Science.gov

Sample records for ldf safety analysis

  1. Testing and analysis of curved frame specimens made from a Long Discontinuous Fiber (LDF) material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1993-01-01

    A long discontinuous fiber (LDF) material may be useful for constructing composite parts with complex curvature. Graphite-thermoplastic LDF curved frame specimens were studied to investigate the behavior of curved frame structures made from this material form. Experimental results for three curved frame specimens loaded in a four-point-bending configuration and finite-element predictions of strains and displacements are presented.

  2. Safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    1995-01-01

    We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The first case study is the Magnetic Stereotaxis System (MSS), an investigational device for performing human neurosurgery being developed in a joint effort between the Department of Physics at the University of Virginia and the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Iowa. The system operates by manipulating a small permanent magnet (known as a 'seed') within the brain using an externally applied magnetic field. By varying the magnitude and gradient of the external magnetic field, the seed can be moved along a non-linear path and positioned at a site requiring therapy, e.g., a tumor. The magnetic field required for movement through brain tissue is extremely high, and is generated by a set of six superconducting magnets located in a housing surrounding the patient's head. The system uses two X-ray cameras positioned at right angles to detect in real time the locations of the seed and of X-ray opaque markers affixed to the patient's skull. the X-ray images are used to locate the objects of interest in a canonical frame of reference. the second case study is the University of Virginia Research Nuclear Reactor (UVAR). It is a 2 MW thermal, concrete-walled pool reactor. The system operates using 20 to 25 plate-type fuel assemblies placed on a rectangular grid plate. There are three scramable safety rods, and one non-scramable regulating rod that can be put in automatic mode. It was originally constructed in 1959 as a 1 MW system, and it was upgraded to 2 MW in 1973. Though only a research reactor rather than a power reactor, the issues raised are significant and can be related to the problems faced by full-scale reactor systems.

  3. K Basin safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  4. SRB Safety Analysis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-11

    Jeff Thon, an SRB mechanic with United Space Alliance, is lowered into a mockup of a segment of a solid rocket booster. He is testing a technique for vertical SRB propellant grain inspection. The inspection of segments is required as part of safety analysis.

  5. Software safety hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  6. CONVEYOR SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) surface and subsurface conveyor system (for a list of conveyor subsystems see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the conveyor structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the hazards related to the design of conveyor structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) that occur during normal operation. Hazards occurring during assembly, test and maintenance or ''off normal'' operations have not been included in this analysis. Construction related work activities are specifically excluded per DOE Order 5481.1B section 4. c.

  7. Integrated Safety Analysis Tiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Carla; McNairy, Lisa; Wetherholt, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Commercial partnerships and organizational constraints, combined with complex systems, may lead to division of hazard analysis across organizations. This division could cause important hazards to be overlooked, causes to be missed, controls for a hazard to be incomplete, or verifications to be inefficient. Each organization s team must understand at least one level beyond the interface sufficiently enough to comprehend integrated hazards. This paper will discuss various ways to properly divide analysis among organizations. The Ares I launch vehicle integrated safety analyses effort will be utilized to illustrate an approach that addresses the key issues and concerns arising from multiple analysis responsibilities.

  8. Model-Based Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Miller, Steven P.; Whalen, Mike W.

    2006-01-01

    System safety analysis techniques are well established and are used extensively during the design of safety-critical systems. Despite this, most of the techniques are highly subjective and dependent on the skill of the practitioner. Since these analyses are usually based on an informal system model, it is unlikely that they will be complete, consistent, and error free. In fact, the lack of precise models of the system architecture and its failure modes often forces the safety analysts to devote much of their effort to gathering architectural details about the system behavior from several sources and embedding this information in the safety artifacts such as the fault trees. This report describes Model-Based Safety Analysis, an approach in which the system and safety engineers share a common system model created using a model-based development process. By extending the system model with a fault model as well as relevant portions of the physical system to be controlled, automated support can be provided for much of the safety analysis. We believe that by using a common model for both system and safety engineering and automating parts of the safety analysis, we can both reduce the cost and improve the quality of the safety analysis. Here we present our vision of model-based safety analysis and discuss the advantages and challenges in making this approach practical.

  9. Integrated Safety Analysis Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jonathan C.

    2008-01-01

    Today's complex systems require understanding beyond one person s capability to comprehend. Each system requires a team to divide the system into understandable subsystems which can then be analyzed with an Integrated Hazard Analysis. The team must have both specific experiences and diversity of experience. Safety experience and system understanding are not always manifested in one individual. Group dynamics make the difference between success and failure as well as the difference between a difficult task and a rewarding experience. There are examples in the news which demonstrate the need to connect the pieces of a system into a complete picture. The Columbia disaster is now a standard example of a low consequence hazard in one part of the system; the External Tank is a catastrophic hazard cause for a companion subsystem, the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The interaction between the hardware, the manufacturing process, the handling, and the operations contributed to the problem. Each of these had analysis performed, but who constituted the team which integrated this analysis together? This paper will explore some of the methods used for dividing up a complex system; and how one integration team has analyzed the parts. How this analysis has been documented in one particular launch space vehicle case will also be discussed.

  10. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Stein, Emily; Price, Laura L.; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Tillman, Jack Bruce

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  11. System Safety Analysis Application Guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Safety analyses are performed to identify hazards and potential accidents; to analyze the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate hazards; and to evaluate potential accidents and determine associated risks. Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) are prepared to document the safety analysis to ensure facilities can be operated safely and in accordance with regulations. SARs include Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), which are specific technical and administrative requirements that prescribe limits and controls to ensure safe operation of DOE facilities. These documented descriptions and analyses contribute to the authorization basis for facility operation. Energy Systems has established a process to perform Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations (USQDs) for planned changes and as-found conditions that are not described and analyzed in existing safety analyses. The process evaluates changes and as-found conditions to determine whether revisions to the authorization basis must be reviewed and approved by DOE. There is an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) if a change introduces conditions not bounded by the facility authorization basis. When it is necessary to request DOE approval to revise the authorization basis, preparation of a System Safety Analysis (SSA) is recommended. This application guide describes the process of preparing an SSA and the desired contents of an SSA. Guidance is provided on how to identify items and practices which are important to safety; how to determine the credibility and significance of consequences of proposed accident scenarios; how to evaluate accident prevention and mitigation features of the planned change; and how to establish special requirements to ensure that a change can be implemented with adequate safety.

  12. System safety engineering analysis handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ijams, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The basic requirements and guidelines for the preparation of System Safety Engineering Analysis are presented. The philosophy of System Safety and the various analytic methods available to the engineering profession are discussed. A text-book description of each of the methods is included.

  13. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-12-03

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

  14. Adapting safety requirements analysis to intrusion detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, R.

    2001-01-01

    Several requirements analysis techniques widely used in safety-critical systems are being adapted to support the analysis of secure systems. Perhaps the most relevant system safety techique for Intrusion Detection Systems is hazard analysis.

  15. Adapting safety requirements analysis to intrusion detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, R.

    2001-01-01

    Several requirements analysis techniques widely used in safety-critical systems are being adapted to support the analysis of secure systems. Perhaps the most relevant system safety techique for Intrusion Detection Systems is hazard analysis.

  16. Safety study application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Included are analyses of existing facilities done under the aegis of the Safety Analysis Report Upgrade Program, and analyses of new and modified facilities. A graded approach is used wherein the level of analysis and documentation for each facility is commensurate with the magnitude of the hazard(s), the complexity of the facility and the stage of the facility life cycle. Safety analysis reports (SARs) for hazard Category 1 and 2 facilities are usually detailed and extensive because these categories are associated with public health and safety risk. SARs for Category 3 are normally much less extensive because the risk to public health and safety is slight. At Energy Systems, safety studies are the name given to SARs for Category 3 (formerly {open_quotes}low{close_quotes}) facilities. Safety studies are the appropriate instrument when on-site risks are limited to irreversible consequences to a few people, and off-site consequences are limited to reversible consequences to a few people. This application guide provides detailed instructions for performing safety studies that meet the requirements of DOE Orders 5480.22, {open_quotes}Technical Safety Requirements,{close_quotes} and 5480.23, {open_quotes}Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.{close_quotes} A seven-chapter format has been adopted for safety studies. This format allows for discussion of all the items required by DOE Order 5480.23 and for the discussions to be readily traceable to the listing in the order. The chapter titles are: (1) Introduction and Summary, (2) Site, (3) Facility Description, (4) Safety Basis, (5) Hazardous Material Management, (6) Management, Organization, and Institutional Safety Provisions, and (7) Accident Analysis.

  17. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  18. Single fiber, laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) for detecting muscle microcirculation in the low leg and its technique improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hongming; Oberg, P. Ake; Rohman, Hakan; Larsson, Sven-Erik

    1995-02-01

    Percutaneous, single fiber LDF of 632.8 nm (He-Ne) is used for continuous recording of low leg muscle microcirculation. An optical fiber (0 equals 0.5 mm) was placed inside the tibialis ant. muscle 10 cm below the knee joint via a plastic cannula (0 equals 1.0 mm) and using local anaesthesia of the skin. The LDF is sampled continuously by the on-line PC computer one minute before, three minutes during and for four minutes after tourniquet occlusion. Twelve healthy, non-smoking men were examined. The reactive hyperaemia and the flux reactive time after release of tourniquet was examined successfully. To get better signal-to-noise ration and deeper detected volume in the muscle, the optical characteristics of ordinary fiber tips and modified spherical and `pear'-type ends were studied. Compared with the system of 632.8 nm, a new optical system with a laser diode of 790 nm was developed. A PC computer with DSP card was used for all the signal processing in the new system.

  19. Automation for System Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land; Throop, David; Thronesbery, Carroll; Flores, Joshua; Bennett, Ted; Wennberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes work to integrate a set of tools to support early model-based analysis of failures and hazards due to system-software interactions. The tools perform and assist analysts in the following tasks: 1) extract model parts from text for architecture and safety/hazard models; 2) combine the parts with library information to develop the models for visualization and analysis; 3) perform graph analysis and simulation to identify and evaluate possible paths from hazard sources to vulnerable entities and functions, in nominal and anomalous system-software configurations and scenarios; and 4) identify resulting candidate scenarios for software integration testing. There has been significant technical progress in model extraction from Orion program text sources, architecture model derivation (components and connections) and documentation of extraction sources. Models have been derived from Internal Interface Requirements Documents (IIRDs) and FMEA documents. Linguistic text processing is used to extract model parts and relationships, and the Aerospace Ontology also aids automated model development from the extracted information. Visualizations of these models assist analysts in requirements overview and in checking consistency and completeness.

  20. Task D: Hydrogen safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.; Sievert, B.G.; Swain, M.N.

    1996-10-01

    This report covers two topics. The first is a review of codes, standards, regulations, recommendations, certifications, and pamphlets which address safety of gaseous fuels. The second is an experimental investigation of hydrogen flame impingement. Four areas of concern in the conversion of natural gas safety publications to hydrogen safety publications are delineated. Two suggested design criteria for hydrogen vehicle fuel systems are proposed. It is concluded from the experimental work that light weight, low cost, firewalls to resist hydrogen flame impingement are feasible.

  1. 14 CFR 35.15 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... analysis. Such a safety system may include safety devices, instrumentation, early warning devices... propeller system to assess the likely consequences of all failures that can reasonably be expected to occur. This analysis will take into account, if applicable: (i) The propeller system in a typical installation...

  2. 14 CFR 35.15 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... analysis. Such a safety system may include safety devices, instrumentation, early warning devices... propeller system to assess the likely consequences of all failures that can reasonably be expected to occur. This analysis will take into account, if applicable: (i) The propeller system in a typical installation...

  3. 14 CFR 35.15 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... analysis. Such a safety system may include safety devices, instrumentation, early warning devices... propeller system to assess the likely consequences of all failures that can reasonably be expected to occur. This analysis will take into account, if applicable: (i) The propeller system in a typical installation...

  4. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL,GERRY W.; LONGLEY,SUSAN W.; PHILBIN,JEFFREY S.; MAHN,JEFFREY A.; BERRY,DONALD T.; SCHWERS,NORMAN F.; VANDERBEEK,THOMAS E.; NAEGELI,ROBERT E.

    2000-11-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR.

  5. Nuclear Criticality Safety Application Guide: Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Safety analyses are performed to identify hazards and potential accidents; to analyze the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate hazards; and to evaluate potential accidents and determine associated risks. Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) are prepared to document the safety analysis to ensure facilities can be operated safely and in accordance with regulations. Many of the facilities requiring a SAR process fissionable material creating the potential for a nuclear criticality accident. MMES has long had a nuclear criticality safety program that provides the technical support to fissionable material operations to ensure the safe processing and storage of fissionable materials. The guiding philosophy of the program has always been the application of the double-contingency principle, which states: {open_quotes}process designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible.{close_quotes} At Energy Systems analyses have generally been maintained to document that no single normal or abnormal operating conditions that could reasonably be expected to occur can cause a nuclear criticality accident. This application guide provides a summary description of the MMES Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the MMES Criticality Accident Alarm System requirements for inclusion in facility SARs. The guide also suggests a way to incorporate the analyses conducted pursuant to the double-contingency principle into the SAR. The prime objective is to minimize duplicative effort between the NCSA process and the SAR process and yet adequately describe the methodology utilized to prevent a nuclear criticality accident.

  6. Infusing Reliability Techniques into Software Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Software safety analysis for a large software intensive system is always a challenge. Software safety practitioners need to ensure that software related hazards are completely identified, controlled, and tracked. This paper discusses in detail how to incorporate the traditional reliability techniques into the entire software safety analysis process. In addition, this paper addresses how information can be effectively shared between the various practitioners involved in the software safety analyses. The author has successfully applied the approach to several aerospace applications. Examples are provided to illustrate the key steps of the proposed approach.

  7. 49 CFR 229.307 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety analysis. 229.307 Section 229.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics § 229.307...

  8. 49 CFR 229.307 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety analysis. 229.307 Section 229.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics § 229.307...

  9. 49 CFR 229.307 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety analysis. 229.307 Section 229.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics § 229.307...

  10. Recreational Boating Safety: Analysis for Programmatic Decisions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    AFD-AI147 661 RECREATIONAL BORTING SAFETY: ANALYSIS FOR PROGRAMMATIC L/2 DECISIONS(U) MANDEX INC MCLEAN VA L GREENBERG ET AL. APR 84 USCG-D-9-84...CHART NATIONAL *IUIItAU Of SANOAS - It3 - A =.. ... Report No. CG-D-9-84 • • RECREATIONAL BOATING SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR PROGRAMMATIC DECISIONS 6 0 I...orDt . Title and Subtitle5.,,,or , April 1984 0 Recreational Boating Safety: 6. PerformingOrganization Coat Analysis for Programmatic Decisions 1 8

  11. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D`Aquila, D.M.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  12. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    SciTech Connect

    EVANS, C B

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

  13. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  14. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  15. A Synthetic Vision Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Houser, Scott

    2001-01-01

    This report documents efforts to analyze a sample of aviation safety programs, using the LMI-developed integrated safety analysis tool to determine the change in system risk resulting from Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) technology implementation. Specifically, we have worked to modify existing system safety tools to address the safety impact of synthetic vision (SV) technology. Safety metrics include reliability, availability, and resultant hazard. This analysis of SV technology is intended to be part of a larger effort to develop a model that is capable of "providing further support to the product design and development team as additional information becomes available". The reliability analysis portion of the effort is complete and is fully documented in this report. The simulation analysis is still underway; it will be documented in a subsequent report. The specific goal of this effort is to apply the integrated safety analysis to SV technology. This report also contains a brief discussion of data necessary to expand the human performance capability of the model, as well as a discussion of human behavior and its implications for system risk assessment in this modeling environment.

  16. Overview of Energy Systems` safety analysis report programs. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility`s safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This ``Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs`` Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

  17. 10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documented safety analysis. 830.204 Section 830.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.204 Documented safety analysis... approval from DOE for the methodology used to prepare the documented safety analysis for the...

  18. Uncertainty analysis for Ulysses safety evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Michael V.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the effort to review the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report and to understand the risk of plutonium release from the Ulysses spacecraft General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermal Generator, the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) performed an integrated, quantitative analysis of the uncertainties of the calculated risk of plutonium release from Ulysses. Using state-of-art probabilistic risk assessment technology, the uncertainty analysis accounted for both variability and uncertainty of the key parameters of the risk analysis. The results show that INSRP had high confidence that risk of fatal cancers from potential plutonium release associated with calculated launch and deployment accident scenarios is low.

  19. SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY INTEGRATION WITH SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hearn, J; James Lightner, J

    2007-04-13

    The objective of this paper is to share the Savannah River Site lessons learned on Safeguards and Security (S&S) program integration with K-Area Complex (KAC) safety basis. The KAC Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), is managed by the Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC), and the S&S program, managed by Wackenhut Services, Incorporated--Savannah River Site (WSI-SRS). WSRC and WSI-SRS developed a contractual arrangement to recognize WSI-SRS requirements in the KAC safety analysis. Design Basis Threat 2003 (DBT03) security upgrades required physical modifications and operational changes which included the availability of weapons which could potentially impact the facility safety analysis. The KAC DSA did not previously require explicit linkage to the S&S program to satisfy the safety analysis. WSI-SRS have contractual requirements with the Department of Energy (DOE) which are separate from WSRC contract requirements. The lessons learned will include a discussion on planning, analysis, approval of the controls and implementation issues.

  20. Navigation Safety Analysis in Taiwanese Ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chung-Ping; Liang, Gin-Shuh; Su, Yuhling; Chu, Ching-Wu

    2006-05-01

    Many researchers have studied vessel systems to enhance navigation safety at sea, or analysed the statistics of marine casualties of different flagged vessels as well as the fatalities and injuries in ferry accidents. However, little research has been devoted to port safety and especially navigation safety within Taiwanese territorial waters where over a 10-year period there have been 3428 marine accidents with 548 deaths and 524 vessels sunk. In this paper, we use the Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) to analyse the marine accident records of each of Taiwan's commercial ports from 1992 2003. Then, after interviewing the port authority managers and marine specialists, we discover the concerns felt by these professionals about Taiwanese commercial ports. We provide suggestions to strengthen port navigation safety.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  2. Fire Risk Implications in Safety Analysis Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-03-31

    Fire can be a significant risk for facilities that store and handle radiological material. Such events must be evaluated as part of a comprehensive safety analysis. SRS has been developing methods to evaluate radiological fire risk in such facilities. These methods combined with the analysis techniques proposed by DOE-STD-3009-94 have provided a better understanding of how fire risks in nuclear facilities should be managed. To ensure that these new insights are properly disseminated the DOE Savannah River Office and the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) requested Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) prepare this paper.

  3. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  4. Mapping human skeletal muscle perforator vessels using a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) might explain the variability of NIRS and LDF measurements.

    PubMed

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T; Delpy, D T; Fauci, M A; Rüfenacht, D

    2004-06-21

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) have become the techniques of choice allowing the non-invasive study of local human skeletal muscle metabolism and blood perfusion on a small tissue volume (a few cm3). However, it has been shown that both NIRS and LDF measurements may show a large spatial variability depending on the position of the optodes over the investigated muscle. This variability may be due to local morphologic and/or metabolic characteristics of the muscle and makes the data interpretation and comparison difficult. In the present work, we use a third method to investigate this problem which permits fast, non-invasive mapping of the intramuscular vessel distribution in the human vastus latelralis muscle. This method uses an advanced, passive, infrared imaging sensor called a QWIP (quantum well infrared photodetector). We demonstrate, using a recovery-enhanced infrared imaging technique, that there is a significant presence of perforator vessels in the region of interest of approximately 30 x 18 cm (the number of vessels being: 14, 9, 8, 33, 17 and 18 for each subject, respectively). The presence of these vessels makes the skeletal muscle highly inhomogeneous, and may explain the observed NIRS and LDF spatial variability. We conclude that accurate comparison of the metabolic activity of two different muscle regions is not possible without reliable maps of vascular 'singularities' such as the perforator vessels, and that the QWIP-based imaging system is one method to obtain this information.

  5. Relationships between psychological safety climate facets and safety behavior in the rail industry: a dominance analysis.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Stephanie L; McGonagle, Alyssa K; Dove-Steinkamp, Megan L; Walker, Curtis T; Marmet, Matthew; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L

    2010-09-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to confirm a relationship between employee perceptions of psychological safety climate and safety behavior for a sample of workers in the rail industry and (2) to explore the relative strengths of relationships between specific facets of safety climate and safety behavior. Non-management rail maintenance workers employed by a large North American railroad completed a survey (n=421) regarding workplace safety perceptions and behaviors. Three facets of safety climate (management safety, coworker safety, and work-safety tension) were assessed as relating to individual workers' reported safety behavior. All three facets were significantly associated with safety behavior. Dominance analysis was used to assess the relative importance of each facet as related to the outcome, and work-safety tension evidenced the strongest relationship with safety behavior. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Eisler

    1995-02-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

  7. Safety analysis for complex systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onesty, J. P.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Operational risk assessment considers hardware, environment, and human factors. Technique starts with division of postulated mission into segments which are further subdivided into separate operational steps. Consequences of steps, nonoccurrence, premature operation, out-of-sequence operation, and inadvertent execution are examined at subevent, event, and phase levels. Hazards are identified and treated individually. Analysis is well suited to application in energy and transportation fields.

  8. 14 CFR 35.15 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.15 Safety analysis. (a)(1) The applicant must analyze the propeller system to assess the likely consequences of all failures that can reasonably be expected to...

  9. 14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a... applicable: (i) Aircraft-level devices and procedures assumed to be associated with a typical...

  10. 14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a... applicable: (i) Aircraft-level devices and procedures assumed to be associated with a typical...

  11. 14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a... applicable: (i) Aircraft-level devices and procedures assumed to be associated with a typical...

  12. 14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a... applicable: (i) Aircraft-level devices and procedures assumed to be associated with a typical...

  13. 14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a... applicable: (i) Aircraft-level devices and procedures assumed to be associated with a typical...

  14. DESIGN PACKAGE 1E SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1E, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1E system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1E structures/systems/components(S/S/Cs) in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions.

  15. 14 CFR 35.15 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... safety devices, instrumentation, early warning devices, maintenance checks, and other similar equipment... propeller system to assess the likely consequences of all failures that can reasonably be expected to occur. This analysis will take into account, if applicable: (i) The propeller system in a typical installation...

  16. Uncertainty analysis for Ulysses safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.V. )

    1991-01-01

    As part of the effort to review the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report and to understand the risk of plutonium release from the Ulysses spacecraft General Purpose Heat Source---Radioisotope Thermal Generator (GPHS-RTG), the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) and the author performed an integrated, quantitative analysis of the uncertainties of the calculated risk of plutonium release from Ulysses. Using state-of-art probabilistic risk assessment technology, the uncertainty analysis accounted for both variability and uncertainty of the key parameters of the risk analysis. The results show that INSRP had high confidence that risk of fatal cancers from potential plutonium release associated with calculated launch and deployment accident scenarios is low.

  17. SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

  18. EUTEF Integrated Payload System Safety Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laplena, D.; Pagnoni, S.

    2005-12-01

    Carlo Gavazzi Space (CGS) has developed the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) under contract with the European Space Agency (ESA). EuTEF, see Fig.1, is a facility which provides scientific users with the means to collect scientific/technological data in the fields of: electrostatic discharge phenomena, materials property degradation in space environment, impact of micrometeorids/debris on materials, oxygen measurement in space environment, UV effects, solid lubricants fundamental properties, radiation environment. The facility accommodates Instruments providing them with standardised mechanical accommodation and electrical and data handling services. Each Instrument has been developed by different Experimenters and is integrated in the EuTEF facility by CGS. The integration of different Instruments leads CGS to consider not only the hazards coming from each Instrument itself but the possible hazards which can arise from the interaction between 1) two or more experiments or 2) an experiment and the carrier, orbiter or ISS. The effort of CGS as EuTEF Payload integrator is to: * Identify the hazards of the facility (DHPU, ARS, Support Structure, CEPA) * Verify completeness and compliance of the safety data coming from each Instrument (EXPOSE, PLEGPAY, TriboLAB, EVC, EuTEMP, DOSTEL, MEDET, FIPEX, DEBIE-2) * Identify the "integrated hazards" in an overall safety analysis and document the compliance to safety requirements of the Integrated EuTEF Payload * Address the complete payload assembly together with an integrated safety review. The purpose of this paper is to describe CGS's system safety methodology used to address the complete payload assembly in an integrated safety analysis.

  19. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section 830.206 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.206 Preliminary documented safety analysis. If construction begins after December 11, 2000, the...

  20. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.309 Flight safety system analysis. (a) General. (1) Each flight termination system and command control system, including each of...

  1. 14 CFR 417.405 - Ground safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground safety analysis. 417.405 Section 417.405 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.405 Ground safety analysis. (a)...

  2. 14 CFR 417.405 - Ground safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground safety analysis. 417.405 Section 417.405 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.405 Ground safety analysis. (a)...

  3. 14 CFR 417.405 - Ground safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground safety analysis. 417.405 Section 417.405 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.405 Ground safety analysis. (a)...

  4. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section 830.206 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.206... category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must: (a) Prepare a preliminary documented safety analysis for the...

  5. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section 830.206 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.206... category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must: (a) Prepare a preliminary documented safety analysis for the...

  6. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section 830.206 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.206... category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must: (a) Prepare a preliminary documented safety analysis for the...

  7. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section 830.206 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.206... category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must: (a) Prepare a preliminary documented safety analysis for the...

  8. Safety of GM crops: compositional analysis.

    PubMed

    Brune, Philip D; Culler, Angela Hendrickson; Ridley, William P; Walker, Kate

    2013-09-04

    The compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to be an important part of the overall evaluation in the safety assessment program for these materials. The variety and complexity of genetically engineered traits and modes of action that will be used in GM crops in the near future, as well as our expanded knowledge of compositional variability and factors that can affect composition, raise questions about compositional analysis and how it should be applied to evaluate the safety of traits. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), a nonprofit foundation whose mission is to provide science that improves public health and well-being by fostering collaboration among experts from academia, government, and industry, convened a workshop in September 2012 to examine these and related questions, and a series of papers has been assembled to describe the outcomes of that meeting.

  9. COLD-SAT feasibility study safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchenry, Steven T.; Yost, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-orbit Liquid Depot-Storage, Acquisition, and Transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite presents some unique safety issues. The feasibility study conducted at NASA-Lewis desired a systems safety program that would be involved from the initial design in order to eliminate and/or control the inherent hazards. Because of this, a hazards analysis method was needed that: (1) identified issues that needed to be addressed for a feasibility assessment; and (2) identified all potential hazards that would need to be controlled and/or eliminated during the detailed design phases. The developed analysis method is presented as well as the results generated for the COLD-SAT system.

  10. Risk-Based Explosive Safety Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-30

    safety siting of energetic liquids and propellants can be greatly aided by the use of risk- based methodologies. The low probability of exposed...of energetic liquids and propellants can be greatly aided by the use of risk- based methodologies. The low probability of exposed personnel and the... based analysis of scenario 2 would likely determine that the hazard of death or injury to any single person is low due to the separation distance

  11. Preliminary Safety Analysis for the IRIS Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ricotti, M.E.; Cammi, A.; Cioncolini, A.; Lombardi, C.; Cipollaro, A.; Orioto, F.; Conway, L.E.; Barroso, A.C.

    2002-07-01

    A deterministic analysis of the IRIS safety features has been carried out by means of the best-estimate code RELAP (ver. RELAP5 mod3.2). First, the main system components were modeled and tested separately, namely: the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the modular helical-coil Steam Generators (SG) and the Passive (natural circulation) Emergency Heat Removal System (PEHRS). Then, a preliminary set of accident transients for the whole primary and safety systems was investigated. Since the project was in a conceptual phase, the reported analyses must be considered preliminary. In fact, neither the reactor components, nor the safety systems and the reactor signal logics were completely defined at that time. Three 'conventional' design basis accidents have been preliminary evaluated: a Loss Of primary Flow Accident, a Loss Of Coolant Accident and a Loss Of Feed Water accident. The results show the effectiveness of the safety systems also in LOCA conditions; the core remains covered for the required grace period. This provides the basis to move forward to the preliminary design. (authors)

  12. 10 CFR 72.248 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.248 Section 72.248... Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.248 Safety analysis report updating. (a) Each certificate holder... section, the final safety analysis report (FSAR) to assure that the information included in the...

  13. 10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., identification of energy sources or processes that might contribute to the generation or uncontrolled release of... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Documented safety analysis. 830.204 Section 830.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.204 Documented safety...

  14. 10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., identification of energy sources or processes that might contribute to the generation or uncontrolled release of... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Documented safety analysis. 830.204 Section 830.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.204 Documented safety...

  15. 10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., identification of energy sources or processes that might contribute to the generation or uncontrolled release of... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Documented safety analysis. 830.204 Section 830.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.204 Documented safety...

  16. 10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., identification of energy sources or processes that might contribute to the generation or uncontrolled release of... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Documented safety analysis. 830.204 Section 830.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.204 Documented safety...

  17. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J W; Clowdsley, M S; Nealy, J E; Humes, D H; Clem, J M

    2002-12-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated.

  18. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated.

  19. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated.

  20. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 70.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR... Nuclear Material § 70.62 Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. (1) Each... performed by a team with expertise in engineering and process operations. The team shall include at...

  1. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 70.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR... Nuclear Material § 70.62 Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. (1) Each...; (iv) Potential accident sequences caused by process deviations or other events internal to the...

  2. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 70.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.62 Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. (1) Each...

  3. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 70.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.62 Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. (1) Each...

  4. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 70.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.62 Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. (1) Each...

  5. Concept analysis of safety climate in healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Siou; Lin, Yen-Chun; Lou, Meei-Fang

    2017-06-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of safety climate in healthcare providers. Compliance with safe work practices is essential to patient safety and care outcomes. Analysing the concept of safety climate from the perspective of healthcare providers could improve understanding of the correlations between safety climate and healthcare provider compliance with safe work practices, thus enhancing quality of patient care. Concept analysis. The electronic databases of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science were searched for literature published between 1995-2015. Searches used the keywords 'safety climate' or 'safety culture' with 'hospital' or 'healthcare'. The concept analysis method of Walker and Avant analysed safety climate from the perspective of healthcare providers. Three attributes defined how healthcare providers define safety climate: (1) creation of safe working environment by senior management in healthcare organisations; (2) shared perception of healthcare providers about safety of their work environment; and (3) the effective dissemination of safety information. Antecedents included the characteristics of healthcare providers and healthcare organisations as a whole, and the types of work in which they are engaged. Consequences consisted of safety performance and safety outcomes. Most studies developed and assessed the survey tools of safety climate or safety culture, with a minority consisting of interventional measures for improving safety climate. More prospective studies are needed to create interventional measures for improving safety climate of healthcare providers. This study is provided as a reference for use in developing multidimensional safety climate assessment tools and interventional measures. The values healthcare teams emphasise with regard to safety can serve to improve safety performance. Having an understanding of the concept of and interventional measures for safety climate allows healthcare providers to ensure the safety of their

  6. Mechanistic facility safety and source term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-06-09

    A PC-based computer program was created for facility safety and source term analysis at Hanford The program has been successfully applied to mechanistic prediction of source terms from chemical reactions in underground storage tanks, hydrogen combustion in double contained receiver tanks, and proccss evaluation including the potential for runaway reactions in spent nuclear fuel processing. Model features include user-defined facility room, flow path geometry, and heat conductors, user-defined non-ideal vapor and aerosol species, pressure- and density-driven gas flows, aerosol transport and deposition, and structure to accommodate facility-specific source terms. Example applications are presented here.

  7. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  8. ESSAA: Embedded system safety analysis assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Peter; Holzer, Joseph; Guarro, Sergio; Hyatt, Larry

    1987-01-01

    The Embedded System Safety Analysis Assistant (ESSAA) is a knowledge-based tool that can assist in identifying disaster scenarios. Imbedded software issues hazardous control commands to the surrounding hardware. ESSAA is intended to work from outputs to inputs, as a complement to simulation and verification methods. Rather than treating the software in isolation, it examines the context in which the software is to be deployed. Given a specified disasterous outcome, ESSAA works from a qualitative, abstract model of the complete system to infer sets of environmental conditions and/or failures that could cause a disasterous outcome. The scenarios can then be examined in depth for plausibility using existing techniques.

  9. Fixed-bed adsorption of toluene on high silica zeolites: experiments and mathematical modelling using LDF approximation and a multisite model.

    PubMed

    Brodu, Nicolas; Sochard, Sabine; Andriantsiferana, Caroline; Pic, Jean-Stéphane; Manero, Marie-Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of toluene (TOL) as a target volatile organic compound has been studied experimentally and modelled on various hydrophobic zeolites: Faujasite (FAU), ZSM-5 (Z) and Mordenite (MOR). The influence of the nature of the compensating cation (H+ or Na+) has also been investigated for ZSM-5 zeolite, which is known to possess three kinds of adsorption sites (sinusoidal channels, straight channels and intersections). Type I isotherms observed on FAU, Na-Z and MOR fitted well with the Langmuir model. A deviation from a type I isotherm was observed for H-Z, because of the structure of this zeolite. The Successive Langmuir Model was more successful to fit the 'bump' of the experimental curve than the Double Langmuir. Classical shapes were found for MOR, FAU and Na-Z breakthrough curves that were fitted with good accuracy using the Linear Driving Force (LDF) approximation. In the case of H-Z, a change of profile was observed during the dynamic adsorption and the differences seen between the Na-Z and H-Z behaviours were explained by the strong interactions between Na+ and adsorbed TOL at the intersection sites. The Na+ cations prevented reorientation of TOL molecules at the intersection and thereby avoided the filling of the sinusoidal channel segments. Thus, a specific model was developed for fitting the breakthrough curve of H-Z. The model developed took into account these two types of adsorption sites with the overall uptake for each site being given by an LDF approximation.

  10. The safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative cell salvage in metastatic spine tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Elmalky, Mahmoud; Yasin, Naveed; Rodrigues-Pinto, Ricardo; Stephenson, John; Carroll, Craig; Smurthwaite, Glyn; Verma, Rajat; Mohammad, Saeed; Siddique, Irfan

    2017-07-01

    Metastatic spine tumor surgery (MSTS) is associated with substantial blood loss, therefore leading to high morbidity and mortality. Although intraoperative cell salvage with leukocyte depletion filter (IOCS-LDF) has been studied as an effective means of reducing blood loss in other surgical settings, including the spine, no study has yet analyzed the efficacy of reinfusion of salvaged blood in reducing the need for allogenic blood transfusion in patients who have had surgery for MSTS. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of using IOCS-LDF in MSTS. This is a retrospective controlled study. A total of 176 patients undergoing MSTS were included in the study. All patients undergoing MSTS at a single center between February 2010 and December 2014 were included in the study. The primary outcome measure was the use of autologous blood transfusion. Secondary outcome measures included hospital stay, survival time, complications, and procedural costs. The key predictor variable was whether IOCS-LDF was used during surgery. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted by controlling variables such as tumor type, number of diseased vertebrae, approach, number and site of stabilized segments, operation time, preoperative anemia, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). No funding was obtained and there are no conflicts of interest to be declared. Data included 63 cases (IOCS-LDF) and 113 controls (non-IOCS-LDF). Intraoperative cell salvage with LDF utilization was substantively and significantly associated with a lower likelihood of allogenic blood transfusion (OR=0.407, p=.03). Intraoperative cell salvage with LDF was cost neutral (p=.88). Average hospital stay was 3.76 days shorter among IOCS-LDF patients (p=.03). Patient survival and complication rates were comparable in both groups. We have demonstrated that the use of IOCS-LDF in MSTS reduces the need for postoperative allogenic

  11. Parametric analysis of cherenkov light LDF from EAS for high energy gamma rays and nuclei: Ways of practical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshoukrofy, A. Sh. M.; Postnikov, E. B.; Korosteleva, E. E.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Motaweh, H. A.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we propose a `knee-like' approximation of the lateral distribution of the Cherenkov light from extensive air showers in the energy range 30-3000 TeV and study a possibility of its practical application in high energy ground-based gamma-ray astronomy experiments (in particular, in TAIGA-HiSCORE). The approximation has a very good accuracy for individual showers and can be easily simplified for practical application in the HiSCORE wide angle timing array in the condition of a limited number of triggered stations.

  12. Improved Range Safety Analysis for Space Vehicles Using Range Safety Template Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisato, J.; Vuletich, I.; Brett, M.; Williams, W.; Wilson, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses an alternative to traditional methodologies for space launch and re-entry vehicle range safety analysis using the Range Safety Template Toolkit (RSTT), developed by Australia's Defense Science and Technology Organization (DSTO) in partnership with Aerospace Concepts Pty Ltd. RSTT offers rapid generation of mission-specific safety templates that comply with internationally-recognized standards for range risk criteria. Compared to some traditional methods, RSTT produces more accurate assessments of risk to personnel and infrastructure. This provides range operators with greater confidence in the range safety products, enhancing their ability to rigorously manage safety on their ranges. RSTT also offers increased precision of risk analysis and iteration of mission design allowing greater flexibility in planning range operations with rapid feedback on the safety impact of mission changes. These concepts are explored through examples involving a suborbital sounding rocket, demonstrating how traditional range safety assumptions may be reassessed using the RSTT robust probabilistic methodology.

  13. Overview of Energy Systems' safety analysis report programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility's safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs'' Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

  14. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  15. The adaptive safety analysis and monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Haiying; Allanach, Jeffrey; Singh, Satnam; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Willett, Peter

    2004-09-01

    The Adaptive Safety Analysis and Monitoring (ASAM) system is a hybrid model-based software tool for assisting intelligence analysts to identify terrorist threats, to predict possible evolution of the terrorist activities, and to suggest strategies for countering terrorism. The ASAM system provides a distributed processing structure for gathering, sharing, understanding, and using information to assess and predict terrorist network states. In combination with counter-terrorist network models, it can also suggest feasible actions to inhibit potential terrorist threats. In this paper, we will introduce the architecture of the ASAM system, and discuss the hybrid modeling approach embedded in it, viz., Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to detect and provide soft evidence on the states of terrorist network nodes based on partial and imperfect observations, and Bayesian networks (BNs) to integrate soft evidence from multiple HMMs. The functionality of the ASAM system is illustrated by way of application to the Indian Airlines Hijacking, as modeled from open sources.

  16. Information Services at the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Ronald

    This paper describes the operations of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center. Established soon after an accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, its efforts were initially directed towards a detailed analysis of the accident. Continuing functions include: (1) the analysis of generic nuclear safety issues,…

  17. Information Services at the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Ronald

    This paper describes the operations of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center. Established soon after an accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, its efforts were initially directed towards a detailed analysis of the accident. Continuing functions include: (1) the analysis of generic nuclear safety issues,…

  18. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  19. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  20. Safety Evaluation Report of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the Department of Energy’s (DOE's) review of Revision 9 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis, DOE/WIPP-95-2065 (WIPP CH DSA), and provides the DOE Approval Authority with the basis for approving the document. It concludes that the safety basis documented in the WIPP CH DSA is comprehensive, correct, and commensurate with hazards associated with CH waste disposal operations. The WIPP CH DSA and associated technical safety requirements (TSRs) were developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, and DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  1. Aggregate nonparametric safety analysis of traffic zones.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Chowdhury; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Huang, Helai

    2012-03-01

    Exploring the significant variables related to specific types of crashes is vitally important in the planning stage of a transportation network. This paper aims to identify and examine important variables associated with total crashes and severe crashes per traffic analysis zone (TAZ) in four counties of the state of Florida by applying nonparametric statistical techniques such as data mining and random forest. The intention of investigating these factors in such aggregate level analysis is to incorporate proactive safety measures in transportation planning. Total and severe crashes per TAZ were modeled to provide predictive decision trees. The variables which carried higher weight of importance for total crashes per TAZ were - total number of intersections per TAZ, airport trip productions, light truck productions, and total roadway segment length with 35 mph posted speed limit. The other significant variables identified for total crashes were total roadway length with 15 mph posted speed limit, total roadway length with 65 mph posted speed limit, and non-home based work productions. For severe crashes, total number of intersections per TAZ, light truck productions, total roadway length with 35 mph posted speed limit, and total roadway length with 65 mph posted speed limit were among the significant variables. These variables were further verified and supported by the random forest results.

  2. Biosensors for functional food safety and analysis.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. In addition, consumers' awareness of the impact of functional foods' on their well-being and their desire for daily healthcare without the intake pharmaceuticals has immensely in recent years. Within this picture, the availability of fast, reliable, low cost control systems to measure the content and the quality of food additives and nutrients with health claims becomes mandatory, to be used by producers, consumers and the governmental bodies in charge of the legal supervision of such matters. This review aims at describing the most important methods and tools used for food analysis, starting with the classical methods (e.g., gas-chromatography GC, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC) and moving to the use of biosensors-novel biological material-based equipments. Four types of bio-sensors, among others, the novel photosynthetic proteins-based devices which are more promising and common in food analysis applications, are reviewed. A particular highlight on biosensors for the emerging market of functional foods is given and the most widely applied functional components are reviewed with a comprehensive analysis of papers published in the last three years; this report discusses recent trends for sensitive, fast, repeatable and cheap measurements, focused on the detection of vitamins, folate (folic acid), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), fatty acids (in particular Omega 3), phytosterols and phytochemicals. A final market overview emphasizes some practical aspects ofbiosensor applications.

  3. Lunar mission safety and rescue: Hazards analysis and safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented of the hazards analysis which was concerned only with hazards to personnel and not with loss of equipment or property. Hazards characterization includes the definition of a hazard, the hazard levels, and the hazard groups. The analysis methodology is described in detail. The methodology was used to prepare the top level functional flow diagrams, to perform the first level hazards assessment, and to develop a list of conditions and situations requiring individual hazard studies. The 39 individual hazard study results are presented in total.

  4. TA-55 Final Safety Analysis Report Comparison Document and DOE Safety Evaluation Report Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bond

    2001-04-01

    This document provides an overview of changes to the currently approved TA-55 Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) that are included in the upgraded FSAR. The DOE Safety Evaluation Report (SER) requirements that are incorporated into the upgraded FSAR are briefly discussed to provide the starting point in the FSAR with respect to the SER requirements.

  5. An Analysis of Laboratory Safety in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Edward J.; Picucci, Ali Callicoatte; Collins, James W.; Swann, Philip

    This paper reports on a survey to discover the types of laboratory accidents that occur in Texas public schools, the factors associated with such accidents, and the practices of schools with regard to current laboratory safety requirements. The purpose of the survey is to better understand safety conditions in Texas public schools and to help…

  6. 10 CFR 72.248 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.248 Section 72.248 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF... Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.248 Safety analysis report updating. (a) Each certificate...

  7. 10 CFR 72.248 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.248 Section 72.248 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF... Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.248 Safety analysis report updating. (a) Each certificate...

  8. 10 CFR 72.248 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.248 Section 72.248 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF... Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.248 Safety analysis report updating. (a) Each certificate holder...

  9. 10 CFR 72.248 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.248 Section 72.248 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF... Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.248 Safety analysis report updating. (a) Each certificate holder...

  10. Safety analysis of the nuclear chemistry Building 151

    SciTech Connect

    Kvam, D.

    1984-06-29

    This report summarizes the results of a safety analysis that was done on Building 151. The report outlines the methodology, the analysis, and the findings that led to the low hazard classification. No further safety evaluation is indicated at this time. 5 tables.

  11. Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Overview - 13298

    SciTech Connect

    Bracke, G.; Fischer-Appelt, K.; Baltes, B.

    2013-07-01

    The project preliminary safety analysis of the Gorleben site started in 2010 and is based on the safety requirements for heat generating radioactive waste released from the German Federal Ministry for Environment, natural conservation and nuclear safety. The project consists of several tasks: the database defining the geology of Gorleben and the composition of the waste to be disposed of, the safety and demonstration concept, the repository concepts, the scenario analysis, the system analysis with long-term safety assessment and the synthesis. The overall synthesis indicates presently the compatibility of a repository in Gorleben with the safety requirements. The application of the method for a site selection process is still under evaluation. (authors)

  12. A safety analysis of warhead balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.

    1998-12-01

    Reentry vehicles (RVs) carrying warheads from ballistic missiles must be carefully balanced with the warhead in situ to prevent wobble as the RVs enter the earth`s atmosphere to prevent inaccuracy or loss of the warhead. This balancing is performed on a dynamic balancing machine that rotates the RV at significant angular velocities. Seizure of the spindle shaft of the machine could result in rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly, which could over-stress and shear bolts or other structures that attach the RV to the balancing machine. This could result in undesired motions of the RV and impact of the RV on equipment or structures in the work area. This potential safety problem has long been recognized in a general way, but no systematic investigation of the possible accident sequences had been performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe an integrated set of systems analysis techniques that worked well in developing a set of accident sequences that describe the motions of the RV following a spindle-shaft seizure event.

  13. Cost Benefit Analysis of Consumer Product Safety Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Betty F.; Dardis, Rachel

    1977-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of cost-benefit analysis in evaluating consumer product safety standards and applys such analysis to an evaluation of flammability standards for children's sleepwear. (Editor)

  14. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Motloch, C.G.; Bonney, R.F.; Levine, J.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Masson, L.S.; Commander, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), includes an indication of the magnitude of facility hazards, complexity of facility operations, and the stage of the facility life-cycle. It presents the results of safety analyses, safety assurance programs, identified vulnerabilities, compensatory measures, and, in general, the rationale describing why the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) can be safely operated. It discusses application of the graded approach to the TPX safety analysis, including the basis for using Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 and DOE-STD-3009-94 in the development of the PSAR.

  15. Moon manned missions radiation safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; de Anlelis, G.; Badavi, F. F.

    , from very simple shelters to more complex bases, are considered in full detail (e.g., shape, thickness, materials, etc) with considerations of various shielding strategies. In this first analysis all the shape considered are cylindrical or composed of combination of cylinders. Moreover, a radiation safety analysis of more future possible habitats like lava tubes has been also performed.

  16. Safety analysis report 231-Z Building

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, C.S.

    1989-03-01

    This report provides an intensive review of the nuclear safety of the operation of the 231-Z Building. For background information complete descriptions of the floor plan, building services, alarm systems, and glove box systems are included in this report. In addition, references are included to The Plutonium Laboratory Radiation Work Procedures, Safety Guides, 231-Z Operating Procedures Manual and Nuclear Materials accountability Procedures. Engineered and administrative features contribute to the overall safety of personnel, the building, and environs. The consequences of credible incidents were considered and are discussed.

  17. The quality/safety medical index: implementation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2015-02-01

    Medical analytics relating to quality and safety measures have become particularly timely and of high importance in contemporary medical practice. In medical imaging, the dynamic relationship between medical imaging quality and radiation safety creates challenges in quantifying quality or safety independently. By creating a standardized measurement which simultaneously accounts for quality and safety measures (i.e., quality safety index), one can in theory create a standardized method for combined quality and safety analysis, which in turn can be analyzed in the context of individual patient, exam, and clinical profiles. The derived index measures can be entered into a centralized database, which in turn can be used for comparative performance of individual and institutional service providers. In addition, data analytics can be used to create customizable educational resources for providers and patients, clinical decision support tools, technology performance analysis, and clinical/economic outcomes research.

  18. The role of safety analysis in accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Suokas, J

    1988-02-01

    The need for safety analysis has grown in the fields of nuclear industry, civil and military aviation and space technology where the potential for accidents with far-reaching consequences for employees, the public and the environment is most apparent. Later the use of safety analysis has spread widely to other industrial branches. General systems theory, accident theories and scientific management represent domains that have influenced the development of safety analysis. These relations are shortly presented and the common methods employed in safety analysis are described and structured according to the aim of the search and to the search strategy. A framework for the evaluation of the coverage of the search procedures employed in different methods of safety analysis is presented. The framework is then used in an heuristic and in an empiric evaluation of hazard and operability study (HAZOP), work safety analysis (WSA), action error analysis (AEA) and management oversight and risk tree (MORT). Finally, some recommendations on the use of safety analysis for preventing accidents are presented.

  19. Applying importance-performance analysis to patient safety culture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yii-Ching; Wu, Hsin-Hung; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Weng, Shao-Jen; Hsieh, Liang-Po; Huang, Chih-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    The Sexton et al.'s (2006) safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ) has been widely used to assess staff's attitudes towards patient safety in healthcare organizations. However, to date there have been few studies that discuss the perceptions of patient safety both from hospital staff and upper management. The purpose of this paper is to improve and to develop better strategies regarding patient safety in healthcare organizations. The Chinese version of SAQ based on the Taiwan Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation is used to evaluate the perceptions of hospital staff. The current study then lies in applying importance-performance analysis technique to identify the major strengths and weaknesses of the safety culture. The results show that teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, stress recognition and working conditions are major strengths and should be maintained in order to provide a better patient safety culture. On the contrary, perceptions of management and hospital handoffs and transitions are important weaknesses and should be improved immediately. Research limitations/implications - The research is restricted in generalizability. The assessment of hospital staff in patient safety culture is physicians and registered nurses. It would be interesting to further evaluate other staff's (e.g. technicians, pharmacists and others) opinions regarding patient safety culture in the hospital. Few studies have clearly evaluated the perceptions of healthcare organization management regarding patient safety culture. Healthcare managers enable to take more effective actions to improve the level of patient safety by investigating key characteristics (either strengths or weaknesses) that healthcare organizations should focus on.

  20. Safety analysis report for the Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    This safety analysis report outlines the safety concerns associated with the Waste Storage Facility located in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The three main objectives of the report are: define and document a safety basis for the Waste Storage Facility activities; demonstrate how the activities will be carried out to adequately protect the workers, public, and environment; and provide a basis for review and acceptance of the identified risk that the managers, operators, and owners will assume.

  1. Analysis of microgravity space experiments Space Shuttle programmatic safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terlep, Judith A.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of microgravity space experiments space shuttle programmatic safety requirements and recommends the creation of a Safety Compliance Data Package (SCDP) Template for both flight and ground processes. These templates detail the programmatic requirements necessary to produce a complete SCDP. The templates were developed from various NASA centers' requirement documents, previously written guidelines on safety data packages, and from personal experiences. The templates are included in the back as part of this report.

  2. SNF fuel retrieval sub project safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMANN, D.W.

    1999-02-24

    This safety analysis is for the SNF Fuel Retrieval (FRS) Sub Project. The FRS equipment will be added to K West and K East Basins to facilitate retrieval, cleaning and repackaging the spent nuclear fuel into Multi-Canister Overpack baskets. The document includes a hazard evaluation, identifies bounding accidents, documents analyses of the accidents and establishes safety class or safety significant equipment to mitigate accidents as needed.

  3. Applying MORT maintenance safety analysis in Finnish industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuhilehto, Kaarin; Virolainen, Kimmo

    1992-02-01

    A safety analysis method based on MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree) method, especially on the version developed for safety considerations in the evaluation of maintenance programs, is presented. The MORT maintenance safety analysis is intended especially for the use maintenance safety management. The analysis helps managers evaluate the goals of their safety work and measures taken to reach them. The analysis is done by a team or teams. The team ought to have expert knowledge of the organization both vertically and horizontally in order to be able to identify factors that may contribute to accidents or other interruptions in the maintenance work. Identification is made by using the MORT maintenance key question set as a check list. The questions check the way safety matters are connnected with the maintenance planning and managing, as well as the safety management itself. In the second stage, means to eliminate the factors causing problems are developed. New practices are established to improve safety of maintenance planning and managing in the enterprise.

  4. 10 CFR 72.70 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.70 Section 72.70 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF... and performance of structures, systems, and components that are important to safety taking into...

  5. 10 CFR 72.70 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.70 Section 72.70 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF... and performance of structures, systems, and components that are important to safety taking into...

  6. A guide for performing system safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, J. M.; Douglass, R. W., III.; Williamson, F. R.; Dorman, M. C. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A general guide is presented for performing system safety analyses of hardware, software, operations and human elements of an aerospace program. The guide describes a progression of activities that can be effectively applied to identify hazards to personnel and equipment during all periods of system development. The general process of performing safety analyses is described; setting forth in a logical order the information and data requirements, the analytical steps, and the results. These analyses are the technical basis of a system safety program. Although the guidance established by this document cannot replace human experience and judgement, it does provide a methodical approach to the identification of hazards and evaluation of risks to the system.

  7. Systems Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence; Leone, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A three-month study (February to April 2010) of the NASA Aviation Safety (AvSafe) program was conducted. This study comprised three components: (1) a statistical analysis of currently available civilian subsonic aircraft data from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) system to identify any significant or overlooked aviation safety issues; (2) a high-level qualitative identification of future safety risks, with an assessment of the potential impact of the NASA AvSafe research on the National Airspace System (NAS) based on these risks; and (3) a detailed, top-down analysis of the NASA AvSafe program using an established and peer-reviewed systems analysis methodology. The statistical analysis identified the top aviation "tall poles" based on NTSB accident and FAA incident data from 1997 to 2006. A separate examination of medical helicopter accidents in the United States was also conducted. Multiple external sources were used to develop a compilation of ten "tall poles" in future safety issues/risks. The top-down analysis of the AvSafe was conducted by using a modification of the Gibson methodology. Of the 17 challenging safety issues that were identified, 11 were directly addressed by the AvSafe program research portfolio.

  8. Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to develop and demonstrate technologies that contribute to a reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of 5 by the year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by the year 2022. Integrated safety analysis of day-to-day operations and risks within those operations will provide an understanding of the Aviation Safety Program portfolio. Safety benefits analyses are currently being conducted. Preliminary results for the Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) and Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) projects of the AvSP have been completed by the Logistics Management Institute under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center. These analyses include both a reliability analysis and a computer simulation model. The integrated safety analysis method comprises two principal components: a reliability model and a simulation model. In the reliability model, the results indicate how different technologies and systems will perform in normal, degraded, and failed modes of operation. In the simulation, an operational scenario is modeled. The primary purpose of the SVS project is to improve safety by providing visual-flightlike situation awareness during instrument conditions. The current analyses are an estimate of the benefits of SVS in avoiding controlled flight into terrain. The scenario modeled has an aircraft flying directly toward a terrain feature. When the flight crew determines that the aircraft is headed toward an obstruction, the aircraft executes a level turn at speed. The simulation is ended when the aircraft completes the turn.

  9. Westinghouse Hanford Company safety analysis reports and technical safety requirements upgrade program

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    During Fiscal Year 1992, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) separately transmitted the following US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for compliance: DOE 5480.21, ``Unreviewed Safety Questions,`` DOE 5480.22, ``Technical Safety Requirements,`` and DOE 5480.23, ``Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.`` WHC has proceeded with its impact assessment and implementation process for the Orders. The Orders are closely-related and contain some requirements that are either identical, similar, or logically-related. Consequently, WHC has developed a strategy calling for an integrated implementation of the three Orders. The strategy is comprised of three primary objectives, namely: Obtain DOE approval of a single list of DOE-owned and WHC-managed Nuclear Facilities, Establish and/or upgrade the ``Safety Basis`` for each Nuclear Facility, and Establish a functional Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process to govern the management and preservation of the Safety Basis for each Nuclear Facility. WHC has developed policy-revision and facility-specific implementation plans to accomplish near-term tasks associated with the above strategic objectives. This plan, which as originally submitted in August 1993 and approved, provided an interpretation of the new DOE Nuclear Facility definition and an initial list of WHC-managed Nuclear Facilities. For each current existing Nuclear Facility, existing Safety Basis documents are identified and the plan/status is provided for the ISB. Plans for upgrading SARs and developing TSRs will be provided after issuance of the corresponding Rules.

  10. Galileo and Ulysses missions safety analysis and launch readiness status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. Joseph; Turi, James A.

    1989-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft, which will release probes to explore the Jupiter system, was launched in October, 1989 as the payload on STS-34, and the Ulysses spacecraft, which will fly by Jupiter en route to a polar orbit of the sun, is presently entering system-test activity in preparation for an October, 1990 launch. This paper reviews the Galileo and Ulysses mission objectives and design approaches and presents details of the missions' safety analysis. The processes used to develop the safety analysis are described and the results of safety tests are presented.

  11. Recent Progresses in Nanobiosensing for Food Safety Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Huang, Huifen; Zhu, Fang; Lin, Qinlu; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    With increasing adulteration, food safety analysis has become an important research field. Nanomaterials-based biosensing holds great potential in designing highly sensitive and selective detection strategies necessary for food safety analysis. This review summarizes various function types of nanomaterials, the methods of functionalization of nanomaterials, and recent (2014–present) progress in the design and development of nanobiosensing for the detection of food contaminants including pathogens, toxins, pesticides, antibiotics, metal contaminants, and other analytes, which are sub-classified according to various recognition methods of each analyte. The existing shortcomings and future perspectives of the rapidly growing field of nanobiosensing addressing food safety issues are also discussed briefly. PMID:27447636

  12. Safety analysis approaches or mixed transuranic waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, J. C.; Dwight, C. C.; Forrester, R. J.; Lehto, M. A.; Pan, Y. C.

    1999-02-10

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed a survey of assumptions and techniques used for safety analyses at seven sites that handle or store mixed transuranic (TRU) waste operated by contractors for the US Department of Energy (DOE). While approaches to estimating on-site and off-site consequences of hypothetical accidents differ, there are commonalities in all of the safety studies. This paper identifies key parameters and methods used to estimate the radiological consequences associated with release of waste forms under abnormal conditions. Specific facilities are identified by letters with their safety studies listed in a bibliography rather than as specific references so that similarities and differences are emphasized in a nonjudgmental manner. References are provided for specific parameters used to project consequences associated with compromise of barriers and dispersion of potentially hazardous materials. For all of the accidents and sites, estimated dose commitments are well below guidelines even using highly conservative assumptions. Some of the studies quantified the airborne concentrations of toxic materials; this paper only addresses these analyses briefly, as an entire paper could be dedicated to this subject.

  13. Demonstration of a Safety Analysis on a Complex System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Alfaro, Liliana; Alvarado, Christine; Brown, Molly; Hunt, Earl B.; Jaffe, Matt; Joslyn, Susan; Pinnell, Denise; Reese, Jon; Samarziya, Jeffrey; Sandys, Sean; Shaw, Alan; Zabinsky, Zelda

    1997-01-01

    For the past 17 years, Professor Leveson and her graduate students have been developing a theoretical foundation for safety in complex systems and building a methodology upon that foundation. The methodology includes special management structures and procedures, system hazard analyses, software hazard analysis, requirements modeling and analysis for completeness and safety, special software design techniques including the design of human-machine interaction, verification, operational feedback, and change analysis. The Safeware methodology is based on system safety techniques that are extended to deal with software and human error. Automation is used to enhance our ability to cope with complex systems. Identification, classification, and evaluation of hazards is done using modeling and analysis. To be effective, the models and analysis tools must consider the hardware, software, and human components in these systems. They also need to include a variety of analysis techniques and orthogonal approaches: There exists no single safety analysis or evaluation technique that can handle all aspects of complex systems. Applying only one or two may make us feel satisfied, but will produce limited results. We report here on a demonstration, performed as part of a contract with NASA Langley Research Center, of the Safeware methodology on the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) portion of the air traffic control (ATC) system and procedures currently employed at the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach CONtrol). CTAS is an automated system to assist controllers in handling arrival traffic in the DFW area. Safety is a system property, not a component property, so our safety analysis considers the entire system and not simply the automated components. Because safety analysis of a complex system is an interdisciplinary effort, our team included system engineers, software engineers, human factors experts, and cognitive psychologists.

  14. Demonstration of a Safety Analysis on a Complex System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Alfaro, Liliana; Alvarado, Christine; Brown, Molly; Hunt, Earl B.; Jaffe, Matt; Joslyn, Susan; Pinnell, Denise; Reese, Jon; Samarziya, Jeffrey; hide

    1997-01-01

    For the past 17 years, Professor Leveson and her graduate students have been developing a theoretical foundation for safety in complex systems and building a methodology upon that foundation. The methodology includes special management structures and procedures, system hazard analyses, software hazard analysis, requirements modeling and analysis for completeness and safety, special software design techniques including the design of human-machine interaction, verification, operational feedback, and change analysis. The Safeware methodology is based on system safety techniques that are extended to deal with software and human error. Automation is used to enhance our ability to cope with complex systems. Identification, classification, and evaluation of hazards is done using modeling and analysis. To be effective, the models and analysis tools must consider the hardware, software, and human components in these systems. They also need to include a variety of analysis techniques and orthogonal approaches: There exists no single safety analysis or evaluation technique that can handle all aspects of complex systems. Applying only one or two may make us feel satisfied, but will produce limited results. We report here on a demonstration, performed as part of a contract with NASA Langley Research Center, of the Safeware methodology on the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) portion of the air traffic control (ATC) system and procedures currently employed at the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach CONtrol). CTAS is an automated system to assist controllers in handling arrival traffic in the DFW area. Safety is a system property, not a component property, so our safety analysis considers the entire system and not simply the automated components. Because safety analysis of a complex system is an interdisciplinary effort, our team included system engineers, software engineers, human factors experts, and cognitive psychologists.

  15. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  16. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  17. Lessons learned from commercial reactor safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragola, J. R.

    1992-07-01

    As design concepts involving nuclear power are developed for space missions, prudence requires a consideration of the historical perspective provided by the commerical nuclear power generating station industry. This would allow the aerospace industry to take advantage of relevant historical experience, drawing from the best features and avoiding the pitfalls which appear to have stifled the growth of the commercial nuclear industry as a whole despite its comparatively admirable safety performance record. This paper provides some history of the development of commercial nuclear plant designs, and discusses the lessons which have been learned and how they apply to the space nuclear propulsion situation.

  18. Upgrading the safety toolkit: Initiatives of the accident analysis subgroup

    SciTech Connect

    O'Kula, K.R.; Chung, D.Y.

    1999-07-01

    Since its inception, the Accident Analysis Subgroup (AAS) of the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG) has been a leading organization promoting development and application of appropriate methodologies for safety analysis of US Department of Energy (DOE) installations. The AAS, one of seven chartered by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group, has performed an oversight function and provided direction to several technical groups. These efforts have been instrumental toward formal evaluation of computer models, improving the pedigree on high-use computer models, and development of the user-friendly Accident Analysis Guidebook (AAG). All of these improvements have improved the analytical toolkit for best complying with DOE orders and standards shaping safety analysis reports (SARs) and related documentation. Major support for these objectives has been through DOE/DP-45.

  19. Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis of Synthetic Vision Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program is to develop and demonstrate technologies that could help reduce the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of 5 by the year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by the year 2022. Integrated safety analysis of day-to-day operations and risks within those operations will provide an understanding of the Aviation Safety Program portfolio beyond what is now available. Synthetic vision is the first of the Aviation Safety Program technologies that has been analyzed by the Logistics Management Institute under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center. These synthetic vision analyses include both a reliability analysis and a computer simulation model.

  20. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  1. Market analysis of biosensors for food safety.

    PubMed

    Alocilja, Evangelyn C; Radke, Stephen M

    2003-05-01

    This paper is presented as an overview of the pathogen detection industry. The review includes pathogen detection markets and their prospects for the future. Potential markets include the medical, military, food, and environmental industries. Those industries combined have a market size of $563 million for pathogen detecting biosensors and are expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate of 4.5%. The food market is further segmented into different food product industries. The overall food-pathogen testing market is expected to grow to $192 million and 34 million tests by 2005. The trend in pathogen testing emphasizes the need to commercialize biosensors for the food safety industry as legislation creates new standards for microbial monitoring. With quicker detection time and reusable features, biosensors will be important to those interested in real time diagnostics of disease causing pathogens. As the world becomes more concerned with safe food and water supply, the demand for rapid detecting biosensors will only increase.

  2. Software Safety Analysis of a Flight Guidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor); Tribble, Alan C.; Miller, Steven P.; Lempia, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes the safety analysis performed on a Flight Guidance System (FGS) requirements model. In particular, the safety properties desired of the FGS model are identified and the presence of the safety properties in the model is formally verified. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the entire project, while Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of the problem domain, the nature of accidents, model based development, and the four-variable model. Chapter 3 outlines the approach. Chapter 4 presents the results of the traditional safety analysis techniques and illustrates how the hazardous conditions associated with the system trace into specific safety properties. Chapter 5 presents the results of the formal methods analysis technique model checking that was used to verify the presence of the safety properties in the requirements model. Finally, Chapter 6 summarizes the main conclusions of the study, first and foremost that model checking is a very effective verification technique to use on discrete models with reasonable state spaces. Additional supporting details are provided in the appendices.

  3. Hybrid Safety Analysis Using Functional and Risk Decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER,J. ARLIN; JOHNSON,ALICE J.; WERNER,PAUL W.

    2000-07-15

    Safety analysis of complex systems depends on decomposing the systems into manageable subsystems, from which analysis can be rolled back up to the system level. The authors have found that there is no single best way to decompose; in fact hybrid combinations of decompositions are generally necessary to achieve optimum results. They are currently using two backbone coordinated decompositions--functional and risk, supplemented by other types, such as organizational. An objective is to derive metrics that can be used to efficiently and accurately aggregate information through analysis, to contribute toward assessing system safety, and to contribute information necessary for defensible decisions.

  4. Methodological considerations with data uncertainty in road safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Schlögl, Matthias; Stütz, Rainer

    2017-02-16

    The analysis of potential influencing factors that affect the likelihood of road accident occurrence has been of major interest for safety researchers throughout the recent decades. Even though steady methodological progresses were made over the years, several impediments pertaining to the statistical analysis of crash data remain. While issues related to methodological approaches have been subject to constructive discussion, uncertainties inherent to the most fundamental part of any analysis have been widely neglected: data. This paper scrutinizes data from various sources that are commonly used in road safety studies with respect to their actual suitability for applications in this area. Issues related to spatial and temporal aspects of data uncertainty are pointed out and their implications for road safety analysis are discussed in detail. These general methodological considerations are exemplary illustrated with data from Austria, providing suggestions and methods how to overcome these obstacles. Considering these aspects is of major importance for expediting further advances in road safety data analysis and thus for increasing road safety.

  5. Safety analysis and review system (SARS) assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.T.

    1981-03-01

    Under DOE Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System for DOE Operations, safety analyses are required for DOE projects in order to ensure that: (1) potential hazards are systematically identified; (2) potential impacts are analyzed; (3) reasonable measures have been taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate the hazards; and (4) there is documented management authorization of the DOE operation based on an objective assessment of the adequacy of the safety analysis. This report is intended to provide the DOE Office of Plans and Technology Assessment (OPTA) with an independent evaluation of the adequacy of the ongoing safety analysis effort. As part of this effort, a number of site visits and interviews were conducted, and FE SARS documents were reviewed. The latter included SARS Implementation Plans for a number of FE field offices, as well as safety analysis reports completed for certain FE operations. This report summarizes SARS related efforts at the DOE field offices visited and evaluates the extent to which they fulfill the requirements of DOE 5481.1.

  6. System safety analysis of an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Bartos, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Analysis of the safety of operating and maintaining the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) II in a hazardous environment at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was completed. The SWAMI II is a version of a commercial robot, the HelpMate{trademark} robot produced by the Transitions Research Corporation, which is being updated to incorporate the systems required for inspecting mixed toxic chemical and radioactive waste drums at the FEMP. It also has modified obstacle detection and collision avoidance subsystems. The robot will autonomously travel down the aisles in storage warehouses to record images of containers and collect other data which are transmitted to an inspector at a remote computer terminal. A previous study showed the SWAMI II has economic feasibility. The SWAMI II will more accurately locate radioactive contamination than human inspectors. This thesis includes a System Safety Hazard Analysis and a quantitative Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). The objectives of the analyses are to prevent potentially serious events and to derive a comprehensive set of safety requirements from which the safety of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots can be evaluated. The Computer-Aided Fault Tree Analysis (CAFTA{copyright}) software is utilized for the FTA. The FTA shows that more than 99% of the safety risk occurs during maintenance, and that when the derived safety requirements are implemented the rate of serious events is reduced to below one event per million operating hours. Training and procedures in SWAMI II operation and maintenance provide an added safety margin. This study will promote the safe use of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots in the emerging technology of mobile robotic inspection.

  7. Lithium-thionyl chloride cell system safety hazard analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dampier, F. W.

    1985-03-01

    This system safety analysis for the lithium thionyl chloride cell is a critical review of the technical literature pertaining to cell safety and draws conclusions and makes recommendations based on this data. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions occurring during discharge are discussed with particular attention given to unstable SOCl2 reduction intermediates. Potentially hazardous reactions between the various cell components and discharge products or impurities that could occur during electrical or thermal abuse are described and the most hazardous conditions and reactions identified. Design factors influencing the safety of Li/SOCl2 cells, shipping and disposal methods and the toxicity of Li/SOCl2 battery components are additional safety issues that are also addressed.

  8. Factor analysis of nursing students' perception of patient safety education.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the factor structure of the Health Care Professionals Patient Safety Assessment Curriculum Survey (HPPSACS) when completed by a group of nursing students from one University in the UK. The quality, content and delivery of nursing education can have a significant impact on the future students' safety behaviours in clinical settings. The Health Care Professionals Patient Safety Assessment Curriculum Survey HPPSACS has been developed in the US to establish undergraduate nursing students' perceived awareness, skills, and attitudes toward patient safety education. The instrument has not been reported to be used elsewhere; therefore, some psychometric properties remain untested. Pre-registration nursing students (n=272) from three campuses of a university in East of England completed the HPPSACS in 2012. Principal component analysis was conducted to explore the factors emerging from the students' responses. 222 students (82%) returned the questionnaires. Constraining data to a 4-factor solution explained 52% of the variance. Factors identified were: "Willingness to disclose errors", "Recognition and management of medical errors", "The Perceived interprofessional context of patient safety" and "The perceived support and understanding for improving patient safety". The overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.64, indicating moderate internal consistency of the instrument. Some demographical and descriptive questions on the HPPSACS instrument were modified to accommodate the participants' educational context. However, all items in the HPPSACS which were included in the factor analysis remain identical to the original tool. The study offers empirical findings of how patient safety education is contextualised in the undergraduate, pre-registration nursing curriculum. Further research is required to refine and improve the overall reliability of the Health Care Professionals Patient Safety Assessment Curriculum Survey (HPPSACS' instrument

  9. A windows-based job safety analysis program for mine safety management

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, P.R.; Poukhovski, D.A.; Bise, C.J.

    1996-12-31

    Job Safety Analysis (JSA) is a process used to determine hazards of and safe procedures for each step of a job. With JSA, the most important steps needed to properly perform a job are first identified. Thus, a specific job or work assignment can be separated into a series of relatively simple steps; the hazards associated with each step are then identified. Finally, solutions can be developed to control each hazard. A Windows-based Job Safety Analysis program (WIN-JSA) was developed at Penn State to assist the safety officials at a mine location in creating new JSAs and regularly reviewing the existing JSAs. The program is an integrated collection of four databases that contain information regarding jobs, job steps, hazards associated with each job step, and recommendations for overcoming the hazards, respectively. This Windows-based personal-computer (PC) program allows the user to access these databases to build a new job configuration (essentially, a new JSA), modify an existing JSA, and print hard copies. It is designed to be used by safety and training supervisors who possess little or no previous computer experience. Therefore, the screen views are designed to be self-explanatory, and the print-outs simulate the commonly used JSA format. Overall, the PC-based approach of creating and maintaining JSAs provides flexibility, reduces paperwork, and can be successfully integrated into existing JSA programs to increase their effectiveness.

  10. The geography of patient safety: a topical analysis of sterility.

    PubMed

    Mesman, Jessica

    2009-12-01

    Many studies on patient safety are geared towards prevention of adverse events by eliminating causes of error. In this article, I argue that patient safety research needs to widen its analytical scope and include causes of strength as well. This change of focus enables me to ask other questions, like why don't things go wrong more often? Or, what is the significance of time and space for patient safety? The focal point of this article is on the spatial dimension of patient safety. To gain insight into the 'geography' of patient safety and perform a topical analysis, I will focus on one specific kind of space (sterile space), one specific medical procedure (insertion of an intravenous line) and one specific medical ward (neonatology). Based on ethnographic data from research in the Netherlands, I demonstrate how spatial arrangements produce sterility and how sterility work produces spatial orders at the same time. Detailed analysis shows how a sterile line insertion involves the convergence of spatially distributed resources, relocations of the field of activity, an assemblage of an infrastructure of attention, a specific compositional order of materials, and the scaling down of one's degree of mobility. Sterility, I will argue, turns out to be a product of spatial orderings. Simultaneously, sterility work generates particular spatial orders, like open and restricted areas, by producing buffers and boundaries. However, the spatial order of sterility intersects with the spatial order of other lines of activity. Insight into the normative structure of these co-existing spatial orders turns out to be crucial for patient safety. By analyzing processes of spatial fine-tuning in everyday practice, it becomes possible to identify spatial competences and circumstances that enable staff members to provide safe health care. As such, a topical analysis offers an alternative perspective of patient safety, one that takes into account its spatial dimension.

  11. An Empirical Analysis of Human Performance and Nuclear Safety Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Joe; Larry G. Blackwood

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis, which was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was to test whether an empirical connection exists between human performance and nuclear power plant safety culture. This was accomplished through analyzing the relationship between a measure of human performance and a plant’s Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE). SCWE is an important component of safety culture the NRC has developed, but it is not synonymous with it. SCWE is an environment in which employees are encouraged to raise safety concerns both to their own management and to the NRC without fear of harassment, intimidation, retaliation, or discrimination. Because the relationship between human performance and allegations is intuitively reciprocal and both relationship directions need exploration, two series of analyses were performed. First, human performance data could be indicative of safety culture, so regression analyses were performed using human performance data to predict SCWE. It also is likely that safety culture contributes to human performance issues at a plant, so a second set of regressions were performed using allegations to predict HFIS results.

  12. Safety analysis of irradiated nuclear fuel transportation container

    SciTech Connect

    Uspuras, E.; Rimkevicius, S.

    2007-07-01

    Ignalina NPP comprises two Units with RBMK-1500 reactors. After the Unit 1 of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant was shut down in 2004, approximately 1000 fuel assemblies from Unit were available for further reuse in Unit 2. The fuel-transportation container, vehicle, protection shaft and other necessary equipment were designed in order to implement the process for on-site transportation of Unit 1 fuel for reuse in the Unit 2. The Safety Analysis Report (SAR) was developed to demonstrate that the proposed set of equipment performs all functions and assures the required level of safety for both normal operation and accident conditions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the content and main results of SAR, focusing attention on the container used to transport spent fuel assemblies from Unit I on Unit 2. In the SAR, the structural integrity, thermal, radiological and nuclear safety calculations are performed to assess the acceptance of the proposed set of equipment. The safety analysis demonstrated that the proposed nuclear fuel transportation container and other equipment are in compliance with functional, design and regulatory requirements and assure the required safety level. (authors)

  13. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  14. Worker Safety and Health and Nuclear Safety Quarterly Performance Analysis (January - March 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, C E

    2009-10-07

    The DOE Office of Enforcement expects LLNL to 'implement comprehensive management and independent assessments that are effective in identifying deficiencies and broader problems in safety and security programs, as well as opportunities for continuous improvement within the organization' and to 'regularly perform assessments to evaluate implementation of the contractor's processes for screening and internal reporting.' LLNL has a self-assessment program, described in ES&H Manual Document 4.1, that includes line, management and independent assessments. LLNL also has in place a process to identify and report deficiencies of nuclear, worker safety and health and security requirements. In addition, the DOE Office of Enforcement expects LLNL to evaluate 'issues management databases to identify adverse trends, dominant problem areas, and potential repetitive events or conditions' (page 14, DOE Enforcement Process Overview, December 2007). LLNL requires that all worker safety and health and nuclear safety noncompliances be tracked as 'deficiencies' in the LLNL Issues Tracking System (ITS). Data from the ITS are analyzed for worker safety and health (WSH) and nuclear safety noncompliances that may meet the threshold for reporting to the DOE Noncompliance Tracking System (NTS). This report meets the expectations defined by the DOE Office of Enforcement to review the assessments conducted by LLNL, analyze the issues and noncompliances found in these assessments, and evaluate the data in the ITS database to identify adverse trends, dominant problem areas, and potential repetitive events or conditions. The report attempts to answer three questions: (1) Is LLNL evaluating its programs and state of compliance? (2) What is LLNL finding? (3) Is LLNL appropriately managing what it finds? The analysis in this report focuses on data from the first quarter of 2008 (January through March). This quarter is analyzed within the context of information identified in previous quarters to

  15. Safety Analysis for Packaging Steel Banded Wooden Shipping Containers

    SciTech Connect

    FERRELL, P.C.

    2000-12-05

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the steel banded wooden shipping containers, which are certified as Type AF packagings. The authorized payload for these containers is unirradiated, slightly enriched, uranium ingots, billets, extrusions, and scrap materials. The amount of uranium in the containers will not exceed the LSA-II material requirements as defined in 49 CFR 173.403.

  16. 10 CFR 72.70 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.70 Section 72.70 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  17. Implementation of the Generic Safety Analysis Report - Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-02

    The Savannah River Site has completed the development, review and approval process for the Generic Safety Analysis Report (GSAR) and implemented this information in facility SARs and BIOs. This includes the yearly revision of the GSAR and the facility-specific SARs. The process has provided us with several lessons learned.

  18. Propofol sedation Quality and safety. Failure mode and effects analysis.

    PubMed

    Huergo Fernández, Adrián; Amor Martín, Pedro; Fernández Cadenas, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    Sedation is a key component of digestive endoscopy. While ensuring procedural safety and quality represents a primary goal, a detailed assessment of patient-focused risks and improvements is lacking on most occasions. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is a useful tool in this context as a means of raising barriers and defense mechanisms to prevent adverse events from developing.

  19. Software safety analysis activities during software development phases of the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Hui-Yin; Sherif, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the MLS software safety analysis activities and documents the SSA results. The scope of this software safety effort is consistent with the MLS system safety definition and is concentrated on the software faults and hazards that may have impact on the personnel safety and the environment safety.

  20. [Safety analysis for astronaut and the personal protective equipment].

    PubMed

    Chen, J D; Sun, J B; Shi, H P; Sun, H L

    1999-12-01

    Objective. To analyze and study astronaut and his personal equipment safety. Method. Three of the most widely used approaches, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA) and system hazards analysis (SHA) were used. Result. It was demonstrated that astronaut and the personal equipment are subjected to various potential hazards, such as human errors, astronaut illness, fire or space suit emergency decompression, etc. Their causes, mechanisms, possible effects and criticality of some critical potential hazards were analyzed and identified in more details with considerations of the historic accidents of manned spaceflight. And the compensating provisions and preventive measures for each hazard were discussed. Conclusion. The analysis study may be helpful in enhancing the safety of the astronaut and its personal protective equipment.

  1. Fuel Storage Facility Final Safety Analysis Report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Linderoth, C.E.

    1984-03-01

    The Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) is an integral part of the Fast Flux Test Facility. Its purpose is to provide long-term storage (20-year design life) for spent fuel core elements used to provide the fast flux environment in FFTF, and for test fuel pins, components and subassemblies that have been irradiated in the fast flux environment. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and its supporting documentation provides a complete description and safety evaluation of the site, the plant design, operations, and potential accidents.

  2. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) multicanister overpack cask

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1997-07-14

    This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) documents the safety of shipments of irradiated fuel elements in the MUlticanister Overpack (MCO) and MCO Cask for a highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile package. This SARP evaluates the package during transfers of (1) water-filled MCOs from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and (2) sealed and cold vacuum dried MCOs from the CVDF in the 100 K Area to the Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area.

  3. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The purpose of this SAR Addendum is to incorporate plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. The Pu metal is packed in an inner container (designated the T-Ampoule) that replaces the PC-1 inner container. The documentation and results from analysis contained in this addendum demonstrate that the replacement of the PC-1 and associated packaging material with the T-Ampoule and associated packaging with the addition of the plutonium metal content are not significant with respect to the design, operating characteristics, or safe performance of the containment system and prevention of criticality when the package is subjected to the tests specified in 10 CFR 71.71, 71.73 and 71.74.

  4. Safety risk analysis of an innovative environmental technology.

    PubMed

    Parnell, G S; Frimpon, M; Barnes, J; Kloeber, J M; Deckro, R E; Jackson, J A

    2001-02-01

    The authors describe a decision and risk analysis performed for the cleanup of a large Department of Energy mixed-waste subsurface disposal area governed by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In a previous study, the authors worked with the site decision makers, state regulators, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regional regulators to develop a CERCLA-based multiobjective decision analysis value model and used the model to perform a screening analysis of 28 remedial alternatives. The analysis results identified an innovative technology, in situ vitrification, with high effectiveness versus cost. Since this technology had not been used on this scale before, the major uncertainties were contaminant migration and pressure buildup. Pressure buildup was a safety concern due to the potential risks to worker safety. With the help of environmental technology experts remedial alternative changes were identified to mitigate the concerns about contaminant migration and pressure buildup. The analysis results showed that the probability of an event with a risk to worker safety had been significantly reduced. Based on these results, site decision makers have refocused their test program to examine in situ vitrification and have continued the use of the CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology to analyze remedial alternatives.

  5. Computational Methods for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis in Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Rearden, B.T.

    1999-09-20

    Interest in the sensitivity methods that were developed and widely used in the 1970s (the FORSS methodology at ORNL among others) has increased recently as a result of potential use in the area of criticality safety data validation procedures to define computational bias, uncertainties and area(s) of applicability. Functional forms of the resulting sensitivity coefficients can be used as formal parameters in the determination of applicability of benchmark experiments to their corresponding industrial application areas. In order for these techniques to be generally useful to the criticality safety practitioner, the procedures governing their use had to be updated and simplified. This paper will describe the resulting sensitivity analysis tools that have been generated for potential use by the criticality safety community.

  6. Evolution of Safety Analysis to Support New Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrasher, Chard W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is currently developing the Ares I launch vehicle as a key component of the Constellation program which will provide safe and reliable transportation to the International Space Station, back to the moon, and later to Mars. The risks and costs of the Ares I must be significantly lowered, as compared to other manned launch vehicles, to enable the continuation of space exploration. It is essential that safety be significantly improved, and cost-effectively incorporated into the design process. This paper justifies early and effective safety analysis of complex space systems. Interactions and dependences between design, logistics, modeling, reliability, and safety engineers will be discussed to illustrate methods to lower cost, reduce design cycles and lessen the likelihood of catastrophic events.

  7. A content analysis of safety behaviors of television characters: implications for children's safety and injury.

    PubMed

    Potts, R; Runyan, D; Zerger, A; Marchetti, K

    1996-08-01

    Examined frequency and characteristics of safety behaviors in television programs popular with child audiences. A sample of 52 programs was coded for safety event location, demographic characteristics of safety models, social and physical contexts of safety events, and successful or unsuccessful outcomes of safety behaviors. Results indicate an overall rate of 13 safety behaviors per hour, with hour half of all safety behaviors located in commercial advertisements. Most safety behaviors were performed by made adult characters, had limited relevance for children, and were not associated with either positive or negative outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for observational learning of safety behaviors by child viewers.

  8. Style, content and format guide for writing safety analysis documents. Volume 1, Safety analysis reports for DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of Volume 1 of this 4-volume style guide is to furnish guidelines on writing and publishing Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for DOE nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. The scope of Volume 1 encompasses not only the general guidelines for writing and publishing, but also the prescribed topics/appendices contents along with examples from typical SARs for DOE nuclear facilities.

  9. Safety analysis of the advanced thermionic initiative reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsing H.; Klein, Andrew C.

    1995-01-01

    Previously, detailed analysis was conducted to assess the technology developed for the Advanced Thermionic Initiative reactor. This analysis included the development of an overall system design code capability and the improvement of analytical models necessary for the assessment of the use of single cell thermionic fuel elements in a low power space nuclear reactor. The present analysis extends this effort to assess the nuclear criticality safety of the ATI reactor for various different scenarios. The analysis discusses the efficacy of different methods of reactor control such as control rods, and control drums.

  10. A Tool for the Concise Analysis of Patient Safety Incidents.

    PubMed

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Hoffman, Carolyn; Popescu, Ioana; Ijagbemi, O Mayowa; Carson, Kathryn A

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety incidents, sometimes referred to as adverse events, incidents, or patient safety events, are too common an occurrence in health care. Most methods for incident analysis are time and labor intensive. Given the significant resource requirements of a root cause analysis, for example, there is a need for a more targeted and efficient method of analyzing a larger number of incidents. Although several concise incident analysis tools are in existence, there are no published studies regarding their usability or effectiveness. Building on previous efforts, a Concise Incident Analysis (CIA) methodology and tool were developed to facilitate analysis of no- or low-harm incidents. Staff from 11 hospitals in five countries-Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, India, and the United States-pilot tested the tool in two phases. The tool was evaluated and refined after each phase on the basis of user perceptions of usability and effectiveness. From September 2013 through January 2014, 52 patient safety incidents were analyzed. A broad variety of incident types were investigated, the most frequent being patient falls (25%). Incidents came from a variety of hospital work areas, the most frequent being from the medical ward (37%). Most incidents investigated resulted in temporary harm or no harm (94%). All or most sites found the tool "understandable" (100%), "easy to use" (89%), and "effective" (89%). Some 95% of participants planned to continue to use all or some parts of the tool after the pilot. Qualitative feedback suggested that the tool allowed analysis of incidents that were not currently being analyzed because of insufficient resources. The tool was described as simple to use, easy to document, and aligned with the flow of the incident analysis. A concise tool for the investigation of patient safety incidents with low or no harm was well accepted across a select group of hospitals from five countries.

  11. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  12. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  13. Ares I-X Range Safety Flight Envelope Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Olds, Aaron D.; Craig, Anthony S.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first test flight of NASA's Constellation Program's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle designed to provide manned access to low Earth orbit. As a one-time test flight, the Air Force's 45th Space Wing required a series of Range Safety analysis data products to be developed for the specified launch date and mission trajectory prior to granting flight approval on the Eastern Range. The range safety data package is required to ensure that the public, launch area, and launch complex personnel and resources are provided with an acceptable level of safety and that all aspects of prelaunch and launch operations adhere to applicable public laws. The analysis data products, defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710, Volume 2, consisted of a nominal trajectory, three sigma trajectory envelopes, stage impact footprints, acoustic intensity contours, trajectory turn angles resulting from potential vehicle malfunctions (including flight software failures), characterization of potential debris, and debris impact footprints. These data products were developed under the auspices of the Constellation's Program Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel and its Range Safety Trajectory Working Group with the intent of beginning the framework for the operational vehicle data products and providing programmatic review and oversight. A multi-center NASA team in conjunction with the 45th Space Wing, collaborated within the Trajectory Working Group forum to define the data product development processes, performed the analyses necessary to generate the data products, and performed independent verification and validation of the data products. This paper outlines the Range Safety data requirements and provides an overview of the processes established to develop both the data products and the individual analyses used to develop the data products, and it summarizes the results of the analyses required for the Ares I-X launch.

  14. Applicability of trends in nuclear safety analysis to space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    A survey is presented of some current trends in nuclear safety analysis that may be relevant to space nuclear power systems. This includes: lessons learned from operating power reactor safety and licensing; approaches to the safety design of advanced and novel reactors and facilities; the roles of risk assessment, extremely unlikely accidents, safety goals/targets; and risk-benefit analysis and communication.

  15. Safety of Workers in Indian Mines: Study, Analysis, and Prediction.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shikha; Chaudhari, Sharad

    2017-09-01

    The mining industry is known worldwide for its highly risky and hazardous working environment. Technological advancement in ore extraction techniques for proliferation of production levels has caused further concern for safety in this industry. Research so far in the area of safety has revealed that the majority of incidents in hazardous industry take place because of human error, the control of which would enhance safety levels in working sites to a considerable extent. The present work focuses upon the analysis of human factors such as unsafe acts, preconditions for unsafe acts, unsafe leadership, and organizational influences. A modified human factor analysis and classification system (HFACS) was adopted and an accident predictive fuzzy reasoning approach (FRA)-based system was developed to predict the likelihood of accidents for manganese mines in India, using analysis of factors such as age, experience of worker, shift of work, etc. The outcome of the analysis indicated that skill-based errors are most critical and require immediate attention for mitigation. The FRA-based accident prediction system developed gives an outcome as an indicative risk score associated with the identified accident-prone situation, based upon which a suitable plan for mitigation can be developed. Unsafe acts of the worker are the most critical human factors identified to be controlled on priority basis. A significant association of factors (namely age, experience of the worker, and shift of work) with unsafe acts performed by the operator is identified based upon which the FRA-based accident prediction model is proposed.

  16. Methods and criteria for safety analysis (FIN L2535)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    In response to the NRC request for a proposal dated October 20, 1992, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) submit this proposal to provide contractural assistance for FIN L2535, ``Methods and Criteria for Safety Analysis,`` as specified in the Statement of Work attached to the request for proposal. The Statement of Work involves development of safety analysis guidance for NRC licensees, arranging a workshop on this guidance, and revising NRC Regulatory Guide 3.52. This response to the request for proposal offers for consideration the following advantages of WSRC in performing this work: Experience, Qualification of Personnel and Resource Commitment, Technical and Organizational Approach, Mobilization Plan, Key Personnel and Resumes. In addition, attached are the following items required by the NRC: Schedule II, Savannah River Site - Job Cost Estimate, NRC Form 189, Project and Budget Proposal for NRC Work, page 1, NRC Form 189, Project and Budget Proposal for NRC Work, page 2, Project Description.

  17. Safety culture and accident analysis--a socio-management approach based on organizational safety social capital.

    PubMed

    Rao, Suman

    2007-04-11

    One of the biggest challenges for organizations in today's competitive business environment is to create and preserve a self-sustaining safety culture. Typically, the key drivers of safety culture in many organizations are regulation, audits, safety training, various types of employee exhortations to comply with safety norms, etc. However, less evident factors like networking relationships and social trust amongst employees, as also extended networking relationships and social trust of organizations with external stakeholders like government, suppliers, regulators, etc., which constitute the safety social capital in the Organization--seem to also influence the sustenance of organizational safety culture. Can erosion in safety social capital cause deterioration in safety culture and contribute to accidents? If so, how does it contribute? As existing accident analysis models do not provide answers to these questions, CAMSoC (Curtailing Accidents by Managing Social Capital), an accident analysis model, is proposed. As an illustration, five accidents: Bhopal (India), Hyatt Regency (USA), Tenerife (Canary Islands), Westray (Canada) and Exxon Valdez (USA) have been analyzed using CAMSoC. This limited cross-industry analysis provides two key socio-management insights: the biggest source of motivation that causes deviant behavior leading to accidents is 'Faulty Value Systems'. The second biggest source is 'Enforceable Trust'. From a management control perspective, deterioration in safety culture and resultant accidents is more due to the 'action controls' rather than explicit 'cultural controls'. Future research directions to enhance the model's utility through layering are addressed briefly.

  18. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    SciTech Connect

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  19. Analysis Techniques for Airborne Laser Range Safety Evaluations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    Subtitle) $- TYPE OP "EPORT 6 PERIOD COVEMEb Final ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES FOR AIRBORNE LASER RANGE SAFETY EVALUATIONS 6, PERFORMING ORO . REPORT NUMBER 7...the total energy available will pass through various aperture sizes (i.e., 8-cm entrance aperture optics). One approximation is the range equation...Q a Total available energy out of the laser 11 - Radiant energy RELATIVE RADIANT ENERGY 1.0 ".,, I• .,•., -0.5 e20 . BEAM • DIAMETER - Figure 3. A

  20. Safety Analysis of Heterogeneous-Multiprocessor Control System Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California LD 00 N I DTIC G OE ECTE THESIS SAFETY ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENEOUS-MULTPROCESSOR CONTROL SYSTEM SOFTWARE...NAMEOFMONIURING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate School (If Applicable) Naval Postgraduae- -- School 37 _ • 6c- ADDRESS (city, state, and ZIP code) 7b. ADDRESS...partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL December, 1990

  1. Tiotropium formulations and safety: a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cazzola, Mario; Calzetta, Luigino; Rogliani, Paola; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Tiotropium is now delivered via two different inhaler devices: the original Handihaler 18 μg once daily, which uses a powder formulation; and the newer Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) 5 μg once daily. It has been questioned whether the two devices can be assumed to have the same safety profile, although the TIOSPIR trial showed that tiotropium when administered via Respimat SMI 5 μg is not less safe than Handihaler 18 μg. Therefore, we have carried out a safety evaluation of tiotropium Handihaler 18 µg versus tiotropium Respimat SMI 5 µg and 2.5 µg, via systematic review and network meta-analysis of the currently available clinical evidence. The results of our meta-analysis with an extremely large number of patients analysed demonstrate that the safety profile of tiotropium HandiHaler is generally superior to that of tiotropium Respimat SMI, although no statistical difference was detected between these two devices. However, the SUCRA analysis favoured tiotropium Respimat SMI with regards to serious adverse events (AEs). We do not believe that using Respimat SMI rather that HandiHaler exposes patients to higher risks of real AEs. Rather, we believe that there may be a different cardiovascular (CV) response to muscarinic receptors blockage in individual patients. Therefore, it will be essential to make all possible efforts to proactively identify patients at increased risk of CV AEs when treated with tiotropium or another antimuscarinic drug. PMID:28203364

  2. Safety analysis of urban arterials at the meso level.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Wang, Xuesong

    2017-11-01

    Urban arterials form the main structure of street networks. They typically have multiple lanes, high traffic volume, and high crash frequency. Classical crash prediction models investigate the relationship between arterial characteristics and traffic safety by treating road segments and intersections as isolated units. This micro-level analysis does not work when examining urban arterial crashes because signal spacing is typically short for urban arterials, and there are interactions between intersections and road segments that classical models do not accommodate. Signal spacing also has safety effects on both intersections and road segments that classical models cannot fully account for because they allocate crashes separately to intersections and road segments. In addition, classical models do not consider the impact on arterial safety of the immediately surrounding street network pattern. This study proposes a new modeling methodology that will offer an integrated treatment of intersections and road segments by combining signalized intersections and their adjacent road segments into a single unit based on road geometric design characteristics and operational conditions. These are called meso-level units because they offer an analytical approach between micro and macro. The safety effects of signal spacing and street network pattern were estimated for this study based on 118 meso-level units obtained from 21 urban arterials in Shanghai, and were examined using CAR (conditional auto regressive) models that corrected for spatial correlation among the units within individual arterials. Results showed shorter arterial signal spacing was associated with higher total and PDO (property damage only) crashes, while arterials with a greater number of parallel roads were associated with lower total, PDO, and injury crashes. The findings from this study can be used in the traffic safety planning, design, and management of urban arterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. An Inventory and Safety Stock Analysis of Air Force Medical Service Pharmaceuticals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    An Inventory and Safety Stock Analysis of Air Force Medical Service Pharmaceuticals THESIS Blake...Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-133 An Inventory and Safety Stock Analysis of Air Force Medical...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-133 AN INVENTORY AND SAFETY STOCK ANALYSIS OF AIR FORCE MEDICAL

  4. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction AGENCY: Nuclear... subsection to NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power..., Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants:...

  5. Thermohydraulic and Safety Analysis for CARR Under Station Blackout Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Wenxi Tian; Suizheng Qiu; Guanghui Su; Dounan Jia; Xingmin Liu - China Institute of Atomic Energy

    2006-07-01

    A thermohydraulic and safety analysis code (TSACC) has been developed using Fortran 90 language to evaluate the transient thermohydraulic behaviors and safety characteristics of the China Advanced Research Reactor(CARR) under Station Blackout Accident(SBA). For the development of TSACC, a series of corresponding mathematical and physical models were considered. Point reactor neutron kinetics model was adopted for solving reactor power. All possible flow and heat transfer conditions under station blackout accident were considered and the optional models were supplied. The usual Finite Difference Method (FDM) was abandoned and a new model was adopted to evaluate the temperature field of core plate type fuel element. A new simple and convenient equation was proposed for the resolution of the transient behaviors of the main pump instead of the complicated four-quadrant model. Gear method and Adams method were adopted alternately for a better solution to the stiff differential equations describing the dynamic behaviors of the CARR. The computational result of TSACC showed the enough safety margin of CARR under SBA. For the purpose of Verification and Validation (V and V), the simulated results of TSACC were compared with those of Relap5/Mdo3. The V and V result indicated a good agreement between the results by the two codes. Because of the adoption of modular programming techniques, this analysis code is expected to be applied to other reactors by easily modifying the corresponding function modules. (authors)

  6. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Allen, P.M.; Gouge, A.P.

    1991-07-01

    The nev HB-Line, located on the fifth and sixth levels of Building 221-H, is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The nev HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, the Neptunium Oxide Facility, and the Plutonium Oxide Facility. There are three separate safety analyses for the nev HB-Line, one for each of the three facilities. These are issued as supplements to the 200-Area Safety Analysis (DPSTSA-200-10). These supplements are numbered as Sup 2A, Scrap Recovery Facility, Sup 2B, Neptunium Oxide Facility, Sup 2C, Plutonium Oxide Facility. The subject of this safety analysis, the, Plutonium Oxide Facility, will convert nitrate solutions of {sup 238}Pu to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) powder. All these new facilities incorporate improvements in: (1) engineered barriers to contain contamination, (2) barriers to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  7. Risk assessment and its application to flight safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keese, D.L.; Barton, W.R.

    1989-12-01

    Potentially hazardous test activities have historically been a part of Sandia National Labs mission to design, develop, and test new weapons systems. These test activities include high speed air drops for parachute development, sled tests for component and system level studies, multiple stage rocket experiments, and artillery firings of various projectiles. Due to the nature of Sandia's test programs, the risk associated with these activities can never be totally eliminated. However, a consistent set of policies should be available to provide guidance into the level of risk that is acceptable in these areas. This report presents a general set of guidelines for addressing safety issues related to rocket flight operations at Sandia National Laboratories. Even though the majority of this report deals primarily with rocket flight safety, these same principles could be applied to other hazardous test activities. The basic concepts of risk analysis have a wide range of applications into many of Sandia's current operations. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 3: Reactor system preliminary nuclear safety analysis. Part 3: Nuclear Safety Analysis Document (NSAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear safety analysis as applied to a space base mission is presented. The nuclear safety analysis document summarizes the mission and the credible accidents/events which may lead to nuclear hazards to the general public. The radiological effects and associated consequences of the hazards are discussed in detail. The probability of occurrence is combined with the potential number of individuals exposed to or above guideline values to provide a measure of accident and total mission risk. The overall mission risk has been determined to be low with the potential exposure to or above 25 rem limited to less than 4 individuals per every 1000 missions performed. No radiological risk to the general public occurs during the prelaunch phase at KSC. The most significant risks occur from prolonged exposure to reactor debris following land impact generally associated with the disposal phase of the mission where fission product inventories can be high.

  9. System safety analysis of well-control equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.H.; Roche, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    In the wake of recent disasters in the oil and gas E and P and petrochemical industries, the importance of system safety analysis is becoming recognized. Reliability assessment techniques, which were developed in the nuclear-power-generation and defense industries, are potentially valuable tools for engineers in the offshore oil and gas business. BOP's and their control systems used on offshore rigs are typically made up of several subsystems. Hydraulic, pneumatic, and electronic modules are interfaced to provide functional control and monitoring of the mechanical BOP's and valves. Two techniques are used for reliability analysis of a blowout preventer (BOP) and a hydraulic control system. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) examines each part and the consequences of its malfunction. Fault tree analysis (FTA) traces undesired events to their causes. Reliability calculations and data sources are addressed.

  10. Linear discriminant functions to improve the glaucoma probability score analysis to detect glaucomatous optic nerve heads: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Iester, Michele; Oddone, Francesco; Prato, Mirko; Centofanti, Marco; Fogagnolo, Paolo; Rossetti, Luca; Vaccarezza, Valeria; Manni, Gianluca; Ferreras, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to create a linear discriminant function (LDF) formula by using the new Glaucoma Probability Score (GPS) global and sectorial optic nerve head parameters measured by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 3 to improve the GPS diagnostic capacity to discriminate between healthy and glaucomatous eyes. This is a multicenter cross-sectional study. To calculate the LDF formula, 137 normal individuals and 96 glaucomatous patients were selected. Another independent sample of 60 healthy and 69 glaucomatous eyes was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the LDF formulas. All patients underwent a full eye examination, standard achromatic perimetry by using Humphrey Field Analyzer, and imaging with Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 3. Glaucoma was defined on the basis of SITA-24-2 visual field loss (pattern standard deviation P<5% and glaucoma Hemifield test outside normal limits). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curves and sensitivity and specificity for different LDFs were analyzed as measures of diagnostic accuracy. The analysis was repeated after stratification for optic disc size and glaucoma stage. Two LDF formulas improved GPS algorithm results. At fixed specificities of 85% and 95%, the sensitivity values were 79.7% and 71%, respectively, for the GPS-only LDF, which used only the so-called GPS parameters, whereas the values were 85.5% and 79.7%, respectively, for the GPS-RA LDF, which used sectorial rim area parameters as well. When the so-called GPS parameters were used in an LDF formula, its diagnostic capacity slightly improved; however, the diagnostic performances of the GPS LDF, which used sectorial rim area parameters as well, were better.

  11. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  12. Safety analysis of contained low-hazard biotechnology applications.

    PubMed

    Pettauer, D; Käppeli, O; van den Eede, G

    1998-06-01

    A technical safety analysis has been performed on a containment-level-2 pilot plant in order to assess an upgrading of the existing facility, which should comply with good manufacturing practices. The results were obtained by employing the hazard and operability (HAZOP) assessment method and are discussed in the light of the appropriateness of this procedural tool for low-hazard biotechnology applications. The potential release of micro-organisms accounts only for a minor part of the hazardous consequences. However, in certain cases the release of a large or moderate amount of micro-organisms would not be immediately identified. Most of the actions required to avoid these consequences fall into the realm of operational procedures. As a major part of potential failures result from human errors, standard operating procedures play a prominent role when establishing the concept of safety management. The HAZOP assessment method was found to be adequate for the type of process under investigation. The results also may be used for the generation of checklists which, in most cases, are sufficient for routine safety assurance.

  13. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  14. Analysis of safety from a human clinical trial with pterostilbene.

    PubMed

    Riche, Daniel M; McEwen, Corey L; Riche, Krista D; Sherman, Justin J; Wofford, Marion R; Deschamp, David; Griswold, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the safety of long-term pterostilbene administration in humans. Methodology. The trial was a prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial enrolling patients with hypercholesterolemia (defined as a baseline total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dL). Eighty subjects were divided equally into one of four groups: (1) pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily, (2) pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily, (3) pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE) 100 mg twice daily, and (4) matching placebo twice daily for 6-8 weeks. Safety markers included biochemical and subjective measures. Linear mixed models were used to estimate primary safety measure treatment effects. Results. The majority of patients completed the trial (91.3%). The average age was 54 years. The majority of patients were females (71%) and Caucasians (70%). There were no adverse drug reactions (ADRs) on hepatic, renal, or glucose markers based on biochemical analysis. There were no statistically significant self-reported or major ADRs. Conclusion. Pterostilbene is generally safe for use in humans up to 250 mg/day.

  15. Analysis of Safety from a Human Clinical Trial with Pterostilbene

    PubMed Central

    Riche, Daniel M.; McEwen, Corey L.; Riche, Krista D.; Sherman, Justin J.; Wofford, Marion R.; Deschamp, David; Griswold, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the safety of long-term pterostilbene administration in humans. Methodology. The trial was a prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial enrolling patients with hypercholesterolemia (defined as a baseline total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dL). Eighty subjects were divided equally into one of four groups: (1) pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily, (2) pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily, (3) pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE) 100 mg twice daily, and (4) matching placebo twice daily for 6–8 weeks. Safety markers included biochemical and subjective measures. Linear mixed models were used to estimate primary safety measure treatment effects. Results. The majority of patients completed the trial (91.3%). The average age was 54 years. The majority of patients were females (71%) and Caucasians (70%). There were no adverse drug reactions (ADRs) on hepatic, renal, or glucose markers based on biochemical analysis. There were no statistically significant self-reported or major ADRs. Conclusion. Pterostilbene is generally safe for use in humans up to 250 mg/day. PMID:23431291

  16. Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, G.L.; McCracken, R.T.

    2003-05-13

    The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

  17. Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

    2003-06-01

    The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830).1 Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, “Safety Basis Requirements,” requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements.1 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, “Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants”2 as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

  18. Ares I-X Malfunction Turn Range Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares I rocket which was developed by NASA (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) component of the Constellation Program). The Ares I-X flight test vehicle achieved a successful flight test on October 28, 2009, from Pad LC-39B at Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC). As part of the flight plan approval for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could have caused the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path. The effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version II (POST2) simulation tool. The Ares I-X simulation analysis provided output files containing vehicle trajectory state information. These were used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at KSC, and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer in the event of a flight test anomaly of the vehicle. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study.

  19. The Zion integrated safety analysis for NUREG-1150

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, S.D.; Park, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    The utility-funded Zion Probabilistic Safety Study provided not only a detailed and thorough assessment of the risk profile of Zion Unit 1, but also presented substantial advancement in the technology of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Since performance of that study, modifications of plant hardware, the introduction of new emergency procedures, operational experience gained, information generated by severe accident research programs and further evolution of PRA and uncertainty analysis methods have provided a basis for reevaluation of the Zion risk profile. This reevaluation is discussed in this report. 5 refs.

  20. Fast Flux Test Facility final safety analysis report. Amendment 73

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report provides Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Amendment 73 for incorporation into the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTR) FSAR set. This page change incorporates Engineering Change Notices (ECNs) issued subsequent to Amendment 72 and approved for incorparoration before May 6, 1993. These changes include: Chapter 3, design criteria structures, equipment, and systems; chapter 5B, reactor coolant system; chapter 7, instrumentation and control systems; chapter 9, auxiliary systems; chapter 11, reactor refueling system; chapter 12, radiation protection and waste management; chapter 13, conduct of operations; chapter 17, technical specifications; chapter 20, FFTF criticality specifications; appendix C, local fuel failure events; and appendix Fl, operation at 680{degrees}F inlet temperature.

  1. SCALE system cross-section validation for criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hathout, A M; Westfall, R M; Dodds, Jr, H L

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test selected data from three cross-section libraries for use in the criticality safety analysis of UO/sub 2/ fuel rod lattices. The libraries, which are distributed with the SCALE system, are used to analyze potential criticality problems which could arise in the industrial fuel cycle for PWR and BWR reactors. Fuel lattice criticality problems could occur in pool storage, dry storage with accidental moderation, shearing and dissolution of irradiated elements, and in fuel transport and storage due to inadequate packing and shipping cask design. The data were tested by using the SCALE system to analyze 25 recently performed critical experiments.

  2. NUSAR: N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report, Amendment 21

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G L

    1989-12-01

    The enclosed pages are Amendment 21 of the N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report (NUSAR). NUSAR, formerly UNI-M-90, was revised by 18 amendments that were issued by UNC Nuclear Industries, the contractor previously responsible for N Reactor operations. As of June 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) acquired the operations and engineering contract for N Reactor and other facilities at Hanford. The document number for NUSAR then became WHC-SP-0297. The first revision was issued by WHC as Amendment 19, prepared originally by UNC. Summaries of each of the amendments are included in NUSAR Section 1.1.

  3. Fault Tree Analysis Application for Safety and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Dolores R.

    2003-01-01

    Many commercial software tools exist for fault tree analysis (FTA), an accepted method for mitigating risk in systems. The method embedded in the tools identifies a root as use in system components, but when software is identified as a root cause, it does not build trees into the software component. No commercial software tools have been built specifically for development and analysis of software fault trees. Research indicates that the methods of FTA could be applied to software, but the method is not practical without automated tool support. With appropriate automated tool support, software fault tree analysis (SFTA) may be a practical technique for identifying the underlying cause of software faults that may lead to critical system failures. We strive to demonstrate that existing commercial tools for FTA can be adapted for use with SFTA, and that applied to a safety-critical system, SFTA can be used to identify serious potential problems long before integrator and system testing.

  4. Fault Tree Analysis Application for Safety and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Dolores R.

    2003-01-01

    Many commercial software tools exist for fault tree analysis (FTA), an accepted method for mitigating risk in systems. The method embedded in the tools identifies a root as use in system components, but when software is identified as a root cause, it does not build trees into the software component. No commercial software tools have been built specifically for development and analysis of software fault trees. Research indicates that the methods of FTA could be applied to software, but the method is not practical without automated tool support. With appropriate automated tool support, software fault tree analysis (SFTA) may be a practical technique for identifying the underlying cause of software faults that may lead to critical system failures. We strive to demonstrate that existing commercial tools for FTA can be adapted for use with SFTA, and that applied to a safety-critical system, SFTA can be used to identify serious potential problems long before integrator and system testing.

  5. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... payload and flight termination system. This chapter must serve as an executive summary of detailed... launch vehicle, a ground safety analysis report must identify all flight hardware systems, using the...) Flight safety system. A ground safety analysis report must describe each hazard of inadvertent...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... payload and flight termination system. This chapter must serve as an executive summary of detailed... launch vehicle, a ground safety analysis report must identify all flight hardware systems, using the...) Flight safety system. A ground safety analysis report must describe each hazard of inadvertent...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... payload and flight termination system. This chapter must serve as an executive summary of detailed... launch vehicle, a ground safety analysis report must identify all flight hardware systems, using the...) Flight safety system. A ground safety analysis report must describe each hazard of inadvertent...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... payload and flight termination system. This chapter must serve as an executive summary of detailed... launch vehicle, a ground safety analysis report must identify all flight hardware systems, using the...) Flight safety system. A ground safety analysis report must describe each hazard of inadvertent...

  9. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  10. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  11. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  12. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  13. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGES

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; ...

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs andmore » activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).« less

  14. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs and activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).

  15. Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included.

  16. PHYSICS AND SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR THE NIST RESEARCH REACTOR.

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, L.; Diamond, D.; Xu, J.; Carew, J.; Rorer, D.

    2004-03-31

    Detailed reactor physics and safety analyses have been performed for the 20 MW D{sub 2}O moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analyses provide an update to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport calculations were performed with the MCNP code to determine the safety parameters for the NBSR. The core depletion and determination of the fuel compositions were performed with MONTEBURNS. MCNP calculations were performed to determine the beginning, middle, and end-of-cycle power distributions, moderator temperature coefficient, and shim safety arm, beam tube and void reactivity worths. The calculational model included a plate-by-plate description of each fuel assembly, axial mid-plane water gap, beam tubes and the tubular geometry of the shim safety arms. The time-dependent analysis of the primary loop was determined with a RELAP5 transient analysis model that includes the pump, heat exchanger, fuel element geometry, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. The statistical analysis used to assure protection from critical heat flux (CHF) was performed using a Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertainties contributing to the CHF calculation. The power distributions used to determine the local fuel conditions and margin to CHF were determined with MCNP. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) the control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) the maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow resulting from loss of electrical power, (4) loss-of-flow resulting from a primary pump seizure, (5) loss-of-flow resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve, (6) loss-of-flow resulting from failure of both shutdown cooling pumps and (7) misloading of a fuel element. In both the startup and maximum reactivity insertion accidents, the

  17. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

  18. A probabilistic safety analysis of incidents in nuclear research reactors.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Agostinho Angelo Sordi, Gian Maria; Moralles, Mauricio; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2012-06-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used: the Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) and the Incident Report System for Research Reactor (IRSRR). For this study, the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was used. To obtain the result of the probability calculations for PSA, the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC-636 were used. A specific program to analyse the probabilities was developed within the main program, Scilab 5.1.1. for two distributions, Fischer and chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90 %. Using Sordi equations, the maximum admissible doses to compare with the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were obtained. All results achieved with this probability analysis led to the conclusion that the incidents which occurred had radiation doses within the stochastic effects reference interval established by the ICRP-64.

  19. Canister storage building (CSB) safety analysis report phase 3: Safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1997-04-28

    The Canister Storage Building (CSB) will be constructed in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The CSB will be used to stage and store spent nuclear fuel (SNF) removed from the Hanford Site K Basins. The objective of this chapter is to describe the characteristics of the site on which the CSB will be located. This description will support the hazard analysis and accident analyses in Chapter 3.0. The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the CSB design criteria, the design's compliance with the applicable criteria, and the basis for authorization to proceed with construction of the CSB.

  20. Simplifying documentation while approaching site closure: integrated health & safety plans as documented safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Tulanda

    2003-06-01

    At the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) near Cincinnati, Ohio, environmental restoration activities are supported by Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) that combine the required project-specific Health and Safety Plans, Safety Basis Requirements (SBRs), and Process Requirements (PRs) into single Integrated Health and Safety Plans (I-HASPs). By isolating any remediation activities that deal with Enriched Restricted Materials, the SBRs and PRs assure that the hazard categories of former nuclear facilities undergoing remediation remain less than Nuclear. These integrated DSAs employ Integrated Safety Management methodology in support of simplified restoration and remediation activities that, so far, have resulted in the decontamination and demolition (D&D) of over 150 structures, including six major nuclear production plants. This paper presents the FCP method for maintaining safety basis documentation, using the D&D I-HASP as an example.

  1. Documented Safety Analysis for the B695 Segment

    SciTech Connect

    Laycak, D

    2008-09-11

    This Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) was prepared for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Building 695 (B695) Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF). The report provides comprehensive information on design and operations, including safety programs and safety structures, systems and components to address the potential process-related hazards, natural phenomena, and external hazards that can affect the public, facility workers, and the environment. Consideration is given to all modes of operation, including the potential for both equipment failure and human error. The facilities known collectively as the DWTF are used by LLNL's Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division to store and treat regulated wastes generated at LLNL. RHWM generally processes low-level radioactive waste with no, or extremely low, concentrations of transuranics (e.g., much less than 100 nCi/g). Wastes processed often contain only depleted uranium and beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides, e.g., {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, or {sup 3}H. The mission of the B695 Segment centers on container storage, lab-packing, repacking, overpacking, bulking, sampling, waste transfer, and waste treatment. The B695 Segment is used for storage of radioactive waste (including transuranic and low-level), hazardous, nonhazardous, mixed, and other waste. Storage of hazardous and mixed waste in B695 Segment facilities is in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). LLNL is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy (DOE). The B695 Segment is operated by the RHWM Division of LLNL. Many operations in the B695 Segment are performed under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) operation plan, similar to commercial treatment operations with best demonstrated available technologies. The buildings of the B695 Segment were designed and built considering such operations, using proven building systems

  2. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (ERP), Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-20

    This document was prepared to take the place of a Safety Evaluation Report since the Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)and associated Baseline Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) File do not meet the requirements of a complete safety analysis documentation. Its purpose is to present in summary form the background of how the BSAF and Baseline TSR originated and a description of the process by which it was produced and approved for use in the Environmental Restoration Program.The BSAF is a facility safety reference document for INEL environmental restoration activities including environmental remediation of inactive waste sites and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of surplus facilities. The BSAF contains safety bases common to environmental restoration activities and guidelines for performing and documenting safety analysis. The common safety bases can be incorporated by reference into the safety analysis documentation prepared for individual environmental restoration activities with justification and any necessary revisions. The safety analysis guidelines in BSAF provide an accepted method for hazard analysis; analysis of normal, abnormal, and accident conditions; human factors analysis; and derivation of TSRS. The BSAF safety bases and guidelines are graded for environmental restoration activities.

  3. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  4. Limited-scope probabilistic safety analysis for the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sharirli, M.; Rand, J.L.; Sasser, M.K.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1992-12-01

    The reliability of instrumentation and safety systems is a major issue in the operation of accelerator facilities. A probabilistic safety analysis was performed or the key safety and instrumentation systems at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). in Phase I of this unique study, the Personnel Safety System (PSS) and the Current Limiters (XLs) were analyzed through the use of the fault tree analyses, failure modes and effects analysis, and criticality analysis. Phase II of the program was done to update and reevaluate the safety systems after the Phase I recommendations were implemented. This paper provides a brief review of the studies involved in Phases I and II of the program.

  5. Criticality safety analysis of a calciner exit chute

    SciTech Connect

    Haught, C.F.; Basoglu, B.; Brewer, R.W.; Hollenback, D.F.; Wilkinson, A.D.; Dodds, H.L. . Nuclear Engineering Dept.); Oxenham, R.L. )

    1994-01-01

    Calcination of uranyl nitrate into uranium oxide is part of normal operations of some enrichment plants. Typically, a calciner discharges uranium oxide powder (U[sub 3]O[sub 8]) into an exit chute that directs the powder into a receiving can located in a glove box. One possible scenario for a criticality accident is the exit chute becoming blocked with powder near its discharge. The blockage restricts the flow of powder causing the exit chute to become filled with the powder. If blockage does occur, the height of the powder could reach a level that would not be safe from a criticality point of view. In this analysis, the subcritical height limit is examined for 98% enriched U[sub 3]O[sub 8] in the exit chute with full water reflection and optimal water moderation. The height limit for ensuring criticality safety during such an accumulation is 28.2 cm above the top of the discharge pipe at the bottom of the chute. Chute design variations are also evaluated with full water reflection and optimal water moderation. Subcritical configurations for the exit chute variation are developed, but the configurations are not safe when combined with the calciner. To ensure criticality safety, modifications must be made to the calciner tube or safety measures must be implemented if these designs are to be utilized with 98% enriched material. A geometrically safe configuration for the exit chute is developed for a blockage of 20% enriched powder with full water reflection and optimal water moderation, and this configuration is safe when combined with the existing calciner.

  6. Hazard Analysis and Safety Requirements for Small Drone Operations: To What Extent Do Popular Drones Embed Safety?

    PubMed

    Plioutsias, Anastasios; Karanikas, Nektarios; Chatzimihailidou, Maria Mikela

    2017-08-02

    Currently, published risk analyses for drones refer mainly to commercial systems, use data from civil aviation, and are based on probabilistic approaches without suggesting an inclusive list of hazards and respective requirements. Within this context, this article presents: (1) a set of safety requirements generated from the application of the systems theoretic process analysis (STPA) technique on a generic small drone system; (2) a gap analysis between the set of safety requirements and the ones met by 19 popular drone models; (3) the extent of the differences between those models, their manufacturers, and the countries of origin; and (4) the association of drone prices with the extent they meet the requirements derived by STPA. The application of STPA resulted in 70 safety requirements distributed across the authority, manufacturer, end user, or drone automation levels. A gap analysis showed high dissimilarities regarding the extent to which the 19 drones meet the same safety requirements. Statistical results suggested a positive correlation between drone prices and the extent that the 19 drones studied herein met the safety requirements generated by STPA, and significant differences were identified among the manufacturers. This work complements the existing risk assessment frameworks for small drones, and contributes to the establishment of a commonly endorsed international risk analysis framework. Such a framework will support the development of a holistic and methodologically justified standardization scheme for small drone flights. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Analysis of vehicle's safety envelope under car-following model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Liang; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved car-following model to explore the impacts of vehicle's two safety distances (i.e., the front safety distance and back safety distance) on the traffic safety during the starting process. The numerical results show that our model is prominently safer than the FVD (full velocity difference) model, i.e., our model is better than the FVD model from the perspective of the traffic safety, which shows that each driver should consider his two safety distances during his driving process.

  8. Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities March 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Laycak, D T

    2010-03-05

    This Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements,' and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

  9. Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Laycak, D

    2008-06-16

    This documented safety analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements', and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

  10. Nuclear Safety Analysis for the Mars Exploration Rover 2003 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstenberg, Henry; Rutger, Lyle L.; Mukunda, Meera; Bartram, Bart W.

    2004-02-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) 2003 project is designed to place two mobile laboratories (Rovers) on Mars to remotely characterize a diversity of rocks and soils. Milestones accomplished so far include two successful launches of identical spacecraft (the MER-A and MER-B missions) from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida on June 10 and July 7, 2003. Each Rover uses eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) fueled with plutonium-238 dioxide to provide local heating of Rover components. The LWRHUs are provided by the U.S. Department of Energy. In addition, small quantities of radioactive materials in sealed sources are used in scientific instrumentation on the Rover. Due to the radioactive nature of these materials and the potential for accidents, a formal Launch Approval Process requires the preparation of a Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for submittal to and independent review by an Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel. This paper presents a summary of the FSAR in terms of potential accident scenarios, probabilities, source terms, radiological consequences, mission risks, and uncertainties in the reported results.

  11. Hazard screening application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information.

  12. An Analysis of Excavation Support Safety Based on Experimental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorska, Karolina; Wyjadłowski, Marek

    2015-09-01

    The article presents the results of inclinometric measurements and numerical analyses of soldier-pile wall displacements. The excavation under investigation was made in cohesive soils. The measurements were conducted at points located at the edge of the cantilever excavation support system. The displacements of the excavation support observed over the period of three years demonstrated the pattern of steady growth over the first two months, followed by a gradual levelling out to a final plateau. The numerical analyses were conducted based on 3D FEM models. The numerical analysis of the problem comprise calculations of the global structural safety factor depending on the displacement of the chosen points in the lagging and conducted by means of the φ/c reduction procedure. The adopted graphical method of safety estimation is very conservative in the sense that it recognizes stability loss quite early, when one could further load the medium or weaken it by further strength reduction. The values of the Msf factor are relatively high. This is caused by the fact that the structure was designed for excavation twice as deep. Nevertheless, the structure is treated as a temporary one.

  13. Tafenoquine for malaria prophylaxis in adults: An integrated safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Novitt-Moreno, Anne; Ransom, Janet; Dow, Geoffrey; Smith, Bryan; Read, Lisa Thomas; Toovey, Stephen

    Tafenoquine is a new prophylactic antimalarial drug. The current analysis presents an integrated safety assessment of the Tafenoquine Anticipated Clinical Regimen (Tafenoquine ACR) from 5 clinical trials, including 1 conducted in deployed military personnel and 4 in non-deployed residents, which also incorporated placebo and mefloquine comparator groups. Adverse events (AEs) were coded according to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA(®), Version 15.0) and summarized. Among all subjects who had received the Tafenoquine ACR, safety findings were compared for subjects who were deployed military personnel from the Australian Defence Force (Deployed ADF) versus non-deployed residents (Resident Non-ADF). The incidence of at least one AE was 80.6%, 64.1%, 67.6% and 94.9% in the mefloquine, placebo, tafenoquine Resident Non-ADF and tafenoquine Deployed ADF groups, respectively. The latter group had a higher incidence of AEs related to military deployment. AEs that occurred at ≥ 1% incidence in both tafenoquine sub-groups and at a higher frequency than placebo included diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, gastroenteritis, nasopharyngeal tract infections, and back/neck pain. Weekly administration of tafenoquine for up to six months increased the incidence of gastrointestinal AEs, certain infections, and back/neck pain, but not the overall incidence of AEs versus placebo. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS/CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02491606; NCT02488980; NCT02488902. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. A Study on Urban Road Traffic Safety Based on Matter Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure. PMID:25587267

  15. Safety incident reporting in emergency radiology: analysis of 1717 safety incident reports.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Shaqdan, Khalid W; Aran, Shima; Raja, Ali S; Lev, Michael H; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the incidence and types of safety reports logged in the radiology safety incident reporting system in our emergency radiology section over an 8-year period. Electronic incident reporting system of our institute was searched for the variables in emergency radiology. All reports from April 2006 to June 2014 were included and deindentified. The following event classifications were investigated in radiography, CT, and MRI modalities: diagnostic test orders, ID/documentation/consent, safety/security/conduct, service coordination, surgery/procedure, line/tube, fall, medication/IV safety, employee general incident, environment/equipment, adverse drug reaction, skin/tissue, and diagnosis/treatment. A total of 881,194 emergency radiology examinations were performed during the study period, 1717 (1717/881,194 = 0.19 %) of which resulted in safety reports. Reports were classified into 14 different categories, the most frequent of which were "diagnostic test orders" (481/1717 = 28 % total incident reports), "medication/IV safety" (302/1717 = 18 % total incident reports), and "service coordination" (204/1717 = 12 % total incident reports). X-ray had the highest report rate (873/1717 = 50 % total incident reports), followed by CT (604/1717 = 35 % total incident reports) and MRI (240/1717 = 14 % total incident reports). Forty-six percent of safety incidents (789/1717) caused no harm and did not reach the patient, 36 % (617/1717) caused no harm but reached the patient, 18 % (308/1717) caused temporary or minor harm/ damage, and less than 1 % caused permanent or major harm/ damage or death. Our study shows an overall safety incident report rate of 0.19 % in emergency radiology including radiography, CT, and MRI modalities. The most common safety incidents were diagnostic test orders, medication/IV safety, and service coordination.

  16. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  17. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  18. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety...

  19. Safety analysis forseismic motion of control rods accounting for rod misalignment

    SciTech Connect

    Osmin, W.L.; Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the results of three safety analyses performed by the SRL Safety Analysis Group (SAG) to assess the safety impact of control rod motion induced by a Design Basis Earthquake (DBE).

  20. Moxifloxacin safety: an analysis of 14 years of clinical data.

    PubMed

    Tulkens, Paul M; Arvis, Pierre; Kruesmann, Frank

    2012-06-01

    Moxifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is used for the treatment of respiratory tract, pelvic inflammatory disease, skin, and intra-abdominal infections. Its safety profile is considered favorable in most reviews but has been challenged with respect to rare but potentially fatal toxicities (e.g. hepatic, cardiac, or skin reactions). To analyze and compare the safety profile of moxifloxacin versus comparators in the entire clinical database of the manufacturer. Data on the valid-for-safety population from phase II-IV actively controlled studies (performed between 1996 and 2010) were analyzed. Studies were either double blind (n = 22 369) or open label (n = 7635) and included patients with indications that have been approved in at least one country [acute bacterial sinusitis, acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia, uncomplicated pelvic inflammatory disease, complicated and uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections, and complicated intra-abdominal infections] (n = 27 824) and patients with other indications (n = 2180), using the recommended daily dose (400 mg) and route of administration (oral, intravenous/oral, intravenous only). The analysis included patients at risk (age ≥65 years, diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, hepatic impairment, cardiac disorders, or body mass index <18 kg/m2). Patients with known contraindications were excluded from enrollment by study protocol design, but any patient having entered a study, even if inappropriately, was included in the analysis. Crude incidences and relative risk estimates (Mantel-Haenszel analysis) of patients with any adverse event (AE), adverse drug reaction (ADR), serious AE (SAE), serious ADR (SADR), treatment discontinuation due to an AE or ADR, and fatal outcomes related to an AE or ADR. Overall incidence rates of AEs were globally similar in the moxifloxacin and comparator groups. By filtering the data for differences in disfavor of moxifloxacin

  1. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) doorstop samplecarrier system

    SciTech Connect

    Obrien, J.H.

    1997-02-24

    The Doorstop Sample Carrier System consists of a Type B certified N-55 overpack, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification or performance-oriented 208-L (55-gal) drum (DOT 208-L drum), and Doorstop containers. The purpose of the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is to transport samples onsite for characterization. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Doorstop Sample Carrier System meets the requirements and acceptance criteria for both Hanford Site normal transport conditions and accident condition events for a Type B package. This SARP also establishes operational, acceptance, maintenance, and quality assurance (QA) guidelines to ensure that the method of transport for the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping.

  2. Waste Sampling & Characterization Facility (WSCF) Complex Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MELOY, R.T.

    2003-05-01

    The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) is an analytical laboratory complex on the Hanford Site that was constructed to perform chemical and low-level radiological analyses on a variety of sample media in support of Hanford Site customer needs. The complex is located in the 600 area of the Hanford Site, east of the 200 West Area. Customers include effluent treatment facilities, waste disposal and storage facilities, and remediation projects. Customers primarily need analysis results for process control and to comply with federal, Washington State, and US. Department of Energy (DOE) environmental or industrial hygiene requirements. This document was prepared to analyze the facility for safety consequences and includes the following steps: Determine radionuclide and highly hazardous chemical inventories; Compare these inventories to the appropriate regulatory limits; Document the compliance status with respect to these limits; and Identify the administrative controls necessary to maintain this status.

  3. Planning Document for an NBSR Conversion Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond D. J.; Baek J.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

    2013-09-25

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR). The NBSR is a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a planning document for the conversion Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to, and approved by, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) before the reactor could be converted.This report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis herein is on the SAR chapters that require significant changes as a result of conversion, primarily Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis. The document provides information on the proposed design for the LEU fuel elements and identifies what information is still missing. This document is intended to assist ongoing fuel development efforts, and to provide a platform for the development of the final conversion SAR. This report contributes directly to the reactor conversion pillar of the GTRI program, but also acts as a boundary condition for the fuel development and fuel fabrication pillars.

  4. Conversion Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the NIST Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D. J.; Baek, J. S.; Hanson, A. L.; Cheng, L-Y; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

    2015-01-30

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the NIST research reactor (aka NBSR); a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a preliminary version of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for approval prior to conversion. The report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis in any conversion SAR is to explain the differences between the LEU and HEU cores and to show the acceptability of the new design; there is no need to repeat information regarding the current reactor that will not change upon conversion. Hence, as seen in the report, the bulk of the SAR is devoted to Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis.

  5. Safety analysis of the 700-horsepower combustion test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Berkey, B.D.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the 700 h.p. Combustion Test Facility located in Building 93 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Extensive safety related measures have been incorporated into the design, construction, and operation of the Combustion Test Facility. These include: nitrogen addition to the coal storage bin, slurry hopper, roller mill and pulverizer baghouse, use of low oxygen content combustion gas for coal conveying, an oxygen analyzer for the combustion gas, insulation on hot surfaces, proper classification of electrical equipment, process monitoring instrumentation and a planned remote television monitoring system. Analysis of the system considering these factors has resulted in the determination of overall probabilities of occurrence of hazards as shown in Table I. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce these probabilities as indicated. The identified hazards include coal dust ignition by hot ductwork and equipment, loss of inerting within the coal conveying system leading to a coal dust fire, and ignition of hydrocarbon vapors or spilled oil, or slurry. The possibility of self-heating of coal was investigated. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce the ignition probability to no more than 1 x 10/sup -6/ per event. In addition to fire and explosion hazards, there are potential exposures to materials which have been identified as hazardous to personal health, such as carbon monoxide, coal dust, hydrocarbon vapors, and oxygen deficient atmosphere, but past monitoring experience has not revealed any problem areas. The major environmental hazard is an oil spill. The facility has a comprehensive spill control plan.

  6. Safety review of the design, operation, and radiation sections of the General Electric Morris Operation Consolidated Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.P.

    1981-01-30

    A safety review was made of Sections 4 through 9 of the Consolidated Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the GE Morris Operation spent-fuel storage facility. The sections reviewed include Design Criteria and Compliance, Facility Design and Description, Radiation Protection, Accident Analysis, and Conduct of Operations. The safety review was performed in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation'' and contains independent estimations of source terms and dose-commitments from postulated accidents in the storage facility and a structural analysis of the Morris Operation cranes as an appendix. The review confirms that the features of the facility as described in Sections 4 through 9 of the CSAR fulfilled the safety requirements of 10 CFR 72, and it is concluded that spent-fuel handling and storage at the Morris Operation do not present significant risks to public health and safety. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Improved Flow Modeling in Transient Reactor Safety Analysis Computer Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Holowach, M.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Cheung, F.B.

    2002-07-01

    A method of accounting for fluid-to-fluid shear in between calculational cells over a wide range of flow conditions envisioned in reactor safety studies has been developed such that it may be easily implemented into a computer code such as COBRA-TF for more detailed subchannel analysis. At a given nodal height in the calculational model, equivalent hydraulic diameters are determined for each specific calculational cell using either laminar or turbulent velocity profiles. The velocity profile may be determined from a separate CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis, experimental data, or existing semi-empirical relationships. The equivalent hydraulic diameter is then applied to the wall drag force calculation so as to determine the appropriate equivalent fluid-to-fluid shear caused by the wall for each cell based on the input velocity profile. This means of assigning the shear to a specific cell is independent of the actual wetted perimeter and flow area for the calculational cell. The use of this equivalent hydraulic diameter for each cell within a calculational subchannel results in a representative velocity profile which can further increase the accuracy and detail of heat transfer and fluid flow modeling within the subchannel when utilizing a thermal hydraulics systems analysis computer code such as COBRA-TF. Utilizing COBRA-TF with the flow modeling enhancement results in increased accuracy for a coarse-mesh model without the significantly greater computational and time requirements of a full-scale 3D (three-dimensional) transient CFD calculation. (authors)

  8. 41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level of safety analysis indicate? 102-80.110 Section 102-80.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL... Analysis § 102-80.110 What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate? To be acceptable,...

  9. 49 CFR 209.501 - Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... route analysis. 209.501 Section 209.501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....820 § 209.501 Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis. (a) Review of route analysis. If the Associate Administrator for Safety determines that a railroad carrier's route selection...

  10. Safety Analysis of FMS/CTAS Interactions During Aircraft Arrivals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1998-01-01

    This grant funded research on human-computer interaction design and analysis techniques, using future ATC environments as a testbed. The basic approach was to model the nominal behavior of both the automated and human procedures and then to apply safety analysis techniques to these models. Our previous modeling language, RSML, had been used to specify the system requirements for TCAS II for the FAA. Using the lessons learned from this experience, we designed a new modeling language that (among other things) incorporates features to assist in designing less error-prone human-computer interactions and interfaces and in detecting potential HCI problems, such as mode confusion. The new language, SpecTRM-RL, uses "intent" abstractions, based on Rasmussen's abstraction hierarchy, and includes both informal (English and graphical) specifications and formal, executable models for specifying various aspects of the system. One of the goals for our language was to highlight the system modes and mode changes to assist in identifying the potential for mode confusion. Three published papers resulted from this research. The first builds on the work of Degani on mode confusion to identify aspects of the system design that could lead to potential hazards. We defined and modeled modes differently than Degani and also defined design criteria for SpecTRM-RL models. Our design criteria include the Degani criteria but extend them to include more potential problems. In a second paper, Leveson and Palmer showed how the criteria for indirect mode transitions could be applied to a mode confusion problem found in several ASRS reports for the MD-88. In addition, we defined a visual task modeling language that can be used by system designers to model human-computer interaction. The visual models can be translated into SpecTRM-RL models, and then the SpecTRM-RL suite of analysis tools can be used to perform formal and informal safety analyses on the task model in isolation or integrated with

  11. PHYSICS AND SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR THE NIST RESEARCH REACTOR.

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, J.; Hanson, A.; Xu, J.; Rorer, D.; Diamond, D.

    2003-08-26

    Detailed reactor physics and safety analyses have been performed for the 20 MW D{sub 2}O moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analyses provide an update to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional MCNP Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport calculations were performed to determine the safety parameters for the NBSR. The core depletion and determination of the fuel compositions were performed with MONTEBURNS. MCNP calculations were performed to determine the beginning, middle, and end-of-cycle power distributions, moderator temperature coefficient, and shim arm, beam tube and void reactivity worths. The calculational model included a plate-by-plate description of each fuel assembly, axial mid-plane water gap, beam tubes and the tubular geometry of the shim arms. The time-dependent analysis of the primary loop was determined with a RELAP5 transient analysis model including the pump, heat exchanger, fuel element geometry, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. The statistical analysis used to assure protection from critical heat flux (CHF) was performed using a Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertainties contributing to the CHF calculation. The power distributions used to determine the local fuel conditions and margin to CHF were determined with MCNP. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) the control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) the maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow resulting from loss of electrical power, (4) loss-of-flow resulting from a primary pump seizure, (5) loss-of-flow resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve, (6) loss-of-flow resulting from failure of both shutdown cooling pumps and (7) misloading of a fuel element. In both the startup and maximum reactivity insertion accidents, the core power transient is terminated

  12. Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsir, Khairina; Yazid, Putranto Ilham; Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi

    2014-09-01

    Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects.

  13. Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Natsir, Khairina Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi; Yazid, Putranto Ilham

    2014-09-30

    Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects.

  14. Safety and performance analysis of a commercial photovoltaic installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzavy, Babak T.; Bradley, Alexander Z.

    2013-09-01

    Continuing to better understand the performance of PV systems and changes in performance with the system life is vital to the sustainable growth of solar. A systematic understanding of degradation mechanisms that are induced as a result of variables such as the service environment, installation, module/material design, weather, operation and maintenance, and manufacturing is required for reliable operation throughout a system's lifetime. We wish to report the results from an analysis of a commercial c-Si PV array owned and operated by DuPont. We assessed the electrical performance of the modules by comparing the original manufacturers' performance data with the measurements obtained using a solar simulator to determine the degradation rate. This evaluation provides valuable PV system field experience and document key issues regarding safety and performance. A review of the nondestructive and destructive analytical methods and characterization strategies we have found useful for system, module, and subsequent material component evaluations are presented. We provide an overview of our inspection protocol and subsequent control process to mitigate risk. The objective is to explore and develop best practice protocols regarding PV asset optimization and provide a rationale to reduce risk based on the analysis of our own commercial installations.

  15. Criticality safety analysis on fissile materials in Fukushima reactor cores

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xudong; Lemaitre-Xavier, E.; Ahn, Joonhong; Hirano, Fumio

    2013-07-01

    The present study focuses on the criticality analysis for geological disposal of damaged fuels from Fukushima reactor cores. Starting from the basic understanding of behaviors of plutonium and uranium, a scenario sequence for criticality event is considered. Due to the different mobility of plutonium and uranium in geological formations, the criticality safety is considered in two parts: (1) near-field plutonium system and (2) far-field low enriched uranium (LEU) system. For the near-field plutonium system, a mathematical analysis for pure-solute transport was given, assuming a particular buffer material and waste form configuration. With the transport and decay of plutonium accounted, the critical mass of plutonium was compared with the initial load of a single canister. Our calculation leads us to the conclusion that our system with the initial loading being the average mass of plutonium in an assembly just before the accident is very unlikely to become critical over time. For the far-field LEU system, due to the uncertainties in the geological and geochemical conditions, calculations were made in a parametric space that covers the variation of material compositions and different geometries. Results show that the LEU system could not remain sub-critical within the entire parameter space assumed, although in the iron-rich rock, the neutron multiplicity is significantly reduced.

  16. Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; David W. Nigg

    2009-11-01

    One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

  17. School Safety, Severe Disciplinary Actions, and School Characteristics: A Secondary Analysis of the School Survey on Crime and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Seunghee; Akiba, Motoko

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of a secondary analysis of survey data collected from 1,872 secondary school principals in the 2005-2006 School Survey on Crime and Safety, we examined the frequency of and reasons for severe disciplinary actions and the relationship between school characteristics and severe disciplinary actions. We found that severe disciplinary…

  18. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  19. Development and Psychometric Analysis of a Nurses' Attitudes and Skills Safety Scale: Initial Results.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Gail E; Dietrich, Mary; Norman, Linda; Barnsteiner, Jane; Mion, Lorraine

    Health care organizations have incorporated updated safety principles in the analysis of errors and in norms and standards. Yet no research exists that assesses bedside nurses' perceived skills or attitudes toward updated safety concepts. The aims of this study were to develop a scale assessing nurses' perceived skills and attitudes toward updated safety concepts, determine content validity, and examine internal consistency of the scale and subscales. Understanding nurses' perceived skills and attitudes about safety concepts can be used in targeting strategies to enhance their safety practices.

  20. Accident analysis and control options in support of the sludge water system safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    HEY, B.E.

    2003-01-16

    A hazards analysis was initiated for the SWS in July 2001 (SNF-8626, K Basin Sludge and Water System Preliminary Hazard Analysis) and updated in December 2001 (SNF-10020 Rev. 0, Hazard Evaluation for KE Sludge and Water System - Project A16) based on conceptual design information for the Sludge Retrieval System (SRS) and 60% design information for the cask and container. SNF-10020 was again revised in September 2002 to incorporate new hazards identified from final design information and from a What-if/Checklist evaluation of operational steps. The process hazards, controls, and qualitative consequence and frequency estimates taken from these efforts have been incorporated into Revision 5 of HNF-3960, K Basins Hazards Analysis. The hazards identification process documented in the above referenced reports utilized standard industrial safety techniques (AIChE 1992, Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures) to systematically guide several interdisciplinary teams through the system using a pre-established set of process parameters (e.g., flow, temperature, pressure) and guide words (e.g., high, low, more, less). The teams generally included representation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), K Basins Nuclear Safety, T Plant Nuclear Safety, K Basin Industrial Safety, fire protection, project engineering, operations, and facility engineering.

  1. Safety culture evaluation and asset root cause analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Okrent, D.; Xiong, Y.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines the role of organizational and management factors in nuclear power plant safety through the use of operating experiences. The ASSET (Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team) reports of thirteen plants (total thirty events) have been analyzed in term of twenty organizational dimensions (factors) identified by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Pennsylvania State University. For three plants detailed results are reported in this paper. The results of thirteen plants are summarized in the form of a table. The study tends to confirm that organizational and management factors play an important role in plant safety. The twenty organizational dimensions and their definitions, in general, were adequate in this study. Formalization, Safety Culture, Technical Knowledge, Training, Roles-Responsibilities and Problem Identification appear to be key organizational factors which influence the safety of nuclear power plants studied.

  2. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety System A Appendix A to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Pt. 417, App. A...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety System A Appendix A to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Pt. 417, App. A...

  4. Soft Mathematical Aggregation in Safety Assessment and Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J. Arlin

    1999-06-10

    This paper improves on some of the limitations of conventional safety assessment and decision analysis methods. It develops a top-down mathematical method for expressing imprecise individual metrics as possibilistic or fuzzy numbers and shows how they may be combined (aggregated) into an overall metric, also portraying the inherent uncertainty. Both positively contributing and negatively contributing factors are included. Metrics are weighted according to significance of the attribute and evaluated as to contribution toward the attribute. Aggregation is performed using exponential combination of the metrics, since the accumulating effect of such factors responds less and less to additional factors. This is termed soft mathematical aggregation. Dependence among the contributing factors is accounted for by incorporating subjective metrics on overlap of the factors and by correspondingly reducing the overall contribution of these combinations to the overall aggregation. Decisions corresponding to the meaningfulness of the results are facilitated in several ways. First, the results are compared to a soft threshold provided by a sigmoid function. Second, information is provided on input ''Importance'' and ''Sensitivity,'' in order to know where to place emphasis on controls that may be necessary. Third, trends in inputs and outputs are tracked in order to add important information to the decision process. The methodology has been implemented in software.

  5. Fast Flux Test Facility final safety analysis report. Amendment 72

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, D. A.

    1992-08-01

    This document provides the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Amendment 72 for incorporation into the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) FSAR set. This amendment change incorporates Engineering Change Notices issued subsequent to Amendment 71 and approved for incorporation before June 24, 1992. These include changes in: Chapter 2, Site Characteristics; Chapter 3, Design Criteria Structures, Equipment, and Systems; Chapter 5B, Reactor Coolant System; Chapter 7, Instrumentation and Control Systems; Chapter 8, Electrical Systems - The description of the Class 1E, 125 Vdc systems is updated for the higher capacity of the newly installed, replacement batteries; Chapter 9, Auxiliary Systems - The description of the inert cell NASA systems is corrected to list the correct number of spare sample points; Chapter 11, Reactor Refueling System; Chapter 12, Radiation Protection and Waste Management; Chapter 13, Conduct of Operations; Chapter 16, Quality Assurance; Chapter 17, Technical Specifications; Chapter 19, FFTF Fire Specifications for Fire Detection, Alarm, and Protection Systems; Chapter 20, FFTF Criticality Specifications; and Appendix B, Primary Piping Integrity Evaluation.

  6. In-space propellant systems safety. Volume 3: System safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The primary objective was to examine from a system safety viewpoint in-space propellant logistic elements and operations to define the potential hazards and to recommend means to reduce, eliminate or control them. A secondary objective was to conduct trade studies of specific systems or operations to determine the safest of alternate approaches.

  7. Addendum to preliminary safety analysis report, Centrifuge Plant Demonstration Facility, Building K-1220

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    This report supplements the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report: Centrifuge Plant Demonstration Facility, Building K-1220, K/D-3924 (Draft), by (1) replying to detailed comments from Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) of the Department of Energy (DOE), (2) incorporating additional information, (3) reproducing a revised version of an earlier memo that addresses several important safety issues, and (4) including a revised list of general and specific safety criteria, safety definitions, and safety systems. The last item, and this supplement as a whole, reflects a revised view of which elements of a facility should be emphasized in a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR). The original PSAR for the Centrifuge Plant Demonstration Facility (CPDF) was written to include capital equipment loss as a safety concern; this supplement views capital equipment loss as a safety concern only when such loss could affect the health and safety of the public or employees. Several of the detailed comments are answered by a reference to K/O-4036. The more important safety information, besides that given in the memo in Appendix A, is to be found in the replies to comments. It should be emphasized that this supplement, like the original CPDF PSAR, is a preliminary report prepared before the design was complete. In the judgment of the CPDF operating contractor, the conclusion stated in the summary chapter of the PSAR is still valid - the facility can be operated with no significant impact on the health and safety of the public and employees.

  8. Random safety auditing, root cause analysis, failure mode and effects analysis.

    PubMed

    Ursprung, Robert; Gray, James

    2010-03-01

    Improving quality and safety in health care is a major concern for health care providers, the general public, and policy makers. Errors and quality issues are leading causes of morbidity and mortality across the health care industry. There is evidence that patients in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at high risk for serious medical errors. To facilitate compliance with safe practices, many institutions have established quality-assurance monitoring procedures. Three techniques that have been found useful in the health care setting are failure mode and effects analysis, root cause analysis, and random safety auditing. When used together, these techniques are effective tools for system analysis and redesign focused on providing safe delivery of care in the complex NICU system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of key safety metrics of thorium utilization in LWRs

    DOE PAGES

    Ade, Brian J.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Worrall, Andrew; ...

    2016-04-08

    Here, thorium has great potential to stretch nuclear fuel reserves because of its natural abundance and because it is possible to breed the 232Th isotope into a fissile fuel (233U). Various scenarios exist for utilization of thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle, including use in different nuclear reactor types (e.g., light water, high-temperature gas-cooled, fast spectrum sodium, and molten salt reactors), along with use in advanced accelerator-driven systems and even in fission-fusion hybrid systems. The most likely near-term application of thorium in the United States is in currently operating light water reactors (LWRs). This use is primarily based on conceptsmore » that mix thorium with uranium (UO2 + ThO2) or that add fertile thorium (ThO2) fuel pins to typical LWR fuel assemblies. Utilization of mixed fuel assemblies (PuO2 + ThO2) is also possible. The addition of thorium to currently operating LWRs would result in a number of different phenomenological impacts to the nuclear fuel. Thorium and its irradiation products have different nuclear characteristics from those of uranium and its irradiation products. ThO2, alone or mixed with UO2 fuel, leads to different chemical and physical properties of the fuel. These key reactor safety–related issues have been studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and documented in “Safety and Regulatory Issues of the Thorium Fuel Cycle” (NUREG/CR-7176, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2014). Various reactor analyses were performed using the SCALE code system for comparison of key performance parameters of both ThO2 + UO2 and ThO2 + PuO2 against those of UO2 and typical UO2 + PuO2 mixed oxide fuels, including reactivity coefficients and power sharing between surrounding UO2 assemblies and the assembly of interest. The decay heat and radiological source terms for spent fuel after its discharge from the reactor are also presented. Based on this evaluation, potential impacts on safety requirements and identification of

  10. Analysis of key safety metrics of thorium utilization in LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Brian J.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Worrall, Andrew; Powers, Jeffrey

    2016-04-08

    radiological source terms for spent fuel after its discharge from the reactor are also presented. Based on this evaluation, potential impacts on safety requirements and identification of knowledge gaps that require additional analysis or research to develop a technical basis for the licensing of thorium fuel are identified.

  11. Nuclear criticality safety calculational analysis for small-diameter containers

    SciTech Connect

    LeTellier, M.S.; Smallwood, D.J.; Henkel, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents calculations performed to establish a technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of favorable geometry containers, sometimes referred to as 5-inch containers, in use at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A list of containers currently used in the plant is shown in Table 1.0-1. These containers are currently used throughout the plant with no mass limits. The use of containers with geometries or material types other than those addressed in this evaluation must be bounded by this analysis or have an additional analysis performed. The following five basic container geometries were modeled and bound all container geometries in Table 1.0-1: (1) 4.32-inch-diameter by 50-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (2) 5.0-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (3) 5.25-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high steel can ({open_quotes}F-can{close_quotes}); (4) 5.25-inch-diameter by 15-inch-high steel can ({open_quotes}Z-can{close_quotes}); and (5) 5.0-inch-diameter by 9-inch-high polybottle ({open_quotes}CO-4{close_quotes}). Each container type is evaluated using five basic reflection and interaction models that include single containers and multiple containers in normal and in credible abnormal conditions. The uranium materials evaluated are UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O and UF{sub 4}+oil materials at 100% and 10% enrichments and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and H{sub 2}O at 100% enrichment. The design basis safe criticality limit for the Portsmouth facility is k{sub eff} + 2{sigma} < 0.95. The KENO study results may be used as the basis for evaluating general use of these containers in the plant.

  12. [Failure mechanisms in the transfusion process. Importance of anticipatory operational safety analysis].

    PubMed

    Hergon, E; Crespeau, H; Rouger, P

    1994-01-01

    The methods used for the safety previsional analysis of operations represent an interesting set of tools to follow the so-called transfusion process, defined as all the steps from donors sensitization to recipients follow-up. FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis) can be used as a prevention tool, independently of any dysfunction in the process. Of course, it can also be used following a failure, in order to analyse its causes and to apply specific corrections. Operation safety, quality insurance, epidemiologic surveillance and safety monitoring act in synergy. These three aspects of transfusion safety constitute a dynamic system.

  13. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment of Health and Safety Approach JSA (Job Safety Analysis) in Plantation Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugarindra, Muchamad; Ragil Suryoputro, Muhammad; Tiya Novitasari, Adi

    2017-06-01

    Plantation company needed to identify hazard and perform risk assessment as an Identification of Hazard and Risk Assessment Crime and Safety which was approached by using JSA (Job Safety Analysis). The identification was aimed to identify the potential hazards that might be the risk of workplace accidents so that preventive action could be taken to minimize the accidents. The data was collected by direct observation to the workers concerned and the results were recorded on a Job Safety Analysis form. The data were as forklift operator, macerator worker, worker’s creeper, shredder worker, workers’ workshop, mechanical line worker, trolley cleaning workers and workers’ crepe decline. The result showed that shredder worker value was 30 and had the working level with extreme risk with the risk value range was above 20. So to minimize the accidents could provide Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) which were appropriate, information about health and safety, the company should have watched the activities of workers, and rewards for the workers who obey the rules that applied in the plantation.

  14. Analysis of Material Handling Safety in Construction Sites and Countermeasures for Effective Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C N Anil; Sakthivel, M; Elangovan, R K; Arularasu, M

    2015-01-01

    One of many hazardous workplaces includes the construction sites as they involve several dangerous tasks. Many studies have revealed that material handling equipment is a major cause of accidents at these sites. Though safety measures are being followed and monitored continuously, accident rates are still high as either workers are unaware of hazards or the safety regulations are not being strictly followed. This paper analyses the safety management systems at construction sites through means of questionnaire surveys with employees, specifically referring to safety of material handling equipment. Based on results of the questionnaire surveys, two construction sites were selected for a safety education program targeting worker safety related to material handling equipment. Knowledge levels of the workers were gathered before and after the program and results obtained were subjected to a t-test analysis to mark significance level of the conducted safety education program.

  15. An appraisal of meta-analysis guidelines: how do they relate to safety outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bennetts, Meg; Whalen, Ed; Ahadieh, Sima; Cappelleri, Joseph C

    2017-03-01

    Although well developed to assess efficacy questions, meta-analyses and, more generally, systematic reviews, have received less attention in application to safety-related questions. As a result, many open questions remain on how best to apply meta-analyses in the safety setting. This appraisal attempts to: (i) summarize the current guidelines for assessing individual studies, systematic reviews, and network meta-analyses; (ii) describe several publications on safety meta-analytic approaches; and (iii) present some of the questions and issues that arise with safety data. A number of gaps in the current quality guidelines are identified along with issues to consider when performing a safety meta-analysis. While some work is ongoing to provide guidance to improve the quality of safety meta-analyses, this review emphasizes the critical need for better reporting and increased transparency regarding safety data in the systematic review guidelines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Analysis of Material Handling Safety in Construction Sites and Countermeasures for Effective Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Anil Kumar, C. N.; Sakthivel, M.; Elangovan, R. K.; Arularasu, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of many hazardous workplaces includes the construction sites as they involve several dangerous tasks. Many studies have revealed that material handling equipment is a major cause of accidents at these sites. Though safety measures are being followed and monitored continuously, accident rates are still high as either workers are unaware of hazards or the safety regulations are not being strictly followed. This paper analyses the safety management systems at construction sites through means of questionnaire surveys with employees, specifically referring to safety of material handling equipment. Based on results of the questionnaire surveys, two construction sites were selected for a safety education program targeting worker safety related to material handling equipment. Knowledge levels of the workers were gathered before and after the program and results obtained were subjected to a t-test analysis to mark significance level of the conducted safety education program. PMID:26446572

  17. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF) is a facility safety reference document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) environmental restoration activities. The BSAF contains information and guidance for safety analysis documentation required by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for environmental restoration (ER) activities, including: Characterization of potentially contaminated sites. Remedial investigations to identify and remedial actions to clean up existing and potential releases from inactive waste sites Decontamination and dismantlement of surplus facilities. The information is INEL-specific and is in the format required by DOE-EM-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports. An author of safety analysis documentation need only write information concerning that activity and refer to BSAF for further information or copy applicable chapters and sections. The information and guidance provided are suitable for: {sm_bullet} Nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) with hazards that meet the Category 3 threshold (DOE-STD-1027-92, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) {sm_bullet} Radiological facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, Hazard Baseline Documentation) Nonnuclear facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94) that are classified as {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} hazard facilities (DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System). Additionally, the BSAF could be used as an information source for Health and Safety Plans and for Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for nuclear facilities with hazards equal to or greater than the Category 2 thresholds, or for nonnuclear facilities with {open_quotes}moderate{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} hazard classifications.

  18. Data requirements analysis in support of system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a user-oriented safety data bank is reported and its data requirements are outlined. The information retrieval system employed is described along with the problems involved in its establishment and operation.

  19. A Chemical Plant Safety and Hazard Analysis Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course for teaching chemical engineering students about safety and hazards. Summarizes the course content including topics for term papers and disciplines related to this course. Lists 18 references. (YP)

  20. Experience Report Summary: Applying Adaptive Safety Analysis Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, R.; Shaw, H-Y.

    1999-01-01

    Current needs for high-reliability, reusable software; rapid, evolutionary development; and verification of innovative software architectures have focused attention on improving techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of embedded software.

  1. Development of a multichannel analysis code for the MITR-III safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Lin-Wen; Bernard, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the development of a MULti-CHannel analysis (MULCH-II) code to be used for the safety analysis of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR). The code models the primary and the secondary coolant systems with special emphasis on analysis of detailed thermal-hydraulic conditions in the core region. The hot channel is modeled in parallel with the average channels to predict conditions in the core during a flow excursion instability. Fuel and cladding temperatures are calculated under all conditions so that the margin to fuel failure is given in addition to the thermal-hydraulic conditions.

  2. Mines Systems Safety Improvement Using an Integrated Event Tree and Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ranjan; Ghosh, Achyuta Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Mines systems such as ventilation system, strata support system, flame proof safety equipment, are exposed to dynamic operational conditions such as stress, humidity, dust, temperature, etc., and safety improvement of such systems can be done preferably during planning and design stage. However, the existing safety analysis methods do not handle the accident initiation and progression of mine systems explicitly. To bridge this gap, this paper presents an integrated Event Tree (ET) and Fault Tree (FT) approach for safety analysis and improvement of mine systems design. This approach includes ET and FT modeling coupled with redundancy allocation technique. In this method, a concept of top hazard probability is introduced for identifying system failure probability and redundancy is allocated to the system either at component or system level. A case study on mine methane explosion safety with two initiating events is performed. The results demonstrate that the presented method can reveal the accident scenarios and improve the safety of complex mine systems simultaneously.

  3. Mines Systems Safety Improvement Using an Integrated Event Tree and Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ranjan; Ghosh, Achyuta Krishna

    2016-06-01

    Mines systems such as ventilation system, strata support system, flame proof safety equipment, are exposed to dynamic operational conditions such as stress, humidity, dust, temperature, etc., and safety improvement of such systems can be done preferably during planning and design stage. However, the existing safety analysis methods do not handle the accident initiation and progression of mine systems explicitly. To bridge this gap, this paper presents an integrated Event Tree (ET) and Fault Tree (FT) approach for safety analysis and improvement of mine systems design. This approach includes ET and FT modeling coupled with redundancy allocation technique. In this method, a concept of top hazard probability is introduced for identifying system failure probability and redundancy is allocated to the system either at component or system level. A case study on mine methane explosion safety with two initiating events is performed. The results demonstrate that the presented method can reveal the accident scenarios and improve the safety of complex mine systems simultaneously.

  4. RBMK Safety Analysis in Accidents Initiated by Partial Ruptures of the Circulation Circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Dostov, Anatoly I.; Kramerov, Alexander Ja.

    2002-07-01

    The paper gives an analysis of the current state of the RBMK safety evaluation in accidents initiated by partial ruptures of the delivery part of the circulating loop. It appears from this analysis that applicability and uncertainty of the international code RELAP for RBMK safety analysis could not be determined up to the present. At the same time it is shown in the paper that fuel rod cladding temperature can reach the acceptability criterion in the accidents. As a result it has been concluded that bases of the next stage of the RBMK safety analysis would be creation of a code oriented to the special features of a reactor RBMK. (authors)

  5. New Methods and Tools to Perform Safety Analysis within RISMC

    SciTech Connect

    Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith; Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi; Robert Kinoshita; Joshua Cogliati

    2013-11-01

    The Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway uses a systematic approach developed to characterize and quantify safety margins of nuclear power plant structures, systems and components. What differentiates the RISMC approach from traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is the concept of safety margin. In PRA, a safety metric such as core damage frequency (CDF) is generally estimated using static fault-tree and event-tree models. However, it is not possible to estimate how close we are to physical safety limits (say peak clad temperature) for most accident sequences described in the PRA. In the RISMC approach, what we want to understand is not just the frequency of an event like core damage, but how close we are (or not) to this event and how we might increase our safety margin through margin management strategies in a Dynamic PRA (DPRA) fashion. This paper gives an overview of methods that are currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the scope of advance the current state of the art of dynamic PRA.

  6. An Implementation of Protocol Analysis and the Silent Dog Method in the Area of Behavioral Safety

    PubMed Central

    Alvero, Alicia M; Austin, John

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that conducting safety observations increases the safety performance of the observer. The purpose of this study was to help determine whether observers make self-verbalizations regarding their own safety performance and whether these reports are functionally related to safety performance. In order to answer these questions two experiments were conducted using both protocol analysis and the silent dog method. The objective of Experiment 1 was (a) to determine whether safety performance with continuous, concurrent talk-aloud procedures is functionally equivalent to safety performance without talk-aloud reports, and (b) to determine whether that safety performance is altered when participants are presented with a distracter task. The goal of Experiment 2 was to determine whether the safety-related verbalizations made by Experiment 1 participants were task-relevant and functionally related to safety performance. The results from both Experiments 1 and 2 provide support for the existence of a functional relationship between safety-related verbalizations and increases in safety performance. PMID:22477344

  7. Markov Modeling with Soft Aggregation for Safety and Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER,J. ARLIN

    1999-09-01

    The methodology in this report improves on some of the limitations of many conventional safety assessment and decision analysis methods. A top-down mathematical approach is developed for decomposing systems and for expressing imprecise individual metrics as possibilistic or fuzzy numbers. A ''Markov-like'' model is developed that facilitates combining (aggregating) inputs into overall metrics and decision aids, also portraying the inherent uncertainty. A major goal of Markov modeling is to help convey the top-down system perspective. One of the constituent methodologies allows metrics to be weighted according to significance of the attribute and aggregated nonlinearly as to contribution. This aggregation is performed using exponential combination of the metrics, since the accumulating effect of such factors responds less and less to additional factors. This is termed ''soft'' mathematical aggregation. Dependence among the contributing factors is accounted for by incorporating subjective metrics on ''overlap'' of the factors as well as by correspondingly reducing the overall contribution of these combinations to the overall aggregation. Decisions corresponding to the meaningfulness of the results are facilitated in several ways. First, the results are compared to a soft threshold provided by a sigmoid function. Second, information is provided on input ''Importance'' and ''Sensitivity,'' in order to know where to place emphasis on considering new controls that may be necessary. Third, trends in inputs and outputs are tracked in order to obtain significant information% including cyclic information for the decision process. A practical example from the air transportation industry is used to demonstrate application of the methodology. Illustrations are given for developing a structure (along with recommended inputs and weights) for air transportation oversight at three different levels, for developing and using cycle information, for developing Importance and

  8. Gastrointestinal safety profile of nabumetone: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, J Q; Sridhar, S; Hunt, R H

    1999-12-13

    Individual comparative studies suggest that nabumetone has a gastrointestinal (GI) safety profile superior to comparator NSAIDs but lack power to show a statistical difference. The aim of this study was to evaluate systematically the difference in GI adverse events--especially the rate of perforations, ulcers, and bleeds (PUBs)-- between studies, meta-analyses of comparative trials of nabumetone and conventional NSAIDs, and postmarketing, open-label studies of nabumetone meeting predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A fully recursive literature search identified 13 studies consisting of 29 treatment arms and 49,501 patients that met the predefined criteria. Tests for heterogeneity found no significant difference between studies of each subgroup. Overall, the dyspeptic symptoms flatulence, constipation, and diarrhea were the most commonly reported adverse events accounting for 98.6% of the total GI adverse events. Significantly more patients treated with a comparator NSAID experienced GI adverse events than did those taking nabumetone (P = 0.007). After adjustment for patient-exposure years, PUBs were 10 to 36 times more likely to develop in patients treated with a comparator NSAID than with nabumetone. This was consistently seen in patients in nonendoscopic (n = 7,468) and endoscopic studies (n = 244). In the analysis of postmarketing or open-label studies of nabumetone, only one PUB was reported per 500 patient-exposure years over 17,502 treatment years (n = 39,389). GI adverse event-related dropouts and hospitalizations were increased by 1.3- and 3.7-fold if patients were treated with a comparator NSAID than with nabumetone. Significantly fewer treatment-related GI adverse events, especially PUBs, are seen in patients treated with nabumetone than with a comparator NSAID. Nabumetone is very safe for the GI tract.

  9. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 3: Reactor system preliminary nuclear safety analysis. Part 1: Reference Design Document (RDD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Reference Design Document, of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) - Reactor System provides the basic design and operations data used in the nuclear safety analysis of the Rector Power Module as applied to a Space Base program. A description of the power module systems, facilities, launch vehicle and mission operations, as defined in NASA Phase A Space Base studies is included. Each of two Zirconium Hydride Reactor Brayton power modules provides 50 kWe for the nominal 50 man Space Base. The INT-21 is the prime launch vehicle. Resupply to the 500 km orbit over the ten year mission is provided by the Space Shuttle. At the end of the power module lifetime (nominally five years), a reactor disposal system is deployed for boost into a 990 km high altitude (long decay time) earth orbit.

  10. Development of the FHR advanced natural circulation analysis code and application to FHR safety analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Z.; Zweibaum, N.; Shao, M.; ...

    2016-04-19

    The University of California, Berkeley (UCB) is performing thermal hydraulics safety analysis to develop the technical basis for design and licensing of fluoride-salt-cooled, high-temperature reactors (FHRs). FHR designs investigated by UCB use natural circulation for emergency, passive decay heat removal when normal decay heat removal systems fail. The FHR advanced natural circulation analysis (FANCY) code has been developed for assessment of passive decay heat removal capability and safety analysis of these innovative system designs. The FANCY code uses a one-dimensional, semi-implicit scheme to solve for pressure-linked mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. Graph theory is used to automatically generate amore » staggered mesh for complicated pipe network systems. Heat structure models have been implemented for three types of boundary conditions (Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions). Heat structures can be composed of several layers of different materials, and are used for simulation of heat structure temperature distribution and heat transfer rate. Control models are used to simulate sequences of events or trips of safety systems. A proportional-integral controller is also used to automatically make thermal hydraulic systems reach desired steady state conditions. A point kinetics model is used to model reactor kinetics behavior with temperature reactivity feedback. The underlying large sparse linear systems in these models are efficiently solved by using direct and iterative solvers provided by the SuperLU code on high performance machines. Input interfaces are designed to increase the flexibility of simulation for complicated thermal hydraulic systems. In conclusion, this paper mainly focuses on the methodology used to develop the FANCY code, and safety analysis of the Mark 1 pebble-bed FHR under development at UCB is performed.« less

  11. Development of the FHR advanced natural circulation analysis code and application to FHR safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Z.; Zweibaum, N.; Shao, M.; Huddar, L. R.; Peterson, P. F.; Qiu, S.

    2016-04-19

    The University of California, Berkeley (UCB) is performing thermal hydraulics safety analysis to develop the technical basis for design and licensing of fluoride-salt-cooled, high-temperature reactors (FHRs). FHR designs investigated by UCB use natural circulation for emergency, passive decay heat removal when normal decay heat removal systems fail. The FHR advanced natural circulation analysis (FANCY) code has been developed for assessment of passive decay heat removal capability and safety analysis of these innovative system designs. The FANCY code uses a one-dimensional, semi-implicit scheme to solve for pressure-linked mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. Graph theory is used to automatically generate a staggered mesh for complicated pipe network systems. Heat structure models have been implemented for three types of boundary conditions (Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions). Heat structures can be composed of several layers of different materials, and are used for simulation of heat structure temperature distribution and heat transfer rate. Control models are used to simulate sequences of events or trips of safety systems. A proportional-integral controller is also used to automatically make thermal hydraulic systems reach desired steady state conditions. A point kinetics model is used to model reactor kinetics behavior with temperature reactivity feedback. The underlying large sparse linear systems in these models are efficiently solved by using direct and iterative solvers provided by the SuperLU code on high performance machines. Input interfaces are designed to increase the flexibility of simulation for complicated thermal hydraulic systems. In conclusion, this paper mainly focuses on the methodology used to develop the FANCY code, and safety analysis of the Mark 1 pebble-bed FHR under development at UCB is performed.

  12. Experience in the use of probabilistic safety analysis for the development of safety concepts for commercial high-temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kroger, W.; Wolters, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    Advanced nuclear reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) must analogously fulfill the deterministic safety criteria developed for the light water reactor (LWR). In earlier high-temperature reactor (HTR) concepts, the interpretation of this requirement led to exaggerated safety precautions. Efforts are being made in recent HTR concepts to develop a more specific safety concept making use of probabilistic risk assessment and probabilistic safety analysis. The basis for development and evaluation is formed by a requirement concept of frequency-oriented limits. Design-relevant accidents are divided into three categories and the appertaining maximum permissible doses are allocated based on the FRG Radiation Protection Ordinance. For even more infrequent events it must be demonstrated that the collective damage and risks remain clearly below those of a comparably large LWR. This probabilistic requirement concept has been applied to two HTR concepts under development and the result has been judged positively by a group of experts established by the Federal Ministry of the Interior. The most extensive experience for HTR-500 is discussed in detail.

  13. Prospective Safety Analysis and the Complex Aviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Fatal accident rates in commercial passenger aviation are at historic lows yet have plateaued and are not showing evidence of further safety advances. Modern aircraft accidents reflect both historic causal factors and new unexpected "Black Swan" events. The ever-increasing complexity of the aviation system, along with its associated technology and organizational relationships, provides fertile ground for fresh problems. It is important to take a proactive approach to aviation safety by working to identify novel causation mechanisms for future aviation accidents before they happen. Progress has been made in using of historic data to identify the telltale signals preceding aviation accidents and incidents, using the large repositories of discrete and continuous data on aircraft and air traffic control performance and information reported by front-line personnel. Nevertheless, the aviation community is increasingly embracing predictive approaches to aviation safety. The "prospective workshop" early assessment tool described in this paper represents an approach toward this prospective mindset-one that attempts to identify the future vectors of aviation and asks the question: "What haven't we considered in our current safety assessments?" New causation mechanisms threatening aviation safety will arise in the future because new (or revised) systems and procedures will have to be used under future contextual conditions that have not been properly anticipated. Many simulation models exist for demonstrating the safety cases of new operational concepts and technologies. However the results from such models can only be as valid as the accuracy and completeness of assumptions made about the future context in which the new operational concepts and/or technologies will be immersed. Of course that future has not happened yet. What is needed is a reasonably high-confidence description of the future operational context, capturing critical contextual characteristics that modulate

  14. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground Safety Analysis Report J Appendix J to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Pt. 417, App. J Appendix J to Part 417—Ground...

  15. Reliability Modeling Methodology for Independent Approaches on Parallel Runways Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, P.; Schor, A.; Rosch, G.

    1998-01-01

    This document is an adjunct to the final report An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies. That report presents the results of our analysis of the problem of simultaneous but independent, approaches of two aircraft on parallel runways (independent approaches on parallel runways, or IAPR). This introductory chapter presents a brief overview and perspective of approaches and methodologies for performing safety analyses for complex systems. Ensuing chapter provide the technical details that underlie the approach that we have taken in performing the safety analysis for the IAPR concept.

  16. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herborn, D.I.

    1991-10-01

    The requirements for Westinghouse Hanford independent review of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) are contained in Section 1.0, Subsection 4.3 of WCH-CM-4-46. Specifically, this manual requires the following: (1) Formal functional reviews of the HWVP PSAR by the future operating organization (HWVP Operations), and the independent review organizations (HWVP and Environmental Safety Assurance, Environmental Assurance, and Quality Assurance); and (2) Review and approval of the HWVP PSAR by the Tank Waste Disposal (TWD) Subcouncil of the Safety and Environmental Advisory Council (SEAC), which provides independent advice to the Westinghouse Hanford President and executives on matters of safety and environmental protection. 7 refs.

  17. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves and Dam Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karastathis, V. K.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical methodologies and particularly the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) effectively proved their efficiency in the non-destructive testing of the dams, in the last decade, after many successful applications worldwide. The MASW method developed in the outset of this decade considerably improved the prospects and the validity of these geophysical applications. Since MASW and the other geophysical techniques do not require drilling they progressively increased their popularity significantly. The Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves can be applied for the assessment of both earthen and concrete dams. Nevertheless, mostly cases of earthen dams can be found in the literature. The method can detect and map low shear wave velocity areas potentially associated with low cohesion zones due to differential settlement events in the core or increased seepage. The advantage of MASW is that it is not influenced by the water saturation of the interior of the dam contrary to other methods eg. p-wave tomography. Usually, a joint application of MASW with the p-wave techniques can be an optimal choice since the two methodologies can act complementary. An application of MASW on a three-dimensional structure, such as a dam, however, can actually be considered as a complicated problem since the effects of the lateral structural anomalies can strongly affect the results. For example, in an earthen dam the investigation of the core can be influenced by the presence of the shells. Therefore, the problem should be carefully examined by modeling all these the lateral anomalies with the aim to avoid a misinterpretation of the results. The effectiveness of MASW to the dam safety assessment is presented through two example applications, one at the Mornos Dam, an earthen dam responsible for the water supply of Athens, and a second one at the Marathon Dam which is a concrete dam also used for the water supply of Athens. In the case of Mornos Dam, MASW detected areas affected

  18. A Radiation Safety Analysis for Lunar Lava Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAngelis, G.; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work is an assessment of the lunar lava tubes physical characteristics and an evaluation of the their actual safety features from the point of view of the ionizing radiation environment as potential habitats for future lunar exploration crews. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Child Safety on the Internet: An Analysis of Recent Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Gwen

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the roles of government, schools, parents, and private industry related to child safety on the Internet. An overview is provided of the December, 1997, Washington summit of government, industry and advocacy group leaders. A November, 1997, online forum of educators is summarized. (MES)

  20. JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment safety analysis report and operational safety requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, P. H.

    1985-09-01

    An experiment to evaluate the suitability of beryllium as a limiter material has been completed on the ISX-B tokamak. The experiment consisted of two phases: (1) the initial operation and characterization in the ISX experiment, and a period of continued operation to the specified surface fluence (10 to the 22d power atoms/sq cm of hydrogen ions; and (2) the disassembly, decontamination, or disposal of the ISX facility. During these two phases of the project, the possibility existed for beryllium and/or beryllium oxide powder to be produced inside the vacuum vessel. Beryllium dust is a highly toxic material, and extensive precautions are required to prevent the release of the beryllium into the experimental work area and to prevent the contamination of personnel working on the device. Details of the health hazards associated with beryllium and the appropriate precautions are presented. Also described in appendixes to this report are the various operational safety requirements for the project.

  1. JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment safety analysis report and operational safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, P.H.

    1985-09-01

    An experiment to evaluate the suitability of beryllium as a limiter material has been completed on the ISX-B tokamak. The experiment consisted of two phases: (1) the initial operation and characterization in the ISX experiment, and a period of continued operation to the specified surface fluence (10/sup 22/ atoms/cm/sup 2/) of hydrogen ions; and (2) the disassembly, decontamination, or disposal of the ISX facility. During these two phases of the project, the possibility existed for beryllium and/or beryllium oxide powder to be produced inside the vacuum vessel. Beryllium dust is a highly toxic material, and extensive precautions are required to prevent the release of the beryllium into the experimental work area and to prevent the contamination of personnel working on the device. Details of the health hazards associated with beryllium and the appropriate precautions are presented. Also described in appendixes to this report are the various operational safety requirements for the project.

  2. The need for detailed gender-specific occupational safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Cruz Rios, Fernanda; Chong, Wai K; Grau, David

    2017-09-01

    The female work in population is growing in the United States, therefore the occupational health and safety entities must start to analyze gender-specific data related to every industry, especially to nontraditional occupations. Women working in nontraditional jobs are often exposed to extreme workplace hazards. These women have their safety and health threatened because there are no adequate policies to mitigate gender-specific risks such as discrimination and harassment. Employers tend to aggravate this situation because they often fail to provide proper reporting infrastructure and support. According to past studies, women suffered from workplace injuries and illnesses that were less prominent among men. Statistics also confirmed that men and women faced different levels of risks in distinct work environments. For example, the rates of workplace violence and murders by personal acquaintances were significantly higher among women. In this paper, the authors analyze prior public data on fatal and nonfatal injuries to understand why we need to differentiate genders when analyzing occupational safety and health issues. The analyses confirmed that women dealt with unique workplace hazards compared to men. It is urgent that public agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Labor, record gender-specific data in details and by occupations and industries. The reader will become aware of the current lack - and need - of data and knowledge about injuries and illnesses separated by gender and industry. Finally, safety and health researchers are encouraged to investigate the gender-specific data in all industries and occupations, as soon as they become available. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the safety effects of cooperative intelligent transport systems: A bowtie analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Ute Christine; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen; McCormack, Edward; Khan, Faisal; Ehlers, Sören

    2017-02-01

    The safety effects of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) are mostly unknown and associated with uncertainties, because these systems represent emerging technology. This study proposes a bowtie analysis as a conceptual framework for evaluating the safety effect of cooperative intelligent transport systems. These seek to prevent road traffic accidents or mitigate their consequences. Under the assumption of the potential occurrence of a particular single vehicle accident, three case studies demonstrate the application of the bowtie analysis approach in road traffic safety. The approach utilizes exemplary expert estimates and knowledge from literature on the probability of the occurrence of accident risk factors and of the success of safety measures. Fuzzy set theory is applied to handle uncertainty in expert knowledge. Based on this approach, a useful tool is developed to estimate the effects of safety-related cooperative intelligent transport systems in terms of the expected change in accident occurrence and consequence probability.

  4. The Oak Ridge Research Reactor: safety analysis: Volume 2, supplement 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, S.S.

    1986-11-01

    The Oak Ridge Research Reactor Safety Analysis was last updated via ORNL-4169, Vol. 2, Supplement 1, in May of 1978. Since that date, several changes have been effected through the change-memo system described below. While these changes have involved the cooling system, the electrical system, and the reactor instrumentation and controls, they have not, for the most part, presented new or unreviewed safety questions. However, some of the changes have been based on questions or recommendations stemming from safety reviews or from reactor events at other sites. This paper discusses those changes which were judged to be safety related and which include revisions to the syphon-break system and changes related to seismic considerations which were very recently completed. The maximum hypothetical accident postulated in the original safety analysis requires dynamic containment and filtered flow for compliance with 10CFR100 limits at the site boundary.

  5. 76 FR 47085 - Domestic Licensing of Source Material-Amendments/Integrated Safety Analysis; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 40 RIN 3150-AI50 Domestic Licensing of Source Material..., ``Domestic Licensing of Source Material--Amendments/Integrated Safety Analysis.'' This action is necessary...

  6. Safety Analysis Report: X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.; Thomlinson, W.

    1990-02-01

    This report contains a safety analysis for the X17B2 beamline synchrotron medical research facility. Health hazards, risk assessment and building systems are discussed. Reference is made to transvenous coronary angiography. (LSP)

  7. Overview of the Preliminary Safety Analysis of the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brereton, S.; McLouth, L.; Odell, B.; Singh, M.; Tobin, M.; Trent, M.; Yatabe, J.

    1997-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a proposed U.S. Department of Energy inertial confinement laser fusion facility. The candidate sites for locating the NIF are: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, New Mexico, the Nevada Test Site, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the preferred site. The NIF will operate by focusing 192 individual laser beams onto a tiny deuterium-tritium target located at the center of a spherical target chamber. The NIF has been classified as a low hazard, radiological facility on the basis of a preliminary hazards analysis and according to the DOE methodology for facility classification. This requires that a safety analysis report be prepared under DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. A Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) has been approved, which documents and evaluates the safety issues associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of the NIF.

  8. Use of Fault Tree Analysis for Automotive Reliability and Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, H

    2003-09-24

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) evolved from the aerospace industry in the 1960's. A fault tree is deductive logic model that is generated with a top undesired event in mind. FTA answers the question, ''how can something occur?'' as opposed to failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) that is inductive and answers the question, ''what if?'' FTA is used in risk, reliability and safety assessments. FTA is currently being used by several industries such as nuclear power and chemical processing. Typically the automotive industries uses failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) such as design FMEAs and process FMEAs. The use of FTA has spread to the automotive industry. This paper discusses the use of FTA for automotive applications. With the addition automotive electronics for various applications in systems such as engine/power control, cruise control and braking/traction, FTA is well suited to address failure modes within these systems. FTA can determine the importance of these failure modes from various perspectives such as cost, reliability and safety. A fault tree analysis of a car starting system is presented as an example.

  9. Multimorbidity and Patient Safety Incidents in Primary Care: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Panagioti, Maria; Stokes, Jonathan; Esmail, Aneez; Coventry, Peter; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Alam, Rahul; Bower, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is increasingly prevalent and represents a major challenge in primary care. Patients with multimorbidity are potentially more likely to experience safety incidents due to the complexity of their needs and frequency of their interactions with health services. However, rigorous syntheses of the link between patient safety incidents and multimorbidity are not available. This review examined the relationship between multimorbidity and patient safety incidents in primary care. Methods We followed our published protocol (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014007434). Medline, Embase and CINAHL were searched up to May 2015. Study design and quality were assessed. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for the associations between multimorbidity and two categories of patient safety outcomes: ‘active patient safety incidents’ (such as adverse drug events and medical complications) and ‘precursors of safety incidents’ (such as prescription errors, medication non-adherence, poor quality of care and diagnostic errors). Meta-analyses using random effects models were undertaken. Results Eighty six relevant comparisons from 75 studies were included in the analysis. Meta-analysis demonstrated that physical-mental multimorbidity was associated with an increased risk for ‘active patient safety incidents’ (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.40 to 3.38) and ‘precursors of safety incidents’ (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.36 to 2.03). Physical multimorbidity was associated with an increased risk for active safety incidents (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.45 to 1.80) but was not associated with precursors of safety incidents (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.13). Statistical heterogeneity was high and the methodological quality of the studies was generally low. Conclusions The association between multimorbidity and patient safety is complex, and varies by type of multimorbidity and type of safety incident. Our analyses suggest that multimorbidity

  10. Analysis the Changes of the NGL Product Pipe Safety in the Process of Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, V. I.; Petryakov, V. A.; Brand, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents to analyze the changes of the NGL product pipe safety in the process of operation. In the article the analysis and to mathematically calculated the margin of safety and durability according to change thickness of pipeline. The study of analysis the accident conditions risks during the pipeline operation have shown that such measure as the pipe wall thickness increase is appropriate. The proposed conditions on the application of the obtained results.

  11. Analysis of factors influencing safety management for metro construction in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q Z; Ding, L Y; Zhou, C; Luo, H B

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization in China, the number and size of metro construction projects are increasing quickly. At the same time, and increasing number of accidents in metro construction make it a disturbing focus of social attention. In order to improve safety management in metro construction, an investigation of the participants' perspectives on safety factors in China metro construction has been conducted to identify the key safety factors, and their ranking consistency among the main participants, including clients, consultants, designers, contractors and supervisors. The result of factor analysis indicates that there are five key factors which influence the safety of metro construction including safety attitude, construction site safety, government supervision, market restrictions and task unpredictability. In addition, ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were performed to test the consistency of the means rating and the ranking of safety factors. The results indicated that the main participants have significant disagreement about the importance of safety factors on more than half of the items. Suggestions and recommendations on practical countermeasures to improve metro construction safety management in China are proposed.

  12. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed aircraft incidents in the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) that apply to two of the three technical challenges (TCs) in NASA's Aviation Safety Program's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project. The aircraft incidents are related to airframe icing and atmospheric hazards TCs. The study reviewed incidents that listed their primary problem as weather or environment-nonweather between 1994 and 2011 for aircraft defined by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91. The study investigated the phases of flight, a variety of anomalies, flight conditions, and incidents by FAR part, along with other categories. The first part of the analysis focused on airframe-icing-related incidents and found 275 incidents out of 3526 weather-related incidents over the 18-yr period. The second portion of the study focused on atmospheric hazards and found 4647 incidents over the same time period. Atmospheric hazards-related incidents included a range of conditions from clear air turbulence and wake vortex, to controlled flight toward terrain, ground encounters, and incursions.

  13. National Synchrotron Light Source safety-analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.

    1982-07-01

    This document covers all of the safety issues relating to the design and operation of the storage rings and injection system of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The building systems for fire protection, access and egress are described together with air and other gaseous control or venting systems. Details of shielding against prompt bremstrahlung radiation and synchrotron radiation are described and the administrative requirements to be satisfied for operation of a beam line at the facility are given.

  14. Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

    2013-10-01

    Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21.

  15. Sodium fast reactor gaps analysis of computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety.

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Ludewig, Hans; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Serre, Frederic

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the

  16. Levitated Duct Fan (LDF) Aircraft Auxiliary Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Emerson, Dawn C.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2011-01-01

    This generator concept includes a novel stator and rotor architecture made from composite material with blades attached to the outer rotating shell of a ducted fan drum rotor, a non-contact support system between the stator and rotor using magnetic fields to provide levitation, and an integrated electromagnetic generation system. The magnetic suspension between the rotor and the stator suspends and supports the rotor within the stator housing using permanent magnets attached to the outer circumference of the drum rotor and passive levitation coils in the stator shell. The magnets are arranged in a Halbach array configuration.

  17. Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

  18. Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

  19. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  20. Oak Ridge National Laboratory site data for safety-analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, F.C.

    1982-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory site data contained herein were compiled in support of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office Order OR 5481.1. That order sets forth assignment of responsibilities for safety analysis and review responsibilities and provides guidance relative to the content and format of safety analysis reports. The information presented in this document is intended for use by reference in individual safety analysis reports where applicable to support accident analyses or the establishment of design bases of significance to safety, and it is applicable only to Oak Ridge National Laboratory facilities in Bethel and Melton Valleys. This information includes broad descriptions of the site characteristics, radioactive waste handling and monitoring practices, and the organization and operating policies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The historical background of the Laboratory is discussed briefly and the overall physical situation of the facilities is described in the following paragraphs.

  1. Comparison of a Traditional Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approach with Advanced Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis L; Mandelli, Diego; Zhegang Ma

    2014-11-01

    As part of the Light Water Sustainability Program (LWRS) [1], the purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) [2] Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. In this paper, we describe the RISMC analysis process illustrating how mechanistic and probabilistic approaches are combined in order to estimate a safety margin. We use the scenario of a “station blackout” (SBO) wherein offsite power and onsite power is lost, thereby causing a challenge to plant safety systems. We describe the RISMC approach, illustrate the station blackout modeling, and contrast this with traditional risk analysis modeling for this type of accident scenario. We also describe our approach we are using to represent advanced flooding analysis.

  2. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    PubMed

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  3. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  4. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80.105 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information must be included in an equivalent level of...

  5. A meta-analysis of personality and workplace safety: addressing unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Beus, Jeremy M; Dhanani, Lindsay Y; McCord, Mallory A

    2015-03-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(2) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-08139-001). Table 3 contained formatting errors. Minus signs used to indicate negative statistical estimates within the table were inadvertently changed to m-dashes. All versions of this article have been corrected.] The purpose of this meta-analysis was to address unanswered questions regarding the associations between personality and workplace safety by (a) clarifying the magnitude and meaning of these associations with both broad and facet-level personality traits, (b) delineating how personality is associated with workplace safety, and (c) testing the relative importance of personality in comparison to perceptions of the social context of safety (i.e., safety climate) in predicting safety-related behavior. Our results revealed that whereas agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with unsafe behaviors, extraversion and neuroticism were positively associated with them. Of these traits, agreeableness accounted for the largest proportion of explained variance in safety-related behavior and openness to experience was unrelated. At the facet level, sensation seeking, altruism, anger, and impulsiveness were all meaningfully associated with safety-related behavior, though sensation seeking was the only facet that demonstrated a stronger relationship than its parent trait (i.e., extraversion). In addition, meta-analytic path modeling supported the theoretical expectation that personality's associations with accidents are mediated by safety-related behavior. Finally, although safety climate perceptions accounted for the majority of explained variance in safety-related behavior, personality traits (i.e., agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism) still accounted for a unique and substantive proportion of the explained variance. Taken together, these results substantiate the value of considering personality traits as key

  6. Waste Sampling & Characterization Facility (WSCF) Complex Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MELOY, R.T.

    2002-04-01

    This document was prepared to analyze the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility for safety consequences by: Determining radionuclide and highly hazardous chemical inventories; Comparing these inventories to the appropriate regulatory limits; Documenting the compliance status with respect to these limits; and Identifying the administrative controls necessary to maintain this status. The primary purpose of the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) is to perform low-level radiological and chemical analyses on various types of samples taken from the Hanford Site. These analyses will support the fulfillment of federal, Washington State, and Department of Energy requirements.

  7. Risk analysis of Safety Service Patrol (SSP) systems in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Brett D; Santos, Joost R

    2011-12-01

    The transportation infrastructure is a vital backbone of any regional economy as it supports workforce mobility, tourism, and a host of socioeconomic activities. In this article, we specifically examine the incident management function of the transportation infrastructure. In many metropolitan regions, incident management is handled primarily by safety service patrols (SSPs), which monitor and resolve roadway incidents. In Virginia, SSP allocation across highway networks is based typically on average vehicle speeds and incident volumes. This article implements a probabilistic network model that partitions "business as usual" traffic flow with extreme-event scenarios. Results of simulated network scenarios reveal that flexible SSP configurations can improve incident resolution times relative to predetermined SSP assignments.

  8. Preliminary safety analysis of the zinc chlorine electric vehicle battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-03-01

    Since the design is not yet fixed or fully detailed, the intent is to identify the principal areas of uncertainty and concern for public safety, thereby aiding in further development and initial deployment planning. Of the wide range of potential hazards considered, all were discounted except for possible release of toxic chlorine gas under conditions such as a major collision. The risk of casualties in such accidents appears to be significant, but probably similar to that for casualty rates now arising from sources unique to the ICE vehicle such as carbon monoxide poisoning and fire.

  9. An analysis of electronic health record-related patient safety concerns

    PubMed Central

    Meeks, Derek W; Smith, Michael W; Taylor, Lesley; Sittig, Dean F; Scott, Jean M; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-01-01

    Objective A recent Institute of Medicine report called for attention to safety issues related to electronic health records (EHRs). We analyzed EHR-related safety concerns reported within a large, integrated healthcare system. Methods The Informatics Patient Safety Office of the Veterans Health Administration (VA) maintains a non-punitive, voluntary reporting system to collect and investigate EHR-related safety concerns (ie, adverse events, potential events, and near misses). We analyzed completed investigations using an eight-dimension sociotechnical conceptual model that accounted for both technical and non-technical dimensions of safety. Using the framework analysis approach to qualitative data, we identified emergent and recurring safety concerns common to multiple reports. Results We extracted 100 consecutive, unique, closed investigations between August 2009 and May 2013 from 344 reported incidents. Seventy-four involved unsafe technology and 25 involved unsafe use of technology. A majority (70%) involved two or more model dimensions. Most often, non-technical dimensions such as workflow, policies, and personnel interacted in a complex fashion with technical dimensions such as software/hardware, content, and user interface to produce safety concerns. Most (94%) safety concerns related to either unmet data-display needs in the EHR (ie, displayed information available to the end user failed to reduce uncertainty or led to increased potential for patient harm), software upgrades or modifications, data transmission between components of the EHR, or ‘hidden dependencies’ within the EHR. Discussion EHR-related safety concerns involving both unsafe technology and unsafe use of technology persist long after ‘go-live’ and despite the sophisticated EHR infrastructure represented in our data source. Currently, few healthcare institutions have reporting and analysis capabilities similar to the VA. Conclusions Because EHR-related safety concerns have complex

  10. Review and Analysis of Development of "Safety by Design" Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Scott A.; Hockert, John

    2009-10-20

    This report, the deliverable for Task 4 of the NA-243 Safeguards by Design Work Plan for Fiscal Year 2009, develops the lessons to be learned for the institutionalization of Safeguards By Design (SBD) from the Department of Energy (DOE) experience developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. This experience was selected for study because of the similarity of the challenges of integrating safety and safeguards into the design process. Development of DOE-STD-1189 began in January 2006 and the standard was issued for implementation in March 2008. The process was much more time consuming than originally anticipated and might not have come to fruition had senior DOE management been less committed to its success. Potentially valuable lessons can be learned from both the content and presentation of the integration approach in DOE-STD-1189 and from the DOE experience in developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189. These lessons are important because the instutionalization of SBD does not yet appear to have the level of senior management commitment afforded development and implementation of DOE-STD-1189.

  11. Analysis of Fundamental NIST Sphere Experiments Related to Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon S.

    2007-06-01

    A series of neutron transport experiments was performed in 1989 and 1990 at NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) using a spherical stainless steel container and fission chambers. These experiments were performed to help understand errors observed in criticality calculations for arrays of individually subcritical components, particularly solution arrays [1-3]. They were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environment and Health, Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project. The intent was to evaluate the possibility that the criticality prediction errors stem from errors in the calculation of neutron leakage from individual components of the array. Thus, the explicit product of the experiments was the measurement of the leakage flux, as characterized by various Cd-shielded and unshielded fission rates. Because the various fission rates have different neutron-energy sensitivities, collectively they give an indication of the energy dependence of the leakage flux. Leakage and moderation were varied systematically through the use of different diameter spheres, with and without water. Some of these experiments with bare fission chambers have been evaluated by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP)[4].

  12. Review of Overall Safety Manual for space nuclear systems. An evaluation of a nuclear safety analysis methodology for plutonium-fueled space nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.; Inhaber, H.

    1984-02-01

    As part of its duties in connection with space missions involving nuclear power sources, the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) of the Office of Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness has been assigned the task of reviewing the Overall Safety Manual (OSM) (memo from B.J. Rock to J.R. Maher, December 1, 1982). The OSM, dated July 1981 and in four volumes, was prepared by NUS Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, for the US Department of Energy. The OSM provides many of the technical models and much of the data which are used by (1) space launch contractors in safety analysis reports and (2) the broader Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) safety evaluation reports. If fhs interaction between the OSM, contractors, and INSRP is to work effectively, the OSM must be accurate, comprehensive, understandable, and usable.

  13. Cognitive-behavioral approaches to farm community safety education: a conceptual analysis.

    PubMed

    Cole, H P

    2002-05-01

    For many years, farm health and safety education efforts have focused on the presentation of safety rules and guidelines. This method of instruction tends to ignore the contingencies that influence the actual behavior of farmers. Consequently, while most farmers understand the safety instruction messages they receive, they frequently continue to engage in risky behaviors. They do so even when they are aware of the injury consequences that can result from engaging in risky behaviors during farm work. Consequently, educational programs for the delivery of farm health and safety knowledge have been judged to be of questionable effectiveness. Yet, current political, social, and economic realities suggest that safety and health education will remain a favored methodology for the foreseeable future. These observations suggest that farm safety education efforts may need to be reconceptualized. This article examines the learning of safe and unsafe work practices from three historical learning theory perspectives: behaviorism, constructivism, and socioculturalism. The conceptual analysis is illustrated through case study examples. The analysis may provide insights into why transmission of knowledge by itself is not effective for replacing risky behaviors with safe work practices. It may also assist the design of farm health and safety education programs that impart knowledge, as well as change attitudes and behavior that support safe work practices.

  14. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 3: Reactor system preliminary nuclear safety analysis. Part 2: Accident Model Document (AMD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Accident Model Document is one of three documents of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) - Reactor System as applied to a Space Base Program. Potential terrestrial nuclear hazards involving the zirconium hydride reactor-Brayton power module are identified for all phases of the Space Base program. The accidents/events that give rise to the hazards are defined and abort sequence trees are developed to determine the sequence of events leading to the hazard and the associated probabilities of occurence. Source terms are calculated to determine the magnitude of the hazards. The above data is used in the mission accident analysis to determine the most probable and significant accidents/events in each mission phase. The only significant hazards during the prelaunch and launch ascent phases of the mission are those which arise form criticality accidents. Fission product inventories during this time period were found to be very low due to very limited low power acceptance testing.

  15. Model-Driven Safety Analysis of Closed-Loop Medical Systems.

    PubMed

    Pajic, Miroslav; Mangharam, Rahul; Sokolsky, Oleg; Arney, David; Goldman, Julian; Lee, Insup

    2012-10-26

    In modern hospitals, patients are treated using a wide array of medical devices that are increasingly interacting with each other over the network, thus offering a perfect example of a cyber-physical system. We study the safety of a medical device system for the physiologic closed-loop control of drug infusion. The main contribution of the paper is the verification approach for the safety properties of closed-loop medical device systems. We demonstrate, using a case study, that the approach can be applied to a system of clinical importance. Our method combines simulation-based analysis of a detailed model of the system that contains continuous patient dynamics with model checking of a more abstract timed automata model. We show that the relationship between the two models preserves the crucial aspect of the timing behavior that ensures the conservativeness of the safety analysis. We also describe system design that can provide open-loop safety under network failure.

  16. Model-Driven Safety Analysis of Closed-Loop Medical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pajic, Miroslav; Mangharam, Rahul; Sokolsky, Oleg; Arney, David; Goldman, Julian; Lee, Insup

    2013-01-01

    In modern hospitals, patients are treated using a wide array of medical devices that are increasingly interacting with each other over the network, thus offering a perfect example of a cyber-physical system. We study the safety of a medical device system for the physiologic closed-loop control of drug infusion. The main contribution of the paper is the verification approach for the safety properties of closed-loop medical device systems. We demonstrate, using a case study, that the approach can be applied to a system of clinical importance. Our method combines simulation-based analysis of a detailed model of the system that contains continuous patient dynamics with model checking of a more abstract timed automata model. We show that the relationship between the two models preserves the crucial aspect of the timing behavior that ensures the conservativeness of the safety analysis. We also describe system design that can provide open-loop safety under network failure. PMID:24177176

  17. Mechanical engineering note - safety analysis of molten uranium/water interaction in the uranium foundry furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gourdin, W H; Sze, J

    1999-08-19

    This Engineering Note describes the development of the accident criteria used the basis for the design of the uranium foundry vacuum vessel. The results of this analysis provide input into other safety notes that investigate how well the uranium containment boundary will maintain its integrity during the design basis accident. The preventative measures that have been designed into the system to minimize the potential to produce a flammable gas mixture are described. The system response is designed for consistency with applicable sections of the LLNL Health and Safety Manual, as well as the Mechanical engineering Safety Design Standards.

  18. A Common Methodology for Safety and Reliability Analysis for Space Reactor Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Michael V.

    2006-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that the methodology of probabilistic risk management (PRM) has the capability to integrate both safety and reliability analyses for space nuclear missions. Practiced within a decision analysis framework, the concept of risk and the overall methodology of PRM are not dependent on whether the outcome affects mission success or mission safety. This paper presents the methodology by means of simplified examples.

  19. A Common Methodology for Safety and Reliability Analysis for Space Reactor Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Michael V.

    2006-01-20

    The thesis of this paper is that the methodology of probabilistic risk management (PRM) has the capability to integrate both safety and reliability analyses for space nuclear missions. Practiced within a decision analysis framework, the concept of risk and the overall methodology of PRM are not dependent on whether the outcome affects mission success or mission safety. This paper presents the methodology by means of simplified exampl0008.

  20. Bayesian Statistics and Uncertainty Quantification for Safety Boundary Analysis in Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Yuning; Davies, Misty Dawn

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of a safety-critical system often requires detailed knowledge of safe regions and their highdimensional non-linear boundaries. We present a statistical approach to iteratively detect and characterize the boundaries, which are provided as parameterized shape candidates. Using methods from uncertainty quantification and active learning, we incrementally construct a statistical model from only few simulation runs and obtain statistically sound estimates of the shape parameters for safety boundaries.

  1. Architectural Dependency Analysis to Understand Rework Costs for Safety Critical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-07

    Architectural Dependency Analysis to Understand Rework Costs for Safety-Critical Systems Robert L. Nord , Ipek Ozkaya Software Engineering...generalized from observing the evolution of safety-critical systems. Section 4 revisits the architecture using knowledge of behavior and design...assumptions.  Resource behavior (R): For B to execute correctly, the resource behavior of A must be consistent with B’s assumptions about resource

  2. Psychometric Properties of the AHRQ Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture: A Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aboneh, Ephrem A.; Look, Kevin; Stone, Jamie; Lester, Corey; Chui, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed a hospital patient safety culture survey in 2004, and has adapted this survey to other healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and medical offices, and most recently community pharmacies. However, it is unknown if safety culture dimensions developed in hospital settings can be transferred to community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Method The survey was administered to 543 community pharmacists in [state], United States. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of our data with the proposed AHRQ model. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. Results A total of 433 usable surveys were returned (response rate of 80%). Results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed inadequate model fit for the original 36 item, 11-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a modified 27 item, 4-factor structure better reflected the underlying safety culture dimensions in community pharmacies. The communication openness factor, with 3 items, dropped in its entirety while 6 items dropped from multiple factors. The remaining 27 items redistributed to form the 4-factor structure: safety related communication, staff training and work environment, organizational response to safety events, and staffing, work pressure and pace. Cronbach's α of 0.95 suggested good internal consistency. Conclusion Dimensions related to safety culture in a community pharmacy environment may differ from those in other healthcare settings such as in hospitals. Our findings suggest that validation studies need to be conducted before applying safety dimensions from other healthcare settings into community pharmacies. PMID:26208535

  3. Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a listing of recent unclassified RTO technical publications processed by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information from January 1, 2001 through March 31, 2001 available on the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. Contents include 1) Cognitive Task Analysis; 2) RTO Educational Notes; 3) The Capability of Virtual Reality to Meet Military Requirements; 4) Aging Engines, Avionics, Subsystems and Helicopters; 5) RTO Meeting Proceedings; 6) RTO Technical Reports; 7) Low Grazing Angle Clutter...; 8) Verification and Validation Data for Computational Unsteady Aerodynamics; 9) Space Observation Technology; 10) The Human Factor in System Reliability...; 11) Flight Control Design...; 12) Commercial Off-the-Shelf Products in Defense Applications.

  4. Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a listing of recent unclassified RTO technical publications processed by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information from January 1, 2001 through March 31, 2001 available on the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. Contents include 1) Cognitive Task Analysis; 2) RTO Educational Notes; 3) The Capability of Virtual Reality to Meet Military Requirements; 4) Aging Engines, Avionics, Subsystems and Helicopters; 5) RTO Meeting Proceedings; 6) RTO Technical Reports; 7) Low Grazing Angle Clutter...; 8) Verification and Validation Data for Computational Unsteady Aerodynamics; 9) Space Observation Technology; 10) The Human Factor in System Reliability...; 11) Flight Control Design...; 12) Commercial Off-the-Shelf Products in Defense Applications.

  5. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... system anomaly occurring and all of its effects as determined by the single failure point analysis and... effects of storage, transportation, handling, maintenance, and operating environments on component... fault tree analysis or a failure modes effects and criticality analysis; (2) Identify all possible...

  6. Safety in the globalising knowledge economy: an analysis by paradoxes.

    PubMed

    Ravetz, J R

    2001-09-14

    There is a widespread recognition of a 'crisis' in official scientific expertise, related to the increase of 'uncertainty' and the loss of 'trust', and whose cure is believed to lie in 'participation'. I argue that the crisis results from structural features of the globalising knowledge economy, and the contradictory roles of governments, acting both as promoters of global business enterprise and also as regulators on behalf of a sophisticated and suspicious public. I explain the crisis by substituting 'safety' for 'risk' as the operative concept, and also using 'paradox' as an explanatory tool. I produce a closed-cycle paradox, analogous to the classic Catch-22, to exhibit the contradictions in the situation. I discuss ways of resolving these, which include the recognition of policy-critical ignorance and the adoption of the perspective of post-normal science.

  7. Moderate sedation in cardiac electrophysiology laboratory: a retrospective safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Sawhney, V; Bacuetes, E; Wray, M; Dhinoja, M; Earley, M J; Schilling, R J; Sporton, S

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac electrophysiology (EP) procedures can be performed under moderate sedation without the direct involvement of an anaesthetist. However, concerns have been raised over the safety of this approach. This study examines the use of a standardised nurse-led physician-directed sedation protocol for EP procedures to determine the safety of moderate sedation administered by non-anaesthesia personnel who have been trained in sedation techniques. Consecutive EP procedures done under moderate sedation over 12 years at our institution were evaluated. Serious adverse events were defined as (i) procedural death related to sedation; (ii) intubation and ventilation; and (iii) hypotension requiring inotropic support. Reversal of sedation constituted a minor adverse event. Up to 7117 procedures were included. These comprised ablations (55%), devices (43%) and other procedures (2%). A majority of patients were men with a mean age of 61±10 years. 99.98% of procedures were completed successfully without sedation-related serious adverse events. Two patients (0.02%) required anaesthetic support for intubation. Sedation was reversed in 1.2% of procedures with less than 1% requiring reversal because of persistent drop in oxygen saturation, hypoventilation or markedly reduced level of consciousness. There was no significant difference in the patient characteristics, mean doses of sedative agents and procedure types in the group requiring reversal of sedation when compared with the whole cohort. Our study demonstrates that nurse-led, physician-directed moderate sedation is safe. Anaesthesia services are not required routinely for invasive cardiac EP procedures and should be available on a need basis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Emily J.; Hoebbel, Cassandra L.; Rost, Kristen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Satisfactory completion of mine safety training is a prerequisite for being hired and for continued employment in the coal industry. Although training includes content to develop skills in a variety of mineworker competencies, research and recommendations continue to specify that specific limitations in the self-escape portion of training still exist and that mineworkers need to be better prepared to respond to emergencies that could occur in their mine. Ecological models are often used to inform the development of health promotion programs but have not been widely applied to occupational health and safety training programs. Methods Nine mine safety trainers participated in in-depth semi-structured interviews. A theoretical analysis of the interviews was completed via an ecological lens. Each level of the social ecological model was used to examine factors that could be addressed both during and after mine safety training. Results The analysis suggests that problems surrounding communication and collaboration, leadership development, and responsibility and accountability at different levels within the mining industry contribute to deficiencies in mineworkers' mastery and maintenance of skills. Conclusion This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels—individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community—to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training. PMID:25379324

  9. Overheads, Safety Analysis and Engineering FY 1995 Site Support Program Plan WBS 6.3.5

    SciTech Connect

    DiVincenzo, E.P.

    1994-09-27

    The Safety Analysis & Engineering (SA&E) department provides core competency for safety analysis and risk documentation that supports achievement of the goals and mission as described in the Hanford Mission Plan, Volume I, Site Guidance (DOE-RL 1993). SA&E operations are integrated into the programs that plan and conduct safe waste management, environmental restoration, and operational activities. SA&E personnel are key members of task teams assigned to eliminate urgent risks and inherent threats that exist at the Hanford Site. Key to ensuring protection of public health and safety, and that of onsite workers, are the products and services provided by the department. SA&E will continue to provide a leadership role throughout the DOE complex with innovative, cost-effective approaches to ensuring safety during environmental cleanup operations. The SA&E mission is to provide support to direct program operations through safety analysis and risk documentation and to maintain an infrastructure responsive to the evolutionary climate at the Hanford Site. SA&E will maintain the appropriate skills mix necessary to fulfill the customers need to conduct all operations in a safe and cost-effective manner while ensuring the safety of the public and the onsite worker.

  10. Guidance on the implementation and reporting of a drug safety Bayesian network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohlssen, David; Price, Karen L; Xia, H Amy; Hong, Hwanhee; Kerman, Jouni; Fu, Haoda; Quartey, George; Heilmann, Cory R; Ma, Haijun; Carlin, Bradley P

    2014-01-01

    The Drug Information Association Bayesian Scientific Working Group (BSWG) was formed in 2011 with a vision to ensure that Bayesian methods are well understood and broadly utilized for design and analysis and throughout the medical product development process, and to improve industrial, regulatory, and economic decision making. The group, composed of individuals from academia, industry, and regulatory, has as its mission to facilitate the appropriate use and contribute to the progress of Bayesian methodology. In this paper, the safety sub-team of the BSWG explores the use of Bayesian methods when applied to drug safety meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. Guidance is presented on the conduct and reporting of such analyses. We also discuss different structural model assumptions and provide discussion on prior specification. The work is illustrated through a case study involving a network meta-analysis related to the cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  11. Meta-analysis of food safety training on hand hygiene knowledge and attitudes among food handlers.

    PubMed

    Soon, Jan Mei; Baines, Richard; Seaman, Phillip

    2012-04-01

    Research has shown that traditional food safety training programs and strategies to promote hand hygiene increases knowledge of the subject. However, very few studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of food safety training on food handlers' attitudes about good hand hygiene practices. The objective of this meta-analytical study was to assess the extent to which food safety training or intervention strategies increased knowledge of and attitudes about hand hygiene. A systematic review of food safety training articles was conducted. Additional studies were identified from abstracts from food safety conferences and food science education conferences. Search terms included combinations of "food safety," "food hygiene," "training," "education," "hand washing," "hand hygiene," "knowledge," "attitudes," "practices," "behavior," and "food handlers." Only before- and after-training approaches and cohort studies with training (intervention group) and without training (control group) in hand hygiene knowledge and including attitudes in food handlers were evaluated. All pooled analyses were based on a random effects model. Meta-analysis values for nine food safety training and intervention studies on hand hygiene knowledge among food handlers were significantly higher than those of the control (without training), with an effect size (Hedges' g) of 1.284 (95% confidence interval [CI] ∼ 0.830 to 1.738). Meta-analysis of five food safety training and intervention studies in which hand hygiene attitudes and self-reported practices were monitored produced a summary effect size of 0.683 (95% CI ∼ 0.523 to 0.843). Food safety training increased knowledge and improved attitudes about hand hygiene practices. Refresher training and long-term reinforcement of good food handling behaviors may also be beneficial for sustaining good hand washing practices.

  12. Scenario Analysis for the Safety Assessment of Nuclear Waste Repositories: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Tosoni, Edoardo; Salo, Ahti; Zio, Enrico

    2017-09-05

    A major challenge in scenario analysis for the safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories pertains to the comprehensiveness of the set of scenarios selected for assessing the safety of the repository. Motivated by this challenge, we discuss the aspects of scenario analysis relevant to comprehensiveness. Specifically, we note that (1) it is necessary to make it clear why scenarios usually focus on a restricted set of features, events, and processes; (2) there is not yet consensus on the interpretation of comprehensiveness for guiding the generation of scenarios; and (3) there is a need for sound approaches to the treatment of epistemic uncertainties. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Additional guidance for including nuclear safety equivalency in the Canister Storage Building and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility final safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1997-05-20

    This document provides guidance for the production of safety analysis reports that must meet both DOE Order 5480.23 and STD 3009, and be in compliance with the DOE regulatory policy that imposes certain NRC requirements.

  14. Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC): Integrated Treatment of Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainty in Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Youngblood

    2010-10-01

    The concept of “margin” has a long history in nuclear licensing and in the codification of good engineering practices. However, some traditional applications of “margin” have been carried out for surrogate scenarios (such as design basis scenarios), without regard to the actual frequencies of those scenarios, and have been carried out with in a systematically conservative fashion. This means that the effectiveness of the application of the margin concept is determined in part by the original choice of surrogates, and is limited in any case by the degree of conservatism imposed on the evaluation. In the RISMC project, which is part of the Department of Energy’s “Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program” (LWRSP), we are developing a risk-informed characterization of safety margin. Beginning with the traditional discussion of “margin” in terms of a “load” (a physical challenge to system or component function) and a “capacity” (the capability of that system or component to accommodate the challenge), we are developing the capability to characterize probabilistic load and capacity spectra, reflecting both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in system response. For example, the probabilistic load spectrum will reflect the frequency of challenges of a particular severity. Such a characterization is required if decision-making is to be informed optimally. However, in order to enable the quantification of probabilistic load spectra, existing analysis capability needs to be extended. Accordingly, the INL is working on a next-generation safety analysis capability whose design will allow for much more efficient parameter uncertainty analysis, and will enable a much better integration of reliability-related and phenomenology-related aspects of margin.

  15. A fully Bayesian before-after analysis of permeable friction course (PFC) pavement wet weather safety.

    PubMed

    Buddhavarapu, Prasad; Smit, Andre F; Prozzi, Jorge A

    2015-07-01

    Permeable friction course (PFC), a porous hot-mix asphalt, is typically applied to improve wet weather safety on high-speed roadways in Texas. In order to warrant expensive PFC construction, a statistical evaluation of its safety benefits is essential. Generally, the literature on the effectiveness of porous mixes in reducing wet-weather crashes is limited and often inconclusive. In this study, the safety effectiveness of PFC was evaluated using a fully Bayesian before-after safety analysis. First, two groups of road segments overlaid with PFC and non-PFC material were identified across Texas; the non-PFC or reference road segments selected were similar to their PFC counterparts in terms of site specific features. Second, a negative binomial data generating process was assumed to model the underlying distribution of crash counts of PFC and reference road segments to perform Bayesian inference on the safety effectiveness. A data-augmentation based computationally efficient algorithm was employed for a fully Bayesian estimation. The statistical analysis shows that PFC is not effective in reducing wet weather crashes. It should be noted that the findings of this study are in agreement with the existing literature, although these studies were not based on a fully Bayesian statistical analysis. Our study suggests that the safety effectiveness of PFC road surfaces, or any other safety infrastructure, largely relies on its interrelationship with the road user. The results suggest that the safety infrastructure must be properly used to reap the benefits of the substantial investments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  17. [Analysis and modelling of safety culture in a Mexican hospital by Markov chains].

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Martínez, J D; Cruz-Suárez, H; Santos-Reyes, J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse and model the safety culture with Markov chains, as well as predicting and/or prioritizing over time the evolutionary behaviour of the safety culture of the health's staff in one Mexican hospital. The Markov chain theory has been employed in the analysis, and the input data has been obtained from a previous study based on the Safety Attitude Questionnaire (CAS-MX-II), by considering the following 6 dimensions: safety climate, teamwork, job satisfaction, recognition of stress, perception of management, and work environment. The results highlighted the predictions and/or prioritisation of the approximate time for the possible integration into the evolutionary behaviour of the safety culture as regards the "slightly agree" (Likert scale) for: safety climate (in 12 years; 24.13%); teamwork (8 years; 34.61%); job satisfaction (11 years; 52.41%); recognition of the level of stress (8 years; 19.35%); and perception of the direction (22 years; 27.87%). The work environment dimension was unable to determine the behaviour of staff information, i.e. no information cultural roots were obtained. In general, it has been shown that there are weaknesses in the safety culture of the hospital, which is an opportunity to suggest changes to the mandatory policies in order to strengthen it. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Stage Right operational safety analysis and evaluation of Pantex personnel operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rountree, S.L.K.; Whitehurst, H.O.; Tomlin, E.H.; Restrepo, L.F.; White, J. |

    1995-01-01

    This report documents a study (Stage Right Operational Safety Analysis) that was performed to evaluate the effects of new Stage Right operations on the safety of Pantex personnel who perform the operations and maintain the equipment. The primary concern of the evaluation was for personnel safety during Stage Right operations, but operations equipment damage and degradation also were taken into account. This analysis evaluates safety of the work process in the staging of dismantled nuclear weapon pits within the modified Richmond magazines only. This Stage Right Process and Operational Safety Analysis includes the following processes: moving the pelletized drums from the pallet trailer to the pallet turner, staging of pallets and removal of pallets from the magazine, recovery from an incident in a magazine, setting up, opening, and closing a Zone 4 magazine, inventory of pelletized drums in the magazines, transporting pelletized drums from Zone 12 to Zone 4, and maintenance on the shielded lift truck that involves removal of the cab shielding. The analysis includes the following undesirable consequences: injury to personnel, breach of an AL-R8 container, drop of a loaded pallet, damage to equipment, and equipment unreliability.

  19. An advanced deterministic method for spent fuel criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past two decades, criticality safety analysts have come to rely to a large extent on Monte Carlo methods for criticality calculations. Monte Carlo has become popular because of its capability to model complex, non-orthogonal configurations or fissile materials, typical of real world problems. Over the last few years, however, interest in determinist transport methods has been revived, due shortcomings in the stochastic nature of Monte Carlo approaches for certain types of analyses. Specifically, deterministic methods are superior to stochastic methods for calculations requiring accurate neutron density distributions or differential fluxes. Although Monte Carlo methods are well suited for eigenvalue calculations, they lack the localized detail necessary to assess uncertainties and sensitivities important in determining a range of applicability. Monte Carlo methods are also inefficient as a transport solution for multiple pin depletion methods. Discrete ordinates methods have long been recognized as one of the most rigorous and accurate approximations used to solve the transport equation. However, until recently, geometric constraints in finite differencing schemes have made discrete ordinates methods impractical for non-orthogonal configurations such as reactor fuel assemblies. The development of an extended step characteristic (ESC) technique removes the grid structure limitations of traditional discrete ordinates methods. The NEWT computer code, a discrete ordinates code built upon the ESC formalism, is being developed as part of the SCALE code system. This paper will demonstrate the power, versatility, and applicability of NEWT as a state-of-the-art solution for current computational needs.

  20. ARIES-ACT1 Safety Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Humrickhouse, Paul W.; Merrill, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    ARIES-ACT1 (Advanced and Conservative Tokamak) is a 1000-MW(electric) tokamak design featuring advanced plasma physics and divertor and blanket engineering. Some relevant features include an advanced SiC blanket with PbLi as coolant and breeder; a helium-cooled steel structural ring and tungsten divertors; a thin-walled, helium-cooled vacuum vessel; and a room-temperature, water-cooled shield outside the vacuum vessel. We consider here some safety aspects of the ARIES-ACT1 design and model a series of design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents with the MELCOR code modified for fusion. The presence of multiple coolants (PbLi, helium, and water) makes possible a variety of such accidents. We consider here a loss-of-flow accident caused by a long-term station blackout (LTSBO), an ex-vessel helium break into the cryostat, and a beyond-design-basis accident in which a LTSBO is aggravated by a loss-of-coolant accident in ARIES-ACT1's ultimate decay heat removal system, the water-cooled shield. In the design-basis accidents, we find that the secondary confinement boundaries are not challenged, and the structural integrity of in-vessel components is not threatened by high temperatures or pressures; decay heat can be passively removed.

  1. LNG storage: safety analysis. Annual report for 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.C.; Smith, K.A.; Virk, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is summarized on four projects in the area of LNG safety: (1) Rapid phase transformations in cryogens. An apparatus is described for experiments in which LNG will suddenly be subjected to a shock wave delivered from above. It is anticipated that cessation of boiling, followed by a very rapid delayed phase transformation, may occur. (2) Rollover phenomena. An apparatus is described for experiments which will examine the rates of heat and mass transfer across a density stabilized interface between two miscible strata. Preliminary data show that the apparatus is capable of producing data of the required accuracy. (3) Simultaneous boiling and spreading of cryogenic liquids. An apparatus is described for a study of the subject topic. Data obtained in this apparatus for the case of spreading without boiling are given and are shown to agree with available theories. (4) Modelling of LNG tank dynamics. A vessel containing saturated liquid nitrogen has been subjected to a variety of step changes in the imposed pressure in order to simulate experimentally the events which occur when an LNG tank is subjected to variations in atmospheric pressure. The results are compared with a mathematical model of tank behavior.

  2. [Clinical analysis of safety and effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy].

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, Marek; Parnowski, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy. 43 patients included into the study were hospitalised in The Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology and received all together over 400 bilateral electroconvulsive procedures. Most of the patients (N = 25) were qualified for electroconvulsive therapy due to treatment resistant depression (58.1%). Six patients: 2 with catatonia and 4 with depression had life saving indications for electroconvulsive therapy. Three patients (7%) were excluded from electroconvulsive therapy, following 1 or 2 electroconvulsive procedures. Forty patients continued electroconvulsive therapy. There were no complications and serious adverse events in patients who continued electroconvulsive therapy. Generally, electroconvulsive therapy was well tolerated and treatment had been cut down in only one case due to adverse events and high risk related to the procedure. Transient cardiac arrhythmias (10% of patients) were the most often occurring adverse events and patients (35%) mostly reported headaches. We observed remission in 22 patients (58%) and improvement in 14 patients (35%) following electroconvulsive treatment. Only 4 patients (10%) had no benefit after a series of electroconvulsive procedures. Electroconvulsive treatment was most effective in patients with catatonia (80% patients had full recovery) and in depressive patients with bipolar disorder (73% patients had full recovery). Electroconvulsive procedures were safe and effective. Electroconvulsive treatment was most effective in catatonic patients with schizophrenia and in depressive patients with bipolar disorder.

  3. Associations between safety culture and employee engagement over time: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Daugherty Biddison, Elizabeth Lee; Paine, Lori; Murakami, Peter; Herzke, Carrie; Weaver, Sallie J

    2016-01-01

    With the growth of the patient safety movement and development of methods to measure workforce health and success have come multiple modes of assessing healthcare worker opinions and attitudes about work and the workplace. Safety culture, a group-level measure of patient safety-related norms and behaviours, has been proposed to influence a variety of patient safety outcomes. Employee engagement, conceptualised as a positive, work-related mindset including feelings of vigour, dedication and absorption in one's work, has also demonstrated an association with a number of important worker outcomes in healthcare. To date, the relationship between responses to these two commonly used measures has been poorly characterised. Our study used secondary data analysis to assess the relationship between safety culture and employee engagement over time in a sample of >50 inpatient hospital units in a large US academic health system. With >2000 respondents in each of three time periods assessed, we found moderate to strong positive correlations (r=0.43-0.69) between employee engagement and four Safety Attitudes Questionnaire domains. Independent collection of these two assessments may have limited our analysis in that minimally different inclusion criteria resulted in some differences in the total respondents to the two instruments. Our findings, nevertheless, suggest a key area in which healthcare quality improvement efforts might be streamlined.

  4. RISMC Advanced Safety Analysis Project Plan – FY 2015 - FY 2019

    SciTech Connect

    Szilard, Ronaldo H.; Smith, Curtis L.; Youngblood, Robert

    2014-09-01

    In this report, a project plan is developed, focused on industry applications, using Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) tools and methods applied to realistic, relevant, and current interest issues to the operating nuclear fleet. RISMC focuses on modernization of nuclear power safety analysis (tools, methods and data); implementing state-of-the-art modeling techniques (which include, for example, enabling incorporation of more detailed physics as they become available); taking advantage of modern computing hardware; and combining probabilistic and mechanistic analyses to enable a risk informed safety analysis process. The modernized tools will maintain the current high level of safety in our nuclear power plant fleet, while providing an improved understanding of safety margins and the critical parameters that affect them. Thus, the set of tools will provide information to inform decisions on plant modifications, refurbishments, and surveillance programs, while improving economics. This set of tools will also benefit the design of new reactors, enhancing safety per unit cost of a nuclear plant. The proposed plan will focus on application of the RISMC toolkit, in particular, solving realistic problems of important current issues to the nuclear industry, in collaboration with plant owners and operators to demonstrate the usefulness of these tools in decision making.

  5. Station Blackout: A case study in the interaction of mechanistic and probabilistic safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli; Cristian Rabiti

    2013-11-01

    The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margins is important to improved decision making about nuclear power plant design, operation, and plant life extension. As research and development (R&D) in the light-water reactor (LWR) Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. In this paper, we describe the RISMC analysis process illustrating how mechanistic and probabilistic approaches are combined in order to estimate a safety margin. We use the scenario of a “station blackout” wherein offsite power and onsite power is lost, thereby causing a challenge to plant safety systems. We describe the RISMC approach, illustrate the station blackout modeling, and contrast this with traditional risk analysis modeling for this type of accident scenario.

  6. Information System Hazard Analysis: A Method for Identifying Technology-induced Latent Errors for Safety.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jens H; Mason-Blakley, Fieran; Price, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Many health information and communication technologies (ICT) are safety-critical; moreover, reports of technology-induced adverse events related to them are plentiful in the literature. Despite repeated criticism and calls to action, recent data collected by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and other organization do not indicate significant improvements with respect to the safety of health ICT systems. A large part of the industry still operates on a reactive "break & patch" model; the application of pro-active, systematic hazard analysis methods for engineering ICT that produce "safe by design" products is sparse. This paper applies one such method: Information System Hazard Analysis (ISHA). ISHA adapts and combines hazard analysis techniques from other safety-critical domains and customizes them for ICT. We provide an overview of the steps involved in ISHA and describe.

  7. Psychometric properties of the AHRQ Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture: a factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Aboneh, Ephrem A; Look, Kevin A; Stone, Jamie A; Lester, Corey A; Chui, Michelle A

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed a hospital patient safety culture survey in 2004 and has adapted this survey to other healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and medical offices, and most recently, community pharmacies. However, it is unknown whether safety culture dimensions developed for hospitals can be transferred to community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The survey was administered to 543 community pharmacists in Wisconsin, USA. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of our data with the proposed AHRQ model. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. A total of 433 usable surveys were returned (response rate 80%). Results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed inadequate model fit for the original 36 item, 11-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a modified 27-item, four-factor structure better reflected the underlying safety culture dimensions in community pharmacies. The communication openness factor, with three items, dropped in its entirety while six items dropped from multiple factors. The remaining 27 items redistributed to form the four-factor structure: safety-related communication, staff training and work environment, organisational response to safety events, and staffing, work pressure and pace. Cronbach's α of 0.95 suggested good internal consistency. Our findings suggest that validation studies need to be conducted before applying safety dimensions from other healthcare settings into community pharmacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Too much information? A document analysis of sport safety resources from key organisations

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The field of sport injury prevention has seen a marked increase in published research in recent years, with concomitant proliferation of lay sport safety resources, such as policies, fact sheets and posters. The aim of this study was to catalogue and categorise the number, type and topic focus of sport safety resources from a representative set of key organisations. Design Cataloguing and qualitative document analysis of resources available from the websites of six stakeholder organisations in Australia. Setting This study was part of a larger investigation, the National Guidance for Australian Football Partnerships and Safety (NoGAPS) project. Participants The NoGAPS study provided the context for a purposive sampling of six organisations involved in the promotion of safety in Australian football. These partners are recognised as being highly representative of organisations at national and state level that reflect similarly in their goals around sport safety promotion in Australia. Results The catalogue comprised 284 resources. More of the practical and less prescriptive types of resources, such as fact sheets, than formal policies were found. Resources for the prevention of physical injuries were the predominant sport safety issue addressed, with risk management, environmental issues and social behaviours comprising other categories. Duplication of resources for specific safety issues, within and across organisations, was found. Conclusions People working within sport settings have access to a proliferation of resources, which creates a potential rivalry for sourcing of injury prevention information. Important issues that are likely to influence the uptake of safety advice by the general sporting public include the sheer number of resources available, and the overlap and duplication of resources addressing the same issues. The existence of a large number of resources from reputable organisations does not mean that they are necessarily evidence based

  9. Zonal analysis - The final step in system safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Richard E.; Merdgen, David B.

    The unexpected interaction of unrelated systems has often been implicated in design-related aircraft accidents. Zonal analysis, which is definable as the systematic inspection of geographical locations of components and interconnections in a system with a view to potential system-to-system interactions, is highly relevant to the consequences of high rotational energy systems (such as turbofan engines), corrosive liquids, and pressure vessels. Attention is presently given to the course of formal zonal analysis for the MD-11 airliner.

  10. Safety Analysis (SA) of the decontamination facility, Building 419, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, B.N.

    1980-06-17

    This safety analysis was performed for the Manager, Plant Services at LLNL and fulfills the requirements of DOE Order 5481.1. The analysis was based on field inspections, document review, computer calculations, and extensive input from Waste Management personnel. It was concluded that the maximum quantities of radioactive materials that safety procedures allow to be handled in this building do not pose undue risks on- or off-site even in postulated severe accidents. Risk from the various hazards at this facility vary from low to moderate as specified in DOE Order 5481.1. Recommendations are made for improvements that will reduce risks even further.

  11. Assessment of documentation requirements under DOE 5481. 1, Safety Analysis and Review System (SARS)

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.T.

    1981-03-01

    This report assesses the requirements of DOE Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System for DOE Operations (SARS) in regard to maintaining SARS documentation. Under SARS, all pertinent details of the entire safety analysis and review process for each DOE operation are to be traceable from the initial identification of a hazard. This report is intended to provide assistance in identifying the points in the SARS cycle at which documentation is required, what type of documentation is most appropriate, and where it ultimately should be maintained.

  12. Safe Kids Week: Analysis of gender bias in a national child safety campaign, 1997-2016.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michelle E E; Brussoni, Mariana; Giles, Audrey R; Fuselli, Pamela

    2017-09-29

    Background and Purpose Child safety campaigns play an important role in disseminating injury prevention information to families. A critical discourse analysis of gender bias in child safety campaign marketing materials can offer important insights into how families are represented and the potential influence that gender bias may have on uptake of injury prevention information.Methods Our approach was informed by poststructural feminist theory, and we used critical discourse analysis to identify discourses within the poster materials. We examined the national Safe Kids Canada Safe Kids Week campaign poster material spanning twenty years (1997-2016). Specifically, we analyzed the posters' typeface, colour, images, and language to identify gender bias in relation to discourses surrounding parenting, safety, and societal perceptions of gender.Results The findings show that there is gender bias present in the Safe Kids Week poster material. The posters represent gender as binary, mothers as primary caregivers, and showcase stereotypically masculine sporting equipment among boys and stereotypically feminine equipment among girls. Interestingly, we found that the colour and typeface of the text both challenge and perpetuate the feminization of safety.Discussion It is recommended that future child safety campaigns represent changing family dynamics, include representations of children with non-traditionally gendered sporting equipment, and avoid the representation of gender as binary. This analysis contributes to the discussion of the feminization of safety in injury prevention research and challenges the ways in which gender is represented in child safety campaigns. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. 75 FR 8239 - School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP); Approval of Information Collection Request AGENCY: Food and... rule entitled School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point...

  14. Nonlinear analysis of NPP safety against the aircraft attack

    SciTech Connect

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2016-06-08

    The paper presents the nonlinear probabilistic analysis of the reinforced concrete buildings of nuclear power plant under the aircraft attack. The dynamic load is defined in time on base of the airplane impact simulations considering the real stiffness, masses, direction and velocity of the flight. The dynamic response is calculated in the system ANSYS using the transient nonlinear analysis solution method. The damage of the concrete wall is evaluated in accordance with the standard NDRC considering the spalling, scabbing and perforation effects. The simple and detailed calculations of the wall damage are compared.

  15. Nonlinear analysis of NPP safety against the aircraft attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the nonlinear probabilistic analysis of the reinforced concrete buildings of nuclear power plant under the aircraft attack. The dynamic load is defined in time on base of the airplane impact simulations considering the real stiffness, masses, direction and velocity of the flight. The dynamic response is calculated in the system ANSYS using the transient nonlinear analysis solution method. The damage of the concrete wall is evaluated in accordance with the standard NDRC considering the spalling, scabbing and perforation effects. The simple and detailed calculations of the wall damage are compared.

  16. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results.

  17. Stress analysis of portable safety platform (Core Sampler Truck)

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1995-03-30

    This document provides the stress analysis and evaluation of the portable platform of the rotary mode core sampler truck No. 2 (RMCST {number_sign}2). The platform comprises railing, posts, deck, legs, and a portable ladder; it is restrained from lateral motion by means of two brackets added to the drill-head service platform.

  18. Coupled dam safety analysis using WinDAM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Windows® Dam Analysis Modules (WinDAM) is a set of modular software components that can be used to analyze overtopping and internal erosion of embankment dams. Dakota is an extensive software framework for design exploration and simulation. These tools can be coupled to create a powerful framework...

  19. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1997-02-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the M&O is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment.

  20. Development of the pharmacy safety climate questionnaire: a principal components analysis.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, D M; Parker, D

    2009-02-01

    To develop, and examine the component structure and internal consistency, of a questionnaire designed to assess safety climate in the community pharmacy setting. 998 pharmacists working in community pharmacies in England completed the questionnaire. Item selection was determined by principal components analysis (PCA) which also defined the underlying structure of the questionnaire. Scales were constructed from the items that loaded on components and were tested for internal consistency using Cronbach alpha scores. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine inter-component correlations. A 34-item Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire (PSCQ) was extracted through PCA; seven components were retained which represented the model of choice, and explained 58.3% of the data variance. The components were: investigating and learning from incidents; staffing and management; perceptions of the causes of incidents and reporting; team working; communication; commitment to patient safety; and education and training about safety. The internal consistency for the components was high; Cronbach alpha scores ranged from 0.67 to 0.88. The PSCQ demonstrated good psychometric properties in terms of its face validity, component structure and internal consistency. Community pharmacies can use this new tool to measure staff attitudes relating to seven safety climate domains, to compare themselves with other pharmacies, to prompt interventions to improve the prevailing safety climate within their organisation, and to measure the effectiveness of these interventions.

  1. Fuzzy-algebra uncertainty analysis for abnormal-environment safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Many safety (risk) analyses depend on uncertain inputs and on mathematical models chosen from various alternatives, but give fixed results (implying no uncertainty). Conventional uncertainty analyses help, but are also based on assumptions and models, the accuracy of which may be difficult to assure. Some of the models and assumptions that on cursory examination seem reasonable can be misleading. As a result, quantitative assessments, even those accompanied by uncertainty measures, can give unwarranted impressions of accuracy. Since analysis results can be a major contributor to a safety-measure decision process, risk management depends on relating uncertainty to only the information available. The uncertainties due to abnormal environments are even more challenging than those in normal-environment safety assessments, and therefore require an even more cautious approach. A fuzzy algebra analysis is proposed in this report that has the potential to appropriately reflect the information available and portray uncertainties well, especially for abnormal environments.

  2. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    1999-06-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the

  3. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Thermal analysis of Tank 241-BY-106

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    An analysis was conducted of tank 241-BY-106 to determine the conditions required for an uneven distribution of heat generation (e.g., a hotspot) that would produce temperatures of concern (considered to be 220{degree}C [418{degree}F]). Two types of hotspots were investigated. One was 1 meter square, 7.62 cm (3 in.) thick, that was placed on the bottom of the tank two-thirds of the radial distance from the center to the edge of the tank. The other was a 1 meter cube placed in the same location. It was found that the concentrations of heat-producing material required to reach a maximum temperature of 220{degree}C (418{degree}F) were greater than 160 times that of the material surrounding the hotspot. A transient case was also studied, where a hotspot was formed over 5 years. The 1 meter cube hotspot was used. It was determined that the maximum temperature reached was less than the steady-state analysis under the same conditions. The maximum temperature was reached in 5.5 years. The change in the surface temperature was slow enough that the hotspot could not be detected in less than 3 years. The steady-state analysis showed that a large pattern of thermocouple trees would be required to detect a hotspot by this means. The steady-state analysis showed that a hotspot with temperatures that approached 220{degree}C (418{degree}F) could probably be detected by surface temperature measurements.

  4. JSC Safety and Mission Assurance Data Analysis Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelant, Henk

    2010-01-01

    These slides describe the data analysis methods that are used to determine inputs for probabilistic risk models supporting the Space Shuttle Program. Other applications can follow a similar path probably using different data sources. Statistical approaches are different and not addressed here. Topics included here: 1) Prior Distribution; 2) Likelihood Data; 3) Bayesian Updating; and 4) Uncertainty and Error. Note: This is a high-level discussion and is not intended to be a tutorial.

  5. Radiation safety analysis of the ISS bone densitometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul; Vellinger, John C.; Barton, Kenneth; Faget, Paul

    A Bone Densitometer (BD) has been developed for installation on the International Space Station (ISS) with delivery by the Space-X Dragon spacecraft planned for mid 2014. After initial tests on orbit the BD will be used in longitudinal measurements of bone mineral density in experimental mice as a means of evaluating countermeasures to bone loss. The BD determines bone mineral density (and other radiographic parameters) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In a single mouse DEXA “scan” its 80 kV x-ray tube is operated for 15 seconds at 35 kV and 3 seconds at 80 kV in four repetitions, giving the subject a total dose of 2.5 mSv. The BD is a modification of a commercial mouse DEXA product known as PIXImus(TM). Before qualifying the BD for utilization on ISS it was necessary to evaluate its radiation safety features and any level of risk to ISS crew members. The BD design reorients the PIXImus so that it fits in an EXPRESS locker on ISS with the x-ray beam directed into the crew aisle. ISS regulation SSP 51700 considers the production of ionizing radiation to be a catastrophic-level hazard. Accidental exposure is prevented by three independent levels of on-off control as required for a catastrophic hazard. The ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle was applied to the BD hazard just as would be done on the ground, so deliberate exposure is limited by lead shielding according to ALARA. Hot spots around the BD were identified by environmental dosimetry using a Ludlum 9DP pressurized ionization chamber survey meter. Various thicknesses of lead were applied to the BD housing in areas where highest dose-per-scan readings were made. It was concluded that 0.4 mm of lead shielding at strategic locations, adding only a few kg of mass to the payload, would accomplish ALARA. With shielding in place the BD now exposes a crew member floating 40 cm away to less than 0.08 microSv per mouse scan. There is an upper limit of 20 scans per day, or 1.6 microSv per day

  6. The Relationship Between Professional Burnout and Quality and Safety in Healthcare: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Salyers, Michelle P; Bonfils, Kelsey A; Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; White, Dominique A; Adams, Erin L; Rollins, Angela L

    2017-04-01

    Healthcare provider burnout is considered a factor in quality of care, yet little is known about the consistency and magnitude of this relationship. This meta-analysis examined relationships between provider burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) and the quality (perceived quality, patient satisfaction) and safety of healthcare. Publications were identified through targeted literature searches in Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses through March of 2015. Two coders extracted data to calculate effect sizes and potential moderators. We calculated Pearson's r for all independent relationships between burnout and quality measures, using a random effects model. Data were assessed for potential impact of study rigor, outliers, and publication bias. Eighty-two studies including 210,669 healthcare providers were included. Statistically significant negative relationships emerged between burnout and quality (r = -0.26, 95 % CI [-0.29, -0.23]) and safety (r = -0.23, 95 % CI [-0.28, -0.17]). In both cases, the negative relationship implied that greater burnout among healthcare providers was associated with poorer-quality healthcare and reduced safety for patients. Moderators for the quality relationship included dimension of burnout, unit of analysis, and quality data source. Moderators for the relationship between burnout and safety were safety indicator type, population, and country. Rigor of the study was not a significant moderator. This is the first study to systematically, quantitatively analyze the links between healthcare provider burnout and healthcare quality and safety across disciplines. Provider burnout shows consistent negative relationships with perceived quality (including patient satisfaction), quality indicators, and perceptions of safety. Though the effects are small to medium, the findings highlight the importance of effective burnout interventions for

  7. Statistical issues in the design, conduct and analysis of two large safety studies.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The emergence, post approval, of serious medical events, which may be associated with the use of a particular drug or class of drugs, is an important public health and regulatory issue. The best method to address this issue is through a large, rigorously designed safety study. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the statistical issues involved in these large safety studies. Two such studies are PRECISION and EAGLES. PRECISION is the primary focus of this article. PRECISION is a non-inferiority design with a clinically relevant non-inferiority margin. Statistical issues in the design, conduct and analysis of PRECISION are discussed. Quantitative and clinical aspects of the selection of the composite primary endpoint, the determination and role of the non-inferiority margin in a large safety study and the intent-to-treat and modified intent-to-treat analyses in a non-inferiority safety study are shown. Protocol changes that were necessary during the conduct of PRECISION are discussed from a statistical perspective. Issues regarding the complex analysis and interpretation of the results of PRECISION are outlined. EAGLES is presented as a large, rigorously designed safety study when a non-inferiority margin was not able to be determined by a strong clinical/scientific method. In general, when a non-inferiority margin is not able to be determined, the width of the 95% confidence interval is a way to size the study and to assess the cost-benefit of relative trial size. A non-inferiority margin, when able to be determined by a strong scientific method, should be included in a large safety study. Although these studies could not be called "pragmatic," they are examples of best real-world designs to address safety and regulatory concerns. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Evaluating the safety risk of roadside features for rural two-lane roads using reliability analysis.

    PubMed

    Jalayer, Mohammad; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-08-01

    The severity of roadway departure crashes mainly depends on the roadside features, including the sideslope, fixed-object density, offset from fixed objects, and shoulder width. Common engineering countermeasures to improve roadside safety include: cross section improvements, hazard removal or modification, and delineation. It is not always feasible to maintain an object-free and smooth roadside clear zone as recommended in design guidelines. Currently, clear zone width and sideslope are used to determine roadside hazard ratings (RHRs) to quantify the roadside safety of rural two-lane roadways on a seven-point pictorial scale. Since these two variables are continuous and can be treated as random, probabilistic analysis can be applied as an alternative method to address existing uncertainties. Specifically, using reliability analysis, it is possible to quantify roadside safety levels by treating the clear zone width and sideslope as two continuous, rather than discrete, variables. The objective of this manuscript is to present a new approach for defining the reliability index for measuring roadside safety on rural two-lane roads. To evaluate the proposed approach, we gathered five years (2009-2013) of Illinois run-off-road (ROR) crash data and identified the roadside features (i.e., clear zone widths and sideslopes) of 4500 300ft roadway segments. Based on the obtained results, we confirm that reliability indices can serve as indicators to gauge safety levels, such that the greater the reliability index value, the lower the ROR crash rate.

  9. Dive Angle Sensitivity Analysis for Flight Test Safety and Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    These points develop into high- speed dives and require an accurate predictive model to prevent possible testing accidents. As a flight test is...Looking back at this concept and approach, Equation 2.1 and 2.4 are combined to obtain Equation 2.5.  dh V V dVT D dt W g dt...number of attempts at each test point as well as prevent possible accidents and crashes from data that is misrepresented. The analysis took a Dive

  10. Implementing 10 CFR 830 at the FEMP Silos: Nuclear Health and Safety Plans as Documented Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, Patricia; Rutherford, Lavon

    2003-06-01

    The objective of the Silos Project at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) is to safely remediate high-grade uranium ore residues (Silos 1 and 2) and metal oxide residues (Silo 3). The evolution of Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) for these facilities has reflected the changes in remediation processes. The final stage in silos DSAs is an interpretation of 10 CFR 830 Safe Harbor Requirements that combines a Health and Safety Plan with nuclear safety requirements. This paper will address the development of a Nuclear Health and Safety Plan, or N-HASP.

  11. 76 FR 31507 - Domestic Licensing of Source Material-Amendments/Integrated Safety Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 40 and 150 RIN 3150-AI50 Domestic Licensing of Source Material--Amendments/Integrated Safety Analysis AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule; correction. SUMMARY: The...

  12. Preliminary Accident Analysis for Construction and Operation of the Chornobyl New Safety Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Batiy, Valeriy; Rubezhansky, Yruiy; Rudko, Vladimir; shcherbin, vladimir; Yegorov, V; Schmieman, Eric A.; Timmins, Douglas C.

    2005-08-08

    Analysis of potential exposure of personal and population during construction and exploitation of the New Safe Confinement was made. Scenarios of hazard event development were ranked. It is shown, that as a whole construction and exploitation of the NSC are in accordance with actual radiation safety norms of Ukraine.

  13. The Range Safety Debris Catalog Analysis in Preparation for the Pad Abort One Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutty, Prasad; Pratt, William

    2010-01-01

    With each flight test a Range Safety Data Package is assembled to understand the potential consequences of various failure scenarios. Debris catalog analysis considers an overpressure failure of the Abort Motor and the resulting debris field created 1. Characterize debris fragments generated by failure: weight, shape, and area 2. Compute fragment ballistic coefficients 3. Compute fragment ejection velocities.

  14. SFTYCHEF: A Consultative, Diagnostic Expert System for Trench Excavation Safety Analysis on Light Commercial Construction Projects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-30

    OF PAGES WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. I We approve the report of Thomas C. Nicholas 3 /2 /---- -----Date Engineering, Bernard Hankin Professor of...Safe Trench Excavation ...... 2 Applicability to Solution via Expert System. 3 Background: Expert Systems ..................... 4 Definition of an...43 3 . AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR TRENCH SAFETY: THE PROBLEM ........................................... 44 The Need For A Proper Analysis of Soil

  15. Effectiveness of Occupational Health and Safety Training: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Federico; Chiesi, Andrea; Bisio, Carlo; Panari, Chiara; Pelosi, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This meta-analysis aims to verify the efficacy of occupational health and safety (OHS) training in terms of knowledge, attitude and beliefs, behavior and health. Design/methodology/approach: The authors included studies published in English (2007-2014) selected from ten databases. Eligibility criteria were studies concerned with the…

  16. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  17. Addendum to the Safety Analysis Report for the Steel Waste Packaging. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, S R

    1996-02-15

    The Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Steel Waste Package requires additional analyses to support the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste and special-case waste from the 324 building hot cells to PUREX for interim storage. This addendum provides the analyses required to show that this waste can be safely shipped onsite in the configuration shown.

  18. Effectiveness of Occupational Health and Safety Training: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Federico; Chiesi, Andrea; Bisio, Carlo; Panari, Chiara; Pelosi, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This meta-analysis aims to verify the efficacy of occupational health and safety (OHS) training in terms of knowledge, attitude and beliefs, behavior and health. Design/methodology/approach: The authors included studies published in English (2007-2014) selected from ten databases. Eligibility criteria were studies concerned with the…

  19. Safety analysis of the Los Alamos critical experiments facility: burst operation of Skua

    SciTech Connect

    Orndoff, J.D.; Paxton, H.C.; Wimett, T.F.

    1980-12-01

    Detailed consideration of the Skua burst assembly is provided, thereby supplementing the facility Safety Analysis Report covering the operation of other critical assemblies at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. As with these assemblies the small fission-product inventory, ambient pressure, and moderate temperatures in Skua are amenable to straightforward measures to ensure the protection of the public.

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  1. SYSTEMS SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR FIRE EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ECRB CROSS DRIFT

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Garrett

    2001-12-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate fire hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift (commonly referred to as the ECRB Cross-Drift). This analysis builds upon prior Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) System Safety Analyses and incorporates Topopah Springs (TS) Main Drift fire scenarios and ECRB Cross-Drift fire scenarios. Accident scenarios involving the fires in the Main Drift and the ECRB Cross-Drift were previously evaluated in ''Topopah Springs Main Drift System Safety Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1995) and the ''Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project East-West Drift System Safety Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998). In addition to listing required mitigation/control features, this analysis identifies the potential need for procedures and training as part of defense-in-depth mitigation/control features. The inclusion of this information in the System Safety Analysis (SSA) is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., Construction, Environmental Safety and Health, Design) responsible for these aspects of the ECRB Cross-Drift in developing mitigation/control features for fire events, including Emergency Refuge Station(s). This SSA was prepared, in part, in response to Condition/Issue Identification and Reporting/Resolution System (CIRS) item 1966. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with fires in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures

  2. Development of guidance for states transitioning to new safety analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alluri, Priyanka

    With about 125 people dying on US roads each day, the US Department of Transportation heightened the awareness of critical safety issues with the passage of SAFETEA-LU (Safe Accountable Flexible Efficient Transportation Equity Act---a Legacy for Users) legislation in 2005. The legislation required each of the states to develop a Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) and incorporate data-driven approaches to prioritize and evaluate program outcomes: Failure to do so resulted in funding sanctioning. In conjunction with the legislation, research efforts have also been progressing toward the development of new safety analysis tools such as IHSDM (Interactive Highway Safety Design Model), SafetyAnalyst, and HSM (Highway Safety Manual). These software and analysis tools are comparatively more advanced in statistical theory and level of accuracy, and have a tendency to be more data intensive. A review of the 2009 five-percent reports and excerpts from the nationwide survey revealed astonishing facts about the continuing use of traditional methods including crash frequencies and rates for site selection and prioritization. The intense data requirements and statistical complexity of advanced safety tools are considered as a hindrance to their adoption. In this context, this research aims at identifying the data requirements and data availability for SafetyAnalyst and HSM by working with both the tools. This research sets the stage for working with the Empirical Bayes approach by highlighting some of the biases and issues associated with the traditional methods of selecting projects such as greater emphasis on traffic volume and regression-to-mean phenomena. Further, the not-so-obvious issue with shorter segment lengths, which effect the results independent of the methods used, is also discussed. The more reliable and statistically acceptable Empirical Bayes methodology requires safety performance functions (SPFs), regression equations predicting the relation between crashes

  3. Linguistic analysis of large-scale medical incident reports for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Katsuhide; Akiyama, Masanori; Park, Keunsik; Yamaguchi, Etsuko Nakagami; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of medical incident reports is indispensable for patient safety. The cycles between analysis of incident reports and proposals to medical staffs are a key point for improving the patient safety in the hospital. Most incident reports are composed from freely written descriptions, but an analysis of such free descriptions is not sufficient in the medical field. In this study, we aim to accumulate and reinterpret findings using structured incident information, to clarify improvements that should be made to solve the root cause of the accident, and to ensure safe medical treatment through such improvements. We employ natural language processing (NLP) and network analysis to identify effective categories of medical incident reports. Network analysis can find various relationships that are not only direct but also indirect. In addition, we compare bottom-up results obtained by NLP with existing categories based on experts' judgment. By the bottom-up analysis, the class of patient managements regarding patients' fallings and medicines in top-down analysis is created clearly. Finally, we present new perspectives on ways of improving patient safety.

  4. Advances in coupled safety modeling using systems analysis and high-fidelity methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T. H.; Thomas, J. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-31

    The potential for a sodium-cooled fast reactor to survive severe accident initiators with no damage has been demonstrated through whole-plant testing in EBR-II and FFTF. Analysis of the observed natural protective mechanisms suggests that they would be characteristic of a broad range of sodium-cooled fast reactors utilizing metal fuel. However, in order to demonstrate the degree to which new, advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor designs will possess these desired safety features, accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will be required. One of the objectives of the advanced safety-modeling component of the Reactor IPSC is to develop a science-based advanced safety simulation capability by utilizing existing safety simulation tools coupled with emerging high-fidelity modeling capabilities in a multi-resolution approach. As part of this integration, an existing whole-plant systems analysis code has been coupled with a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics code to assess the impact of high-fidelity simulations on safety-related performance. With the coupled capabilities, it is possible to identify critical safety-related phenomenon in advanced reactor designs that cannot be resolved with existing tools. In this report, the impact of coupling is demonstrated by evaluating the conditions of outlet plenum thermal stratification during a protected loss of flow transient. Outlet plenum stratification was anticipated to alter core temperatures and flows predicted during natural circulation conditions. This effect was observed during the simulations. What was not anticipated, however, is the far-reaching impact that resolving thermal stratification has on the whole plant. The high temperatures predicted at the IHX inlet due to thermal stratification in the outlet plenum forces heat into the intermediate system to the point that it eventually becomes a source of heat for the primary system. The results also suggest that flow stagnation in the

  5. Seepage-Based Factor of Safety Analysis Using 3D Groundwater Simulation Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Edris, and D . Richards. 2006. A first-principle, physics- based watershed model: WASH123D. In Watershed models, ed. V. P. Singh and D . K . Frevert...should be cited as follows: Cheng, H.-P., K . D . Winters, S. M. England, and R. E. Pickett. 2014. Factor of safety analysis using 3D groundwater...Journal of Dam Safety 11(3): 33–42. Pickett, R. E., K . D . Winters, H.-P. Cheng, and S. M. England. 2013. Herbert Hoover Dike (HHD) flow model. Project

  6. FEM Analysis of Glass/Epoxy Composite Based Industrial Safety Helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Khushi; Bajpai, Pramendra Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the use of fiber reinforced polymer in every field of engineering (automobile, industry and aerospace) and medical has increased due to its distinctive mechanical properties. The fiber based polymer composites are more popular because these have high strength, light in weight, low cost and easily available. In the present work, the finite element analysis (FEA) of glass/epoxy composite based industrial safety helmet has been performed using solid-works simulation software. The modeling results show that glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite can be used as a material for fabrication of industrial safety helmet which has good mechanical properties than the existing helmet material.

  7. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies (SSAT) Project asked the AvSP Systems and Portfolio Analysis Team to identify SSAT-related trends. SSAT had four technical challenges: advance safety assurance to enable deployment of NextGen systems; automated discovery of precursors to aviation safety incidents; increasing safety of human-automation interaction by incorporating human performance, and prognostic algorithm design for safety assurance. This report reviews incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) for system-component-failure- or-malfunction- (SCFM-) related and human-factor-related incidents for commercial or cargo air carriers (Part 121), commuter airlines (Part 135), and general aviation (Part 91). The data was analyzed by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) part, phase of flight, SCFM category, human factor category, and a variety of anomalies and results. There were 38 894 SCFM-related incidents and 83 478 human-factorrelated incidents analyzed between January 1993 and April 2011.

  8. [Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions--initial report: radiation protection supervisor, radiation safety organization, and education and training].

    PubMed

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2005-11-20

    In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management systems in Japanese medical institutions with nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the Radiation Protection Supervisor license, safety management organizations, and problems related to education and training in safety management. Analysis was conducted according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60%, and no significant difference in response rate was found among regions. Medical institutions that performed nuclear medicine practices without a radiologist participating accounted for 10% of the total. Medical institutions where nurses gave patients intravenous injections of radiopharmaceuticals as part of the nuclear medicine practices accounted for 28% of the total. Of these medical institutions, 59% provided education and training in safety management for nurses. The rate of acquisition of Radiation Protection Supervisor licenses was approximately 70% for radiological technologists and approximately 20% for physicians (regional difference, p=0.02). The rate of medical institutions with safety management organizations was 71% of the total. Among the medical institutions (n=208) without safety management organizations, approximately 56% had 300 beds or fewer. In addition, it became clear that 35% of quasi-public organizations and 44% of private organizations did not provide education and training in safety management (p<0.001, according to establishment).

  9. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This document is the second volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of failure modes and effects analysis; accident analysis; operational safety requirements; quality assurance program; ES&H management program; environmental, safety, and health systems critical to safety; summary of waste-management program; environmental monitoring program; facility expansion, decontamination, and decommissioning; summary of emergency response plan; summary plan for employee training; summary plan for operating procedures; glossary; and appendices A and B.

  10. Nature of Blame in Patient Safety Incident Reports: Mixed Methods Analysis of a National Database.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jennifer; Edwards, Adrian; Williams, Huw; Sheikh, Aziz; Parry, Gareth; Hibbert, Peter; Butlin, Amy; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    A culture of blame and fear of retribution are recognized barriers to reporting patient safety incidents. The extent of blame attribution in safety incident reports, which may reflect the underlying safety culture of health care systems, is unknown. This study set out to explore the nature of blame in family practice safety incident reports. We characterized a random sample of family practice patient safety incident reports from the England and Wales National Reporting and Learning System. Reports were analyzed according to prespecified classification systems to describe the incident type, contributory factors, outcomes, and severity of harm. We developed a taxonomy of blame attribution, and we then used descriptive statistical analyses to identify the proportions of blame types and to explore associations between incident characteristics and one type of blame. Health care professionals making family practice incident reports attributed blame to a person in 45% of cases (n = 975 of 2,148; 95% CI, 43%-47%). In 36% of cases, those who reported the incidents attributed fault to another person, whereas 2% of those reporting acknowledged personal responsibility. Blame was commonly associated with incidents where a complaint was anticipated. The high frequency of blame in these safety, incident reports may reflect a health care culture that leads to blame and retribution, rather than to identifying areas for learning and improvement, and a failure to appreciate the contribution of system factors in others' behavior. Successful improvement in patient safety through the analysis of incident reports is unlikely without achieving a blame-free culture. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  11. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.

  12. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1994-03-01

    A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices).

  13. Hyperspectral image-based analysis of weathering sensitivity for safety diagnosis of Seongsan Ilchulbong Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungho; Kim, Heekang

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a weathering sensitivity analysis method for the safety diagnosis of Seongsan Ilchulbong Peak using hyperspectral images. Remote sensing-based safety diagnosis is important for preventing accidents in famous mountains. A hyperspectral correlation-based method is proposed to evaluate the weathering sensitivity. The three issues are how to reduce the illumination effect, how to remove camera motion while acquiring images on a boat, and how to define the weathering sensitivity index. A novel minimum subtraction and maximum normalization (MSM-norm) method is proposed to solve the shadow and specular illumination problem. Geometrically distorted hyperspectral images are corrected by estimating the borderline of the mountain and sea surface. The final issue is solved by proposing a weathering sensitivity index (WS-Index) based on a spectral angle mapper. Real experiments on the Seongsan Ilchulbong Peak (UNESCO, World Natural Heritage) highlighted the feasibility of the proposed method in safety diagnosis by the weathering sensitivity index.

  14. Introduction to the STS National Database Series: Outcomes Analysis, Quality Improvement, and Patient Safety.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Shahian, David M; Prager, Richard L; Edwards, Fred H; McDonald, Donna; Han, Jane M; D'Agostino, Richard S; Jacobs, Marshall L; Kozower, Benjamin D; Badhwar, Vinay; Thourani, Vinod H; Gaissert, Henning A; Fernandez, Felix G; Wright, Cam; Fann, James I; Paone, Gaetano; Sanchez, Juan A; Cleveland, Joseph C; Brennan, J Matthew; Dokholyan, Rachel S; O'Brien, Sean M; Peterson, Eric D; Grover, Frederick L; Patterson, G Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) National Database is the foundation for most of the Society's quality, research, and patient safety activities. Beginning in January 2016 and repeating each year, The Annals of Thoracic Surgery will publish a monthly Database series of scholarly articles on outcomes analysis, quality improvement, and patient safety. Six articles will be directly derived from the STS National Database and will be published every other month: three articles on outcomes and quality (one each from the STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database, the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database, and the STS General Thoracic Surgery Database), and three articles on research (one from each of these three specialty databases). These six articles will alternate with five additional articles on topics related to patient safety. The final article, to be published in December, will provide a summary of the prior 11 manuscripts. This series will allow STS and its Workforces on National Databases, Research Development, and Patient Safety to convey timely information aimed at improving the quality and safety of cardiothoracic surgery. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A graded approach to safety analysis for Rover Processing Facility deactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1997-08-01

    The Rover Fuels Processing Facility operated in the early 1980`s, recovering uranium from graphite fuels. In 1996 clean-out began of uranium bearing material remaining in the Rover cells where combustion processes had occurred. Success of the Rover Deactivation Project depends on the safe, timely, and cost-effective repackaging and removal of the uranium bearing material. Due to a number of issues which could not be resolved prior to clean-out, and consideration of cost and schedule objectives, a graded approach was taken to projected design and criticality safety analysis. The safety authorization basis was upgraded primarily by a specific Deactivation addendum, instead of being completely rewritten to current format and content standards. In place of having all design activities completed prior to the start of the Deactivation, the project design and accompanying safety documentation evolved as the project progressed. The Unreviewed Safety Question determination process was used to ensure that new project activities were within the safety envelope. This graded approach allowed operational flexibility while maintaining a critically safe work environment.

  16. Assessing coal-mine safety regulation: A pooled time-series analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chun Youngpyoung.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the independent, relative, and conjoint effects of four types of variables on coal-mine safety: administrative (mine inspections, mine investigations, and mine safety grants); political (state party competition, gubernatorial party affiliation, and deregulation); economic (state per-capita income and unemployment rates); task-related (mine size, technology, and type of mining), and state dummy variables. Trend, Pearson correlation, and pooled time-series analyses are performed on fatal and nonfatal injury rates reported in 25 coal-producing states during the 1975-1985 time period. These are then interpreted in light of three competing theories of regulation: capture, nonmarket failure, and threshold. Analysis reveals: (1) distinctions in the total explanatory power of the model across different types of injuries, as well as across presidential administrations; (2) a consistently more powerful impact on safety of informational implementation tools (safety education grants) over command-and-control approaches (inspections and investigations) or political variables; and (3) limited, albeit conjectural, support for a threshold theory of regulation in the coal mine safety arena.

  17. Improving food safety within the dairy chain: an application of conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Valeeva, N I; Meuwissen, M P M; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Huirne, R B M

    2005-04-01

    This study determined the relative importance of attributes of food safety improvement in the production chain of fluid pasteurized milk. The chain was divided into 4 blocks: "feed" (compound feed production and its transport), "farm" (dairy farm), "dairy processing" (transport and processing of raw milk, delivery of pasteurized milk), and "consumer" (retailer/catering establishment and pasteurized milk consumption). The concept of food safety improvement focused on 2 main groups of hazards: chemical (antibiotics and dioxin) and microbiological (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, and Staphylococcus aureus). Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to investigate food safety experts' perceptions of the attributes' importance. Preference data from individual experts (n = 24) on 101 attributes along the chain were collected in a computer-interactive mode. Experts perceived the attributes from the "feed" and "farm" blocks as being more vital for controlling the chemical hazards; whereas the attributes from the "farm" and "dairy processing" were considered more vital for controlling the microbiological hazards. For the chemical hazards, "identification of treated cows" and "quality assurance system of compound feed manufacturers" were considered the most important attributes. For the microbiological hazards, these were "manure supply source" and "action in salmonellosis and M. paratuberculosis cases". The rather high importance of attributes relating to quality assurance and traceability systems of the chain participants indicates that participants look for food safety assurance from the preceding participants. This information has substantial decision-making implications for private businesses along the chain and for the government regarding the food safety improvement of fluid pasteurized milk.

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Specific Standard for Nonnuclear Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, R; Beach, D R; Brereton, S; Hildum, J S; Ingram, C; Spagnolo, S; Van Warmerdam, C

    2003-05-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the NNSA Livermore Site Office teamed up to prepare a site specific work smart standard setting requirements for preparation of safety basis documents for LLNL non-nuclear operations and facilities. This standard documents how all hazards (biological, chemical, explosive, industrial, and radiological) shall be evaluated, classified, analyzed, and controls developed. This standard was developed to evaluate hazards at the facility level to mesh with LLNL's ISM system for reviewing hazards at the activity level. This standard presents an approach to establishing safety basis for non-nuclear operations and activities, taking a graded approach based on the potential for impacts to the health of collocated workers and the public. Direct worker safety is covered by LLNL's work activity level reviews and requirements. This standard includes streamlined mechanisms for classifying hazards based upon the unmitigated potential for human health impacts. A review or practices at several private industries, government laboratories, and DOE complex sites provided a benchmark and comparison of safety analysis processes. These approaches were compared with LLNL's existing systems, leading to a determination that facility specific safety basis documents added value to a rapid authorization for new work activities in LLNL facilities. A process for hazard classification that would be viewed as more credible than the previous facility classification system was developed, including a method allowing correlation of chemical inventories with TEEL* concentrations. A graded approach for classification of explosive hazards, consistent with the DOE Explosive Safety Manual, was included. The standard was designed to be complementary with LLNL's existing work smart standards covering the hazards identified in a facility. A standard for LLNL's Work Smart Standard set was prepared that will assure all hazards are covered with appropriate levels of

  19. Safety and Efficacy of Methotrexate in Psoriasis: A Meta-Analysis of Published Trials

    PubMed Central

    West, Jonathan; Ogston, Simon; Foerster, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Methotrexate (MTX) has been used to treat psoriasis for over half a century. Even so, clinical data characterising its efficacy and safety are sparse. Objective In order to enhance the available evidence, we conducted two meta-analyses, one for efficacy and one for safety outcomes, respectively, according to PRISMA checklist. (Data sources, study criteria, and study synthesis methods are detailed in Methods). Results In terms of efficacy, only eleven studies met criteria for study design and passed a Cochrane risk of bias analysis. Based on this limited dataset, 45.2% [95% confidence interval 34.1–60.0] of patients achieve PASI75 at primary endpoint (12 or 16 weeks, respectively, n = 705 patients across all studies), compared to a calculated PASI75 of 4.4 [3.5–5.6] for placebo, yielding a relative risk of 10.2 [95% C.I. 7.1–14.7]. For safety outcomes, we extended the meta-analysis to include studies employing the same dose range of MTX for other chronic inflammatory conditions, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, in order not to maximise capture of relevant safety data. Based on 2763 patient safety years, adverse events (AEs) were found treatment limiting in 6.9 ± 1.4% (mean ± s.e.) of patients treated for six months, with an adverse effect profile largely in line with that encountered in clinical practice. Finally, in order to facilitate prospective clinical audit and to help generate long-term treatment outcomes under real world conditions, we also developed an easy to use documentation form to be completed by patients without requirement for additional staff time. Limitations Meta-analyses for efficacy and safety, respectively, employed non-identical selection criteria. Conclusions These meta-analyses summarise currently available evidence on MTX in psoriasis and should be of use to gauge whether local results broadly fall within outcomes. PMID:27168193

  20. Patient safety culture in hospitals of Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Rezapour, Aziz; Azami, Akbar; Rasi, Vahid; Klvany, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, for quality improvement, measuring patient safety culture (PSC) in healthcare organizations is being increasingly used. The aim of this study was to clarify PSC status in Iranian hospitals using a meta-analysis method. Methods: Six databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Magiran, SID and IranMedex using the search terms including patient safety, patient safety culture, patient safety climate and combined with hospital (such as "hospital survey on patient safety culture"), measurement, assessment, survey and Iran. A total of 11 articles which conducted using Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) questionnaire initially were reviewed. To estimate overall PSC status and perform the meta-analyses, Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software v. 2 was employed. Results: The overall PSC score based on the random model was 50.1%. "Teamwork within hospital units" dimension received the highest score of PSC (67.4%) and "Non-punitive response to error" the lowest score (32.4%). About 41% of participants in reviewed articles evaluate their hospitals’ performance in PSC as ‘excellent/very good’. Approximately %52.7 of participants did not report any adverse event in the past 12 months. Conclusion: The results of this study show that Iranian hospitals’ performances in PSC were poor. Among the 12 dimensions of HSOPSC questionnaire, the "Non-punitive response to error" achieved the lowest score and could be a priority for future interventions. In this regard, hospitals staff should be encouraged to report adverse event without fear of punitive action. PMID:26793642

  1. Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Sanford H; Fuller, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial. Methods Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo) with oral diclofenac (ODiclo). Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs), recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation. Results AEs occurred in 312 (67.1%) patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5%) of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001). Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001) and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055) AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile. PMID:21811391

  2. Evaluation of Facebook and Twitter Monitoring to Detect Safety Signals for Medical Products: An Analysis of Recent FDA Safety Alerts.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Carrie E; Bouri, Khaled; Pamer, Carol; Proestel, Scott; Rodriguez, Harold W; Van Le, Hoa; Freifeld, Clark C; Brownstein, John S; Walderhaug, Mark; Edwards, I Ralph; Dasgupta, Nabarun

    2017-04-01

    The rapid expansion of the Internet and computing power in recent years has opened up the possibility of using social media for pharmacovigilance. While this general concept has been proposed by many, central questions remain as to whether social media can provide earlier warnings for rare and serious events than traditional signal detection from spontaneous report data. Our objective was to examine whether specific product-adverse event pairs were reported via social media before being reported to the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). A retrospective analysis of public Facebook and Twitter data was conducted for 10 recent FDA postmarketing safety signals at the drug-event pair level with six negative controls. Social media data corresponding to two years prior to signal detection of each product-event pair were compiled. Automated classifiers were used to identify each 'post with resemblance to an adverse event' (Proto-AE), among English language posts. A custom dictionary was used to translate Internet vernacular into Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA(®)) Preferred Terms. Drug safety physicians conducted a manual review to determine causality using World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC) assessment criteria. Cases were also compared with those reported in FAERS. A total of 935,246 posts were harvested from Facebook and Twitter, from March 2009 through October 2014. The automated classifier identified 98,252 Proto-AEs. Of these, 13 posts were selected for causality assessment of product-event pairs. Clinical assessment revealed that posts had sufficient information to warrant further investigation for two possible product-event associations: dronedarone-vasculitis and Banana Boat Sunscreen--skin burns. No product-event associations were found among the negative controls. In one of the positive cases, the first report occurred in social media prior to signal detection from FAERS, whereas the other case

  3. An object-oriented approach to risk and reliability analysis : methodology and aviation safety applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Dandini, Vincent John; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

    2003-09-01

    This article describes how features of event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology, with some of the best features of each. The resultant object-based event scenario tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible. Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST methodology is then applied to an aviation safety problem that considers mechanisms by which an aircraft might become involved in a runway incursion incident. The resulting OBEST model demonstrates how a close link between human reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment methods can provide important insights into aviation safety phenomenology.

  4. An integrated safety analysis of intravenous ibuprofen (Caldolor®) in adults

    PubMed Central

    Southworth, Stephen R; Woodward, Emily J; Peng, Alex; Rock, Amy D

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous (IV) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as IV ibuprofen are increasingly used as a component of multimodal pain management in the inpatient and outpatient settings. The safety of IV ibuprofen as assessed in ten sponsored clinical studies is presented in this analysis. Overall, 1,752 adult patients have been included in safety and efficacy trials over 11 years; 1,220 of these patients have received IV ibuprofen and 532 received either placebo or comparator medication. The incidence of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and changes in vital signs and clinically significant laboratory parameters have been summarized and compared to patients receiving placebo or active comparator drug. Overall, IV ibuprofen has been well tolerated by hospitalized and outpatient patients when administered both prior to surgery and postoperatively as well as for nonsurgical pain or fever. The overall incidence of AEs is lower in patients receiving IV ibuprofen as compared to those receiving placebo in this integrated analysis. Specific analysis of hematological and renal effects showed no increased risk for patients receiving IV ibuprofen. A subset analysis of elderly patients suggests that no dose adjustment is needed in this higher risk population. This integrated safety analysis demonstrates that IV ibuprofen can be safely administered prior to surgery and continued in the postoperative period as a component of multimodal pain management. PMID:26604816

  5. Design and Transient Analysis of Passive Safety Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, Cristhian

    2011-12-01

    The Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) is a pebble fueled, liquid salt cooled, high temperature nuclear reactor design that can be used for electricity generation or other applications requiring the availability of heat at elevated temperatures. A stage in the design evolution of this plant requires the analysis of the plant during a variety of potential transients to understand the primary and safety cooling system response. This study focuses on the performance of the passive safety cooling system with a dual purpose, to assess the capacity to maintain the core at safe temperatures and to assist the design process of this system to achieve this objective. The analysis requires the use of complex computational tools for simulation and verification using analytical solutions and comparisons with experimental data. This investigation builds upon previous detailed design work for the PB-AHTR components, including the core, reactivity control mechanisms and the intermediate heat exchanger, developed in 2008. In addition the study of this reference plant design employs a wealth of auxiliary information including thermal-hydraulic physical phenomena correlations for multiple geometries and thermophysical properties for the constituents of the plant. Finally, the set of performance requirements and limitations imposed from physical constrains and safety considerations provide with a criteria and metrics for acceptability of the design. The passive safety cooling system concept is turned into a detailed design as a result from this study. A methodology for the design of air-cooled passive safety systems was developed and a transient analysis of the plant, evaluating a scrammed loss of forced cooling event was performed. Furthermore, a design optimization study of the passive safety system and an approach for the validation and verification of the analysis is presented. This study demonstrates that the resulting point design responds properly to the

  6. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

  7. Exposure measurement in bicycle safety analysis: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vanparijs, Jef; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain; de Geus, Bas

    2015-11-01

    Cycling, as an active mode of transportation, has well-established health benefits. However, the safety of cyclists in traffic remains a major concern. In-depth studies of potential risk factors and safety outcomes are needed to ensure the most appropriate actions are taken to improve safety. However, the lack of reliable exposure data hinders meaningful analysis and interpretation. In this paper, we review the bicycle safety literature reporting different methods for measuring cycling exposure and discuss their findings. A literature search identified studies on bicycle safety that included a description of how cycling exposure was measured, and what exposure units were used (e.g. distance, time, trips). Results were analyzed based on whether retrospective or prospective measurement of exposure was used, and whether safety outcomes controlled for exposure. We analyzed 20 papers. Retrospective studies were dominated by major bicycle accidents, whereas the prospective studies included minor and major bicycle accidents. Retrospective studies indicated higher incidence rates (IR) of accidents for men compared to women, and an increased risk of injury for cyclists aged 50 years or older. There was a lack of data for cyclists younger than 18 years. The risk of cycling accidents increased when riding in the dark. Wearing visible clothing or a helmet, or having more cycling experience did not reduce the risk of being involved in an accident. Better cyclist-driver awareness and more interaction between car driver and cyclists, and well maintained bicycle-specific infrastructure should improve bicycle safety. The need to include exposure in bicycle safety research is increasingly recognized, but good exposure data are often lacking, which makes results hard to interpret and compare. Studies including exposure often use a retrospective research design, without including data on minor bicycle accidents, making it difficult to compare safety levels between age categories or

  8. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 1, Reference design document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Galileo mission uses nuclear power sources called Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide the spacecraft's primary electrical power. Because these generators contain nuclear material, a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is required. A preliminary SAR and an updated SAR were previously issued that provided an evolving status report on the safety analysis. As a result of the Challenger accident, the launch dates for both Galileo and Ulysses missions were later rescheduled for November 1989 and October 1990, respectively. The decision was made by agreement between the DOE and the NASA to have a revised safety evaluation and report (FSAR) prepared on the basis of these revised vehicle accidents and environments. The results of this latest revised safety evaluation are presented in this document (Galileo FSAR). Volume I, this document, provides the background design information required to understand the analyses presented in Volumes II and III. It contains descriptions of the RTGs, the Galileo spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the trajectory and flight characteristics including flight contingency modes, and the launch site. There are two appendices in Volume I which provide detailed material properties for the RTG.

  9. MODEL 9977 B(M)F-96 SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT FOR PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Kurt Eberl, K

    2006-05-18

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on and for the 9977 Shipping Package, referred to as the General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP). The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9977 package with the regulatory safety requirements for Type B packages. Per 10 CFR 71.59, for the 9977 packages evaluated in this SARP, the value of ''N'' is 50, and the Transport Index based on nuclear criticality control is 1.0. The 9977 package is designed with a high degree of single containment. The 9977 complies with 10 CFR 71 (2002), Department of Energy (DOE) Order 460.1B, DOE Order 460.2, and 10 CFR 20 (2003) for As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. The 9977 also satisfies the requirements of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material--1996 Edition (Revised)--Requirements. IAEA Safety Standards, Safety Series No. TS-R-1 (ST-1, Rev.), International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria (2000). The 9977 package is designed, analyzed and fabricated in accordance with Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, 1992 edition.

  10. Integrated risk assessment and screening analysis of drinking water safety of a conventional water supply system.

    PubMed

    Sun, F; Chen, J; Tong, Q; Zeng, S

    2007-01-01

    Management of drinking water safety is changing towards an integrated risk assessment and risk management approach that includes all processes in a water supply system from catchment to consumers. However, given the large number of water supply systems in China and the cost of implementing such a risk assessment procedure, there is a necessity to first conduct a strategic screening analysis at a national level. An integrated methodology of risk assessment and screening analysis is thus proposed to evaluate drinking water safety of a conventional water supply system. The violation probability, indicating drinking water safety, is estimated at different locations of a water supply system in terms of permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, turbidity, residual chlorine and trihalomethanes. Critical parameters with respect to drinking water safety are then identified, based on which an index system is developed to prioritize conventional water supply systems in implementing a detailed risk assessment procedure. The evaluation results are represented as graphic check matrices for the concerned hazards in drinking water, from which the vulnerability of a conventional water supply system is characterized.

  11. Road safety risk evaluation and target setting using data envelopment analysis and its extensions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Vanhoof, Koen

    2012-09-01

    Currently, comparison between countries in terms of their road safety performance is widely conducted in order to better understand one's own safety situation and to learn from those best-performing countries by indicating practical targets and formulating action programmes. In this respect, crash data such as the number of road fatalities and casualties are mostly investigated. However, the absolute numbers are not directly comparable between countries. Therefore, the concept of risk, which is defined as the ratio of road safety outcomes and some measure of exposure (e.g., the population size, the number of registered vehicles, or distance travelled), is often used in the context of benchmarking. Nevertheless, these risk indicators are not consistent in most cases. In other words, countries may have different evaluation results or ranking positions using different exposure information. In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) as a performance measurement technique is investigated to provide an overall perspective on a country's road safety situation, and further assess whether the road safety outcomes registered in a country correspond to the numbers that can be expected based on the level of exposure. In doing so, three model extensions are considered, which are the DEA based road safety model (DEA-RS), the cross-efficiency method, and the categorical DEA model. Using the measures of exposure to risk as the model's input and the number of road fatalities as output, an overall road safety efficiency score is computed for the 27 European Union (EU) countries based on the DEA-RS model, and the ranking of countries in accordance with their cross-efficiency scores is evaluated. Furthermore, after applying clustering analysis to group countries with inherent similarity in their practices, the categorical DEA-RS model is adopted to identify best-performing and underperforming countries in each cluster, as well as the reference sets or benchmarks for those

  12. The Range Safety Debris Catalog Analysis in Preparation for the Pad Abort One Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutty, Prasad M.; Pratt, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The Pad Abort One flight test of the Orion Abort Flight Test Program is currently under development with the goal of demonstrating the capability of the Launch Abort System. In the event of a launch failure, this system will propel the Crew Exploration Vehicle to safety. An essential component of this flight test is range safety, which ensures the security of range assets and personnel. A debris catalog analysis was done as part of a range safety data package delivered to the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico where the test will be conducted. The analysis discusses the consequences of an overpressurization of the Abort Motor. The resulting structural failure was assumed to create a debris field of vehicle fragments that could potentially pose a hazard to the range. A statistical model was used to assemble the debris catalog of potential propellant fragments. Then, a thermodynamic, energy balance model was applied to the system in order to determine the imparted velocity to these propellant fragments. This analysis was conducted at four points along the flight trajectory to better understand the failure consequences over the entire flight. The methods used to perform this analysis are outlined in detail and the corresponding results are presented and discussed.

  13. Uncertainty analysis for multivariate state estimation in safety-critical and mission-critical maintenance applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zavaljevski, N.; Gross, K. C.

    2000-04-03

    The Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and applied for real time surveillance applications for the purposes of signal validation, sensor operability validation, equipment health monitoring, incipient component fault annunciation, and process anomaly identification. Although MSET was originally developed for applications in the commercial nuclear industry, it has recently been spun off for applications in fields such as aerospace, manufacturing, transportation, robotics, and ship propulsion. Notwithstanding these types of successful applications of MSET in industry, it is necessary for safety-critical and mission-critical applications of MSET to have reliability analysis methods, including a propagation-of-uncertainty tool, which is needed to support safety evaluations in a variety of industries, and technical-specification-change requests in the case of the nuclear industry. For these and related applications, a general purpose uncertainty analysis tool for MSET has been developed that uses Monte Carlo simulation with Latin Hypercube Sampling. For any new application of MSET, the uncertainty analysis tool developed here may be used to investigate quantitative propagation-of-uncertainty behavior for all sensors under surveillance. In addition to supporting safety analysis of surveillance systems that are based on MSET, the tool developed here can be employed in parametric studies to support system designers in evaluating the relative value of adding new sensors to an engineering system during early design stages or for equipment or facility upgrades.

  14. A comparative analysis of occupational health and safety risk prevention practices in Sweden and Spain.

    PubMed

    Morillas, Rosa María; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Fuertes, Alba

    2013-12-01

    Scandinavian countries such as Sweden implemented the occupational health and safety (OHS) measures in the European Directive 89/391/EEC earlier than other European counties, including Spain. In fact, statistics on workplace accident rates reveal that between 2004 and 2009, there were considerably fewer accidents in Sweden than in Spain. The objective of the research described in this paper was to reduce workplace accidents and to improve OHS management in Spain by exploring the OHS practices in Sweden. For this purpose, an exploratory comparative study was conducted, which focused on the effectiveness of the EU directive in both countries. The study included a cross-sectional analysis of workplace accident rates and other contextual indicators in both national contexts. A case study of 14 Swedish and Spanish companies identified 14 differences in the preventive practices implemented. These differences were then assessed with a Delphi study to evaluate their contribution to the reduction of workplace accidents and their potential for improving health and safety management in Spain. The results showed that there was agreement concerning 12 of the 14 practices. Finally, we discuss opportunities of improvement in Spanish companies so that they can make their risk management practices more effective. The findings of this comparative study on the implementation of the European Directive 89/391/EEC in both Sweden and Spain have revealed health and safety managerial practices which, if properly implemented, could contribute to improved work conditions and accident statistics of Spanish companies. In particular, the results suggest that Spanish employers, safety managers, external prevention services, safety deputies and Labour Inspectorates should consider implementing streamlined internal preventive management, promoting the integration of prevention responsibilities to the chain of command, and preventing health and safety management from becoming a mere exchange of

  15. Work zone safety analysis and modeling: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Ozbay, Kaan; Ozturk, Ozgur; Xie, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Work zone safety is one of the top priorities for transportation agencies. In recent years, a considerable volume of research has sought to determine work zone crash characteristics and causal factors. Unlike other non-work zone-related safety studies (on both crash frequency and severity), there has not yet been a comprehensive review and assessment of methodological approaches for work zone safety. To address this deficit, this article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the existing extensive research efforts focused on work zone crash-related analysis and modeling, in the hopes of providing researchers and practitioners with a complete overview. Relevant literature published in the last 5 decades was retrieved from the National Work Zone Crash Information Clearinghouse and the Transport Research International Documentation database and other public digital libraries and search engines. Both peer-reviewed publications and research reports were obtained. Each study was carefully reviewed, and those that focused on either work zone crash data analysis or work zone safety modeling were identified. The most relevant studies are specifically examined and discussed in the article. The identified studies were carefully synthesized to understand the state of knowledge on work zone safety. Agreement and inconsistency regarding the characteristics of the work zone crashes discussed in the descriptive studies were summarized. Progress and issues about the current practices on work zone crash frequency and severity modeling are also explored and discussed. The challenges facing work zone safety research are then presented. The synthesis of the literature suggests that the presence of a work zone is likely to increase the crash rate. Crashes are not uniformly distributed within work zones and rear-end crashes are the most prevalent type of crashes in work zones. There was no across-the-board agreement among numerous papers reviewed on the relationship between work zone

  16. Benefit of hindsight: systematic analysis of coronial inquest data to inform patient safety in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pudney, Val; Grech, Carol

    2015-10-12

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore the potential of coronial inquest data to inform patient safety improvement in hospitals at a system level.Methods A retrospective analysis of 20 years of South Australian (SA) coronial inquest findings was performed using both qualitative content analysis methods and statistical descriptive analyses.Results In all, 113 cases were analysed. More than one-third of deaths (39%) were associated with emergency care. Analysis revealed 11 recurrent themes and two notable contributing factors that highlighted specific areas of concern for SA hospitals over that time period. The most common action recommended by coroners (49.6%; n = 56 cases) was the review or development of policy, protocol, procedure or guidelines designed to improve patient care. In almost one-quarter (24%) of deaths reviewed, coroners alerted health authorities to poor standards of care and/or instructed individual clinicians to review the standard of their clinical practice.Conclusions The analysis provided a retrospective review of coronial inquest data associated with hospital care over a 20-year period. The findings highlight specific areas of concern for patient safety over that time. More broadly, this analysis contributes to an emerging body of evidence in the Australian academic literature that demonstrates the value of systematic analysis of coronial data at a system level to inform patient safety improvement in Australian healthcare.What is known about the topic? Australian coroners have an important role to play in public health and safety. Many areas of social inquiry across Australia use coronial inquest data to identify recurrent hazards and assist in the development of relevant social policy. However, there is very little research reported in the academic literature that associates analyses of coronial data with patient safety improvement in healthcare. Although coronial recommendations made from individual cases of avoidable death

  17. Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of contaminants in emerging food safety issues and food traceability.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2010-07-01

    This review presents an overview of the applicability of CE in the analysis of chemical and biological contaminants involved in emerging food safety issues. Additionally, CE-based genetic analyzers' usefulness as a unique tool in food traceability verification systems was presented. First, analytical approaches for the determination of melamine and specific food allergens in different foods were discussed. Second, natural toxin analysis by CE was updated from the last review reported in 2008. Finally, the analysis of prion proteins associated with the "mad cow" crises and the application of CE-based genetic analyzers for meat traceability were summarized.

  18. A probabilistic safety analysis of UF{sub 6} handling at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.J.; Lewis, S.R.; Summitt, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    A probabilistic safety study of UF{sub 6} handling activities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant has recently been completed. The analysis provides a unique perspective on the safety of UF{sub 6} handling activities. The estimated release frequencies provide an understanding of current risks, and the examination of individual contributors yields a ranking of important plant features and operations. Aside from the probabilistic results, however, there is an even more important benefit derived from a systematic modeling of all operations. The integrated approach employed in the analysis allows the interrelationships among the equipment and the required operations to be explored in depth. This paper summarizes the methods used in the study and provides an overview of some of the technical insights that were obtained. Specific areas of possible improvement in operations are described.

  19. Safety and tolerability of rufinamide in children with epilepsy: a pooled analysis of 7 clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Wheless, James W; Conry, Joan; Krauss, Gregory; Mann, Allison; LoPresti, Antonia; Narurkar, Milind

    2009-12-01

    Rufinamide is a novel antiepileptic agent recently approved in the United States for adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. To help inform clinical decision making, the authors analyzed safety and tolerability data from the entire pediatric population in the rufinamide epilepsy clinical development program. The analysis population comprised 212 rufinamide-treated (age range 3-16 years) and 197 placebo patients (age range 4-17 years) in the double-blind studies, and 391 patients receiving rufinamide in the double-blind and/or open-label extensions. The most common adverse effects observed in rufinamide-treated patients in the double-blind studies were somnolence, vomiting, and headache. Changes in laboratory values, vital signs, and weight were generally clinically insignificant. This pooled analysis of data from pediatric patients in clinical studies of rufinamide for the treatment of seizures, mainly as adjunctive therapy, suggests a favorable safety and tolerability profile in this patient population.

  20. Transient Safety Analysis of Fast Spectrum TRU Burning LWRs with Internal Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Downar, Thomas; Zazimi, Mujid; Hill, Bob

    2015-01-31

    The objective of this proposal was to perform a detailed transient safety analysis of the Resource-Renewable BWR (RBWR) core designs using the U.S. NRC TRACE/PARCS code system. This project involved the same joint team that has performed the RBWR design evaluation for EPRI and therefore be able to leverage that previous work. And because of their extensive experience with fast spectrum reactors and parfait core designs, ANL was also part the project team. The principal outcome of this project was the development of a state-of-the-art transient analysis capability for GEN-IV reactors based on Monte Carlo generated cross sections and the US NRC coupled code system TRACE/PARCS, and a state-of-the-art coupled code assessment of the transient safety performance of the RBWR.

  1. Shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis of spent fuel transportation cask in research reactors.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Hassanzadeh, M; Gharib, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis were carried out for general material testing reactor (MTR) research reactors interim storage and relevant transportation cask. During these processes, three major terms were considered: source term, shielding, and criticality calculations. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5 was used for shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis and ORIGEN2.1 code for source term calculation. According to the results obtained, a cylindrical cask with body, top, and bottom thicknesses of 18, 13, and 13 cm, respectively, was accepted as the dual-purpose cask. Furthermore, it is shown that the total dose rates are below the normal transport criteria that meet the standards specified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Safety analysis report for the Heavy-Element Facility (Building 251), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kvam, D.J.

    1982-10-11

    A comprehensive safety analysis was performed on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Heavy Element Facility, Building 251. The purpose of the analysis was to evaluate the building and its operations in order to inform LLNL and the Department of Energy of the risks they assume at Building 251. This was done by examining all of the energy sources and matching them with the physical and administrative barriers that control, prevent, or mitigate their hazards. Risk was evaluated for each source under both normal and catastrophic circumstances such as fire, flood, high wind, lighting, earthquake, and criticality. No significant safety deficiencies were found; it is concluded that the operation of the facility presents no unacceptable risk.

  3. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Herborn, D.I.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the Integrating Contractor for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, and as such is responsible for preparation of the HWVP Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). The HWVP PSAR was prepared pursuant to the requirements for safety analyses contained in US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 4700.1, Project Management System (DOE 1987); 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1986a); 5481.lB, Safety Analysis and Review System (DOE 1986b) which was superseded by DOE order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, for nuclear facilities effective April 30, 1992 (DOE 1992); and 6430.lA, General Design Criteria (DOE 1989). The WHC procedures that, in large part, implement these DOE requirements are contained in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. This manual describes the overall WHC safety analysis process in terms of requirements for safety analyses, responsibilities of the various contributing organizations, and required reviews and approvals.

  4. Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Nurit

    2015-11-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reprint of "Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials".

    PubMed

    Guttman, Nurit

    2016-12-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Macro-level safety analysis of pedestrian crashes in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuesong; Yang, Junguang; Lee, Chris; Ji, Zhuoran; You, Shikai

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrian safety has become one of the most important issues in the field of traffic safety. This study aims at investigating the association between pedestrian crash frequency and various predictor variables including roadway, socio-economic, and land-use features. The relationships were modeled using the data from 263 Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs) within the urban area of Shanghai - the largest city in China. Since spatial correlation exists among the zonal-level data, Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models with seven different spatial weight features (i.e. (a) 0-1 first order, adjacency-based, (b) common boundary-length-based, (c) geometric centroid-distance-based, (d) crash-weighted centroid-distance-based, (e) land use type, adjacency-based, (f) land use intensity, adjacency-based, and (g) geometric centroid-distance-order) were developed to characterize the spatial correlations among TAZs. Model results indicated that the geometric centroid-distance-order spatial weight feature, which was introduced in macro-level safety analysis for the first time, outperformed all the other spatial weight features. Population was used as the surrogate for pedestrian exposure, and had a positive effect on pedestrian crashes. Other significant factors included length of major arterials, length of minor arterials, road density, average intersection spacing, percentage of 3-legged intersections, and area of TAZ. Pedestrian crashes were higher in TAZs with medium land use intensity than in TAZs with low and high land use intensity. Thus, higher priority should be given to TAZs with medium land use intensity to improve pedestrian safety. Overall, these findings can help transportation planners and managers understand the characteristics of pedestrian crashes and improve pedestrian safety.

  7. Safety analysis report for packaging, onsite, long-length contaminated equipment transport system

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-05-09

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the components of the long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) transport system (TS) and provides the analyses, evaluations, and associated operational controls necessary for the safe use of the LLCE TS on the Hanford Site. The LLCE TS will provide a standardized, comprehensive approach for the disposal of approximately 98% of LLCE scheduled to be removed from the 200 Area waste tanks.

  8. Safety analysis report: A comparison of incidents from Safety Years 2006 through 2010, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station Inventory and Monitoring Program

    Treesearch

    Devon Donahue

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of 5 years of accident data for the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) Inventory and Monitoring (IM) Program that identifies past trends, allows for standardized self-comparison, and increases our understanding of the true costs of injuries and accidents. Measuring safety is a difficult task. While most agree that...

  9. Weapons-Grade Plutonium-Thorium PWR Assembly Design and Core Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dziadosz, David; Ake, Timothy N.; Saglam, Mehmet; Sapyta, Joe J.

    2004-07-15

    A light water reactor (LWR) fuel assembly design consisting of a blend of weapons-grade plutonium and natural thorium oxides was examined. The design meets current thermal-hydraulic and safety criteria. Such an assembly would have enough reactivity to achieve three cycles of operation. The pin power distribution indicates a fairly level distribution across the assembly, avoiding hot spots near guide tubes, corners, and other sections where excessive power would create significant loss to thermal-hydraulic margins.This work examined a number of physics and core safety analysis parameters that impact the operation and safety of power reactors. Such parameters as moderator coefficients of reactivity, Doppler coefficients, soluble boron worth, control rod worth, prompt neutron lifetime, and delayed-neutron fractions were considered. These in turn were used to examine reactor behavior during a number of operational conditions, transients, and accidents. Such conditions as shutdown from power with one rod stuck out, steam-line break accident, feedwater line break, loss of coolant flow, locked rotor accidents, control rod ejection accidents, and anticipated transients without scram (ATWSs) were examined.The analysis of selected reactor transients demonstrated that it is feasible to license and safely operate a reactor fueled with plutonium-thorium blended fuel. In most cases analyzed, the thorium mixture had less-severe consequences than those for a core comprising low-enriched uranium fuel. In the analyzed cases where the consequences were more severe, they were still within acceptable limits. The ATWS accident condition requires more analysis.

  10. [Social network analysis: a method to improve safety in healthcare organizations].

    PubMed

    Marqués Sánchez, Pilar; González Pérez, Marta Eva; Agra Varela, Yolanda; Vega Núñez, Jorge; Pinto Carral, Arrate; Quiroga Sánchez, Enedina

    2013-01-01

    Patient safety depends on the culture of the healthcare organization involving relationships between professionals. This article proposes that the study of these relations should be conducted from a network perspective and using a methodology called Social Network Analysis (SNA). This methodology includes a set of mathematical constructs grounded in Graph Theory. With the SNA we can know aspects of the individual's position in the network (centrality) or cohesion among team members. Thus, the SNA allows to know aspects related to security such as the kind of links that can increase commitment among professionals, how to build those links, which nodes have more prestige in the team in generating confidence or collaborative network, which professionals serve as intermediaries between the subgroups of a team to transmit information or smooth conflicts, etc. Useful aspects in stablishing a safety culture. The SNA would analyze the relations among professionals, their level of communication to communicate errors and spontaneously seek help and coordination between departments to participate in projects that enhance safety. Thus, they related through a network, using the same language, a fact that helps to build a culture. In summary, we propose an approach to safety culture from a SNA perspective that would complement other commonly used methods.

  11. Analysis of governmental Web sites on food safety issues: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Young; Almanza, Barbara A

    2006-10-01

    Despite a growing concern over food safety issues, as well as a growing dependence on the Internet as a source of information, little research has been done to examine the presence and relevance of food safety-related information on Web sites. The study reported here conducted Web site analysis in order to examine the current operational status of governmental Web sites on food safety issues. The study also evaluated Web site usability, especially information dimensionalities such as utility, currency, and relevance of content, from the perspective of the English-speaking consumer. Results showed that out of 192 World Health Organization members, 111 countries operated governmental Web sites that provide information about food safety issues. Among 171 searchable Web sites from the 111 countries, 123 Web sites (71.9 percent) were accessible, and 81 of those 123 (65.9 percent) were available in English. The majority of Web sites offered search engine tools and related links for more information, but their availability and utility was limited. In terms of content, 69.9 percent of Web sites offered information on foodborne-disease outbreaks, compared with 31.5 percent that had travel- and health-related information.

  12. Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hulburt, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.

  13. Standard review plan for reviewing safety analysis reports for dry metallic spent fuel storage casks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Cask Standard Review Plan (CSRP) has been prepared as guidance to be used in the review of Cask Safety Analysis Reports (CSARs) for storage packages. The principal purpose of the CSRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of storage cask reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The CSRP also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past by the NRC staff in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a CSAR does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented in the CSRP. However, applicants should recognize that the NRC staff has spent substantial time and effort in reviewing and developing their positions for the issues. A corresponding amount of time and effort will probably be required to review and accept new or different solutions and approaches.

  14. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Interventions to Improve Child Pedestrian Safety

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Benjamin K.; Shen, Jiabin; Wells, Hayley L.; Bogar, Ashley; Heath, Gretchen; McCullough, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pedestrian injuries represent a pediatric public health challenge. This systematic review/meta-analysis evaluated behavioral interventions to teach children pedestrian safety. Methods Multiple strategies derived eligible manuscripts (published before April 1, 2013, randomized design, evaluated behavioral child pedestrian safety interventions). Screening 1,951 abstracts yielded 125 full-text retrievals. 25 were retained for data extraction, and 6 were later omitted due to insufficient data. In all, 19 articles reporting 25 studies were included. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed. Results Behavioral interventions generally improve children’s pedestrian safety, both immediately after training and at follow-up several months later. Quality of the evidence was low to moderate. Available evidence suggested interventions targeting dash-out prevention, crossing at parked cars, and selecting safe routes across intersections were effective. Individualized/small-group training for children was the most effective training strategy based on available evidence. Conclusions Behaviorally based interventions improve children’s pedestrian safety. Efforts should continue to develop creative, cost-efficient, and effective interventions. PMID:24864275

  15. Identification of Behavior Based Safety by Using Traffic Light Analysis to Reduce Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, A.; Nasution, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work present the safety assessment of a case study and describes an important area within the field production in oil and gas industry, namely behavior based safety (BBS). The company set a rigorous BBS and its intervention program that implemented and deployed continually. In this case, observers requested to have discussion and spread a number of determined questions related with work behavior to the workers during observation. Appraisal of Traffic Light Analysis (TLA) as one tools of risk assessment used to determine the estimated score of BBS questionnaire. Standardization of TLA appraisal in this study are based on Regulation of Minister of Labor and Occupational Safety and Health No:PER.05/MEN/1996. The result shown that there are some points under 84%, which categorized in yellow category and should corrected immediately by company to prevent existing bad behavior of workers. The application of BBS expected to increase the safety performance at work time-by-time and effective in reducing accidents.

  16. Data Analysis Approaches for the Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Mandelli, Diego; Alfonsi, Andrea; Maljovec, Daniel P.; Parisi, Carlo; Cogliati, Joshua J.; Talbot, Paul W.; Smith, Curtis L.; Rabiti, Cristian; Picoco, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    In the past decades, several numerical simulation codes have been employed to simulate accident dynamics (e.g., RELAP5-3D, RELAP-7, MELCOR, MAAP). In order to evaluate the impact of uncertainties into accident dynamics, several stochastic methodologies have been coupled with these codes. These stochastic methods range from classical Monte-Carlo and Latin Hypercube sampling to stochastic polynomial methods. Similar approaches have been introduced into the risk and safety community where stochastic methods (such as RAVEN, ADAPT, MCDET, ADS) have been coupled with safety analysis codes in order to evaluate the safety impact of timing and sequencing of events. These approaches are usually called Dynamic PRA or simulation-based PRA methods. These uncertainties and safety methods usually generate a large number of simulation runs (database storage may be on the order of gigabytes or higher). The scope of this paper is to present a broad overview of methods and algorithms that can be used to analyze and extract information from large data sets containing time dependent data. In this context, “extracting information” means constructing input-output correlations, finding commonalities, and identifying outliers. Some of the algorithms presented here have been developed or are under development within the RAVEN statistical framework.

  17. Safety analysis report for the Hanford Critical Mass Laboratory: Supplement No. 2. Experiments with heterogeneous assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Davenport, L.C.

    1981-04-01

    Factors affecting the safety of criticality experiments using heterogeneous assemblies are described and assessed. It is concluded that there is no substantial change in safety from experiments already being routinely performed at the Critical Mass Laboratory (CML), and that laboratory and personnel safety are adequately provided by the combination of engineered and administrative safety limits enforced at the CML. This conclusion is based on the analysis of operational controls, potential hazards, and the consequences of accidents. Contingencies considered that could affect nuclear criticality include manual changes in fuel loadings, water flooding, fire, explosion, loss of services, earthquake, windstorm, and flood. Other potential hazards considered include radiation exposure to personnel, and potential releases within the Assembly Room and outside to the environment. It is concluded that the Maximum Credible Nuclear Burst of 3 x 10/sup 18/ fissions (which served as the design basis for the CML) is valid for heterogeneous assemblies as well as homogeneous assemblies. This is based upon examination of the results of reactor destructive tests and the results of the SL-1 reactor destructive accident. The production of blast effects which might jeopardize the CML critical assembly room (of thick reinforced concrete) is not considered credible due to the extreme circumstances required to produce blast effects in reactor destructive tests. Consequently, it is concluded that, for experiments with heterogeneous assemblies, the consequences of the Maximum Credible Burst are unchanged from those previously estimated for experiments with homogeneous systems.

  18. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 8

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was completed as required by DOE Order 5480.23. The purpose of this document is to construct a safety basis that supports the design and permits construction of the facility. The facility has been designed to the requirements of a Radioactive Solid Waste Facility presented in DOE Order 6430.1A.

  19. Impact of the Global Food Safety Initiative on Food Safety Worldwide: Statistical Analysis of a Survey of International Food Processors.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Philip G; Mauromoustakos, Andy; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Thompson, Kevin C; Yiannas, Frank; Bridges, Kerry; Francois, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    In 2000, the Consumer Goods Forum established the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) to increase the safety of the world's food supply and to harmonize food safety regulations worldwide. In 2013, a university research team in conjunction with Diversey Consulting (Sealed Air), the Consumer Goods Forum, and officers of GFSI solicited input from more than 15,000 GFSI-certified food producers worldwide to determine whether GFSI certification had lived up to these expectations. A total of 828 usable questionnaires were analyzed, representing about 2,300 food manufacturing facilities and food suppliers in 21 countries, mainly across Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. Nearly 90% of these certified suppliers perceived GFSI as being beneficial for addressing their food safety concerns, and respondents were eight times more likely to repeat the certification process knowing what it entailed. Nearly three-quarters (74%) of these food manufacturers would choose to go through the certification process again even if certification were not required by one of their current retail customers. Important drivers for becoming GFSI certified included continuing to do business with an existing customer, starting to do business with new customer, reducing the number of third-party food safety audits, and continuing improvement of their food safety program. Although 50% or fewer respondents stated that they saw actual increases in sales, customers, suppliers, or employees, significantly more companies agreed than disagreed that there was an increase in these key performance indicators in the year following GFSI certification. A majority of respondents (81%) agreed that there was a substantial investment in staff time since certification, and 50% agreed there was a significant capital investment. This survey is the largest and most representative of global food manufacturers conducted to date.

  20. Improved methodology for integral analysis of advanced reactors employing passive safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muftuoglu, A. Kursad

    After four decades of experience with pressurized water reactors, a new generation of nuclear plants are emerging. These advanced designs employ passive safety which relies on natural forces, such as gravity and natural circulation. The new concept of passive safety also necessitates improvement in computational tools available for best-estimate analyses. The system codes originally designed for high pressure conditions in the presence of strong momentum sources such as pumps are challenged in many ways. Increased interaction of the primary system with the containment necessitates a tool for integral analysis. This study addresses some of these concerns. An improved tool for integral analysis coupling primary system with containment calculation is also presented. The code package is based on RELAP5 and CONTAIN programs, best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code for primary system analysis and containment code for containment analysis, respectively. The suitability is demonstrated with a postulated small break loss of coolant accident analysis of Westinghouse AP600 plant. The thesis explains the details of the analysis including the coupling model.

  1. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: an organizational overview. Volume 1. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. A model is introduced for the purposes of organizing the literature review and showing key relationships among identified organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety. Volume I of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety.

  2. The use of experimental data in an MTR-type nuclear reactor safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Simon E.

    Reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) are a category of events required for research reactor safety analysis. A subset of this is unprotected RIAs in which mechanical systems or human intervention are not credited in the response of the system. Light-water cooled and moderated MTR-type ( i.e., aluminum-clad uranium plate fuel) reactors are self-limiting up to some reactivity insertion limit beyond which fuel damage occurs. This characteristic was studied in the Borax and Spert reactor tests of the 1950s and 1960s in the USA. This thesis considers the use of this experimental data in generic MTR-type reactor safety analysis. The approach presented herein is based on fundamental phenomenological understanding and uses correlations in the reactor test data with suitable account taken for differences in important system parameters. Specifically, a semi-empirical approach is used to quantify the relationship between the power, energy and temperature rise response of the system as well as parametric dependencies on void coefficient and the degree of subcooling. Secondary effects including the dependence on coolant flow are also examined. A rigorous curve fitting approach and error assessment is used to quantify the trends in the experimental data. In addition to the initial power burst stage of an unprotected transient, the longer term stability of the system is considered with a stylized treatment of characteristic power/temperature oscillations (chugging). A bridge from the HEU-based experimental data to the LEU fuel cycle is assessed and outlined based on existing simulation results presented in the literature. A cell-model based parametric study is included. The results are used to construct a practical safety analysis methodology for determining reactivity insertion safety limits for a light-water moderated and cooled MTR-type core.

  3. A Demonstration of Advanced Safety Analysis Tools and Methods Applied to Large Break LOCA and Fuel Analysis for PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques; Smith, Curtis Lee; Martineau, Richard Charles

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently proposing a rulemaking designated as 10 CFR 50.46c to revise the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA)/emergency core cooling system acceptance criteria to include the effects of higher burnup on fuel/cladding performance. We propose a demonstration problem of a representative four-loop PWR plant to study the impact of this new rule in the US nuclear fleet. Within the scope of evaluation for the 10 CFR 50.46c rule, aspects of safety, operations, and economics are considered in the industry application demonstration presented in this paper. An advanced safety analysis approach is used, by integrating the probabilistic element with deterministic methods for LOCA analysis, a novel approach to solving these types of multi-physics, multi-scale problems.

  4. Fault tree safety analysis of a large Li/SOCl(sub)2 spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uy, O. Manuel; Maurer, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the safety fault tree analysis on the eight module, 576 F cell Li/SOCl2 battery on the spacecraft and in the integration and test environment prior to launch on the ground are presented. The analysis showed that with the right combination of blocking diodes, electrical fuses, thermal fuses, thermal switches, cell balance, cell vents, and battery module vents the probability of a single cell or a 72 cell module exploding can be reduced to .000001, essentially the probability due to explosion for unexplained reasons.

  5. Fault tree safety analysis of a large Li/SOCl(sub)2 spacecraft battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uy, O. Manuel; Maurer, R. H.

    1987-09-01

    The results of the safety fault tree analysis on the eight module, 576 F cell Li/SOCl2 battery on the spacecraft and in the integration and test environment prior to launch on the ground are presented. The analysis showed that with the right combination of blocking diodes, electrical fuses, thermal fuses, thermal switches, cell balance, cell vents, and battery module vents the probability of a single cell or a 72 cell module exploding can be reduced to .000001, essentially the probability due to explosion for unexplained reasons.

  6. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis for Nuclear Criticality Safety Using KENO in the SCALE Code System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rearden, B. T.

    Sensitivity and uncertainty methods have been developed to aid in the establishment of areas of applicability and validation of computer codes and nuclear data for nuclear criticality safety studies. A key component in this work is the generation of sensitivity and uncertainty parameters for typically several hundred benchmarks experiments used in validation exercises. Previously, only one-dimensional sensitivity tools were available for this task, which necessitated the remodeling of multidimensional inputs in order for such an analysis to be performed. This paper describes the development of the SEN3 Monte Carlo based sensitivity analysis sequence for SCALE.

  7. Case-control analysis in highway safety: Accounting for sites with multiple crashes.

    PubMed

    Gross, Frank

    2013-12-01

    There is an increased interest in the use of epidemiological methods in highway safety analysis. The case-control and cohort methods are commonly used in the epidemiological field to identify risk factors and quantify the risk or odds of disease given certain characteristics and factors related to an individual. This same concept can be applied to highway safety where the entity of interest is a roadway segment or intersection (rather than a person) and the risk factors of interest are the operational and geometric characteristics of a given roadway. One criticism of the use of these methods in highway safety is that they have not accounted for the difference between sites with single and multiple crashes. In the medical field, a disease either occurs or it does not; multiple occurrences are generally not an issue. In the highway safety field, it is necessary to evaluate the safety of a given site while accounting for multiple crashes. Otherwise, the analysis may underestimate the safety effects of a given factor. This paper explores the use of the case-control method in highway safety and two variations to account for sites with multiple crashes. Specifically, the paper presents two alternative methods for defining cases in a case-control study and compares the results in a case study. The first alternative defines a separate case for each crash in a given study period, thereby increasing the weight of the associated roadway characteristics in the analysis. The second alternative defines entire crash categories as cases (sites with one crash, sites with two crashes, etc.) and analyzes each group separately in comparison to sites with no crashes. The results are also compared to a "typical" case-control application, where the cases are simply defined as any entity that experiences at least one crash and controls are those entities without a crash in a given period. In a "typical" case-control design, the attributes associated with single-crash segments are weighted

  8. The hazard analysis and critical control point system in food safety.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a preventive method of ensuring food safety. Its objectives are the identification of consumer safety hazards that can occur in the production line and the establishment of a control process to guarantee a safer product for the consumer; it is based on the identification of potential hazards to food safety and on measures aimed at preventing these hazards. HACCP is the system of choice in the management of food safety. The principles of HACCP are applicable to all phases of food production, including basic husbandry practices, food preparation and handling, food processing, food service, distribution systems, and consumer handling and use. The HACCP system is involved in every aspect of food safety production (according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO] and the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods [ICMSF]). The most basic concept underlying the HACCP system is that of prevention rather than inspection. The control of processes and conditions comprises the critical control point (CCP) element. HACCP is simply a methodical, flexible, and systematic application of the appropriate science and technology for planning, controlling, and documenting the safe production of foods. The successful application of HACCP requires the full commitment and involvement of management and the workforce, using a multidisciplinary approach that should include, as appropriate, expertise in agronomy, veterinary health, microbiology, public health, food technology, environmental health, chemistry, engineering, and so on according to the particular situation. Application of the HACCP system is compatible with the implementation of total quality management (TQM) systems such as the ISO 9000 series.

  9. SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TANK 241-AZ-101 MIXER PUMP PROCESS TEST

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMOND DM; HARRIS JP; MOUETTE P

    1997-06-09

    This document contains the completed safety analysis which establishes the safety envelope for performing the mixer pump process test in Tank 241-AZ-101. This process test is described in TF-210-OTP-001. All equipment necessary for the mixer pump test has been installed by Project W-151. The purpose of this document is to describe and analyze the mixer pump test for Aging Waste Facility (AWF) Tank 241-AZ-101 and to address the 'yes/maybe' responses marked for evaluation questions identified in Unreviewed Safety Question Evaluation (USQE) TF-94-0266. The scope of this document is limited to the performance of the mixer pump test for Tank 241-AZ-101. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD) TF-96-0018 verified that the installation of two mixer pumps into Tank 241-AZ-101 was within the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Authorization Basis. USQDs TF-96-0461, TF-96-0448, and TF-96-0805 verified that the installation of the in-tank video camera, thermocouples, and Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer (URSILLA), respectively, were within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. USQD TF-96-1041 verified that the checkout testing of the installed equipment was within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. Installation of the pumps and equipment has been completed. An evaluation of safety considerations associated with operation of the mixer pumps for the mixer pump test is provided in this document. This document augments the existing AWF authorization basis as defined in the Interim Safety Basis (Stahl 1997), and as such, will use the existing Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) of Heubach 1996 to adequately control the mixer pump test. The hazard and accident analysis is limited to the scope and impact of the mixer pump test, and therefore does not address hazards already addressed by the current AWF authorization basis. This document does not evaluate removal of the mixer pumps. Safety considerations for removal of the pumps will be addressed by

  10. Quality and safety in adult epilepsy monitoring units: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Natalie; Macrodimitris, Sophie; Wiebe, Samuel; Lukmanji, Sara; Jetté, Nathalie

    2016-11-01

    The epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) is a valuable resource for optimizing management of persons with epilepsy, but may place patients at risk for adverse events due to withdrawal of treatment and induction of symptoms. The purpose of this study was to synthesize data on the safety and quality of care in EMUs to inform the development of quality indicators for EMUs. A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting and Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The search strategy, which included broad search terms and synonyms pertaining to the EMU, was run in six medical databases and included conference proceedings. Data abstracted included patient and EMU demographics and quality and safety variables. Study quality was evaluated using a modified 15-item Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. Descriptive statistics and meta-analyses were used to describe and synthesize the evidence. The search yielded 7,601 references, of which 604 were reviewed in full text. One-hundred thirty-five studies were included. The quality and safety data came from 181,823 patients and reported on 34 different quality and safety variables. Included studies commonly reported the number of patients (108 studies; median number patients, 171.5), age (49 studies; mean age 35.7 years old), and the reason for admission (34 studies). The most common quality and safety data reported were the utility of the EMU admission (38 studies). Thirty-three studies (24.4%) reported on adverse events, and yielded a pooled proportion of adverse events of 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5-9%). The mean quality score was 73.3% (standard deviation [SD] 17.2). This study demonstrates that there is a great deal of variation in the reporting of quality and safety measures and in the quality and safety in EMUs. Study quality also varied considerably from one study to the next. These findings highlight the need to develop

  11. Quantitative analysis of pedestrian safety at uncontrolled multi-lane mid-block crosswalks in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunbao; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Guojun; Chen, Feng

    2017-11-01

    A lot of pedestrian-vehicle crashes at mid-block crosswalks severely threaten pedestrian's safety around the world. The situations are even worse in China due to low yielding rate of vehicles at crosswalks. In order to quantitatively analyze pedestrian's safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, the number of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts was utilized to evaluate pedestrian's accident risk. Five mid-block crosswalks (Wuhan, China) were videoed to collect data of traffic situation and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts, and the quantity and spatial distribution of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts at multi-lane mid-block crosswalk were analyzed according to lane-based post-encroachment time(LPET). Statistical results indicate that conflicts are mainly concentrated in lane3 and lane6. Percentage of conflict of each lane numbered from 1 to 6 respectively are 4.1%, 13.1%, 19.8%, 8.4%, 19.0%, 28.1%. Conflict rate under different crossing strategies are also counted. Moreover, an order probit (OP) model of pedestrian-vehicle conflict analysis (PVCA) was built to find out the contributions corresponding to those factors (such as traffic volume, vehicle speed, pedestrian crossing behavior, pedestrian refuge, etc.) to pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. The results show that: pedestrian refuge have positive effects on pedestrian safety; on the other hand, high vehicle speed, high traffic volume, rolling gap crossing pattern, and larger pedestrian platoon have negative effects on pedestrian safety. Based on our field observation and PVCA model, the number of conflicts will rise by 2% while the traffic volume increases 200 pcu/h; similarly, if the vehicle speed increases 5km/h, the number of conflicts will rise by 12% accordingly. The research results could be used to evaluate pedestrian safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, and useful to improve pedestrian safety by means of pedestrian safety education, pedestrian refuge setting, vehicle speed limiting, and so on. Copyright © 2017

  12. Timing of Formal Phase Safety Reviews for Large-Scale Integrated Hazard Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, Michael J.; Morris, A. Terry

    2010-01-01

    Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is a process used to identify and control unacceptable risk. As such, it does not occur in a vacuum. IHA approaches must be tailored to fit the system being analyzed. Physical, resource, organizational and temporal constraints on large-scale integrated systems impose additional direct or derived requirements on the IHA. The timing and interaction between engineering and safety organizations can provide either benefits or hindrances to the overall end product. The traditional approach for formal phase safety review timing and content, which generally works well for small- to moderate-scale systems, does not work well for very large-scale integrated systems. This paper proposes a modified approach to timing and content of formal phase safety reviews for IHA. Details of the tailoring process for IHA will describe how to avoid temporary disconnects in major milestone reviews and how to maintain a cohesive end-to-end integration story particularly for systems where the integrator inherently has little to no insight into lower level systems. The proposal has the advantage of allowing the hazard analysis development process to occur as technical data normally matures.

  13. A statistical analysis of the impact of advertising signs on road safety.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Papantoniou, Panagiotis; Voulgari, Chrisoula

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the impact of advertising signs on road safety. An exhaustive review of international literature was carried out on the effect of advertising signs on driver behaviour and safety. Moreover, a before-and-after statistical analysis with control groups was applied on several road sites with different characteristics in the Athens metropolitan area, in Greece, in order to investigate the correlation between the placement or removal of advertising signs and the related occurrence of road accidents. Road accident data for the 'before' and 'after' periods on the test sites and the control sites were extracted from the database of the Hellenic Statistical Authority, and the selected 'before' and 'after' periods vary from 2.5 to 6 years. The statistical analysis shows no statistical correlation between road accidents and advertising signs in none of the nine sites examined, as the confidence intervals of the estimated safety effects are non-significant at 95% confidence level. This can be explained by the fact that, in the examined road sites, drivers are overloaded with information (traffic signs, directions signs, labels of shops, pedestrians and other vehicles, etc.) so that the additional information load from advertising signs may not further distract them.

  14. Organic Tanks Safety Program: Advanced organic analysis FY 1996 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Major focus during the first part of FY96 was to evaluate using organic functional group concentrations to screen for energetics. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy would be useful screening tools for determining C-H and COO- organic content in tank wastes analyzed in a hot cell. These techniques would be used for identifying tanks of potential safety concern that may require further analysis. Samples from Tanks 241-C-106 and -C-204 were analyzed; the major organic in C-106 was B2EHPA and in C-204 was TBP. Analyses of simulated wastes were also performed for the Waste Aging Studies Task; organics formed as a result of degradation were identified, and the original starting components were monitored quantitatively. Sample analysis is not routine and required considerable methods adaptation and optimization. Several techniques have been evaluated for directly analyzing chelator and chelator fragments in tank wastes: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection using Cu complexation. Although not directly funded by the Tanks Safety Program, the success of these techniques have implications for both the Flammable Gas and Organic Tanks Safety Programs.

  15. Safety is an interpretive act: a hermeneutic analysis of care in childbirth.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    To explore the interpretive nature of safety through a hermeneutic analysis of women's stories of feeling unsafe. This is a re-interpretation of data from a study completed in 1998 that explored the meaning of being safe in childbirth. Three stories are interpreted from that study using a hermeneutic phenomenological methodological approach. The analysis seeks to reveal what lies behind the simple, taken-for-granted stories of experience towards recognising the interpretive nature of safety. New Zealand maternity services. Stories from 3 women are profiled, with glimpses from the stories of other participants. Women may experience unsafe events but when they seek help struggle to get the unsafety of the situation recognised. This is because there is nothing to see 'now', the woman has difficulty describing what is happening, or the practitioner does not follow through to investigate further. There is a sense that women can feel 'not believed'. Further, the woman may not understand that what she is experiencing is not normal. Safety reveals itself as lost or found in interpretation. Listening, watching and responding are the hallmarks of safe practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of Research Trends and Methods in Nano Environmental, Health, and Safety Risk Analysis.

    PubMed

    Erbis, Serkan; Ok, Zeynep; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Benneyan, James C; Kamarthi, Sagar

    2016-08-01

    Despite the many touted benefits of nanomaterials, concerns remain about their possible environmental, health, and safety (EHS) risks in terms of their toxicity, long-term accumulation effects, or dose-response relationships. The published studies on EHS risks of nanomaterials have increased significantly over the past decade and half, with most focused on nanotoxicology. Researchers are still learning about health consequences of nanomaterials and how to make environmentally responsible decisions regarding their production. This article characterizes the scientific literature on nano-EHS risk analysis to map the state-of-the-art developments in this field and chart guidance for the future directions. First, an analysis of keyword co-occurrence networks is investigated for nano-EHS literature published in the past decade to identify the intellectual turning points and research trends in nanorisk analysis studies. The exposure groups targeted in emerging nano-EHS studies are also assessed. System engineering methods for risk, safety, uncertainty, and system reliability analysis are reviewed, followed by detailed descriptions where applications of these methods are utilized to analyze nanomaterial EHS risks. Finally, the trends, methods, future directions, and opportunities of system engineering methods in nano-EHS research are discussed. The analysis of nano-EHS literature presented in this article provides important insights on risk assessment and risk management tools associated with nanotechnology, nanomanufacturing, and nano-enabled products.

  17. Critical Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis Considerations for Seismic Qualification of Safety Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Q A

    2004-03-04

    While developing seismic analysis models for buildings that support safety-related equipment, a number of issues should be considered to ensure that the input motions for performing seismic qualification of safety-related equipment are properly defined. These considerations are listed and discussed here with special attention to the effect and importance of the interaction among the foundation soil, the building structure, the equipment anchors, and the equipment structure. Typical industry practices are critically examined to assess their adequacy for determining the input motions for equipment seismic qualification. The features that are considered essential in a soil-structure interaction (SSI) model are described. Also, the effects of inappropriate treatment or representation of these features are discussed.

  18. Reactor Safety Gap Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Components and Severe Accident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Mitchell T.; Bunt, R.; Corradini, M.; Ellison, Paul B.; Francis, M.; Gabor, John D.; Gauntt, R.; Henry, C.; Linthicum, R.; Luangdilok, W.; Lutz, R.; Paik, C.; Plys, M.; Rabiti, Cristian; Rempe, J.; Robb, K.; Wachowiak, R.

    2015-01-31

    The overall objective of this study was to conduct a technology gap evaluation on accident tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist, given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research, and additionally augmented by insights obtained from the Fukushima accident. The ultimate benefit of this activity is that the results can be used to refine the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Reactor Safety Technology (RST) research and development (R&D) program plan to address key knowledge gaps in severe accident phenomena and analyses that affect reactor safety and that are not currently being addressed by the industry or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  19. Blood transfusions in critical care: improving safety through technology & process analysis.

    PubMed

    Aulbach, Rebecca K; Brient, Kathy; Clark, Marie; Custard, Kristi; Davis, Carolyn; Gecomo, Jonathan; Ho, Judy Ong

    2010-06-01

    A multidisciplinary safety initiative transformed blood transfusion practices at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital in Houston, Texas. An intense analysis of a mistransfusion using the principles of a Just Culture and the process of Cause Mapping identified system and human performance factors that led to the transfusion error. Multiple initiatives were implemented including technology, education and human behaviour change. The wireless technology of Pyxis Transfusion Verification by CareFusion is effective with the rapid infusion module efficient for use in critical care. Improvements in blood transfusion safety were accomplished by thoroughly evaluating the process of transfusions and by implementing wireless electronic transfusion verification technology. During the 27 months following implementation of the CareFusion Transfusion Verification there have been zero cases of transfusing mismatched blood.

  20. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2, Book 2: Accident model document: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    This section of the Accident Model Document (AMD) presents the appendices which describe the various analyses that have been conducted for use in the Galileo Final Safety Analysis Report II, Volume II. Included in these appendices are the approaches, techniques, conditions and assumptions used in the development of the analytical models plus the detailed results of the analyses. Also included in these appendices are summaries of the accidents and their associated probabilities and environment models taken from the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116), plus summaries of the several segments of the recent GPHS safety test program. The information presented in these appendices is used in Section 3.0 of the AMD to develop the Failure/Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) and to determine the fuel releases (source terms) resulting from the potential Space Shuttle/IUS accidents throughout the missions.

  1. New challenges in the safety analysis of DOE`s high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.N.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; White, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Tank 241-SY-101, located at the Department of Energy Hanford Site, has periodically released up to 283 m{sup 3} (10,000 ft{sup 3}) of flammable gas. This release has been one of the highest priority DOE operational safety problems because of potential consequences if the gas were ignited during one of these releases. The gases include hydrogen and ammonia (fuels) and nitrous oxide (oxidizer). There have been many opinions regarding the controlling mechanisms for these releases, but demonstrating an adequate understanding of the problem, selecting a mitigation methodology, and preparing the safety analysis have presented numerous new challenges. The purpose of this report is to present an overview of the problem, the main issues, the method selected to mitigate this hazard, and the results of the mitigation program.

  2. Remote Safety Monitoring for Elderly Persons Based on Omni-Vision Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yun; Tang, Yi-ping; Ma, Bao-qing; Yan, Hang-chen; Jiang, Jun; Tian, Xu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Remote monitoring service for elderly persons is important as the aged populations in most developed countries continue growing. To monitor the safety and health of the elderly population, we propose a novel omni-directional vision sensor based system, which can detect and track object motion, recognize human posture, and analyze human behavior automatically. In this work, we have made the following contributions: (1) we develop a remote safety monitoring system which can provide real-time and automatic health care for the elderly persons and (2) we design a novel motion history or energy images based algorithm for motion object tracking. Our system can accurately and efficiently collect, analyze, and transfer elderly activity information and provide health care in real-time. Experimental results show that our technique can improve the data analysis efficiency by 58.5% for object tracking. Moreover, for the human posture recognition application, the success rate can reach 98.6% on average. PMID:25978761

  3. Criticality Safety Analysis Of As-loaded Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Scaglione, John M

    2015-01-01

    The final safety analysis report (FSAR) or the safety analysis report (SAR) for a particular spent nuclear fuel (SNF) cask system documents models and calculations used to demonstrate that a system meets the regulatory requirements under all normal, off-normal, and accident conditions of spent fuel storage, and normal and accident conditions of transportation. FSAR/SAR calculations and approved content specifications are intended to be bounding in nature to certify cask systems for a variety of fuel characteristics with simplified SNF loading requirements. Therefore, in general, loaded cask systems possess excess and uncredited criticality margins (i.e., the difference between the licensing basis and the as-loaded calculations). This uncredited margin could be quantified by employing more detailed cask-specific evaluations that credit the actual as-loaded cask inventory, and taking into account full (actinide and fission product) burnup credit. This uncredited criticality margin could be potentially used to offset (1) uncertainties in the safety basis that needs to account for the effects of system aging during extended dry storage prior to transportation, and (2) increases in SNF system reactivity over a repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the system undergoes degradation and internal geometry changes. This paper summarizes an assessment of cask-specific, as-loaded criticality margins for SNF stored at eight reactor sites (215 loaded casks were analyzed) under fully flooded conditions to assess the margins available during transportation after extended storage. It is observed that the calculated keff margin varies from 0.05 to almost 0.3 Δkeff for the eight selected reactor sites, demonstrating that significant uncredited safety margins are present. In addition, this paper evaluates the sufficiency of this excess margin in applications involving direct disposal of currently loaded SNF casks.

  4. On statistical inference in time series analysis of the evolution of road safety.

    PubMed

    Commandeur, Jacques J F; Bijleveld, Frits D; Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora

    2013-11-01

    Data collected for building a road safety observatory usually include observations made sequentially through time. Examples of such data, called time series data, include annual (or monthly) number of road traffic accidents, traffic fatalities or vehicle kilometers driven in a country, as well as the corresponding values of safety performance indicators (e.g., data on speeding, seat belt use, alcohol use, etc.). Some commonly used statistical techniques imply assumptions that are often violated by the special properties of time series data, namely serial dependency among disturbances associated with the observations. The first objective of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of such violations to the applicability of standard methods of statistical inference, which leads to an under or overestimation of the standard error and consequently may produce erroneous inferences. Moreover, having established the adverse consequences of ignoring serial dependency issues, the paper aims to describe rigorous statistical techniques used to overcome them. In particular, appropriate time series analysis techniques of varying complexity are employed to describe the development over time, relating the accident-occurrences to explanatory factors such as exposure measures or safety performance indicators, and forecasting the development into the near future. Traditional regression models (whether they are linear, generalized linear or nonlinear) are shown not to naturally capture the inherent dependencies in time series data. Dedicated time series analysis techniques, such as the ARMA-type and DRAG approaches are discussed next, followed by structural time series models, which are a subclass of state space methods. The paper concludes with general recommendations and practice guidelines for the use of time series models in road safety research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bayesian methodology to estimate and update safety performance functions under limited data conditions: a sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Shahram; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Lord, Dominique; Fu, Liping

    2014-03-01

    In road safety studies, decision makers must often cope with limited data conditions. In such circumstances, the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), which relies on asymptotic theory, is unreliable and prone to bias. Moreover, it has been reported in the literature that (a) Bayesian estimates might be significantly biased when using non-informative prior distributions under limited data conditions, and that (b) the calibration of limited data is plausible when existing evidence in the form of proper priors is introduced into analyses. Although the Highway Safety Manual (2010) (HSM) and other research studies provide calibration and updating procedures, the data requirements can be very taxing. This paper presents a practical and sound Bayesian method to estimate and/or update safety performance function (SPF) parameters combining the information available from limited data with the SPF parameters reported in the HSM. The proposed Bayesian updating approach has the advantage of requiring fewer observations to get reliable estimates. This paper documents this procedure. The adopted technique is validated by conducting a sensitivity analysis through an extensive simulation study with 15 different models, which include various prior combinations. This sensitivity analysis contributes to our understanding of the comparative aspects of a large number of prior distributions. Furthermore, the proposed method contributes to unification of the Bayesian updating process for SPFs. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the developed methodology. Therefore, the suggested approach offers considerable promise as a methodological tool to estimate and/or update baseline SPFs and to evaluate the efficacy of road safety countermeasures under limited data conditions.

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the safety of newly adjuvanted vaccines among children.

    PubMed

    Stassijns, Jorgen; Bollaerts, Kaatje; Baay, Marc; Verstraeten, Thomas

    2016-02-03

    New adjuvants such as the AS- or the MF59-adjuvants improve vaccine efficacy and facilitate dose-sparing. Their use in influenza and malaria vaccines has resulted in a large body of evidence on their clinical safety in children. We carried out a systematic search for safety data from published clinical trials on newly adjuvanted vaccines in children ≤10 years of age. Serious adverse events (SAEs), solicited AEs, unsolicited AEs and AEs of special interest were evaluated for four new adjuvants: the immuno-stimulants containing adjuvant systems AS01 and AS02, and the squalene containing oil-in-water emulsions AS03 and MF59. Relative risks (RR) were calculated, comparing children receiving newly adjuvanted vaccines to children receiving other vaccines with a variety of antigens, both adjuvanted and unadjuvanted. Twenty-nine trials were included in the meta-analysis, encompassing 25,056 children who received at least one dose of the newly adjuvanted vaccines. SAEs did not occur more frequently in adjuvanted groups (RR 0.85, 95%CI 0.75-0.96). Our meta-analyses showed higher reactogenicity following administration of newly adjuvanted vaccines, however, no consistent pattern of solicited AEs was observed across adjuvant systems. Pain was the most prevalent AE, but often mild and of short duration. No increased risks were found for unsolicited AEs, febrile convulsions, potential immune mediated diseases and new onset of chronic diseases. Our meta-analysis did not show any safety concerns in clinical trials of the newly adjuvanted vaccines in children ≤10 years of age. An unexplained increase of meningitis in one Phase III AS01-adjuvanted malaria trial and the link between narcolepsy and the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine illustrate that continued safety monitoring is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Patient Safety Culture Survey in Pediatric Complex Care Settings: A Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hessels, Amanda J; Murray, Meghan; Cohen, Bevin; Larson, Elaine L

    2017-04-19

    Children with complex medical needs are increasing in number and demanding the services of pediatric long-term care facilities (pLTC), which require a focus on patient safety culture (PSC). However, no tool to measure PSC has been tested in this unique hybrid acute care-residential setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture tool slightly modified for use in the pLTC setting. Factor analyses were performed on data collected from 239 staff at 3 pLTC in 2012. Items were screened by principal axis factoring, and the original structure was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify the best model fit for the pLTC data, and factor reliability was assessed by Cronbach alpha. The extracted, rotated factor solution suggested items in 4 (staffing, nonpunitive response to mistakes, communication openness, and organizational learning) of the original 12 dimensions may not be a good fit for this population. Nevertheless, in the pLTC setting, both the original and the modified factor solutions demonstrated similar reliabilities to the published consistencies of the survey when tested in adult nursing homes and the items factored nearly identically as theorized. This study demonstrates that the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture with minimal modification may be an appropriate instrument to measure PSC in pLTC settings. Additional psychometric testing is recommended to further validate the use of this instrument in this setting, including examining the relationship to safety outcomes. Increased use will yield data for benchmarking purposes across these specialized settings to inform frontline workers and organizational leaders of areas of strength and opportunity for improvement.

  8. Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculational Analysis for Fissile Mass Limits and Spacing Requirements for 55 - Gallon Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Thomas C.; Hesse, David J.; Tayloe, Jr., Robert W.

    1994-05-01

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis was performed to determine the fissile mass limits and spacing requirements for the storage of 55-gallon waste drums at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS).

  9. Freight-train derailment rates for railroad safety and risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Rapik Saat, M; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2017-01-01

    Derailments are the most common type of train accident in the United States. They cause damage to infrastructure, rolling stock and lading, disrupt service, and have the potential to cause casualties, and harm the environment. Train safety and risk analysis relies on accurate assessment of derailment likelihood. Derailment rate - the number of derailments normalized by traffic exposure - is a useful statistic to estimate the likelihood of a derailment. Despite its importance, derailment rate analysis using multiple factors has not been previously developed. In this paper, we present an analysis of derailment rates on Class I railroad mainlines based on data from the U.S. Federal Railroad Administration and the major freight railroads. The point estimator and confidence interval of train and car derailment rates are developed by FRA track class, method of operation and annual traffic density. The analysis shows that signaled track with higher FRA track class and higher traffic density is associated with a lower derailment rate. The new accident rates have important implications for safety and risk management decisions, such as the routing of hazardous materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ares-I-X Vehicle Preliminary Range Safety Malfunction Turn Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, James R.; Starr, Brett R.; Gowan, John W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Ares-I-X is the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares-I rocket (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle - CLV) being developed by NASA. As part of the preliminary flight plan approval process for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the launch area risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could cause the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path, and the effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares-I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version 2 (POST2) simulation framework. The Ares-I-X simulation analysis provides output files containing vehicle state information, which are used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study, and preliminary results are presented, determined by analysis of the trajectory deviation of the failure cases, compared with the expected vehicle trajectory.

  11. Latent segmentation based count models: Analysis of bicycle safety in Montreal and Toronto.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Eluru, Naveen

    2016-10-01

    The study contributes to literature on bicycle safety by building on the traditional count regression models to investigate factors affecting bicycle crashes at the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) level. TAZ is a traffic related geographic entity which is most frequently used as spatial unit for macroscopic crash risk analysis. In conventional count models, the impact of exogenous factors is restricted to be the same across the entire region. However, it is possible that the influence of exogenous factors might vary across different TAZs. To accommodate for the potential variation in the impact of exogenous factors we formulate latent segmentation based count models. Specifically, we formulate and estimate latent segmentation based Poisson (LP) and latent segmentation based Negative Binomial (LNB) models to study bicycle crash counts. In our latent segmentation approach, we allow for more than two segments and also consider a large set of variables in segmentation and segment specific models. The formulated models are estimated using bicycle-motor vehicle crash data from the Island of Montreal and City of Toronto for the years 2006 through 2010. The TAZ level variables considered in our analysis include accessibility measures, exposure measures, sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, road network characteristics and built environment. A policy analysis is also conducted to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model for planning purposes. This macro-level research would assist decision makers, transportation officials and community planners to make informed decisions to proactively improve bicycle safety - a prerequisite to promoting a culture of active transportation.

  12. Efficient runner safety assessment during early design phase and root cause analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q. W.; Lais, S.; Gentner, C.; Braun, O.

    2012-11-01

    Fatigue related problems in Francis turbines, especially high head Francis turbines, have been published several times in the last years. During operation the runner is exposed to various steady and unsteady hydraulic loads. Therefore the analysis of forced response of the runner structure requires a combined approach of fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. Due to the high complexity of the phenomena and due to the limitation of computer power, the numerical prediction was in the past too expensive and not feasible for the use as standard design tool. However, due to continuous improvement of the knowledge and the simulation tools such complex analysis has become part of the design procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO. This article describes the application of most advanced analysis techniques in runner safety check (RSC), including steady state CFD analysis, transient CFD analysis considering rotor stator interaction (RSI), static FE analysis and modal analysis in water considering the added mass effect, in the early design phase. This procedure allows a very efficient interaction between the hydraulic designer and the mechanical designer during the design phase, such that a risk of failure can be detected and avoided in an early design stage.The RSC procedure can also be applied to a root cause analysis (RCA) both to find out the cause of failure and to quickly define a technical solution to meet the safety criteria. An efficient application to a RCA of cracks in a Francis runner is quoted in this article as an example. The results of the RCA are presented together with an efficient and inexpensive solution whose effectiveness could be proven again by applying the described RSC technics. It is shown that, with the RSC procedure developed and applied as standard procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO such a failure is excluded in an early design phase. Moreover, the RSC procedure is compatible with different commercial and open source codes and can be easily adapted to apply for

  13. Running to Safety: Analysis of Disaster Susceptibility of Neighborhoods and Proximity of Safety Facilities in Silay City, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiño, C. L.; Saripada, N. A.; Olavides, R. D.; Sinogaya, J.

    2016-06-01

    Going on foot is the most viable option when emergency responders fail to show up in disaster zones at the quickest and most reasonable time. In the Philippines, the efficacy of disaster management offices is hampered by factors such as, but not limited to, lack of equipment and personnel, distance, and/or poor road networks and traffic systems. In several instances, emergency response times exceed acceptable norms. This study explores the hazard susceptibility, particularly to fire, flood, and landslides, of neighborhoods vis-à-vis their proximity to safety facilities in Silay City, Philippines. Imbang River exposes communities in the city to flooding while the mountainous terrain makes the city landslide prone. Building extraction was done to get the possible human settlements in the city. The building structures were extracted through image processing using a ruleset-based approach in the process of segmentation and classification of LiDAR derivatives and ortho-photos. Neighborhoods were then identified whether they have low to high susceptibility to disaster risks in terms of floods and landslides based on the hazards maps obtained from the Philippines' Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB). Service area analyses were performed to determine the safety facilities available to different neighborhoods at varying running times. Locations which are inaccessible or are difficult to run to because of distance and corresponding hazards were determined. Recommendations are given in the form of infrastructure installation, relocation of facilities, safety equipment and vehicle procurement, and policy changes for specific areas in Silay City.

  14. Integrating natural language processing expertise with patient safety event review committees to improve the analysis of medication events.

    PubMed

    Fong, Allan; Harriott, Nicole; Walters, Donna M; Foley, Hanan; Morrissey, Richard; Ratwani, Raj R

    2017-08-01

    Many healthcare providers have implemented patient safety event reporting systems to better understand and improve patient safety. Reviewing and analyzing these reports is often time consuming and resource intensive because of both the quantity of reports and length of free-text descriptions in the reports. Natural language processing (NLP) experts collaborated with clinical experts on a patient safety committee to assist in the identification and analysis of medication related patient safety events. Different NLP algorithmic approaches were developed to identify four types of medication related patient safety events and the models were compared. Well performing NLP models were generated to categorize medication related events into pharmacy delivery delays, dispensing errors, Pyxis discrepancies, and prescriber errors with receiver operating characteristic areas under the curve of 0.96, 0.87, 0.96, and 0.81 respectively. We also found that modeling the brief without the resolution text generally improved model performance. These models were integrated into a dashboard visualization to support the patient safety committee review process. We demonstrate the capabilities of various NLP models and the use of two text inclusion strategies at categorizing medication related patient safety events. The NLP models and visualization could be used to improve the efficiency of patient safety event data review and analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety and reliability analysis in a polyvinyl chloride batch process using dynamic simulator-case study: Loss of containment incident.

    PubMed

    Rizal, Datu; Tani, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Kimitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    2006-10-11

    In this paper, a novel methodology in batch plant safety and reliability analysis is proposed using a dynamic simulator. A batch process involving several safety objects (e.g. sensors, controller, valves, etc.) is activated during the operational stage. The performance of the safety objects is evaluated by the dynamic simulation and a fault propagation model is generated. By using the fault propagation model, an improved fault tree analysis (FTA) method using switching signal mode (SSM) is developed for estimating the probability of failures. The timely dependent failures can be considered as unavailability of safety objects that can cause the accidents in a plant. Finally, the rank of safety object is formulated as performance index (PI) and can be estimated using the importance measures. PI shows the prioritization of safety objects that should be investigated for safety improvement program in the plants. The output of this method can be used for optimal policy in safety object improvement and maintenance. The dynamic simulator was constructed using Visual Modeler (VM, the plant simulator, developed by Omega Simulation Corp., Japan). A case study is focused on the loss of containment (LOC) incident at polyvinyl chloride (PVC) batch process which is consumed the hazardous material, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM).

  16. Assessment of occupational safety risks in Floridian solid waste systems using Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Mehrad; Celik, Nurcin

    2015-10-01

    Safety risks embedded within solid waste management systems continue to be a significant issue and are prevalent at every step in the solid waste management process. To recognise and address these occupational hazards, it is necessary to discover the potential safety concerns that cause them, as well as their direct and/or indirect impacts on the different types of solid waste workers. In this research, our goal is to statistically assess occupational safety risks to solid waste workers in the state of Florida. Here, we first review the related standard industrial codes to major solid waste management methods including recycling, incineration, landfilling, and composting. Then, a quantitative assessment of major risks is conducted based on the data collected using a Bayesian data analysis and predictive methods. The risks estimated in this study for the period of 2005-2012 are then compared with historical statistics (1993-1997) from previous assessment studies. The results have shown that the injury rates among refuse collectors in both musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have decreased from 88 and 15 to 16 and three injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. However, a contrasting trend is observed for the injury rates among recycling workers, for whom musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have increased from 13 and four injuries to 14 and six injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. Lastly, a linear regression model has been proposed to identify major elements of the high number of musculoskeletal and dermal injuries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. The Role of Probabilistic Design Analysis Methods in Safety and Affordability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2016-01-01

    For the last several years, NASA and its contractors have been working together to build space launch systems to commercialize space. Developing commercial affordable and safe launch systems becomes very important and requires a paradigm shift. This paradigm shift enforces the need for an integrated systems engineering environment where cost, safety, reliability, and performance need to be considered to optimize the launch system design. In such an environment, rule based and deterministic engineering design practices alone may not be sufficient to optimize margins and fault tolerance to reduce cost. As a result, introduction of Probabilistic Design Analysis (PDA) methods to support the current deterministic engineering design practices becomes a necessity to reduce cost without compromising reliability and safety. This paper discusses the importance of PDA methods in NASA's new commercial environment, their applications, and the key role they can play in designing reliable, safe, and affordable launch systems. More specifically, this paper discusses: 1) The involvement of NASA in PDA 2) Why PDA is needed 3) A PDA model structure 4) A PDA example application 5) PDA link to safety and affordability.

  18. Model-based safety analysis of human-robot interactions: the MIRAS walking assistance robot.

    PubMed

    Guiochet, Jérémie; Hoang, Quynh Anh Do; Kaaniche, Mohamed; Powell, David

    2013-06-01

    Robotic systems have to cope with various execution environments while guaranteeing safety, and in particular when they interact with humans during rehabilitation tasks. These systems are often critical since their failure can lead to human injury or even death. However, such systems are difficult to validate due to their high complexity and the fact that they operate within complex, variable and uncertain environments (including users), in which it is difficult to foresee all possible system behaviors. Because of the complexity of human-robot interactions, rigorous and systematic approaches are needed to assist the developers in the identification of significant threats and the implementation of efficient protection mechanisms, and in the elaboration of a sound argumentation to justify the level of safety that can be achieved by the system. For threat identification, we propose a method called HAZOP-UML based on a risk analysis technique adapted to system description models, focusing on human-robot interaction models. The output of this step is then injected in a structured safety argumentation using the GSN graphical notation. Those approaches have been successfully applied to the development of a walking assistant robot which is now in clinical validation.

  19. Media Coverage of FDA Drug Safety Communications about Zolpidem: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Woloshin, Steve; Schwartz, Lisa M; Dejene, Sara; Rausch, Paula; Dal Pan, Gerald J; Zhou, Esther H; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2017-05-01

    FDA issues Drug Safety Communications (DSCs) to alert health care professionals and the public about emerging safety information affecting prescription and over-the-counter drugs. News media may amplify DSCs, but it is unclear how DSC messaging is transmitted through the media. We conducted a content analysis of the lay media coverage reaching the broadest audience to characterize the amount and content of media coverage of two zolpidem DSCs from 2013. After the first DSC, zolpidem news stories increased from 19 stories/week in the preceding 3 months to 153 following its release. Most (81%) appeared in the lay media, and 64% focused on the DSC content. After the second DSC, news stories increased from 24 stories/week in the preceding 3 months to 39 following. Among the 100 unique lay media news stories, at least half correctly reported three key DSC messages: next-day impairment and drowsiness as common safety hazards, lower doses for some but not all zolpidem products, and women's higher risk for impairment. Other DSC messages were reported in fewer than one-third of stories, such as the warning that impairment can happen even when people feel fully awake. The first-but not the second-zolpidem DSC generated high-profile news coverage. The finding that some messages were widely reported but others were not emphasizes the importance of ensuring translation of key DSC content.

  20. Quantitative safety assessment of computer based I and C systems via modular Markov analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Elks, C. R.; Yu, Y.; Johnson, B. W.

    2006-07-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the methodology based on quantitative metrics for evaluating digital I and C system that has been under development at the Univ. of Virginia for a number years. Our quantitative assessment methodology is based on three well understood and extensively practiced disciplines in the dependability assessment field: (1) System level fault modeling and fault injection, (2) safety and coverage based dependability modeling methods, and (3) statistical estimation of model parameters used for safety predication. There are two contributions of this paper; the first contribution is related to incorporating design flaw information into homogenous Markov models when such data is available. The second is to introduce a Markov modeling method for managing the modeling complexities of large distributed I and C systems for the predication of safety and reliability. The method is called Modular Markov Chain analysis. This method allows Markov models of the system to be composed in a modular manner. In doing so, it address two important issues. (1) The models are more visually representative of the functional the system. (2) Important failure dependencies that naturally occur in complex systems are modeled accurately with our approach. (authors)