by a single maximum likelihood fit using jointly all measurements combined with spatial covariates. Five LFI and three SMLE methods are considered, using the information provided by 126 daily rainfall series covering the period 1950-1990. The methods are first evaluated in calibration. Then the predictive skills and the robustness are assessed through a cross validation and an independent network validation process. The SMLE approach, especially when using the mean annual rainfall as covariate, appears to perform better for most of the scores computed. Using a reference series of 104 years of daily data recorded at Niamey (Niger), it is also shown that the SMLE approach has the capacity to deal more efficiently with the effect of local outliers by using the spatial information provided by nearby stations.

  13. A comparison of spatial and spectral image resolution for mapping invasive plants in coastal california.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Emma C; Ustin, Susan L; Ramirez, Carlos M

    2007-01-01

    We explored the potential of detecting three target invasive species: iceplant (Carpobrotus edulis), jubata grass (Cortaderia jubata), and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. We compared the accuracy of mapping six communities (intact coastal scrub, iceplant invaded coastal scrub, iceplant invaded chaparral, jubata grass invaded chaparral, blue gum invaded chaparral, and intact chaparral) using four images with different combinations of spatial and spectral resolution: hyperspectral AVIRIS imagery (174 wavebands, 4 m spatial resolution), spatially degraded AVIRIS (174 bands, 30 m), spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 4 m), and both spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 30 m, i.e., simulated Landsat ETM data). Overall success rates for classifying the six classes was 75% (kappa 0.7) using full resolution AVIRIS, 58% (kappa 0.5) for the spatially degraded AVIRIS, 42% (kappa 0.3) for the spectrally degraded AVIRIS, and 37% (kappa 0.3) for the spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS. A true Landsat ETM image was also classified to illustrate that the results from the simulated ETM data were representative, which provided an accuracy of 50% (kappa 0.4). Mapping accuracies using different resolution images are evaluated in the context of community heterogeneity (species richness, diversity, and percent species cover). Findings illustrate that higher mapping accuracies are achieved with images possessing high spectral resolution, thus capturing information across the visible and reflected infrared solar spectrum. Understanding the tradeoffs in spectral and spatial resolution can assist land managers in deciding the most appropriate imagery with respect to target invasives and community characteristics.

  14. Learning Strategies: Secondary LD Students in the Mainstream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Antoni, Alice; And Others

    The paper presents four learning strategy techniques--the SQ3R method of study, the Multipass Strategy, the Advanced Study Guide Technique, and Cognitive Mapping--for use with secondary level learning disabled students. The SQ3R method involves the five steps of survey, question, read, recite, and review. An adaption of the SQ3R method, the…

  15. Comparison of the Experimental Performance of Ferroelectric CPW Circuits with Method of Moment Simulations and Conformal Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanKeuls, Fred W.; Chevalier, Chris T.; Miranda, Felix A.; Carlson, C. M.; Rivkin, T. V.; Parilla, P. A.; Perkins, J. D.; Ginley, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental measurements of coplanar waveguide (CPW) circuits atop thin films of ferroelectric Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 (BST) were made as a function bias from 0 to 200 V and frequency from 0.045 to 20 GHz. The resulting phase shifts are compared with method of moments electromagnetic simulations and a conformal mapping analysis to determine the dielectric constant of the BST films. Based on the correlation between the experimental and the modeled data, an analysis of the extent to which the electromagnetic simulators provide reliable values for the dielectric constant of the ferroelectric in these structures has been performed. In addition, to determine how well the modeled data compare with experimental data, the dielectric constant values were also compared to low frequency measurements of interdigitated capacitor circuits on the same films. Results of these comparisons will be presented.

  16. Diagnosis support system based on clinical guidelines: comparison between case-based fuzzy cognitive maps and Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Douali, Nassim; Csaba, Huszka; De Roo, Jos; Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have described the prevalence and severity of diagnostic errors. Diagnostic errors can arise from cognitive, training, educational and other issues. Examples of cognitive issues include flawed reasoning, incomplete knowledge, faulty information gathering or interpretation, and inappropriate use of decision-making heuristics. We describe a new approach, case-based fuzzy cognitive maps, for medical diagnosis and evaluate it by comparison with Bayesian belief networks. We created a semantic web framework that supports the two reasoning methods. We used database of 174 anonymous patients from several European hospitals: 80 of the patients were female and 94 male with an average age 45±16 (average±stdev). Thirty of the 80 female patients were pregnant. For each patient, signs/symptoms/observables/age/sex were taken into account by the system. We used a statistical approach to compare the two methods.

  17. A comparison of infrared, radar, and geologic mapping of lunar craters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, T.W.; Masursky, H.; Shorthill, R.W.; Tyler, G.L.; Zisk, S.H.

    1974-01-01

    Between 1000 and 2000 infrared (eclipse) and radar anomalies have been mapped on the nearside hemisphere of the Moon. A study of 52 of these anomalies indicates that most are related to impact craters and that the nature of the infrared and radar responses is compatible with a previously developed geologic model of crater aging processes. The youngest craters are pronounced thermal and radar anomalies; that is, they have enhanced eclipse temperatures and are strong radar scatterers. With increasing crater age, the associated thermal and radar responses become progressively less noticeable until they assume values for the average lunar surface. The last type of anomaly to disappear is radar enhancement at longer wavelengths. A few craters, however, have infrared and radar behaviors not predicted by the aging model. One previously unknown feature - a field strewn with centimeter-sized rock fragments - has been identified by this technique of comparing maps at the infrared, radar, and visual wavelengths. ?? 1974 D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht-Holland.

  18. Deriving statistical significance maps for SVM based image classification and group comparisons.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Population based pattern analysis and classification for quantifying structural and functional differences between diverse groups has been shown to be a powerful tool for the study of a number of diseases, and is quite commonly used especially in neuroimaging. The alternative to these pattern analysis methods, namely mass univariate methods such as voxel based analysis and all related methods, cannot detect multivariate patterns associated with group differences, and are not particularly suitable for developing individual-based diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. A commonly used pattern analysis tool is the support vector machine (SVM). Unlike univariate statistical frameworks for morphometry, analytical tools for statistical inference are unavailable for the SVM. In this paper, we show that null distributions ordinarily obtained by permutation tests using SVMs can be analytically approximated from the data. The analytical computation takes a small fraction of the time it takes to do an actual permutation test, thereby rendering it possible to quickly create statistical significance maps derived from SVMs. Such maps are critical for understanding imaging patterns of group differences and interpreting which anatomical regions are important in determining the classifier's decision.

  19. Landslide susceptibility mapping in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: a comparison of different statistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, A. A.; Gloaguen, R.; Andreani, L.; Rahnama, M.

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, expansion of settlements into areas prone to landslides in Iraq has increased the importance of accurate hazard assessment. Susceptibility mapping provides information about hazardous locations and thus helps to potentially prevent infrastructure damage due to mass wasting. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare frequency ratio (FR), weight of evidence (WOE), logistic regression (LR) and probit regression (PR) approaches in combination with new geomorphological indices to determine the landslide susceptibility index (LSI). We tested these four methods in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, where landslides occur frequently. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 geomorphological, geological and environmental predicting factors mainly derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The available reference inventory includes 351 landslides representing a cumulative surface of 3.127 km2. This reference inventory was mapped from QuickBird data by manual delineation and partly verified by field survey. The areas under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and relative landslide density (R index) show that all models perform similarly and that focus should be put on the careful selection of proxies. The results indicate that the lithology and the slope aspects play major roles for landslide occurrences. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that using hypsometric integral as a prediction factor instead of slope curvature gives better results and increases the accuracy of the LSI.

  20. Tunable single frequency fiber laser based on FP-LD injection locking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aiqin; Feng, Xinhuan; Wan, Minggui; Li, Zhaohui; Guan, Bai-ou

    2013-05-20

    We propose and demonstrate a tunable single frequency fiber laser based on Fabry Pérot laser diode (FP-LD) injection locking. The single frequency operation principle is based on the fact that the output from a FP-LD injection locked by a multi-longitudinal-mode (MLM) light can have fewer longitudinal-modes number and narrower linewidth. By inserting a FP-LD in a fiber ring laser cavity, single frequency operation can be possibly achieved when stable laser oscillation established after many roundtrips through the FP-LD. Wavelength switchable single frequency lasing can be achieved by adjusting the tunable optical filter (TOF) in the cavity to coincide with different mode of the FP-LD. By adjustment of the drive current of the FP-LD, the lasing modes would shift and wavelength tunable operation can be obtained. In experiment, a wavelength tunable range of 32.4 nm has been obtained by adjustment of the drive current of the FP-LD and a tunable filter in the ring cavity. Each wavelength has a side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of at least 41 dB and a linewidth of about 13 kHz.

  1. Comparison of four magnetic resonance methods for mapping small temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, W; Hentschel, M; Wust, P; Noeske, R; Hosten, N; Rinneberg, H; Felix, R

    1999-02-01

    Non-invasive detection of small temperature changes (< 1 degree C) is pivotal to the further advance of regional hyperthermia as a treatment modality for deep-seated tumours. Magnetic resonance (MR) thermography methods are considered to be a promising approach. Four methods exploiting temperature-dependent parameters were evaluated in phantom experiments. The investigated temperature indicators were spin-lattice relaxation time T1, diffusion coefficient D, shift of water proton resonance frequency (water PRF) and resonance frequency shift of the methoxy group of the praseodymium complex (Pr probe). The respective pulse sequences employed to detect temperature-dependent signal changes were the multiple readout single inversion recovery (T One by Multiple Read Out Pulses; TOMROP), the pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE), the fast low-angle shot (FLASH) with phase difference reconstruction, and the classical chemical shift imaging (CSI). Applying these sequences, experiments were performed in two separate and consecutive steps. In the first step, calibration curves were recorded for all four methods. In the second step, applying these calibration data, maps of temperature changes were generated and verified. With the equal total acquisition time of approximately 4 min for all four methods, the uncertainties of temperature changes derived from the calibration curves were less than 1 degree C (Pr probe 0.11 degrees C, water PRF 0.22 degrees C, D 0.48 degrees C and T1 0.93 degrees C). The corresponding maps of temperature changes exhibited slightly higher errors but still in the range or less than 1 degree C (0.97 degrees C, 0.41 degrees C, 0.70 degrees C, 1.06 degrees C respectively). The calibration results indicate the Pr probe method to be most sensitive and accurate. However, this advantage could only be partially transferred to the thermographic maps because of the coarse 16 x 16 matrix of the classical CSI sequence. Therefore, at present the water PRF method appears

  2. The impact of map orientation and generalisation on congestion decisions: a comparison of schematic-egocentric and topographic-allocentric maps.

    PubMed

    Crundall, David; Crundall, Elizabeth; Burnett, Gary; Shalloe, Sally; Sharples, Sarah

    2011-08-01

    Map information for drivers is usually presented in an allocentric-topographic form (as with printed maps) or in an egocentric-schematic form (as with road signs). The advent of new variable message boards on UK motorways raises the possibility of presenting road maps to reflect congestion ahead. Should these maps be allocentric-topographic or egocentric-schematic? This was assessed in an eye tracking study, with participants viewing maps of a motorway network in order to identify whether any congestion was relevant to their intended route. The schematic-egocentric maps were responded to most accurately with shorter fixation durations suggesting easier processing. In particular, the driver's entrance and intended exit from the map were attended to more in the allocentric maps. Individual differences in mental rotation ability also seem to contribute to poor performance on allocentric maps. The results favour schematic-egocentric maps for roadside congestion information, but also provide theoretical insights into map-rotation and individual differences. Statement of Relevance: This study informs designers and policy makers about optimum representations of traffic congestion on roadside variable message signs and, furthermore, demonstrates that individual differences contribute to problems with processing certain sign types. Schematic-egocentric representations of a motorway network produced the best results, as noted in behavioural and eye movement measures.

  3. Map Classification: A Comparison of Schemes with Special Reference to the Continent of Africa. Occasional Papers, Number 154.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrett, Christopher E.

    This guide to the theory and practice of map classification begins with a discussion of the filing of maps and the function of map classification based on area and theme as illustrated by four maps of Africa. The description of the various classification systems which follows is divided into book schemes with provision for maps (including Dewey…

  4. Mapping species distributions: a comparison of skilled naturalist and lay citizen science recording.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, René; Anderson, Helen; Robinson, Annie; Sharma, Nirwan; Mellish, Chris; Roberts, Stuart; Darvill, Ben; Siddharthan, Advaith

    2015-11-01

    To assess the ability of traditional biological recording schemes and lay citizen science approaches to gather data on species distributions and changes therein, we examined bumblebee records from the UK's national repository (National Biodiversity Network) and from BeeWatch. The two recording approaches revealed similar relative abundances of bumblebee species but different geographical distributions. For the widespread common carder (Bombus pascuorum), traditional recording scheme data were patchy, both spatially and temporally, reflecting active record centre rather than species distribution. Lay citizen science records displayed more extensive geographic coverage, reflecting human population density, thus offering better opportunities to account for recording effort. For the rapidly spreading tree bumblebee (Bombus hypnorum), both recording approaches revealed similar distributions due to a dedicated mapping project which overcame the patchy nature of naturalist records. We recommend, where possible, complementing skilled naturalist recording with lay citizen science programmes to obtain a nation-wide capability, and stress the need for timely uploading of data to the national repository.

  5. Comparison of fire fuel maps produced using MSS and AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Wayne A.; Johnston, David C.

    1985-01-01

    The fuel information, in support of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) national fire program, has been obtained through the manila interpretation of Landsat multi-spectral scanner images and digital image analysis of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The BLM, in cooperation with the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center, determined that the accuracy (approximately 90 percent overall) was similar for deriving fire fuel information for Malheur County in eastern Oregon using either approach, and for an area the size of Malheur County (6.4 million acres), the costs were about the same (0.19 cents per acre). But the cost per acre was substantially lower (0.04 cents) where digital analysis of AVHRR data were used to derive fire fuel information for a 42-million-acre area in eastern Oregon. Based on these results, the BLM is using digital analysis of AVHRR data to support its operational fire fuel mapping program.

  6. Comparison of the Biological Impacts of the Fluoride Compounds by Graphical Risk Visualization Map Technique.

    PubMed

    Usuda, Kan; Kono, Rei; Ueno, Takaaki; Ito, Yuichi; Dote, Tomotaro; Yokoyama, Hirotaka; Kono, Koichi; Tamaki, Junko

    2015-09-01

    Various fluoride compounds are widely used in industry. The present risk assessment study was conducted using a series of inorganic binary fluorides of the type XFn, where X(n) = Na(+), K(+), Li(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Al(3+), Nd(3+), La(3+), Ce(3+), Sm(3+), Gd(3+), Y(3+), Yb(2+), and Zn(2+). The aqueous solutions of these salts were orally administrated to 16 experimental groups (one for each of the salts tested). The levels of fluoride, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase in cumulative 24-h urine samples and creatinine clearance were measured to assess possible acute renal damages. The levels of fluoride, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase were also determined in serum samples to assess possible acute hepatic damages. The results reveal that sodium fluoride (NaF), potassium fluoride (KF), and zinc fluoride tetrahydrate (ZnF2 (.)4H2O) can carry the fluoride ion into the bloodstream and that it is excreted via urine more readily than the other compounds tested. These fluorides were assigned the highest risk impact factor. Most of the rare earth fluorides are insoluble in water while those groups 2 and 13 of the periodic table are slightly soluble, so that they do not have a significant negative risk. These findings suggest that the biological impact of fluoride depends on the accompanying counter ion and its solubility. The risk map obtained in the present study shows that the graphical visualization map technique employed is a valuable new tool to assess the toxicological risk of chemical compounds.

  7. Comprehending speaker intent in rebuttal analogy use: the role of irony mapping, absurdity comparison and argumentative convention.

    PubMed

    Colston, H L

    2000-01-01

    Rebuttal analogies (e.g., "Politicians arguing over the renaming of an airport is like watering your petunias when your house is on fire") are commonly used as responses in verbal conflicts. The following study investigated the role that irony mapping, absurdity comparison, and argumentative convention play in interpreters' derivations of speaker's intentions in using rebuttal analogies. In general, these intentions are to demonstrate the unsoundness of the opposed proposition ("argument") and its advocate ("social attack"), (Whaley & Holloway, 1996). Three rebuttal analogy types were rated on argumentativeness and social attack in verbal conflict and nonverbal conflict scenarios. The results of six experiments on 120 participants found that analogies with ironic bases (e.g., "Doubling the defense budget in order to intimidate North Korea is like using a chainsaw to file your nails") were perceived as more of a social attack and as more argumentative than analogies with absurd (e.g., "... using ketchup to wax your car") and nonironic (e.g., "... using a nailfile to file your nails") bases. No difference was found between the two scenario types. Norming data confirmed equivalence of absurdity of ironic and absurd bases, and greater irony of ironic over absurd bases. The results thus implicate hearers' use of the ironic structure between bases and targets in the interpretation of rebuttal analogies rather than mere absurdity comparison or argumentative convention.

  8. Comprehending speaker intent in rebuttal analogy use: the role of irony mapping, absurdity comparison and argumentative convention.

    PubMed

    Colston, H L

    2000-01-01

    Rebuttal analogies (e.g., "Politicians arguing over the renaming of an airport is like watering your petunias when your house is on fire") are commonly used as responses in verbal conflicts. The following study investigated the role that irony mapping, absurdity comparison, and argumentative convention play in interpreters' derivations of speaker's intentions in using rebuttal analogies. In general, these intentions are to demonstrate the unsoundness of the opposed proposition ("argument") and its advocate ("social attack"), (Whaley & Holloway, 1996). Three rebuttal analogy types were rated on argumentativeness and social attack in verbal conflict and nonverbal conflict scenarios. The results of six experiments on 120 participants found that analogies with ironic bases (e.g., "Doubling the defense budget in order to intimidate North Korea is like using a chainsaw to file your nails") were perceived as more of a social attack and as more argumentative than analogies with absurd (e.g., "... using ketchup to wax your car") and nonironic (e.g., "... using a nailfile to file your nails") bases. No difference was found between the two scenario types. Norming data confirmed equivalence of absurdity of ironic and absurd bases, and greater irony of ironic over absurd bases. The results thus implicate hearers' use of the ironic structure between bases and targets in the interpretation of rebuttal analogies rather than mere absurdity comparison or argumentative convention. PMID:11419221

  9. Comparison of Digital Surface Models for Snow Depth Mapping with Uav and Aerial Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesch, R.; Bühler, Y.; Marty, M.; Ginzler, C.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetric workflows for aerial images have improved over the last years in a typically black-box fashion. Most parameters for building dense point cloud are either excessive or not explained and often the progress between software releases is poorly documented. On the other hand, development of better camera sensors and positional accuracy of image acquisition is significant by comparing product specifications. This study shows, that hardware evolutions over the last years have a much stronger impact on height measurements than photogrammetric software releases. Snow height measurements with airborne sensors like the ADS100 and UAV-based DSLR cameras can achieve accuracies close to GSD * 2 in comparison with ground-based GNSS reference measurements. Using a custom notch filter on the UAV camera sensor during image acquisition does not yield better height accuracies. UAV based digital surface models are very robust. Different workflow parameter variations for ADS100 and UAV camera workflows seem to have only random effects.

  10. Analysis of ligand-protein exchange by Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs (CoLD-CoP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David A.; Chantova, Mihaela; Chaudhry, Saadia

    2015-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool in describing protein structures and protein activity for pharmaceutical and biochemical development. This study describes a method to determine weak binding ligands in biological systems by using hierarchic diffusion coefficient clustering of multidimensional data obtained with a 400 MHz Bruker NMR. Comparison of DOSY spectrums of ligands of the chemical library in the presence and absence of target proteins show translational diffusion rates for small molecules upon interaction with macromolecules. For weak binders such as compounds found in fragment libraries, changes in diffusion rates upon macromolecular binding are on the order of the precision of DOSY diffusion measurements, and identifying such subtle shifts in diffusion requires careful statistical analysis. The "CoLD-CoP" (Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs) method presented here uses SAHN clustering to identify protein-binders in a chemical library or even a not fully characterized metabolite mixture. We will show how DOSY NMR and the "CoLD-CoP" method complement each other in identifying the most suitable candidates for lysozyme and wheat germ acid phosphatase.

  11. Analysis of ligand-protein exchange by Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs (CoLD-CoP).

    PubMed

    Snyder, David A; Chantova, Mihaela; Chaudhry, Saadia

    2015-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool in describing protein structures and protein activity for pharmaceutical and biochemical development. This study describes a method to determine weak binding ligands in biological systems by using hierarchic diffusion coefficient clustering of multidimensional data obtained with a 400 MHz Bruker NMR. Comparison of DOSY spectrums of ligands of the chemical library in the presence and absence of target proteins show translational diffusion rates for small molecules upon interaction with macromolecules. For weak binders such as compounds found in fragment libraries, changes in diffusion rates upon macromolecular binding are on the order of the precision of DOSY diffusion measurements, and identifying such subtle shifts in diffusion requires careful statistical analysis. The "CoLD-CoP" (Clustering of Ligand Diffusion Coefficient Pairs) method presented here uses SAHN clustering to identify protein-binders in a chemical library or even a not fully characterized metabolite mixture. We will show how DOSY NMR and the "CoLD-CoP" method complement each other in identifying the most suitable candidates for lysozyme and wheat germ acid phosphatase.

  12. Comparison between simulated annealing algorithms and rapid chain delineation in the construction of genetic maps

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of simulated annealing algorithms and rapid chain delineation in establishing the best linkage order, when constructing genetic maps, was evaluated. Linkage refers to the phenomenon by which two or more genes, or even more molecular markers, can be present in the same chromosome or linkage group. In order to evaluate the capacity of algorithms, four F2 co-dominant populations, 50, 100, 200 and 1000 in size, were simulated. For each population, a genome with four linkage groups (100 cM) was generated. The linkage groups possessed 51, 21, 11 and 6 marks, respectively, and a corresponding distance of 2, 5, 10 and 20 cM between adjacent marks, thereby causing various degrees of saturation. For very saturated groups, with an adjacent distance between marks of 2 cM and in greater number, i.e., 51, the method based upon stochastic simulation by simulated annealing presented orders with distances equivalent to or lower than rapid chain delineation. Otherwise, the two methods were commensurate through presenting the same SARF distance. PMID:21637501

  13. Comparison between simulated annealing algorithms and rapid chain delineation in the construction of genetic maps.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Moysés; Cruz, Cosme Damião; Peternelli, Luiz Alexandre; Campana, Ana Carolina Mota

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of simulated annealing algorithms and rapid chain delineation in establishing the best linkage order, when constructing genetic maps, was evaluated. Linkage refers to the phenomenon by which two or more genes, or even more molecular markers, can be present in the same chromosome or linkage group. In order to evaluate the capacity of algorithms, four F(2) co-dominant populations, 50, 100, 200 and 1000 in size, were simulated. For each population, a genome with four linkage groups (100 cM) was generated. The linkage groups possessed 51, 21, 11 and 6 marks, respectively, and a corresponding distance of 2, 5, 10 and 20 cM between adjacent marks, thereby causing various degrees of saturation. For very saturated groups, with an adjacent distance between marks of 2 cM and in greater number, i.e., 51, the method based upon stochastic simulation by simulated annealing presented orders with distances equivalent to or lower than rapid chain delineation. Otherwise, the two methods were commensurate through presenting the same SARF distance.

  14. Mapping species distributions: a comparison of skilled naturalist and lay citizen science recording.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, René; Anderson, Helen; Robinson, Annie; Sharma, Nirwan; Mellish, Chris; Roberts, Stuart; Darvill, Ben; Siddharthan, Advaith

    2015-11-01

    To assess the ability of traditional biological recording schemes and lay citizen science approaches to gather data on species distributions and changes therein, we examined bumblebee records from the UK's national repository (National Biodiversity Network) and from BeeWatch. The two recording approaches revealed similar relative abundances of bumblebee species but different geographical distributions. For the widespread common carder (Bombus pascuorum), traditional recording scheme data were patchy, both spatially and temporally, reflecting active record centre rather than species distribution. Lay citizen science records displayed more extensive geographic coverage, reflecting human population density, thus offering better opportunities to account for recording effort. For the rapidly spreading tree bumblebee (Bombus hypnorum), both recording approaches revealed similar distributions due to a dedicated mapping project which overcame the patchy nature of naturalist records. We recommend, where possible, complementing skilled naturalist recording with lay citizen science programmes to obtain a nation-wide capability, and stress the need for timely uploading of data to the national repository. PMID:26508346

  15. Comparison of BiLinearly Interpolated Subpixel Sensitivity Mapping and Pixel-Level Decorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challener, Ryan C.; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Foster, Andrew S.; Deming, Drake; WASP Consortium

    2016-10-01

    Exoplanet eclipse signals are weaker than the systematics present in the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), and thus the correction method can significantly impact a measurement. BiLinearly Interpolated Subpixel Sensitivity (BLISS) mapping calculates the sensitivity of the detector on a subpixel grid and corrects the photometry for any sensitivity variations. Pixel-Level Decorrelation (PLD) removes the sensitivity variations by considering the relative intensities of the pixels around the source. We applied both methods to WASP-29b, a Saturn-sized planet with a mass of 0.24 ± 0.02 Jupiter masses and a radius of 0.84 ± 0.06 Jupiter radii, which we observed during eclipse twice with the 3.6 µm and once with the 4.5 µm channels of IRAC aboard Spitzer in 2010 and 2011 (programs 60003 and 70084, respectively). We compared the results of BLISS and PLD, and comment on each method's ability to remove time-correlated noise. WASP-29b exhibits a strong detection at 3.6 µm and no detection at 4.5 µm. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  16. PLC Software Program for Leak Detector Station A1 SALW-LD-ST-A1

    SciTech Connect

    KOCH, M.R.

    2001-01-25

    This document describes the software program for the programmable logic controller for the leak detector station ''SALW-LD-ST-A1''. The appendices contains a copy of the printout of the software program.

  17. Geologic Interpretation of Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Geology Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping. Part 1; A Comparison Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Bleacher, Jacob F.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Feng, Wanda; Gruener, John; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Whitson, Peggy; Janoiko, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Geologic maps integrate the distributions, contacts, and compositions of rock and sediment bodies as a means to interpret local to regional formative histories. Applying terrestrial mapping techniques to other planets is challenging because data is collected primarily by orbiting instruments, with infrequent, spatiallylimited in situ human and robotic exploration. Although geologic maps developed using remote data sets and limited "Apollo-style" field access likely contain inaccuracies, the magnitude, type, and occurrence of these are only marginally understood. This project evaluates the interpretative and cartographic accuracy of both field- and remote-based mapping approaches by comparing two 1:24,000 scale geologic maps of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. The first map is based on traditional field mapping techniques, while the second is based on remote data sets, augmented with limited field observations collected during NASA Desert Research & Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 exercises. The RATS mission used Apollo-style methods not only for pre-mission traverse planning but also to conduct geologic sampling as part of science operation tests. Cross-comparison demonstrates that the Apollo-style map identifies many of the same rock units and determines a similar broad history as the field-based map. However, field mapping techniques allow markedly improved discrimination of map units, particularly unconsolidated surficial deposits, and recognize a more complex eruptive history than was possible using Apollo-style data. Further, the distribution of unconsolidated surface units was more obvious in the remote sensing data to the field team after conducting the fieldwork. The study raises questions about the most effective approach to balancing mission costs with the rate of knowledge capture, suggesting that there is an inflection point in the "knowledge capture curve" beyond which additional resource investment yields progressively

  18. Mapping stream habitats with a global positioning system: Accuracy, precision, and comparison with traditional methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.; Belt, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    We tested the precision and accuracy of the Trimble GeoXT??? global positioning system (GPS) handheld receiver on point and area features and compared estimates of stream habitat dimensions (e.g., lengths and areas of riffles and pools) that were made in three different Oklahoma streams using the GPS receiver and a tape measure. The precision of differentially corrected GPS (DGPS) points was not affected by the number of GPS position fixes (i.e., geographic location estimates) averaged per DGPS point. Horizontal error of points ranged from 0.03 to 2.77 m and did not differ with the number of position fixes per point. The error of area measurements ranged from 0.1% to 110.1% but decreased as the area increased. Again, error was independent of the number of position fixes averaged per polygon corner. The estimates of habitat lengths, widths, and areas did not differ when measured using two methods of data collection (GPS and a tape measure), nor did the differences among methods change at three stream sites with contrasting morphologies. Measuring features with a GPS receiver was up to 3.3 times faster on average than using a tape measure, although signal interference from high streambanks or overhanging vegetation occasionally limited satellite signal availability and prolonged measurements with a GPS receiver. There were also no differences in precision of habitat dimensions when mapped using a continuous versus a position fix average GPS data collection method. Despite there being some disadvantages to using the GPS in stream habitat studies, measuring stream habitats with a GPS resulted in spatially referenced data that allowed the assessment of relative habitat position and changes in habitats over time, and was often faster than using a tape measure. For most spatial scales of interest, the precision and accuracy of DGPS data are adequate and have logistical advantages when compared to traditional methods of measurement. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media

  19. A comparison of two-dimensional techniques for converting magnetocardiogram maps into effective current source distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, K.; Kandori, A.; Miyashita, T.; Sekihara, K.; Tsukada, K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for converting the pseudo two-dimensional current given by a current-arrow map (CAM) into the physical current. The physical current distribution is obtained by the optimal solution in a least mean square sense with Tikhonov regularization (LMSTR). In the current dipole simulation, the current pattern differences (ΔJ) between the results of the CAM and the LMSTR with several regularization parameters (α = 10-1-10-15) are calculated. In magnetocardiographic (MCG) analysis, the depth (zd) of a reconstruction plane is chosen by using the coordinates of the sinus node, which is estimated from MCG signals at the early p-wave. The ΔJs at p-wave peaks, QRS-complex peaks, and T-wave peaks of MCG signals for healthy subjects are calculated. Furthermore, correlation coefficients and regression lines are also calculated from the current values of the CAM and the LMSTR during p-waves, QRS-complex, and T-waves of MCG signals. In the simulation, the ΔJs (α ≈ 10-10) had a minimal value. The ΔJs (α = 10-10) at p-wave peaks, QRS-complex peaks, and T-wave peaks of MCG signals for healthy subjects also had minimal value. The correlation coefficients of the current values given by the CAM and the LMSTR (α = 10-10) were greater than 0.9. Furthermore, slopes (y) of the regression lines are correlated with the depth (zd) (r = -0.93). Consequently, the CAM value can be transformed into the LMSTR current value by multiplying it by the slope (y) obtained from the depth (zd). In conclusion, the result given by the CAM can be converted into an effective physical current distribution by using the depth (zd).

  20. Evaluation of the User Strategy on 2d and 3d City Maps Based on Novel Scanpath Comparison Method and Graph Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolezalova, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealing with scanpath comparison of eye-tracking data recorded during case study focused on the evaluation of 2D and 3D city maps. The experiment contained screenshots from three map portals. Two types of maps were used - standard map and 3D visualization. Respondents' task was to find particular point symbol on the map as fast as possible. Scanpath comparison is one group of the eye-tracking data analyses methods used for revealing the strategy of the respondents. In cartographic studies, the most commonly used application for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns that output is hierarchical clustering and a tree graph representing the relationships between analysed sequences. During an analysis of the algorithm generating a tree graph, it was found that the outputs do not correspond to the reality. We proceeded to the creation of a new tool called ScanGraph. This tool uses visualization of cliques in simple graphs and is freely available at www.eyetracking.upol.cz/scangraph. Results of the study proved the functionality of the tool and its suitability for analyses of different strategies of map readers. Based on the results of the tool, similar scanpaths were selected, and groups of respondents with similar strategies were identified. With this knowledge, it is possible to analyse the relationship between belonging to the group with similar strategy and data gathered from the questionnaire (age, sex, cartographic knowledge, etc.) or type of stimuli (2D, 3D map).

  1. The Effectiveness of Concept Maps in Teaching Physics Concepts Applied to Engineering Education: Experimental Comparison of the Amount of Learning Achieved with and without Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Guadalupe; Perez, Angel Luis; Suero, Maria Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of concept maps in learning physics in engineering degrees. The following research question was posed: What was the difference in learning results from the use of concept maps to study a particular topic in an engineering course? The study design was quasi-experimental and used a post-test as a…

  2. Three-dimensional fractal modeling of intracloud lightning discharge in a New Mexico thunderstorm and comparison with lightning mapping observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riousset, Jeremy A.; Pasko, Victor P.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Rison, William

    2007-08-01

    The direct comparison of lightning mapping observations by the New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) with realistic models of thundercloud electrical structures and lightning discharges represents a useful tool for studies of electrification mechanisms in thunderstorms, initiation and propagation mechanisms of different types of lightning discharges as well as for understanding of electrical and energetic effects of tropospheric thunderstorms on the upper regions of the Earth's atmosphere. This paper presents the formulation of a new three-dimensional probabilistic model for investigating the structure and development of bidirectional positive and negative lightning leaders. The results closely resemble structures observed by the LMA during intracloud discharges. The model represents a synthesis of the original dielectric breakdown model based on fractal approach proposed by Niemeyer et al. (1984) and the equipotential lightning channel hypothesis advanced by Kasemir (1960) and places special emphasis on obtaining self-consistent solutions preserving complete charge neutrality of the discharge trees at any stage of the simulation. A representative simulation run is compared to a typical intracloud discharge measured by LMA in a New Mexico thunderstorm on 31 July 1999. Following the conclusions from Coleman et al. (2003), the comparison of the model and observed discharges reveals that an adequate choice of the electrical structure of the model thundercloud permits the development of a model intracloud discharge reproducing principal features of the observed event including the initial vertical extension of the discharge between the main negative and upper positive charge regions of the thundercloud, and the subsequent horizontal propagations in these regions. Also consistent with observations (e.g., Coleman et al., 2003), negative and positive leaders mainly develop in the upper positive and main negative charge regions, respectively. For the particular

  3. Comparison of regression and kriging techniques for mapping the average annual precipitation of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostan, P. A.; Heuvelink, G. B. M.; Akyurek, S. Z.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate mapping of the spatial distribution of annual precipitation is important for many applications in hydrology, climatology, agronomy, ecology and other environmental sciences. In this study, we compared five different statistical methods to predict spatially the average annual precipitation of Turkey using point observations of annual precipitation at meteorological stations and spatially exhaustive covariate data (i.e. elevation, aspect, surface roughness, distance to coast, land use and eco-region). The methods compared were multiple linear regression (MLR), ordinary kriging (OK), regression kriging (RK), universal kriging (UK), and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Average annual precipitation of Turkey from 1970 to 2006 was measured at 225 meteorological stations that are fairly uniformly distributed across the country, with a somewhat higher spatial density along the coastline. The observed annual precipitation varied between 255 mm and 2209 mm with an average of 628 mm. The annual precipitation was highest along the southern and northern coasts and low in the centre of the country, except for the area near the Van Lake, Keban and Ataturk Dams. To compare the performance of the interpolation techniques the total dataset was first randomly split in ten equally sized test datasets. Next, for each test data set the remaining 90% of the data comprised the training dataset. Each training dataset was then used to calibrate and apply the spatial prediction model. Predictions at the test dataset locations were compared with the observed test data. Validation was done by calculating the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), R-square and Standardized MSE (SMSE) values. According to these criteria, universal kriging is the most accurate with an RMSE of 178 mm, an R-square of 0.61 and an SMSE of 1.06, whilst multiple linear regression performed worst (RMSE of 222 mm, R-square of 0.39, and SMSE of 1.44). Ordinary kriging, UK using only elevation and geographically

  4. Chemical and mineralogical characterizations of LD converter steel slags: A multi-analytical techniques approach

    SciTech Connect

    Waligora, J.; Bulteel, D.; Degrugilliers, P.; Damidot, D.; Potdevin, J.L.; Measson, M.

    2010-01-15

    The use of LD converter steel slags (coming from Linz-Donawitz steelmaking process) as aggregates in road construction can in certain cases lead to dimensional damage due to a macroscopic swelling that is the consequence of chemical reactions. The aim of this study was to couple several analytical techniques in order to carefully undertake chemical and mineralogical characterizations of LD steel slags and identify the phases that are expected to be responsible for their instability. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses revealed that LD steel slags mainly contain calcium silicates, dicalcium ferrites, iron oxides and lime. However, as a calcium silicate phase is heterogeneous, Raman microspectrometry and transmitted electron microscopy had to be used to characterize it more precisely. Results showed that lime is present under two forms in slag grains: some nodules observed in the matrix whose size ranges from 20 to 100 {mu}m and some micro-inclusions, enclosed in the heterogeneous calcium silicate phase whose size ranges from 1 to 3 {mu}m. It was also established that without the presence of magnesia, lime is expected to be the only phase responsible for LD steel slags instability. Nevertheless, the distribution of lime between nodules and micro-inclusions may play a major role and could explain that similar amounts of lime can induce different instabilities. Thus, it appears that lime content of LD steel slags is not the only parameter to explain their instability.

  5. Dengue virus capsid protein binding to hepatic lipid droplets (LD) is potassium ion dependent and is mediated by LD surface proteins.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Filomena A; Carneiro, Fabiana A; Martins, Ivo C; Assunção-Miranda, Iranaia; Faustino, André F; Pereira, Renata M; Bozza, Patricia T; Castanho, Miguel A R B; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; Da Poian, Andrea T; Santos, Nuno C

    2012-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) affects millions of people, causing more than 20,000 deaths annually. No effective treatment for the disease caused by DENV infection is currently available, partially due to the lack of knowledge on the basic aspects of the viral life cycle, including the molecular basis of the interaction between viral components and cellular compartments. Here, we characterized the properties of the interaction between the DENV capsid (C) protein and hepatic lipid droplets (LDs), which was recently shown to be essential for the virus replication cycle. Zeta potential analysis revealed a negative surface charge of LDs, with an average surface charge of -19 mV. The titration of LDs with C protein led to an increase of the surface charge, which reached a plateau at +13.7 mV, suggesting that the viral protein-LD interaction exposes the protein cationic surface to the aqueous environment. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based force spectroscopy measurements were performed by using C protein-functionalized AFM tips. The C protein-LD interaction was found to be strong, with a single (un)binding force of 33.6 pN. This binding was dependent on high intracellular concentrations of potassium ions but not sodium. The inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in DENV-infected cells resulted in the dissociation of C protein from LDs and a 50-fold inhibition of infectious virus production but not of RNA replication, indicating a biological relevance for the potassium-dependent interaction. Limited proteolysis of the LD surface impaired the C protein-LD interaction, and force measurements in the presence of specific antibodies indicated that perilipin 3 (TIP47) is the major DENV C protein ligand on the surface of LDs.

  6. Dengue Virus Capsid Protein Binding to Hepatic Lipid Droplets (LD) Is Potassium Ion Dependent and Is Mediated by LD Surface Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Filomena A.; Carneiro, Fabiana A.; Martins, Ivo C.; Assunção-Miranda, Iranaia; Faustino, André F.; Pereira, Renata M.; Bozza, Patricia T.; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) affects millions of people, causing more than 20,000 deaths annually. No effective treatment for the disease caused by DENV infection is currently available, partially due to the lack of knowledge on the basic aspects of the viral life cycle, including the molecular basis of the interaction between viral components and cellular compartments. Here, we characterized the properties of the interaction between the DENV capsid (C) protein and hepatic lipid droplets (LDs), which was recently shown to be essential for the virus replication cycle. Zeta potential analysis revealed a negative surface charge of LDs, with an average surface charge of −19 mV. The titration of LDs with C protein led to an increase of the surface charge, which reached a plateau at +13.7 mV, suggesting that the viral protein-LD interaction exposes the protein cationic surface to the aqueous environment. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based force spectroscopy measurements were performed by using C protein-functionalized AFM tips. The C protein-LD interaction was found to be strong, with a single (un)binding force of 33.6 pN. This binding was dependent on high intracellular concentrations of potassium ions but not sodium. The inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase in DENV-infected cells resulted in the dissociation of C protein from LDs and a 50-fold inhibition of infectious virus production but not of RNA replication, indicating a biological relevance for the potassium-dependent interaction. Limited proteolysis of the LD surface impaired the C protein-LD interaction, and force measurements in the presence of specific antibodies indicated that perilipin 3 (TIP47) is the major DENV C protein ligand on the surface of LDs. PMID:22130547

  7. A Comparison of Techniques for Mapping the Distribution of Sediment on the Bed of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, E.; Kaplinski, M.; Rubin, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center is charged with establishing and implementing monitoring projects to provide scientific information to the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) on the effects of operating Glen Canyon Dam on the downstream resources of the Colorado River ecosystem. One primary resource of concern to the GCDAMP is fine-grained sediment. Glen Canyon Dam traps approximately 94% of the pre-dam sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, resulting in a decline in the size of eddy sand bars (25% decline in surface area over the past 15 years). Sand bars are an important resource because they provide habitat for endangered native fish, protect archeological sites, provide substrate for vegetation, are used as campsites and are a distinctive feature of the pre-dam environment. A combination of traditional survey techniques and multi-beam bathymetry has been used to determine the size and elevation of sandbars and to obtain topographic maps of the riverbed. These techniques have proven useful in evaluating the spatial changes and channel morphology along the Colorado River ecosystem. While previous studies have been very effective in measuring volumetric and spatial changes, a method is needed map the distribution of sediment along the submerged portion of the river channel. The distribution of fine-grained sediment is needed to evaluate the potential for deposition onto high elevation sand bars during proposed experimental high flows. This study used high-resolution multibeam bathymetry, acoustic backscatter and underwater video images collected on expeditions in 2002 and 2004 to evaluate the different methodologies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible technologies to be used in determining the distribution of sediment along the bed of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. These technologies include: 1) visual interpretation of shaded relief images produced from multibeam bathymetry; 2) visual

  8. Lymantria dispar iflavirus 1 (LdIV1), a new model to study iflaviral persistence in lepidopterans.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Krueger, Elizabeth N; Harrison, Robert L; Toth, Amy L; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C

    2014-10-01

    The cell line IPLB-LD-652Y, derived from the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), is routinely used to study interactions between viruses and insect hosts. Here we report the full genome sequence and biological characteristics of a small RNA virus, designated Lymantria dispar iflavirus 1 (LdIV1), that was discovered to persistently infect IPLB-LD-652Y. LdIV1 belongs to the genus Iflavirus. LdIV1 formed icosahedral particles of approx. 30 nm in diameter and contained a 10, 044 nt polyadenylated, positive-sense RNA genome encoding a predicted polyprotein of 2980 aa. LdIV1 was induced by a viral suppressor of RNA silencing, suggesting that acute infection is restricted by RNA interference (RNAi). We detected LdIV1 in all tested tissues of gypsy-moth larvae and adults, but the virus was absent from other L. dispar-derived cell lines. We confirmed LdIV1 infectivity in two of these cell lines (IPLB-LD-652 and IPLB-LdFB). Our results provide a novel system to explore persistent infections in lepidopterans and a new model for the study of iflaviruses, a rapidly expanding group of viruses, many of which covertly infect their hosts. PMID:24986084

  9. Knockdown of a nutrient amino acid transporter gene LdNAT1 reduces free neutral amino acid contents and impairs Leptinotarsa decemlineata pupation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A Leptinotarsa decemlineata SLC6 NAT gene (LdNAT1) was cloned. LdNAT1 was highly expressed in the larval alimentary canal especially midgut. LdNAT1 mRNA levels were high right after the molt and low just before the molt. JH and a JH analog pyriproxyfen activated LdNAT1 expression. RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C increased JH and upregulated LdNAT1 transcription. Conversely, silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT decreased JH and reduced LdNAT1 expression. Moreover, 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide repressed LdNAT1 expression, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNAi of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and disruption of 20E signaling by knockdown of LdE75 and LdFTZ-F1 activated LdNAT1 expression. Thus, LdNAT1 responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdNAT1 reduced the contents of cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and serine in the larval bodies and increased the contents of these amino acids in the larval feces. Furthermore, RNAi of LdNAT1 inhibited insulin/target of rapamycin pathway, lowered 20E and JH titers, reduced 20E and JH signaling, retarded larval growth and impaired pupation. These data showed that LdNAT1 was involved in the absorption of several neutral amino acids critical for larval growth and metamorphosis. PMID:26657797

  10. Light coupling between LD and optical fiber using high NA planar microlens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, M.; Nemoto, H.; Hamanaka, K.; Kishimoto, T.

    1990-05-01

    Light coupling between a laser diode (LD) and an optical fiber using the planar microlens is described. Two classes of high numerical aperture (NA) planar microlens are prepared in order to accept light power from the LD effectively. The first is the coupled planar microlens, while the second is the planar microlens with a swelled structure. The minimum coupling loss between LD and single mode fiber was -5.3 dB using the planar microlens with swelled structure, including 0.71 dB of Fresnel loss. With the help of a swelled structure prepared by an ion exchange process, the numerical aperture is enlarged up to 0.57. The light coupling characteristics of microlenses are presented.

  11. The impact of the Flynn effect on LD diagnoses in special education.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Because of the Flynn effect, IQ scores rise as a test norm ages but drop on the introduction of a newly revised test norm. The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact of the Flynn effect on learning disability (LD) diagnoses, the most prevalent special education diagnosis in the United States. Using a longitudinal sample of 875 school children who were initially diagnosed with LD on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), children experienced a significant decline in IQ when retested on the third edition of the WISC (WISC-III) compared to peers who were tested on the WISC-R twice. Furthermore, results from logistic regression analyses revealed that the probability of a rediagnosis of LD on reevaluation significantly decreased, in part, because of this decline on the WISC-III. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for both basic research and educational policy. PMID:21193595

  12. Comorbidity of LD and ADHD: implications of DSM-5 for assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    DuPaul, George J; Gormley, Matthew J; Laracy, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) can co-occur for a significant minority of children with each disorder. A total of 17 studies (2001-2011) examining ADHD-LD comorbidity were reviewed, revealing a higher mean comorbidity rate (45.1%) than has been obtained previously. Higher comorbidity may be the result of including students with writing disorders, not just reading and/or math disabilities. Proposed DSM-5 criteria for both disorders will likely affect comorbidity rates; however, it is unclear whether such rates will increase or decrease. Regardless of the specific impact of DSM revisions, academic skill and/or performance deficits should be assessed for students with ADHD as part of screening, comprehensive evaluation, and treatment monitoring. Comprehensive intervention services for students with comorbid ADHD and LD will require empirically supported treatment strategies that address both disorders and that are implemented across school and home settings. PMID:23144063

  13. Comparison of ASTER- and AVIRIS-Derived Mineraland Vegetation Maps of the White Horse Replacement Alunite Deposit and Surrounding Area, Marysvale Volcanic Field, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents and compares mineral and vegetation maps of parts of the Marysvale volcanic field in west-central Utah that were published in a recent paper describing the White Horse replacement alunite deposit. Detailed, field-verified maps of the deposit were produced from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data acquired from a low-altitude Twin Otter turboprop airborne platform. Reconnaissance-level maps of surrounding areas including the central and northern Tushar Mountains, Pahvant Range, and portions of the Sevier Plateau to the east were produced from visible, near-infrared, and shortwave-infrared data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried aboard the Terra satellite platform. These maps are also compared to a previously published mineral map of the same area generated from AVIRIS data acquired from the high-altitude NASA ER-2 jet platform. All of the maps were generated by similar analysis methods, enabling the direct comparison of the spatial scale and mineral composition of surface geologic features that can be identified using the three types of remote sensing data. The high spatial (2-17 meter) and spectral (224 bands) resolution AVIRIS data can be used to generate detailed mineral and vegetation maps suitable for geologic and geoenvironmental studies of individual deposits, mines, and smelters. The lower spatial (15-30 meter) and spectral (9 bands) resolution ASTER data are better suited to less detailed mineralogical studies of lithology and alteration across entire hydrothermal systems and mining districts, including regional mineral resource and geoenvironmental assessments. The results presented here demonstrate that minerals and mineral mixtures can be directly identified using AVIRIS and ASTER data to elucidate spatial patterns of mineralogic zonation; AVIRIS data can enable the generation of maps with significantly greater detail and accuracy. The

  14. Thinking Maps Enhance Metaphoric Competence in Children with Autism and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashal, Nira; Kasirer, Anat

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to examine the ability of children with autism (ASD) and children with learning disabilities (LD) to improve their metaphoric competence by an intervention program using "thinking maps". Twenty ASD children, 20 LD, and 20 typically developed (TD) children were tested on metaphors and idioms comprehension…

  15. A Comparison of Satellite-Derived Snow Maps with a Focus on Ephemeral Snow in North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Fuhrmann, Christopher M.; Perry, L. Baker; Riggs, George A.; Robinson, David A.; Foster, James L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the attributes and limitations of four commonly-used daily snowcover products with respect to their ability to map ephemeral snow in central and eastern North Carolina. We show that the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fractional snow-cover maps can delineate the snow-covered area very well through the use of a fully-automated algorithm, but suffer from the limitation that cloud cover precludes mapping some ephemeral snow. The semi-automated Interactive Multi-sensor Snow and ice mapping system (IMS) and Rutgers Global Snow Lab (GSL) snow maps are often able to capture ephemeral snow cover because ground-station data are employed to develop the snow maps, The Rutgers GSL maps are based on the IMS maps. Finally, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) provides some good detail of snow-water equivalent especially in deeper snow, but may miss ephemeral snow cover because it is often very thin or wet; the AMSR-E maps also suffer from coarse spatial resolution. We conclude that the southeastern United States represents a good test region for validating the ability of satellite snow-cover maps to capture ephemeral snow cover,

  16. Comparison of Northern Ireland radon maps based on indoor radon measurements and geology with maps derived by predictive modelling of airborne radiometric and ground permeability data.

    PubMed

    Appleton, J D; Miles, J C H; Young, M

    2011-03-15

    Publicly available information about radon potential in Northern Ireland is currently based on indoor radon results averaged over 1-km grid squares, an approach that does not take into account the geological origin of the radon. This study describes a spatially more accurate estimate of the radon potential of Northern Ireland using an integrated radon potential mapping method based on indoor radon measurements and geology that was originally developed for mapping radon potential in England and Wales. A refinement of this method was also investigated using linear regression analysis of a selection of relevant airborne and soil geochemical parameters from the Tellus Project. The most significant independent variables were found to be eU, a parameter derived from airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of radon decay products in the top layer of soil and exposed bedrock, and the permeability of the ground. The radon potential map generated from the Tellus data agrees in many respects with the map based on indoor radon data and geology but there are several areas where radon potential predicted from the airborne radiometric and permeability data is substantially lower. This under-prediction could be caused by the radon concentration being lower in the top 30 cm of the soil than at greater depth, because of the loss of radon from the surface rocks and soils to air.

  17. Cost, accuracy, and consistency comparisons of land use maps made from high-altitutde aircraft photography and ERTS imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Katherine A.

    1975-01-01

    Accuracy analyses for the land use maps of the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site were performed for a 1-percent sample of the area. Researchers compared Level II land use maps produced at three scales, 1:24,000, 1:100,000, and 1:250,000 from high-altitude photography, with each other and with point data obtained in the field. They employed the same procedures to determine the accuracy of the Level I land use maps produced at 1:250,000 from high-altitude photography and color composite ERTS imagery. The accuracy of the Level II maps was 84.9 percent at 1:24,000, 77.4 percent at 1:100,000, and 73.0 percent at 1:250,000. The accuracy of the Level I 1:250,000 maps produced from high-altitude aircraft photography was 76.5 percent and for those produced from ERTS imagery was 69.5 percent The cost of Level II land use mapping at 1:24,000 was found to be high ($11.93 per km2 ). The cost of mapping at 1:100,000 ($1.75) was about 2 times as expensive as mapping at 1:250,000 ($.88), and the accuracy increased by only 4.4 percent. Level I land use maps, when mapped from highaltitude photography, were about 4 times as expensive as the maps produced from ERTS imagery, although the accuracy is 7.0 percent greater. The Level I land use category that is least accurately mapped from ERTS imagery is urban and built-up land in the non-urban areas; in the urbanized areas, built-up land is more reliably mapped.

  18. A comparison of urban heat islands mapped using skin temperature, air temperature, and apparent temperature (Humidex), for the greater Vancouver area.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Xu, Yongming; Hodul, Matus; Aminipouri, Mehdi

    2016-02-15

    Apparent temperature is more closely related to mortality during extreme heat events than other temperature variables, yet spatial epidemiology studies typically use skin temperature (also known as land surface temperature) to quantify heat exposure because it is relatively easy to map from satellite data. An empirical approach to map apparent temperature at the neighborhood scale, which relies on publicly available weather station observations and spatial data layers combined in a random forest regression model, was demonstrated for greater Vancouver, Canada. Model errors were acceptable (cross-validated RMSE=2.04 °C) and the resulting map of apparent temperature, calibrated for a typical hot summer day, corresponded well with past temperature research in the area. A comparison with field measurements as well as similar maps of skin temperature and air temperature revealed that skin temperature was poorly correlated with both air temperature (R(2)=0.38) and apparent temperature (R(2)=0.39). While the latter two were more similar (R(2)=0.87), apparent temperature was predicted to exceed air temperature by more than 5 °C in several urban areas as well as around the confluence of the Pitt and Fraser rivers. We conclude that skin temperature is not a suitable proxy for human heat exposure, and that spatial epidemiology studies could benefit from mapping apparent temperature, using an approach similar to the one reported here, to better quantify differences in heat exposure that exist across an urban landscape.

  19. A comparison of urban heat islands mapped using skin temperature, air temperature, and apparent temperature (Humidex), for the greater Vancouver area.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Xu, Yongming; Hodul, Matus; Aminipouri, Mehdi

    2016-02-15

    Apparent temperature is more closely related to mortality during extreme heat events than other temperature variables, yet spatial epidemiology studies typically use skin temperature (also known as land surface temperature) to quantify heat exposure because it is relatively easy to map from satellite data. An empirical approach to map apparent temperature at the neighborhood scale, which relies on publicly available weather station observations and spatial data layers combined in a random forest regression model, was demonstrated for greater Vancouver, Canada. Model errors were acceptable (cross-validated RMSE=2.04 °C) and the resulting map of apparent temperature, calibrated for a typical hot summer day, corresponded well with past temperature research in the area. A comparison with field measurements as well as similar maps of skin temperature and air temperature revealed that skin temperature was poorly correlated with both air temperature (R(2)=0.38) and apparent temperature (R(2)=0.39). While the latter two were more similar (R(2)=0.87), apparent temperature was predicted to exceed air temperature by more than 5 °C in several urban areas as well as around the confluence of the Pitt and Fraser rivers. We conclude that skin temperature is not a suitable proxy for human heat exposure, and that spatial epidemiology studies could benefit from mapping apparent temperature, using an approach similar to the one reported here, to better quantify differences in heat exposure that exist across an urban landscape. PMID:26706765

  20. Development of a black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] linkage map and its comparison with an azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi] linkage map.

    PubMed

    Chaitieng, B; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Isemura, T; Kuroda, Y; Vaughan, D A

    2006-11-01

    The Asian Vigna group of grain legumes consists of six domesticated species, among them black gram is widely grown in South Asia and to a lesser extent in Southeast Asia. We report the first genetic linkage map of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper], constructed using a BC(1)F(1) population consisting of 180 individuals. The BC(1)F(1) population was analyzed in 61 SSR primer pairs, 56 RFLP probes, 27 AFLP loci and 1 morphological marker. About 148 marker loci could be assigned to the 11 linkage groups, which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of black gram. The linkage groups cover a total of 783 cM of the black gram genome. The number of markers per linkage group ranges from 6 to 23. The average distance between adjacent markers varied from 3.5 to 9.3 cM. The results of comparative genome mapping between black gram and azuki bean show that the linkage order of markers is highly conserved. However, inversions, insertions, deletions/duplications and a translocation were detected between the black gram and azuki bean linkage maps. The marker order on parts of linkage groups 1, 2 and 5 is reversed between the two species. One region on black gram linkage group 10 appears to correspond to part of azuki bean linkage group 1. The present study suggests that the azuki bean SSR markers can be widely used for Asian Vigna species and the black gram genetic linkage map will assist in improvement of this crop.

  1. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg.

  2. Mathematics Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities (LD) in Secondary School: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jonté A.; Wang, Jun; Brownell, Mary T.; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our literature review was to extend and update Maccini, Mulcahy, and Wilson's (2007) review of the literature on mathematics interventions for secondary students with learning disabilities (LD). An extensive search of the research literature netted 15 research studies that focused on mathematics interventions for secondary students…

  3. The Impact of the Flynn Effect on LD Diagnoses in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Because of the Flynn effect, IQ scores rise as a test norm ages but drop on the introduction of a newly revised test norm. The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact of the Flynn effect on learning disability (LD) diagnoses, the most prevalent special education diagnosis in the United States. Using a longitudinal sample of 875…

  4. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg. PMID:27461039

  5. Comorbid LD and ADHD in Childhood: Socioemotional and Behavioural Adjustment and Parents' Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how vulnerability and protective factors at the individual level (child's disabilities; patterns of attachment), and at the family level (fathers'/mothers' affect), help explain differences in socioemotional and behavioural adjustment among children aged 8-12 years with comorbid learning disability (LD) and attention…

  6. The End of Innocence: Historiography and Representation in the Discursive Practice of LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, I discuss two interrelated sets of challenges that the discursive practice of learning disability (LD) will need to address, namely, issues associated with the development of a historiography of special education and a more complex understanding of representation issues. I use social theory to address these challenges and raise…

  7. Mothers of Children with LD and ADHD: Empowerment through Online Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margalit, Malka; Raskind, Marshall H.

    2009-01-01

    Mothers of children with learning disabilities (LD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were notified of the possibility that their online community was going to be closed. They immediately responded with messages about the significance of the community to their lives and distress that the site would not continue to be available.…

  8. Critical slowing down and critical exponents in LD/PIN optically-bistable semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Lichen; Guo Yili

    1988-04-01

    Critical slowing down for LD/PIN bistable optical semiconductor lasers and the critical exponents ..gamma.. for this system have been experimentally investigated. The experimental value ..gamma..approx.0.53 is basically in agreement with the theoretically predicted value of 0.5.

  9. Orthographic Processing and Reading Comprehension among Arabic Speaking Mainstream and LD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Al-Diyar, Mosaad Abu; Taibah, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Two cohorts of mainstream children (grades 2-5) and one cohort of children with learning disabilities (LD; grades 3-5), all Arabic speaking children in Kuwait, were given measures of reading comprehension fluency and orthographic discrimination to assess the relationship between the two. Additional measures of phonological processing (decoding and…

  10. Algorithm to design inhibitors using stereochemically mixed l,d polypeptides: Validation against HIV protease.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pooja; Durani, Susheel

    2015-11-01

    Polypeptides have potential to be designed as drugs or inhibitors against the desired targets. In polypeptides, every chiral α-amino acid has enantiomeric structural possibility to become l or d amino acids and can be used as design monomer. Among the various possibilities, use of stereochemistry as a design tool has potential to determine both functional specificity and metabolic stability of the designed polypeptides. The polypeptides with mixed l,d amino acids are a class of peptidomimitics, an attractive drug like molecules and also less susceptible to proteolytic activities. Therefore in this study, a three step algorithm is proposed to design the polypeptides against desired drug targets. For this, all possible configurational isomers of mixed l,d polyleucine (Ac-Leu8-NHMe) structure were randomly modeled with simulated annealing molecular dynamics and the resultant library of discrete folds were scored against HIV protease as a model target. The best scored folds of mixed l,d structures were inverse optimized for sequences in situ and the resultant sequences as inhibitors were validated for conformational integrity using molecular dynamics. This study presents and validates an algorithm to design polypeptides of mixed l,d structures as drugs/inhibitors by inverse fitting them as molecular ligands against desired target.

  11. The middle school experience: effects on the math and science achievement of adolescents with LD.

    PubMed

    Anderman, E M

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between middle school transitions and achievement gaps in math and science between adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). An abundance of research indicates that motivation and achievement decline during the early adolescent years, and that this decline is often attributable to the transition from elementary to middle grade schools during early adolescence. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, it was found that, on average, there was a strong gap in achievement between the two groups of early adolescents. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine school effects on these achievement gaps. Results indicated that although there were achievement gaps in math and science between adolescents with LD and non-LD adolescents, this gap was greatly reduced for adolescents who did not make a school transition until at least the ninth grade. It is proposed that the policies and practices of typical middle-grade schools are particularly incompatible with the educational and psychological needs of young adolescents with LD.

  12. The Content-based Reading Approaches (COBRA) Model in the ELL and LD Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-Yi

    2010-01-01

    The Content-based Reading Approaches (COBRA) framework, constructed by Heerman (2002), was made up of the instructional goals designed for reading-learning integrations in subject matter classrooms. ELL and LD students often fail to have sufficient reading skills to succeed within their different academic subjects, consequently it is important for…

  13. Inviting Argument by Analogy: Analogical-Mapping-Based Comparison Activities as a Scaffold for Small-Group Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emig, Brandon R.; McDonald, Scott; Zembal-Saul, Carla; Strauss, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    This study invited small groups to make several arguments by analogy about simple machines. Groups were first provided training on analogical (structure) mapping and were then invited to use analogical mapping as a scaffold to make arguments. In making these arguments, groups were asked to consider three simple machines: two machines that they had…

  14. Applying plant functional types to construct biome maps from eastern North American pollen data: comparisons with model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John W.; Summers, Robert L.; Webb, Thompson, III

    Global biome models like BIOME1 convert climate-model simulations of past climates into biome distributions and thus facilitate comparison of both climate and biome model results with biomes estimate from paleoecological data. We adapted a biomization method, recently developed for European pollen data, for use with pollen data in eastern North America and then compared its estimated biomes with those derived from applying BIOME1 to the climate simulations from the NCAR CCM1 (National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model, Version 1) for 6000 years ago (6 ka). We first tested the biomization method by seeing how well the biomes inferred from modern pollen data match observed biomes. We found that modifications to the method were necessary in part to account for physiological differences between North American and European taxa, and in part to cope with our choice of using just 23 major pollen taxa. Our modifications significantly improved the match between observed modern biomes and pollen-derived biomes, as measured by the kappa statistic. We tested our tuning of the biomization method by matching its inferred 6 ka biomes to biomes estimated from pollen data using the modern analog technique. The degree of agreement at 6 ka is close to that for today, showing that (1) the biomization method and modern analog technique, when applied to the same pollen data, produce consistent results, and (2) the modifications made to the biomization method are robust back to 6 ka. We then used the results of the biomization method to test the biome maps simulated by BIOME1, which derives biome distributions from observed climate values for today and from the climatic simulations of the CCM1 for 6 ka. Only a fair agreement is seen, and significant offsets exist in the placement of biomes by BIOME1. For today BIOME1 simulates the boundary between the temperate deciduous and cool mixed forests to be too far south and the steppe-forest boundary to be too far west

  15. Differential Diagnosis of Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Richards, Todd; Abbott, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In Study 1, children in grades 4 to 9 (N= 88, 29 females and 59 males) with persisting reading and/or writing disabilities, despite considerable prior specialized instruction in and out of school, were given an evidence-based comprehensive assessment battery at the university while parents completed questionnaires regarding past and current history of language learning and other difficulties. Profiles (patterns) of normed measures for different levels of oral and written language used to categorize participants into diagnostic groups for dysgraphia (impaired subword handwriting) (n=26), dyslexia (impaired word spelling and reading) (n=38), or oral and written language learning disability OWL LD (impaired oral and written syntax comprehension and expression) (n=13) or control oral and written language learners (OWLs) without SLDs (n=11) were consistent withreported history. Impairments in working memory components supporting language learning were also examined. In Study 2, right handed children from Study 1 who did not wear braces (controls, n=9, dysgraphia, n= 14; dyslexia, n=17, OWL LD, n=5) completed an fMRI functional connectivity brain imaging study in which they performed a word-specific spelling judgment task, which is related to both word reading and spelling, and may be impaired in dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD for different reasons. fMRI functional connectivity from 4 seed points in brain locations involved in written word processing to other brain regions also differentiated dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD; both specific regions to which connected and overall number of functional connections differed. Thus, results provide converging neurological and behavioral evidence, for dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD being different, diagnosable specific learning disabilities (SLDs) for persisting written language problems during middle childhood and early adolescence. Translation of the research findings into practice at policy and administrative levels and

  16. Oxidative stress and apoptosis in a pig model of brain death (BD) and living donation (LD)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As organ shortage is increasing, the acceptance of marginal donors increases, which might result in poor organ function and patient survival. Mostly, organ damage is caused during brain death (BD), cold ischemic time (CIT) or after reperfusion due to oxidative stress or the induction of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to study a panel of genes involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis and compare these findings with immunohistochemistry from a BD and living donation (LD) pig model and after cold ischemia time (CIT). Methods BD was induced in pigs; after 12 h organ retrieval was performed; heart, liver and kidney tissue specimens were collected in the BD (n = 6) and in a LD model (n = 6). PCR analysis for NFKB1, GSS, SOD2, PPAR-alpha, OXSR1, BAX, BCL2L1, and HSP 70.2 was performed and immunohistochemistry used to show apoptosis and nitrosative stress induced cell damage. Results In heart tissue of BD BAX, BCL2L1 and HSP 70.2 increased significantly after CIT. Only SOD2 was over-expressed after CIT in BD liver tissue. In kidney tissue, BCL2L1, NFKB, OXSR1, SOD2 and HSP 70.2 expression was significantly elevated in LD. Immunohistochemistry showed a significant increase in activated Caspase 3 and nitrotyrosine positive cells after CIT in BD in liver and in kidney tissue but not in heart tissue. Conclusion The up-regulation of protective and apoptotic genes seems to be divergent in the different organs in the BD and LD setting; however, immunohistochemistry revealed more apoptotic and nitrotyrosine positive cells in the BD setting in liver and kidney tissue whereas in heart tissue both BD and LD showed an increase. PMID:24088575

  17. Thinking maps enhance metaphoric competence in children with autism and learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mashal, Nira; Kasirer, Anat

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to examine the ability of children with autism (ASD) and children with learning disabilities (LD) to improve their metaphoric competence by an intervention program using "thinking maps". Twenty ASD children, 20 LD, and 20 typically developed (TD) children were tested on metaphors and idioms comprehension tests, homophone meaning generation test, and fluency tests. Both ASD and LD groups performed poorly compared with TD on all tests, with the LD group outperformed the ASD group in the executive function tests. The results indicate that the LD group was able to use the "thinking maps" to understand metaphors that were encountered for the first time more efficiently than the ASD group. Furthermore, in the autistic group the homophone meaning generation test, associated with mental flexibility mechanism, correlated with novel metaphors understanding, which do not rely on prior knowledge. In the learning disabilities group, conventional metaphors understanding correlated with the homophone meaning generation test.

  18. Using Prompt Fading to Teach Self-Questioning to Fifth Graders with LD: Effects on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Christina A.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Cullen, Jennifer M.; Sawyer, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Students with LD who struggle with reading comprehension can benefit from instruction on how to read strategically. One strategy that has been demonstrated to increase reading comprehension is self-questioning. In this study, two fifth graders with LD were taught to self-generate questions using a prompt fading procedure. The participants were…

  19. Impact of the Social Construction of LD on Culturally Diverse Families: A Response to Reid and Valle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyanpur, Maya; Harry, Beth

    2004-01-01

    This response focuses on the effects of the current construction of learning disabilities (LD) on families of children from devalued racial/ethnic groups. Agreeing with the arguments of Reid and Valle, we add that parents from such groups are further disenfranchised because they are not participants in the critical discourse surrounding LD and…

  20. Lymantria dispar iflavirus 1 (LdIV1), a new model to study iflaviral persistence in lepidopterans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cell line IPLB-LD-652Y derived from the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Linn.) is routinely used to study insect virus-host interactions. Here we report the full genome sequence and biological characteristics of a small RNA virus, designated Lymantria dispar iflavirus 1 (LdIV1), that was discovere...

  1. A Synthesis on the Research of the Comorbidity of ADHD and LD in Korea: Perspective and Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Koh, Eunyoung; Jeong, Sora; Lee, Kijyung; Kim, Boongnyun; Kim, Ienai

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD) are the most commonly diagnosed childhood disorders, and they frequently co-occur with each other. It has been found that students with comorbidity of ADHD and LD experience more difficulties in school. Even though the research interests in the comorbidity of ADHD and…

  2. Learned Helplessness: Perceived Effects of Ability and Effort on Academic Performance among EH and LD/EH Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchow, Jed P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The study involving 28 educationally handicapped (EH) and 25 learning disabled LD/EH children (mean ages 13 and 12 years) included among its results that EH Ss took significantly more personal responsibility for academic failure than did LD/EH Ss; EH Ss attributed success to ability but failure to both lack of ability and lack of effort.…

  3. Geological Mapping of the North Polar Region of Venus (V-1 Snegurochka Planitia): Significant Problems and Comparisons to the Earth's Archean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Kumar, P. Senthil

    2008-01-01

    The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by perspectives from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new insight into both. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures and Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. We have problems on which progress might be made through comparison. Here we present the major goals of the geological mapping of the V-1 Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle, and themes that could provide important insights into both planets:

  4. A comparison of top-down and bottom-up approaches to benthic habitat mapping to inform offshore wind energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFrance, Monique; King, John W.; Oakley, Bryan A.; Pratt, Sheldon

    2014-07-01

    Recent interest in offshore renewable energy within the United States has amplified the need for marine spatial planning to direct management strategies and address competing user demands. To assist this effort in Rhode Island, benthic habitat classification maps were developed for two sites in offshore waters being considered for wind turbine installation. Maps characterizing and representing the distribution and extent of benthic habitats are valuable tools for improving understanding of ecosystem patterns and processes, and promoting scientifically-sound management decisions. This project presented the opportunity to conduct a comparison of the methodologies and resulting map outputs of two classification approaches, “top-down” and “bottom-up” in the two study areas. This comparison was undertaken to improve understanding of mapping methodologies and their applicability, including the bottom-up approach in offshore environments where data density tends to be lower, as well as to provide case studies for scientists and managers to consider for their own areas of interest. Such case studies can offer guidance for future work for assessing methodologies and translating them to other areas. The traditional top-down mapping approach identifies biological community patterns based on communities occurring within geologically defined habitat map units, under the concept that geologic environments contain distinct biological assemblages. Alternatively, the bottom-up approach aims to establish habitat map units centered on biological similarity and then uses statistics to identify relationships with associated environmental parameters and determine habitat boundaries. When applied to the two study areas, both mapping approaches produced habitat classes with distinct macrofaunal assemblages and each established statistically strong and significant biotic-abiotic relationships with geologic features, sediment characteristics, water depth, and/or habitat

  5. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-06

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  6. SU-E-T-80: Comparison of Fluence-Based RapidArc QAs Using EPID and MapCHECK 2

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, H; Jesseph, F; Ahmad, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the Varian aS-1000 EPID imager to the isocentrically mounted MapCHECK 2 diode array for RapidArc QAs as a function of photon beam energy. Methods: A Varian TrueBeam STx with an aS-1000 digital imaging panel was used to acquire RapidArc QA images for 13 patient plans; each plan QA was performed at 6, 8, 10 and 15MV energies. The Portal Dose Image Prediction algorithm in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) was used to create the comparison image for the EPID acquisition. A Sun Nuclear MapCHECK 2 diode array on an isocentric mounting fixture with 5 cm water-equivalent buildup was also used for the RapidArc QAs. A composite dose plane was taken from the Eclipse TPS for comparison to the MapCHECK 2 measurements. A gamma test was implemented in the Sun Nuclear Patient software with 10% threshold and absolute comparison for both QA methods. The two-tailed paired t-test was employed to analyze the statistical significance between two methods at the 95% confidence level. Results: The average gamma passing rates were greater than 95% at 3%/3mm using both methods for all four energies. The average passing rates were within 2.5% and 1.1% of each other when analyzed at 2%/2mm and 3%/3mm conditions, respectively. The EPID passing rates were somewhat better than the MapCHECK 2 when analyzed at 1%/1mm condition; this difference decreased with increasing energy (9.1% at 6MV to 2.7% at 15MV). The differences were not statistically significant for all criteria and energies (p-value ã 0.05). Conclusion: EPID-based RapidArc QA results are comparable to MapCHECK 2 when using 3%/3mm criteria at all four energies. EPID-based QA shows potential for being the superior device under strict gamma criteria.

  7. Knockdown of a putative insulin-like peptide gene LdILP2 in Leptinotarsa decemlineata by RNA interference impairs pupation and adult emergence.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Zhu, Tao-Tao; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Five insulin-like peptide LdILP genes were identified in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. All of them contained three exons and two introns, with three genes tandemly arrayed and well separated from the other two. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three LdILPs from three tandemly-arrayed genes grouped with TcILP1, whereas the other two resembled with TcILP2 and TcILP4 from Tribolium castaneum. Thus, the five LdILP genes were provisionally named LdILP1a, LdILP1b, LdILP1c, LdILP2 and LdILP4. LdILP2 was widely expressed in several tissues such as the brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (BR-CC-CA) complex, gut and fat body. In contrast, LdILP1a and LdILP1b were only transcribed in BR-CC-CA, LdILP4 was in ovaries, and LdILP1c was in both BR-CC-CA and ovaries. Ingestion of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting LdILP2 (dsLdILP2-1 and dsLdILP2-2) specifically knocked down LdILP2 and upregulated the transcription of both LdInR and Ld4EBP, indicating insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway (IIS) was inhibited. Approximately 50% of the LdILP2 RNAi larvae did not normally pupate and about 50% of the LdILP2 RNAi pupae did not emerge. Moreover, silencing LdILP2 reduced the expression of a juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis gene, lowered JH titer and disturbed JH signaling. Finally, knocking down LdILP2 inhibited an ecdysteroidogenesis gene, decreased 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) titer, and repressed the expression of two 20E-response genes LdHR3 and LdFTZ-F1. Thus, the IIS pathway is involved in larval-pupal metamorphosis by modification of both JH and 20E signaling in L. decemlineata. PMID:26812356

  8. Comparison of two methods for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Champagne region (France) where viticultural activity is threatened by slope failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Eeckhaut, M.; Marre, A.; Poesen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The vineyards of the Champagne region are planted on steep south-oriented cuesta fronts receiving a maximum of sun radiation. However, due to the location of the vineyards on steep hillslopes, the viticultural activity is threatened by slope failures. In this study we attempt to better understand the spatial variability of landslides by comparing two techniques for landslide susceptibility assessment in a 1120 km² study area in the Champagne Ardenne. The first landslide susceptibility map was derived from an heuristic model adopted from the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, geomorphologists of Reims University and the Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne. In this qualitative model expert knowledge of the Champagne region was used to assign weights to all slope classes and lithologies located in the area. The second landslide susceptibility map was developed in this study by the application of a statistical model, logistic regression, to a calibration dataset of ‘old' (Holocene) landslides. This map was successfully evaluated using ROC curves and κ values. Both models indicate that present and future landslides are mainly controlled by slope gradient and lithology. However, the comparison of the two landslide susceptibility maps through (1) evaluation with the location of mapped ‘old' (Holocene) landslides and through (2) temporal validation with spatial data of ‘recent' (between forty and ten years old) and ‘very recent' (less than ten years old) landslides showed that the statistical model produced in this study allowed better prediction of sites already affected by landslides. In total the statistically-derived susceptibility map succeeded in correctly classifying 83.2% of the ‘old' and 84.0% of the ‘recent' and ‘very recent' landslides. The heuristic model on the other hand classified only 50.6% of the ‘old' and 58.5% of the ‘recent' and ‘very recent' landslides correctly as unstable. Taking into account the

  9. A comparison of genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium between 15 polymorphic dinucleotide repeat loci in two populations

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.; Long, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    Linkage disequilibrium has recently been used to map the diastrophic dysplasia gene in a Finnish sample. One advantage of this method is that the large pedigrees required by some other methods are unnecessary. Another advantage is that linkage disequilibrium mapping capitalizes on the cumulative history of recombination events, rather than those occurring within the sampled individuals. A potential limitation of linkage disequilibrium mapping is that linkage equilibrium is likely to prevail in all but the most isolated populations, e.g., those which have recently experienced founder effects or severe population bottlenecks. In order to test the method`s generality, we examined patterns of linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci within a known genetic map. Two populations were analyzed. The first population, Navajo Indians (N=45), is an isolate that experienced a severe bottleneck in the 1860`s. The second population, Maryland Caucasians (N=45), is cosmopolitan. We expected the Navajo sample to display more linkage disequilibrium than the Caucasian sample, and possibly that the Navajo disequilibrium pattern would reflect the genetic map. Linkage disequilibrium coefficients were estimated between pairs of alleles at different loci using maximum likelihood. The genetic isolate structure of Navajo Indians is confirmed by the DNA typings. Heterozygosity is lower than in the Caucasians, and fewer different alleles are observed. However, a relationship between genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium could be discerned in neither the Navajo nor the Maryland samples. Slightly more linkage disequilibrium was observed in the Navajos, but both data sets were characterized by very low disequilibrium levels. We tentatively conclude that linkage disequilibrium mapping with dinucleotide repeats will only be useful with close linkage between markers and diseases, even in very isolated populations.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis LD33, a bacteriocin-producing strain.

    PubMed

    Yuehua, Jiao; Lanwei, Zhang; Fei, Liu; Huaxi, Yi; Xue, Han

    2016-06-10

    Enterococcus faecalis LD33 strain was originally isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. Its complete genome sequence was carried out using the Illumina Hiseq and the PacBio RSII platform. The genome only has a circular chromosome and a GC content of 37.58%. Other core information shown in the genome sequencing results further insight on this bacterium's genetic elements for bacteriocin production and the genes related to respiratory chain.

  11. Epoxy matrix composites filled with micro-sized LD sludge: wear characterization and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Abhilash; Satapathy, Alok

    2016-02-01

    Owing to the very high cost of conventional filler materials in polymer composites, exploring the possibility of using low cost minerals and industrial wastes for this purpose has become the need of the hour. In view of this, the present work includes the development and the wear performance evaluation of a new class of composites consisting of epoxy and microsized LD sludge. LD sludge or the Linz-Donawitz Sludge (LDS) are the fine solid particles recovered after wet cleaning of the gas emerging from LD convertors during steel making. Epoxy composites filled with different proportions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %) of LDS are fabricated by conventional hand lay-up technique. Dry sliding wear trials are performed on the composite specimens under different test conditions as per ASTM G 99 following a design of experiment approach based on Taguchi's orthogonal arrays. The Taguchi approach leads to the recognition of most powerful variables that predominantly control the wear rate. This parametric analysis reveals that LDS content and sliding velocity affects the specific wear rate more significantly than normal load and sliding distance. Furthermore with increase in LDS content specific wear rate of the composite decreases for a constant sliding velocity. The sliding wear behavior of these composites under an extended range of test conditions is predicted by a model based on the artificial neural network (ANN).

  12. An electrodynamics-Langevin dynamics (ED-LD) approach to simulate metal nanoparticle interactions and motion.

    PubMed

    Sule, N; Rice, S A; Gray, S K; Scherer, N F

    2015-11-16

    Understanding the formation of electrodynamically interacting assemblies of metal nanoparticles requires accurate computational methods for determining the forces and propagating trajectories. However, since computation of electromagnetic forces occurs on attosecond to femtosecond timescales, simulating the motion of colloidal nanoparticles on milliseconds to seconds timescales is a challenging multi-scale computational problem. Here, we present a computational technique for performing accurate simulations of laser-illuminated metal nanoparticles. In the simulation, we self-consistently combine the finite-difference time-domain method for electrodynamics (ED) with Langevin dynamics (LD) for the particle motions. We demonstrate the ED-LD method by calculating the 3D trajectories of a single 100-nm-diameter Ag nanoparticle and optical trapping and optical binding of two and three 150-nm-diameter Ag nanoparticles in simulated optical tweezers. We show that surface charge on the colloidal metal nanoparticles plays an important role in their optically driven self-organization. In fact, these simulations provide a more complete understanding of the assembly of different structures of two and three Ag nanoparticles that have been observed experimentally, demonstrating that the ED-LD method will be a very useful tool for understanding the self-organization of optical matter.

  13. Students classified as LD and the college foreign language requirement: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Sparks, R L; Philips, L; Ganschow, L; Javorsky, J

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether students classified as learning disabled (LD) who were permitted to substitute courses for the college foreign language (FL) requirement at one university would display significant cognitive and academic achievement differences when grouped by level of discrepancy between IQ and achievement, by discrepancy between achievement according to different measures, and by level of performance on phonological-orthographic processing measures, on the Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT), and in FL courses. Results showed that there were no differences among students with different levels of discrepancy (i.e., < 1.0 SD, 1.0-1.49 SD, and > 1.50 SD) on MLAT and American College Testing (ACT) scores, graduating grade point average (GPA) or college FL GPA. Results also showed that among students who scored below versus at or above the 25th percentile on phonological-orthographic processing measures, there were no differences on measures of IQ, ACT, MLAT, and GPA, as well as most measures of academic achievement. Implications for the use of the LD label to grant FL course substitutions or waivers, use of the MLAT in the diagnostic and course substitution/waiver process, and the validity and reliability of traditional criteria for the classification as LD are discussed.

  14. Personnel launch system (PLS) lifting body and low lift-to-drag (L/D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, Harry O.

    1990-09-01

    The Personnel Launch System (PLS) is a small transportation system designed to transport people, but no cargo, to and from low-earth orbit. The PLS is being considered as an addition to the manned launch capability of the United States for three main reasons: (1) to assure manned access to space, (2) to achieve a first-stage abort ability, and (3) to reduce operations costs. To those ends, two designs are being considered for the PLS that differ in their lift-to-drag (L/D) ratio. The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center was assigned the task of examining low L/D capsules with no wings and a parachute landing capability. The Langley Research Center is studying a higher L/D PLS with wings and runway landings. Whichever design is selected, the PLS will act as a complement to the Space Shuttle fleet and will enhance the ability of our Nation to achieve reliable, safe, and cost-effective access to space flight, thus furthering the goals of the U.S. space program and increasing the safety of the human crews manning a future space station.

  15. Thrombolytic effects of Douchi Fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Today, thrombosis is one of the most widely occurring diseases in modern life. Drugs with thrombolytic functions are the most effective methods in the treatment of thrombosis. Among them, Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme (DFE) is a promising agent. DFE was isolated from Douchi, a typical and popular soybean-fermented food in China, and it can dissolve fibrin directly and efficiently. A strain, Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 produced DFE with high fibrinolytic activity has been isolated in our lab previously. Results In the study, thrombolytic effect of DFE from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 was studied in vitro and in vivo systematically. The results showed that DFE played a significant role in thrombolysis and anticoagulation in vitro. And the thrombolytic effects correlated with DFE in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, the acute toxicity assay showed that DFE had no obvious acute toxicity to mice. Test of carrageenan-induced thrombosis in mice indicated that the DFE significantly prevented tail thrombosis, and arterial thrombosis model test indicated that Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme DFE had thrombolytic effect on carotid thrombosis of rabbits in vivo. Other results in vivo indicated that DFE could increase bleeding and clotting time obviously. Conclusions The DFE isolated from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 has obvious thrombolytic effects in vitro and in vivo. This function demonstrates that this enzyme can be a useful tool for preventing and treating clinical thrombus. PMID:22748219

  16. An electrodynamics-Langevin dynamics (ED-LD) approach to simulate metal nanoparticle interactions and motion.

    PubMed

    Sule, N; Rice, S A; Gray, S K; Scherer, N F

    2015-11-16

    Understanding the formation of electrodynamically interacting assemblies of metal nanoparticles requires accurate computational methods for determining the forces and propagating trajectories. However, since computation of electromagnetic forces occurs on attosecond to femtosecond timescales, simulating the motion of colloidal nanoparticles on milliseconds to seconds timescales is a challenging multi-scale computational problem. Here, we present a computational technique for performing accurate simulations of laser-illuminated metal nanoparticles. In the simulation, we self-consistently combine the finite-difference time-domain method for electrodynamics (ED) with Langevin dynamics (LD) for the particle motions. We demonstrate the ED-LD method by calculating the 3D trajectories of a single 100-nm-diameter Ag nanoparticle and optical trapping and optical binding of two and three 150-nm-diameter Ag nanoparticles in simulated optical tweezers. We show that surface charge on the colloidal metal nanoparticles plays an important role in their optically driven self-organization. In fact, these simulations provide a more complete understanding of the assembly of different structures of two and three Ag nanoparticles that have been observed experimentally, demonstrating that the ED-LD method will be a very useful tool for understanding the self-organization of optical matter. PMID:26698479

  17. Comparison of Ground-Based 3-Dimensional Lightning Mapping Observation with Satellite-Based LIS Observations in Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Hamlin, Timothy; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    3-dimensional lightning mapping observations were obtained in central Oklahoma during June 1998, using New Mexico Tech's Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). The results have been compared with observations of the discharges from space obtained by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. Excellent spatial and temporal correlations were obtained between the two sets of observations. All discharges seen by LIS were mapped by the LMA. Most of the detected optical events were associated with lightning channels that extended into the upper part of the storm. Cloud-to-ground discharges that were confined to mid- and lower-altitudes tended to be detected by LIS at the time of late-stage return strokes. Extensive illumination tended to occur in impulsive bursts toward the end or part way through intracloud discharges and appeared to be produced by energetic K-changes that typically occur at these times.

  18. Comparison of marker types and map assumptions using Markov chain Monte Carlo-based linkage analysis of COGA data

    PubMed Central

    Sieh, Weiva; Basu, Saonli; Fu, Audrey Q; Rothstein, Joseph H; Scheet, Paul A; Stewart, William CL; Sung, Yun J; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Wijsman, Ellen M

    2005-01-01

    We performed multipoint linkage analysis of the electrophysiological trait ECB21 on chromosome 4 in the full pedigrees provided by the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Three Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-based approaches were applied to the provided and re-estimated genetic maps and to five different marker panels consisting of microsatellite (STRP) and/or SNP markers at various densities. We found evidence of linkage near the GABRB1 STRP using all methods, maps, and marker panels. Difficulties encountered with SNP panels included convergence problems and demanding computations. PMID:16451566

  19. Aerothermodynamic performance and thermal protection design for blunt re-entry bodies at L/D = 0.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caram, Jose M.; Kowal, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Aerodynamic heating and thermal protection design analyses were performed for three blunt re-entry bodies at an L/D = 0.3 returning from low earth orbit. These configurations consisted of a scaled up Apollo command module, a Viking re-entry vehicle, and an Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) aerobrake, each with a maximum diameter of 4.42 m. The aerothermodynamic analysis determined the equilibrium stagnation point heating rate and heat load for nominal and 3-sigma re-entry trajectories and the distribution of heating along the pitch and yaw planes for each of the vehicles at the time of highest heat flux. Using the predicted heating rates and heating distributions, a Thermal Protection System (TPS) design with flight certified materials was tailored for each of the configurations. Results indicated that the heating to the corner of the Viking aeroshell would exceed current limits of reusable tile material. Also, the maximum heating for the AFE would be 15 percent greater than the maximum heating for the Apollo flying the same trajectory. TPS designs showed no significant advantage in TPS weight between the different vehicles; however, heat-shield areal density comparisons showed the Apollo configuration to be the most efficient in terms of TPS weight.

  20. Genetic epidemiology, genetic maps and positional cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Newton E

    2003-01-01

    Genetic epidemiology developed in the middle of the last century, focused on inherited causes of disease but with methods and results applicable to other traits and even forensics. Early success with linkage led to the localization of genes contributing to disease, and ultimately to the Human Genome Project. The discovery of millions of DNA markers has encouraged more efficient positional cloning by linkage disequilibrium (LD), using LD maps and haplotypes in ways that are rapidly evolving. This has led to large international programmes, some promising and others alarming, with laws about DNA patenting and ethical guidelines for responsible research still struggling to be born. PMID:14561327

  1. Controller performance improvements for reentry through Earth's atmosphere for low L/D spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Eric Michael

    Development of space-based industry created on the International Space Station is limited by reentry through Earth's atmosphere. The Lyapunov method is applied to improve reentry controller performance through Earth's atmosphere. A Predictor Corrector controller (PCCPA) derived from the Apollo program reentry guidance is the baseline against which candidate controllers are compared. Controllers designed to guide the reentry vehicle to within 1nm of the final target while satisfying a 51.55 BTU/ft2/sec heat rate constraint and a 4 g load constraint are evaluated in a six degree of freedom simulation environment. Three Lyapunov controllers developed in the initial design phase are subjected to variations in vehicle L/D. Controller gains are iteratively determined to satisfy reentry requirements for nominal reentry. However, different controller gain sets have different levels of performance robustness. Only one controller, the Lyapunov Controller, Gain Set 3, satisfies reentry requirements over a larger range of L/D variations than the PCCPA. In the final design phase, three hybrid reentry controllers are developed by combining Lyapunov based guidance routines with PCCPA transition logic and are evaluated for variations in vehicle L/D, weight and initial flight path angle (gamma0). The Hybrid Predictor Corrector/Lyapunov Controller #1 demonstrates the greatest performance robustness and satisfies all reentry requirements over a larger range of L/D, weight, and gamma 0 variations than the PCCPA. The hybrid controller, #3, meets all reentry requirements for a larger range of L/D variations than the PCCPA. The hybrid controller, #2, fails to outperform the PCCPA. All seven reentry controllers are linearized at four operating points and linear robust control analysis techniques are employed to quantify controller performance. Two robustness parameters, eta, a guaranteed domain of stability, and Jw, a measure of system performance to the worst possible direction of the

  2. Sensitivity of species to chemicals: dose-response characteristics for various test types (LC(50), LR(50) and LD(50)) and modes of action.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A Jan; Awkerman, Jill A; de Zwart, Dick; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-11-01

    While variable sensitivity of model species to common toxicants has been addressed in previous studies, a systematic analysis of inter-species variability for different test types, modes of action and species is as of yet lacking. Hence, the aim of the present study was to identify similarities and differences in contaminant levels affecting cold-blooded and warm-blooded species administered via different routes. To that end, data on lethal water concentrations LC50, tissue residues LR50 and oral doses LD50 were collected from databases, each representing the largest of its kind. LC50 data were multiplied by a bioconcentration factor (BCF) to convert them to internal concentrations that allow for comparison among species. For each endpoint data set, we calculated the mean and standard deviation of species' lethal level per compound. Next, the means and standard deviations were averaged by mode of action. Both the means and standard deviations calculated depended on the number of species tested, which is at odds with quality standard setting procedures. Means calculated from (BCF) LC50, LR50 and LD50 were largely similar, suggesting that different administration routes roughly yield similar internal levels. Levels for compounds interfering biochemically with elementary life processes were about one order of magnitude below that of narcotics disturbing membranes, and neurotoxic pesticides and dioxins induced death in even lower amounts. Standard deviations for LD50 data were similar across modes of action, while variability of LC50 values was lower for narcotics than for substances with a specific mode of action. The study indicates several directions to go for efficient use of available data in risk assessment and reduction of species testing.

  3. Sensitivity of species to chemicals: dose-response characteristics for various test types (LC(50), LR(50) and LD(50)) and modes of action.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A Jan; Awkerman, Jill A; de Zwart, Dick; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-11-01

    While variable sensitivity of model species to common toxicants has been addressed in previous studies, a systematic analysis of inter-species variability for different test types, modes of action and species is as of yet lacking. Hence, the aim of the present study was to identify similarities and differences in contaminant levels affecting cold-blooded and warm-blooded species administered via different routes. To that end, data on lethal water concentrations LC50, tissue residues LR50 and oral doses LD50 were collected from databases, each representing the largest of its kind. LC50 data were multiplied by a bioconcentration factor (BCF) to convert them to internal concentrations that allow for comparison among species. For each endpoint data set, we calculated the mean and standard deviation of species' lethal level per compound. Next, the means and standard deviations were averaged by mode of action. Both the means and standard deviations calculated depended on the number of species tested, which is at odds with quality standard setting procedures. Means calculated from (BCF) LC50, LR50 and LD50 were largely similar, suggesting that different administration routes roughly yield similar internal levels. Levels for compounds interfering biochemically with elementary life processes were about one order of magnitude below that of narcotics disturbing membranes, and neurotoxic pesticides and dioxins induced death in even lower amounts. Standard deviations for LD50 data were similar across modes of action, while variability of LC50 values was lower for narcotics than for substances with a specific mode of action. The study indicates several directions to go for efficient use of available data in risk assessment and reduction of species testing. PMID:23932508

  4. Comparison between WorldView-2 and SPOT-5 images in mapping the bracken fern using the random forest algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odindi, John; Adam, Elhadi; Ngubane, Zinhle; Mutanga, Onisimo; Slotow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Plant species invasion is known to be a major threat to socioeconomic and ecological systems. Due to high cost and limited extents of urban green spaces, high mapping accuracy is necessary to optimize the management of such spaces. We compare the performance of the new-generation WorldView-2 (WV-2) and SPOT-5 images in mapping the bracken fern [Pteridium aquilinum (L) kuhn] in a conserved urban landscape. Using the random forest algorithm, grid-search approaches based on out-of-bag estimate error were used to determine the optimal ntree and mtry combinations. The variable importance and backward feature elimination techniques were further used to determine the influence of the image bands on mapping accuracy. Additionally, the value of the commonly used vegetation indices in enhancing the classification accuracy was tested on the better performing image data. Results show that the performance of the new WV-2 bands was better than that of the traditional bands. Overall classification accuracies of 84.72 and 72.22% were achieved for the WV-2 and SPOT images, respectively. Use of selected indices from the WV-2 bands increased the overall classification accuracy to 91.67%. The findings in this study show the suitability of the new generation in mapping the bracken fern within the often vulnerable urban natural vegetation cover types.

  5. Machine-learning based comparison of CT-perfusion maps and dual energy CT for pancreatic tumor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Michael; Skornitzke, Stephan; Weber, Christian; Fritz, Franziska; Mayer, Philipp; Koell, Marco; Stiller, Wolfram; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.

    2016-03-01

    Perfusion CT is well-suited for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors but tends to be associated with a high radiation exposure. Dual-energy CT (DECT) might be an alternative to perfusion CT, offering correlating contrasts while being acquired at lower radiation doses. While previous studies compared intensities of Dual Energy iodine maps and CT-perfusion maps, no study has assessed the combined discriminative power of all information that can be generated from an acquisition of both functional imaging methods. We therefore propose the use of a machine learning algorithm for assessing the amount of information that becomes available by the combination of multiple images. For this, we train a classifier on both imaging methods, using a new approach that allows us to train only from small regions of interests (ROIs). This makes our study comparable to other - ROI-based analysis - and still allows comparing the ability of both classifiers to discriminate between healthy and tumorous tissue. We were able to train classifiers that yield DICE scores over 80% with both imaging methods. This indicates that Dual Energy Iodine maps might be used for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors instead of Perfusion CT, although the detection rate is lower. We also present tumor risk maps that visualize possible tumorous areas in an intuitive way and can be used during diagnosis as an additional information source.

  6. Commissioning and Implementation of an EPID Based IMRT QA System "Dosimetry Check" for 3D Absolute Dose Measurements and Quantitative Comparisons to MapCheck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Jalpa A.

    The software package "Dosimetry Check" by MathResolutions, LLC, provides an absolute 3D volumetric dose measurement for IMRT QA using the existing Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) mounted on most linear accelerators. This package provides a feedback loop using the patient's treatment planning CT data as the phantom for dose reconstruction. The aim of this work is to study the difference between point, planar and volumetric doses with MapCheck and Dosimetry Check via the use of the EPID and the diode array respectively. Evaluating tools such as point doses at isocenter, 1-D profiles, gamma volume histograms, and dose volume histograms are used for IMRT dose comparison in three types of cases: head and neck, prostate, and lung. Dosimetry Check can be a valuable tool for IMRT QA as it uses patient specific attenuation corrections and the superiority of the EPID as compared to the MapCheck diode array. This helps reduce the uncertainty in dose for less variability in delivery and a more realistic measured vs computed dose verification system as compared to MapCheck.

  7. A modulated closed form solution for quantitative susceptibility mapping--a thorough evaluation and comparison to iterative methods based on edge prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Khabipova, Diana; Wiaux, Yves; Gruetter, Rolf; Marques, José P

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study is to perform a thorough comparison of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) techniques and their dependence on the assumptions made. The compared methodologies were: two iterative single orientation methodologies minimizing the l2, l1TV norm of the prior knowledge of the edges of the object, one over-determined multiple orientation method (COSMOS) and a newly proposed modulated closed-form solution (MCF). The performance of these methods was compared using a numerical phantom and in-vivo high resolution (0.65 mm isotropic) brain data acquired at 7 T using a new coil combination method. For all QSM methods, the relevant regularization and prior-knowledge parameters were systematically changed in order to evaluate the optimal reconstruction in the presence and absence of a ground truth. Additionally, the QSM contrast was compared to conventional gradient recalled echo (GRE) magnitude and R2* maps obtained from the same dataset. The QSM reconstruction results of the single orientation methods show comparable performance. The MCF method has the highest correlation (corr MCF=0.95, r(2)MCF=0.97) with the state of the art method (COSMOS) with additional advantage of extreme fast computation time. The L-curve method gave the visually most satisfactory balance between reduction of streaking artifacts and over-regularization with the latter being overemphasized when the using the COSMOS susceptibility maps as ground-truth. R2* and susceptibility maps, when calculated from the same datasets, although based on distinct features of the data, have a comparable ability to distinguish deep gray matter structures.

  8. Preliminary comparisons of VHF radar maps of F-region irregularities with scintillations in the equatorial region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Aarons, J.; Mcclure, J. P.; Lahoz, C.; Bushby, A.; Woodman, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Multiantenna 50 MHz radar backscatter maps of echo power from night-time F-region equatiorial irregularities obtained at Jicamarca, Peru were compared with simultaneous VHF scintillation observations from Huancayo at 137 and 254 MHz during the period 20 November to 12 December 1975. Saturation of VHF scintillations in excess of 20 dB was observed at both these frequencies during times when radar maps showed large intense plume structures rising into the topside ionosphere. On nights when only thin layers of bottomside irregularities were observed, moderate to weak scintillations were recorded at VHF. Preliminary values of east-west horizontal irregularity drift velocities were obtained and compared with scintillation rate observations. Using the 1.5-deg and 4.5-deg longitudinal separation between the Jicamarca radar and ionospheric observation points of the two satellites from Huancayo, information was derived regarding large-scale east-west structure during the development phase of the irregularities.

  9. Genomic variation by whole-genome SNP mapping arrays predicts time-to-event outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a comparison of CLL and HapMap genotypes.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Carmen D; Coombes, Kevin R; Majewski, Tadeusz; Barron, Lynn L; Lerner, Susan; Sargent, Rachel L; O'Brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wierda, William G; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Keating, Michael J; Abruzzo, Lynne V

    2013-03-01

    Genomic abnormalities, such as deletions in 11q22 or 17p13, are associated with poorer prognosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We hypothesized that unknown regions of copy number variation (CNV) affect clinical outcome and can be detected by array-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We compared SNP genotypes from 168 untreated patients with CLL with genotypes from 73 white HapMap controls. We identified 322 regions of recurrent CNV, 82 of which occurred significantly more often in CLL than in HapMap (CLL-specific CNV), including regions typically aberrant in CLL: deletions in 6q21, 11q22, 13q14, and 17p13 and trisomy 12. In univariate analyses, 35 of total and 11 of CLL-specific CNVs were associated with unfavorable time-to-event outcomes, including gains or losses in chromosomes 2p, 4p, 4q, 6p, 6q, 7q, 11p, 11q, and 17p. In multivariate analyses, six CNVs (ie, CLL-specific variations in 11p15.1-15.4 or 6q27) predicted time-to-treatment or overall survival independently of established markers of prognosis. Moreover, genotypic complexity (ie, the number of independent CNVs per patient) significantly predicted prognosis, with a median time-to-treatment of 64 months versus 23 months in patients with zero to one versus two or more CNVs, respectively (P = 3.3 × 10(-8)). In summary, a comparison of SNP genotypes from patients with CLL with HapMap controls allowed us to identify known and unknown recurrent CNVs and to determine regions and rates of CNV that predict poorer prognosis in patients with CLL.

  10. MRI-based elastic-mapping method for inter-subject comparison of brain FDG-PET images

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Huang, S.C.; Lin, K.P.; Small, G.; Phelps, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Inter-subject anatomic differences prohibits direct image-wise statistical evaluation of brain FDG-PET images of Alzheimer`s disease (AD) patients. In this study, we propose a MRI-based elastic-mapping method which enables image-wise evaluation. The method involves intra-subject MR-PET registration, 3-D elastic mapping of two set of MR images, and elastically transforming the co-registered PET images. The MR-PET registration used simulated PET images, which were based on segmentation of MR images. In the 3-D elastic mapping stage, first a global linear scaling was applied to compensate for brain size difference, then a deformation field was obtained by minimizing the regional sum of squared difference between the two sets of MR images. Two groups (AD patient and normal control), each with three subjects, were included in the current study. After processing, images from all subjects have similar shapes. Averaging the images across all subjects (either within the individual group or for both groups) give images indistinguishable from original single subject FDG images (i.e. without much spatial resolution loss), except with lower image noise level. The method is expected to allow statistical image-wise analysis to be performed across different subjects.

  11. Comparisons of mapped magnetic field lines with the source path of the 7 April 1995 type III solar radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Gosling, J. T.; Malaspina, D. M.; Neudegg, D.; Steward, G.; Lobzin, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    Ideally, the sources of type III solar radio bursts, which are produced mainly by flare-accelerated electron beams, trace the magnetic field lines along which the beams propagate from the Sun to interplanetary space. A recently developed 2-D approach for large-scale mapping of magnetic field lines between the Sun and Earth in the solar equatorial plane is applied to the sources of the 7 April 1995 type III radio burst imaged by Ulysses and Wind. The approach uses near-Earth solar wind data and a solar wind model with intrinsic nonradial magnetic field at the source surface of the solar wind. Quantitative agreement is found between the mapped field lines, the observed path of the radio source centroids, and the field configurations inferred from solar wind suprathermal electrons observed by Wind. Moreover, the mapped field lines are consistent with Wind not observing the in situ type III electron beam, Langmuir waves, and local radio emission for this type III event.

  12. Comparison of VTEC from ground-based space geodetic techniques based on ray-traced mapping factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinkelmann, Robert; Alizadeh, M. Mahdi; Schuh, Harald; Deng, Zhiguo; Zus, Florian; Etemadfard, M. Hossein

    2016-07-01

    For the derivation of vertical total electron content (VTEC) from slant total electron content (STEC), usually a standard approach is used based on mapping functions that assume a single-layer model of the ionosphere (e.g. IERS Conventions 2010). In our study we test the standard approach against a recently developed alternative which is based on station specific ray-traced mapping factors. For the evaluation of this new mapping concept, we compute VTEC at selected Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) stations using the dispersive delays and the corresponding formal errors obtained by observing extra-galactic radio sources at two radio frequencies in S- and X-bands by the permanent geodetic/astrometric program organized by the IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry). Additionally, by applying synchronous sampling and a consistent analysis configuration, we determine VTEC at Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) antennas using GPS (Global Positioning System) and/or GLONASS (Globalnaja nawigazionnaja sputnikowaja Sistema) observations provided by the IGS (International GNSS Service) that are operated in the vicinity of the VLBI antennas. We compare the VTEC time series obtained by the individual techniques over a period of about twenty years and describe their characteristics qualitatively and statistically. The length of the time series allows us to assess the long-term climatology of ionospheric VTEC during the last twenty years.

  13. DArT markers: diversity analyses, genomes comparison, mapping and integration with SSR markers in Triticum monococcum

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Hai-Chun; Bayon, Carlos; Kanyuka, Kostya; Berry, Simon; Wenzl, Peter; Huttner, Eric; Kilian, Andrzej; E Hammond-Kosack, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Background Triticum monococcum (2n = 2x = 14) is an ancient diploid wheat with many useful traits and is used as a model for wheat gene discovery. DArT (Diversity Arrays Technology) employs a hybridisation-based approach to type thousands of genomic loci in parallel. DArT markers were developed for T. monococcum to assess genetic diversity, compare relationships with hexaploid genomes, and construct a genetic linkage map integrating DArT and microsatellite markers. Results A DArT array, consisting of 2304 hexaploid wheat, 1536 tetraploid wheat, 1536 T. monococcum as well as 1536 T. boeoticum representative genomic clones, was used to fingerprint 16 T. monococcum accessions of diverse geographical origins. In total, 846 polymorphic DArT markers were identified, of which 317 were of T. monococcum origin, 246 of hexaploid, 157 of tetraploid, and 126 of T. boeoticum genomes. The fingerprinting data indicated that the geographic origin of T. monococcum accessions was partially correlated with their genetic variation. DArT markers could also well distinguish the genetic differences amongst a panel of 23 hexaploid wheat and nine T. monococcum genomes. For the first time, 274 DArT markers were integrated with 82 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and two morphological trait loci in a genetic map spanning 1062.72 cM in T. monococcum. Six chromosomes were represented by single linkage groups, and chromosome 4Am was formed by three linkage groups. The DArT and SSR genetic loci tended to form independent clusters along the chromosomes. Segregation distortion was observed for one third of the DArT loci. The Ba (black awn) locus was refined to a 23.2 cM region between the DArT marker locus wPt-2584 and the microsatellite locus Xgwmd33 on 1Am; and the Hl (hairy leaf) locus to a 4.0 cM region between DArT loci 376589 and 469591 on 5Am. Conclusion DArT is a rapid and efficient approach to develop many new molecular markers for genetic studies in T. monococcum. The constructed genetic

  14. High Density LD-Based Structural Variations Analysis in Cattle Genome

    PubMed Central

    Salomon-Torres, Ricardo; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Villa-Angulo, Carlos; Gonzalez-Vizcarra, Víctor M.; Villa-Angulo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Genomic structural variations represent an important source of genetic variation in mammal genomes, thus, they are commonly related to phenotypic expressions. In this work, ∼770,000 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes from 506 animals from 19 cattle breeds were analyzed. A simple LD-based structural variation was defined, and a genome-wide analysis was performed. After applying some quality control filters, for each breed and each chromosome we calculated the linkage disequilibrium (r2) of short range (≤100 Kb). We sorted SNP pairs by distance and obtained a set of LD means (called the expected means) using bins of 5 Kb. We identified 15,246 segments of at least 1 Kb, among the 19 breeds, consisting of sets of at least 3 adjacent SNPs so that, for each SNP, r2 within its neighbors in a 100 Kb range, to the right side of that SNP, were all bigger than, or all smaller than, the corresponding expected mean, and their P-value were significant after a Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing correction. In addition, to account just for homogeneously distributed regions we considered only SNPs having at least 15 SNP neighbors within 100 Kb. We defined such segments as structural variations. By grouping all variations across all animals in the sample we defined 9,146 regions, involving a total of 53,137 SNPs; representing the 6.40% (160.98 Mb) from the bovine genome. The identified structural variations covered 3,109 genes. Clustering analysis showed the relatedness of breeds given the geographic region in which they are evolving. In summary, we present an analysis of structural variations based on the deviation of the expected short range LD between SNPs in the bovine genome. With an intuitive and simple definition based only on SNPs data it was possible to discern closeness of breeds due to grouping by geographic region in which they are evolving. PMID:25050984

  15. Surface and thickness variations of Brenva Glacier tongue (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) in the second half of the 20th century by historical maps and aerial photogrammetry comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D Agata, C.; Zanutta, A.; Muzzu Martis, D.; Mancini, F.; Smiraglia, C.

    2003-04-01

    a digital surface model with a degree of accuracy varing among the glacier and the surrounding area. Comparison with available cartography may be performed if digital ortophoto is being generated from the photogrammetric processing in a well defined reference system. Accuracy in volumetric changes estimations is nevertheless of fundamental importance being derived from the comparison of different metodologies with related single accuracies. By using GIS sofware the maps and ortophotos were managed after digitalisation; Digital Elevation Models were produced and their comparison allowed: 1) to quantify surface and volume variations 2) to elaborate thematic maps about ice thickness and debris areal distribution variations 4) to elaborate topographic longitudinal and transverse profiles to underline glacier changes The preliminary results about volumetric and thickness variations obtained from maps are the following: a) 1959-1971: the glacier tongue increased in volume of about 15 millions mc of ice that correspond to an increase in thickness of about 20 m of ice with maximum values of about 40-50 m. b)1971-1983: the glacier tongue increased in volume of about 18 millions mc of ice that is to say a mean increase in thickness of a little more than 20 m of ice. In the same time the glacier advanced of about 200 m (Italian Glaciological Committee data), probably this advancing phase was related to the ablation reduction caused by the emispheric climate cooling occurred during the second half of the 20th century. It influenced the mass balance trend of a large number of glaciers in the North Emisphere between the 70s and the 80s of the 20 th century c)1983-1991: for this period a negative volumetric variation of about 8 millions mc of ice was calculated equal to a thickness decreasing of about 10 m of ice. The managing of orthopotos by GIS software to obtain DEMs is in progress and its results will confirm or add arguments to discuss them. The final results will allow to

  16. NLP reentry guidance - Developing a strategy for low L/D vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Evin J.; Bradt, Jerre E.; Hardtla, John W.

    Problems in developing a strategy for design of a nonlinear programming (NLP) guidance algorithm for a low L/D reentry vehicle are discussed. The fundamental issue considered in the design of the guidance algorithm is the formulation of the mathematical description of the guidance problem for an NLP guidance algorithm. It is shown that properly defining the problem is of importance in being able to handle large atmospheric density and wind uncertainties. A method of solution is also presented along with results showing the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  17. Lateral directional requirements for a low L/D aeromaneuvering orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, J. D.; Spratlin, K. M.; Skalecki, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    The lateral-directional aerodynamics and control requirements for a low L/D (0.3) aeromaneuvering orbital transfer vehicle are evaluated. A lateral directional RCS control concept that permits a linearized analysis is utilized to evaluate the effect of Dutch Roll frequency and damping on the atmospheric guidance and control performance. The bank rate and acceleration requirements for acceptable performance are defined and the sensitivity to a parameter similar to the lateral control departure parameter but involving the RCS jets is evaluated.

  18. Spatial Distributed Seismicity Model of Seismic Hazard Mapping in the North-China Region: A Comparison with the GSHAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.; Meng, L.

    2010-12-01

    The North China is one of the most seismically active regions in the mainland China. The moderate to large earthquakes have occurred here throughout history, resulting in huge losses of human life and properties. With the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach, we investigate the influence of different seismic environments, incorporating both near surface soil properties and distributed historical and modern seismicity. A simplified seismic source model, derived with the consideration of regional active fault distributions, is presented for the North China region. The spatial distributed seismicity model of PSHA is used to calculate the level of ground motion likely to be exceeded in a given time period. Following Frankel (1995) approach of circular Gaussian smoothing procedure, in the PSHA’s calculation, we proposed the fault-rupture-oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing with the assumptions that earthquakes occur on faults or fault zones of past earthquakes to delineate the potential seismic zones (Lapajine et al., 2003). This is combined with regional active fault strike directions and the seismicity distribution patterns. Next Generation Attenuation model ((NGA), Boore et al., 2007) is used in generating hazard map for PGA with 2%, 5%, and 10 % probability of being exceeded in 50 years, and the resultant hazard map is compared with the result given by Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP). There is general agreement for PGA distribution patterns between the results of this study and the GSHAP map that used the same seismic source zones. However, peak ground accelerations predicted in this study are typically 10-20% less than those of the GSHAP, and the seismic source models, such as fault distributions and regional seismicity used in the GSHAP seem to be oversimplified. We believe this study represents an improvement on prior seismic hazard evaluations for the region. In addition to the updated input data, we believe that, by

  19. Comparison of Methods to Map and Measure River Terraces using High-Resolution Airborne LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, A. J.; Snyder, N. P.

    2013-12-01

    Fluvial terraces are important recorders of land-use, climate, and tectonic history that form in both erosional and depositional landscapes and consist of a flat surface bounded by valley walls and a steep-sloping scarp adjacent to the river channel. Combining these defining characteristics with high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys, several methods have been developed to identify and map terraces. The goals of this research are to compare some of these existing techniques and develop an objective approach to map terraces over entire watersheds using lidar DEMs. Additionally, we aim to quantify the thickness and volume of fill terrace deposits. Our preliminary application is to the Sheepscot River watershed, Maine, where strath and fill terraces are present and record Pleistocene deglaciation, Holocene eustatic forcing, and Anthropocene land-use change. We identify terraces along the longitudinal profile using an algorithm developed by Finnegan and Balco (2013), that computes the elevation frequency distribution at regularly spaced cross-sections normal to the channel. Next, we delineate terrace spatial extent using three separate methodologies: (1) image processing using Matlab, (2) feature classification algorithms developed by Wood (1996), and (3) image interpretation using manually placed points on known terraces to construct interpolated surfaces (Walter and Merritts, 2008). Lastly, we determine the thickness and volume of fill terrace sediments by subtracting an interpolated, adjacent water surface elevation from the defined terrace points. We compare our LiDAR-based results with field mapping, stratigraphic columns of terrace landforms, and ground penetrating radar over terrace surfaces. These findings suggest powerful new ways to rapidly analyze landscape history over large regions using high-resolution lidar DEMs, with less reliance on detailed and costly field data collection.

  20. Comparison of different landform classification methods for digital landform and soil mapping of the Iranian loess plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Kramm, Tanja; Curdt, Constanze; Maleki, Sedigheh; Khormali, Farhad; Kehl, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Iranian loess plateau is covered by loess deposits, up to 70 m thick. Tectonic uplift triggered deep erosion and valley incision into the loess and underlying marine deposits. Soil development strongly relates to the aspect of these incised slopes, because on northern slopes vegetation protects the soil surface against erosion and facilitates formation and preservation of a Cambisol, whereas on south-facing slopes soils were probably eroded and weakly developed Entisols formed. While the whole area is intensively stocked with sheep and goat, rain-fed cropping of winter wheat is practiced on the valley floors. Most time of the year, the soil surface is unprotected against rainfall, which is one of the factors promoting soil erosion and serious flooding. However, little information is available on soil distribution, plant cover and the geomorphological evolution of the plateau, as well as on potentials and problems in land use. Thus, digital landform and soil mapping is needed. As a requirement of digital landform and soil mapping, four different landform classification methods were compared and evaluated. These geomorphometric classifications were run on two different scales. On the whole area an ASTER GDEM and SRTM dataset (30 m pixel resolution) was used. Likewise, two high-resolution digital elevation models were derived from Pléiades satellite stereo-imagery (< 1m pixel resolution, 10 by 10 km). The high-resolution information of this dataset was aggregated to datasets of 5 and 10 m scale. The applied classification methods are the Geomorphons approach, an object-based image approach, the topographical position index and a mainly slope based approach. The accuracy of the classification was checked with a location related image dataset obtained in a field survey (n ~ 150) in September 2015. The accuracy of the DEMs was compared to measured DGPS trenches and map-based elevation data. The overall derived accuracy of the landform classification based on the

  1. Mapping membrane protein backbone dynamics: a comparison of site-directed spin labeling with NMR 15N-relaxation measurements.

    PubMed

    Lo, Ryan H; Kroncke, Brett M; Solomon, Tsega L; Columbus, Linda

    2014-10-01

    The ability to detect nanosecond backbone dynamics with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) in soluble proteins has been well established. However, for membrane proteins, the nitroxide appears to have more interactions with the protein surface, potentially hindering the sensitivity to backbone motions. To determine whether membrane protein backbone dynamics could be mapped with SDSL, a nitroxide was introduced at 55 independent sites in a model polytopic membrane protein, TM0026. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectral parameters were compared with NMR (15)N-relaxation data. Sequential scans revealed backbone dynamics with the same trends observed for the R1 relaxation rate, suggesting that nitroxide dynamics remain coupled to the backbone on membrane proteins.

  2. General comparison of ozone vertical profiles obtained by various techniques during the 1983 MAP/GLOBUS campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, W. A.; Aimedieu, P.; Megie, G.; Pelon, J.; Attmannspacher, W.; Komhyr, W.; Marche, P.; De La Noe, J.; Rigaud, P.; Robbins, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the 1983 MAP/GLOBUS campaign, atmospheric ozone profile measurements were made using a large variety of different techniques both from balloon platforms and the ground. It is shown that, for most techniques, the measured height distributions agree to within + or - 5 percent with the exception of the remote visible absorption method. This + or - 5 percent uncertainty is of the order of the individual intersystem accuracy. It is suggested that since the differences with the visible absorption method are in magnitude rather than in form, the absorption cross-section data could be the possible cause for the discrepancy.

  3. Crop area mapping in West Africa using landscape stratification of MODIS time series and comparison with existing global land products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vintrou, Elodie; Desbrosse, Annie; Bégué, Agnès; Traoré, Sibiry; Baron, Christian; Lo Seen, Danny

    2012-02-01

    In Africa, food security early warning systems use satellite-derived data concerning crop conditions and agricultural production. Such systems can be improved if they are provided with a more reliable estimation of the cultivated area at national scale. This paper evaluates the potential of using time series from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD13Q1 (16-day composite of normalized difference vegetation index at 250 m resolution) to extract cultivated areas in the fragmented rural landscapes of Mali. To this end, we first stratified Southern Mali into 13 rural landscapes based on the spatio-temporal variability of NDVI and textural indices, using an object-oriented classification scheme. The accuracy of the resulting map (MODIS crop) and how it compares with existing coarse-resolution global land products (GLC2000 Africa, GLOBCOVER, MODIS V05 and ECOCLIMAP-II), was then assessed against six crop/non-crop maps derived from SPOT 2.5 m resolution images used as references. For crop areal coverage, the MODIS crop cultivated map was successful in assessing the overall cultivated area at five out of the six validation sites (less than 6% of the absolute difference), while in terms of crop spatial distribution, the producer accuracy was between 33.1% and 80.8%. This accuracy was linearly correlated with the mean patch size index calculated on the SPOT crop maps ( r2 = 0.8). Using the Pareto boundary as an accuracy assessment method at the study sites, we showed that (i) 20-40% of the classification crop error was due to the spatial resolution of the MODIS sensor (250 m), and that (ii) compared to MODIS V05, which otherwise performed better than the other existing products, MODIS crop generally minimized omission-commission errors. A spatial validation of the different products was carried out using SPOT image classifications as reference. In the corresponding error matrices, the fraction of correctly classified pixels for our product was 70%, compared

  4. A Sensory 3D Map of the Odor Description Space Derived from a Comparison of Numeric Odor Profile Databases.

    PubMed

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Many authors have proposed different schemes of odor classification, which are useful to aid the complex task of describing smells. However, reaching a consensus on a particular classification seems difficult because our psychophysical space of odor description is a continuum and is not clustered into well-defined categories. An alternative approach is to describe the perceptual space of odors as a low-dimensional coordinate system. This idea was first proposed by Crocker and Henderson in 1927, who suggested using numeric profiles based on 4 dimensions: "fragrant," "acid," "burnt," and "caprylic." In the present work, the odor profiles of 144 aroma chemicals were compared by means of statistical regression with comparable numeric odor profiles obtained from 2 databases, enabling a plausible interpretation of the 4 dimensions. Based on the results and taking into account comparable 2D sensory maps of odor descriptors from the literature, a 3D sensory map (odor cube) has been drawn up to improve understanding of the similarities and dissimilarities of the odor descriptors most frequently used in fragrance chemistry. PMID:25847969

  5. Comparison of Tropical Ozone from SHADOZ with Remote Sensing Retrievals from Suomi-npp Ozone Mapping Profile Suite (OMPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The Ozone Mapping Profile Suite (OMPS) was launched October 28, 2011 on-board the Suomi NPP satellite (http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov). OMPS is the next generation total column ozone mapping instrument for monitoring the global distribution of stratospheric ozone. OMPS includes a limb profiler to measure the vertical structure of stratosphere ozone down to the mid-troposphere. This study uses tropical ozonesonde profile measurements from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ, http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz) archive to evaluate total column ozone retrievals from OMPS and concurrent measurements from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the predecessor of OMPS with a data record going back to 2004. We include ten SHADOZ stations that contain data overlapping the OMPS time period (2012-2013). This study capitalizes on the ozone profile measurements from SHADOZ to evaluate OMPS limb profile retrievals. Finally, we use SHADOZ sondes and OMPS retrievals to examine the agreement with the GEOS-5 Ozone Assimilation System (GOAS). The GOAS uses data from the OMI and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) to constrain the total column and stratospheric profiles of ozone. The most recent version of the assimilation system is well constrained to the total column compared with SHADOZ ozonesonde data.

  6. A comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using global positioning system and beacon satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, Gabor E.; Roth, Titus

    1988-01-01

    Total ionospheric electron contents (TEC) were measured by global positioning system (GPS) dual-frequency receivers developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The measurements included P-code (precise ranging code) and carrier phase data for six GPS satellites during multiple five-hour observing sessions. A set of these GPS TEC measurements were mapped from the GPS lines of sight to the line of sight of a Faraday beacon satellite by statistically fitting the TEC data to a simple model of the ionosphere. The mapped GPS TEC values were compared with the Faraday rotation measurements. Because GPS transmitter offsets are different for each satellite and because some GPS receiver offsets were uncalibrated, the sums of the satellite and receiver offsets were estimated simultaneously with the TEC in a least squares procedure. The accuracy of this estimation procedure is evaluated indicating that the error of the GPS-determined line of sight TEC can be at or below 1 x 10 to the 16th el/sq cm. Consequently, the current level of accuracy is comparable to the Faraday rotation technique; however, GPS provides superior sky coverage.

  7. A comparison of rock and soil samples for geochemical mapping of two porphyry-metal systems in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuerburg, George J.; Barton, H.N.; Watterson, J.R.; Welsch, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    Paired rock and soil samples were collected at widely spaced locations in large segments of the porphyry-metal systems of the Montezuma district in central Colorado and of a northwestward extension of the Summitville district into Crater Creek in southern Colorado. The paired samples do not covary closely enough for one sample medium to proxy for the other. However, the areal distributions of elements in both rocks and soils in these two districts conform to alteration zoning as defined by mineralogy. Differing geochemical patterns of rocks and soils reflect species-dependent responses to weathering. Soils appear to be statistically enriched in ore elements and depleted in rock elements as compared to the matching rocks. These differences are largely artificial s owing to different methods of sample preparation and chemical analysis for rocks and for soils. The distributions of metals in soils delineate the occurrence of ore-metal minerals mostly from vein deposits whereas the distributions of metals in rocks conform to zones of pervasive hydrothermal alteration and to the distribution of varied mineral deposits among these zones. Rock and soil samples are equally useful s of comparable map resolution and complement one another as a basis for geochemically mapping these porphyry-metal systems.

  8. Detecting tactical patterns in basketball: comparison of merge self-organising maps and dynamic controlled neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Matthias; Grunz, Andreas; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The soaring amount of data, especially spatial-temporal data, recorded in recent years demands for advanced analysis methods. Neural networks derived from self-organizing maps established themselves as a useful tool to analyse static and temporal data. In this study, we applied the merge self-organising map (MSOM) to spatio-temporal data. To do so, we investigated the ability of MSOM's to analyse spatio-temporal data and compared its performance to the common dynamical controlled network (DyCoN) approach to analyse team sport position data. The position data of 10 players were recorded via the Ubisense tracking system during a basketball game. Furthermore, three different pre-selected plays were recorded for classification. Following data preparation, the different nets were trained with the data of the first half. The training success of both networks was evaluated by achieved entropy. The second half of the basketball game was presented to both nets for automatic classification. Both approaches were able to present the trained data extremely well and to detect the pre-selected plays correctly. In conclusion, MSOMs are a useful tool to analyse spatial-temporal data, especially in team sports. By their direct inclusion of different time length of tactical patterns, they open up new opportunities within team sports.

  9. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD): adolescents perspective.

    PubMed

    Brook, Uzi; Boaz, Mona

    2005-08-01

    Three hundred and eight pupils in the age group 12-18 years were interviewed and examined. They had been diagnosed as having attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD), and were attending a high school devoted to special education. Their classification into subgroups was as follows: ADHD - inattentive (I) = 22.1%, ADHD - hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) = 12.3% and combined = 42.2%. Only 25% of them were treated by methylphenidate (Ritalin). Ninety-four percent of them were diagnosed with comorbidity of 'learning disabilities'. Thirty-four percent of them reported being severely stressed when going to school and sitting in class. Their complaints were: tiredness and excessive needs to sleep, frequent quarrelling with close friends, feeling different from other classmates and having low self-esteem (SE). They complaint that their parents don't understand them. Things that irritated them the most were being lied to and coercion by others. The authors suggest to consider ADHD/LD as neurobehavioral disability. It is mandatory to prepare them for adult life with proper social skills and a suitable occupation. PMID:16009295

  10. Orthographic processing and reading comprehension among Arabic speaking mainstream and LD children.

    PubMed

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Abu Al-Diyar, Mosaad; Taibah, Nadia

    2011-05-01

    Two cohorts of mainstream children (grades 2-5) and one cohort of children with learning disabilities (LD; grades 3-5), all Arabic speaking children in Kuwait, were given measures of reading comprehension fluency and orthographic discrimination to assess the relationship between the two. Additional measures of phonological processing (decoding and awareness), speed of processing (rapid naming) and memory (visual as well as phonological/verbal tasks) were included either because these have been found to be predictive of Arabic literacy or to provide an assessment of alternative interpretations of any influence of the orthographic task. The findings indicated that the orthographic measure predicted variability in the comprehension fluency over-and-above that predicted by the other measures in the study. This was significant in the older mainstream children (grades 4 and 5) when controlling for phonological processing, but was not in the younger grades (2 and 3) where experience text that incorporating short vowel markers is dominant. The LD group showed little evidence of an influence of phonological processing but did of orthographic processing. The findings are discussed in terms of the skills required to process Arabic literacy and potential causes of literacy learning difficulties among Arabic children.

  11. Atomic far-IR fine-structure line mapping of L1630, M17, and W3: Comparison of (O I) and (C II) distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, J. E.; Jaffe, Dan T.; Zhou, Shudong

    1995-01-01

    We mapped the distribution of atomic far-IR line emission from (O I) and (C II) over parsec scales in the Galactic star-forming regions L1630, M17, and W3 using the MPE Far-Infrared Fabry-Perot Imaging spectrometer (FIFI) on board the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The lines mapped include (O I) 63 microns, (O I) 146 microns, and (C II) 158 microns. Comparison of the intensities and ratios of these lines with models of photodissociation regions (e.g., Tielens & Hollenbach 1985, ApJ, 344, 770) allows us to derive temperatures and densities of the primarily neutral atomic gas layers lying on the surfaces of UV-illuminated molecular gas. In general, the (C II) line arises ubiquitously throughout the molecular clouds while the (O I) lines are mainly confined to warm, dense gas (T is greater than 100 K, n is greater than 10(exp 4)/cu cm) near the sites of O and B stars. The distribution of (C II) in the star-forming clouds implies that the (C II) emission arises on the surfaces of molecular clumps throughout the clouds, rather than only at the boundary layer between molecular gas and H II regions.

  12. Quantification of Pathologic Air Trapping in Lung Transplant Patients Using CT Density Mapping: Comparison with Other CT Air Trapping Measures.

    PubMed

    Solyanik, Olga; Hollmann, Patrick; Dettmer, Sabine; Kaireit, Till; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Wacker, Frank; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Shin, Hoen-oh

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether density mapping (DM) is more accurate for detection and quantification of pathologic air trapping (pAT) in patients after lung transplantation compared to other CT air trapping measures. One-hundred forty-seven lung and heart-lung transplant recipients underwent CT-examinations at functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity (TLC) and PFT six months after lung transplantation. Quantification of air trapping was performed with the threshold-based method in expiration (EXP), density mapping (DM) and the expiratory to inspiratory ratio of the mean lung density (E/I-ratio MLD). A non-rigid registration of inspiration-expiration CT-data with a following voxel-to-voxel mapping was carried out for DM. Systematic variation of attenuation ranges was performed for EXP and DM and correlated with the ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity (RV/TLC) by Spearman rank correlation test. AT was considered pathologic if RV/TLC was above the 95th percentile of the predicted upper limit of normal values. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The optimal attenuation range for the EXP method was from -790 HU to -950 HU (EXP(-790 to -950HU)) (r = 0.524, p<0.001) to detect air trapping. Within the segmented lung parenchyma, AT was best defined as voxel difference less than 80 HU between expiration and registered inspiration using the DM method. DM correlated best with RV/TLC (r = 0.663, p<0.001). DM and E/I-ratio MLD showed a larger AUC (0.78; 95% CI 0.69-0.86; 0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.85) than EXP(-790 HU to -950 HU) (0.71, 95% CI 0.63-0.78). DM and E/I-ratio MLD showed better correlation with RV/TLC and are more suited quantitative CT-methods to detect pAT in lung transplant patients than the EXP(-790HU to -950HU).

  13. Comparison of Discrete-return ranging and Full-waveform digitization for Bathymetric Lidar Mapping of a Shallow Water Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starek, M. J.; Fernandez-diaz, J.; Pan, Z.; Glennie, C. L.; Shrestha, R. L.; Gibeaut, J. C.; Singhania, A.

    2013-12-01

    Researchers with the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) at the University of Houston (UH) and the Coastal and Marine Geospatial Sciences Lab (CMGL) of the Harte Research Institute at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi conducted a coordinated airborne and field-based survey of the Redfish Bay State Scientific Area to investigate the capabilities of shallow water bathymetric lidar for benthic mapping. Redfish Bay, located along the middle Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico, is a state scientific area designated for the purposes of protecting and studying the native seagrasses. The mapped region is very shallow (< 1 m in most locations) and consists of a variety of benthic cover including sandy bottom, oyster reef, subaqueous vegetation, and submerged structures. For this survey, UH acquired high resolution (2.5 shots per square meter) bathymetry data using their new Optech Aquarius 532 nm green lidar. The field survey conducted by CMGL used an airboat to collect in-situ radiometer measurements, GPS position, depth, and ground-truth data of benthic type at over 80 locations within the bay. The return signal of an Aquarius lidar pulse is analyzed in real time by a hardware-based constant fraction discriminator (CFD) to detect returns from the surface and determine ranges (x,y,z points). This approach is commonly called discrete-return ranging, and Aquarius can record up to 4 returns per an emitted laser pulse. In contrast, full-waveform digitization records the incoming energy of an emitted pulse by sampling it at very high-frequency. Post-processing algorithms can then be applied to detect returns (ranges) from the digitized waveform. For this survey, a waveform digitizer was simultaneously operated to record the return waveforms at a rate of 1GHz with 12 bit dynamic range. High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of the topo-bathymetry were derived from the discrete-return and full-waveform data to evaluate the relative and absolute accuracy

  14. Techniques of low technology sampling of air pollution by metals: a comparison of concentrations and map patterns.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, O L; Gailey, F A

    1987-07-01

    During a 17 month survey of air pollution in the town of Armadale, central Scotland, the concentrations of some metals (iron, manganese, zinc, lead, copper, chrome, nickel, cadmium, and cobalt) were measured in seven types of low technology sampler--four indigenous and three transplanted--at 47 sites. The geographical patterns of the concentrations in the samplers were compared on two types of map. For most metals, sites with high concentrations were present close to the foundry and also in the north of the town. The differences between the patterns of pollution shown by the various types of sampler probably reflected differing mechanisms for collection and different affinities for various sizes and types of metal particle.

  15. Temporal Comparison Between NIRS and EEG Signals During a Mental Arithmetic Task Evaluated with Self-Organizing Maps.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Katsunori; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous monitoring of brain activity with near-infrared spectroscopy and electroencephalography allows spatiotemporal reconstruction of the hemodynamic response regarding the concentration changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin that are associated with recorded brain activity such as cognitive functions. However, the accuracy of state estimation during mental arithmetic tasks is often different depending on the length of the segment for sampling of NIRS and EEG signals. This study compared the results of a self-organizing map and ANOVA, which were both used to assess the accuracy of state estimation. We conducted an experiment with a mental arithmetic task performed by 10 participants. The lengths of the segment in each time frame for observation of NIRS and EEG signals were compared with the 30-s, 1-min, and 2-min segment lengths. The optimal segment lengths were different for NIRS and EEG signals in the case of classification of feature vectors into the states of performing a mental arithmetic task and being at rest.

  16. Mapping trees outside forests using high-resolution aerial imagery: a comparison of pixel- and object-based classification approaches.

    PubMed

    Meneguzzo, Dacia M; Liknes, Greg C; Nelson, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    Discrete trees and small groups of trees in nonforest settings are considered an essential resource around the world and are collectively referred to as trees outside forests (ToF). ToF provide important functions across the landscape, such as protecting soil and water resources, providing wildlife habitat, and improving farmstead energy efficiency and aesthetics. Despite the significance of ToF, forest and other natural resource inventory programs and geospatial land cover datasets that are available at a national scale do not include comprehensive information regarding ToF in the United States. Additional ground-based data collection and acquisition of specialized imagery to inventory these resources are expensive alternatives. As a potential solution, we identified two remote sensing-based approaches that use free high-resolution aerial imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) to map all tree cover in an agriculturally dominant landscape. We compared the results obtained using an unsupervised per-pixel classifier (independent component analysis-[ICA]) and an object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure in Steele County, Minnesota, USA. Three types of accuracy assessments were used to evaluate how each method performed in terms of: (1) producing a county-level estimate of total tree-covered area, (2) correctly locating tree cover on the ground, and (3) how tree cover patch metrics computed from the classified outputs compared to those delineated by a human photo interpreter. Both approaches were found to be viable for mapping tree cover over a broad spatial extent and could serve to supplement ground-based inventory data. The ICA approach produced an estimate of total tree cover more similar to the photo-interpreted result, but the output from the OBIA method was more realistic in terms of describing the actual observed spatial pattern of tree cover.

  17. Mapping trees outside forests using high-resolution aerial imagery: a comparison of pixel- and object-based classification approaches.

    PubMed

    Meneguzzo, Dacia M; Liknes, Greg C; Nelson, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    Discrete trees and small groups of trees in nonforest settings are considered an essential resource around the world and are collectively referred to as trees outside forests (ToF). ToF provide important functions across the landscape, such as protecting soil and water resources, providing wildlife habitat, and improving farmstead energy efficiency and aesthetics. Despite the significance of ToF, forest and other natural resource inventory programs and geospatial land cover datasets that are available at a national scale do not include comprehensive information regarding ToF in the United States. Additional ground-based data collection and acquisition of specialized imagery to inventory these resources are expensive alternatives. As a potential solution, we identified two remote sensing-based approaches that use free high-resolution aerial imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) to map all tree cover in an agriculturally dominant landscape. We compared the results obtained using an unsupervised per-pixel classifier (independent component analysis-[ICA]) and an object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure in Steele County, Minnesota, USA. Three types of accuracy assessments were used to evaluate how each method performed in terms of: (1) producing a county-level estimate of total tree-covered area, (2) correctly locating tree cover on the ground, and (3) how tree cover patch metrics computed from the classified outputs compared to those delineated by a human photo interpreter. Both approaches were found to be viable for mapping tree cover over a broad spatial extent and could serve to supplement ground-based inventory data. The ICA approach produced an estimate of total tree cover more similar to the photo-interpreted result, but the output from the OBIA method was more realistic in terms of describing the actual observed spatial pattern of tree cover. PMID:23255169

  18. A quantitative spatial comparison of high-density diffuse optical tomography and fMRI cortical mapping

    PubMed Central

    Eggebrecht, Adam T.; White, Brian R.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Chen, Chunxiao; Zhan, Yuxuan; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Dehghani, Hamid; Culver, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging commands a dominant role in current neuroscience research. However its use in bedside clinical and certain neuro-scientific studies has been limited because the current tools lack the combination of being non-invasive, non-ionizing and portable while maintaining moderate resolution and localization accuracy. Optical neuroimaging satisfies many of these requirements, but, until recent advances in high-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT), has been hampered by limited resolution. While early results of HD-DOT have been promising, a quantitative voxel-wise comparison and validation of HD-DOT against the gold standard of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been lacking. Herein, we provide such an analysis within the visual cortex using matched visual stimulation protocols in a single group of subjects (n=5) during separate HD-DOT and fMRI scanning sessions. To attain the needed voxel-to-voxel co-registration between HD-DOT and fMRI image spaces, we implemented subject-specific head modeling that incorporated MRI anatomy, detailed segmentation, and alignment of source and detector positions. Comparisons of the visual responses found an average localization error between HD-DOT and fMRI of 4.4 +/− 1 mm, significantly less than the average distance between cortical gyri. This specificity demonstrates that HD-DOT has sufficient image quality to be useful as a surrogate for fMRI. PMID:22330315

  19. Classification and comparison of ligand-binding sites derived from grid-mapped knowledge-based potentials.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Christian; Steinbeck, Christoph; Wohlfahrt, Gerd

    2006-03-01

    We describe the application of knowledge-based potentials implemented in the MOE program to compare the ligand-binding sites of several proteins. The binding probabilities for a polar and a hydrophobic probe are calculated on a grid to allow easy comparison of binding sites of superimposed related proteins. The method is fast and simple enough to simultaneously use structural information of multiple proteins of a target family. The method can be used to rapidly cluster proteins into subfamilies according to the similarity of hydrophobic and polar fields of their ligand-binding sites. Regions of the binding site which are common within a protein family can be identified and analysed for the design of family-targeted libraries or those which differ for improvement of ligand selectivity. The field-based hierarchical clustering is demonstrated for three protein families: the ligand-binding domains of nuclear receptors, the ATP-binding sites of protein kinases and the substrate binding sites of proteases. More detailed comparisons are presented for serine proteases of the chymotrypsin family, for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subfamily of nuclear receptors and for progesterone and androgen receptor. The results are in good accordance with structure-based analysis and highlight important differences of the binding sites, which have been also described in the literature.

  20. Mapping Urban Forest Leaf Area Index Using Lidar: A Comparison of Gap Fraction Inversion and Allometric Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo, M.; Bookhagen, B.; McFadden, J. P.; Sun, A.; Roberts, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    In urban areas leaf area index (LAI) is a key ecosystem structural attribute with implications for energy and water balance, gas exchange, and anthropogenic energy use. Typically, citywide LAI estimates are extrapolated from those made on forest inventory sample plots through intensive crown measurement and allometric scaling. This is a time- and labor-intensive process yielding coarse spatial resolution results. In this study we generate spatially explicit estimates of LAI using high-point density airborne lidar throughout our study area in downtown Santa Barbara, CA. We implement two theoretically distinct modeling approaches. First, based on hemispherical photography at our 71 field plots, we estimate effective LAI using scan-angle corrected lidar laser penetration metrics (LPM). For our second approach, we adapt existing allometric equations for use with a suite of crown structural metrics (e.g., tree height, crown base height) measured with lidar. This approach allows for estimates of LAI to be made at the individual tree crown scale (ITC). This is important for evaluating fine-scale interactions between canopy and urban surfaces. The LPM method resulted in good agreement with field estimates (r2 = 0.80) and a slope of near unity (β = 0.998) using a model that assumed a spherical leaf angle distribution. Within ITC segments that were automatically delineated using watershed segmentation, lidar estimates of crown structure closely paralleled field measurements (r2=0.87 for crown length). LAI estimates based on the lidar structural variables corresponded well with estimates from field measurements (r2 = 0.84). Agreement between the LPM and allometric lidar methods was also strong across the 71 validation plots (r2 = 0.88) and among 450 sample points (r2 = 0.72) randomly distributed throughout the citywide maps. This is notably higher than the agreement between the hemiphoto and allometric ground-based estimates (r2 = 0.56). The allometric approach generally

  1. On the Effectiveness of Sentinel-2 Data for Land-Cover Mapping: Comparison with Landsat and SPOT Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Tim; Marconcini, Mattia; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this work is twofold. On the one hand, we aim at assessing the effectiveness of Sentinel-2 data for land-cover mapping, and evaluating the improved discrimination capabilities offered by new features of the Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) sensor. On the other hand, we compare the performances with those obtained using both Landsat-5 TM and SPOT-5 HRG imagery. Simulated Sentinel-2 data are derived from hyperspectral airborne images acquired in the framework of four different ESA campaigns, namely SPARC 2003 (Barrax, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain), AGRISAR 2006 (Demmin, Pomerania, Germany) and CEFLES2 2007 (Marmande, Aquitaine, France). In each case, we discard the three spectral bands at 60 meter resolution (i.e., band 1, band 9 and band 10) and resample all the 20 meter-resolution bands to 10 meter resolution using nearest neighbour interpolation. Available prior knowledge is used for defining a complete ground truth for all the land-cover classes characterizing each investigated site. In each case, besides considering the whole available 10 spectral bands, we also run the branch & bound feature selection algorithm for identifying the subset of n features (varying n from 1 to 9) maximizing the (expected) separability between the investigated land-cover classes (for which training samples are available). Furthermore we run experiments by adding the new features of Sentinel-2 successive to the corresponding Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) bands. Then, in order to assess the discrimination capabilities offered by different features, for each subset we run two supervised classifiers, namely, the Maximum Likelihood (ML) classifier and Support Vector Machines (SVM). ML is a simple yet generally rather effective statistical classifier, which does not require the user to set any free parameter. SVM are advanced state-of-art classifiers, which proved capable of outperforming other traditional approaches. For the selection of the two free parameters (i.e., a

  2. The issue of multiple univariate comparisons in the context of neuroelectric brain mapping: an application in a neuromarketing experiment.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, G; De Vico Fallani, F; Astolfi, L; Toppi, J; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Salinari, S; Babiloni, F

    2010-08-30

    This paper presents some considerations about the use of adequate statistical techniques in the framework of the neuroelectromagnetic brain mapping. With the use of advanced EEG/MEG recording setup involving hundred of sensors, the issue of the protection against the type I errors that could occur during the execution of hundred of univariate statistical tests, has gained interest. In the present experiment, we investigated the EEG signals from a mannequin acting as an experimental subject. Data have been collected while performing a neuromarketing experiment and analyzed with state of the art computational tools adopted in specialized literature. Results showed that electric data from the mannequin's head presents statistical significant differences in power spectra during the visualization of a commercial advertising when compared to the power spectra gathered during a documentary, when no adjustments were made on the alpha level of the multiple univariate tests performed. The use of the Bonferroni or Bonferroni-Holm adjustments returned correctly no differences between the signals gathered from the mannequin in the two experimental conditions. An partial sample of recently published literature on different neuroscience journals suggested that at least the 30% of the papers do not use statistical protection for the type I errors. While the occurrence of type I errors could be easily managed with appropriate statistical techniques, the use of such techniques is still not so largely adopted in the literature.

  3. A Comparison of HALOE V19 with SAGE II V6.00 Ozone Observations using Trajectory Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Gary A.; Gleason, James F.; Russell, James R., III; Schoeberl, Mark R.; McCormick, M. Patrick; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We apply trajectory mapping to an eight-year intercomparison of ozone observations from HALOE (V19) and SAGE II (V6.00) for the months March, May, June, September, October, and December from the period December 1991 - October 1999. Our results, which represent the most extensive such intercomparison of these two data sets to date, suggest a root-mean -square difference between the two data sets of greater than 15% below 22 km and of 4 - 12% throughout most of the rest of the stratosphere. In addition, we find a bias with HALOE ozone low relative to SAGE II by 5 - 20% below 22 km between 40degS and 40degN. Biases throughout most of the rest of the stratosphere are nearly nonexistent. Finally, our analysis suggests almost no drift in the bias between the data sets is observed over the period of study. In the course of our study, we also determine that the employment of the Wang-Cunnold criteria is still recommended with the V6.00 SAGE II ozone data. Results with the new versions of the data sets show significant improvement over previous versions, particularly in the elimination of mid-stratospheric biases and the elimination of the previously observed drifts in the biases between the data sets in the lower stratosphere. Since HALOE V19 and V18 ozone are very similar, these changes can likely be attributed to improvements in the SAGE II retrieval.

  4. The issue of multiple univariate comparisons in the context of neuroelectric brain mapping: an application in a neuromarketing experiment.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, G; De Vico Fallani, F; Astolfi, L; Toppi, J; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Salinari, S; Babiloni, F

    2010-08-30

    This paper presents some considerations about the use of adequate statistical techniques in the framework of the neuroelectromagnetic brain mapping. With the use of advanced EEG/MEG recording setup involving hundred of sensors, the issue of the protection against the type I errors that could occur during the execution of hundred of univariate statistical tests, has gained interest. In the present experiment, we investigated the EEG signals from a mannequin acting as an experimental subject. Data have been collected while performing a neuromarketing experiment and analyzed with state of the art computational tools adopted in specialized literature. Results showed that electric data from the mannequin's head presents statistical significant differences in power spectra during the visualization of a commercial advertising when compared to the power spectra gathered during a documentary, when no adjustments were made on the alpha level of the multiple univariate tests performed. The use of the Bonferroni or Bonferroni-Holm adjustments returned correctly no differences between the signals gathered from the mannequin in the two experimental conditions. An partial sample of recently published literature on different neuroscience journals suggested that at least the 30% of the papers do not use statistical protection for the type I errors. While the occurrence of type I errors could be easily managed with appropriate statistical techniques, the use of such techniques is still not so largely adopted in the literature. PMID:20637802

  5. Comparison of the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) fire product to ground-based fire records in Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xuefei; Yu, Chao; Tian, Di; Ruminski, Mark; Robertson, Kevin; Waller, Lance A.; Liu, Yang

    2016-03-01

    Biomass burning has a significant and adverse impact on air quality, climate change, and various ecosystems. The Hazard Mapping System (HMS) detects fires using data from multiple satellite sensors in order to maximize its fire detection rate. However, to date, the detection rate of the HMS fire product for small fires has not been well studied, especially using ground-based fire records. This paper utilizes the 2011 fire information compiled from ground observations and burn authorizations in Georgia to assess the comprehensiveness of the HMS active fire product. The results show that detection rates of the hybrid HMS increase substantially by integrating multiple satellite instruments. The detection rate increases dramatically from 3% to 80% with an increase in fire size from less than 0.02 km2 to larger than 2 km2, resulting in detection of approximately 12% of all recorded fires which represent approximately 57% of the total area burned. The spatial pattern of detection rates reveals that grid cells with high detection rates are generally located in areas where large fires occur frequently. The seasonal analysis shows that overall detection rates in winter and spring (12% and 13%, respectively) are higher than those in summer and fall (3% and 6%, respectively), mainly because of higher percentages of large fires (>0.19 km2) that occurred in winter and spring. The land cover analysis shows that detection rates are 2-7 percentage points higher in land cover types that are prone to large fires such as forestland and shrub land.

  6. Software Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Software Comparison Package (SCP) compares similar files. Normally, these are 90-character files produced by CDC UPDATE utility from program libraries that contain FORTRAN source code plus identifier. SCP also used to compare load maps, cross-reference outputs, and UPDATE corrections sets. Helps wherever line-by-line comparison of similarly structured files required.

  7. Investigations on the heating effect of PE-LD induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Oehm, Lukas; Bach, Sascha; Majschak, Jens-Peter

    2016-08-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound is widely applied in tissue treatment as well as for heating of solid polymer materials. Previous studies investigating the heating effect in polymer materials utilized sound transmission through water or other fluids at low HIFU power. In this study, the ultrasonic transducer possesses a solid sound conductor made of aluminum and a high HIFU power of above 100W was applied to heat solid PE-LD samples. Temperature measurements were performed by calibrated non-invasive infrared thermal imaging. A strong heating effect with heating above melting temperature and evaporation temperature within less than 1s of irradiation was observed. Furthermore, the acoustic coupling defined by the force applied by the ultrasonic applicator to the polymer material was found to be fundamental to induce the heating effect. This investigation reveals HIFU for new applications in the field of polymer processing.

  8. Polymorphs of Aspirin Solid-state IR-LD spectroscopic and quantitative determination in solid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Bojidarka B.

    2006-12-01

    Solid-state linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscopy, using an orientation technique as a suspension in nematic liquid crystal, has been carried out of Aspirin polymorphs (forms I and II). Reducing-difference procedure for polarized IR-spectra interpretation has been applied for structural analysis of both modifications and the data have been compared with known crystallographic ones. A vibration assignment of forms I and II has been included and on this basis, a quantitative determination by FT-IR spectra for form I in mixtures with second one has been presented, using intensity ratio of 1606 cm -1 peak (characteristic for both forms) to 599 cm -1 one (attributed to form I). The obtained reliability is 99.78%.

  9. Investigations on the heating effect of PE-LD induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Oehm, Lukas; Bach, Sascha; Majschak, Jens-Peter

    2016-08-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound is widely applied in tissue treatment as well as for heating of solid polymer materials. Previous studies investigating the heating effect in polymer materials utilized sound transmission through water or other fluids at low HIFU power. In this study, the ultrasonic transducer possesses a solid sound conductor made of aluminum and a high HIFU power of above 100W was applied to heat solid PE-LD samples. Temperature measurements were performed by calibrated non-invasive infrared thermal imaging. A strong heating effect with heating above melting temperature and evaporation temperature within less than 1s of irradiation was observed. Furthermore, the acoustic coupling defined by the force applied by the ultrasonic applicator to the polymer material was found to be fundamental to induce the heating effect. This investigation reveals HIFU for new applications in the field of polymer processing. PMID:27208613

  10. Oral LD50 toxicity modeling and prediction of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals on rat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-05-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses were performed using the LD(50) oral toxicity data of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) on rodents: rat and mouse. PFCs are studied under the EU project CADASTER which uses the available experimental data for prediction and prioritization of toxic chemicals for risk assessment by using the in silico tools. The methodology presented here applies chemometrical analysis on the existing experimental data and predicts the toxicity of new compounds. QSAR analyses were performed on the available 58 mouse and 50 rat LD(50) oral data using multiple linear regression (MLR) based on theoretical molecular descriptors selected by genetic algorithm (GA). Training and prediction sets were prepared a priori from available experimental datasets in terms of structure and response. These sets were used to derive statistically robust and predictive (both internally and externally) models. The structural applicability domain (AD) of the models were verified on 376 per- and polyfluorinated chemicals including those in REACH preregistration list. The rat and mouse endpoints were predicted by each model for the studied compounds, and finally 30 compounds, all perfluorinated, were prioritized as most important for experimental toxicity analysis under the project. In addition, cumulative study on compounds within the AD of all four models, including two earlier published models on LC(50) rodent analysis was studied and the cumulative toxicity trend was observed using principal component analysis (PCA). The similarities and the differences observed in terms of descriptors and chemical/mechanistic meaning encoded by descriptors to prioritize the most toxic compounds are highlighted.

  11. Dynamic Modeling of LD Converter Steelmaking: Reaction Modeling Using Gibbs' Free Energy Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Rahul; Gupta, Pramod; Basu, Somnath; Ballal, Nidambur Bharath

    2015-04-01

    Slag-metal emulsion plays an important role in the oxidation kinetics of metalloids in oxygen steelmaking. The importance of droplet generation rate, droplet size, and its residence time in the slag-metal emulsion on the overall reaction kinetics has become evident in recent times. Residence times of the droplets are strongly dependent on the decarburization rate, the CO bubbles giving a buoyant force to the droplets. The present work aims at developing a mathematical model for predicting the composition evolutions of the slag and the metal phases as the blow proceeds in an LD converter. The process dynamics are modeled by dividing the LD convertor into three separate continuous stirred tank reactors. Oxidation reactions are assumed to be primarily taking place at the interface between the slag and the metal phases in the emulsion. Among the different mass transfer and reaction steps controlling the kinetics, the mass transfer of FeO in the slag phase and that of the metalloids within the metal droplet are assumed to be rate-controlling. For a Fe-C-X (X = Mn, Si etc.) droplet, simultaneous removal of elements have been modeled by Gibbs' free energy minimization at the slag-metal interface. Effects of droplet size, mass transfer coefficient, and initial carbon content on the mean residence time of metal droplets in the slag-metal emulsion have also been identified. Mixing in the metal phase is simulated in terms of metal exchange rate and the reactor weight ratio between the upper and the lower parts of the bath.

  12. Mapping B(1)-induced eddy current effects near metallic structures in MR images: a comparison of simulation and experiment.

    PubMed

    Vashaee, S; Goora, F; Britton, M M; Newling, B; Balcom, B J

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the presence of metallic structures is very common in medical and non-medical fields. Metallic structures cause MRI image distortions by three mechanisms: (1) static field distortion through magnetic susceptibility mismatch, (2) eddy currents induced by switched magnetic field gradients and (3) radio frequency (RF) induced eddy currents. Single point ramped imaging with T1 enhancement (SPRITE) MRI measurements are largely immune to susceptibility and gradient induced eddy current artifacts. As a result, one can isolate the effects of metal objects on the RF field. The RF field affects both the excitation and detection of the magnetic resonance (MR) signal. This is challenging with conventional MRI methods, which cannot readily separate the three effects. RF induced MRI artifacts were investigated experimentally at 2.4 T by analyzing image distortions surrounding two geometrically identical metallic strips of aluminum and lead. The strips were immersed in agar gel doped with contrast agent and imaged employing the conical SPRITE sequence. B1 mapping with pure phase encode SPRITE was employed to measure the B1 field around the strips of metal. The strip geometry was chosen to mimic metal electrodes employed in electrochemistry studies. Simulations are employed to investigate the RF field induced eddy currents in the two metallic strips. The RF simulation results are in good agreement with experimental results. Experimental and simulation results show that the metal has a pronounced effect on the B1 distribution and B1 amplitude in the surrounding space. The electrical conductivity of the metal has a minimal effect. PMID:25459883

  13. Mapping B1-induced eddy current effects near metallic structures in MR images: A comparison of simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashaee, S.; Goora, F.; Britton, M. M.; Newling, B.; Balcom, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the presence of metallic structures is very common in medical and non-medical fields. Metallic structures cause MRI image distortions by three mechanisms: (1) static field distortion through magnetic susceptibility mismatch, (2) eddy currents induced by switched magnetic field gradients and (3) radio frequency (RF) induced eddy currents. Single point ramped imaging with T1 enhancement (SPRITE) MRI measurements are largely immune to susceptibility and gradient induced eddy current artifacts. As a result, one can isolate the effects of metal objects on the RF field. The RF field affects both the excitation and detection of the magnetic resonance (MR) signal. This is challenging with conventional MRI methods, which cannot readily separate the three effects. RF induced MRI artifacts were investigated experimentally at 2.4 T by analyzing image distortions surrounding two geometrically identical metallic strips of aluminum and lead. The strips were immersed in agar gel doped with contrast agent and imaged employing the conical SPRITE sequence. B1 mapping with pure phase encode SPRITE was employed to measure the B1 field around the strips of metal. The strip geometry was chosen to mimic metal electrodes employed in electrochemistry studies. Simulations are employed to investigate the RF field induced eddy currents in the two metallic strips. The RF simulation results are in good agreement with experimental results. Experimental and simulation results show that the metal has a pronounced effect on the B1 distribution and B1 amplitude in the surrounding space. The electrical conductivity of the metal has a minimal effect.

  14. Use of linkage disequilibrium approaches to map genes for bipolar disorder in the Costa Rican population

    SciTech Connect

    Escamilla, M.A.; Reus, V.I.; Smith, L.B.; Freimer, N.B.

    1996-05-31

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis provides a powerful means for screening the genome to map the location of disease genes, such as those for bipolar disorder (BP). As described in this paper, the population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, which is descended from a small number of founders, should be suitable for LD mapping; this assertion is supported by reconstruction of extended haplotypes shared by distantly related individuals in this population suffering low-frequency hearing loss (LFHL1), which has previously been mapped by linkage analysis. A sampling strategy is described for applying LD methods to map genes for BP, and clinical and demographic characteristics of an initially collected sample are discussed. This sample will provide a complement to a previously collected set of Costa Rican BP families which is under investigation using standard linkage analysis. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Screening for specific learning difficulties (SpLD): the impact upon the progression of pre-registration nursing students.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jane; Aspland, Jo; Taghzouit, Jayne; Pace, Kerry; Harrison, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the impact of screening pre-registration nursing students for an SpLD at entry to an education programme, and the provision of specialist support for those identified as 'at risk'. Progression was monitored using a multiple method approach. 242 (98%) students completed and returned the Adult Dyslexia Check List (ADCL). 69 scored 7 or above (28.5% of responses) and 36 (52%) went on for further assessment. 48% of students who scored 7+ did not go on to contact Disability Services at all. 11% of the cohort was formally identified as having a SpLD at the end of the year compared to 3.9% of students with a declared disability entering pre-registration nurse education in 2007. 54% of the students who scored 7+ successfully progressed into year two, compared with 41% of students with SpLD from a previous cohort. PMID:21353730

  16. Lactate dehydrogenase (LD), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzymatic patterns in Iraqi children with visceral leishmaniasis before and after treatment with stibogluconate.

    PubMed

    Taher, Jasim Hameed; Al-Mulla Hummadi, Yassir Mustafa Kamal; Al-Bashir, Nada Muhammed Taha; Al-Araji, Ali Shaalan

    2016-06-01

    The mean levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase enzymes exhibited a significant elevation in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients compared to the control. There was no significant change in relation to the sex and age. ALP isoenzymes revealed three banding patterns which differ from the three zymodems which were obtained from control group. These differences may be due to isoenzymes activity of patients with VL before and after therapy. Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) isoenzymes revealed five banding patterns differ from the five normal zymodems. These differences mainly occurred due to LD isoenzymes activity in patients with VL before and after therapy. PMID:27413293

  17. Full-duplex radio-over-fiber transport systems based on two modes injection-locked FP LD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Hsiao-Wen; Lee, Cheng-Yuan; Wang, Hai-Wei; Hu, Hsuan-Wen; Hsu, Sheng-Sung; Tzeng, Shah-Jye

    2008-10-01

    A full-duplex radio-over-fiber (ROF) transport system based on two modes injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP LD) is proposed and demonstrated. Performances over a 40-km standard single-mode fiber (SMF) full-duplex transmission were investigated. Good performances of bit error rate (BER) and error vector magnitude (EVM) were obtained in our proposed systems. Since our proposed systems use only one FP LD as light source for both down-link and up-link transmissions, it reveals a prominent alternative with advantages in simplicity and cost.

  18. Uav-Based Photogrammetric Point Clouds - Tree STEM Mapping in Open Stands in Comparison to Terrestrial Laser Scanner Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, A.; Kattenborn, T.; Koch, B.

    2013-08-01

    in the TLS-point cloud. Only few stems were considered to be fully reconstructed. From the comparison of reconstruction achievement with respect to height above ground, we can state that reconstruction accuracy decreased in the crown layer of the stand. In addition we were cutting 50 [cm] slices in z-direction and applied a robust cylinder fit to the stem slices. Radii of the TLS-cloud and the SFM-cloud surprisingly correlated well with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.696. This first study showed promising results for UAV-based forest structure modelling. Yet, there is a demand for additional research with regard to vegetation stages, flight pattern, processing setup and the utilisation of spectral information.

  19. Are free energy calculations useful in practice? A comparison with rapid scoring functions for the p38 MAP kinase protein system.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, D A; Charifson, P S

    2001-10-11

    Precise thermodynamic integration free energy simulations have been applied to a congeneric series of 16 inhibitors to the p38 MAP kinase protein for which the experimental binding data (IC(50)) is known. The relative free energy of binding for each compound has been determined. For comparison, the same series of compounds have also scored using the best rapid scoring functions used in database screening. From the results of these calculations, we find (1) that precise free energy simulations allow predictions that are reliable and in good agreement with experiment; (2) that predictions of lower reliability, but still in good qualitative agreement with experiment, can be obtained using the OWFEG free energy grid method, at a much lower computational cost; (3) and that other methods, not based on free energy simulations yield results in much poorer agreement with experiment. A new predictive index, which measures the reliability of a prediction method in the context of normal use, is defined and calculated for each scoring method. Predictive indices of 0.84, 0.56, 0.04, -0.05, and 0.25 are calculated for thermodynamic integration, OWFEG, ChemScore, PLPScore, and Dock Energy Score, respectively, where +1.0 is perfect correct prediction, -1.0 is perfect incorrect prediction, and 0.0 is random.

  20. H3N2 Mismatch of 2014-15 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Vaccines and Head-to-head Comparison between Human and Ferret Antisera derived Antigenic Maps.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hang; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Ye, Zhiping; Plant, Ewan P; Zhao, Yangqing; Xu, Yifei; Li, Xing; Finch, Courtney; Zhao, Nan; Kawano, Toshiaki; Zoueva, Olga; Chiang, Meng-Jung; Jing, Xianghong; Lin, Zhengshi; Zhang, Anding; Zhu, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    The poor performance of 2014-15 Northern Hemisphere (NH) influenza vaccines was attributed to mismatched H3N2 component with circulating epidemic strains. Using human serum samples collected from 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2014-15 NH influenza vaccine trials, we assessed their cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses against recent H3 epidemic isolates. All three populations (children, adults, and older adults) vaccinated with the 2014-15 NH egg- or cell-based vaccine, showed >50% reduction in HAI post-vaccination geometric mean titers against epidemic H3 isolates from those against egg-grown H3 vaccine strain A/Texas/50/2012 (TX/12e). The 2014-15 NH vaccines, regardless of production type, failed to further extend HAI cross-reactivity against H3 epidemic strains from previous seasonal vaccines. Head-to-head comparison between ferret and human antisera derived antigenic maps revealed different antigenic patterns among representative egg- and cell-grown H3 viruses characterized. Molecular modeling indicated that the mutations of epidemic H3 strains were mainly located in antibody-binding sites A and B as compared with TX/12e. To improve vaccine strain selection, human serologic testing on vaccination-induced cross-reactivity need be emphasized along with virus antigenic characterization by ferret model.

  1. H3N2 Mismatch of 2014-15 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Vaccines and Head-to-head Comparison between Human and Ferret Antisera derived Antigenic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hang; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Ye, Zhiping; Plant, Ewan P.; Zhao, Yangqing; Xu, Yifei; Li, Xing; Finch, Courtney; Zhao, Nan; Kawano, Toshiaki; Zoueva, Olga; Chiang, Meng-Jung; Jing, Xianghong; Lin, Zhengshi; Zhang, Anding; Zhu, Yanhong

    2015-10-01

    The poor performance of 2014-15 Northern Hemisphere (NH) influenza vaccines was attributed to mismatched H3N2 component with circulating epidemic strains. Using human serum samples collected from 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2014-15 NH influenza vaccine trials, we assessed their cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses against recent H3 epidemic isolates. All three populations (children, adults, and older adults) vaccinated with the 2014-15 NH egg- or cell-based vaccine, showed >50% reduction in HAI post-vaccination geometric mean titers against epidemic H3 isolates from those against egg-grown H3 vaccine strain A/Texas/50/2012 (TX/12e). The 2014-15 NH vaccines, regardless of production type, failed to further extend HAI cross-reactivity against H3 epidemic strains from previous seasonal vaccines. Head-to-head comparison between ferret and human antisera derived antigenic maps revealed different antigenic patterns among representative egg- and cell-grown H3 viruses characterized. Molecular modeling indicated that the mutations of epidemic H3 strains were mainly located in antibody-binding sites A and B as compared with TX/12e. To improve vaccine strain selection, human serologic testing on vaccination-induced cross-reactivity need be emphasized along with virus antigenic characterization by ferret model.

  2. H3N2 Mismatch of 2014–15 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Vaccines and Head-to-head Comparison between Human and Ferret Antisera derived Antigenic Maps

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hang; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Ye, Zhiping; Plant, Ewan P.; Zhao, Yangqing; Xu, Yifei; Li, Xing; Finch, Courtney; Zhao, Nan; Kawano, Toshiaki; Zoueva, Olga; Chiang, Meng-Jung; Jing, Xianghong; Lin, Zhengshi; Zhang, Anding; Zhu, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    The poor performance of 2014–15 Northern Hemisphere (NH) influenza vaccines was attributed to mismatched H3N2 component with circulating epidemic strains. Using human serum samples collected from 2009–10, 2010–11 and 2014–15 NH influenza vaccine trials, we assessed their cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses against recent H3 epidemic isolates. All three populations (children, adults, and older adults) vaccinated with the 2014–15 NH egg- or cell-based vaccine, showed >50% reduction in HAI post-vaccination geometric mean titers against epidemic H3 isolates from those against egg-grown H3 vaccine strain A/Texas/50/2012 (TX/12e). The 2014–15 NH vaccines, regardless of production type, failed to further extend HAI cross-reactivity against H3 epidemic strains from previous seasonal vaccines. Head-to-head comparison between ferret and human antisera derived antigenic maps revealed different antigenic patterns among representative egg- and cell-grown H3 viruses characterized. Molecular modeling indicated that the mutations of epidemic H3 strains were mainly located in antibody-binding sites A and B as compared with TX/12e. To improve vaccine strain selection, human serologic testing on vaccination-induced cross-reactivity need be emphasized along with virus antigenic characterization by ferret model. PMID:26472175

  3. H3N2 Mismatch of 2014-15 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Vaccines and Head-to-head Comparison between Human and Ferret Antisera derived Antigenic Maps.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hang; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Ye, Zhiping; Plant, Ewan P; Zhao, Yangqing; Xu, Yifei; Li, Xing; Finch, Courtney; Zhao, Nan; Kawano, Toshiaki; Zoueva, Olga; Chiang, Meng-Jung; Jing, Xianghong; Lin, Zhengshi; Zhang, Anding; Zhu, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    The poor performance of 2014-15 Northern Hemisphere (NH) influenza vaccines was attributed to mismatched H3N2 component with circulating epidemic strains. Using human serum samples collected from 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2014-15 NH influenza vaccine trials, we assessed their cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses against recent H3 epidemic isolates. All three populations (children, adults, and older adults) vaccinated with the 2014-15 NH egg- or cell-based vaccine, showed >50% reduction in HAI post-vaccination geometric mean titers against epidemic H3 isolates from those against egg-grown H3 vaccine strain A/Texas/50/2012 (TX/12e). The 2014-15 NH vaccines, regardless of production type, failed to further extend HAI cross-reactivity against H3 epidemic strains from previous seasonal vaccines. Head-to-head comparison between ferret and human antisera derived antigenic maps revealed different antigenic patterns among representative egg- and cell-grown H3 viruses characterized. Molecular modeling indicated that the mutations of epidemic H3 strains were mainly located in antibody-binding sites A and B as compared with TX/12e. To improve vaccine strain selection, human serologic testing on vaccination-induced cross-reactivity need be emphasized along with virus antigenic characterization by ferret model. PMID:26472175

  4. Differentiating Literacy Growth of ELL Students with LD from Other High-Risk Subgroups and General Education Peers: Evidence from Grades 3-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solari, Emily J.; Petscher, Yaacov; Folsom, Jessica Sidler

    2014-01-01

    The authors used a large data set (N = 1,011,549) to examine literacy growth over a single school year comparing general education (GenEd) students to three high-risk subgroups: English language learners (ELL), those with a specific learning disability (LD), and those identified as both LD and ELL (LD-ELL) in students in Grades 3-10. The authors…

  5. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 Isolated from Batter of Dosa, a South Indian Fermented Food.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 was isolated from dosa batter and identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species level identification was done by 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing. The probiotic potential of strain LD1 was assessed by different standard parameters. Cell surface hydrophobicity was recorded to be 62% with SAT value <0.007 M. Seventy-eight percent of viable count was found after treatment with simulated gastric juice containing pepsin (pH 2.0). Bile salt tolerance and bile salt hydrolase activity were also demonstrated by strain LD1. The culture supernatant was able to inhibit food-borne as well as clinical pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, urogenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio sp. Strain LD1 was found to be sensitive to most of the antibiotics used in the study. Since strain has been isolated from food source that is most typical of Southern India, it would be safe for further consumption in probiotic products. PMID:24676724

  6. Studying Disability and Disability Studies: Shifting Paradigms of LD -- A Synthesis of Responses to Reid and Valle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, David J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the 11 diverse responses to Reid and Valle's work on the discursive practice of learning disabilities (LD), implications for instruction, and parent-school relations. I highlight key ideas from each article and then focus on three common areas of interest shared by most respondents: the unacceptable status quo of…

  7. A Synthesis of Spelling and Reading Interventions and Their Effects on the Spelling Outcomes of Students with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Edmonds, Meghan; Kim, Ae-Hwa

    2006-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of spelling and reading interventions on the spelling outcomes of students with learning disabilities (LD) are synthesized. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1995 and 2003 yielded a total of 19 intervention studies that provided spelling and reading interventions to students…

  8. Helping Students with Disabilities Transition to College: 21 Tips for Students with LD and/or ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Making the transition from high school to college poses challenges for most students. Moving from a secure, regulated world of secondary education into an unfamiliar environment requiring greater independence can be a destabilizing experience. For students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), managing this…

  9. Virtual Connections, Personal Resources, Loneliness, and Academic Self-Efficacy among College Students with and without LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharabi, Adi; Sade, Sarit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the study were first to compare the social and academic well-being (loneliness and academic self-efficacy (ASE) among college students with and without learning disabilities (LD), as well as three personal strengths (hope, optimism and sense of coherence (SOC). The second goal was to identify the predicting factors to their loneliness…

  10. Molecular dissection and expression of the LdK39 kinesin in the human pathogen, Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Gerald, Noel J; Coppens, Isabelle; Dwyer, Dennis M

    2007-02-01

    In this study we show for the first time the intracellular distribution of a K39 kinesin homologue in Leishmania donovani, a medically important parasite of humans. Further, we demonstrated that this motor protein is expressed in both the insect and mammalian developmental forms (i.e. promastigote and amastigotes) of this organism. Moreover, in both of these parasite developmental stages, immunofluorescence indicated that the LdK39 kinesin accumulated at anterior and posterior cell poles and that it displayed a peripheral localization consistent with the cortical cytoskeleton. Using a molecular approach, we identified, cloned and characterized the first complete open reading frame for the gene (LdK39) encoding this large (> 358 kDa) motor protein in L. donovani. Based on these observations, we subsequently used a homologous episomal expression system to dissect and express the functional domains that constitute the native molecule. Cell fractionation experiments demonstrated that LdK39 was soluble and that it bound to detergent-extracted cytoskeletons of these parasites in an ATP-dependent manner. The cumulative results of these experiments are consistent with LdK39 functioning as an ATP-dependent kinesin which binds to and travels along the cortical cytoskeleton of this important human pathogen. PMID:17257310

  11. Before the Well Runs Dry: Taking Care of Yourself as the Parent of a LD/ADD Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehret, Jeanne

    Addressed to parents of children with learning disabilities (LD) or attention deficit disorder, this paper explores the dangers of falling into codependent behaviors and stresses the importance of parents taking care of themselves. The codependent parent is described as always putting the child first and as trying to control everything about the…

  12. Teaching Business Law to Non-Law Students, Culturally and Linguistically Diverse ("CaLD") Students, and Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariyawasam, Kanchana; Low, Hang Yen

    2014-01-01

    This paper is largely based on the experience of teaching law to students with non-legal background in business schools, with a focus on internationalisation and the large class lecture format. Business schools often consist of large classes which include a significant proportion of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CaLD) students. Teaching a…

  13. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 Isolated from Batter of Dosa, a South Indian Fermented Food.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 was isolated from dosa batter and identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species level identification was done by 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing. The probiotic potential of strain LD1 was assessed by different standard parameters. Cell surface hydrophobicity was recorded to be 62% with SAT value <0.007 M. Seventy-eight percent of viable count was found after treatment with simulated gastric juice containing pepsin (pH 2.0). Bile salt tolerance and bile salt hydrolase activity were also demonstrated by strain LD1. The culture supernatant was able to inhibit food-borne as well as clinical pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, urogenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio sp. Strain LD1 was found to be sensitive to most of the antibiotics used in the study. Since strain has been isolated from food source that is most typical of Southern India, it would be safe for further consumption in probiotic products.

  14. Some aspects of a free jet phenomena to 105 L/D in a constant area duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Under certain conditions, inlets with a Borda type geometry were shown to exhibit sufficiently strong separation effects to permit the working fluid to flow through the duct as if it were a free jet. Mass limiting flow data and associated pressure profiles for tubes of 14, 53, 64, 73, and 105 L/D with a Borda type inlet were taken to determine bounds of the free jet phenomena. For a given tube roughness, the limits appear to be one dimensional and dependent only on inlet stagnation conditions. For smooth tubes the upper L/D boundary is related by P sub R roughly equal to CT to the 17th power and sub R, C roughly equal to 00017 (L/D) to the 2.5 power where F sub R = P/P sub c is reduced pressure and T sub R = T/T sub c is reduced temperature. The lower bound appears to be saturation conditions at the inlet. Similar free jet effects were found for fluid hydrogen indicating that fluid jetting may be common to all fluids. While limited data on surface roughness show a decrease in the upper L/D limit, nevertheless fluid jetting still occurred.

  15. How Should Middle-School Students with LD Approach Online Note Taking? A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igo, L. Brent; Riccomini, Paul J.; Bruning, Roger H.; Pope, Ginger G.

    2006-01-01

    This explanatory sequential mixed-methods study explored how the encoding of text ideas is affected when students with learning disabilities (LD) take notes from Web-based text. In the quantitative phase of the study, 15 students took three kinds of notes--typed, copy and paste, and written--with each kind of notes addressing a different topic.…

  16. An open-loop RFOG based on harmonic division technique to suppress LD's intensity modulation noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Diqing; Wang, Zeyu; Mao, Jianmin; Jin, Zhonghe

    2016-11-01

    A harmonic division technique is proposed for an open-loop resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) to suppress semiconductor laser diode's (LD's) intensity modulation noise. The theoretical study indicates the RFOG with this technique is immune to the intensity noise. The simulation and experimental results show this technique would lead to a diminished linear region, which still could be acceptable for an RFOG applied to low rotation rate detection. The tests for the gyro output signal are carried out with/without noise suppressing methods, including the harmonic division technique and previously proposed signal compensation technique. With the harmonic division technique at the rotation rate of 10 deg/s, the stability of gyro output signal is improved from 1.07 deg/s to 0.0361 deg/s, whose noise suppressing ratio is more than 3 times as that of the signal compensation technique. And especially, a 3.12 deg/s signal jump is significantly removed with the harmonic division technique; in contrast, a residual 0.36 deg/s signal jump still exists with the signal compensation technique. It is concluded the harmonic division technique does work in intensity noise suppressing under dynamic condition, and it is superior to the signal compensation technique.

  17. Structure and function of a novel LD-carboxypeptidase a involved in peptidoglycan recycling.

    PubMed

    Das, Debanu; Hervé, Mireille; Elsliger, Marc-André; Kadam, Rameshwar U; Grant, Joanna C; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Knuth, Mark W; Klock, Heath E; Miller, Mitchell D; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Deacon, Ashley M; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Wilson, Ian A

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 50% of cell wall peptidoglycan in Gram-negative bacteria is recycled with each generation. The primary substrates used for peptidoglycan biosynthesis and recycling in the cytoplasm are GlcNAc-MurNAc(anhydro)-tetrapeptide and its degradation product, the free tetrapeptide. This complex process involves ∼15 proteins, among which the cytoplasmic enzyme ld-carboxypeptidase A (LdcA) catabolizes the bond between the last two l- and d-amino acid residues in the tetrapeptide to form the tripeptide, which is then utilized as a substrate by murein peptide ligase (Mpl). LdcA has been proposed as an antibacterial target. The crystal structure of Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM 12444 LdcA (NaLdcA) was determined at 1.89-Å resolution. The enzyme was biochemically characterized and its interactions with the substrate modeled, identifying residues potentially involved in substrate binding. Unaccounted electron density at the dimer interface in the crystal suggested a potential site for disrupting protein-protein interactions should a dimer be required to perform its function in bacteria. Our analysis extends the identification of functional residues to several other homologs, which include enzymes from bacteria that are involved in hydrocarbon degradation and destruction of coral reefs. The NaLdcA crystal structure provides an alternate system for investigating the structure-function relationships of LdcA and increases the structural coverage of the protagonists in bacterial cell wall recycling.

  18. Structure and Function of a Novel ld-Carboxypeptidase A Involved in Peptidoglycan Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debanu; Hervé, Mireille; Elsliger, Marc-André; Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Knuth, Mark W.; Klock, Heath E.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Deacon, Ashley M.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50% of cell wall peptidoglycan in Gram-negative bacteria is recycled with each generation. The primary substrates used for peptidoglycan biosynthesis and recycling in the cytoplasm are GlcNAc-MurNAc(anhydro)-tetrapeptide and its degradation product, the free tetrapeptide. This complex process involves ∼15 proteins, among which the cytoplasmic enzyme ld-carboxypeptidase A (LdcA) catabolizes the bond between the last two l- and d-amino acid residues in the tetrapeptide to form the tripeptide, which is then utilized as a substrate by murein peptide ligase (Mpl). LdcA has been proposed as an antibacterial target. The crystal structure of Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM 12444 LdcA (NaLdcA) was determined at 1.89-Å resolution. The enzyme was biochemically characterized and its interactions with the substrate modeled, identifying residues potentially involved in substrate binding. Unaccounted electron density at the dimer interface in the crystal suggested a potential site for disrupting protein-protein interactions should a dimer be required to perform its function in bacteria. Our analysis extends the identification of functional residues to several other homologs, which include enzymes from bacteria that are involved in hydrocarbon degradation and destruction of coral reefs. The NaLdcA crystal structure provides an alternate system for investigating the structure-function relationships of LdcA and increases the structural coverage of the protagonists in bacterial cell wall recycling. PMID:24123814

  19. Effect of (L:D) Aspect Ratio on Single Polypyrrole Nanowire FET Device

    PubMed Central

    Shirale, Dhammanand J.; Bangar, Mangesh A.; Chen, Wilfred; Myung, Nosang V.

    2010-01-01

    Effect of different aspect ratio (length to diameter ratio, L:D) on single polypyrrole (Ppy) nanowire based field effect transistor (FET) sensor for real time pH monitoring was studied. Ppy nanowires with diameters of ~60, ~80 and ~200 nm were synthesized using electrochemical deposition inside anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) template and were assembled using AC dielectrophoretic alignment followed by maskless anchoring on a pair of gold electrodes separated with different gap lengths. Microfabricated gold electrode patterns with gap size between 1 - 4 μm were developed by means of MEMS technique (photolithography). Using field effect transistor geometry with pair of microfabricated gold contact electrodes serving as a source and a drain, and a platinum (Pt) mesh (anchored in a microfluidic channel) was used as a gate electrode. When effect of different aspect ratio of the nanowire were compared, higher sensitivity was recorded for higher aspect ratio. The sensitivity was further improved by modulating the gate potential. These FET sensors based on single polypyrrole nanowire exhibited excellent and tunable sensitivity towards pH variations. PMID:21743822

  20. A low timing jitter picosecond microchip laser pumped by pulsed LD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sha; Wang, Yan-biao; Feng, Guoying; Zhou, Shou-huan

    2016-07-01

    SESAM passively Q-switched microchip laser is a very promising instrument to replace mode locked lasers to obtain picosecond pulses. The biggest drawback of a passively Q-switched microchip laser is its un-avoided large timing jitter, especially when the pump intensity is low, i.e. at low laser repetition rate range. In order to obtain a low timing jitter passively Q-switched picosecond microchip laser in the whole laser repetition rate range, a 1000 kHz pulsed narrow bandwidth Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) stablized laser diode was used as the pump source. By tuning the pump intensity, we could control the output laser frequency. In this way, we achieved a very low timing jitter passively Q-switched picosecond laser at 2.13 mW, 111.1 kHz. The relative timing jitter was only 0.0315%, which was around 100 times smaller compared with a cw LD pumped microchip working at hundred kilohertz repetition rate frequency range.

  1. A Comparison of the Effects of Information Mapped Learning Materials and Traditional Materials on the Learning of Concepts via the Printed Page and Computer Cathode Ray Tube.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisert, Paul

    A study was made of the learning effects of information mapping; i.e., the technique of organizing materials on the printed page in a format which clearly illustrates the order and organization of the materials. The investigation of the effects of information mapping and information-mapped feedback on achievement, time variables, and attitude…

  2. Comparison of brain mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity with cyanide LD(50) yields insight into the efficacy of prophylactics.

    PubMed

    Marziaz, Mandy L; Frazier, Kathryn; Guidry, Paul B; Ruiz, Robyn A; Petrikovics, Ilona; Haines, Donovan C

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide inhibits cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase of the mitochondrial respiratory pathway, therefore inhibiting the cell oxygen utilization and resulting in the condition of histotoxic anoxia. The enzyme rhodanese detoxifies cyanide by utilizing sulfur donors to convert cyanide to thiocyanate, and new and improved sulfur donors are actively sought as researchers seek to improve cyanide prophylactics. We have determined brain cytochrome c oxidase activity as a marker for cyanide exposure for mice pre-treated with various cyanide poisoning prophylactics, including sulfur donors thiosulfate (TS) and thiotaurine (TT3). Brain mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation, the outer mitochondrial membrane was disrupted by a maltoside detergent, and the decrease in absorbance at 550 nm as horse heart ferrocytochrome c (generated by the dithiothreitol reduction of ferricytochrome c) was oxidized was monitored. Overall, the TS control prophylactic treatment provided significant protection of the cytochrome c oxidase activity. The TT3-treated mice showed reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity even in the absence of cyanide. In both treatment series, addition of exogenous Rh did not significantly enhance the prevention of cytochrome c oxidase inhibition, but the addition of sodium nitrite did. These findings can lead to a better understanding of the protection mechanism by various cyanide antidotal systems.

  3. Phospholipid translocation and miltefosine potency require both L. donovani miltefosine transporter and the new protein LdRos3 in Leishmania parasites.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Victoria, F Javier; Sánchez-Cañete, María P; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

    2006-08-18

    The antitumor drug miltefosine has been recently approved as the first oral drug active against visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously identified the L. donovani miltefosine transporter (LdMT) as a P-type ATPase involved in phospholipid translocation at the plasma membrane of Leishmania parasites. Here we show that this protein is essential but not sufficient for the phospholipid translocation activity and, thus, for the potency of the drug. Based on recent findings in yeast, we have identified the putative beta subunit of LdMT, named LdRos3, as another protein factor required for the translocation activity. LdRos3 belongs to the CDC50/Lem3 family, proposed as likely beta subunits for P4-ATPases. The phenotype of LdRos3-defective parasites was identical to that of the LdMT-/-, including a defect in the uptake of 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl-amino)-phosphatidylserine, generally considered as not affected in Lem3p-deficient yeast. Both LdMT and LdRos3 normally localized to the plasma membrane but were retained inside the endoplasmic reticulum in the absence of the other protein or when inactivating point mutations were introduced in LdMT. Modulating the expression levels of either protein independently, we show that any one of them could behave as the protein limiting the level of flippase activity. Thus, LdMT and LdRos3 seem to form part of the same translocation machinery that determines flippase activity and miltefosine sensitivity in Leishmania, further supporting the consideration of CDC50/Lem3 proteins as beta subunits required for the normal functioning of P4-ATPases. PMID:16785229

  4. Reproducibility of area at risk assessment in acute myocardial infarction by T1- and T2-mapping sequences in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in comparison to Tc99m-sestamibi SPECT.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Birgit; Nadjiri, Jonathan; Jähnichen, Christin; Kastrati, Adnan; Martinoff, Stefan; Hadamitzky, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Area at risk (AAR) is an important parameter for the assessment of the salvage area after revascularization in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). By combining AAR assessment by T2-weighted imaging and scar quantification by late gadolinium enhancement imaging cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) offers a promising alternative to the "classical" modality of Tc99m-sestamibi single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Current T2 weighted sequences for edema imaging in CMR are limited by low contrast to noise ratios and motion artifacts. During the last years novel CMR imaging techniques for quantification of acute myocardial injury, particularly the T1-mapping and T2-mapping, have attracted rising attention. But no direct comparison between the different sequences in the setting of AMI or a validation against SPECT has been reported so far. We analyzed 14 patients undergoing primary coronary revascularization in AMI in whom both a pre-intervention Tc99m-sestamibi-SPECT and CMR imaging at a median of 3.4 (interquartile range 3.3-3.6) days after the acute event were performed. Size of AAR was measured by three different non-contrast CMR techniques on corresponding short axis slices: T2-weighted, fat-suppressed turbospin echo sequence (TSE), T2-mapping from T2-prepared balanced steady state free precession sequences (T2-MAP) and T1-mapping from modified look locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequences. For each CMR sequence, the AAR was quantified by appropriate methods (absolute values for mapping sequences, comparison with remote myocardium for other sequences) and correlated with Tc99m-sestamibi-SPECT. All measurements were performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. The size of the AAR assessed by CMR was 28.7 ± 20.9 % of left ventricular myocardial volume (%LV) for TSE, 45.8 ± 16.6 %LV for T2-MAP, and 40.1 ± 14.4 %LV for MOLLI. AAR assessed by SPECT measured 41.6 ± 20.7 %LV. Correlation analysis revealed best correlation with SPECT for T2-MAP at a T2-threshold of 60 ms

  5. Bayesian model selection for multiple QTLs mapping combining linkage disequilibrium and linkage.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dan; Ma, Guoda; Yang, Runqing; Li, Keshen; Fang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping is able to localize quantitative trait loci (QTL) within a rather small region (e.g. 2 cM), which is much narrower than linkage analysis (LA, usually 20 cM). The multilocus LD method utilizes haplotype information around putative mutation and takes historical recombination events into account, and thus provides a powerful method for further fine mapping. However, sometimes there are more than one QTLs in the region being studied. In this study, the Bayesian model selection implemented via the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is developed for fine mapping of multiple QTLs using haplotype information in a small region. The method combines LD as well as linkage information. A series of simulation experiments were conducted to investigate the behavior of the method. The results showed that this new multiple QTLs method was more efficient in separating closely linked QTLs than single-marker association studies. PMID:25579473

  6. Bayesian model selection for multiple QTLs mapping combining linkage disequilibrium and linkage.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dan; Ma, Guoda; Yang, Runqing; Li, Keshen; Fang, Ming

    2014-09-19

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping is able to localize quantitative trait loci (QTL) within a rather small region (e.g. 2 cM), which is much narrower than linkage analysis (LA, usually 20 cM). The multilocus LD method utilizes haplotype information around putative mutation and takes historical recombination events into account, and thus provides a powerful method for further fine mapping. However, sometimes there are more than one QTLs in the region being studied. In this study, the Bayesian model selection implemented via the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is developed for fine mapping of multiple QTLs using haplotype information in a small region. The method combines LD as well as linkage information. A series of simulation experiments were conducted to investigate the behavior of the method. The results showed that this new multiple QTLs method was more efficient in separating closely linked QTLs than single-marker association studies.

  7. Constructing a linkage-linkage disequilibrium map using dominant-segregating markers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuli; Dong, Leiming; Jiang, Libo; Li, Huan; Sun, Lidan; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Weiwu; Liu, Haokai; Dai, Wensheng; Zeng, Yanru; Wu, Rongling

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between linkage disequilibrium (LD) and recombination fraction can be used to infer the pattern of genetic variation and evolutionary process in humans and other systems. We described a computational framework to construct a linkage-LD map from commonly used biallelic, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for outcrossing plants by which the decline of LD is visualized with genetic distance. The framework was derived from an open-pollinated (OP) design composed of plants randomly sampled from a natural population and seeds from each sampled plant, enabling simultaneous estimation of the LD in the natural population and recombination fraction due to allelic co-segregation during meiosis. We modified the framework to infer evolutionary pasts of natural populations using those marker types that are segregating in a dominant manner, given their role in creating and maintaining population genetic diversity. A sophisticated two-level EM algorithm was implemented to estimate and retrieve the missing information of segregation characterized by dominant-segregating markers such as single methylation polymorphisms. The model was applied to study the relationship between linkage and LD for a non-model outcrossing species, a gymnosperm species, Torreya grandis, naturally distributed in mountains of the southeastern China. The linkage-LD map constructed from various types of molecular markers opens a powerful gateway for studying the history of plant evolution.

  8. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 1. Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Johnson, Bryan J.; VöMel, Holger; Labow, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature, and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower to midstratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; and Natal, Brazil. The archived data are available at: . In this paper, uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and ground-based instruments; and (3) possible biases from station to station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are the following: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%. (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are usually to within 5% of independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in ground-based-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  9. The Didactic Model "LdL" (Lernen Durch Lehren) as a Way of Preparing Students for Communication in a Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzega, Joachim; Schoner, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Based on studies in learning psychology, biology and education, the original technique "Lernen durch Lehren" ("LdL)" (German for "learning by teaching") has been elaborated into a meta-model ("Meta") "LdL" that aims at giving students a platform to acquire the competencies considered necessary for knowledge societies. Ninety-seven former students…

  10. Helping Students with LD to Succeed: The Role of Teachers' Hope, Sense of Coherence and Specific Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Uzi; Einav, Michal; Raskind, Ilana; Ziv, Orit; Margalit, Malka

    2013-01-01

    Teachers play a critical role in facilitating the academic achievements of students with learning disabilities (LD). The personal resources of teachers, such as sense of coherence (SOC) and hopeful thinking, may predict self-perception of the competency and efficacy they possess to help students with LD acquire needed learning skills. Several…

  11. The Effects of a Growth Mindset Intervention on the Beliefs about Intelligence, Effort Beliefs, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Academic Self-Efficacy of LD Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldridge, Mary Caufield

    2010-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a "growth mindset" intervention on the beliefs about intelligence, effort beliefs, achievement goals, and academic self-efficacy of learning disabled (LD) students with reading difficulties. The treatment group consisted of 12 high school LD students with reading difficulties. This…

  12. Effects of a Computerized Working Memory Training Program on Working Memory, Attention, and Academics in Adolescents with Severe LD and Comorbid ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, S. A.; Chaban, P.; Martinussen, R.; Goldberg, R.; Gotlieb, H.; Kronitz, R.; Hockenberry, M.; Tannock, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Youths with coexisting learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for poor academic and social outcomes. The underlying cognitive deficits, such as poor working memory (WM), are not well targeted by current treatments for either LD or ADHD. Emerging evidence suggests that WM might be…

  13. Purification and the Secondary Structure of Fucoidanase from Fusarium sp. LD8

    PubMed Central

    Qianqian, Wu; Shuang, Ma; Hourong, Xiao; Min, Zhang; Jingmin, Cai

    2011-01-01

    The fucoidanase from Fusarium sp. (LD8) was obtained by solid-state fermentation. The fermented solid medium was extracted by citric acid buffer, and the extracts were precipitated by acetone and purified by Sephadex G-100 successively. The results showed that the specific fucoidanase activity of purified enzyme was 22.7-fold than that of the crude enzyme. The recovery of the enzyme was 23.9%. The purified enzyme gave a single band on SDS-PAGE gel, and the molecular weight of fucoidanase was about 64 kDa. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 4.5. The enzyme properties were also studied. The results showed that the optimum temperature and pH were 60°C and 6.0, respectively; the temperature of half inactivation was 50°C, and the most stable pH for the enzyme was 6.0. KM, and the Vmax of the enzyme was 8.9 mg·L−1 and 2.02 mg·min−1·mL−1 by using fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus as substrate. The compositions of the secondary structure of fucoidanase were estimated by FTIR, the second derivative spectra, and the curve-fitting analysis of the amide I bands in their spectra. The results showed that β-sheet was the dominant component (58.6%) and α-helix was the least (12%); the content of β-turn and random coil were 15.39% and 14.5%, respectively. PMID:21977051

  14. Internal Flow Analysis of Large L/D Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubacher, Brian A.

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) internal ballistic performance has been analyzed and predicted with either zero-dimensional (volume filling) codes or one-dimensional ballistics codes. One dimensional simulation of SRM performance is only necessary for ignition modeling, or for motors that have large length to port diameter ratios which exhibit an axial "pressure drop" during the early burn times. This type of prediction works quite well for many types of motors, however, when motor aspect ratios get large, and port to throat ratios get closer to one, two dimensional effects can become significant. The initial propellant grain configuration for the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) was analyzed with 2-D, steady, axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The results of the CFD analysis show that the steady-state performance prediction at the initial burn geometry, in general, agrees well with 1-D transient prediction results at an early time, however, significant features of the 2-D flow are captured with the CFD results that would otherwise go unnoticed. Capturing these subtle differences gives a greater confidence to modeling accuracy, and additional insight with which to model secondary internal flow effects like erosive burning. Detailed analysis of the 2-D flowfield has led to the discovery of its hidden 1-D isentropic behavior, and provided the means for a thorough and simplified understanding of internal solid rocket motor flow. Performance parameters such as nozzle stagnation pressure, static pressure drop, characteristic velocity, thrust and specific impulse are discussed in detail and compared for different modeling and prediction methods. The predicted performance using both the 1-D codes and the CFD results are compared with measured data obtained from static tests of the RSRM. The differences and limitations of predictions using ID and 2-D flow fields are discussed and some suggestions for the design of large L/D motors and

  15. Natural selection mapping of the warfarin-resistance gene

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Michael H.; Pelz, Hans-Joachim; Wayne, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    In theory, genes under natural selection can be revealed by unique patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and polymorphism at physically linked loci. However, given the effects of recombination and mutation, the physical extent and persistence of LD patterns in natural populations is uncertain. To assess the LD signature of selection, we survey variation in 26 microsatellite loci spanning an ≈32-cM region that includes the warfarin-resistance gene (Rw) in five wild rat populations having resistance levels between 0 and 95%. We find a high frequency of heterozygote deficiency at microsatellite loci in resistant populations, and a negative association between gene diversity (H) and resistance. Contrary to previous studies, these data suggest that directional rather than overdominant selection may predominate during periods of intense anticoagulant treatment. In highly resistant populations, extensive LD was observed over a chromosome segment spanning ≈14% of rat chromosome 1. In contrast, LD in a moderately resistant population was more localized and, in conjunction with likelihood ratios, allowed assignment of Rw to a 2.2-cM interval. Within this genomic window, a diagnostic marker, D1Rat219, assigned 91% of rats to the correct resistance category. These results further demonstrate that “natural selection mapping” in field populations can detect and map major fitness-related genes, and question overdominance as the predominant mode of selection in anticoagulant-resistant rat populations. PMID:10884423

  16. An empiric comparison of linkage disequilibrium parameters in disease gene localizations; the myotonic dystrophy experience

    SciTech Connect

    Podolsky, L.; Baird, S.; Korneluk, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Analyses of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers of known location and disease phenotypes often provide valuable information in efforts to clone the causative genes. However, there exist a number of factors which may attenuate a consistent inverse relationship between physical distance and LD for a given pairing of a genetic marker and a human disease gene. Chief among these is the effect of the general population frequency of an allele which demonstrates LD with a disease gene. Possibly as a result of this, a number of methods of calculating LD has been proposed. We have calculated seven such LD parameters for twelve physically mapped RFLP`s from a 1.3 Mb DM gene containing region of 19q13.3 using 107 DM and 213 non-DM chromosomes. Correlation of the DM-marker physical distance with LD for the 12 loci reveals the Yule coefficient and Dij{prime} parameter to give the most consistent relationship. The D{prime} parameter shown to have a relative allele frequency independence gave only a weak correlation. A similar analysis is being carried out on published cystic fibrosis genetic and physical mapping data. The parameters identified in this study may be the most appropriate for future LD based localizations of disease genes.

  17. Albrecht Unsöld: a Pioneer in the Interpretation of the Origin of the Cosmic Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Albrecht Unsöld was born 20th April 1905 in Bohlheim (Württenberg) and died in 1995 in Kiel. He was appointed in 1932 at the age of only 26 to the Chair of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics at the University of Kiel. This appointment initiated a very successful development of the studies of stellar atmospheres in Kiel under his life-long direction. Unsöld developed an active cooperation with astronomers in the USA. During a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship he used the Mount Wilson 100'' telescope for spectral work. A major book published by him (Unsöld, 1938) ``Physik der Sternatmosphären (mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Sonne)'' dealt with stellar atmospheres and became a classic in this research area. Prof. Unsöld kept the good contacts to colleagues in the USA having a visiting professor appointment in Chicago in 1939. At the Yerkes Observatory, working with Otto Struve (1888--1956), he became familiar with the observations of Karl Jansky (1905--1950) and Grote Reber (1911--2002). He immediately realised the close connection between the observed radio waves and the stellar atmospheres research. The origin of the radio emission observed by Jansky and Reber at first eluded interpretation. The major conclusion in the early days was that `the black-body radiation theory failed to account for Jansky's observations by a factor of 104 in the most favourable case'. Unsöld started his investigations based on the data available to him in 1940, at first trying to bring the free-free emission to explain the radio observations. Unsöld from that time on began to use the Effective Temperature definition as obtained from the Rayleigh--Jeans approximation. This was a great step forward, going away from the intensity definitions (mVolts/m) used by radio engineers up to that time. A paper submitted in 1944 to the German journal `Die Naturwissenschaften' was published only in 1946. In this paper the conclusion is drawn that only electron temperatures of some 100,000 K

  18. Reliability study on high-power 638nm broad stripe LD with a window-mirror structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Tetsuya; Mitsuyama, Hiroshi; Nishida, Takehiro; Kadoiwa, Kaoru; Kuramoto, Kyosuke

    2014-03-01

    Laser based displays, such as 10 lm to 70K lm laser projectors and laser diode (LD) backlight liquid crystal display (LCD) TVs, have attracted much attention because of the large gamut, low power consumption, and so on. Laser light sources for the displays are operated mainly under CW, and requested to be highly reliable. In this work, we will present the latest reliability study on high-power 638 nm broad stripe (BS) LD with a window-mirror structure, which is formed by using Zn diffusion into a quantum well active layer. Although the LD showed no catastrophic optical mirror degradation (COMD) even above the output of 1.6 W initially, the LDs aged at output power around 1.0 to 1.5 W showed sudden degradation during 1,000 to 4,000 hours. The duration to the failure became shorter as the power increased. Electro luminescence (EL) imaging revealed that the root cause of the sudden degradation was COMD at the front facet even though the LD had a measure to COMD. The LDs aged at 0.42 W output showed no COMD up to 6500 hours with extremely stable operation. The result also revealed that the mean time to failure due to COMD was proportional to optical density to the power of -3.2. The LDs, which had 60% small power density compared to the former, showed stable one up to 4,000 hours without COMD at 1.25 W. It is clarified that maintaining a low optical output power density is essential to develop high-power and highly reliable red BS-LDs.

  19. Effective L/D: A Theoretical Approach to the Measurement of Aero-Structural Efficiency in Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    There are many trade-offs in aircraft design that ultimately impact the overall performance and characteristics of the final design. One well recognized and well understood trade-off is that of wing weight and aerodynamic efficiency. Higher aerodynamic efficiency can be obtained by increasing wing span, usually at the expense of higher wing weight. The proper balance of these two competing factors depends on the objectives of the design. For example, aerodynamic efficiency is preeminent for sailplanes and long slender wings result. Although the wing weight-drag trade is universally recognized, aerodynamic efficiency and structural efficiency are not usually considered in combination. This paper discusses the concept of "aero-structural efficiency," which combines weight and drag characteristics. A metric to quantify aero-structural efficiency, termed effective L/D, is then derived and tested with various scenarios. Effective L/D is found to be a practical and robust means to simultaneously characterize aerodynamic and structural efficiency in the context of aircraft design. The primary value of the effective L/D metric is as a means to better communicate the combined system level impacts of drag and structural weight.

  20. Students classified as LD who received course substitutions for the college foreign language requirement: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Richard L; Philips, Lois G; Javorsky, James

    2002-01-01

    This replication study examined whether 158 college students classified as learning disabled (LD) who were granted course substitutions for the foreign language (FL) requirement would display significant cognitive and academic achievement differences when grouped by levels of IQ-achievement and achievement-achievement discrepancy and by level of performance on an FL aptitude test (Modern Language Aptitude Test; MLAT), phonological/orthographic processing measures, and in FL courses. The results showed that there were few differences among groups with differing levels of IQ-achievement or achievement-achievement discrepancy (i.e., < 1.0 SD, 1.0-1.49 SD, and > 1.50 SD) on MLAT and American College Testing (ACT) scores, graduating grade point average (GPA), or college FL GPA. The results also showed that between groups who scored at or above versus below the 15th percentile (i.e., < 1.0 SD) on the MLAT, there were no differences on measures of graduating GPA, college FL GPA, native language skill, ACT score, and Verbal IQ. Demographic findings showed that 44% of these petition students met a minimum IQ-achievement discrepancy criterion (> or = 1.0 SD) for classification as LD. These findings suggest that many traditional assumptions about LD and FL learning are likely to be false.

  1. A comparison of multicopter and fixed-wing unmanned aerial systems (UAS) applied to mapping debris flows in small alpine catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotier, Bernadette; Lechner, Veronika

    2016-04-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for documenting natural hazard events (e.g. debris flows) is becoming increasingly popular, as UAS allow on-demand, flexible and cost-efficient data acquisition. In this paper, we present the results of a comparison of multicopter and fixed-wing UAS. They were employed in the summer of 2015 to map two small alpine catchments located in Western Austria, where debris flows had occurred recently: The first event took place in the Seigesbach (Tyrol), the second occurred in the Plojergraben (Salzburg). For the Seigesbach mission, a fixed-wing UAS (Multiplex Mentor), equipped with a Sony NEX5 (50 mm prime lens, 14 MP sensor resolution) was employed to acquire approximately 4,000 images. In the Plojergraben an AustroDrones X18 octocopter was used, carrying a Sony ILCE-7R (35 mm prime lens, 36 MP sensor resolution) to record 1,700 images. Both sites had a size of approximately 2km². 20 ground control points (GCP) were distributed within both catchments, and their location was measured (Trimble GeoXT, expected accuracy 0.15 m). Using standard structure-from-motion photogrammetry software (AgiSoft PhotoScan Pro, v. 1.1.6), orthophotos (5 cm ground sampling distance - GSD) and digital surface models (DSM) (20 cm GSD) were calculated. Volume differences caused by the debris flow (i.e. deposition heights and erosion depths) computed by subtracting post-event from pre-event DSMs. Even though the terrain conditions in the two catchments were comparable, the challenges during the field campaign and the evaluation of the aerial images were very different. The main difference between the two campaigns was the number of flights required to cover the catchment: only four were needed by the fixed-wing UAS, while the multicopter required eleven in the Plojergraben. The fixed-wing UAS is specially designed for missions in hardly accessible regions, requiring only two people to carry the whole equipment, while in this case a car was needed for the

  2. Numerical prediction of micro-channel LD heat sink operated with antifreeze based on CFD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Liu, Yang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wentao; Wang, Gang; Tang, Xiaojun

    2014-12-01

    To theoretically study the feasibility of antifreeze coolants applied as cooling fluids for high power LD heat sink, detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of liquid cooled micro-channels heat sinks is presented. The performance operated with antifreeze coolant (ethylene glycol aqueous solution) compared with pure water are numerical calculated for the heat sinks with the same micro-channels structures. The maximum thermal resistance, total pressure loss (flow resistance), thermal resistance vs. flow-rate, and pressure loss vs. flow-rate etc. characteristics are numerical calculated. The results indicate that the type and temperature of coolants plays an important role on the performance of heat sinks. The whole thermal resistance and pressure loss of heat sinks increase significantly with antifreeze coolants compared with pure water mainly due to its relatively lower thermal conductivity and higher fluid viscosity. The thermal resistance and pressure loss are functions of the flow rate and operation temperature. Increasing of the coolant flow rate can reduce the thermal resistance of heat sinks; meanwhile increase the pressure loss significantly. The thermal resistance tends to a limit with increasing flow rate, while the pressure loss tends to increase exponentially with increasing flow rate. Low operation temperature chiefly increases the pressure loss rather than thermal resistance due to the remarkable increasing of fluid viscosity. The actual working point of the cooling circulation system can be determined on the basis of the pressure drop vs. flow rate curve for the micro-channel heat sink and that for the circulation system. In the same system, if the type or/and temperature of the coolant is changed, the working point is accordingly influenced, that is, working flow rate and pressure is changed simultaneously, due to which the heat sink performance is influenced. According to the numerical simulation results, if ethylene glycol aqueous

  3. A comparison of candidate gene-based and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches to trait mapping in Gossypium barbadense L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomes of cultivated cottons are large, complex, and incompletely characterized. The applications of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic analyses (e.g. QTL mapping, association mapping, etc.) are made problematic by the presence of multiple orthologs, homeologs, and paralogs. W...

  4. Planetary maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    An important goal of the USGS planetary mapping program is to systematically map the geology of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and the satellites of the outer planets. These geologic maps are published in the USGS Miscellaneous Investigations (I) Series. Planetary maps on sale at the USGS include shaded-relief maps, topographic maps, geologic maps, and controlled photomosaics. Controlled photomosaics are assembled from two or more photographs or images using a network of points of known latitude and longitude. The images used for most of these planetary maps are electronic images, obtained from orbiting television cameras, various optical-mechanical systems. Photographic film was only used to map Earth's Moon.

  5. A comparison of Landsat 8 (OLI) and Landsat 7 (ETM+) in mapping geology and visualising lineaments: A case study of central region Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwaniki, M. W.; Moeller, M. S.; Schellmann, G.

    2015-04-01

    Availability of multispectral remote sensing data cheaply and its higher spectral resolution compared to remote sensing data with higher spatial resolution has proved valuable for geological mapping exploitation and mineral mapping. This has benefited applications such as landslide quantification, fault pattern mapping, rock and lineament mapping especially with advanced remote sensing techniques and the use of short wave infrared bands. While Landsat and Aster data have been used to map geology in arid areas and band ratios suiting the application established, mapping in geology in highland regions has been challenging due to vegetation land cover. The aim of this study was to map geology and investigate bands suited for geological applications in a study area containing semi arid and highland characteristics. Therefore, Landsat 7 (ETM+, 2000) and Landsat 8 (OLI, 2014) were compared in determining suitable bands suited for geological mapping in the study area. The methodology consist performing principal component and factor loading analysis, IHS transformation and decorrelation stretch of the FCC with the highest contrast, band rationing and examining FCC with highest contrast, and then performing knowledge base classification. PCA factor loading analysis with emphasis on geological information showed band combination (5, 7, 3) for Landsat 7 and (6, 7, 4) for Landsat 8 had the highest contrast and more contrast was enhanced by performing decorrelation stretch. Band ratio combination (3/2, 5/1, 7/3) for Landsat 7 and (4/3, 6/2, 7/4) for Landsat 8 had more contrast on geologic information and formed the input data in knowledge base classification. Lineament visualisazion was achieved by performing IHS transformation of FCC with highest contrast and its saturation band combined as follows: Landsat 7 (IC1, PC2, saturation band), Landsat 8 (IC1, PC4, saturation band). The results were compared against existing geology maps and were superior and could be used to update

  6. Hybrid distributed Raman amplification combining random fiber laser based 2nd-order and low-noise LD based 1st-order pumping.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin-Hong; Rao, Yun-Jiang; Yuan, Cheng-Xu; Li, Jin; Yan, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zi-Nan; Zhang, Wei-Li; Wu, Han; Zhu, Ye-Yu; Peng, Fei

    2013-10-21

    A configuration of hybrid distributed Raman amplification (H-DRA), that is formed by incorporating a random fiber laser (RFL) based 2nd-order pump and a low-noise laser-diode (LD) based 1st-order pump, is proposed in this paper. In comparison to conventional bi-directional 1st-order DRA, the effective noise figure (ENF) is found to be lower by amount of 0 to 4 dB due to the RFL-based 2nd-order pump, depending on the on-off gain, while the low-noise 1st-order Raman pump is used for compensating the worsened signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the vicinity towards the far end of the fiber and avoiding the potential nonlinear impact induced by excess injection of pump power and suppressing the pump-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer. As a result, the gain distribution can be optimized along ultra-long fiber link, due to combination of the 2nd-order RFL and low-noise 1st-order pumping, making the transmission distance be extended significantly. We utilized such a configuration to achieve ultra-long-distance distributed sensing based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). A repeater-less sensing distance record of up to 154.4 km with 5 m spatial resolution and ~ ± 1.4 °C temperature uncertainty is successfully demonstrated.

  7. Correlation between CD8 dependency and determinant density using peptide-induced, Ld-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M A; Damico, C A; Wieties, K M; Hansen, T H; Connolly, J M

    1991-04-01

    We have taken advantage of some unique properties of H-2Ld to investigate the determinant density requirements for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) priming versus effector function and to correlate the determinant density requirements with CD8 dependency. In a previous study (Lie, W.-R., N. B. Myers, J. Gorka, R. J. Rubocki, J. M. Connolly, and T. H. Hansen. 1990. Nature [Lond.]. 344:439), we demonstrated that culturing normal cells with peptides known to be restricted by H-2Ld led to a two- to fourfold increase in surface Ld expression. In the present study, we demonstrate the generation of Ld-restricted, peptide-specific in vitro primary CTL by culturing spleen cells with murine cytomegalovirus or tum- peptide at concentrations previously shown to result in maximum induction of Ld expression. Target cells can be sensitized for recognition by these CTL with lower dose of peptide than are required for the primary sensitization. This demonstrates differences in the determinant density requirements for priming versus effector function. The in vitro primary CTL generated with peptide can weakly lyse target cells that express the determinant endogenously, and CTL lines and clones capable of strong lysis of endogenous expressors are easily obtained. In both cases, target cells treated with exogenous peptide are lysed better than target cells expressing antigen endogenously. This suggested that there are differences in the determinant density of peptide-fed versus endogenous targets. This interpretation was substantiated when it was observed that the level of lysis of target cells expressing endogenous determinants correlated inversely with the amount of peptide required to sensitize targets for recognition by various tum- -specific CTL clones. Furthermore, simultaneous titration of both the peptide used to treat target cells and the antibody to CD8 revealed that the various CTL clones analyzed displayed widely disparate CD8 dependencies. In each case, the CD8 dependency

  8. Association mapping for kernel phytosterol content in almond

    PubMed Central

    Font i Forcada, Carolina; Velasco, Leonardo; Socias i Company, Rafel; Fernández i Martí, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Almond kernels are a rich source of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. The genetic control of phytosterol content has not yet been documented in almond. Association mapping (AM), also known as linkage disequilibrium (LD), was applied to an almond germplasm collection in order to provide new insight into the genetic control of total and individual sterol contents in kernels. Population structure analysis grouped the accessions into two principal groups, the Mediterranean and the non-Mediterranean. There was a strong subpopulation structure with LD decaying with increasing genetic distance, resulting in lower levels of LD between more distant markers. A significant impact of population structure on LD in the almond cultivar groups was observed. The mean r2-value for all intra-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.040, whereas, the r2 for the inter-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.036. For analysis of association between the markers and phenotypic traits five models were tested. The mixed linear model (MLM) approach using co-ancestry values from population structure and kinship estimates (K model) as covariates identified a maximum of 13 significant associations. Most of the associations found appeared to map within the interval where many candidate genes involved in the sterol biosynthesis pathway are predicted in the peach genome. These findings provide a valuable foundation for quality gene identification and molecular marker assisted breeding in almond. PMID:26217374

  9. Map accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1981-01-01

    An inaccurate map is not a reliable map. "X" may mark the spot where the treasure is buried, but unless the seeker can locate "X" in relation to known landmarks or positions, the map is not very useful.

  10. Image Analysis for Facility Siting: a Comparison of Lowand High-altitude Image Interpretability for Land Use/land Cover Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borella, H. M.; Estes, J. E.; Ezra, C. E.; Scepan, J.; Tinney, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    For two test sites in Pennsylvania the interpretability of commercially acquired low-altitude and existing high-altitude aerial photography are documented in terms of time, costs, and accuracy for Anderson Level II land use/land cover mapping. Information extracted from the imagery is to be used in the evaluation process for siting energy facilities. Land use/land cover maps were drawn at 1:24,000 scale using commercially flown color infrared photography obtained from the United States Geological Surveys' EROS Data Center. Detailed accuracy assessment of the maps generated by manual image analysis was accomplished employing a stratified unaligned adequate class representation. Both 'area-weighted' and 'by-class' accuracies were documented and field-verified. A discrepancy map was also drawn to illustrate differences in classifications between the two map scales. Results show that the 1:24,000 scale map set was more accurate (99% to 94% area-weighted) than the 1:62,500 scale set, especially when sampled by class (96% to 66%). The 1:24,000 scale maps were also more time-consuming and costly to produce, due mainly to higher image acquisition costs.

  11. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 6: Cost, accuracy and consistency comparisons of land use maps made from high-altitude aircraft photography and ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Fitzpatrick, K. A.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Level 2 land use maps produced at three scales (1:24,000, 1:100,000, and 1:250,000) from high altitude photography were compared with each other and with point data obtained in the field. The same procedures were employed to determine the accuracy of the Level 1 land use maps produced at 1:250,000 from high altitude photography and color composite ERTS imagery. Accuracy of the Level 2 maps was 84.9 percent at 1:24,000, 77.4 percent at 1:100,000 and 73.0 percent at 1:250,000. Accuracy of the Level 1 1:250,000 maps was 76.5 percent for aerial photographs and 69.5 percent for ERTS imagery. The cost of Level 2 land use mapping at 1:24,000 was found to be high ($11.93 per sq km). The cost of mapping at 1:100,000 ($1.75) was about two times as expensive as mapping at 1:250,000 ($.88), and the accuracy increased by only 4.4 percent.

  12. Construction of black (Rubus occidentalis) and red (R. idaeus) raspberry linkage maps and their comparison to the genomes of strawberry, apple, and peach.

    PubMed

    Bushakra, J M; Stephens, M J; Atmadjaja, A N; Lewers, K S; Symonds, V V; Udall, J A; Chagné, D; Buck, E J; Gardiner, S E

    2012-07-01

    The genus Rubus belongs to the Rosaceae and is comprised of 600-800 species distributed world-wide. To date, genetic maps of the genus consist largely of non-transferable markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms. An F(1) population developed from a cross between an advanced breeding selection of Rubus occidentalis (96395S1) and R. idaeus 'Latham' was used to construct a new genetic map consisting of DNA sequence-based markers. The genetic linkage maps presented here are constructed of 131 markers on at least one of the two parental maps. The majority of the markers are orthologous, including 14 Rosaceae conserved orthologous set markers, and 60 new gene-based markers developed for raspberry. Thirty-four published raspberry simple sequence repeat markers were used to align the new maps to published raspberry maps. The 96395S1 genetic map consists of six linkage groups (LG) and covers 309 cM with an average of 10 cM between markers; the 'Latham' genetic map consists of seven LG and covers 561 cM with an average of 5 cM between markers. We used BLAST analysis to align the orthologous sequences used to design primer pairs for Rubus genetic mapping with the genome sequences of Fragaria vesca 'Hawaii 4', Malus × domestica 'Golden Delicious', and Prunus 'Lovell'. The alignment of the orthologous markers designed here suggests that the genomes of Rubus and Fragaria have a high degree of synteny and that synteny decreases with phylogenetic distance. Our results give unprecedented insights into the genome evolution of raspberry from the putative ancestral genome of the single ancestor common to Rosaceae.

  13. Iconicity as structure mapping

    PubMed Central

    Emmorey, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence is presented to support the use of structure-mapping theory as a framework for understanding effects of iconicity on sign language grammar and processing. The existence of structured mappings between phonological form and semantic mental representations has been shown to explain the nature of metaphor and pronominal anaphora in sign languages. With respect to processing, it is argued that psycholinguistic effects of iconicity may only be observed when the task specifically taps into such structured mappings. In addition, language acquisition effects may only be observed when the relevant cognitive abilities are in place (e.g. the ability to make structural comparisons) and when the relevant conceptual knowledge has been acquired (i.e. information key to processing the iconic mapping). Finally, it is suggested that iconicity is better understood as a structured mapping between two mental representations than as a link between linguistic form and human experience. PMID:25092669

  14. Iconicity as structure mapping.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen

    2014-09-19

    Linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence is presented to support the use of structure-mapping theory as a framework for understanding effects of iconicity on sign language grammar and processing. The existence of structured mappings between phonological form and semantic mental representations has been shown to explain the nature of metaphor and pronominal anaphora in sign languages. With respect to processing, it is argued that psycholinguistic effects of iconicity may only be observed when the task specifically taps into such structured mappings. In addition, language acquisition effects may only be observed when the relevant cognitive abilities are in place (e.g. the ability to make structural comparisons) and when the relevant conceptual knowledge has been acquired (i.e. information key to processing the iconic mapping). Finally, it is suggested that iconicity is better understood as a structured mapping between two mental representations than as a link between linguistic form and human experience.

  15. Improving learning with science and social studies text using computer-based concept maps for students with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ciullo, Stephen; Falcomata, Terry S; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen; Billingsley, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    Concept maps have been used to help students with learning disabilities (LD) improve literacy skills and content learning, predominantly in secondary school. However, despite increased access to classroom technology, no previous studies have examined the efficacy of computer-based concept maps to improve learning from informational text for students with LD in elementary school. In this study, we used a concurrent delayed multiple probe design to evaluate the interactive use of computer-based concept maps on content acquisition with science and social studies texts for Hispanic students with LD in Grades 4 and 5. Findings from this study suggest that students improved content knowledge during intervention relative to a traditional instruction baseline condition. Learning outcomes and social validity information are considered to inform recommendations for future research and the feasibility of classroom implementation.

  16. Comparison of spoiled gradient echo and steady-state free-precession imaging for native myocardial T1 mapping using the slice-interleaved T1 mapping (STONE) sequence.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jihye; Bellm, Steven; Roujol, Sébastien; Basha, Tamer A; Nezafat, Maryam; Kato, Shingo; Weingärtner, Sebastian; Nezafat, Reza

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac T1 mapping allows non-invasive imaging of interstitial diffuse fibrosis. Myocardial T1 is commonly calculated by voxel-wise fitting of the images acquired using balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) after an inversion pulse. However, SSFP imaging is sensitive to B1 and B0 imperfection, which may result in additional artifacts. A gradient echo (GRE) imaging sequence has been used for myocardial T1 mapping; however, its use has been limited to higher magnetic field to compensate for the lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of GRE versus SSFP imaging. A slice-interleaved T1 mapping (STONE) sequence with SSFP readout (STONE-SSFP) has been recently proposed for native myocardial T1 mapping, which allows longer recovery of magnetization (>8 R-R) after each inversion pulse. In this study, we hypothesize that a longer recovery allows higher SNR and enables native myocardial T1 mapping using STONE with GRE imaging readout (STONE-GRE) at 1.5T. Numerical simulations and phantom and in vivo imaging were performed to compare the performance of STONE-GRE and STONE-SSFP for native myocardial T1 mapping at 1.5T. In numerical simulations, STONE-SSFP shows sensitivity to both T2 and off resonance. Despite the insensitivity of GRE imaging to T2 , STONE-GRE remains sensitive to T2 due to the dependence of the inversion pulse performance on T2 . In the phantom study, STONE-GRE had inferior accuracy and precision and similar repeatability as compared with STONE-SSFP. In in vivo studies, STONE-GRE and STONE-SSFP had similar myocardial native T1 times, precisions, repeatabilities and subjective T1 map qualities. Despite the lower SNR of the GRE imaging readout compared with SSFP, STONE-GRE provides similar native myocardial T1 measurements, precision, repeatability, and subjective image quality when compared with STONE-SSFP at 1.5T. PMID:27658506

  17. A Scale-Corrected Comparison of Linkage Disequilibrium Levels between Genic and Non-Genic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Swetlana; Schlather, Martin; de los Campos, Gustavo; Weigend, Steffen; Preisinger, Rudolf; Erbe, Malena; Simianer, Henner

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of non-random association between loci, termed linkage disequilibrium (LD), plays a central role in genomic research. Since causal mutations are generally not included in genomic marker data, LD between those and available markers is essential for capturing the effects of causal loci on localizing genes responsible for traits. Thus, the interpretation of association studies requires a detailed knowledge of LD patterns. It is well known that most LD measures depend on minor allele frequencies (MAF) of the considered loci and the magnitude of LD is influenced by the physical distances between loci. In the present study, a procedure to compare the LD structure between genomic regions comprising several markers each is suggested. The approach accounts for different scaling factors, namely the distribution of MAF, the distribution of pair-wise differences in MAF, and the physical extent of compared regions, reflected by the distribution of pair-wise physical distances. In the first step, genomic regions are matched based on similarity in these scaling factors. In the second step, chromosome- and genome-wide significance tests for differences in medians of LD measures in each pair are performed. The proposed framework was applied to test the hypothesis that the average LD is different in genic and non-genic regions. This was tested with a genome-wide approach with data sets for humans (Homo sapiens), a highly selected chicken line (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In all three data sets we found a significantly higher level of LD in genic regions compared to non-genic regions. About 31% more LD was detected genome-wide in genic compared to non-genic regions in Arabidopsis thaliana, followed by 13.6% in human and 6% chicken. Chromosome-wide comparison discovered significant differences on all 5 chromosomes in Arabidopsis thaliana and on one third of the human and of the chicken chromosomes. PMID:26517830

  18. Mapping cell populations in flow cytometry data for cross-sample comparison using the Friedman-Rafsky test statistic as a distance measure.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chiaowen; Liu, Mengya; Stanton, Rick; McGee, Monnie; Qian, Yu; Scheuermann, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fluorescence-based single-cell experimental technology that is routinely applied in biomedical research for identifying cellular biomarkers of normal physiological responses and abnormal disease states. While many computational methods have been developed that focus on identifying cell populations in individual FCM samples, very few have addressed how the identified cell populations can be matched across samples for comparative analysis. This article presents FlowMap-FR, a novel method for cell population mapping across FCM samples. FlowMap-FR is based on the Friedman-Rafsky nonparametric test statistic (FR statistic), which quantifies the equivalence of multivariate distributions. As applied to FCM data by FlowMap-FR, the FR statistic objectively quantifies the similarity between cell populations based on the shapes, sizes, and positions of fluorescence data distributions in the multidimensional feature space. To test and evaluate the performance of FlowMap-FR, we simulated the kinds of biological and technical sample variations that are commonly observed in FCM data. The results show that FlowMap-FR is able to effectively identify equivalent cell populations between samples under scenarios of proportion differences and modest position shifts. As a statistical test, FlowMap-FR can be used to determine whether the expression of a cellular marker is statistically different between two cell populations, suggesting candidates for new cellular phenotypes by providing an objective statistical measure. In addition, FlowMap-FR can indicate situations in which inappropriate splitting or merging of cell populations has occurred during gating procedures. We compared the FR statistic with the symmetric version of Kullback-Leibler divergence measure used in a previous population matching method with both simulated and real data. The FR statistic outperforms the symmetric version of KL-distance in distinguishing equivalent from nonequivalent cell

  19. Exploring maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    Exploring Maps is an interdisciplinary set of materials on mapping for grades 7-12. Students will learn basic mapmaking and map reading skills and will see how maps can answer fundamental geographic questions: "Where am I?" "What else is here?" "Where am I going?"

  20. GIS-based groundwater spring potential mapping in the Sultan Mountains (Konya, Turkey) using frequency ratio, weights of evidence and logistic regression methods and their comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Adnan

    2011-12-01

    SummaryIn this study, groundwater spring potential maps produced by three different methods, frequency ratio, weights of evidence, and logistic regression, were evaluated using validation data sets and compared to each other. Groundwater spring occurrence potential maps in the Sultan Mountains (Konya, Turkey) were constructed using the relationship between groundwater spring locations and their causative factors. Groundwater spring locations were identified in the study area from a topographic map. Different thematic maps of the study area, such as geology, topography, geomorphology, hydrology, and land use/cover, have been used to identify groundwater potential zones. Seventeen spring-related parameter layers of the entire study area were used to generate groundwater spring potential maps. These are geology (lithology), fault density, distance to fault, relative permeability of lithologies, elevation, slope aspect, slope steepness, curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport capacity index, drainage density, distance to drainage, land use/cover, and precipitation. The predictive capability of each model was determined by the area under the relative operating characteristic curve. The areas under the curve for frequency ratio, weights of evidence and logistic regression methods were calculated as 0.903, 0.880, and 0.840, respectively. These results indicate that frequency ratio and weights of evidence models are relatively good estimators, whereas logistic regression is a relatively poor estimator of groundwater spring potential mapping in the study area. The frequency ratio model is simple; the process of input, calculation and output can be readily understood. The produced groundwater spring potential maps can serve planners and engineers in groundwater development plans and land-use planning.

  1. Contour Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Ohio State University Center for Mapping, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), developed a system for mobile mapping called the GPSVan. While driving, the users can map an area from the sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. George J. Igel and Company and the Ohio State University Center for Mapping advanced the technology for use in determining the contours of a construction site. The new system reduces the time required for mapping and staking, and can monitor the amount of soil moved.

  2. LD-pumped solid-state lasers with improved frequency, spatial, and polarization characteristics for precise spectroscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakov, A. S.; Kostik, O. E.; Mashko, V. V.; Teplyashin, L. L.; Bogdanovich, M. V.; Enzhyieuski, A. I.; Pozhidaev, A. V.; Ryabtsev, A. G.; Ryabtsev, G. I.; Shchemelev, M. A.

    2007-06-01

    New methods for precise control of main parameters of LD-pumped solid-state lasers assigned for spectroscopic applications have been developed. Tunable lasing in wide range has been achieved. Active elements on the base of crystals (Nd 3+:YAG, Nd 3+:YVO 4) and glasses (Er,Yb doped boro-silico-phosphate glass) were used. The active crystals with uniform and non-uniform distribution of the activator ions were studied. Output beams with high quality and polarization degree have been realized.

  3. Academic procrastination, emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy, and GPA: a comparison between students with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hen, Meirav; Goroshit, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Academic procrastination has been seen as an impediment to students' academic success. Research findings suggest that it is related to lower levels of self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy and associated with higher levels of anxiety, stress, and illness. Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to assess, regulate, and utilize emotions and has been found to be associated with academic self-efficacy and a variety of better outcomes, including academic performance. Students with learning disabilities (LD) are well acquainted with academic difficulty and maladaptive academic behavior. In comparison to students without LD, they exhibit high levels of learned helplessness, including diminished persistence, lower academic expectations, and negative affect. This study examined the relationships among academic procrastination, EI, and academic performance as mediated by academic self-efficacy in 287 LD and non-LD students. Results indicated that the indirect effect of EI on academic procrastination and GPA was stronger in LD students than in non-LD students. In addition, results indicated that LD students scored lower than non-LD students on both EI and academic self-efficacy and higher on academic procrastination. No difference was found in GPA. PMID:22442254

  4. Academic procrastination, emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy, and GPA: a comparison between students with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hen, Meirav; Goroshit, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Academic procrastination has been seen as an impediment to students' academic success. Research findings suggest that it is related to lower levels of self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy and associated with higher levels of anxiety, stress, and illness. Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to assess, regulate, and utilize emotions and has been found to be associated with academic self-efficacy and a variety of better outcomes, including academic performance. Students with learning disabilities (LD) are well acquainted with academic difficulty and maladaptive academic behavior. In comparison to students without LD, they exhibit high levels of learned helplessness, including diminished persistence, lower academic expectations, and negative affect. This study examined the relationships among academic procrastination, EI, and academic performance as mediated by academic self-efficacy in 287 LD and non-LD students. Results indicated that the indirect effect of EI on academic procrastination and GPA was stronger in LD students than in non-LD students. In addition, results indicated that LD students scored lower than non-LD students on both EI and academic self-efficacy and higher on academic procrastination. No difference was found in GPA.

  5. Comparative FISH mapping of mucin 1, transmembrane (MUC1) among cattle, river buffalo, sheep and goat chromosomes: comparison between bovine chromosome 3 and human chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Perucatti, A; Floriot, S; Di Meo, G P; Soglia, D; Rullo, R; Maione, S; Incarnato, D; Eggen, A; Sacchi, P; Rasero, R; Iannuzzi, L

    2006-01-01

    Four bovine BAC clones (0494F01, 0069D07, 0060B06, and 0306A12) containing MUC1, as confirmed by mapping MUC1 on a RH3000 radiation hybrid panel, were hybridised on R-banded chromosomes of cattle (BTA), river buffalo (BBU), sheep (OAR) and goat (CHI). MUC1 was FISH-mapped on BTA3q13, BBU6q13, OAR1p13 and CHI3q13 and both chromosomes and chromosome bands were homoeologous confirming the high degree of chromosome homoeologies among bovids and adding more information on the pericentromeric regions of these species' chromosomes. Indeed, MUC1 was more precisely assigned to BTA3 and assigned for the first time to BBU6, OAR1p and CHI3. Moreover, detailed and improved cytogenetic maps of BTA3, CHI3, OAR1p and BBU6 are shown and compared with HSA1. PMID:16276097

  6. Evaluation of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Mapping Global Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jinpei; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Xia; Li, Meifang; Li, Wenkai

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the stable light products and radiance calibrated products from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have been useful for mapping global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial resolution. However, few studies on this subject were conducted with the new-generation nighttime light data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite, which has a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light data. Therefore, this study performed the first evaluation of the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in estimating the spatial distributions of global CO2 emissions (excluding power plant emissions). Through a disaggregating model, three global emission maps were then derived from population counts and three different types of nighttime lights data (NPP-VIIRS, the stable light data and radiance calibrated data of DMSP-OLS) for a comparative analysis. The results compared with the reference data of land cover in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou show that the emission areas of map from NPP-VIIRS data have higher spatial consistency of the artificial surfaces and exhibit a more reasonable distribution of CO2 emission than those of other two maps from DMSP-OLS data. Besides, in contrast to two maps from DMSP-OLS data, the emission map from NPP-VIIRS data is closer to the Vulcan inventory and exhibits a better agreement with the actual statistical data of CO2 emissions at the level of sub-administrative units of the United States. This study demonstrates that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a powerful tool for studying the spatial distributions of CO2 emissions, as well as the socioeconomic indicators at multiple scales. PMID:26390037

  7. Evaluation of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Mapping Global Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Jinpei; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Xia; Li, Meifang; Li, Wenkai

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the stable light products and radiance calibrated products from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have been useful for mapping global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial resolution. However, few studies on this subject were conducted with the new-generation nighttime light data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite, which has a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light data. Therefore, this study performed the first evaluation of the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in estimating the spatial distributions of global CO2 emissions (excluding power plant emissions). Through a disaggregating model, three global emission maps were then derived from population counts and three different types of nighttime lights data (NPP-VIIRS, the stable light data and radiance calibrated data of DMSP-OLS) for a comparative analysis. The results compared with the reference data of land cover in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou show that the emission areas of map from NPP-VIIRS data have higher spatial consistency of the artificial surfaces and exhibit a more reasonable distribution of CO2 emission than those of other two maps from DMSP-OLS data. Besides, in contrast to two maps from DMSP-OLS data, the emission map from NPP-VIIRS data is closer to the Vulcan inventory and exhibits a better agreement with the actual statistical data of CO2 emissions at the level of sub-administrative units of the United States. This study demonstrates that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a powerful tool for studying the spatial distributions of CO2 emissions, as well as the socioeconomic indicators at multiple scales. PMID:26390037

  8. A technique for the determination of Louisiana marsh salinity zone from vegetation mapped by multispectral scanner data: A comparison of satellite and aircraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Vegetation in selected study areas on the Louisiana coast was mapped using low altitude aircraft and satellite (LANDSAT) multispectral scanner data. Fresh, brackish, and saline marshes were then determined from the remotely sensed presence of dominant indicator plant associations. Such vegetational classifications were achieved from data processed through a standard pattern recognition computer program. The marsh salinity zone maps from the aircraft and satellite data compared favorably within the broad salinity regimes. The salinity zone boundaries determined by remote sensing compared favorably with those interpolated from line-transect field observations from an earlier year.

  9. Mars Aerocapture Analysis For MESUR/Mars-Pathfinder Aeroshells Using Un-modulated Control in Low L/D Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aerocapture scenarios are examined to determine the feasibility of using MESUR/Mars Pathfinder aeroshell designs to capture spacecraft aerodynamically into Mars orbit. Using lift over drag (L/D) ratios up to 0.3, entry trajectories were simulated over a range of entry vehicle masses and entry velocities. Entry corridor widths were calculated for undershoot and overshoot trajectories yielding Mars parking orbits having periods from 2 to 20 hours. For entries with L/D = 0.3, entry corridor widths of about 1.2 degrees are possible over entry velocities from 5.5 to 9.0 km/sec. The design constraints for an aeroshell used for orbital aerocapture are less severe than a ballistic entry for a surface lander mission such as Mars Pathfinder, because the aerothermodynamic heating and deceleration loads are smaller. The mass savings from aerocapture orbit insertion versus propulsive insertion into Mars orbit could result in significantly reducing program costs and increasing mission capabilities.

  10. Hydrogeological features and environmental impacts of geothermal waters in the Yıldız River Basin (Sivas, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Keskin, Tülay Ekemen; Kaçaroğlu, Fikret

    2015-02-01

    The study area, located in the Yıldız River Basin (Sivas), has eight geothermal waters, which are used for balneotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the natural and/or anthropogenic water pollution in terms of drinking and irrigation water in the Sıcak Çermik, Uyuz Çermiği, and Hamzaşeyh Çermiği geothermal areas. Na+, Cl-, SO4(-2), B, Mn, Fe, As, and Se concentrations of the geothermal waters generally exceed the upper limits stated in the Turkish Standards for Water Intended for Human Consumption and World Health Organization regulations. Based on the irrigation water classification by the U.S. Salinity Laboratory Diagram, it is concluded that these waters may have hazardous levels of salinity and sodium when used as irrigation water. Wastewater from these health and tourism centers is discharged into the Yıldız River and to agricultural land. This procedure causes increase in the concentrations of major and minor elements and negatively affects the river water quality.

  11. Catheter Ablation of Right-Sided Accessory Pathways in Adults Using the Three-Dimensional Mapping System: A Randomized Comparison to the Conventional Approach.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuedong; Qiu, Jia; Yang, Yang; Tang, Anli

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) mapping and navigation systems have been widely used for the ablation of atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia, but the applicability of these systems for the ablation of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) due to right-sided accessory pathways (RAPs) remains unknown. The goal of this prospective randomized study was to compare the safety, efficiency, and efficacy of nonfluoroscopic and conventional fluoroscopic mapping techniques in guiding catheter ablation of SVT due to RAPs. Of the 393 consecutive patients with SVT who were randomized to receive either conventional fluoroscopic or Ensite NavX mapping-guided ablation, 64 patients with RAPs were included for analysis. Endpoints for ablation were no evidence of RAP conduction and no inducible atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT). The 3D group showed fewer ablation pulses and a shorter total ablation time compared to the conventional group, although the acute procedural success did not differ significantly between the two groups. Total procedure time, electrophysiological study time, total fluoroscopy time, and cumulative radiation doses were also significantly reduced in the 3D group. Patients in the conventional group with a right atrium diameter (RAD) ≥ 47 mm required a longer fluoroscopy time. There was no significant difference in the recurrence rates between the two groups over a follow-up period of 3 to 29 months. There were no permanent complications. The 3D mapping system may be a preferred alternative for patients with AVRT due to RAPs, especially for patients with a large RAD (≥ 47 mm).

  12. Catheter Ablation of Right-Sided Accessory Pathways in Adults Using the Three-Dimensional Mapping System: A Randomized Comparison to the Conventional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Anli

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) mapping and navigation systems have been widely used for the ablation of atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia, but the applicability of these systems for the ablation of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) due to right-sided accessory pathways (RAPs) remains unknown. The goal of this prospective randomized study was to compare the safety, efficiency, and efficacy of nonfluoroscopic and conventional fluoroscopic mapping techniques in guiding catheter ablation of SVT due to RAPs. Of the 393 consecutive patients with SVT who were randomized to receive either conventional fluoroscopic or Ensite NavX mapping-guided ablation, 64 patients with RAPs were included for analysis. Endpoints for ablation were no evidence of RAP conduction and no inducible atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT). The 3D group showed fewer ablation pulses and a shorter total ablation time compared to the conventional group, although the acute procedural success did not differ significantly between the two groups. Total procedure time, electrophysiological study time, total fluoroscopy time, and cumulative radiation doses were also significantly reduced in the 3D group. Patients in the conventional group with a right atrium diameter (RAD) ≥ 47 mm required a longer fluoroscopy time. There was no significant difference in the recurrence rates between the two groups over a follow-up period of 3 to 29 months. There were no permanent complications. The 3D mapping system may be a preferred alternative for patients with AVRT due to RAPs, especially for patients with a large RAD (≥ 47 mm). PMID:26083408

  13. Non-Traditional Learners in Higher Education: Comparison of a Traditional MCQ Examination with Concept Mapping to Assess Learning in a Dental Radiological Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, David B.; Tan, Po Li; Whaites, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to argue for alternative assessment methods (i.e. concept map) considering the changes in demography in higher education. In the case of school of dentistry, for example, there is an urgent call for a catalyst for new assessment methods in dental education in view of the drive to comprehensively assess professional…

  14. Comparison of multi-temporal NOAA-AVHRR and SPOT-XS satellite data for mapping land-cover dynamics in the West African Sahel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, S. E.; Walsh, J. L.; Lee, C. T.; Beck, L. R.; Hutchinson, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    Multi-resolution and multi-temporal remote sensing data (SPOT-XS and AVHRR) were evaluated for mapping local land-cover dynamics in the Sahel of West Africa. The aim of this research was to evaluate the agricultural information that could be derived from both high and low spatial resolution data in areas where there is very often limited ground information. A combination of raster-based image processing and vector-based geographical information system mapping was found to be effective for understanding both spatial and spectral land-cover dynamics. The SPOT data proved useful for mapping local land-cover classes in a dominantly recessive agricultural region. The AVHRR-LAC data could be used to map the dynamics of riparian vegetation, but not the changes associated with recession agriculture. In areas where there was a complex mixture of recession and irrigated agriculture, as well as riparian vegetation, the AVHRR data did not provide an accurate temporal assessment of vegetation dynamics.

  15. The Comparison Study of Chinese and American Secondary School Students' Knowledge Structure--An Experimental Research Based on Concept Map Assessment Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Yan; Dong, Boqing; Zhou, Zengyao

    2009-01-01

    A concept map is a schematic device for representing a set of concept meanings embedded in a framework of propositions. It can be used to evaluate students' knowledge structure. This article introduces the comparative study of Chinese and American secondary school students' knowledge structure. They are compared quantitatively and qualitatively in…

  16. Construction of black (Rubus occidentalis) and red (R. idaeus) raspberry linkage maps and their comparison to the genomes of strawberry, apple, and peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Rubus belongs to the Rosaceae and is comprised of 600-800 species distributed worldwide. To date, genetic maps of the genus consist largely of non-transferable markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). An F1 population developed from a cross between an advanced breedi...

  17. Quantitative T2 mapping for detecting myocardial edema after reperfusion of myocardial infarction: validation and comparison with T2-weighted images.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Hwan; Choi, Eui-Young; Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Hong, Bum Kee; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Yoon, Young Won; Min, Pil-Ki; Greiser, Andreas; Paek, Mun Young; Yu, Wei; Sung, Yon Mi; Hwang, Sung Ho; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluates the clinical usefulness of T2 mapping for the detection of myocardial edema in the re-perfused acute myocardial infarction (MI). Cardiac MRIs were reviewed in 20 patients who had acute MI after reperfusion therapy. The regional T2 values and T2-weighted image (T2WI) signal intensities (SI) were measured in the infarcted and remote zones of the myocardium. Patients were divided into three groups according to the signal patterns of the infarcted myocardium on the T2WIs. The T2 values of the infarcted zones were compared on the T2 maps among the three groups. Validation of the T2 values was performed in the normal myocardium of seven healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences in mean T2WI-SI or T2 values in the normal myocardium of healthy volunteers compared to the remote myocardium of acute MI patients (p > 0.05). Mean SI on the T2WIs was significantly higher in the infarcted myocardium (81.3 ± 37.6) than in the remote myocardium (63.8 ± 18.1) (p < 0.05). The T2WIs showed high SI in ten patients (group 1), iso-SI in seven (group 2), and low SI in three (group 3) in the infarcted myocardium, compared to the remote myocardium. The T2 maps showed that T2 values in the infarcted myocardium had mostly increased, regardless of group, with values of 71 ± 9 ms in group 1, 64.9 ± 7.4 ms in group 2, and 61.4 ± 8.5 ms in group 3. T2 mapping is superior to T2WI for detecting areas of high SI in the infarcted myocardium. Therefore, quantitative T2 mapping sequences may be more useful and reliable in identifying myocardial edema in the infarcted myocardium than T2WI.

  18. Peptidoglycan LD-carboxypeptidase Pgp2 influences Campylobacter jejuni helical cell shape and pathogenic properties and provides the substrate for the DL-carboxypeptidase Pgp1.

    PubMed

    Frirdich, Emilisa; Vermeulen, Jenny; Biboy, Jacob; Soares, Fraser; Taveirne, Michael E; Johnson, Jeremiah G; DiRita, Victor J; Girardin, Stephen E; Vollmer, Waldemar; Gaynor, Erin C

    2014-03-21

    Despite the importance of Campylobacter jejuni as a pathogen, little is known about the fundamental aspects of its peptidoglycan (PG) structure and factors modulating its helical morphology. A PG dl-carboxypeptidase Pgp1 essential for maintenance of C. jejuni helical shape was recently identified. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the CJJ81176_0915 gene product as co-occurring with Pgp1 in several organisms. Deletion of cjj81176_0915 (renamed pgp2) resulted in straight morphology, representing the second C. jejuni gene affecting cell shape. The PG structure of a Δpgp2 mutant showed an increase in tetrapeptide-containing muropeptides and a complete absence of tripeptides, consistent with ld-carboxypeptidase activity, which was confirmed biochemically. PG analysis of a Δpgp1Δpgp2 double mutant demonstrated that Pgp2 activity is required to generate the tripeptide substrate for Pgp1. Loss of pgp2 affected several pathogenic properties; the deletion strain was defective for motility in semisolid agar, biofilm formation, and fluorescence on calcofluor white. Δpgp2 PG also caused decreased stimulation of the human nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (Nod1) proinflammatory mediator in comparison with wild type, as expected from the reduction in muropeptide tripeptides (the primary Nod1 agonist) in the mutant; however, these changes did not alter the ability of the Δpgp2 mutant strain to survive within human epithelial cells or to elicit secretion of IL-8 from epithelial cells after infection. The pgp2 mutant also showed significantly reduced fitness in a chick colonization model. Collectively, these analyses enhance our understanding of C. jejuni PG maturation and help to clarify how PG structure and cell shape impact pathogenic attributes.

  19. Seasonal bloom dynamics and ecophysiology of the freshwater sister clade of SAR11 bacteria ‘that rule the waves' (LD12)

    PubMed Central

    Salcher, Michaela M; Pernthaler, Jakob; Posch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Alphaproteobacteria are common members of marine bacterioplankton assemblages, but are believed to be rare in lacustrine systems. However, uncultured Alphaproteobacteria of the freshwater LD12 lineage form a tight monophyletic sister group with the numerically dominant bacteria in marine epipelagic waters, the SAR11 clade or genus Pelagibacter. Comparative rRNA sequence analysis reveals a global occurrence of LD12 bacteria in freshwater systems. The association of genotypic subclades with single-study systems moreover suggests a regional diversification. LD12 bacteria exhibit distinct and annually recurring spatio-temporal distribution patterns in prealpine lakes, as assessed by seasonally resolved vertical profiling and high-throughput cell counting. During the summer months, these ultramicrobacteria can form cell densities in the surface (epilimnetic) water layers that are comparable to those of their marine counterparts (>5 × 108 cells per l). LD12 bacteria had a pronounced preference for glutamine and glutamate over 7 other amino acids in situ, and they exhibited substantially higher uptake of these two substrates (and glycine) than the microbial assemblage in general. In addition, members of LD12 were also able to exploit other monomeric sources of organic carbon such as glucose, fructose or acetate. LD12 seemed to follow an oligotrophic lifestyle with slow but efficient uptake already at low substrate concentrations. Thus, LD12 bacteria do not only share phenotypic and metabolic traits with Pelagibacter, but also seem to thrive in the analogous spatiotemporal niche in freshwaters. The two groups together form one of the rare monophyletic lineages of ultramicrobacteria that have successfully traversed the barrier between marine and freshwater habitats. PMID:21412347

  20. RICH MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Michael Goodchild recently gave eight reasons why traditional maps are limited as communication devices, and how interactive internet mapping can overcome these limitations. In the past, many authorities in cartography, from Jenks to Bertin, have emphasized the importance of sim...

  1. Map adventures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1994-01-01

    Map Adventures, with seven accompanying lessons, is appropriate for grades K-3. Students will learn basic concepts for visualizing objects from different perspectives and how to understand /and use maps.

  2. YouGenMap: a web platform for dynamic multi-comparative mapping and visualization of genetic maps.

    PubMed

    Batesole, Keith; Wimalanathan, Kokulapalan; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Fan; Echt, Craig S; Liang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genetic maps are used in examination of genome organization, detection of conserved gene order, and exploration of marker order variations. YouGenMap is an open-source web tool that offers dynamic comparative mapping capability of users' own genetic mapping between 2 or more map sets. Users' genetic map data and optional gene annotations are uploaded, either publically or privately, as long as they follow our template which is available in several standard file formats. Data is parsed and loaded into MySQL relational database to be displayed and compared against users' genetic maps or other public data available on YouGenMap. With the highly interactive GUIs, all public data on YouGenMap are maps available for visualization, comparison, search, filtration and download. YouGenMap web tool is available on the website (http://conifergdb.miamioh.edu/yougenmap) with the source-code repository at (http://sourceforge.net/projects/yougenmap/?source=directory).

  3. Historical Mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Maps become out of date over time. Maps that are out of date, however, can be useful to historians, attorneys, environmentalists, genealogists, and others interested in researching the background of a particular area. Local historians can compare a series of maps of the same area compiled over a long period of time to learn how the area developed. A succession of such maps can provide a vivid picture of how a place changed over time.

  4. CD28 signal transduction pathways. A comparison of B7-1 and B7-2 regulation of the map kinases: ERK2 and Jun kinases.

    PubMed

    Nunes, J A; Battifora, M; Woodgett, J R; Truneh, A; Olive, D; Cantrell, D A

    1996-01-01

    The present study compares the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase responses in T cells activated with the CD28 ligands B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2/B70 (CD86). Ligands B7-1 and B7-2 do not activate the Raf-1/ERK2 cascade, but share the ability to activate related Jun kinases. These natural ligands for CD28 had no stimulatory effect alone on Jun kinase activation, but the data show that B7-1 and B7-2 could both co-operate with intracellular Ca2+ increase and protein kinase C (PKC) activation to stimulate Jun kinases. The present study shows that the interaction of CD28 with its ligands B7-1 and B7-2 can induce identical signal transduction through the MAP kinase cascades.

  5. Creating a system for the geological exploitation of satellite images: Automatic mapping and geophysical data comparison. [in the Pyrenees and Alps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braconne, S.; Cavalier, M.; Dubesset, M.; Guillemot, J.; Guy, M.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for integrating satellite images into a geophysical data interpretation system. Aspects of the method include: an attempt to automatically interpret images by structural, mainly topological, methods for the mapping of geological contours; an analysis of the position relation of the contours gives a skeleton stratigraphy (order of succession); and a system combining some of the extracted elements with geographic data to make an objective search for an interpretation hypothesis. Some examples are presented.

  6. A comparison of heritability maps of cortical surface area and thickness and the influence of adjustment for whole brain measures: a magnetic resonance imaging twin study.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Lisa T; Chen, Chi-Hua; Panizzon, Matthew S; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Neale, Michael C; Jak, Amy; Jernigan, Terry L; Fischl, Bruce; Franz, Carol E; Lyons, Michael J; Grant, Michael; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Fiecas, Mark Joseph A; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the genetic and environmental contributions to measures of brain structure such as surface area and cortical thickness is important for a better understanding of the nature of brain-behavior relationships and changes due to development or disease. Continuous spatial maps of genetic influences on these structural features can contribute to our understanding of regional patterns of heritability, since it remains to be seen whether genetic contributions to brain structure respect the boundaries of any traditional parcellation approaches. Using data from magnetic resonance imaging scans collected on a large sample of monozygotic and dizygotic twins in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging, we created maps of the heritability of areal expansion (a vertex-based area measure) and cortical thickness and examined the degree to which these maps were affected by adjustment for total surface area and mean cortical thickness. We also compared the approach of estimating regional heritability based on the average heritability of vertices within the region to the more traditional region-of-interest (ROI)-based approach. The results suggested high heritability across the cortex for areal expansion and, to a slightly lesser degree, for cortical thickness. There was a great deal of genetic overlap between global and regional measures for surface area, so maps of region-specific genetic influences on surface area revealed more modest heritabilities. There was greater inter-regional variability in heritabilities when calculated using the traditional ROI-based approach compared to summarizing vertex-by-vertex heritabilities within regions. Discrepancies between the approaches were greatest in small regions and tended to be larger for surface area than for cortical thickness measures. Implications regarding brain phenotypes for future genetic association studies are discussed. PMID:22856366

  7. Comparison of Clinical Trajectories before Initiation of Renal Replacement Therapy between Diabetic Nephropathy and Nephrosclerosis on the KDIGO Guidelines Heat Map.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masanori; Okada, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Noriaki; Takashima, Hiroyuki; Oikawa, Osamu; Soma, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences between the clinical trajectories of diabetic nephropathy and nephrosclerosis using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) heat map and the clinical characteristics between the two diseases at RRT initiation. This single-center, retrospective study enrolled 100 patients whose estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was ≥45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at their first visit and who were initiated on RRT. Fifty consecutive patients were assigned to each of the diabetic nephropathy and nephrosclerosis groups. All data for simultaneously measured eGFR and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) were collected from first visit to RRT initiation and were plotted on the KDIGO heat map. Diabetic nephropathy was characterized by higher blood pressure and UACR and lower age, eGFR, and serum albumin levels compared with nephrosclerosis at RRT initiation. The vast majority of patients with diabetic nephropathy and eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) had concomitant macroalbuminuria, whereas for patients with nephrosclerosis, even when eGFR was <45 mL/min/1.73 m(2), many still had normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. The rate of decline of eGFR was significantly faster in the diabetic nephropathy group than that in the nephrosclerosis group. The clinical trajectories of diabetic nephropathy and nephrosclerosis differed markedly on the KDIGO heat map.

  8. The LD loop as an important structural element required for transmission of the allosteric signal in the HtrA (DegP) protease from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Figaj, Donata; Gieldon, Artur; Bartczak, Marlena; Koper, Tomasz; Zarzecka, Urszula; Lesner, Adam; Lipinska, Barbara; Skorko-Glonek, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    High-temperature requirement A (HtrA; DegP) from Escherichia coli, an important element of the extracytoplasmic protein quality-control system, is a member of the evolutionarily conserved family of serine proteases. The characteristic feature of this protein is its allosteric mode of activation. The regulatory loops, L3, L2, L1 and LD, play a crucial role in the transmission of the allosteric signal. Yet, the role of LD has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we undertook a study to explain the role of the individual LD residues in inducing and maintaining the proteolytic activity of HtrA. We investigated the influence of amino acid substitutions located within the LD loop on the kinetics of a model substrate cleavage as well as on the dynamics of the oligomeric structure of HtrA. We found that the mutations that were expected to disturb the loop's structure and/or interactions with the remaining regulatory loops severely diminished the proteolytic activity of HtrA. The opposite effect, that is, increased activity, was observed for G174S substitution, which was predicted to strengthen the interactions mediated by LD. HtrAG174S protein had an equilibrium shifted toward the active enzyme and formed preferentially high-order oligomeric forms. PMID:27469236

  9. Students classified as LD who petitioned for or fulfilled the college foreign language requirement-are they different? A replication study.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Richard L; Philips, Lois; Javorsky, James

    2003-01-01

    This replication study compared 86 petition students who received course substitutions for the college foreign language (FL) requirement with 40 nonpetition students who fulfilled the FL requirement by passing FL courses on cognitive and academic achievement measures and graduating grade point average. The results showed significant differences between the two groups, favoring the nonpetition group on one measure, the American College Testing (ACT) score, when IQ was used as a covariate; however, no significant group differences remained when ACT score was used as a covariate. More than half of the 126 petition and nonpetition students did not meet a minimum criterion for classification as learning disabled (LD), and more than half of both groups (54% and 63%, respectively) were not classified as LD before enrolling in college. Sixty percent of the petition students either had not taken an FL course in college or had achieved only grades of withdrawal before petitioning for substitution of the FL requirement. Implications addressed include petition students' persistence in fulfilling the FL requirement, students' use of instructional accommodations and services, criteria used to classify students as LD, use of the Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT), and why some students classified as LD pass FL courses and other students classified as LD do not.

  10. Topographic mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  11. Shades of gray: A comparison of linkage disequilibrium between Hutterites and Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Emma E; Sun, Ying; Nicolae, Dan; Ober, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Founder or isolated populations have advantages for genetic studies due to decreased genetic and environmental heterogeneity. However, whereas longer range linkage disequilibrium (LD) in these populations is expected to facilitate gene localization, extensive LD may actually limit the ability for gene discovery. The North American Hutterite population is one of the best characterized young founder populations and members of this isolate have been the subjects of our studies of complex traits, including fertility, asthma and cardiovascular disease, for >20 years. Here, we directly assess the patterns and extent of global LD using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ≥5% from the Affymetrix GeneChip® Mapping 500K array in 60 relatively unrelated Hutterites and 60 unrelated Europeans (HapMap CEU). Although LD among some marker pairs extends further in the Hutterites than in Europeans, the pattern of LD and minor allele frequencies are surprisingly similar. These results indicate that 1) identifying disease genes should be no more difficult in the Hutterites than in outbred European populations, 2) the same common susceptibility alleles for complex diseases should be present in the Hutterites and outbred European populations, and 3) imputation algorithms based on HapMap CEU should be applicable to the Hutterites. PMID:19697328

  12. Comparison of experimental to MELTSIM calculated DNA melting of the (A+T) rich Dictyostelium discoideum genome: denaturation maps distinguish exons from introns.

    PubMed

    Marx, K A; Assil, I Q; Bizzaro, J W; Blake, R D

    1998-10-01

    The slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum, possesses an (A+T) rich eukaryotic genome that is being sequenced in the Human Genome Project. High resolution melting curves of isolated total and fractionated nuclear D. discoideum DNA(AX3 strain) were determined experimentally and are compared to melting curves calculated from GENBANK sequences (1.59% of genome) by the statistical thermodynamics program MELTSIM (1), parameterized for long DNA sequences (2,3). The lower and upper temperature limits of calculated melting agree well with the observed melting of total DNA. The experimental curve is unusual in that it contains a number of sharp peaks. MELTSIM allowed us to calculate positional denaturation maps of D. discoideum GENBANK sequence documents containing the 26S, 5.8S and 17S rDNA gene sequences, a major satellite DNA and repetitive sequence family present in 100-200 copies/nucleus. These denaturation maps contain subtransitions that correspond with a number of the experimentally observed peaks, some of which we show to correspond with rDNA gene enriched CsCl gradient fractions of D. discoideum DNA. MELTSIM calculated curves of coding, intron and flanking sequences indicate that both intron and flanking sequences are extremely (A+T) rich and account for most of the low temperature melting. There is no temperature overlap between thermal stabilities of these sequence domains and those of coding DNA. The latter must satisfy triplet codon constraints of higher (G+C) content. These large stability property differences enable a denaturation mapping feature of MELTSIM to clearly distinguish exon positions from those of introns and flanking DNA in long D. discoideum gene containing sequences.

  13. Large-scale dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere during the MAP/WINE campaign winter 1983 to 1984 in comparison with other winters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petzoldt, K.

    1989-01-01

    For the MAP/WINE winter temperature and wind measurements of rockets were combined with SSU radiances (Stratospheric Sounder Unit onboard the NOAA satellites) and stratopause heights from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) to get a retrieved data set including all available information. By means of this data set a hemispheric geopotential height, temperature and geostrophic wind fields eddy transports for wave mean flow interaction and potential vorticity for the interpretation of nonlinear wave breaking could be computed. Wave reflection at critical lines was investigated with respect of stratospheric warmings. The meridional gradient of the potential vorticity and focusing of wave activity is compared with derived data from satellite observations during other winters.

  14. Genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance in elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunlei; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Li, Yunhai

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and linkage disequilibrium in an association panel can effectively avoid spurious associations and improve the accuracy in association mapping. In this study, one hundred and fifty eight elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm from all over the world, which were genotyped with 212 whole genome-wide marker loci and phenotyped with an disease nursery and greenhouse screening method, were assayed for population structure, linkage disequilibrium, and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance. A total of 480 alleles ranging from 2 to 4 per locus were identified from all collections. Model-based analysis identified two groups (G1 and G2) and seven subgroups (G1a-c, G2a-d), and differentiation analysis showed that subgroup having a single origin or pedigree was apt to differentiate with those having a mixed origin. Only 8.12% linked marker pairs showed significant LD (P<0.001) in this association panel. The LD level for linked markers is significantly higher than that for unlinked markers, suggesting that physical linkage strongly influences LD in this panel, and LD level was elevated when the panel was classified into groups and subgroups. The LD decay analysis for several chromosomes showed that different chromosomes showed a notable change in LD decay distances for the same gene pool. Based on the disease nursery and greenhouse environment, 42 marker loci associated with Verticillium wilt resistance were identified through association mapping, which widely were distributed among 15 chromosomes. Among which 10 marker loci were found to be consistent with previously identified QTLs and 32 were new unreported marker loci, and QTL clusters for Verticillium wilt resistanc on Chr.16 were also proved in our study, which was consistent with the strong linkage in this chromosome. Our results would contribute to association mapping and supply the marker candidates for marker-assisted selection of Verticillium wilt

  15. The effect of excisional biopsy on the accuracy of sentinel lymph node mapping in early stage breast cancer: comparison with core needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Forghani, Mohammad Naser; Memar, Bahram; Jangjoo, Ali; Zakavi, Rasoul; Mehrabibahar, Mostafa; Kakhki, Vahid Reza Dabbagh; Kashani, Ida; Hashemian, Farnaz; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2010-11-01

    Despite the successful application of sentinel node mapping in breast cancer patients, its use in patients with a history of previous excisional biopsy of the breast tumors is a matter of controversy. In the present study we evaluated the accuracy of sentinel node biopsy in this group of patients and compared the results with those in whom the diagnosis of breast cancer was established by core needle biopsy. Eighty patients with early stage breast carcinoma were included into our study. Forty patients had a history of previous excisional biopsy and the remainder 40 had undergone core needle biopsy. Intradermal injections of 99mTc-antimony sulfide colloid as well as patent blue were both used for sentinel node mapping. Sentinel nodes were harvested during surgery with the aid of surgical gamma probe. All patients underwent standard axillary lymph node dissection subsequently. Detection rate was 97.5 per cent for both groups of the study. Number of detected sentinel node during surgery was not significantly different between groups. False negative rate was 0 per cent for both groups of the study. In conclusion sentinel node biopsy is reliable in patients with previous history of excisional biopsy of the breast tumors and has a low false negative rate.

  16. Comparison of Skylab and LANDSAT images for geologic mapping in Northern Arizona. [Shivwits Plateau, Verde Valley, Coconino Plateau, and Red Lake in Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H. (Principal Investigator); Abrams, M. J.; Gillespie, A. R.; Siegal, B. S.; Elston, D. P.; Lucchitta, I.; Wu, S. S. C.; Sanchez, A.; Dipaola, W. D.; Schafer, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was found that based on resolution, the Skylab S190A products were superior to LANDSAT images. Based on measurements of shoreline features in Lake Mead S190A images had 1.5 - 3 times greater resolution than LANDSAT. In general, the higher resolution of the Skylab data yielded better discrimination among rock units, but in the case of structural features, lower sun angle LANDSAT images (50 deg) were superior to higher sun angle Skylab images (77 deg). The most valuable advantage of the Skylab over the LANDSAT image products is the capability of producing stereo images. Field spectral reflectance measurements on the Coconino Plateau were made in an effort to determine the best spectral band for discrimination of the six geologic units in question, and these bands were 1.3, 1.2, 1.0, and 0.5 microns. The EREP multispectral scanner yielded data with a low signal to noise ratio which limited its usefulness for image enhancement work. Sites that were studied in Arizona were Shivwits Plateau, Verde Valley, Coconino Plateau, and Red Lake. Thematic maps produced by the three classification algorithms analyzed were not as accurate as the maps produced by photointerpretation of composites of enhanced images.

  17. A comparison of Spectral Angle Mapper and Artificial Neural Network classifiers combined with Landsat TM imagery analysis for obtaining burnt area mapping.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, George P; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Xanthopoulos, Gavriil; Karantounias, George; Scholze, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing, with its unique synoptic coverage capabilities, can provide accurate and immediately valuable information on fire analysis and post-fire assessment, including estimation of burnt areas. In this study the potential for burnt area mapping of the combined use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifiers with Landsat TM satellite imagery was evaluated in a Mediterranean setting. As a case study one of the most catastrophic forest fires, which occurred near the capital of Greece during the summer of 2007, was used. The accuracy of the two algorithms in delineating the burnt area from the Landsat TM imagery, acquired shortly after the fire suppression, was determined by the classification accuracy results of the produced thematic maps. In addition, the derived burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were compared with independent estimates available for the study region, obtained from the analysis of higher spatial resolution satellite data. In terms of the overall classification accuracy, ANN outperformed (overall accuracy 90.29%, Kappa coefficient 0.878) the SAM classifier (overall accuracy 83.82%, Kappa coefficient 0.795). Total burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were found also to be in close agreement with the other available estimates for the study region, with a mean absolute percentage difference of ≈ 1% for ANN and ≈ 6.5% for SAM. The study demonstrates the potential of the examined here algorithms in detecting burnt areas in a typical Mediterranean setting.

  18. A Comparison of Spectral Angle Mapper and Artificial Neural Network Classifiers Combined with Landsat TM Imagery Analysis for Obtaining Burnt Area Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Petropoulos, George P.; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Xanthopoulos, Gavriil; Karantounias, George; Scholze, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing, with its unique synoptic coverage capabilities, can provide accurate and immediately valuable information on fire analysis and post-fire assessment, including estimation of burnt areas. In this study the potential for burnt area mapping of the combined use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifiers with Landsat TM satellite imagery was evaluated in a Mediterranean setting. As a case study one of the most catastrophic forest fires, which occurred near the capital of Greece during the summer of 2007, was used. The accuracy of the two algorithms in delineating the burnt area from the Landsat TM imagery, acquired shortly after the fire suppression, was determined by the classification accuracy results of the produced thematic maps. In addition, the derived burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were compared with independent estimates available for the study region, obtained from the analysis of higher spatial resolution satellite data. In terms of the overall classification accuracy, ANN outperformed (overall accuracy 90.29%, Kappa coefficient 0.878) the SAM classifier (overall accuracy 83.82%, Kappa coefficient 0.795). Total burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were found also to be in close agreement with the other available estimates for the study region, with a mean absolute percentage difference of ∼1% for ANN and ∼6.5% for SAM. The study demonstrates the potential of the examined here algorithms in detecting burnt areas in a typical Mediterranean setting. PMID:22294909

  19. Comparison of Different Machine Learning Algorithms for Lithological Mapping Using Remote Sensing Data and Morphological Features: A Case Study in Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Arsalan; Gloaguen, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Topographic effects and complex vegetation cover hinder lithology classification in mountain regions based not only in field, but also in reflectance remote sensing data. The area of interest "Bardi-Zard" is located in the NE of Iraq. It is part of the Zagros orogenic belt, where seven lithological units outcrop and is known for its chromite deposit. The aim of this study is to compare three machine learning algorithms (MLAs): Maximum Likelihood (ML), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and Random Forest (RF) in the context of a supervised lithology classification task using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite, its derived, spatial information (spatial coordinates) and geomorphic data. We emphasize the enhancement in remote sensing lithological mapping accuracy that arises from the integration of geomorphic features and spatial information (spatial coordinates) in classifications. This study identifies that RF is better than ML and SVM algorithms in almost the sixteen combination datasets, which were tested. The overall accuracy of the best dataset combination with the RF map for the all seven classes reach ~80% and the producer and user's accuracies are ~73.91% and 76.09% respectively while the kappa coefficient is ~0.76. TPI is more effective with SVM algorithm than an RF algorithm. This paper demonstrates that adding geomorphic indices such as TPI and spatial information in the dataset increases the lithological classification accuracy.

  20. RAB GTPASES ASSOCIATE WITH ISOLATED LIPID DROPLETS (LDS) AND SHOW ALTERED CONTENT AFTER ETHANOL ADMINISTRATION: POTENTIAL ROLE IN ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED LD METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Rasineni, Karuna; McVicker, Benita L.; Tuma, Dean J.; McNiven, Mark A.; Casey, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcoholic liver disease is manifested by the presence of fatty liver, primarily due to accumulation of hepatocellular lipid droplets (LDs). The presence of membrane-trafficking proteins (e.g. Rab GTPases) with LDs indicates that LDs may be involved in trafficking pathways known to be altered in ethanol damaged hepatocytes. Since these Rab GTPases are crucial regulators of protein trafficking, we examined the effect ethanol administration has on hepatic Rab protein content and association with LDs. Methods Male Wistar rats were pair-fed Lieber-DeCarli diets for 5 to 8 weeks. Whole liver and isolated LD fractions were analyzed. Identification of LDs and associated Rab proteins was performed in frozen liver or paraffin-embedded sections followed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results Lipid accumulation was characterized by larger LD vacuoles and increased total triglyceride content in ethanol-fed rats. Rabs 1, 2, 3d, 5, 7 and 18 were analyzed in post-nuclear supernatant (PNS) as well as LDs. All of the Rabs were found in the PNS, and Rabs 1, 2, 5 and 7 did not show alcohol-altered content, while Rab 3d content was reduced by over 80%, and Rab 18 also showed ethanol-induced reduction in content. Rab 3d was not found to associate with LDs, while all other Rabs were found in the LD fractions, and several showed an ethanol-related decrease (Rabs 2, 5, 7, 18). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the enhanced content of a LD-associated protein, perilipin 2 (PLIN2) that was paralleled with an associated decrease of Rab 18 in ethanol-fed rat sections. Conclusion Chronic ethanol feeding was associated with increased PLIN2 and altered Rab GTPase content in enriched LD fractions. Although mechanisms driving these changes are not established, further studies on intracellular protein trafficking and LD biology after alcohol administration will likely contribute to our understanding of fatty liver disease. PMID:24117505

  1. Probing neuronal activation by functional quantitative susceptibility mapping under a visual paradigm: A group level comparison with BOLD fMRI and PET.

    PubMed

    Özbay, Pinar Senay; Warnock, Geoffrey; Rossi, Cristina; Kuhn, Felix; Akin, Burak; Pruessmann, Klaas Paul; Nanz, Daniel

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic changes of brain-tissue magnetic susceptibility provide the basis for functional MR imaging (fMRI) via T2*-weighted signal-intensity modulations. Promising initial work on a detection of neuronal activity via quantitative susceptibility mapping (fQSM) has been published but consistently reported on ill-understood positive and negative activation patterns (Balla et al., 2014; Chen and Calhoun, 2015a). We set out to (i) demonstrate that fQSM can exploit established fMRI data acquisition and processing methods and to (ii) better describe aspects of the apparent activation patterns using fMRI and PET as standards of reference. Under a standardized visual-stimulation paradigm PET and 3-T gradient-echo EPI-based fQSM, fMRI data from 9 healthy volunteers were acquired and analyzed by means of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) at subject level and, for the first time, at group level. Numbers of activated (z-score>2.0) voxels were counted and their mean z-scores calculated in volumes of interest (occipital lobe (Nocc_lobe), segmented occipital gray-matter (NGM_occ_lobe), large veins (Nveins)), and in occipital-lobe voxels commonly activated in fQSM and fMRI component maps. Common but not entirely congruent regions of apparent activation were found in the occipital lobe in z-score maps from all modalities, fQSM, fMRI and PET, with distinct BOLD-negatively correlated regions in fQSM data. At subject-level, Nocc_lobe, NGM_occ_lobe and their mean z-scores were significantly smaller in fQSM than in fMRI, but their ratio, NGM_occ_lobe/Nocc_lobe, was comparable. Nveins did not statistically differ and the ratio Nveins/NGM_occ_lobe as well as the mean z-scores were higher for fQSM than for fMRI. In veins and immediate vicinity, z-score maps derived from both phase and fQSM-data showed positive and negative lobes resembling dipole shapes in simulated field and phase maps with no correlate in fMRI or PET data. Our results show that standard fMRI tools can directly be used

  2. Historical Relevance: NCLB in Relation to Exclusion of Prince George's County ADHD and LD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The implications of No Child Left Behind made comparisons of all students in the American education system with students in other countries. NCLB also made historical comparisons with students from previous generations. The purpose of this study was to point out the impropriety of making these comparisons. Students who attended school prior to the…

  3. A comparison of key aspects of gene regulation in Streptomyces coelicolor and Escherichia coli using nucleotide-resolution transcription maps produced in parallel by global and differential RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Romero, David A; Hasan, Ayad H; Lin, Yu-fei; Kime, Louise; Ruiz-Larrabeiti, Olatz; Urem, Mia; Bucca, Giselda; Mamanova, Lira; Laing, Emma E; van Wezel, Gilles P; Smith, Colin P; Kaberdin, Vladimir R; McDowall, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a model for studying bacteria renowned as the foremost source of natural products used clinically. Post-genomic studies have revealed complex patterns of gene expression and links to growth, morphological development and individual genes. However, the underlying regulation remains largely obscure, but undoubtedly involves steps after transcription initiation. Here we identify sites involved in RNA processing and degradation as well as transcription within a nucleotide-resolution map of the transcriptional landscape. This was achieved by combining RNA-sequencing approaches suited to the analysis of GC-rich organisms. Escherichia coli was analysed in parallel to validate the methodology and allow comparison. Previously, sites of RNA processing and degradation had not been mapped on a transcriptome-wide scale for E. coli. Through examples, we show the value of our approach and data sets. This includes the identification of new layers of transcriptional complexity associated with several key regulators of secondary metabolism and morphological development in S. coelicolor and the identification of host-encoded leaderless mRNA and rRNA processing associated with the generation of specialized ribosomes in E. coli. New regulatory small RNAs were identified for both organisms. Overall the results illustrate the diversity in mechanisms used by different bacterial groups to facilitate and regulate gene expression. PMID:25266672

  4. Mapping Van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. Data is fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS). The resulting amps can be used for tax assessment purposes, emergency dispatch vehicles and fleet delivery companies as well as other applications.

  5. Using the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) for remotely mapping surface roughness on alluvial fans: A comparison of Death Valley, CA to Mojave Crater on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, S. L.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Scuderi, L. A.; Weissmann, G. S.; Scuderi, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) describes how incoming light from a given direction is reflected from specific surfaces in response to different incoming solar radiation angles. The amount and directionality of reflected light is a function of surface roughness and orientation. The goal of this study is to assess whether a BRDF based approach may be applicable for creating surface roughness maps for Martian alluvial fans. Landsat 7 satellite imagery is used to make classifications of surfaces with different roughness and spectral properties for alluvial fan surfaces in Death Valley, California. The resulting classes have been interpreted to represent surfaces of different ages and also different deposit types. In Death Valley, older surfaces are classified based on the amount of shadowing due to gully formation, differences in the amount of surface smoothness from desert pavement formation, and desert varnish color variations. In contrast, the most recently formed surfaces have an assemblage of classes that represent surface deposits of different grain size and sorting, as well as different landform types - incised channels and elevated bars. Many Death Valley fans have a telescoping morphology where progressively younger surfaces reach basin-ward. This is more evident on some fans using a BRDF classification. A similar map was made for depositional landforms within Mojave Crater on Mars, identified as sub-kilometer alluvial fans by Williams and Malin (2008). These alluvial fans are the youngest found on Mars (Amazonian age) and have topographic similarities to fans in the southwestern US. Any geomorphic similarities between Death Valley fans and those within Mojave Crater can be assessed using surface roughness. Imagery from both the High Resolution Imaging Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) were used to compare differences in spatial resolution on BRDF classifications. The

  6. Story Mapping and Its Effects on the Writing Fluency and Word Diversity of Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daqi

    2007-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities (LD) often experience difficulties in writing fluently and using a diversity of words. To help these students, specific and effective writing strategies must be incorporated into instruction and demonstrated to them through modeling. This study examined the effectiveness of using a story map and story map…

  7. A comparison of multi-spectral, multi-angular, and multi-temporal remote sensing datasets for fractional shrub canopy mapping in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selkowitz, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Shrub cover appears to be increasing across many areas of the Arctic tundra biome, and increasing shrub cover in the Arctic has the potential to significantly impact global carbon budgets and the global climate system. For most of the Arctic, however, there is no existing baseline inventory of shrub canopy cover, as existing maps of Arctic vegetation provide little information about the density of shrub cover at a moderate spatial resolution across the region. Remotely-sensed fractional shrub canopy maps can provide this necessary baseline inventory of shrub cover. In this study, we compare the accuracy of fractional shrub canopy (> 0.5 m tall) maps derived from multi-spectral, multi-angular, and multi-temporal datasets from Landsat imagery at 30 m spatial resolution, Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) imagery at 250 m and 500 m spatial resolution, and MultiAngle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) imagery at 275 m spatial resolution for a 1067 km2 study area in Arctic Alaska. The study area is centered at 69 ??N, ranges in elevation from 130 to 770 m, is composed primarily of rolling topography with gentle slopes less than 10??, and is free of glaciers and perennial snow cover. Shrubs > 0.5 m in height cover 2.9% of the study area and are primarily confined to patches associated with specific landscape features. Reference fractional shrub canopy is determined from in situ shrub canopy measurements and a high spatial resolution IKONOS image swath. Regression tree models are constructed to estimate fractional canopy cover at 250 m using different combinations of input data from Landsat, MODIS, and MISR. Results indicate that multi-spectral data provide substantially more accurate estimates of fractional shrub canopy cover than multi-angular or multi-temporal data. Higher spatial resolution datasets also provide more accurate estimates of fractional shrub canopy cover (aggregated to moderate spatial resolutions) than lower spatial resolution datasets

  8. Comparison of endocardial electromechanical mapping with radionuclide perfusion imaging to assess myocardial viability and severity of myocardial ischemia in angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, S; Hendel, R C; Baim, D S; Moses, J W; Pierre, A; Laham, R J; Hong, M K; Kuntz, R E; Pietrusewicz, M; Bonow, R O; Mintz, G S; Leon, M B; Kornowski, R

    2001-04-01

    The assessment of left ventricular electromechanical activity using a novel, nonfluoroscopic 3-dimensional mapping system demonstrates considerable differences in electrical and mechanical activities within regions of myocardial infarction or ischemia. We sought to determine whether these changes correlate with indexes of myocardial perfusion, viability, or ischemia. A 12-segment comparative analysis was performed in 61 patients (45 men, 61 +/- 12 years old) with class III to IV angina, having reversible and/or fixed myocardial perfusion defects on single-photon emission computed tomographic perfusion imaging. A dual-isotope protocol was used, consisting of rest and 4-hour redistribution thallium images followed by adenosine technetium-99m sestamibi imaging. Average rest endocardial unipolar voltage (UpV) and local shortening (LS) mapping values were compared with visually derived perfusion scores. There was gradual and proportional reduction in regional UpV and LS in relation to thallium-201 uptake score at rest (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0002, respectively) and redistribution studies (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.003, respectively). UpV > or = 7.4 mV and LS > or = 5.0% had a sensitivity of 78% and 65%, respectively, with a specificity of 68% and 67% for detecting viable myocardium. UpV values of 12.3 and 5.4 mV had 90% specificity and sensitivity, respectively, to predict viable tissue. UpV, but not LS, values differentiated between normal segments and those with adenosine-induced severe perfusion defects (11.8 +/- 5.3 vs 8.8 +/- 4.1 mV, p = 0.005). Catheter-based left ventricular assessment of electromechanical activity correlates with the degree of single-photon emission computed tomographic perfusion abnormality and can identify myocardial viability with a greater accuracy than myocardial ischemia.

  9. Information content in genome-wide scans: concordance between patterns of genetic differentiation and linkage mapping associations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Scanning the genome with high density SNP markers has become a standard approach for identifying regions of the genome showing substantial between-population genetic differentiation, and thus evidence of diversifying selection. Such regions may contain genes of large phenotypic effect. However, few studies have attempted to address the power or efficacy of such an approach. Results In this study, the patterns of allele frequency differences between two cattle breeds based on the Bovine HapMap study were compared with statistical evidence for QTL based on a linkage mapping study of an experimental population formed by a cross between the same breeds. Concordance between the two datasets was seen for chromosomes carrying QTL with strong statistical support, such as BTA5 and BTA18, which carry genes associated with coat color. For these chromosomes, there was a correspondence between the strength of the QTL signal along the chromosome and the degree of genetic differentiation between breeds. However, such an association was not seen in a broader comparison that also included chromosomes carrying QTL with lower significance levels. In addition, other chromosomal regions with substantial QTL effects did not include markers showing extreme between-breed genetic differentiation. Furthermore, the overall consistency between the two studies was weak, with low genome-wide correlation between the statistical values obtained in the linkage mapping study and between-breed genetic differentiation from the HapMap study. Conclusions These results suggest that genomic diversity scans are capable of detecting regions associated with qualitative traits but may be limited in their power to detect regions associated with quantitative phenotypic differences between populations, which may depend on the marker resolution of the study and the level of LD in the populations under investigation. PMID:21269469

  10. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  11. Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  12. Map Adventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet about maps, with seven accompanying lessons, is appropriate for students in grades K-3. Students learn basic concepts for visualizing objects from different perspectives and how to understand and use maps. Lessons in the packet center on a story about a little girl, Nikki, who rides in a hot-air balloon that gives her, and…

  13. Emerging toxicity of 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI): Pharmacokinetics, behaviour, thermoregulation and LD50 in rats.

    PubMed

    Páleníček, Tomáš; Lhotková, Eva; Žídková, Monika; Balíková, Marie; Kuchař, Martin; Himl, Michal; Mikšátková, Petra; Čegan, Martin; Valeš, Karel; Tylš, Filip; Horsley, Rachel R

    2016-08-01

    MDAI (5,6-Methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane) has a reputation as a non-neurotoxic ecstasy replacement amongst recreational users, however the drug has been implicated in some severe and lethal intoxications. Due to this, and the fact that the drug is almost unexplored scientifically we investigated a broad range of effects of acute MDAI administration: pharmacokinetics (in sera, brain, liver and lung); behaviour (open field; prepulse inhibition, PPI); acute effects on thermoregulation (in group-/individually-housed rats); and systemic toxicity (median lethal dose, LD50) in Wistar rats. Pharmacokinetics of MDAI was rapid, maximum median concentration in serum and brain was attained 30min and almost returned to zero 6h after subcutaneous (sc.) administration of 10mg/kg MDAI; brain/serum ratio was ~4. MDAI particularly accumulated in lung tissue. In the open field, MDAI (5, 10, 20 and 40mg/kg sc.) increased exploratory activity, induced signs of behavioural serotonin syndrome and reduced locomotor habituation, although by 60min some effects had diminished. All doses of MDAI significantly disrupted PPI and the effect was present during the onset of its action as well as 60min after treatment. Unexpectedly, 40mg/kg MDAI killed 90% of animals in the first behavioural test, hence LD50 tests were conducted which yielded 28.33mg/kg sc. and 35mg/kg intravenous but was not established up to 40mg/kg after gastric administration. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) with brain oedema was concluded as a direct cause of death in sc. treated animals. Finally, MDAI (10, 20mg/kg sc.) caused hyperthermia and perspiration in group-housed rats. In conclusion, the drug had fast pharmacokinetics and accumulated in lipohilic tissues. Behavioural findings were consistent with mild, transient stimulation with anxiolysis and disruption of sensorimotor processing. Together with hyperthermia, the drug had a similar profile to related entactogens, especially 3

  14. Repeated electromagnetic induction measurements for mapping soil moisture at the field scale: comparison with data from a wireless soil moisture monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Edoardo; Werban, Ulrike; Zacharias, Steffen; Pohle, Marco; Dietrich, Peter; Wollschläger, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) methods are widely used for soil mapping, as they allow fast and relatively low-cost surveys of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) at various scales. Soil ECa is well known to be influenced by both the volumetric content and the electrical conductivity (EC) of soil water, as well as by soil temperature and by the volume of the solid particles and their EC. Among other applications, EMI has become widely used to determine soil water content or to study hydrological processes within the field of hydrogeophysics. Although the use of non-invasive EMI for imaging soil spatial properties is very attractive, the dependence of ECa on several properties and states challenges any interpretation with respect to individual soil properties or states such as θ. The major aim of this study was to further investigate the potential of repeated EMI measurements to map soil moisture at the hillslope scale, with particular focus on the temporal variability of the spatial patterns of ECa and soil moisture, respectively, and on the stability of the ECa-soil moisture relationship over time. To this end, we compared time series of EMI measurements with high-resolution soil moisture data for a non-intensively managed hillslope area in the Schäfertal catchment (Central Germany) for which the spatial distribution of soil properties and soil water dynamics were known in detail. Soil water and temperature dynamics were observed in 40 soil profiles at hourly resolution during 14 months using a wireless monitoring network. During this period of time, ECa was mapped on seven occasions using an EM38-DD device. For the investigated site, ECa showed small temporal variations (ranging between 0 and 24 mS/m) whereas the temporal range of soil moisture was very large (from very dry to soil saturation). Furthermore, temporal changes of the spatial pattern of ECa differed from temporal changes of the spatial pattern of soil moisture. The ECa-soil moisture

  15. Direct LD-FTMS Detection of Mineral-Associated PAHs and Their Influence on the Detection of Co-Existing Amino Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Beizhan Yan; Daphne L. Stoner; Jill R. Scott

    2007-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and amino acids (AAs) are both ubiquitous throughout the universe and can be co-located in mineral matrices (e.g., meteorites); therefore, co-detection of PAHs and AAs associated with terrestrial and extra-terrestrial minerals is of interest. Nine PAH compounds representing four chemical classes of PAH (unsubstituted, acetyl-, amino-, and nitro-substituted) were applied onto the surface of quartz, plagioclase, olivine, and ilmenite mineral standards and analyzed using laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LD-FTMS). Mass-to-charge peaks derived from PAH compounds were detected from the surfaces of all minerals evaluated. All PAH compounds were detected in the positive ion mode, whereas only nitro-substituted PAH compounds were detected in negative ion mode. In this and earlier studies, the ability to directly detect mineral-associated AAs by LD-FTMS was dependent on the mineral geomatrix. On iron-bearing minerals AAs appeared as highly fragmented ions in the spectra or were not detectable; however, the addition of the PAH chrysene enabled the ionization and detection of AAs threonine and histidine by LD-FTMS. Thus, for mineral systems such as meteorites, interstellar dust particles, soils, and sediments, the co-detection of AAs associated with PAHs by LD-FTMS is feasible.

  16. Mediating Factors of a School-Based Multi-Component Smoking Prevention Intervention: The LdP Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreras, G.; Bosi, S.; Angelini, P.; Gorini, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors mediating the effects of Luoghi di Prevenzione (LdP) smoking prevention intervention based on social competence and social influence approaches, and characterized by peer-led school-based interventions, out-of-school workshops, school lessons, and by enforcing the school anti-smoking policy.…

  17. Differentiating literacy growth of ELL students with LD from other high-risk subgroups and general education peers: evidence from grades 3-10.

    PubMed

    Solari, Emily J; Petscher, Yaacov; Folsom, Jessica Sidler

    2014-01-01

    The authors used a large data set (N = 1,011,549) to examine literacy growth over a single school year comparing general education (GenEd) students to three high-risk subgroups: English language learners (ELL), those with a specific learning disability (LD), and those identified as both LD and ELL (LD-ELL) in students in Grades 3-10. The authors were particularly interested in whether variability existed between initial status and the growth trajectories of the three high-risk groups on measures of spelling, fluency, and reading comprehension across the school year and whether this variability was differentiated because of socioeconomic status (SES) as defined by free and reduced lunch (FRL) status. Results indicate that all high-risk groups began the year at substantially lower levels than their GenEd peers, with the largest differences seen between the LD-ELL students and the other subgroups. Further results suggest that students who are in the high-risk subgroups and also qualify for FRL perform significantly worse than their peers in similar risk status groups who do not qualify for FRL, demonstrating the significant impact of SES on academic outcomes for all groups. PMID:23124380

  18. Comparison of Nickel XANES Spectra and Elemental Maps from a Ureilite, a LL3.8 Ordinary Chondrite, Two Carbonaceous Chondrites and Two Large Cluster IDPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel in the extraterrestrial world is commonly found in both Fe-Ni sulfide and Fe-Ni met-al forms [1] and in the pure metal state in the interior of iron meteorites where it is not easily oxidized. Ni is also found in olivine, pyroxene and glasses and in some melts the partitioning of Ni between the olivines and glass is controlled by the amount of S in the melt [2]. Its most common valence state is Ni(2+) but Ni also occurs as Ni(0), Ni(+), and Ni(3+) and rarely as Ni(2-), Ni(1-) and Ni(4+) [3]. It's valence state in olivines is Ni(2+) in octa-hedral coordination on the M1 site and rarely on the M2 site.[4]. The chemical sensitivity of X-ray absorp-tion near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is well established and can be used to determine not only va-lence states but also coordination sites [5]. We report here Ni XANES spectroscopy and elemental maps collected from 2 carbonaceous chondrites, 2 large clus-ter IDPs, 1 ureilite and 1 LL3 orginary chondrite.Using XANES it may be possible to find a common trait in the large cluster IDPs that will also be found in mete-orite samples.

  19. New Magnetic Resonance Imaging Index for Renal Fibrosis Assessment: A Comparison between Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and T1 Mapping with Histological Validation.

    PubMed

    Friedli, I; Crowe, L A; Berchtold, L; Moll, S; Hadaya, K; de Perrot, T; Vesin, C; Martin, P-Y; de Seigneux, S; Vallée, J-P

    2016-01-01

    A need exists to noninvasively assess renal interstitial fibrosis, a common process to all kidney diseases and predictive of renal prognosis. In this translational study, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) T1 mapping and a new segmented Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) technique, for Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), were first compared to renal fibrosis in two well-controlled animal models to assess detection limits. Validation against biopsy was then performed in 33 kidney allograft recipients (KARs). Predictive MRI indices, ΔT1 and ΔADC (defined as the cortico-medullary differences), were compared to histology. In rats, both T1 and ADC correlated well with fibrosis and inflammation showing a difference between normal and diseased kidneys. In KARs, MRI indices were not sensitive to interstitial inflammation. By contrast, ΔADC outperformed ΔT1 with a stronger negative correlation to fibrosis (R(2) = 0.64 against R(2) = 0.29 p < 0.001). ΔADC tends to negative values in KARs harboring cortical fibrosis of more than 40%. Using a discriminant analysis method, the ΔADC, as a marker to detect such level of fibrosis or higher, led to a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 71%, respectively. This new index has potential for noninvasive assessment of fibrosis in the clinical setting. PMID:27439482

  20. New Magnetic Resonance Imaging Index for Renal Fibrosis Assessment: A Comparison between Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and T1 Mapping with Histological Validation

    PubMed Central

    Friedli, I.; Crowe, L. A.; Berchtold, L.; Moll, S.; Hadaya, K.; de Perrot, T.; Vesin, C.; Martin, P.-Y.; de Seigneux, S.; Vallée, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    A need exists to noninvasively assess renal interstitial fibrosis, a common process to all kidney diseases and predictive of renal prognosis. In this translational study, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) T1 mapping and a new segmented Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) technique, for Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), were first compared to renal fibrosis in two well-controlled animal models to assess detection limits. Validation against biopsy was then performed in 33 kidney allograft recipients (KARs). Predictive MRI indices, ΔT1 and ΔADC (defined as the cortico-medullary differences), were compared to histology. In rats, both T1 and ADC correlated well with fibrosis and inflammation showing a difference between normal and diseased kidneys. In KARs, MRI indices were not sensitive to interstitial inflammation. By contrast, ΔADC outperformed ΔT1 with a stronger negative correlation to fibrosis (R2 = 0.64 against R2 = 0.29 p < 0.001). ΔADC tends to negative values in KARs harboring cortical fibrosis of more than 40%. Using a discriminant analysis method, the ΔADC, as a marker to detect such level of fibrosis or higher, led to a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 71%, respectively. This new index has potential for noninvasive assessment of fibrosis in the clinical setting. PMID:27439482

  1. Comparison of the dispersion allocated WDM (10 Gbit/s×10 channels) optical soliton and NRZ systems using a Q map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahara, Akio; Kubota, Hirokazu; Nakazawa, Masataka

    1999-02-01

    We compared the transmission quality of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) soliton and WDM nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) systems numerically by using a Q contour map for WDM. The bit rate was set at 100 Gbit/s (10 Gbit/s×10 channels). We studied the effect of dispersion allocation in detail and found that there is a significant improvement in the transmission quality of WDM soliton systems when a large dispersion allocation is used. Such an improvement was not obtained in the WDM NRZ system. We show that a dispersion allocated WDM soliton system using 1.3 μm standard fiber has greater potential for increasing the transmission distance than a WDM NRZ system. This result confirms the experimental result reported by Le Guen et al. [D. Le Guen, A. O'Hare, S. Del Burgo, D. Grot, F. Favre, T. Georges, Narrow band 640 Gbit/s soliton WDM transmission over 1200 km of standard fibre with 100 km-21 dB amplifier spans, European Conf. on Optical Communications '98, Madrid, Post Deadline Papers, 1998, pp. 59-63].

  2. Land cover and land use mapping of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa: comparison of oblique and orthogonal random forest algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassa, Zaakirah; Bob, Urmilla; Szantoi, Zoltan; Ismail, Riyad

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the popularity of tree-based ensemble methods for land cover classification has increased significantly. Using WorldView-2 image data, we evaluate the potential of the oblique random forest algorithm (oRF) to classify a highly heterogeneous protected area. In contrast to the random forest (RF) algorithm, the oRF algorithm builds multivariate trees by learning the optimal split using a supervised model. The oRF binary algorithm is adapted to a multiclass land cover and land use application using both the "one-against-one" and "one-against-all" combination approaches. Results show that the oRF algorithms are capable of achieving high classification accuracies (>80%). However, there was no statistical difference in classification accuracies obtained by the oRF algorithms and the more popular RF algorithm. For all the algorithms, user accuracies (UAs) and producer accuracies (PAs) >80% were recorded for most of the classes. Both the RF and oRF algorithms poorly classified the indigenous forest class as indicated by the low UAs and PAs. Finally, the results from this study advocate and support the utility of the oRF algorithm for land cover and land use mapping of protected areas using WorldView-2 image data.

  3. Increased mtDNA mutations with aging promotes amyloid accumulation and brain atrophy in the APP/Ld transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of mitochondrial dysfunction has long been implicated in age-related brain pathology, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanism by which mitochondrial dysfunction may cause neurodegeneration in AD is unclear. To model mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo, we utilized mice that harbor a knockin mutation that inactivates the proofreading function of mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (PolgA D257A), so that these mice accumulate mitochondrial DNA mutations with age. PolgA D257A mice develop a myriad of mitochondrial bioenergetic defects and physical phenotypes that mimic premature ageing, with subsequent death around one year of age. Results We crossed the D257A mice with a well-established transgenic AD mouse model (APP/Ld) that develops amyloid plaques. We hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction would affect Aβ synthesis and/or clearance, thus contributing to amyloidogenesis and triggering neurodegeneration. Initially, we discovered that Aβ42 levels along with Aβ42 plaque density were increased in D257A; APP/Ld bigenic mice compared to APP/Ld monogenic mice. Elevated Aβ production was not responsible for increased amyloid pathology, as levels of BACE1, PS1, C99, and C83 were unchanged in D257A; APP/Ld compared to APP/Ld mice. However, the levels of a major Aβ clearance enzyme, insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), were reduced in mice with the D257A mutation, suggesting this as mechanism for increased amyloid load. In the presence of the APP transgene, D257A mice also exhibited significant brain atrophy with apparent cortical thinning but no frank neuron loss. D257A; APP/Ld mice had increased levels of 17 kDa cleaved caspase-3 and p25, both indicative of neurodegeneration. Moreover, D257A; APP/Ld neurons appeared morphologically disrupted, with swollen and vacuolated nuclei. Conclusions Overall, our results implicate synergism between the effects of the PolgA D257A mutation and Aβ in causing neurodegeneration. These findings

  4. LD-Aminopterin in the Canine Homologue of Human Atopic Dermatitis: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Reveals Dosing Factors Affecting Optimal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zebala, John A.; Mundell, Alan; Messinger, Linda; Griffin, Craig E.; Schuler, Aaron D.; Kahn, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Options are limited for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) who do not respond to topical treatments. Antifolate therapy with systemic methotrexate improves the disease, but is associated with adverse effects. The investigational antifolate LD-aminopterin may offer improved safety. It is not known how antifolate dose and dosing frequency affect efficacy in AD, but a primary mechanism is thought to involve the antifolate-mediated accumulation of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR). However, recent in vitro studies indicate that AICAR increases then decreases as a function of antifolate concentration. To address this issue and understand how dosing affects antifolate efficacy in AD, we examined the efficacy and safety of different oral doses and schedules of LD-aminopterin in the canine model of AD. Methods and Findings This was a multi-center, double-blind trial involving 75 subjects with canine AD randomized to receive up to 12 weeks of placebo, once-weekly (0.007, 0.014, 0.021 mg/kg) or twice-weekly (0.007 mg/kg) LD-aminopterin. The primary efficacy outcome was the Global Score (GS), a composite of validated measures of disease severity and itch. GS improved in all once-weekly cohorts, with 0.014 mg/kg being optimal and significant (43%, P<0.01). The majority of improvement was seen by 8 weeks. In contrast, GS in the twice-weekly cohort was similar to placebo and worse than all once-weekly cohorts. Adverse events were similar across all treated cohorts and placebo. Conclusions Once-weekly LD-aminopterin was safe and efficacious in canine AD. Twice-weekly dosing negated efficacy despite having the same daily and weekly dose as effective once-weekly regimens. Optimal dosing in this homologue of human AD correlated with the concentration-selective accumulation of AICAR in vitro, consistent with AICAR mediating LD-aminopterin efficacy in AD. PMID:25255447

  5. Radioprotection of normal tissues against gamma rays and cyclotron neutrons with WR-2721: LD/sub 50/ studies and /sup 35/S-WR-2721 biodistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Rasey, J.S.; Nelson, N.J.; Mahler, P.; Anderson, K.; Krohn, K.A.; Menard, T.

    1984-03-01

    The ability of WR-2721 to protect mice against two modes of death following whole-body radiation with /sup 137/Cs ..gamma.. rays or d(22)+Be neutrons was examined. For single fraction, 400 mg/kg WR-2721 was administered prior to irradiation. In two-fraction exposure, the dose was 275 mg/kg given prior to each fraction. Dose modification factors (DMFs) were calculated as ratios of LD/sub 50/7/ values. For single fractions of ..gamma.. rays, the DMF was 1.74 for the LD/sub 50/7/ end point and for LD/sub 50/30/, the DMF for single fractions was 2.25. For two fractions 3 hr apart, it was 1.88. For single fractions of cyclotron neutrons, the DMF was 1.32 for LD/sub 50/7/. Measured with the LD/sub 50/30/ end point, the DMF for single neutron doses was 1.41 and for two fractions, 1.19. Substantial radioprotection of bone marrow and intestinal epithelium against cyclotron neutrons was seen in these investigations. Biodistribution studies were done following ip injection of /sup 35/S-labeled WR-2721 into C3H mice bearing RIF-1 tumors. High levels of /sup 35/S were achieved and retention times were long in certain normal tissues which respond at early or late times postradiation and may be dose limiting in radiotherapy: kidney, liver, savary gland, and lung. These combined observations suggest that there is potential for protecting dose-limiting, late-responding normal tissue in the radiotherapy of human cancer with both neutrons and conventional radiotherapy.

  6. Mapping racism.

    PubMed

    Moss, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    The author uses the metaphor of mapping to illuminate a structural feature of racist thought, locating the degraded object along vertical and horizontal axes. These axes establish coordinates of hierarchy and of distance. With the coordinates in place, racist thought begins to seem grounded in natural processes. The other's identity becomes consolidated, and parochialism results. The use of this kind of mapping is illustrated via two patient vignettes. The author presents Freud's (1905, 1927) views in relation to such a "mapping" process, as well as Adorno's (1951) and Baldwin's (1965). Finally, the author conceptualizes the crucial status of primitivity in the workings of racist thought.

  7. Inferential Genotyping of Y Chromosomes in Latter-Day Saints Founders and Comparison to Utah Samples in the HapMap Project

    PubMed Central

    Gitschier, Jane

    2009-01-01

    One concern in human genetics research is maintaining the privacy of study participants. The growth in genealogical registries may contribute to loss of privacy, given that genotypic information is accessible online to facilitate discovery of genetic relationships. Through iterative use of two such web archives, FamilySearch and Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, I was able to discern the likely haplotypes for the Y chromosomes of two men, Joseph Smith and Brigham Young, who were instrumental in the founding of the Latter-Day Saints Church. I then determined whether any of the Utahns who contributed to the HapMap project (the “CEU” set) is related to either man, on the basis of haplotype analysis of the Y chromosome. Although none of the CEU contributors appear to be a male-line relative, I discovered that predictions could be made for the surnames of the CEU participants by a similar process. For 20 of the 30 unrelated CEU samples, at least one exact match was revealed, and for 17 of these, a potential ancestor from Utah or a neighboring state could be identified. For the remaining ten samples, a match was nearly perfect, typically deviating by only one marker repeat unit. The same query performed in two other large databases revealed fewer individual matches and helped to clarify which surname predictions are more likely to be correct. Because large data sets of genotypes from both consenting research subjects and individuals pursuing genetic genealogy will be accessible online, this type of triangulation between databases may compromise the privacy of research subjects. PMID:19215731

  8. A comparison of selected classification algorithms for mapping bamboo patches in lower Gangetic plains using very high resolution WorldView 2 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Aniruddha; Joshi, P. K.

    2014-02-01

    Bamboo is used by different communities in India to develop indigenous products, maintain livelihood and sustain life. Indian National Bamboo Mission focuses on evaluation, monitoring and development of bamboo as an important plant resource. Knowledge of spatial distribution of bamboo therefore becomes necessary in this context. The present study attempts to map bamboo patches using very high resolution (VHR) WorldView 2 (WV 2) imagery in parts of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India using both pixel and object-based approaches. A combined layer of pan-sharpened multi-spectral (MS) bands, first 3 principal components (PC) of these bands and seven second order texture measures based Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM) of first three PC were used as input variables. For pixel-based image analysis (PBIA), recursive feature elimination (RFE) based feature selection was carried out to identify the most important input variables. Results of the feature selection indicate that the 10 most important variables include PC 1, PC 2 and their GLCM mean along with 6 MS bands. Three different sets of predictor variables (5 and 10 most important variables and all 32 variables) were classified with Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) algorithms. Producer accuracy of bamboo was found to be highest when 10 most important variables selected from RFE were classified with SVM (82%). However object-based image analysis (OBIA) achieved higher classification accuracy than PBIA using the same 32 variables, but with less number of training samples. Using object-based SVM classifier, the producer accuracy of bamboo reached 94%. The significance of this study is that the present framework is capable of accurately identifying bamboo patches as well as detecting other tree species in a tropical region with heterogeneous land use land cover (LULC), which could further aid the mandate of National Bamboo Mission and related programs.

  9. A comparison of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging for mapping patterns of herbivore species abundance in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Smit, Izak P.J.; Ingram, Ben R.

    2015-01-01

    Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, provides protected habitats for the unique animals of the African savannah. For the past 40 years, annual aerial surveys of herbivores have been conducted to aid management decisions based on (1) the spatial distribution of species throughout the park and (2) total species populations in a year. The surveys are extremely time consuming and costly. For many years, the whole park was surveyed, but in 1998 a transect survey approach was adopted. This is cheaper and less time consuming but leaves gaps in the data spatially. Also the distance method currently employed by the park only gives estimates of total species populations but not their spatial distribution. We compare the ability of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging to accurately map species distribution in the park. A leave-one-out cross-validation approach indicates that multiple indicator kriging makes poor estimates of the number of animals, particularly the few large counts, as the indicator variograms for such high thresholds are pure nugget. Poisson kriging was applied to the prediction of two types of abundance data: spatial density and proportion of a given species. Both Poisson approaches had standardized mean absolute errors (St. MAEs) of animal counts at least an order of magnitude lower than multiple indicator kriging. The spatial density, Poisson approach (1), gave the lowest St. MAEs for the most abundant species and the proportion, Poisson approach (2), did for the least abundant species. Incorporating environmental data into Poisson approach (2) further reduced St. MAEs. PMID:25729318

  10. Identification of 2D-gel proteins : a comparison of MALDI/TOF peptide mass mapping to {mu} LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, H.; Hays, L. G.; Eng, J.; Tollaksen, S. L.; Giometti, C. S.; Holden, J. F.; Adams, M. W. W.; Reich, C. I.; Olsen, G. J.; Yates, J. R.; Biosciences Division; The Scripps Research Inst.; Univ. of Georgia; Univ. of Illinois

    2003-09-01

    A comparative analysis of protein identification for a total of 162 protein spots separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis from two fully sequenced archaea, Methanococcus jannaschii and Pyrococcus furiosus, using MALDI-TOF peptide mass mapping (PMM) and mu LC-MS/MS is presented. 100% of the gel spots analyzed were successfully matched to the predicted proteins in the two corresponding open reading frame databases by mu LC-MS/MS while 97% of them were identified by MALDI-TOF PMM. The high success rate from the PMM resulted from sample desalting/concentrating with ZipTip(C18) and optimization of several PMM search parameters including a 25 ppm average mass tolerance and the application of two different protein molecular weight search windows. By using this strategy, low-molecular weight (<23 kDa) proteins could be identified unambiguously with less than 5 peptide matches. Nine percent of spots were identified as containing multiple proteins. By using mu LC-MS/MS, 50% of the spots analyzed were identified as containing multiple proteins. mu LC-MS/MS demonstrated better protein sequence coverage than MALDI-TOF PMM over the entire mass range of proteins identified. MALDI-TOF and PMM produced unique peptide molecular weight matches that were not identified by mu LC-MS/MS. By incorporating amino acid sequence modifications into database searches, combined sequence coverage obtained from these two complimentary ionization methods exceeded 50% for approximately 70% of the 162 spots analyzed. This improved sequence coverage in combination with enzymatic digestions of different specificity is proposed as a method for analysis of post-translational modification from 2D-gel separated proteins.

  11. Mapping Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

    This document features a lesson plan that examines how maps help scientists protect biodiversity and how plants and animals are adapted to specific ecoregions by comparing biome, ecoregion, and habitat. Samples of instruction and assessment are included. (KHR)

  12. Planetary Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Batson, Raymond M.

    2007-02-01

    Preface; List of contributors; 1. Introduction R. Greeley and R. M. Batson; 2. History of planetary cartography R. M. Batson, E. A. Whitaker and D. E. Wilhelms; 3. Cartography R. M. Batson; 4. Planetary nomenclature M. E. Strobell and H. Masursky; 5. Geodetic control M. E. Davies; 6. Topographic mapping S. S. C. Wu and F. J. Doyle; 7. Geologic mapping D. E. Wilhelms; Appendices R. M. Batson and J. L. Inge; Index.

  13. Map Separates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps are printed using up to six colors (black, blue, green, red, brown, and purple). To prepare your own maps or artwork based on maps, you can order separate black-and-white film positives or negatives for any color printed on a USGS topographic map, or for one or more of the groups of related features printed in the same color on the map (such as drainage and drainage names from the blue plate.) In this document, examples are shown with appropriate ink color to illustrate the various separates. When purchased, separates are black-and-white film negatives or positives. After you receive a film separate or composite from the USGS, you can crop, enlarge or reduce, and edit to add or remove details to suit your special needs. For example, you can adapt the separates for making regional and local planning maps or for doing many kinds of studies or promotions by using the features you select and then printing them in colors of your choice.

  14. Venus mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Morgan, H. F.; Sucharski, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Semicontrolled image mosaics of Venus, based on Magellan data, are being compiled at 1:50,000,000, 1:10,000,000, 1:5,000,000, and 1:1,000,000 scales to support the Magellan Radar Investigator (RADIG) team. The mosaics are semicontrolled in the sense that data gaps were not filled and significant cosmetic inconsistencies exist. Contours are based on preliminary radar altimetry data that is subjected to revision and improvement. Final maps to support geologic mapping and other scientific investigations, to be compiled as the dataset becomes complete, will be sponsored by the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program and/or the Venus Data Analysis Program. All maps, both semicontrolled and final, will be published as I-maps by the United States Geological Survey. All of the mapping is based on existing knowledge of the spacecraft orbit; photogrammetric triangulation, a traditional basis for geodetic control on planets where framing cameras were used, is not feasible with the radar images of Venus, although an eventual shift of coordinate system to a revised spin-axis location is anticipated. This is expected to be small enough that it will affect only large-scale maps.

  15. Mapping cell populations in flow cytometry data for cross‐sample comparison using the Friedman–Rafsky test statistic as a distance measure

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chiaowen; Liu, Mengya; Stanton, Rick; McGee, Monnie; Qian, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fluorescence‐based single‐cell experimental technology that is routinely applied in biomedical research for identifying cellular biomarkers of normal physiological responses and abnormal disease states. While many computational methods have been developed that focus on identifying cell populations in individual FCM samples, very few have addressed how the identified cell populations can be matched across samples for comparative analysis. This article presents FlowMap‐FR, a novel method for cell population mapping across FCM samples. FlowMap‐FR is based on the Friedman–Rafsky nonparametric test statistic (FR statistic), which quantifies the equivalence of multivariate distributions. As applied to FCM data by FlowMap‐FR, the FR statistic objectively quantifies the similarity between cell populations based on the shapes, sizes, and positions of fluorescence data distributions in the multidimensional feature space. To test and evaluate the performance of FlowMap‐FR, we simulated the kinds of biological and technical sample variations that are commonly observed in FCM data. The results show that FlowMap‐FR is able to effectively identify equivalent cell populations between samples under scenarios of proportion differences and modest position shifts. As a statistical test, FlowMap‐FR can be used to determine whether the expression of a cellular marker is statistically different between two cell populations, suggesting candidates for new cellular phenotypes by providing an objective statistical measure. In addition, FlowMap‐FR can indicate situations in which inappropriate splitting or merging of cell populations has occurred during gating procedures. We compared the FR statistic with the symmetric version of Kullback–Leibler divergence measure used in a previous population matching method with both simulated and real data. The FR statistic outperforms the symmetric version of KL‐distance in distinguishing

  16. Linkage disequilibrium fine mapping of quantitative trait loci: A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Jihad M; Goffinet, Bruno; Cierco-Ayrolles, Christine; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD) to locate genes which affect quantitative traits (QTL) has received an increasing interest, but the plausibility of fine mapping using linkage disequilibrium techniques for QTL has not been well studied. The main objectives of this work were to (1) measure the extent and pattern of LD between a putative QTL and nearby markers in finite populations and (2) investigate the usefulness of LD in fine mapping QTL in simulated populations using a dense map of multiallelic or biallelic marker loci. The test of association between a marker and QTL and the power of the test were calculated based on single-marker regression analysis. The results show the presence of substantial linkage disequilibrium with closely linked marker loci after 100 to 200 generations of random mating. Although the power to test the association with a frequent QTL of large effect was satisfactory, the power was low for the QTL with a small effect and/or low frequency. More powerful, multi-locus methods may be required to map low frequent QTL with small genetic effects, as well as combining both linkage and linkage disequilibrium information. The results also showed that multiallelic markers are more useful than biallelic markers to detect linkage disequilibrium and association at an equal distance. PMID:12939203

  17. Assessment of intrinsic vulnerability of an alluvial aquifer under anthropogenic pressure: cross comparison of 4 index-based groundwater vulnerability mapping models within the Biguglia lagoon watershed (Corsica, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaunat, Jessy; Huneau, Frédéric; Garel, Emilie; Devos, Alain; Lejeune, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    KEYWORDS: Alluvial aquifer, Vulnerability mapping, Index-based methods, DRASTIC, SINTACS, SI, GOD The geographical position of the Biguglia lagoon watershed south of the Bastia city (80 000 inhabitants), lead to a highly vulnerable hydrosystem setting. This littoral plain is the unique territory available for the urbanisation and for the agriculture activities (cattle breeding). All the activities developed are likely to have a qualitative impact on water infiltration and therefore on groundwater, which is in hydraulic connection with the lagoon system. Beyond this ecological issue, groundwater of this watershed is intensively used as drinking water supply. It appears essential to control the long-term groundwater quality of the Biguglia plain which is the major economic zone of Corsica. Achievement of this issue requires the identification of the areas where the alluvial aquifer is mostly vulnerable to anthropogenic activities. The results given by 4 of the most popular index-based vulnerability mapping methods (DRASTIC, SI, SINTACS and GOD) are compared. The water table, net recharge, aquifer and soils properties, topography, vadose zone and land uses have been precisely mapped and numerically translated in GIS with a 25m precision. 4 final maps were finally compiled according to the weighting factors of each methods. Hydrochemical investigations were also carried out on 30 sampling points (major ions and anthropogenic tracers) to evaluate the effect of anthropogenic activities on groundwater quality and also to validate the results of the vulnerability mapping. A comparison between the parametric models shows a significant agreement between the DRASTIC, SINTACS and SI results (2% to 5% of the total area in very low vulnerability class, 10% to 13% in low vulnerability, 16% to 23% in medium vulnerability, 31% to 53% in high vulnerability and 14% to 23% in very high vulnerability). The two first methods are quite similar, which explains the proximity of the

  18. Linkage-disequilibrium mapping of disease genes by reconstruction of ancestral haplotypes in founder populations.

    PubMed Central

    Service, S K; Lang, D W; Freimer, N B; Sandkuijl, L A

    1999-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping may be a powerful means for genome screening to identify susceptibility loci for common diseases. A new statistical approach for detection of LD around a disease gene is presented here. This method compares the distribution of haplotypes in affected individuals versus that expected for individuals descended from a common ancestor who carried a mutation of the disease gene. Simulations demonstrate that this method, which we term "ancestral haplotype reconstruction" (AHR), should be powerful for genome screening of phenotypes characterized by a high degree of etiologic heterogeneity, even with currently available marker maps. AHR is best suited to application in isolated populations where affected individuals are relatively recently descended (< approximately 25 generations) from a common disease mutation-bearing founder. PMID:10330361

  19. CONDITIONED CHOROPLETH MAPS AND HYPOTHESIS GENERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a recently developed for multivariate data analysis template called conditioned choropleth maps (CCmaps). This template is a two-way layout of maps designed to facilitate comparisons. The template can show the association between a dependent variable, as repre...

  20. Aromatic dipeptides and their salts—Solid-state linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectral analysis and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka B.

    2008-07-01

    Stereo-structural analysis and IR-bands assignment of the aromatic dipeptides L-tryrosyl- L-phenylalanine ( Tyr-Phe), L-phenylalanyl- L-tyrosine ( Phe-Tyr) and their hydrochloride salts have been carried out by means of IR-LD spectroscopy of oriented as nematic liquid crystal suspension solid samples. The experimental data are compared with known crystallographic ones and theoretical predicted geometries at RHF/ and UHF/6-31G**.

  1. Cysteine Cross-linking Defines the Extracellular Gate for the Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Transporter 1.1 (LdNT1.1)*

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Raquel; Shinde, Ujwal; Landfear, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters are a unique family of proteins that enable uptake of nucleosides/nucleobases into a wide range of eukaryotes and internalize a myriad of drugs used in the treatment of cancer, heart disease, AIDs, and parasitic infections. In previous work we generated a structural model for such a transporter, the LdNT1.1 nucleoside permease from the parasitic protozoan Leishmania donovani, using ab initio computation. The model suggested that aromatic residues present in transmembrane helices 1, 2, and 7 interact to form an extracellular gate that closes the permeation pathway in the inward-open conformation. Mutation of residues Phe-48TM1 and Trp-75TM2 abrogated transport activity, consistent with such prediction. In this study cysteine mutagenesis and oxidative cross-linking were combined to analyze proximity relationships of helices 1, 2, and 7 in LdNT1.1. Disulfide bond formation between introduced paired cysteines at the interface of such helices (A61CTM1/F74CTM2, A61CTM1/G350CTM7, and F74CTM2/G350CTM7) was analyzed by transport measurement and gel mobility shifts upon oxidation with Cu (II)-(1,10-phenanthroline)3. In all cases cross-linking inhibited transport. However, if LdNT1.1 ligands were included during cross-linking, inhibition of transport was reduced, suggesting that ligands moved the three gating helices apart. Moreover, all paired cysteine mutants exhibited a mobility shift upon oxidation, corroborating the formation of a disulfide bond. These data support the notion that helices 1, 2, and 7 constitute the extracellular gate of LdNT1.1, thus further validating the computational model and the previously demonstrated importance of F48TM1 and Trp-75TM2 in tethering together helices that are part of the gate. PMID:23150661

  2. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    . Terrestrial geologic maps published by the USGS now are primarily digital products using geographic information system (GIS) software and file formats. GIS mapping tools permit easy spatial comparison, generation, importation, manipulation, and analysis of multiple raster image, gridded, and vector data sets. GIS software has also permitted the development of project-specific tools and the sharing of geospatial products among researchers. GIS approaches are now being used in planetary geologic mapping as well (e.g., Hare and others, 2009). Guidelines or handbooks on techniques in planetary geologic mapping have been developed periodically (e.g., Wilhelms, 1972, 1990; Tanaka and others, 1994). As records of the heritage of mapping methods and data, these remain extremely useful guides. However, many of the fundamental aspects of earlier mapping handbooks have evolved significantly, and a comprehensive review of currently accepted mapping methodologies is now warranted. As documented in this handbook, such a review incorporates additional guidelines developed in recent years for planetary geologic mapping by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program s Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group s (PCGMWG) Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) on the selection and use of map bases as well as map preparation, review, publication, and distribution. In light of the current boom in planetary exploration and the ongoing rapid evolution of available data for planetary mapping, this handbook is especially timely.

  3. Functional receptor molecules CD300lf and CD300ld within the CD300 family enable murine noroviruses to infect cells

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Kei; Fujimoto, Akira; Takai-Todaka, Reiko; Miki, Motohiro; Doan, Yen Hai; Murakami, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Masaru; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Akira; Katayama, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Since the discovery of human norovirus (HuNoV), an efficient and reproducible norovirus replication system has not been established in cultured cells. Although limited amounts of virus particles can be produced when the HuNoV genome is directly transfected into cells, the HuNoV cycle of infection has not been successfully reproduced in any currently available cell-culture system. Those results imply that the identification of a functional cell-surface receptor for norovirus might be the key to establishing a norovirus culture system. Using a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNA library, we identified murine CD300lf and CD300ld as functional receptors for murine norovirus (MNV). The treatment of susceptible cells with polyclonal antibody against CD300lf significantly reduced the production of viral progeny. Additionally, ectopic CD300lf expression in nonsusceptible cell lines derived from other animal species enabled MNV infection and progeny production, suggesting that CD300lf has potential for dictating MNV host tropism. Furthermore, CD300ld, which has an amino acid sequence in the N-terminal region of its extracellular domain that is highly homologous to that of CD300lf, also functions as a receptor for MNV. Our results indicate that direct interaction of MNV with two cell-surface molecules, CD300lf and CD300ld, dictates permissive noroviral infection. PMID:27681626

  4. Crystal structure of barley limit dextrinase-limit dextrinase inhibitor (LD-LDI) complex reveals insights into mechanism and diversity of cereal type inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Møller, Marie S; Vester-Christensen, Malene B; Jensen, Johanne M; Hachem, Maher Abou; Henriksen, Anette; Svensson, Birte

    2015-05-15

    Molecular details underlying regulation of starch mobilization in cereal seed endosperm remain unknown despite the paramount role of this process in plant growth. The structure of the complex between the starch debranching enzyme barley limit dextrinase (LD), hydrolyzing α-1,6-glucosidic linkages, and its endogenous inhibitor (LDI) was solved at 2.7 Å. The structure reveals an entirely new and unexpected binding mode of LDI as compared with previously solved complex structures of related cereal type family inhibitors (CTIs) bound to glycoside hydrolases but is structurally analogous to binding of dual specificity CTIs to proteases. Site-directed mutagenesis establishes that a hydrophobic cluster flanked by ionic interactions in the protein-protein interface is vital for the picomolar affinity of LDI to LD as assessed by analysis of binding by using surface plasmon resonance and also supported by LDI inhibition of the enzyme activity. A phylogenetic analysis identified four LDI-like proteins in cereals among the 45 sequences from monocot databases that could be classified as unique CTI sequences. The unprecedented binding mechanism shown here for LDI has likely evolved in cereals from a need for effective inhibition of debranching enzymes having characteristic open active site architecture. The findings give a mechanistic rationale for the potency of LD activity regulation and provide a molecular understanding of the debranching events associated with optimal starch mobilization and utilization during germination. This study unveils a hitherto not recognized structural basis for the features endowing diversity to CTIs.

  5. Mole Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D.; Brooks, David W.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract nature of the mole and its applications to problem solving make learning the concept difficult for students, and teaching the concept challenging for teachers. Presents activities that use concept maps and graphing calculators as tools for solving mole problems. (ASK)

  6. Memphis Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Stanley; Cox, David; Martin, Cindy

    1998-01-01

    The Memphis Maps program, a collaborative effort of Memphis (Tennessee) educational institutions, public agencies, a bank, and community programs, trains local students in Geographic Information Systems technology and provides the community with valuable demographic and assessment information. The program is described, and factors contributing to…

  7. Genetic characterization of a core collection of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) suitable for association mapping studies and evidence of divergent selection between fiber and linseed types

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flax is valued for its fiber, seed oil and nutraceuticals. Recently, the fiber industry has invested in the development of products made from linseed stems, making it a dual purpose crop. Simultaneous targeting of genomic regions controlling stem fiber and seed quality traits could enable the development of dual purpose cultivars. However, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns necessary for association mapping (AM) have not yet been assessed in flax because genomic resources have only recently been developed. We characterized 407 globally distributed flax accessions using 448 microsatellite markers. The data was analyzed to assess the suitability of this core collection for AM. Genomic scans to identify candidate genes selected during the divergent breeding process of fiber flax and linseed were conducted using the whole genome shotgun sequence of flax. Results Combined genetic structure analysis assigned all accessions to two major groups with six sub-groups. Population differentiation was weak between the major groups (FST = 0.094) and for most of the pairwise comparisons among sub-groups. The molecular coancestry analysis indicated weak relatedness (mean = 0.287) for most individual pairs. Abundant genetic diversity was observed in the total panel (5.32 alleles per locus), and some sub-groups showed a high proportion of private alleles. The average genome-wide LD (r2) was 0.036, with a relatively fast decay of 1.5 cM. Genomic scans between fiber flax and linseed identified candidate genes involved in cell-wall biogenesis/modification, xylem identity and fatty acid biosynthesis congruent with genes previously identified in flax and other plant species. Conclusions Based on the abundant genetic diversity, weak population structure and relatedness and relatively fast LD decay, we concluded that this core collection is suitable for AM studies targeting multiple agronomic and quality traits aiming at

  8. Molecular diversity and association mapping of fiber quality traits in exotic G. hirsutum L. germplasm.

    PubMed

    Abdurakhmonov, I Y; Kohel, R J; Yu, J Z; Pepper, A E; Abdullaev, A A; Kushanov, F N; Salakhutdinov, I B; Buriev, Z T; Saha, S; Scheffler, B E; Jenkins, J N; Abdukarimov, A

    2008-12-01

    The narrow genetic base of cultivated cotton germplasm is hindering the cotton productivity worldwide. Although potential genetic diversity exists in Gossypium genus, it is largely 'underutilized' due to photoperiodism and the lack of innovative tools to overcome such challenges. The application of linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association mapping is an alternative powerful molecular tool to dissect and exploit the natural genetic diversity conserved within cotton germplasm collections, greatly accelerating still 'lagging' cotton marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs. However, the extent of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) has not been determined in cotton. We report the extent of genome-wide LD and association mapping of fiber quality traits by using a 95 core set of microsatellite markers in a total of 285 exotic Gossypium hirsutum accessions, comprising of 208 landrace stocks and 77 photoperiodic variety accessions. We demonstrated the existence of useful genetic diversity within exotic cotton germplasm. In this germplasm set, 11-12% of SSR loci pairs revealed a significant LD. At the significance threshold (r(2)>/=0.1), a genome-wide average of LD declines within the genetic distance at <10 cM in the landrace stocks germplasm and >30 cM in variety germplasm. Genome wide LD at r(2)>/=0.2 was reduced on average to approximately 1-2 cM in the landrace stock germplasm and 6-8 cM in variety germplasm, providing evidence of the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in cotton. We observed significant population structure and relatedness in assayed germplasm. Consequently, the application of the mixed liner model (MLM), considering both kinship (K) and population structure (Q) detected between 6% and 13% of SSR markers associated with the main fiber quality traits in cotton. Our results highlight for the first time the feasibility and potential of association mapping, with consideration of the population structure and

  9. Linkage disequilibrium analysis by searching for shared segments: Mapping a locus for benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Freimer, N.; Baharloo, S.; Blankenship, K.

    1994-09-01

    The lod score method of linkage analysis has two important drawbacks: parameters must be specified for the transmission of the disease (e.g. penetrance), and large numbers of genetically informative individuals must be studied. Although several robust non-parametric methods are available, these also require large sample sizes. The availability of dense genetic maps permits genome screening to be conducted by linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping methods, which are statistically powerful and non-parametric. Lander & Botstein proposed that LD mapping could be employed to screen the human genome for disease loci; we have now applied this strategy to map a gene for an autosomal recessive disorder, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestatis (BRIC). Our approach to LD mapping was based on identifying chromosome segments shared between distantly related patients; we used 256 microsatellite markers to genotype three affected individuals, and their parents, from an isolated town in The Netherlands. Because endogamy occurred in this population for several generations, all of the BRIC patients are known to be distantly related to each other, but the pedigree structure and connections could not be certainly established more than three generations before the present, so lod score analysis was impossible. A 20 cM region on chromosome 18 is shared by 5/6 patient chromosomes; subsequently, we noted that 6/6 chromosomes shared an interval of about 3 cM in this region. Calculations indicate that it is extremely unlikely that such a region could be inherited by chance rather than by descent from a common ancestor. Thus, LD mapping by searching for shared chromosomal segments is an extremely powerful approach for genome screening to identify disease loci.

  10. Mapping of yellow mosaic virus (YMV) resistance in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) through association mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhupender; Talukdar, Akshay; Verma, Khushbu; Bala, Indu; Harish, G D; Gowda, Sarmrat; Lal, S K; Sapra, R L; Singh, K P

    2015-02-01

    Yellow Mosaic Virus (YMV) is a serious disease of soybean. Resistance to YMV was mapped in 180 soybean genotypes through association mapping approach using 121 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and four resistance gene analogue (RGA)-based markers. The association mapping population (AMP) (96 genotypes) and confirmation population (CP) (84 genotypes) was tested for resistance to YMV at hot-spot consecutively for 3 years (2007-2009). The genotypes exhibited significant variability for YMV resistance (P < 0.01). Molecular genotyping and population structure analysis with 'admixture' co-ancestry model detected seven optimal sub-populations in the AMP. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the markers extended up to 35 and 10 cM with r2 > 0.15, and >0.25, respectively. The 4 RGA-based markers showed no association with YMV resistance. Two SSR markers, Satt301 and GMHSP179 on chromosome 17 were found to be in significant LD with YMV resistance. Contingency Chi-square test confirmed the association (P < 0.01) and the utility of the markers was validated in the CP. It would pave the way for marker assisted selection for YMV resistance in soybean. This is the first report of its kind in soybean.

  11. Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates calculations of 14-MeV neutrons streaming through a stainless-steel duct (L/D = 4. 6): comparison with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Barnes, J.M.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Drischler, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Integral experiments are being carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to measure neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra from approx. 14 MeV neutrons streaming through cylindrical ducts imbedded in concrete. These data are being used to validate radiation transport code and nuclear data libraries that are being used to calculate nuclear streaming through the penetrations that are found in fusion reactor blanket and shield assemblies. In this paper, measured and calculated neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra from approx. 14 MeV neutrons streaming through a stainless-steel duct having a length-to-dia ratio of 4.6 are compared as a function of detector location relative to the mouth of the duct. The length of the duct is 1.45 m.

  12. Achievement of a short term three dimensional electron density mapping of the ionosphere in the European sector: Comparisons with the IRI model for quiet-moderate geomagnetic-ionospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrella, M.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper will be described the procedure followed for the achievement of a short term three dimensional (3-D) electron density mapping of the ionosphere in the European area. It consists of three main steps: (1) foF2 and M(3000)F2 short-term forecasts, (foF2STF) and (M3000F2STF), are calculated at 12 ionospheric observatories scattered in the European area; (2) the values of foF2STF and M3000F2STF on a grid of equi-spaced points, (foF2STF,GP) and (M3000F2STF,GP), are calculated by means of an appropriate interpolation algorithm by using the foF2STF and M3000F2STF data; (3) foF2STF,GP and M3000F2STF,GP data ingestion into the IRI model is employed to produce a short term 3-D electron density mapping (ST-3D-M) of the ionosphere. The electron density profiles provided by the ST-3D-M and IRI models, were compared with the electron density profiles autoscaled by the Automatic Real-Time Ionogram Scaler with True-height (ARTIST) system, which are here considered as the truth profiles. The results of these comparisons, shown for a certain number of epochs during quiet-moderate geomagnetic-ionospheric conditions, in the truth-sites of Athens (38○.0‧N, 23○.5‧E), Chilton (51○.5‧N, -0○.6‧W), Dourbes (50○.1‧ N, 4○.6‧E), Pruhonice (50○.0‧N, 14○.6‧E), Rome (41○.9‧N, 12○.5‧E), and Tortosa (40○.8‧N, 0○.5‧E), indicate that the ST-3D-M as forecasting tool can be considered generally reliable.

  13. Solving Arithmetic Word Problems: An Analysis of Classification as a Function of Difficulty in Children with and without Arithmetic LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ana I.; Jimenez, Juan E.; Hess, Stephany

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to determine a word problem difficulty classification in children with arithmetic learning disabilities (ALD; n = 104) in comparison with typically achieving students (n = 44). We tested variables such as (a) semantic structure (Change, Combine, Compare, and Equalize), (b) operation (subtraction and addition), and (c)…

  14. Map projections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    A map projection is used to portray all or part of the round Earth on a flat surface. This cannot be done without some distortion. Every projection has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. There is no "best" projection. The mapmaker must select the one best suited to the needs, reducing distortion of the most important features. Mapmakers and mathematicians have devised almost limitless ways to project the image of the globe onto paper. Scientists at the U. S. Geological Survey have designed projections for their specific needs—such as the Space Oblique Mercator, which allows mapping from satellites with little or no distortion. This document gives the key properties, characteristics, and preferred uses of many historically important projections and of those frequently used by mapmakers today.

  15. Topological visual mapping in robotics.

    PubMed

    Romero, Anna; Cazorla, Miguel

    2012-08-01

    A key problem in robotics is the construction of a map from its environment. This map could be used in different tasks, like localization, recognition, obstacle avoidance, etc. Besides, the simultaneous location and mapping (SLAM) problem has had a lot of interest in the robotics community. This paper presents a new method for visual mapping, using topological instead of metric information. For that purpose, we propose prior image segmentation into regions in order to group the extracted invariant features in a graph so that each graph defines a single region of the image. Although others methods have been proposed for visual SLAM, our method is complete, in the sense that it makes all the process: it presents a new method for image matching; it defines a way to build the topological map; and it also defines a matching criterion for loop-closing. The matching process will take into account visual features and their structure using the graph transformation matching (GTM) algorithm, which allows us to process the matching and to remove out the outliers. Then, using this image comparison method, we propose an algorithm for constructing topological maps. During the experimentation phase, we will test the robustness of the method and its ability constructing topological maps. We have also introduced new hysteresis behavior in order to solve some problems found building the graph.

  16. Genome-Wide Identification of QTL for Seed Yield and Yield-Related Traits and Construction of a High-Density Consensus Map for QTL Comparison in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Weiguo; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Hao; Tian, Jianhua; Li, Baojun; Chen, Li; Chao, Hongbo; Long, Yan; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Liang, Wusheng; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    Seed yield (SY) is the most important trait in rapeseed, is determined by multiple seed yield-related traits (SYRTs) and is also easily subject to environmental influence. Many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SY and SYRTs have been reported in Brassica napus; however, no studies have focused on seven agronomic traits simultaneously affecting SY. Genome-wide QTL analysis for SY and seven SYRTs in eight environments was conducted in a doubled haploid population containing 348 lines. Totally, 18 and 208 QTLs for SY and SYRTs were observed, respectively, and then these QTLs were integrated into 144 consensus QTLs using a meta-analysis. Three major QTLs for SY were observed, including cqSY-C6-2 and cqSY-C6-3 that were expressed stably in winter cultivation area for 3 years and cqSY-A2-2 only expressed in spring rapeseed area. Trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed that the 144 consensus QTLs were integrated into 72 pleiotropic unique QTLs. Among them, all the unique QTLs affected SY, except for uq.A6-1, including uq.A2-3, uq.C1-2, uq.C1-3, uq.C6-1, uq.C6-5, and uq.C6-6 could also affect more than two SYRTs. According to the constructed high-density consensus map and QTL comparison from literatures, 36 QTLs from five populations were co-localized with QTLs identified in this study. In addition, 13 orthologous genes were observed, including five each gene for SY and thousand seed weight, and one gene each for biomass yield, branch height, and plant height. The genomic information of these QTLs will be valuable in hybrid cultivar breeding and in analyzing QTL expression in different environments. PMID:26858737

  17. User Preferences in Image Map Using

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondráková, A.; Vozenilek, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of map making, the attention is given to the resulting image map (to be accurate, readable, and suit the primary purpose) and its user aspects. Current cartography understands the user issues as all matters relating to user perception, map use and also user preferences. Most commercial cartographic production is strongly connected to economic circumstances. Companies are discovering user's interests and market demands. However, is it sufficient to focus just on the user's preferences? Recent research on user aspects at Palacký University Olomouc addresses a much wider scope of user aspects. The user's preferences are very often distorting - the users think that the particular image map is kind, beautiful, and useful and they wants to buy it (or use it - it depends on the form of the map production). But when the same user gets the task to use practically this particular map (such as finding the shortest way), so the user concludes that initially preferred map is useless, and uses a map, that was worse evaluated according to his preferences. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate not only the correctness of image maps and their aesthetics but also to assess the user perception and other user issues. For the accomplishment of such testing, eye-tracking technology is a useful tool. The research analysed how users read image maps, or if they prefer image maps over traditional maps. The eye tracking experiment on the comparison of the conventional and image map reading was conducted. The map readers were asked to solve few simple tasks with either conventional or image map. The readers' choice of the map to solve the task was one of investigated aspect of user preferences. Results demonstrate that the user preferences and user needs are often quite different issues. The research outcomes show that it is crucial to implement map user testing into the cartographic production process.

  18. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Chhatre, Vikram E; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C Dana; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M; Echt, Craig S

    2015-06-11

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r(2), between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r(2) did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii.

  19. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Jared W.; Chhatre, Vikram E.; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Neale, David B.; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C. Dana; Peter, Gary F.; Echt, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r2, between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r2 did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  20. Mapping asthma-associated variants in admixed populations

    PubMed Central

    Mersha, Tesfaye B.

    2015-01-01

    Admixed populations arise when two or more previously isolated populations interbreed. Mapping asthma susceptibility loci in an admixed population using admixture mapping (AM) involves screening the genome of individuals of mixed ancestry for chromosomal regions that have a higher frequency of alleles from a parental population with higher asthma risk as compared with parental population with lower asthma risk. AM takes advantage of the admixture created in populations of mixed ancestry to identify genomic regions where an association exists between genetic ancestry and asthma (in contrast to between the genotype of the marker and asthma). The theory behind AM is that chromosomal segments of affected individuals contain a significantly higher-than-average proportion of alleles from the high-risk parental population and thus are more likely to harbor disease–associated loci. Criteria to evaluate the applicability of AM as a gene mapping approach include: (1) the prevalence of the disease differences in ancestral populations from which the admixed population was formed; (2) a measurable difference in disease-causing alleles between the parental populations; (3) reduced linkage disequilibrium (LD) between unlinked loci across chromosomes and strong LD between neighboring loci; (4) a set of markers with noticeable allele-frequency differences between parental populations that contributes to the admixed population (single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the markers of choice because they are abundant, stable, relatively cheap to genotype, and informative with regard to the LD structure of chromosomal segments); and (5) there is an understanding of the extent of segmental chromosomal admixtures and their interactions with environmental factors. Although genome-wide association studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of the genetic components of asthma, the large and increasing degree of admixture in populations across the world create many challenges

  1. Putting Mars on the map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, G.

    1987-11-01

    An account is given of the techniques employed by USGS cartographers in their efforts to map the surface of Mars on the basis of spacecraft-obtained photomosaics. Photogrammetrists are entrusted with the task of designating surface elevations for a waterless planet lacking a sea level that can serve as a basis for comparison; instead, the planet's center of gravity is used as the reference point for surface elevations. Artists are needed for the reconciliation of conflicts that arise among photographic plates in virtue of differences in viewing and illumination angles. The final maps are painted with careful airbrush work.

  2. Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping of fiber quality traits in G. hirsutum L. variety germplasm.

    PubMed

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Jonnie N; Buriev, Zabardast T; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Scheffler, Brain E; Pepper, Alan E; Yu, John Z; Kohel, Russell J; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor

    2009-07-01

    Cotton is the world's leading cash crop, but it lags behind other major crops for marker-assisted breeding due to limited polymorphisms and a genetic bottleneck through historic domestication. This underlies a need for characterization, tagging, and utilization of existing natural polymorphisms in cotton germplasm collections. Here we report genetic diversity, population characteristics, the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and association mapping of fiber quality traits using 202 microsatellite marker primer pairs in 335 G. hirsutum germplasm grown in two diverse environments, Uzbekistan and Mexico. At the significance threshold (r (2) >or= 0.1), a genome-wide average of LD extended up to genetic distance of 25 cM in assayed cotton variety accessions. Genome wide LD at r (2) >or= 0.2 was reduced to approximately 5-6 cM, providing evidence of the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in cotton. Results suggest linkage, selection, inbreeding, population stratification, and genetic drift as the potential LD-generating factors in cotton. In two environments, an average of ~20 SSR markers was associated with each main fiber quality traits using a unified mixed liner model (MLM) incorporating population structure and kinship. These MLM-derived significant associations were confirmed in general linear model and structured association test, accounting for population structure and permutation-based multiple testing. Several common markers, showing the significant associations in both Uzbekistan and Mexican environments, were determined. Between 7 and 43% of the MLM-derived significant associations were supported by a minimum Bayes factor at 'moderate to strong' and 'strong to very strong' evidence levels, suggesting their usefulness for marker-assisted breeding programs and overall effectiveness of association mapping using cotton germplasm resources. PMID:19067183

  3. YouGenMap: a web platform for dynamic multi-comparative mapping and visualization of genetic maps.

    PubMed

    Batesole, Keith; Wimalanathan, Kokulapalan; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Fan; Echt, Craig S; Liang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genetic maps are used in examination of genome organization, detection of conserved gene order, and exploration of marker order variations. YouGenMap is an open-source web tool that offers dynamic comparative mapping capability of users' own genetic mapping between 2 or more map sets. Users' genetic map data and optional gene annotations are uploaded, either publically or privately, as long as they follow our template which is available in several standard file formats. Data is parsed and loaded into MySQL relational database to be displayed and compared against users' genetic maps or other public data available on YouGenMap. With the highly interactive GUIs, all public data on YouGenMap are maps available for visualization, comparison, search, filtration and download. YouGenMap web tool is available on the website (http://conifergdb.miamioh.edu/yougenmap) with the source-code repository at (http://sourceforge.net/projects/yougenmap/?source=directory). PMID:25009553

  4. A Holocene Lake Record from Laguna Del Maule (LdM) in the Chilean Andes: Climatic and Volcanic Controls on Lake Depositional Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero-Garces, B. L.; Frugone Alvarez, M.; Barreiro-Lostres, F.; Carrevedo, M. L.; Latorre Hidalgo, C.; Giralt, S.; Maldonado, A.; Bernárdez, P.; Prego, R.; Moreno-Caballud, A.

    2014-12-01

    Central Chile is a tectonically active, drought-prone region sensitive to latitudinal variations in large-scale cold fronts associated with fluctuations of the Pacific subtropical high. Holocene high-resolution records of climate and volcanic events could help inform more on the frequency of extensive droughts as well as volcanic and seismic hazards. LdM is a high altitude, volcanic lake located in the Transition Southern Volcanic Zone (~36°S, 2200 m.a.s.l). The LdM volcanic field is a very seismically and volcanically active zone in the Andes, with several caldera-forming eruptions over the last 1.5 Ma, and intense postglacial activity. In 2013, we recovered over 40 m of sediment cores at four sites of LdM and collected > 20 km of seismic lines. The cores were imaged, their physical and geochemical properties analysed with a Geotek MSCL and XRF scanner respectively, and sampled for TOC, TIC, TS, TN, BioSi, and bulk mineralogy. The chronology was constructed with a Bayesian age-depth model including 210Pb-137Cs, the Quizapú volcanic ash (1932 AD) and 17 AMS 14C dates. The 4.8 m long composite sequence spans the Late glacial and Holocene.Sediments are massive to banded, quartz and plagioclase-rich silts with variable diatom (BioSi, 15- 30 %) and organic matter content (TOC, 1-5 %). Four main units have been defined based on sedimentological and geochemical composition. The transition from Unit 4 to 3 is ascribed to the onset of the Holocene; Unit 2 spans the mid Holocene, and Unit 1 the last 4 ka. Higher (lower) TOC, Br/Ti and Fe/Mn ratios in units 1 and 3 (2 and 4) suggest higher (lower) organic productivity in the lake and dominant oxic (anoxic) conditions at the bottom of the lake. Up to 17 ash and lapilli layers mark volcanic events, mostly grouped in units 1 and 3. Periods of higher lake productivity (units 1 and 3) are synchronous to higher frequency of volcanic events. Some climate transitions (LIA, 4ka, 8ka and 11ka) are evident in the LdM sequence

  5. Variable Sampling Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey, S.; Aronstein, David L.; Dean, Bruce H.; Lyon, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an optical system (for example, a telescope) is limited by the misalignments and manufacturing imperfections of the optical elements in the system. The impact of these misalignments and imperfections can be quantified by the phase variations imparted on light traveling through the system. Phase retrieval is a methodology for determining these variations. Phase retrieval uses images taken with the optical system and using a light source of known shape and characteristics. Unlike interferometric methods, which require an optical reference for comparison, and unlike Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors that require special optical hardware at the optical system's exit pupil, phase retrieval is an in situ, image-based method for determining the phase variations of light at the system s exit pupil. Phase retrieval can be used both as an optical metrology tool (during fabrication of optical surfaces and assembly of optical systems) and as a sensor used in active, closed-loop control of an optical system, to optimize performance. One class of phase-retrieval algorithms is the iterative transform algorithm (ITA). ITAs estimate the phase variations by iteratively enforcing known constraints in the exit pupil and at the detector, determined from modeled or measured data. The Variable Sampling Mapping (VSM) technique is a new method for enforcing these constraints in ITAs. VSM is an open framework for addressing a wide range of issues that have previously been considered detrimental to high-accuracy phase retrieval, including undersampled images, broadband illumination, images taken at or near best focus, chromatic aberrations, jitter or vibration of the optical system or detector, and dead or noisy detector pixels. The VSM is a model-to-data mapping procedure. In VSM, fully sampled electric fields at multiple wavelengths are modeled inside the phase-retrieval algorithm, and then these fields are mapped to intensities on the light detector, using the properties

  6. Fine-scale map of encyclopedia of DNA elements regions in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon-Kyeong; Ke, Xiayi; Hong, Sungwoo; Jang, Hye-Yoon; Park, Kyunghee; Kim, Sook; Ahn, TaeJin; Lee, Yeun-Du; Song, Okryeol; Rho, Na-Young; Lee, Moon Sue; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Jaeheup; Kim, Young J; Yang, Jun-Mo; Song, Kyuyoung; Kimm, Kyuchan; Weir, Bruce; Cardon, Lon R; Lee, Jong-Eun; Hwang, Jung-Joo

    2006-09-01

    The International HapMap Project aims to generate detailed human genome variation maps by densely genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CEPH, Chinese, Japanese, and Yoruba samples. This will undoubtedly become an important facility for genetic studies of diseases and complex traits in the four populations. To address how the genetic information contained in such variation maps is transferable to other populations, the Korean government, industries, and academics have launched the Korean HapMap project to genotype high-density Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) regions in 90 Korean individuals. Here we show that the LD pattern, block structure, haplotype diversity, and recombination rate are highly concordant between Korean and the two HapMap Asian samples, particularly Japanese. The availability of information from both Chinese and Japanese samples helps to predict more accurately the possible performance of HapMap markers in Korean disease-gene studies. Tagging SNPs selected from the two HapMap Asian maps, especially the Japanese map, were shown to be very effective for Korean samples. These results demonstrate that the HapMap variation maps are robust in related populations and will serve as an important resource for the studies of the Korean population in particular.

  7. Geochemical mapping of polluted soils and environmental risk assessment associated to mining activities: a comparison case study in El Campillo (Huelva, Spain) and the Zambales (Luzon Island,The Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, Maria Clara; Albanese, Stefano; de Vivo, Benedetto; Nieto, Jose Miguel; David, Carlos Primo C.; Norini, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    The soil is one of the environmental systems which could be most affected by the dispersion of pollutant, also because of the close relationship with the atmosphere and meteoric waters. The distribution and type of contamination depends closely on the climate, precipitations, drainage, vegetation, lithology and human activities. As a matter of fact, soil contamination due to heavy metals and metalloids, such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, represents the source of a severe potential hazard for the ecosystem equilibrium and the health of living beings. This study is carried out in two abandoned mining zones near to populated areas, which underwent similar mining history, but in very different climatic and environmental conditions. The aim of the research is to analyze the influence of precipitation amounts, soil thickness, drainage density and vegetation cover on pollutant distribution. The first zone is in El Campillo, a town at the Rio Tinto mining district and belongs to the Iberic Pyritic Belt of the southwest Iberian peninsula. This mining site is characterized by a Mediterranean climate with low precipitation (700 mm/year), low vegetation cover and poor soil development. The second case study is the Zambales Mountain Range, a mining district in the Luzon Island of the Philippines dominated by a tropical weather, forests, intense rainfalls (2350 mm/year) and good soil development. The wide spectrum of climatic variables in the case studies requires to develop a single flexible methodology for the mapping and monitoring of the environmental degradation in both semi-arid and tropical environments, allowing comparative studies. The methodological approach comprises remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), spatial statistical analysis, field sampling, ICP analysis and isotopic geochemical analysis. The presentation illustrates the first stage of the project. The processing of multispectral (Aster) and hyperspectral (Hyperion) images, in comparison

  8. 1.5-μm and 10-Gb s-1 etched mesa buried heterostructure DFB-LD for datacenter networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Oh Kee; Lee, Chul Wook; Leem, Young Ahn; Kim, Ki Soo; Oh, Su Hwan; Nam, Eun Soo

    2015-10-01

    We report a 1.5 μm and 10 Gb s-1 etched mesa buried heterostructure λ/4-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) for the low-cost application of WDM-based datacenter networks. To reduce the threshold current and improve the modulation bandwidth in a conventional p-/n-/p-InP current blocking structure, a thin undoped-InP (u-InP) layer was inserted between the side walls of the active region and the p-InP layer (i.e., a u-/p-/n-/p-InP structure), and the region containing the active region and the current blocking structures was etched in a mesa form (i.e., an etched mesa). From this work, it was found that a 300 μm long anti-reflection (AR)-AR DFB-LD with a mesa width of 8 μm is reduced by about 25% while a side mode suppression ratio is >50 dB and a 3 dB bandwidth is >10 GHz at a current of 40 mA; in addition, it shows a clear eye-opening with a dynamic extinction ratio of >4.5 dB at 10 Gb s-1, and a power penalty of <1 dB after a 2 km transmission.

  9. Reduction of mode partition noise of FP-LD by using Mach-Zehnder interferometer for RSOA-based DWDM applications.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang-Hwa; Moon, Sang-Rok; Kye, Myeonggyun; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2016-06-27

    We investigate reduction of mode partition noise of a spectrally sliced Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) for application to seeded DWDM systems. The proposed scheme for the noise reduction incorporates a fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA). The MZI enables to reduce a relative intensity noise (RIN) more than 3 dB with better noise distributions. Experimental results of 10-Gb/s signal transmission exhibit a considerable bit-error-rate (BER) reduction by three orders of magnitude at the given received power. After the noise reduction, the FP-LD is applied to a 10-Gb/s DWDM system as a seed-light-source. In a local-seeding scheme, return-to-zero (RZ) and carrier-suppressed (CS)-RZ signal formats are compared as a function of transmission distance. Furthermore, a back-reflection induced impairment is evaluated in a remote-seeding scheme. We also count the number of useable channels to show the feasibility of DWDM transmission. PMID:27410602

  10. Solving arithmetic word problems: an analysis of classification as a function of difficulty in children with and without arithmetic LD.

    PubMed

    García, Ana I; Jiménez, Juan E; Hess, Stephany

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to determine a word problem difficulty classification in children with arithmetic learning disabilities (ALD; n = 104) in comparison with typically achieving students (n = 44). We tested variables such as (a) semantic structure (Change, Combine, Compare, and Equalize), (b) operation (subtraction and addition), and (c) position of the unknown quantity in the problem. Facet theory with multidimensional scaling techniques (MINISSA) was used to analyze the underlying dimensions in the responses of each group of participants. Our results indicate that although the word problem difficulty classifications for the 2 groups of children were different, the position of the unknown quantity had a greater influence on the level of difficulty of story problems than other variables. The noncanonical problems--specifically, those with the unknown term in the first place--although difficult for both groups of children, were the most difficult problems for children with ALD.

  11. Association mapping in forest trees and fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Awais; Korban, Schuyler S

    2012-06-01

    Association mapping (AM), also known as linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping, is a viable approach to overcome limitations of pedigree-based quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. In AM, genotypic and phenotypic correlations are investigated in unrelated individuals. Unlike QTL mapping, AM takes advantage of both LD and historical recombination present within the gene pool of an organism, thus utilizing a broader reference population. In plants, AM has been used in model species with available genomic resources. Pursuing AM in tree species requires both genotyping and phenotyping of large populations with unique architectures. Recently, genome sequences and genomic resources for forest and fruit crops have become available. Due to abundance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a genome, along with availability of high-throughput resequencing methods, SNPs can be effectively used for genotyping trees. In addition to DNA polymorphisms, copy number variations (CNVs) in the form of deletions, duplications, and insertions also play major roles in control of expression of phenotypic traits. Thus, CNVs could provide yet another valuable resource, beyond those of microsatellite and SNP variations, for pursuing genomic studies. As genome-wide SNP data are generated from high-throughput sequencing efforts, these could be readily reanalysed to identify CNVs, and subsequently used for AM studies. However, forest and fruit crops possess unique architectural and biological features that ought to be taken into consideration when collecting genotyping and phenotyping data, as these will also dictate which AM strategies should be pursued. These unique features as well as their impact on undertaking AM studies are outlined and discussed.

  12. Immunolocalization of MAP-2 in Routinely Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Guinea Pig Brain Sections Using Microwave Irradiation: A Comparison of Different Combinations of Antibody Clones and Antigen Retrieval Buffer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Robert K.; Pleva, Christina M.; Hamilton, Tracey A.; Petrali, John P.

    2005-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of different microwave pretreatment methods to retrieve microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) immunoreactivity in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded guinea pig brain sections. Brain sections, microwave pretreated in boiling sodium citrate, citric acid, Tris hydrochloride, and EDTA buffers of pH 4, 6, and 8, were labeled with four different clones of MAP-2 monoclonal antibodies. No MAP-2 immunoreactivity was observed in control sections processed without microwave pretreatment. Optimal MAP-2 immunoreactivity was observed only when MAP-2 antibody clone AP18 was used in conjunction with citric acid buffer of pH 6.0. Using this combination, brain sections from nerve agent soman-exposed guinea pigs were found to exhibit marked reduction in MAP-2 immunostaining in the hippocampus. These observations suggest that the clone of the antibody in addition to the type and pH of antigen retrieval (AR) solution are important variables to be considered for establishing an optimal AR technique. When studying counterpart antigens of species other than that to which the antibodies were originally raised, different antibody clones must be tested in combination with different microwave-assisted AR (MAR) methods. This MAR method makes it possible to conduct retrospective studies on archival guinea pig brain paraffin blocks to evaluate changes in neuronal MAP-2 expression as a consequence of chemical warfare nerve agent toxicity.

  13. Hemispherical map for the human brain cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosun, Duygu; Prince, Jerry L.

    2001-07-01

    Understanding the function of the human brain cortex is a primary goal in human brain mapping. Methods to unfold and flatten the cortical surface for visualization and measurement have been described in previous literature; but comparison across multiple subjects is still difficult because of the lack of a standard mapping technique. We describe a new approach that maps each hemisphere of the cortex to a portion of a sphere in a standard way, making comparison of anatomy and function across different subjects possible. Starting with a three-dimensional magnetic resonance image of the brain, the cortex is segmented and represented as a triangle mesh. Defining a cut around the corpus collosum identifies the left and right hemispheres. Together, the two hemispheres are mapped to the complex plane using a conformal mapping technique. A Mobius transformation, which is conformal, is used to transform the points on the complex plane so that a projective transformation maps each brain hemisphere onto a spherical segment comprising a sphere with a cap removed. We determined the best size of the spherical cap by minimizing the relative area distortion between hemispherical maps and original cortical surfaces. The relative area distortion between the hemispherical maps and the original cortical surfaces for fifteen human brains is analyzed.

  14. Ultra-high density intra-specific genetic linkage maps accelerate identification of functionally relevant molecular tags governing important agronomic traits in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Kujur, Alice; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Shree, Tanima; Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Saxena, Maneesha S; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C L L; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-05-05

    We discovered 26785 and 16573 high-quality SNPs differentiating two parental genotypes of a RIL mapping population using reference desi and kabuli genome-based GBS assay. Of these, 3625 and 2177 SNPs have been integrated into eight desi and kabuli chromosomes, respectively in order to construct ultra-high density (0.20-0.37 cM) intra-specific chickpea genetic linkage maps. One of these constructed high-resolution genetic map has potential to identify 33 major genomic regions harbouring 35 robust QTLs (PVE: 17.9-39.7%) associated with three agronomic traits, which were mapped within <1 cM mean marker intervals on desi chromosomes. The extended LD (linkage disequilibrium) decay (~15 cM) in chromosomes of genetic maps have encouraged us to use a rapid integrated approach (comparative QTL mapping, QTL-region specific haplotype/LD-based trait association analysis, expression profiling and gene haplotype-based association mapping) rather than a traditional QTL map-based cloning method to narrow-down one major seed weight (SW) robust QTL region. It delineated favourable natural allelic variants and superior haplotype-containing one seed-specific candidate embryo defective gene regulating SW in chickpea. The ultra-high-resolution genetic maps, QTLs/genes and alleles/haplotypes-related genomic information generated and integrated strategy for rapid QTL/gene identification developed have potential to expedite genomics-assisted breeding applications in crop plants, including chickpea for their genetic enhancement.

  15. High-Resolution Genetic Map for Understanding the Effect of Genome-Wide Recombination Rate on Nucleotide Diversity in Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Umesh K.; Nimmakayala, Padma; Levi, Amnon; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Tomason, Yan. R.; Vajja, Gopinath; Reddy, Rishi; Abburi, Lavanya; Wehner, Todd C.; Ronin, Yefim; Karol, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cM for watermelon. We assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (GWRR) across the map and found an association between GWRR and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. Collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. We assessed genome-wide nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and selective sweep for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus to track signals of domestication. Principal component analysis combined with chromosome-wide phylogenetic study based on 1563 SNPs obtained after LD pruning with minor allele frequency of 0.05 resolved the differences between semi-wild and wild accessions as well as relationships among worldwide sweet watermelon. Population structure analysis revealed predominant ancestries for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated watermelons as well as admixture of various ancestries that were important for domestication. Sliding window analysis of Tajima’s D across various chromosomes was used to resolve selective sweep. LD decay was estimated for various chromosomes. We identified a strong selective sweep on chromosome 3 consisting of important genes that might have had a role in sweet watermelon domestication. PMID:25227227

  16. High-resolution genetic map for understanding the effect of genome-wide recombination rate on nucleotide diversity in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Umesh K; Nimmakayala, Padma; Levi, Amnon; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Tomason, Yan R; Vajja, Gopinath; Reddy, Rishi; Abburi, Lavanya; Wehner, Todd C; Ronin, Yefim; Karol, Abraham

    2014-09-15

    We used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cM for watermelon. We assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (GWRR) across the map and found an association between GWRR and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. Collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. We assessed genome-wide nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and selective sweep for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus to track signals of domestication. Principal component analysis combined with chromosome-wide phylogenetic study based on 1563 SNPs obtained after LD pruning with minor allele frequency of 0.05 resolved the differences between semi-wild and wild accessions as well as relationships among worldwide sweet watermelon. Population structure analysis revealed predominant ancestries for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated watermelons as well as admixture of various ancestries that were important for domestication. Sliding window analysis of Tajima's D across various chromosomes was used to resolve selective sweep. LD decay was estimated for various chromosomes. We identified a strong selective sweep on chromosome 3 consisting of important genes that might have had a role in sweet watermelon domestication.

  17. Human Mind Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  18. Petrological Features of The Post-Collisional Volcanics on the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone at Around Almus and Yıldızeli Regions, NE Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göçmengil, G.; Karacik, Z.; Genç, Ş. C.

    2014-12-01

    Following the closure of the northern Neo-Tethyan ocean, post-collisional magmatism developed both on the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) and the northern (Pontides) and southern (Kırşehir block) continents. Cenozoic volcanics (particularly Middle to Upper Eocene) from the Almus and Yıldızeli regions (NE, Turkey) have poorly known and exposed along the northern and southern part of the IAESZ respectively. In this presentation; we present geological, geochemical and isotopic data of these volcanic rocks to characterize the petrological evolution and petrogenesis on the different tectonic blocks. Almus region, have a composite basement of Mesozoic metamorphic and ophiolitic rocks. Volcanic and sedimentary units of the Middle Eocene covering the basement units have a stratigraphic sequence of: a basal conglomerate; fossiliferous sandstone/shale; epiclastic rocks; auto-brecciated lavas with basalt/basaltic andesite lava flows. All these units are cut by trachyte stocks. Besides, basement of Yıldızeli region consisting of Cretaceous Kırşehir block metamorphics with IAESZ melangé and flysch units. Volcanic and sedimentary units covers the basement are trachyte-trachyandesite lavas; fossiliferous limestone; basalt/basaltic andesite lava flows; pyroclastic units with dacitic lavas. Basalt/basaltic andesites from Almus region are sub-alkaline/mildly alkaline and display middle to high-K character. REE data display relative enrichments in LILE (Sr, K, Rb, Ba, Th) together with negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and P. Trachyte stocks are shoshonitic and display LILE enrichment together with negative patters of Nb, Ta, P and Eu. Besides, trachyte-trachyandesite and basalt/basaltic andesite from Yıldızeli region are sub-alkaline/mildly alkaline with middle-K to shoshonitic character. REE patterns show enrichments in LILE and depletion of Nb, Ta, P and Ti for both rock suites. The 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of volcanic rocks from both regions, range from 0

  19. Concept Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  20. Geologic mapping of Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P.H.; Williams, D.A.; Chuang, F.C.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Kadel, S.D.; Prockter, L.M.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J. W.; Collins, G.C.; Spaun, N.A.; Sullivan, R.J.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Senske, D.A.; Tufts, B.R.; Johnson, T.V.; Belton, M.J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    , rough inner, and annular massif) and exterior (continuous ejecta) subunits. Structural features and landforms are shown with conventional symbols. Type localities for the units are identified, along with suggestions for portraying the features on geological maps, including colors and letter abbreviations for material units. Implementing these suggestions by the planetary mapping community would facilitate comparisons of maps for different parts of Europa and contribute to an eventual global synthesis of its complex geology. On the basis of initial mapping results, a stratigraphic sequence is suggested in which ridged plains form the oldest unit on Europa, followed by development of band material and individual ridges. Band materials tend to be somewhat older than ridges, but in many areas the two units formed simultaneously. Similarly, the formation of most chaos follows the development of ridged plains; although chaos is among the youngest materials on Europa, some chaos units might have formed contemporaneously with ridged plains. Smooth plains generally embay all other units and are late-stage in the evolution of the surface. C1 craters are superposed on ridged plains but are crosscut by other materials, including bands and ridges. Most c2 craters postdate all other units, but a few c2 craters are cut by ridge material. C3 craters constitute the youngest recognizable material on Europa. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.