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Sample records for le desir sexuel

  1. Prises de risques chez les jeunes de Bobo Dioulasso: une analyse des facteurs associés à la précocité et au multipartenariat sexuel

    PubMed Central

    Adohinzin, Clétus Come; Meda, Nicolas; Belem, Adrien Marie Gaston; Ouédraogo, Georges Anicet; Sombie, Issiaka; Berthe, Abdramane; Fond-Harmant, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malgré les efforts d'éducation à la santé, les jeunes continuent d'adopter des comportements sexuels à risques, susceptibles d'avoir des répercussions importantes sur leur santé. Cette étude visait à analyser les facteurs associés à la précocité sexuelle et au multipartenariat chez les jeunes de 19-24 ans de Bobo-Dioulasso. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude quantitative et transversale. Les données d'enquête ont été recueillies en décembre 2014 à Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso), auprès de 573 jeunes de 15 à 24 ans. Ces enquêtés ont été sélectionnés par un sondage en grappes à deux degrés. Des facteurs à risques relatifs à la précocité sexuelle et au multipartenariat ont été analysés à l'aide du logiciel Stata IC 13. Le seuil de signification de P<0,05 a été utilisée. Résultats Plus de la moitié des enquêtés (54%) étaient sexuellement actifs dont 14% avant l'âge de 16 ans. Le multipartenariat sexuel avait été observé chez 24% des jeunes sexuellement actifs. Parmi les facteurs déterminants de la précocité sexuelle et du multipartenariat figuraient l'âge, le sexe, le niveau d'étude, et la situation économique des parents. Nos données avaient aussi montré que les rapports sexuels trop précoces étaient associés au multipartenariat sexuel (p<0,005). Conclusion Les actions visant à renforcer les capacités des jeunes à retarder les premiers rapports sexuels et à mieux évaluer les risques seront de toute importance. Les capacités des parents, des enseignants et des prestataires devraient être aussi renforcées pour l'amélioration de la qualité des relations entre eux et les jeunes. PMID:28292094

  2. Facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Abessolo, Stéphanie Abo'o; Angwafo, Fru; Muna, Walinjom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer les facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala (Région du Sud) au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée de Février à Mai 2011. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats L’échantillon était constitué de 315 participants dont 181 (57,46%) hommes et 134 (42,54%) femmes. L’âge moyen était de 24,5±8ans (extrême: 15-45ans). Quarante personnes (40) étaient séropositifs, soit une prévalence de l'infection par le VIH de 12,7%. Cette prévalence augmentait significativement (p = 0) avec le nombre de partenaires occasionnels au cours des douze derniers mois, allant de 2,7% chez ceux n'ayant eu aucun partenaire occasionnel à 21,25% chez ceux ayant plus de trois partenaires occasionnels (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; P = 0,03). le fait d’être âgé entre 20 et 24 ans (RC = 4,88; IC = 1,74-13,67; p = 0), avoir plus de trois partenaires sexuels au cours des douze derniers mois (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; p = 0,03), avoir les rapports sexuels avec les prostitués (RC = 2,86; IC = 1,42-5,76; p = 0), avoir eu le chlamydia (RC = 3,00; IC = 1,07-8,39; p = 0,04), avoir eu la syphilis (RC = 3,35; IC = 1,57-7,14; p = 0), avoir des avantages sociaux lors du premier rapport sexuel (RC = 2,57; IC = 1,03-6,43; p = 0,04) constituaient des potentiels facteurs de risque du VIH. Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de sensibilisation au risque d'infection par le VIH et les maladies sexuellement transmissibles dans le district de santé de Meyomessala PMID:25419299

  3. Approche pour les comportements sexuels inappropriés chez des personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Joller, Petra; Gupta, Neeraj; Seitz, Dallas P.; Frank, Christopher; Gibson, Michelle; Gill, Sudeep S.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille une mise à jour sur l’approche au diagnostic et à la prise en charge des comportements sexuels inappropriés (CSI) chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Sources des données On a fait une recherche dans MEDLINE et EMBASE pour cerner des articles pertinents publiés avant juin 2012. On n’a trouvé aucune étude de niveau I; la plupart des articles fournissaient des données probantes de niveau III. Message principal Les comportements sexuels inappropriés sont fréquents chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Divers facteurs (p. ex., culturels, religieux, perspectives sociétales de la sexualité gériatrique, questions médicolégales) pourraient compliquer l’évaluation de tels comportements et doivent être pris en compte pour permettre une prise en charge appropriée à chaque patient. Il existe des outils pour documenter les CSI. Des interventions créatives non pharmacologiques pour les CSI pourraient être efficaces quand elles sont adaptées à chaque patient. Certaines pharmacothérapies (p. ex., antidépresseurs, antiandrogènes, antipsychotiques et anticonvulsifs) ont été proposées pour les symptômes qui ne répondent pas aux interventions non pharmacologiques. Par ailleurs, les données probantes à l’appui des traitements à l’aide de médicaments sont limitées, les effets secondaires demeurent un aspect important à considérer et il est incertain s’ils devraient être utilisés comme traitement de première ou de deuxième intention. Conclusion Quoiqu’il n’y ait pas d’algorithme de traitements empiriquement établi pour les CSI reliés à la démence, les ouvrages actuels offrent certaines données probantes concernant diverses thérapies pharmacologiques et non pharmacologiques. Des recherches de grande qualité plus approfondies sont nécessaires de toute urgence pour guider les médecins de famille qui prennent en charge des patients qui ont des CSI reliés à la

  4. Etude séro-epidémiologique de trois infections sexuellement transmissibles (Chlamydia Trachomatis, Hépatite B, Syphilis): cas de l’Hôpital de District de Nkoldongo à Yaoundé

    PubMed Central

    Essome, Marie Chantal Ngonde; Nsawir, Bonglaisin Julius; Nana, Rodrigue Dongang; Molu, Patrick; Mohamadou, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les infections sexuellement transmissibles sévissent toujours dans les pays en voie de développement et particulièrement au Cameroun. Le but de notre étude est de déterminer la distribution des infections sexuellement transmissibles suivantes: l’hépatite virale B, le Chlamydia trachomatis et de la syphilis dans une population de femmes venant consulter spontanément à l’Hôpital de District de Nkoldongo à Yaoundé, d’évaluer d’éventuelles coïnfections entre ces trois affections et de ressortir les connaissances de ces femmes sur leur mode de transmission sexuelle. Méthodes Notre étude prospective et descriptive a porté sur 182 femmes dont l’âge variait entre 18 et 48 ans. Les femmes ont été testées sérologiquement pour le Chlamydia trachomatis par une méthode ELISA (kit des laboratoires General Biological Corp). L’hépatite virale B a été dépistée par une méthode immunochromatographique (kit des laboratoires Human) et la syphilis par une méthode d’agglutination en ce qui concerne le RPR (Kit des laboratoires Biocentric) et le TPHA (kit des laboratoires Human). Résultats Nos résultats ont montré que: la distribution du Chlamydia trachomatis, de l’hépatite virale B et la syphilis a été respectivement de 22,52%, 4,39%, 0,54%.De plus, nous avons observé une coinfection Chlamydia trachomatis hépatite virale B avec un taux de 2,74%. Par ailleurs la réinfection au Chlamydia trachomatis a été rencontrée dans 4,94% de cas. S’agissant du mode de transmission de ces affections 67,57% et 70,87% de femmes ne connaissaient pas la voie de transmission sexuelle pour le Chlamydia trachomatis et pour l’hépatite virale B respectivement, tandis que 91,2 % des femmes connaissaient la voie de transmission sexuelle pour la syphilis. Conclusion Le diagnostic d’une infection à Chlamydia trachomatis chez une patiente doit susciter le dépistage de l’hépatite virale B. Introduction Sexually transmitted infections

  5. Translating Desire (and Frustration)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Chien-Ya

    2017-01-01

    There is a trend in modern times towards taking the individual's desire to be the indicator or basis of what the good life would be for the individual. Desire is believed to be an outer expression of an inner voice. The idea is that the individual's desire shows what matters and therefore what constitutes the good life for her. An assumption is…

  6. Desire, Democracy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thogersen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the concept of eros has found its way back into educational literature with the aim of integrating human desires into educational theories and counteracting a devaluation of emotional life. This paper holds the view that this integration is important because desire expresses a fundamental way of relating to the world. However, part…

  7. Desire, Democracy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thogersen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the concept of eros has found its way back into educational literature with the aim of integrating human desires into educational theories and counteracting a devaluation of emotional life. This paper holds the view that this integration is important because desire expresses a fundamental way of relating to the world. However, part…

  8. Women's Desire for Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kristen S; Green, Tracie; Maher, Barbara; Tipton, Kimberly; O'Bannon, Corrinna; Murphy, Teri; McCurry, Troy; Shaffer, Loretta; Best, Sonya; Hatmaker-Flanigan, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 women who had given birth in the previous 5 years to identify factors that influenced their desire to become pregnant. All interviews were audiotaped. Following the interviews, the texts were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Giorgi's method. Five themes emerged from the interviews: (1) timing; (2) spacing; (3) meeting personal criteria; (4) desire for the experience of pregnancy, birth, and parenting; and (5) extended family in close proximity. The study's findings offer an initial step in understanding the attitudes, motivations, and beliefs of healthy childbearing women and their desire for pregnancy. Increased understanding may help health-care providers develop interventions that not only assist women to conceive as desired but also prevent unplanned pregnancies.

  9. A perversion named desire.

    PubMed

    Torres, E R

    1991-01-01

    Inspired by the title of the work, A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams, the author argues that desire and perversion are equivalent, based on the following. (1) The notion of infanatile sexuality as polymorphously perverse, and whose components constitute the 'core of our unconscious' and the ultimate 'matter' of unconscious desire. (2) The perspective of narcissism, which establishes desire, supported by the theory that maternity implants an illusion of completeness which culture promotes, despite the fact that such an ideal conflicts with the laws governing the foundation of culture. (3) The resulting forms of the oedipal complex and the castration complex, whether man or woman, imply a visible or unapparent violence with regard to the original 'call' of desire. (4) The traditional structures refer to the possibility of the mother imagining herself as completed by the child: the blocking of that illusion is associated with psychosis; the weakness of the desire, once established, demands, in the context of perversion, the presence of the figure of plenitude. Neurosis prefers its absence on the level of the apparent while insuring its permanence on the unconscious level.

  10. A Desire for Parsimony

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of wildness is being developed as a quality of interactive processing that increases survival opportunities in nature. A link is made between the need to improve interactive quality for wildness, and cognitive desires and interests in art, music, religion and philosophy as these can also be seen as attempts to improve interactive quality internally and externally. Interactive quality can be improved through gains in parsimony, that is, simplifications in the organisation of skills. The importance of parsimony in evolution is discussed, along with indicators of an internal parsimony desire that experiences joy if achieved through processes such as insight and understanding. A mechanism for the production and measurement of the parsimony desire is proposed, based on the number of subcortical pleasure hotspots that can be stimulated at once within the ‘archipelago’ available in the limbic system. PMID:25379257

  11. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Davison, Sonia L

    2012-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most prevalent female sexual dysfunction, with estimates of prevalence approximating 10%. By definition it is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes distress. HSDD has no single cause, but physiological, psychological and socio-cultural factors underpinning female sexual desire may all be important in its development. Medical therapeutic strategies to date have concentrated on modulation of hormone levels, particularly androgen administration, yet few products have been approved for the treatment of HSDD in developed countries. More recent medical targets have included agents with 5-hydroxytryptamine agonist activity. Psychological therapeutic approaches have been infrequently studied but concentrate on cognitive behavioural therapy. HSDD is an evolving diagnosis, the existence of which has been questioned by some critics. Whilst HSDD remains the subject of ongoing research, its title and definition are under debate as a new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association approaches publication in 2012.

  12. Pathways of sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Pfaus, James G

    2009-06-01

    Sexual desire is controlled by brain systems involved in sexual excitation and inhibition. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) may result from hypofunctional excitation, hyperfunctional inhibition, or some mix of the two. This study aimed to identify neurochemical and neuroanatomical systems involved in sexual excitation and inhibition, their role during normal, and hypoactive sexual expressions. A comprehensive review of the human and animal literature is made, and a theory surrounding the ways that HSDD can be manifested and treated is presented. Drug effects and neural systems derived largely from rat studies that are involved in the stimulation of sexual desire (excitatory system) vs. the stimulation of sexual reward, sedation, and satiety (inhibitory system). Brain dopamine systems (incertohypothalamic and mesolimbic) that link the hypothalamus and limbic system appear to form the core of the excitatory system. This system also includes melanocortins, oxytocin, and norepinephrine. Brain opioid, endocannabinoid, and serotonin systems are activated during periods of sexual inhibition, and blunt the ability of excitatory systems to be activated. Drugs that stimulate the activation of hypothalamic dopamine or that blunt endocannabinoid or serotonin release and/or postsynaptic binding may be effective in stimulating sexual desire in animals and humans. The characterization of how those drugs work will help generate a rational approach to drug development in the treatment of HSDD.

  13. Schooling of Desire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlin, Karen E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses education in virtue, inviting college professors to see themselves not as "meddlers" in students' private lives but rather as interlocutors who prompt students to examine their desires--not simply what they hope to gain, but who they hope to become as a result of their university education. Focuses on the philosophies of Plato,…

  14. Schooling of Desire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlin, Karen E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses education in virtue, inviting college professors to see themselves not as "meddlers" in students' private lives but rather as interlocutors who prompt students to examine their desires--not simply what they hope to gain, but who they hope to become as a result of their university education. Focuses on the philosophies of Plato,…

  15. Hypoactive Sexual Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Helen S.

    1977-01-01

    Low-libido disorders are highly prevalent, may be extremely distressful to patients and their partners, and influence the course and prognosis of therapy. This paper focuses on this important aspect of human sexuality. Some clinical features of hypoactive sexual desire are described, and some hypotheses about etiology and prognosis are presented.…

  16. Hypoactive Sexual Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Helen S.

    1977-01-01

    Low-libido disorders are highly prevalent, may be extremely distressful to patients and their partners, and influence the course and prognosis of therapy. This paper focuses on this important aspect of human sexuality. Some clinical features of hypoactive sexual desire are described, and some hypotheses about etiology and prognosis are presented.…

  17. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  18. The suicidal desire of Tolstoy.

    PubMed

    Pridmore, Saxby; Pridmore, William

    2011-06-01

    To explore whether a healthy, successful individual may experience suicidal desires. Examination of "A Confession" by Leo Tolstoy. Confirmation that a physically and mentally healthy, well resourced individual may experience suicidal desires. To reduce suicide rates, a broader understanding of the factors which contribute to suicidal desires is required.

  19. My Desire for Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetrick, Laura J.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, Laura Hetrick focuses on what is inherently missing from the art education literature about teaching future teachers of art--of addressing nascent teachers' personal, pedagogical, and professional desires. Specifically, she considers teachers' desires for power and recognition, their desires to love and be loved, and…

  20. My Desire for Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetrick, Laura J.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, Laura Hetrick focuses on what is inherently missing from the art education literature about teaching future teachers of art--of addressing nascent teachers' personal, pedagogical, and professional desires. Specifically, she considers teachers' desires for power and recognition, their desires to love and be loved, and…

  1. Psychosocial Maturity or Social Desirability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Ellen

    The psychosocial maturity scale (PSM) described in several earlier papers is a self-report questionnaire. It is vulnerable, as are other questionnaires of this type, to respondents' wishes to present themselves in a socially desirable light. In this study, scores on two social desirability scales are examined in relation to PSM. Correlations…

  2. Activating the Desire to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullo, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Wouldn't your job be easier if students were just more interested in learning? Now, here's a book that will open your eyes to where the desire to learn actually comes from and what teachers can really do to activate it. Using stories from classroom teachers, counselors, administrators, and students, Bob Sullo explains why the desire to learn is…

  3. Flibanserin and Female Sexual Desire.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice.

  4. Lifelong Learning, Policy and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Recent lifelong learning policies have been criticized for creating an illusion of freedom whilst simultaneously reducing choice. The concept of desire permits engagement with the conscious and unconscious drives that underpin individual decision-making, which direct the life course. Utilizing the ideas of Hume and Spinoza, the present article…

  5. A Compelling Desire for Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, David

    2006-01-01

    A case is described of a patient who has a compelling and persistent desire to become deaf. She often kept cotton wool moistened with oil in her ears and was learning sign language. Living without sound appeared to be a severe form of avoidance behavior from hyperacusis and misophonia. She had a borderline personality disorder that was associated…

  6. Becoming-Teachers: Desiring Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a reading of the lives of teachers through a Deleuzian-Guattarian materialistic approach. By asking the question "what kind of life do teachers live?" this article reminds us that teachers sometimes welcome the imposed policies, procedures and programmes, the consequences of which remove them from students. This desire is…

  7. [Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, HSDD].

    PubMed

    Mimoun, S

    2011-01-01

    Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is the most common Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) affecting adult women of any age, including postmenopausal women. HSDD may have significant effects on the relationships and emotional balance of women and constitutes the most common form of FSD observed in clinical practice. HSDD is characterised by a deficiency or lack of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, causing serious distress or interpersonal difficulties, and it is not exclusively caused by the effects of another psychiatric disorder, pathology or substance (such as medication). HSDD pathophysiology is not yet well understood, but it is thought to involve an imbalance between factors controlling inhibition and excitation of sexual desire in the brain. Many physicians are reluctant to discuss sexual desire problems with their patients for various reasons, such as insufficient knowledge of the field, an absence of efficient treatments and time constraints. Even though current treatment options are limited, a better understanding of the physiopathology behind HSDD may help develop new therapies.

  8. A Compelling Desire for Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, David

    2006-01-01

    A case is described of a patient who has a compelling and persistent desire to become deaf. She often kept cotton wool moistened with oil in her ears and was learning sign language. Living without sound appeared to be a severe form of avoidance behavior from hyperacusis and misophonia. She had a borderline personality disorder that was associated…

  9. Children's desire for perioperative information.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Michelle A; Chorney, Jill MacLaren; Rony, Rachel Yaffa Zisk; Perret-Karimi, Danielle; Rinehart, Joseph B; Camilon, Felizardo S; Kain, Zeev N

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify what perioperative information children want to receive from the medical staff. As a first step, we developed an instrument based on a qualitative study conducted with children in Great Britain, input from a focus group, and input from school children. On the day of surgery, 143 children aged 7-17 yr completed a 40-item assessment of desired surgical information and a measure of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children). Parents completed a measure assessing their child's temperament (Emotionality, Activity, Sociability, and Impulsivity Survey) and a measure of their own anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Results indicated that the vast majority of children had a desire for comprehensive information about their surgery, including information about pain and anesthesia, and procedural information and information about potential complications. The most highly endorsed items by children involved information about pain. Children who were more anxious endorsed a stronger desire for pain information and lesser tendency to avoid information. Younger children wanted to know what the perioperative environment would look like more than adolescent children. We conclude that the majority of children aged 7-17 yr who undergo surgery want to be given comprehensive perioperative information and health care providers should ensure adequate information regarding postoperative pain is provided.

  10. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  11. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning

    PubMed Central

    BJORK, ROBERT A.; KROLL, JUDITH F.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  12. Visualizing desirable patient healthcare experiences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sandra S; Kim, Hyung T; Chen, Jie; An, Lingling

    2010-01-01

    High healthcare cost has drawn much attention and healthcare service providers (HSPs) are expected to deliver high-quality and consistent care. Therefore, an intimate understanding of the most desirable experience from a patient's and/or family's perspective as well as effective mapping and communication of such findings should facilitate HSPs' efforts in attaining sustainable competitive advantage in an increasingly discerning environment. This study describes (a) the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the experience desired by patients and (b) the application of two visualization tools that are relatively new to the healthcare sector, namely the "spider-web diagram" and "promotion and detraction matrix." The visualization tools are tested with primary data collected from telephone surveys of 1,800 patients who had received care during calendar year 2005 at 6 of 61 hospitals within St. Louis, Missouri-based, Ascension Health. Five CQAs were found by factor analysis. The spider-web diagram illustrates that communication and empowerment and compassionate and respectful care are the most important CQAs, and accordingly, the promotion and detraction matrix shows those attributes that have the greatest effect for creating promoters, preventing detractors, and improving consumer's likelihood to recommend the healthcare provider.

  13. Cloning to reproduce desired genotypes.

    PubMed

    Westhusin, M E; Long, C R; Shin, T; Hill, J R; Looney, C R; Pryor, J H; Piedrahita, J A

    2001-01-01

    Cloned sheep, cattle, goats, pigs and mice have now been produced using somatic cells for nuclear transplantation. Animal cloning is still very inefficient with on average less than 10% of the cloned embryos transferred resulting in a live offspring. However successful cloning of a variety of different species and by a number of different laboratory groups has generated tremendous interest in reproducing desired genotypes. Some of these specific genotypes represent animal cell lines that have been genetically modified. In other cases there is a significant demand for cloning animals characterized by their inherent genetic value, for example prize livestock, household pets and rare or endangered species. A number of different variables may influence the ability to reproduce a specific genotype by cloning. These include species, source of recipient ova, cell type of nuclei donor, treatment of donor cells prior to nuclear transfer, and the techniques employed for nuclear transfer. At present, there is no solid evidence that suggests cloning will be limited to only a few specific animals, and in fact, most data collected to date suggests cloning will be applicable to a wide variety of different animals. The ability to reproduce any desired genotype by cloning will ultimately depend on the amount of time and resources invested in research.

  14. Desirable Skills in New Pharmacists.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Catherine E; Flowers, Schwanda K; Stowe, Cindy D

    2017-02-01

    To compare survey responses between licensed pharmacists who work with or employ new graduates and graduating senior pharmacy students at a college of pharmacy. This was a retrospective analysis of surveys given to 2 groups of pharmacists and students. Responses to items regarding importance of desirable qualities in new pharmacists and level of preparation of new graduates were analyzed. Qualities included drug information, pharmacology, therapeutics, communication with patients/customers or health care professionals, professionalism, ethics, management, and conflict resolution. There was consensus between pharmacists and students regarding the importance of all items ( P > .05 for all comparisons). However, the percentage of pharmacists versus students who agreed that new graduates communicate effectively differed (86.7% vs 100%, respectively, P < .05). Of pharmacists surveyed at a career fair, 64.1% chose communication as the 1 skill that would distinguish an applicant, and retail and hospital pharmacists displayed a statistically significant ( P < .05) difference in the audience (patients/customers vs other health care professionals). Pharmacists and students agree on the knowledge and skills essential for pharmacy practice but disagree on the level of preparation for effective communication. These results support ongoing efforts to improve the development of communication skills in the professional pharmacy curriculum.

  15. Sexual Desire and Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Boozalis, Amanda; Tutlam, Nhial T.; Robbins, Camaryn Chrisman; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormonal contraception on sexual desire. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,938 of the 9,256 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. This subset included participants enrolled between April and September 2011 who completed a baseline and six-month telephone survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between contraceptive method and report of lacking interest in sex, controlling for potential confounding variables. Results More than one in five participants (23.9%) reported lacking interest in sex at 6 months after initiating a new contraceptive method. Of 262 copper IUD users (referent group), 18.3% reported lacking interest in sex. Our primary outcome was more prevalent in women who are young (<18 years: adjusted odds ratio (ORadj)=2.04), black (ORadj=1.78), and married or living with a partner (ORadj=1.82). Compared to copper IUD users, participants using depot medroxyprogesterone (ORadj=2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47-4.61), the vaginal ring (ORadj=2.53, 95% CI=1.37-4.69), and the implant (ORadj=1.60, 95% CI=1.03-2.49) more commonly reported lack of interest in sex. We found no association between use of the hormonal IUD, oral contraceptive pill, and patch and lack of interest in sex. Conclusion CHOICE participants using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the contraceptive ring, and implant were more likely to report a lack of interest in sex compared to copper IUD users. Future research should confirm these findings and their possible physiological basis. Clinicians should be reassured that most women do not experience reduced sex drive with the use of most contraceptive methods. PMID:26855094

  16. Pleasure/Desire, Sexularism and Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Louise

    2012-01-01

    Pleasure and desire have been important components of researchers' vision for sexuality education for over 20 years, a trend inspired by Michelle Fine's seminal paper, "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire." This essay considers how discourses related to pleasure and desire have been taken up in the USA and…

  17. [How does summer affect sexual desire?].

    PubMed

    Kontula, Osmo; Väisälä, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Sexual desire involves many different things such as sexual thoughts and images, excitement, expectation and orgasm. Mood has a strong association with sexual desire. Fatigue and depression in particular cause lack of sexual desire. By affecting the state of alertness and energy in humans, sunlight may increase sexual activity.

  18. Pleasure/Desire, Sexularism and Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Louise

    2012-01-01

    Pleasure and desire have been important components of researchers' vision for sexuality education for over 20 years, a trend inspired by Michelle Fine's seminal paper, "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire." This essay considers how discourses related to pleasure and desire have been taken up in the USA and…

  19. Le ciment brûle toujours

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, T.; Fontaine, M.; Le Floch, R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures chimiques par ciment représentent une cause fréquente de corrosion cutanée en France. Elles nécessitent fréquemment un traitement chirurgical. Notre étude rétrospective concerne tous les patients admis pour une brûlure par ciment dans le service entre 2004 et 2016. Quarante-neuf patients âgés de 21 à 71 ans ont été pris en charge dans le centre des brûlés du Centre Hospitalier Saint Joseph Saint Luc à Lyon entre 2004 et 2016. La population concernée était majoritairement masculine, relativement jeune (44 ans en moyenne) et professionnellement active. Les brûlures survenaient principalement dans le cadre d’accidents domestiques (78%). Elles étaient profondes et atteignaient majoritairement les membres inférieurs, de façon bilatérale. La surface brûlée représentait 3% de la surface cutanée totale. Presque tous les patients (98%) ont nécessité une prise en charge chirurgicale pour excision et autogreffe de peau mince. Un seul patient a bénéficié d’une cicatrisation dirigée. Le délai moyen entre la brûlure et la chirurgie était de 13 jours et la durée moyenne d’hospitalisation de 8 jours. Sept patients ont nécessité une prise en charge en centre de rééducation à leur sortie du service. Cette étude confirme la sévérité des brûlures chimiques par ciment. Elle met également en avant l’impact que peut avoir ce type de brûlure en terme de retentissement socio-économique dans une population de patients majoritairement jeune et active. Elle insiste sur le fait que des mesures doivent être prises afin d’informer cette population rarement professionnelle sur les risques encourus lors du mésusage du ciment. La réglementation actuelle, classant le ciment comme irritant, ne prend pas en compte son caractère corrosif et devrait être amendée. PMID:28592929

  20. Desire on and off the couch.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2013-03-01

    The concept of desire is potentially useful and underutilized for elucidating and understanding psychoanalytic material and informing psychoanalytic technique. It can be employed as a lens for viewing and clarifying diverse clinical phenomenon and other mental productions. One way of defining desire as a conceptual framework as applied to psychoanalytic theory is to refract it into three components: (1) love (emotional desire), (2) sex (physical desire), and (3) passion (other manifestations of desire). These different aspects of desire are manifest in and of themselves and as enhancements of one another. Focusing on each of them as manifest in the transference/countertransference relationship in analysis can facilitate a patient becoming more aware of psychological conflicts and working them through in analysis. This paper presents and discusses a case study in which these different aspects of desire are employed and analyzed.

  1. Desire thinking as a predictor of gambling.

    PubMed

    Fernie, Bruce A; Caselli, Gabriele; Giustina, Lucia; Donato, Gilda; Marcotriggiani, Antonella; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2014-04-01

    Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginal elaboration of a desired target. A desired target can relate to an object, an internal state or an activity, such as gambling. This study investigated the role of desire thinking in gambling in a cohort of participants recruited from community and clinical settings. Ninety five individuals completed a battery of self-report measures consisting of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Gambling Craving Scale (GCS), the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Correlation analyses revealed that gender, educational level, recruitment source, anxiety and depression, craving and desire thinking were correlated with gambling. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that both recruitment source and desire thinking were the only independent predictors of gambling when controlling for all other study variables, including craving. These findings are discussed in the light of metacognitive therapy (MCT).

  2. Social desirability and sexual offenders: a review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lavinia; Grace, Randolph C

    2008-03-01

    Social desirability--the desire to make a favorable impression on others-poses a significant threat to the validity of self-reports. This review examines research on social desirability in both forensic and nonforensic populations with the goal of identifying how best to minimize threats to the validity of research with sexual offenders. Although social desirability has long been a major research topic in personality, consensus has not been reached on key questions such as its dimensional structure and whether social desirability constitutes a trait or a response bias. Research with offenders has shown that social desirability is negatively related to recidivism and that different offender subtypes vary in the degree to which social desirability appears to influence self-reports, with child molesters exhibiting the strongest tendency to "fake good." Several methods of controlling for social desirability have been proposed, but the effectiveness of these methods in increasing validity of offender self reports is questionable. Given the lack of consensus in the personality literature, a fresh start is needed in which basic questions regarding social desirability are revisited with respect to offender populations.

  3. Death Anxiety and Social Desirability among Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Thomas O.

    1982-01-01

    Studied death anxiety in a sample of 210 Canadian nurses. Analysis indicated a significant inverse relationship between social desirability and death anxiety denial. No other significant relationships were found between social desirability and remaining Death Anxiety Scale factors. (Author/JAC)

  4. A Social Desirability Questionnaire for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, LeRoy H., Jr.; Rubin, Barry M.

    1970-01-01

    A Young Children's Social Desirability Scale based on the MMPI was constructed and administered to nursery school children. Results showed that social desirability scores increased with age, showed a low positive relationship to picture vocabularly IQ, and were unrelated to sex in a high socieconomic sample. (KJ)

  5. Comparative vs. Absolute Judgments of Trait Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstee, Willem K. B.

    1970-01-01

    Reversals of trait desirability are studied. Terms indicating conservativw behavior appeared to be judged relatively desirable in comparative judgement, while traits indicating dynamic and expansive behavior benefited from absolute judgement. The reversal effect was shown to be a general one, i.e. reversals were not dependent upon the specific…

  6. The Influence of Outcome Desirability on Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krizan, Zlatan; Windschitl, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    People are often presumed to be vulnerable to a desirability bias, namely, a tendency to be overoptimistic about a future outcome as a result of their preferences or desires for that outcome. In this article, this form of wishful thinking is distinguished from the more general concepts of motivated reasoning and overoptimism, and the evidence for…

  7. Object of desire self-consciousness theory.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Brotto, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The authors suggest that object of desire self-consciousness may be an adaptive, evolved psychological mechanism allowing sexual and romantic tactics suitable to one's mate value. The authors also suggest that it can act as a signal that one has high mate value in the sexual marketplace. The authors then review literature (e.g., on fantasies, on sexual activity preferences, on sexual dysfunctions, on language) suggesting that object of desire self-consciousness plays a particularly important role in heterosexual women's sexual/romantic functioning and desires.

  8. Le Figaro. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Linda

    These instructional materials are designed for students with some French reading skills and vocabulary in late beginning or early intermediate senior high school French. The objectives are to introduce students to a French newspaper, "Le Figaro," and develop reading skills for skimming, gathering specific information, and relying on cognates. The…

  9. Le Indeterminacy in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, David William

    The standard treatment of object pronouns in Latin American Spanish assigns a direct-object function to "lo" and "la" and an indirect-object function to "le." This study challenges this descriptive attribution in light of the contradictory and refractory evidence in Spanish morphosyntax. It is suggested that more…

  10. [Desirable way for oral biomaterial research].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keiichi

    2007-07-01

    This review article is based on the ingredients of my lecture titled "Desirable way for oral biomaterial research in the JPS - considering Journal of Oral Rehabilitation Summer School 2006" at the JPS Advanced Seminar which was held with the general assembly meeting at March 4, 2007. How we explore the desirable way for oral biomaterial research in Japan was discussed with referral of the contents and discussion in the summer school.

  11. Implicit theories of a desire for fame.

    PubMed

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Giles, David; Gillett, Raphael; Quick, Marianne; Langcaster-James, Honey; Linley, P Alex

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present studies was to generate implicit theories of a desire for fame among the general population. In Study 1, we were able to develop a nine-factor analytic model of conceptions of the desire to be famous that initially comprised nine separate factors; ambition, meaning derived through comparison with others, psychologically vulnerable, attention seeking, conceitedness, social access, altruistic, positive affect, and glamour. Analysis that sought to examine replicability among these factors suggested that three factors (altruistic, positive affect, and glamour) neither display factor congruence nor display adequate internal reliability. A second study examined the validity of these factors in predicting profiles of individuals who may desire fame. The findings from this study suggested that two of the nine factors (positive affect and altruism) could not be considered strong factors within the model. Overall, the findings suggest that implicit theories of a desire for fame comprise six factors. The discussion focuses on how an implicit model of a desire for fame might progress into formal theories of a desire for fame.

  12. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  13. Validity of the decreased sexual desire screener for diagnosing hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Anita H; Goldfischer, Evan; Goldstein, Irwin; DeRogatis, Leonard; Nappi, Rossella; Lewis-D'Agostino, Diane J; Kimura, Toshio; Hebert, Antoine; Pyke, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The decreased sexual desire screener is a brief diagnostic instrument for generalized acquired hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women. During the screening visit of 2 clinical trials, the authors assessed sensitivity of the decreased sexual desire screener in premenopausal women presenting with decreased sexual desire. The authors compared diagnoses of generalized acquired hypoactive sexual desire disorder made by clinicians who were not trained or specialized in the diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction using the decreased sexual desire screener with diagnoses made by expert clinicians after an extensive diagnostic interview. The sensitivity of the decreased sexual desire screener was 0.946 in a North American trial and 0.960 in a European trial.

  14. Sex Differences in Judgments of Social Desirability.

    PubMed

    Paunonen, Sampo V

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluates sex differences in the perceived desirability of personality behaviors and beliefs. Men and women (N = 149, Mage  = 18.7) judged the social desirability scale values (SDSVs) of 150 personality statements as applied either to a male target or a female target. For comparison, some estimated SDSVs with no target sex specified. A separate sample of 537 respondents endorsed the 150 items via self-report. Raters showed a high consensus in their SDSV judgments within conditions (α = .86 to .90) and no sex-of-rater effects across conditions. Substantial sex-of-target effects (p < .001), however, revealed many behaviors that were viewed as desirable for one sex but not for the other. The behaviors seen as more (less) desirable when applied to men rather than to women were endorsed more (less) by men than by women in the respondent sample. Similar results were found when no target sex was specified for the SDSV ratings, presumably because judges evaluated the behaviors as applied to a target of their own sex. The present results have important implications for the measurement and reporting of SDSVs, the evaluation of substance versus style in self-reports, and the construction of desirability-reduced personality inventories. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Notes on the desire for knowledge.

    PubMed

    Thorner, H A

    1981-01-01

    The desire for knowledge, which was much discussed by Freud, Abraham and Melanie Klein, had for many years scarcely been mentioned in the analytical literature until it was taken up again by Bion, but from a different point of view. For Freud the desire for knowledge was related to the sexual instinct-it was even called an epistemological instinct although it was never considered to be an instinct in the narrow sense of the word. Abraham and Klein followed Freud, but in her later writings Klein understood the desire for knowledge as part of the defence against anxiety dur to fantasied damage done by the aggressive instincts. In this paper I discussed Bion's contribution to the psychoanalysis of knowledge in detail and illustrated it by clinical examples. Bion restricts the concept of knowledge to what is knowable and knowledge can only be an approximation to the truth. Interpretations make the truth knowable. The desire for knowledge of the truth is for Bion elementary and necessary for mental health. This view, although different from, is not dissimilar to, Freud's who described the compelling nature of the desire for knowledge as an epistemological instinct.

  16. Is committed desire intentional? A qualitative exploration of sexual desire and differentiation of self in couples.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luana Cunha; Fraenkel, Peter; Narciso, Isabel; Novo, Rosa

    2015-06-01

    The question of what heightens or diminishes sexual desire has long been a passionate theme across cultures in literature, arts, media, and medicine. Yet, little research has been conducted to determine what affects level of desire within couples. The degree of differentiation of self has been suggested as an important variable in shaping partners' level of desire. Through a qualitative analysis of dyadic couple interviews, this study provides an account of characteristics, processes, and trajectories of sexual desire and differentiation in 33 heterosexual couples of varying ages and relationship duration. Factors associated with high desire were change and autonomy, whereas conflict and children were reported to be desire-diminishing factors. Innovation, sharing, autonomy, and effort emerged as desire-promoting strategies, while fostering personal interests, investing in a positive connection, and enhancing personal integrity were identified as couples' strategies to promote and preserve differentiation of self. The results also shed light on couples' perceptions of whether and how sexual desire changes over the course of the relationship and challenge common cultural assumptions about desire in committed relationships-namely the myth that the only authentic expression of desire is that which occurs spontaneously and without intention and planning. Implications for couple therapy are discussed.

  17. Fertility Desires among Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ryan; Potter, JoNell Efantis; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Spence, Andrew; Byrne, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rates of pregnancy among women living with HIV (WLHIV) have increased with the availability of effective HIV treatment. Planning for pregnancy and childbirth is an increasingly important element of HIV care. Though rates of unintended pregnancies are high among women in general, among couples affected by HIV, significant planning and reproductive decisions must be considered to prevent negative health consequences for WLHIV and their neonates. To gain insight into this reproductive decision-making process among WLHIV, this study explored women’s knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding fertility planning, reproductive desires, and safer conception practices. It was hypothesized that pregnancy desires would be influenced by partners, families, the potential risk of HIV transmission to infants, and physicians’ recommendations. Methods WLHIV of childbearing age were recruited from urban South Florida, and completed an assessment of demographics (N = 49), fertility desires and a conjoint survey of factors associated with reproductive decision-making. Results Using conjoint analysis, we found that different decision paths exist for different types of women: Younger women and those with less education desired children if their partners wanted children; reproductive desires among those with less education, and with less HIV pregnancy-related knowledge, displayed a trend toward additional emphasis on their family’s desires. Conversely, older women and those with more education appeared to place more importance on physician endorsement in their plans for childbearing. Conclusions Results of this study highlight the importance of ongoing preconception counselling for all women of reproductive age during routine HIV care. Counselling should be tailored to patient characteristics, and physicians should consider inclusion of families and/or partners in the process. PMID:27610626

  18. Children's Social Desirability and Dietary Reports.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F; Litaker, Mark S; Baglio, Michelle L; Guinn, Caroline H; Shaffer, Nicole M

    2004-01-01

    We investigated telephone administration of the Children's Social Desirability (CSD) scale and our adaptation for children of the Social Desirability for Food scale (C-SDF). Each of 100 4th-graders completed 2 telephone interviews 28 days apart. CSD scores had adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and a 14-item subset was identified that sufficiently measures the same construct. Our C-SDF scale performed less well in terms of internal consistency and test-retest reliability; factor analysis revealed 2 factors, 1 of which was moderately related to the CSD. The 14-item subset of the CSD scale may help researchers understand error in children's dietary reports.

  19. Women's sexual desire: a feminist critique.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jill M; Koch, Patricia Barthalow; Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff

    2006-08-01

    This paper offers a critical feminist analysis of the biomedical conceptualization of women's sexual desire. The five major features of the biomedical model of female sexual desire examined and critiqued are: 1) use of the male model as the standard, 2) use of a linear model of sexual response, 3) biological reductionism, 4) depoliticalization, and 5) medicalization of variation. A "New View", an alternative to the biomedical model, is offered for reconceptualizing women's sexual problems. This analysis concludes with recommendations for feminist-based biopsychosocial research.

  20. More on the nature of sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Levine, S B

    1987-01-01

    A definition of sexual desire is offered that stresses the psychobiologic nature of its energy, its antecedent and accompaniment roles in relation to sexual arousal, and its tendency to generate sexual behavior. Two inherent properties are recognized: fluctuation of frequency and intensity and capacity to appear baffling. These properties are products of the changeable contributions of biologic drive, cognitive wish, and emotional willingness. These three elements of desire vary somewhat predictably with the stage in the life cycle, quality of current relationship, and the couple's rules that govern their sexual behavior. The transferential and sexual identity contributions are less predictable.

  1. Factors affecting desired family size in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kabir, M; Amin, R; Ahmed, A U; Chowdhury, J

    1994-07-01

    Factors affecting desired family size in rural Bangladesh are examined using data from contraceptive prevalence surveys conducted between 1983 and 1991. The analysis suggests that mothers having two sons and one daughter are more inclined to perceive their family as complete than those having three sons and no daughter. Logistic regression analysis indicates that important determinants of desire for more children are age of woman, current contraceptive use status, work status, and family planning worker's visit. The policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Social Desirability Scales: More Substance than Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Compared self-reports from 215 adults to the external criterion of spouse ratings of personality traits to separate substance from style in social desirability (SD) scales. Results showed that correcting self-reports for SD failed to improve correspondence with an external, objective criterion and in several cases lowered agreement. (LLL)

  3. CONSTRAINTS ON DESIRABLE ACTIVITIES: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    desirable but in which he has never engaged. This was a pilot study for one to be carried out in another cultural setting as well as part of a program to...analyze social change. Happy individuals were more constrained by environmental factors, such as lack of an accessable location to engage in the

  4. Modeling Socially Desirable Responding and Its Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Buehner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The impact of socially desirable responding or faking on noncognitive assessments remains an issue of strong debate. One of the main reasons for the controversy is the lack of a statistical method to model such response sets. This article introduces a new way to model faking based on the assumption that faking occurs due to an interaction between…

  5. Modeling Socially Desirable Responding and Its Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Buehner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The impact of socially desirable responding or faking on noncognitive assessments remains an issue of strong debate. One of the main reasons for the controversy is the lack of a statistical method to model such response sets. This article introduces a new way to model faking based on the assumption that faking occurs due to an interaction between…

  6. Age and the Desire to Marry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahay, Jenna; Lewin, Alisa C.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding attitudes toward marriage at older ages is increasingly important as young adults delay marriage and large numbers of people return to the marriage market after divorce. This study examines age differences in the desire to marry among singles age 18 to 69 years, taking into account selection into marriage. Using data drawn from the…

  7. Schooling and a "Blamable Desire for Knowledge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2005-01-01

    As a teacher the author often wishes that his students were more curious. Yet, Alice Ramos (this issue) proposes that curiosity can be a vice. She writes that there are times when a student might be motivated by a "blamable desire for knowledge." Ramos bases this claim on a distinction made by Thomas Aquinas, the thirteenth-century Aristotelian…

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae, le transformiste.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Calum; Campo, Nathalie; Bergé, Matthieu J; Polard, Patrice; Claverys, Jean-Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is an important human pathogen. Natural genetic transformation, which was discovered in this species, involves internalization of exogenous single-stranded DNA and its incorporation into the chromosome. It allows acquisition of pathogenicity islands and antibiotic resistance and promotes vaccine escape via capsule switching. This opinion article discusses how recent advances regarding several facets of pneumococcal transformation support the view that the process has evolved to maximize plasticity potential in this species, making the pneumococcus le transformiste of the bacterial kingdom and providing an advantage in the constant struggle between this pathogen and its host.

  9. Teaching Bodies/Learning Desire: Rethinking the Role of Desire in the Pedagogic Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Desire is a crucial aspect of the pedagogic process. For too long, however, there has been a dichotomous relationship between understandings of teacher and student desire. The former is often configured as a pedagogic anachronism, problematised and needing to be contained. Conversely, the latter is essentialised as a force that should not be…

  10. Teaching Bodies/Learning Desire: Rethinking the Role of Desire in the Pedagogic Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Desire is a crucial aspect of the pedagogic process. For too long, however, there has been a dichotomous relationship between understandings of teacher and student desire. The former is often configured as a pedagogic anachronism, problematised and needing to be contained. Conversely, the latter is essentialised as a force that should not be…

  11. Social desirability and self-reports: testing models of socially desirable responding.

    PubMed

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    The present research investigated the cognitive processes involved in responding to self-report items under varying conditions of social desirability. Participants in three experiments judged the extent to which a set of items (personality traits in Experiments 1 and 2; behaviors in Experiment 3) described them under instructions that either increased or decreased concerns with social desirability. Under most conditions, instructions that produced the greatest concern with social desirability resulted in the longest response times. This finding is consistent with the view that social desirability operates as an editing process; participants retrieve the requested information and then evaluate it before responding. There was also some evidence for individual differences in social desirability; participants scoring high on the trait of self-deception were generally faster at making these judgments than were participants scoring low on self-deception.

  12. Children's Social Desirability and Dietary Reports

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F.; Litaker, Mark S.; Baglio, Michelle L.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Shaffer, Nicole M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated telephone administration of the Children's Social Desirability (CSD) scale and our adaptation for children of the Social Desirability for Food scale (C-SDF). Each of 100 4th-graders completed 2 telephone interviews 28 days apart. CSD scores had adequate internal consistency and test—retest reliability, and a 14-item subset was identified that sufficiently measures the same construct. Our C-SDF scale performed less well in terms of internal consistency and test—retest reliability; factor analysis revealed 2 factors, 1 of which was moderately related to the CSD. The 14-item subset of the CSD scale may help researchers understand error in children's dietary reports. PMID:15068757

  13. Desirable attributes of public educational websites.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, Caroline

    2005-07-01

    Certain attributes are particularly desirable for public educational websites, and websites for ethics education in particular. Among the most important of these attributes is wide accessibility through adherence to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards for HTML code. Adherence to this standard produces webpages that can be rendered by a full range of web browsers, including Braille and speech browsers. Although almost no academic websites, including ethics websites, and even fewer commercial websites are accessible by W3C standards, as illustrated by the Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science , even websites created on limited budgets and with an undergraduate student staff can fulfill these standards. Other desirable attributes, such as provision of annotation for all links and the use of annotated links to give the user alternate ways of ordering and organizing content, are important for making full use of the educational possibilities of hypermedia for websites.

  14. [Desire for a child: a mad passion?].

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, O

    2007-10-01

    Could the desire for having a baby be considered as a pathological state? Indeed this desire is the most legitimate expression of a human being and must not be questioned. Nevertheless, as professionals, we are in a position to ask if any kind of solicitation concerning Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) would be well-grounded. As a matter of fact, we stand quite often on the front line when facing the growing demands of a population, which rightly embodies the great strides in the medical field after having integrated every restraint of a once mortal chronic disease. What methods linked to psychodynamic clinic can we use in order to take care of an unsatisfied infantile wish dressed up in a mask of a passionate wish of having a baby?

  15. Body, costume, and desire in Christopher Marlowe.

    PubMed

    Woods, G

    1992-01-01

    All the desired youths in Marlowe come clothed in favors, the tokens of older and richer men's yearning. These bribes and rewards, often feminine or effeminate ornaments, not only beautify the already gorgeous bodies of young men, but also label and augment their value and their power. The moment of virility's blooming, in adolescence, is seen as a time when boys can negotiate favorable terms of entry into the realms of manhood by the seductive use of their glamor. For their part, desirous men are distracted from the affairs and cares of state by their nostalgic encounters with girlish boys, at worst, to the extent that their own patriarchal power is compromised by sodomitic dalliance. Marlowe's involvement in these plots is iterative and committed.

  16. Social desirability effects in driver behavior inventories.

    PubMed

    Af Wåhlberg, A E

    2010-04-01

    The use of lie scales to control for common method variance in driver behavior inventories has been very limited. Given that such questionnaires often use self-reported safety variables as criteria, and have social implications, the risk of artefactual associations is high. A questionnaire containing scales from several well known driver inventories that have been claimed to predict traffic accident involvement was distributed three times to a group of young drivers in a driver education program, as well as a random group twice. The Driver Impression Management scale (DIM) was used to control for socially desirable responding. For all behavior scales, the correlation with the DIM scale was substantial. If a scale correlated with self-reported crashes, the amount of predictive power was more than halved when social desirability was controlled for. Results were similar for both samples and all waves. The predictive power of the behavior scales was not increased when values were averaged over questionnaire waves, as should have been the case if the measurement and predictive power were valid. Results were similar for self-reported penalty points. The present results indicate that even the most well-known and accepted psychometric scales used in driver research are susceptible to social desirability bias. As social desirability is only one of a number of common method variance mechanisms that can create artefactual associations, and the great popularity of the self-report methodology, the problem for traffic research is grave. Organizations that fund traffic safety research need to re-evaluate their policies regarding what methods are acceptable. The use of self-reported independent and dependent variables can lead to directly misleading results, with negative effects on traffic safety. Copyright 2010 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Children’s Desire for Perioperative Information

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Michelle A.; Chorney, Jill MacLaren; Rony, Rachel Yaffa Zisk; Perret-Karimi, Danielle; Rinehart, Joseph B.; Camilon, Felizardo S.; Kain, Zeev N.

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation was to identify what perioperative information children want to be given by the medical staff. Methods As a first step we developed an instrument based on a qualitative study conducted with children in Great Britain, input from a focus group, and input from school children. On the day of surgery, 143 children aged 7-17 years old completed a 40-item assessment of desired surgical information and a measure of anxiety (STAIC). Parents completed a measure assessing their child’s temperament (EASI), and a measure of their own anxiety (STAI). Results Results indicated that the vast majority of children had a desire for comprehensive information about their surgery, including information about pain and anesthesia, as well as procedural information and information about potential complications. The most highly endorsed items by children involved information about pain. Children who were more anxious endorsed a stronger desire for pain information and lesser tendency to avoid information. Younger children wanted to know what the perioperative environment would look like more than adolescent children. Conclusions We conclude that the majority of children aged 7-17 years old who undergo surgery want to be given comprehensive perioperative information and healthcare providers should ensure adequate information regarding postoperative pain is provided. PMID:19762736

  18. [Trigerred desire--new look at hypoactive sexual desire disorder among women].

    PubMed

    Iniewicz, Grzegorz; Strzelczak, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to present controversy surrounding current desire disorder criteria listed in DSM IV. Developed by Masters and Jonhson in 1996, completed later by Kaplan in 1974, the human sexual response cycle which is the basis for contemporary desire disorder criteria, in some aspects stands in opposition to the results of the newest research. This paper presents evidence to change the DSM criteria suggested by Basson and analyzes recent proposals for DSM V criteria for consideration of these arguments.

  19. Qualities and attributes desired in menopause clinicians.

    PubMed

    Schnatz, Peter F; Johnson, Amy M; O'sullivan, David M

    2007-02-20

    To assess the qualities and attributes desired in menopause clinicians. Women > or =45 years of age (n=72) were surveyed about the qualities and attributes desired in their physician. Surveys were performed in physician waiting rooms in Connecticut. Although fewer men are entering the practice of ObGyn, more than 88% of peri- and post-menopausal women believe that gender does not affect the quality of their women's health provider. Among the 68 women from whom valid data were obtained, experience (95.6%), knowledge (95.6%), and ability (92.6%) were the most important qualities. Only 4.2% listed gender in the top three most important qualities. If the patient's visit was for wellness- and screening-related issues, 6.6% (n=4) preferred a male, 13.1% (n=8) preferred a female, and 80.3% (n=49) had no preference for gender. The percentage of patients preferring to see a female was slightly higher (29.2%) if the visit was for a pelvic exam, while the percentage preferring to see a male (14.5%) was greater if care involved gynecological surgery. As medical practices meet the increasing demand of menopausal women, it is helpful to know the qualities and attributes that patients desire. Menopause clinicians should seek to convey experience, knowledge, and competence to their patients. A menopause practice should strive for a well-diversified team that will bring these qualities to menopausal patients. Given the shifting balance of male and female ObGyn providers, when hiring providers or establishing a menopause clinic, it is helpful to know that gender diversification is of minor importance.

  20. Desired skills and attributes for dietitian preceptors.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sharon; Grosjean, Garnet

    2010-01-01

    We examined the research literature to determine the skills and attributes that dietetic interns desire in clinical preceptors. A search of three databases produced little information specific to dietetics. Literature on preceptors in other health disciplines identified preceptor attributes that students in clinical placements value. We were able to cluster the data from these studies into four themes: knowledge and experience, personal characteristics, teaching skills and attitudes, and interpersonal relationships. This review suggests a need for further development of dietitian preceptor training, as well as for further research specific to dietetic interns' needs.

  1. Fighting desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    "Fighting Desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic" is an investigation of Tropic of Cancer that investigates the deeply repressed homoerotic desire that periodically surfaces. This reading is dependent upon an interpretation of Eve Sedgwick that proposes male sexuality as a continuum. By looking at the nature of the male-male relationships, as well as the lack of emotion and presence in the male-female relationships, I will show that the most intimate relationships are between men, and that these relationships are expressed through the telling of stories about (heterosexual) sex; this is the function of women within the novel: one has sex with a woman, not for the pleasure that the act brings, but for the pleasure that the recounting of the story to other men brings. Furthermore, I will look at Miller's use of puns within the novel and how they also contribute to a homoerotic reading. None of this is to argue that Miller was not homophobic and sexist--Miller very clearly was--the purpose of this essay is to show the complex nature of sexuality, even within a protagonist who asserts a very defined heterosexuality.

  2. Substituting telecommunications for travel - Feasible or desirable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Vleck, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in telecommunications and examines the detailed structure of travel to estimate the feasibility of substituting telecommunications for various travel objectives. The impact of travel is analyzed from a social, economic, energy, and pollution standpoint to assess the desirability of substitution. Perhaps 35-50% of the nation's travel could, in theory, be replaced by very advanced telecommunications (such as a much improved large-screen teleconferencing network), but public resistance would be massive. Much economic dislocation would result since, for example, over 25% of retail sales are travel-related. The energy savings would be modest since only 25% of the nation's energy is consumed by transportation. However, all pollution would be reduced substantially since transportation accounts for 75% of the carbon monoxide, 60% of the hydrocarbon, and 55% of the nitrogen oxide pollution in the nation. Problems related to the implementation of large-scale substitution are discussed.

  3. Flibanserin for Treating Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Soo Ah

    2016-04-01

    There have been several products developed for male sexual dysfunction. However, developing agents for female sexual dysfunction is lagging behind for various reasons. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and Tadalafil (Cialis), which have been prescribed for male sexual function disorders, are known to act on vessels.[1] On the other hand, flibanserin is thought to act on brain. Flibanserin has been approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) of premenopausal women in 2015, and is expected to be released in South Korea soon. Authors wrote this article to acknowledge flibanserin to sexologists for females or physicians for menopausal medicine, so that this agent can be safely used for females who have HSDD.

  4. Images of desire: cognitive models of craving.

    PubMed

    May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Panabokke, Nathalie; Kavanagh, David

    2004-07-01

    Cognitive modelling of phenomena in clinical practice allows the operationalization of otherwise diffuse descriptive terms such as craving or flashbacks. This supports the empirical investigation of the clinical phenomena and the development of targeted treatment interventions. This paper focuses on the cognitive processes underpinning craving, which is recognised as a motivating experience in substance dependence. We use a high-level cognitive architecture, Interacting Cognitive Subsystems (ICS), to compare two theories of craving: Tiffany's theory, centred on the control of automated action schemata, and our own Elaborated Intrusion theory of craving. Data from a questionnaire study of the subjective aspects of everyday desires experienced by a large non-clinical population are presented. Both the data and the high-level modelling support the central claim of the Elaborated Intrusion theory that imagery is a key element of craving, providing the subjective experience and mediating much of the associated disruption of concurrent cognition.

  5. Substituting telecommunications for travel - Feasible or desirable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Vleck, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in telecommunications and examines the detailed structure of travel to estimate the feasibility of substituting telecommunications for various travel objectives. The impact of travel is analyzed from a social, economic, energy, and pollution standpoint to assess the desirability of substitution. Perhaps 35-50% of the nation's travel could, in theory, be replaced by very advanced telecommunications (such as a much improved large-screen teleconferencing network), but public resistance would be massive. Much economic dislocation would result since, for example, over 25% of retail sales are travel-related. The energy savings would be modest since only 25% of the nation's energy is consumed by transportation. However, all pollution would be reduced substantially since transportation accounts for 75% of the carbon monoxide, 60% of the hydrocarbon, and 55% of the nitrogen oxide pollution in the nation. Problems related to the implementation of large-scale substitution are discussed.

  6. Adaptive Arrays for Multiple Simultaneous Desired Signals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    weights [Equation (4)]. Using Equation (6), the inverse of the covariance matrix is given by 5 4 i *ŕm * T ". -1 1 I d Z dij (7) L -I + UT U* 4 di x di...Equations (11) and (12) p k = A k Ik d (14) dk aki*~~* ( ~ dk LJk Udk) and 1 t IjI II di l() 27 x = (1 + t UT U*) Thus, the output SNR of the kth desired...signals are assumed to be of the same frequency. There is no jammer 9 0 dB SIGNAL 10 dB SIGNAL 90 % 90 180 Fiur .dptdpatrnofalier rayo tn strpc lmet

  7. NEP facilities (LeRC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetrone, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Electric Propulsion Research Building (no. 16) the Electric Power Laboratory (BLDG. 301); the Tank 6 Vacuum Facility; and test facilities for electric propulsion and LeRC.

  8. Le bégaiement

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Hector R.; Stoeckle, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Fournir une mise à jour sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental. Qualité des données Une recherche d’études récentes ou non portant sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental a été effectuée dans les bases de données MEDLINE et Cochrane. La plupart des recommandations s’appuient sur des études de petite envergure, des données probantes de qualité limitée ou des consensus. Message principal Le bégaiement est un trouble d’élocution fréquent chez les personnes de tous âges, il altère la fluidité verbale normale et l’enchaînement du discours. Le bégaiement a été lié à des différences de l’anatomie, du fonctionnement et de la régulation dopaminergique du cerveau qui seraient de source génétique. Il importe de poser le diagnostic avec attention et de faire les recommandations qui conviennent chez les enfants, car de plus en plus, le consensus veut que l’intervention précoce par un traitement d’orthophonie soit cruciale chez les enfants bègues. Chez les adultes, le bégaiement est lié à une morbidité psychosociale substantielle, dont l’anxiété sociale et une piètre qualité de vie. Les traitements pharmacologiques ont soulevé l’intérêt depuis quelques années, mais les données cliniques sont limitées. Le traitement des enfants et des adultes repose sur l’orthophonie. Conclusion De plus en plus de recherches ont tenté de lever le voile sur la physiopathologie du bégaiement. La meilleure solution pour les enfants et les adultes bègues demeure la recommandation à un traitement d’orthophonie.

  9. "Ambivalence to Technology in Jeunet's" Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amelie Poulain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rick Clifton

    2006-01-01

    Although at one level Jean-Pierre Jeunets "Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amelie Poulain" is a sweet, attractive film about a young Parisian doing good deeds, it also offers a compelling analysis of the role of technology in our modern lives. The film paints a world where machines and a mechanistic worldview are appealing because humans have a desire to…

  10. "Ambivalence to Technology in Jeunet's" Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amelie Poulain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rick Clifton

    2006-01-01

    Although at one level Jean-Pierre Jeunets "Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amelie Poulain" is a sweet, attractive film about a young Parisian doing good deeds, it also offers a compelling analysis of the role of technology in our modern lives. The film paints a world where machines and a mechanistic worldview are appealing because humans have a desire to…

  11. Effects of Sexual Experience on Dating Desirability and Marriage Desirability: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istvan, Joseph; Griffitt, William

    1980-01-01

    Inexperienced men and both inexperienced and moderately experienced women rated highly experienced opposite-sex peers as less desirable dates and marriage partners. Moderately and highly experienced men and highly experienced women tended to rate all opposite-sex peers similarly along these same dimensions. (Author)

  12. Desiring assemblages: A case for desire over pleasure in critical drug studies.

    PubMed

    Malins, Peta

    2017-09-09

    While critical drug researchers have long pushed for an acknowledgement of pleasure in discourses of drug use, few have explored the alternative possibilities offered by Deleuze and Guattari's concept of desire. In this paper I map out some of the conceptual differences between pleasure and desire and explore the opportunities opened up by attending more closely to desire in critical drug studies. I suggest that while discourses of pleasure do make an important intervention into and against dominant narratives of risk, harm, and addiction, they may inadvertently be working to keep in place the very binaries and forms of neoliberal western subjectivity that support those narratives. I argue that a Deleuzo-Guattarian ontology of desire is a better tool with which to make sense of the complex relations that form between drugs and bodies, challenge medical and criminal responses to drug use, and bring forth assemblages that enhance, rather than diminish, bodily capacities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Le pompage optique naturel dans le milieu astrophysique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    The title of this lecture abstracts only a part of it : the importance in astrophysics of the study of non-LTE situations has become considerable, as well in the stellar atmospheres as, still more, in the study of fortuitous coincidences as a mechanism of formation of emission line nebular spectra, or of molecular interstellar « masers ». Another part of this talk underlines the role of Kastler in his time, and describes his warm personality through his public reactions in front of the nuclear armement, of the Viet-Nam and Algerian wars, of the problems of political refugees... Kastler was a great scientist ; he was also a courageous humanist. 1976 : Les accords nucléaires du Brésil : allocution d'ouverture (19 mars). Colloque sur le sujet ci-dessus. 1976 : La promotion de la culture dans le nouvel ordre économique international, allocution à l'occasion d'une table ronde sur ce thème par l'UNESCO (23-27 juin 1976) ; « Sciences et Techniques », octobre 1976. 1979 : La bête immonde (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Matin », 20 mars. 1979 : Appel à nos ministres (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 13 décembre. 1979 : Le flou, le ténébreux, l'irrationnel (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 14 septembre. 1980 : Education à la paix, Préface, in : Publ. UNESCO. 1981 : Le vrai danger, « Le Monde », 6 août 1981. 1982 : Nucléaire civil et militaire, « Le Monde », 1er juin 1982. 1982 : Les scientifiques face à la perspective d'holocauste nucléaire (texte inédit). Le titre de cette communication en résume seulement une partie : l'importance prise en astrophysique par l'analyse des situations hors ETL est devenue considérable, qu'il s'agisse des atmosphères stellaires, ou plus encore, des coïncidences fortuites de la formation des spectres d'émission nébulaires, ou des « masers » moléculaires interstellaires. Une autre partie de cet exposé souligne lele de Kastler dans son époque, et décrit sa personnalité généreuse à travers ses r

  14. Grating image with desired shaped dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Hideaki; Toda, Toshiki; Takahashi, Susumu; Sawamura, Chikara; Iwata, Fujio

    2000-03-01

    A new type of Grating Image we dominate as `Sparklegram' is presented. The Sparklegram is characterized because it provides high quality and better design flexibility. These features are achieved by constructing it with shaped dots as desired. Each dot can be designed as an individual shape, for example, a star or a triangle. As dot shapes, we can use not only geometric patterns, but also some kind of symbols. Not only flexibility of each consists dot shape, but also the quality of reconstructed image is remarkably increased too. Because of these features, the constructed image with the new type of Grating Image, Sparklegram has high quality and high flexibility. It can be applied to security use, for example on credit-cards, tickets, etc., and also can be applied to the package of software products, CDs, videos and other kind of items requiring security. And with these features of flexibility and high quality, Sparklegram has also advantages to be applied to other use, for example amusement use, comics and game characters' goods and packages.

  15. General parameter relations for the Shinnar-Le Roux pulse design algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan J

    2007-06-01

    The magnetization ripple amplitudes from a pulse designed by the Shinnar-Le Roux algorithm are a non-linear function of the Shinnar-Le Roux A and B polynomial ripples. In this paper, the method of Pauly et al. [J. Pauly, P. Le Roux, D. Nishimura, A. Macovski, Parameter relations for the Shinnar-Le Roux selective excitation pulse design algorithm, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 10 (1991) 56-65.] has been extended to derive more general parameter relations. These relations can be used for cases outside the five classes considered by Pauly et al., in particular excitation pulses for flip angles that are not small or 90 degrees. Use of the new relations, together with an iterative procedure to obtain polynomials with the specified ripples from the Parks-McClellan algorithm, are shown to give simulated slice profiles that have the desired ripple amplitudes.

  16. Prendre le virage des partenariats.

    PubMed

    Sebestyen, Norma; Sulatycky, Ron; Rondos, Spyro; Davis, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    Deux projets démontrent que la mise en œuvre de données colligées sur le terrain peut contribuer à régler des problèmes dans le milieu de la santé pour favoriser de meilleurs résultats et de plus grandes efficiences. Dans le premier exemple, une vaste coalition de partenaires publics et privés de l'Alberta recourt aux techniques de mesures améliorées et à la méthodologie du Triple objectif pour améliorer les résultats cliniques de populations de cas complexes et lourds du quartier Eastwood d'Edmonton. On espère que les conclusions novatrices qui en sont tirées seront adaptées à d'autres régions de la province. Dans le deuxième exemple, la Childhood Obesity Foundation s'associe à Merck au Canada et à Ayogo (une société de thérapies numériques située à Vancouver) et utilise le concept novateur de la « ludification » pour mobiliser les jeunes de plus en plus sédentaires du Canada et modifier leurs comportements. © 2015 Collège canadien des leaders en santé

  17. Les hommes regardent le ciel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, C.

    Contents: 1. Le ciel nocturne. 2. Le mouvement du soleil. 3. La lune et ses mouvements. 4. L'orientation des bâtiments. 5. Les étoiles et les constellations. 6. Les planètes. 7. Les comètes, météores et météorites. 8. Les phénomènes météorologico-astronomiques. 9. Les éclipses. 10. Le temps et les calendriers. 11. Astres et destinée humaine - l'astrologie. 12. Les mythes de la création du monde. 13. Les mythes de la fin du monde. 14. Astronomie et société.

  18. Statins research unfinished saga: desirability versus feasibility.

    PubMed

    Fisman, Enrique Z; Adler, Yehuda; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    2005-06-07

    Drugs in the same class are generally thought to be therapeutically equivalent because of similar mechanisms of action (the so-called "class effect"). However, statins differ in multiple characteristics, including liver and renal metabolism, half-life, effects on several serum lipid components, bioavailability and potency. Some are fungal derivatives, and others are synthetic compounds. The percentage absorption of an oral dose, amount of protein binding, degree of renal excretion, hydrophilicity, and potency on a weight basis is variable. These differences may be even greater in diabetic patients, who may present diabetes-induced abnormalities in P450 isoforms and altered hepatic metabolic pathways. Thus, it is obvious that head-to-head comparisons between different statins are preferable than trial-to-trial comparisons. Such assessments are of utmost importance, especially in cases in which specific populations with a distinct lipid profile and altered metabolic pathways, like diabetics, are studied. It should be specially pinpointed that patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes constitute also a special population regarding their atherogenic dyslipidemia, which is usually associated with low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and predominance of small dense LDL-cholesterol. Therefore, these patients may benefit from fibrates or combined statin/fibrate treatment. This policy is not accomplished since in the real world things are more complex. Trials would require very large sample sizes and long-term follow-up to detect significant differences in myocardial infarction or death between two different statins. Moreover, the fact that new compounds are under several phases of research and development represents an additional drawback for performing the trials. Ideally, head-to-head trials regarding clinically important outcomes should be conducted for all drugs. Nonetheless, the desirability of performing such trials, which epitomize modern evidence

  19. A Contrapuntal Analysis of Discourses of Desire in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Implicated in contributing to the problems youth today face in trying to claim an education, an informed active participation in the social order, dominant discourses of desire in education foreclose formal, critical analysis of social structures that construct, police, entreat, and deny desire. Looking at the ways in which desire is encoded in…

  20. Social Desirability Scale Values of Locus of Control Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestenbaum, Joel M.

    1976-01-01

    Subjects rated each item in Rotter's I-E Scale for its social desirability value. Social desirability scale values (SDSV) of paired items were compared with one another. Results indicate that paired items are not similar in their SDSV, thus enabling subjects to respond on the basis of social desirability. (Author/DEP)

  1. An Investigation of Desired Friendships during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katelyn K.; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study of 384 young adolescents (45% girls, "M" age = 12.94 years) and their desired friendships (friendships that adolescents indicate they would like to form in the future) examined whether (a) adolescents desire to be friends with peers who are well-liked, popular, aggressive, and prosocial; (b) having desired friendships is…

  2. An Investigation of Desired Friendships during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katelyn K.; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study of 384 young adolescents (45% girls, "M" age = 12.94 years) and their desired friendships (friendships that adolescents indicate they would like to form in the future) examined whether (a) adolescents desire to be friends with peers who are well-liked, popular, aggressive, and prosocial; (b) having desired friendships is…

  3. Executive Function and the Development of Belief-Desire Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    In two studies children's performance on tasks requiring the ascription of beliefs and desires was investigated in relation to their executive function. Study 1 (n = 80) showed that 3- and 4-year-olds were more proficient at ascribing subjective, mutually incompatible desires and desire-dependent emotions to two persons than they were at ascribing…

  4. Executive Function and the Development of Belief-Desire Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    In two studies children's performance on tasks requiring the ascription of beliefs and desires was investigated in relation to their executive function. Study 1 (n = 80) showed that 3- and 4-year-olds were more proficient at ascribing subjective, mutually incompatible desires and desire-dependent emotions to two persons than they were at ascribing…

  5. Girls' Portraits of Desire: Picturing a Missing Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits the missing discourse of female desire [Fine, M. 1988. Sexuality, schooling and adolescent females: The missing discourse of desire. "Harvard Educational Review" 58, no. 1: 29-53] in secondary schools. Instead of echoing previous studies that have documented how female desire is missing, this research starts from the…

  6. Girls' Portraits of Desire: Picturing a Missing Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits the missing discourse of female desire [Fine, M. 1988. Sexuality, schooling and adolescent females: The missing discourse of desire. "Harvard Educational Review" 58, no. 1: 29-53] in secondary schools. Instead of echoing previous studies that have documented how female desire is missing, this research starts from the…

  7. Preschoolers Use Information about Speakers' Desires to Learn New Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Troseth, Georgene L.

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates preschoolers' use of desires for word learning. Three-year-old children were shown pairs of novel toys and were asked about their own desire and told about a researcher's desire. For half of the children the researcher liked the same object they did and for the other half the researcher liked a different object. The…

  8. Aligning Task Control with Desire for Control: Implications for Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Alex T.; Etcheverry, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether matches between task control and participants' desire for control over their environment lead to better task performance than mismatches. Work control and desire for control were manipulated, and participants engaged in timed tasks. As predicted, performance was higher in cases of match, even when task control and desire for control were low. Task control and desire for control may predict work performance in combination, highlighting the importance of Person-Environment Fit theory for both selection and work design. By manipulating desire for control, our research also explores the potentially state-dependent quality of this individual difference variable. PMID:26045630

  9. Aligning Task Control with Desire for Control: Implications for Performance.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Alex T; Etcheverry, Paul E

    The current study examined whether matches between task control and participants' desire for control over their environment lead to better task performance than mismatches. Work control and desire for control were manipulated, and participants engaged in timed tasks. As predicted, performance was higher in cases of match, even when task control and desire for control were low. Task control and desire for control may predict work performance in combination, highlighting the importance of Person-Environment Fit theory for both selection and work design. By manipulating desire for control, our research also explores the potentially state-dependent quality of this individual difference variable.

  10. The impact of social desirability on psychometric measures of aggression.

    PubMed

    Vigil-Colet, Andreu; Ruiz-Pamies, Mireia; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2012-05-01

    Although many studies have focused on the effects of social desirability in personality measures, few have analysed its effects on such highly undesirable behaviour as aggressiveness. The present study analyzes the impact of social desirability on measures of direct and indirect aggression and on the relationships between both kinds of aggression with impulsivity, using a method that enables the content factors of the measures to be isolated from social desirability. Results showed that aggression measures are highly affected by social desirability and that the relationships between the two forms of aggression and impulsivity are due to the content measured by the tests and not to a common social desirability factor.

  11. Validation of Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2005-01-01

    The Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), the most commonly used social desirability bias (SDB) assessment, conceptualizes SDB as an individual's need for approval. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) measures SDB as two separate constructs: impression management and self-deception. Scores on SDB scales are commonly…

  12. The effect of desire thinking on craving: an experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Gabriele; Soliani, Mara; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2013-03-01

    Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginal elaboration of a desired target. Recent research has revealed that desire thinking and craving are distinct constructs and that desire thinking may play a significant role in the escalation of craving. The goal of this study was to explore the effect of desire thinking induction on craving in a nonclinical sample. Forty-five volunteers with no current diagnosis of psychological disorders chose a desired activity and were randomly allocated to three thinking manipulation tasks: distraction, verbal reasoning, and desire thinking. Craving was measured before and after manipulation and during a 3-day period of abstinence from the desired activity. Findings showed that desire thinking had a significant effect on craving after manipulation. This effect appeared to be independent of baseline levels of craving and desire thinking as well as perceived stress changes during the manipulation. Both distraction and verbal reasoning inductions did not lead to a significant change in craving. Desire thinking impacts craving and is a risk factor for craving-related problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. [Desire for a child and desired children--possibilities and limits of reproductive biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Krones, Tanja; Neuwohner, Elke; El Ansari, Susan; Wissner, Thomas; Richter, Gerd

    2006-03-01

    Definition of problem: Reproductive Biomedicine and new reproductive technologies (ART) belong to the fields of medicine that initiated most of the discussion on enhancement and desire fulfilling medicine in bioethics during the last years. One of the crucial questions to be answered is the definition of the right to procreate/right for a genetically related child. Closely connected are controversial opinions in regard to the definition of sterility as a disease/illness, or a mere fate, or malfunction, which does not have to be medically cured. Arguments: After a cursory description of the national and international debate, we introduce some results of our 'bioethical field studies', exploring and comparing the views of experts (human geneticists, ethicists, pediatricians, obstetricians and midwifes) and couples/patients (IVF couples, high genetic risk couples and couples with no known risk for an inherited disease or infertility problem) on sterility, the right to procreate, possibilities and appropriate limits of IVF in Germany. According to the WHO, sterility has to be defined as an illness, if the respective couples have a desire for a child. IVF can be a means for a cure. Since 2004, Germany does no longer supply a thoroughly insurer financed IVF treatment. Our surveys indicate that this change, though supported by many experts, is hard to accept for couples concerned. Only obstetricians share the WHO's view that sterility should count as an illness. Many ethicists see a proclaimed human right to procreate as merely negative right, although many support free IVF treatment for poor couples. We challenge the expert majority view on the basis of the capability approach (Amartya Sen) and functional liberalism (Herlinde Pauer Studer) and with a view to the international state of the art in IVF. The desire to have children cannot be reduced to a non-authoritative preference whose fulfillment is optional, but has to be conceptualized as a normative need that ought to

  14. Le verifiche della relatività generale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesti, Piero

    2005-10-01

    La relatività di Einstein. La relatività generale messa alla prova. Le tre verifiche classiche: L'avanzamento del perielio di Mercurio - La deflessione della luce - Il redshift gravitazionale. Le verifiche di seconda generazione: Il rallentamento della luce - L'effetto Nordtvedt - Le onde gravitazionali e la "pulsar binaria".

  15. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2002-12-01

    XMM à la recherche de la matière exotique; Ancienne étoile; Le Trou noir volant; Magnétar; Stardust et Annefrank; Le centre de la galaxie; Deux trous noirs dans la même galaxie; Eruption géante sur Io; Le Soleil;

  16. Desire thinking: what is it and what drives it?

    PubMed

    Caselli, Gabriele; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the construct of desire thinking and test a metacognitive model of desire thinking and craving, based on the work of Spada, Caselli and Wells (2012; 2013), which aims to explain the perseveration of desire thinking. We conducted two studies involving four clinical samples (total N = 493) and a community sample (N = 494) presenting with different addictive behaviors. The relationships among variables were examined by testing the fit of path models within each sample. In the model presented it was proposed that positive metacognitions about desire thinking are associated with, in turn, imaginal prefiguration and verbal perseveration, marking the activation of desire thinking. Verbal perseveration is then associated to negative metacognitions about desire thinking and craving denoting the pathological escalation of desire thinking. Finally, a direct association between positive metacognitions about desire thinking and negative metacognitions about desire thinking would mark those occasions where target-achieving behaviour runs as an automatized schemata without the experience of craving. Results indicated a good model fit in the clinical sample and a variation in the model structure in the community sample. These findings provide further support for the application of metacognitive theory to desire thinking and craving in addictive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Le LHC, un tunnel cosmique

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Et si la lumière au bout du tunnel du LHC était cosmique ? En d’autres termes, qu’est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter dans la connaissance de l’Univers ? Car la montée en énergie des accélérateurs de particules nous permet de mieux appréhender l’univers primordial, chaud et dense. Mais dans quel sens dit-on que le LHC reproduit des conditions proches du Big bang ? Quelles informations nous apporte-t-il sur le contenu de l’Univers ? La matière noire est-elle détectable au LHC ? L’énergie noire ? Pourquoi l’antimatière accumulée au CERN est-elle si rare dans l’Univers ? Et si le CERN a bâti sa réputation sur l’exploration des forces faibles et fortes qui opèrent au sein des atomes et de leurs noyaux, est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter des informations sur la force gravitationnelle qui gouverne l’évolution cosmique ? Depuis une trentaine d’années, notre compréhension de l’univers dans ses plus grandes dimensions et l’appréhension de son comportement aux plus petites distances sont intimement liées : en quoi le LHC va-t-il tester expérimentalement cette vision unifiée ? Tout public, entrée libre / Réservations au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  18. Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

  19. [Testosterone therapy in female hypoactive sexual desire disorder].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick

    2016-03-16

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland.

  20. Desired lifetime and end-of-life desires across adulthood from 20 to 90: a dual-source information model.

    PubMed

    Lang, Frieder R; Baltes, Paul B; Wagner, Gert G

    2007-09-01

    How long do people want to live, and how does scientific research on aging affect such desires? A dual-source information model proposes that aging expectations and desires are informed differently by two sources: personal experiences on the one hand, and scientific and societal influences on the other. Two studies with independent German national samples explored desires regarding length of life and end of life among adults between the ages of 20 and 90. FINDINGS ARE: First, desired lifetime is consistent at around 85 years with few age differences. Second, experimental induction of good or bad news from research on aging has little effect in Study 1. Third, interest in science has moderating effects on desired lifetime in Study 2. Fourth, there is a high prevalence of a strong desire to control the "when and how" of one's death, although only 11% of the individuals completed a living will. Findings are consistent with the dual-source information model.

  1. Attitudinal survey of women living with low sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Kingsberg, Sheryl A

    2014-10-01

    Survey data provide evidence that low sexual desire is commonly reported among pre- and postmenopausal women. About 10% of women with low sexual desire experience related personal distress. This survey assessed women's attitudes toward the condition and how it affects personal relationships, along with level of awareness of low sexual desire as a medical condition and treatment-seeking history. The online survey was conducted in a convenience sample of 450 pre- and postmenopausal women aged 20 to 60 years with self-described low sexual desire and related distress. The percentage reported is the ratio of responses over number of respondents for each point on visual analogy scales or option(s) on multiple-choice questions. Twenty-seven percent of premenopausal and 34% of postmenopausal women were very dissatisfied with their current sexual desire level. Over 70% attributed personal and interpersonal difficulties to low sexual desire, most often negative impacts on body image and self-confidence. Feeling "less connectedness" was the most frequently selected impact on partner relationships. Approximately 90% of respondents would like to have or desire sex more often; 95% believed that one or two more satisfying sexual experiences per month would be meaningful. Most respondents did not realize that distressing low sexual desire was a treatable medical condition and had never mentioned their low sexual desire to health care providers. Despite reporting negative impacts of low sexual desire and a desire for more frequent sex, most women had not sought medical help. These results add to the evolving recognition of the importance of sexual functioning in women's lives.

  2. Attitudes Towards Instructors, Social Desirability, and Behavioral Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sigmund; Hanlon, Robert E.

    This study examined whether student attitude toward instructors was related to subsequent behavior such as the behavioral intention to take further courses with that instructor, and whether social desirability affected this relationship. Students completed instructor rating and social desirability scales. Principal components analysis and varimax…

  3. Investigating Social Desirability Bias in Student Self-Report Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.

    2012-01-01

    The frequent use of student self-report surveys in higher education calls into question the possibility of social desirability having an unwanted influence on responses. This research explores the potential presence of social desirability bias with the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), a widely used assessment of student behaviors.…

  4. Investigating Social Desirability Bias in Student Self-Report Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.

    2011-01-01

    The frequent use of self-report student surveys in higher education calls into question the possibility of social desirability having an unwanted influence on responses. This research explores the potential presence of social desirability bias with the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), a widely used assessment of student behaviors.…

  5. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Desire to Marry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Scott J.

    1993-01-01

    Used data from over 2,000 respondents to explore racial, ethnic, and gender differences in desire to marry. African Americans were significantly less desiring of marriage than whites; racial difference among men was significantly larger than difference among women. Compared to nonhispanic whites of same gender, Hispanic men were more likely,…

  6. Library Users' Service Desires: A LibQUAL+ Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Kyrillidou, Martha; Cook, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore library users' desired service quality levels on the twenty-two core LibQUAL+ items. Specifically, we explored similarities and differences in users' desired library service quality levels across user groups (i.e., undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty), across geographic locations (i.e.,…

  7. Social Desirability, Environmental Attitudes, and General Ecological Behaviour in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerke, Britta; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Socially desirable responses have been widely discussed as potentially biasing self-reported measures of environmental attitude and behaviour assessment. The direct and moderating effect of social desirability on children has not been analysed before. By applying a Lie scale together with a two-factor environmental attitude set measure and a scale…

  8. From desires to behavior: Moderating factors in a fertility transition

    PubMed Central

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Agadjanian, Victor

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Extensive research in both developed and developing countries has shown that preferences and intentions for future childbearing predict behavior. However, very little of this research has examined high-fertility contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the factors that increase or decrease correspondence between fertility desires and behavior in these settings are not well understood. OBJECTIVE This article documents the degree to which the desire to stop childbearing predicts fertility behavior over the short term among married women in rural southern Mozambique, a context where fertility transition is still in the early stages. Analyses test the moderating powers of individual, household, and community characteristics. METHODS Analyses use data from a longitudinal survey of married women of reproductive age (N=1678) carried out in 2006 and 2009 in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Logistic regression models are estimated to predict childbearing between 2006 and 2009 based on desires to stop childbearing and characteristics measured in 2006. RESULTS As expected, the desire to stop childbearing is strongly predictive of fertility behavior. Household wealth, local adult AIDS mortality, and being married to an unsuccessful labor migrant are associated with higher correspondence between reported desire to stop childbearing and fertility behavior. CONCLUSIONS Both factors related to the ability to carry out desires to stop childbearing and factors related to the strength and consistency of these desires moderate the association between desires and behaviors. Future research should expand measurement of fertility preferences to incorporate their strength and consistency as well as direction. PMID:23626485

  9. Library Users' Service Desires: A LibQUAL+ Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Kyrillidou, Martha; Cook, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore library users' desired service quality levels on the twenty-two core LibQUAL+ items. Specifically, we explored similarities and differences in users' desired library service quality levels across user groups (i.e., undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty), across geographic locations (i.e.,…

  10. Desirable functional processes: A conceptual approach for evaluating ecological condition

    Treesearch

    Alvin L. Medina; Malchus B. Baker; Daniel G. Neary

    1996-01-01

    Determining what "desired future condition" actually means has been viewed as a moving target approach for developing ecosystem management plans. The difficulty arises from trying to define what the desired condition are for any given site. In addition, definitions may be plagued with inconsistencies, contention and argument, indeterminate time frames and...

  11. Breaking up with Deleuze: Desire and Valuing the Irreconcilable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Eve Tuck grapples with Gilles Deleuze's conceptualization of desire, finding it simultaneously generative and unsatisfying. Recognizing that Deleuze will not "say" what Tuck wants him to say about desire--that it is smart, and constitutes expertise--Tuck reasons that there is only one thing she can do: break up with Deleuze. The…

  12. The Role of Creativity and Proactivity on Perceived Entrepreneurial Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampetakis, Leonidas A.

    2008-01-01

    The study tested the extent to which perceived desirability mediates the effects of student creativity and proactivity on entrepreneurial intent. Participants were 199 engineering and business university students from Greek Universities. Results using Structural Equation Modelling indicated that perceived desirability fully mediates the…

  13. "Non-Coercive Rearrangements": Theorizing Desire in TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motha, Suhanthie; Lin, Angel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that at the center of every English language learning moment lies desire: desire for the language; for the identities that English represents; for capital, power, and images that are associated with English; for what is believed to lie beyond the doors that English unlocks. However, despite its centrality within…

  14. Intergalactic Encounters: Desire and the Political Immediacy of Children's Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The author of this article creates a semblance between Deleuze and Guattari's conception of a politics of desire and the four realities, as outlined by Brent and Marjorie Wilson. By making this theoretical move, the author advances the idea that children's drawing unfolds from one moment to the next through the assemblages of desire that are most…

  15. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children developmentally acquire an understanding of desires before beliefs, even when compared via tasks with matched formats and demands. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag or the neurocognitive underpinnings of desire reasoning. Previous functional neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state concepts. Here we provide evidence for frontal and right-posterior neural activities associated with desire- and belief-judgments. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) were recorded as adult participants performed tasks requiring reasoning about diverse-desires and diverse-beliefs (and as a control, about parallel physical situations). A late slow wave (LSW), with a mid-frontal scalp distribution, was associated with desire- and belief-judgments. A LSW, with a right-posterior scalp distribution, was only associated with belief-judgments. These findings demonstrate neural overlap as well as critical differences in reasoning explicitly about desires and beliefs and provide an explanation for the developmental lag: children need to recruit additional neural processes for reasoning about beliefs beyond a common neural system for reasoning about mental states more generally (desires and beliefs). PMID:19630900

  16. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children understand desires before beliefs. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag. Additionally, previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state…

  17. Intergalactic Encounters: Desire and the Political Immediacy of Children's Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The author of this article creates a semblance between Deleuze and Guattari's conception of a politics of desire and the four realities, as outlined by Brent and Marjorie Wilson. By making this theoretical move, the author advances the idea that children's drawing unfolds from one moment to the next through the assemblages of desire that are most…

  18. The Role of Creativity and Proactivity on Perceived Entrepreneurial Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampetakis, Leonidas A.

    2008-01-01

    The study tested the extent to which perceived desirability mediates the effects of student creativity and proactivity on entrepreneurial intent. Participants were 199 engineering and business university students from Greek Universities. Results using Structural Equation Modelling indicated that perceived desirability fully mediates the…

  19. Bibliotherapy for low sexual desire: evidence for effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Laurie B; Balzer, Alexandra M; Zhao, Xinting; Bush, Hannah E

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of bibliotherapy for low sexual desire among women, which is the most frequent sexual concern brought to counselors. Forty-five women responded to an advertisement for participation in a study on low sexual desire and were assigned to either the intervention or the wait-list control group. The intervention group completed the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Desire (HISD; Apt & Hurlbert, 1992) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; R. Rosen et al., 2000), read the self-help book under study in 6 weeks, and completed the measures a second time. The control group completed the same measures 6 weeks apart. Results demonstrated that the intervention group made statistically greater gains over time as compared with the control group on measures of sexual desire (HISD and FSFI Desire subscale), sexual arousal (FSFI Arousal subscale), sexual satisfaction (FSFI Satisfaction subscale), and overall sexual functioning (FSFI Total Score). A subset of participants in the intervention group participated in a 7-week follow-up study, and these participants maintained their gains in sexual desire and overall sexual functioning. Findings have important implications for future research on the efficacy of bibliotherapy generally and for low sexual desire specifically. Results also have vital implications for the treatment of low sexual desire.

  20. Bibliotherapy for Low Sexual Desire: Evidence for Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Balzer, Alexandra M.; Zhao, Xinting; Bush, Hannah E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of bibliotherapy for low sexual desire among women, which is the most frequent sexual concern brought to counselors. Forty-five women responded to an advertisement for participation in a study on low sexual desire and were assigned to either the intervention or the wait-list control group. The intervention…

  1. Bibliotherapy for Low Sexual Desire: Evidence for Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Balzer, Alexandra M.; Zhao, Xinting; Bush, Hannah E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of bibliotherapy for low sexual desire among women, which is the most frequent sexual concern brought to counselors. Forty-five women responded to an advertisement for participation in a study on low sexual desire and were assigned to either the intervention or the wait-list control group. The intervention…

  2. Toward a Sociology of the Reconciliation of Conflicting Desires.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Susan; Perley, David

    2016-11-01

    Desire-based research provides people and communities the opportunity to share their dreams and hopes for a better future. However, conflicting desires are difficult to reconcile. We suggest that sociological research to understand conflicting desires is required to support reconciliation work by Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. Our contribution begins by identifying much of current and past sociological research about Indigenous people and communities as damaged-centered, that is, identifying problems and obstacles in the hope that the knowledge will lead to change. This model of social change is flawed. We believe that most Canadians desire justice for Indigenous peoples while at the same time desiring land and access to resources, desires that deny that justice. How we as a society reconcile these desires will determine the extent to which true justice for Indigenous peoples will be achieved. We propose a sociology of the reconciliation of conflicting desires and suggest some practical ways that this type of research could move forward. © 2016 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  3. Patterns of Workplace Supervisor Support Desired by Abused Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Nancy A.; Yragui, Nanette L.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Glass, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand differences in patterns of supervisor support desired by female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to examine whether the pattern of support desired at work is reflective of a woman's stage of change in the abusive relationship, IPV-related work interference, and IPV-related job reprimands or…

  4. Breaking up with Deleuze: Desire and Valuing the Irreconcilable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Eve Tuck grapples with Gilles Deleuze's conceptualization of desire, finding it simultaneously generative and unsatisfying. Recognizing that Deleuze will not "say" what Tuck wants him to say about desire--that it is smart, and constitutes expertise--Tuck reasons that there is only one thing she can do: break up with Deleuze. The…

  5. Evaluation Apprehension, Social Desirability, and the Interpretation of Test Correlations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The nature of the testing situations should be carefully considered when interpreting the correlation between a personality test and a measure of social desirability and interpreting the actual scores on personality measures which seem strongly susceptible to the influence of social desirability. (Author)

  6. Social Desirability, Environmental Attitudes, and General Ecological Behaviour in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerke, Britta; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Socially desirable responses have been widely discussed as potentially biasing self-reported measures of environmental attitude and behaviour assessment. The direct and moderating effect of social desirability on children has not been analysed before. By applying a Lie scale together with a two-factor environmental attitude set measure and a scale…

  7. Desiring Silence: Gender, Race and Pedagogy in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzei, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    In my work with white teachers, predominantly female, I assert that "desire" is functioning to produce silent discourses that serve to perpetuate a continuation of white privilege. Based on a qualitative research study exploring the nature of silences in teacher education classrooms, this paper seeks to explore how desire is functioning…

  8. Desiring Silence: Gender, Race and Pedagogy in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzei, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    In my work with white teachers, predominantly female, I assert that "desire" is functioning to produce silent discourses that serve to perpetuate a continuation of white privilege. Based on a qualitative research study exploring the nature of silences in teacher education classrooms, this paper seeks to explore how desire is functioning…

  9. Detecting Social Desirability Bias Using Factor Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Cooper, Lou Ann

    2010-01-01

    Based on the conceptualization that social desirable bias (SDB) is a discrete event resulting from an interaction between a scale's items, the testing situation, and the respondent's latent trait on a social desirability factor, we present a method that makes use of factor mixture models to identify which examinees are most likely to provide…

  10. Human Sexual Desire Disorder: Do We Have a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.; Henry, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD), loss of sexual desire for sexual activity, is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions of men and women in the United States. This article presents an overview of this specific sexual dysfunction including incidence, possible causes, treatment options, and the role of the health educator in addressing…

  11. The Desire Thinking Questionnaire: development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Gabriele; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2011-11-01

    Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginal elaboration of a desired target. Recent research has highlighted the role of desire thinking in the maintenance of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders. The goal of this research project was to develop the first self-report measure of desire thinking. In Study 1 we constructed the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and conducted a preliminary factor analysis which identified two factors. The first factor concerned the perseveration of verbal thoughts about desire-related content and experience and was named 'Verbal Perseveration'. The second factor concerned the tendency to prefigure images about desire-related content and experience and was named 'Imaginal Prefiguration'. In Study 2 we performed a confirmatory factor analysis which provided support for this two factor solution, with both factors achieving adequate internal consistency. Divergent validity was also established through correlation analyses. In Study 3 the temporal stability of the DTQ was examined and confirmed. Finally, in Study 4, the predictive validity of the DTQ in a sample of alcohol abusers was investigated. The DTQ was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as divergent and predictive validity. This self-report measure may aid future research into desire thinking and craving, as well as facilitate assessment and case formulation within the context of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders.

  12. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children understand desires before beliefs. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag. Additionally, previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state…

  13. From desires to behavior: Moderating factors in a fertility transition.

    PubMed

    Hayford, Sarah R; Agadjanian, Victor

    2012-05-31

    Extensive research in both developed and developing countries has shown that preferences and intentions for future childbearing predict behavior. However, very little of this research has examined high-fertility contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the factors that increase or decrease correspondence between fertility desires and behavior in these settings are not well understood. This article documents the degree to which the desire to stop childbearing predicts fertility behavior over the short term among married women in rural southern Mozambique, a context where fertility transition is still in the early stages. Analyses test the moderating powers of individual, household, and community characteristics. Analyses use data from a longitudinal survey of married women of reproductive age (N=1678) carried out in 2006 and 2009 in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Logistic regression models are estimated to predict childbearing between 2006 and 2009 based on desires to stop childbearing and characteristics measured in 2006. As expected, the desire to stop childbearing is strongly predictive of fertility behavior. Household wealth, local adult AIDS mortality, and being married to an unsuccessful labor migrant are associated with higher correspondence between reported desire to stop childbearing and fertility behavior. Both factors related to the ability to carry out desires to stop childbearing and factors related to the strength and consistency of these desires moderate the association between desires and behaviors. Future research should expand measurement of fertility preferences to incorporate their strength and consistency as well as direction.

  14. ["Medicine of desire" between commercialization and patient-centeredness].

    PubMed

    Kettner, Matthias

    2006-03-01

    Ample evidence points to an emerging new self-understanding within medical practice, away from the established goals of medicine towards greater responsiveness to individual preferences. The altered self-understanding of medical practice unfettered by indications grounded in concepts of disease can be conceptually characterized as desire-driven medicine, or "medicine of desire." This raises the question of morally justifiable limits for the normative governance of a medicine of desire. In liberal societies, only two forms of argumentation seem promising for setting limits to the provision and consumption of what a medicine of desire has to offer: Arguments that place expected benefit into the perspective of risks, and arguments that probe the coherence of desires and their fulfillment against the background of a person's conception of a good life for that person.

  15. Desire to work as a death anxiety buffer mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yaakobi, Erez

    2015-01-01

    Four studies were conducted to examine the death anxiety buffering function of work as a terror management mechanism, and the possible moderating role of culture. In Study 1, making mortality salient led to higher reports of participants' desire to work. In Study 2, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work after mortality salience reduced the accessibility of death-related thoughts. In Study 3, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work reduced the effects of mortality salience on out-group derogation. In Study 4, priming thoughts about obstacles to the actualization of desire to work led to greater accessibility of death-related thoughts. Although two different cultures with contrasting work values were examined, the results were consistent, indicating that the desire to work serves as a death anxiety buffer mechanism in both cultures.

  16. Heritability of Health and Aging Limitations on Personally Desired Activities.

    PubMed

    Gurland, Barry J; Page, William; Small, Brent; McArdle, John J; Plassman, Brenda L

    2015-09-30

    The aim of this study is to estimate heritability of incident limitations on personally desired activities within the eighth decade of life. We measured self-rated ability to perform ten personally desired activities in 1606 male veteran twin pairs at baseline and four years later. At follow-up, 33% of the cohort reported more limitations in desired activities. Among twins who completed both assessments, there were no statistically significant differences in incidence rates of limitations as a function of zygosity. Sensitivity tests showed the same for change scores; and that, if cognitive impairment or death are deemed to belong among limitations of desired activities, zygosity contributed 10% to new limitations at follow-up. Maintaining personally desired activities over four years in the eighth decade is not subject to substantial genetic influence. However, if death and cognitive impairment are added to incident limitations, then genetics plays a modest role. In all cases, unique environment is the predominant influence.

  17. Evidence-based treatments for low sexual desire in women.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A

    2017-02-22

    Low sexual desire is the most common sexual complaint in women, with multinational studies finding that at least a third of women experience low sexual desire. No single etiology for the development of Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder, the diagnosis laid out by the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, has been established. There has been considerable interest in pharmacological approaches to improving low desire, and agents targeting a range of neurotransmitters have been examined. To date, only flibanserin, a centrally acting medication targeting the serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine systems, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite statistically significant effects on sexual desire, sexual distress, and sexually satisfying events, side-effects are significant, and flibanserin is completely contraindicated with alcohol. As such, there has been renewed interest in advancing the science of psychological approaches to low desire, including cognitive behavioral and mindfulness therapies.

  18. Heritability of Health and Aging Limitations on Personally Desired Activities

    PubMed Central

    Gurland, Barry J.; Page, William; Small, Brent; McArdle, John J.; Plassman, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate heritability of incident limitations on personally desired activities within the eighth decade of life. We measured self-rated ability to perform ten personally desired activities in 1606 male veteran twin pairs at baseline and four years later. At follow-up, 33% of the cohort reported more limitations in desired activities. Among twins who completed both assessments, there were no statistically significant differences in incidence rates of limitations as a function of zygosity. Sensitivity tests showed the same for change scores; and that, if cognitive impairment or death are deemed to belong among limitations of desired activities, zygosity contributed 10% to new limitations at follow-up. Maintaining personally desired activities over four years in the eighth decade is not subject to substantial genetic influence. However, if death and cognitive impairment are added to incident limitations, then genetics plays a modest role. In all cases, unique environment is the predominant influence. PMID:26973959

  19. Social desirability in personality inventories: Symptoms, diagnosis and prescribed cure

    PubMed Central

    Bäckström, Martin; Björklund, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of social desirability in personality assessment is presented. Starting with the symptoms, Study 1 showed that mean ratings of graded personality items are moderately to strongly linearly related to social desirability (Self Deception, Impression formation, and the first Principal Component), suggesting that item popularity may be a useful heuristic tool for identifying items which elicit socially desirable responding. We diagnose the cause of socially desirable responding as an interaction between the evaluative content of the item and enhancement motivation in the rater. Study 2 introduced a possible cure; evaluative neutralization of items. To test the feasibility of the method lay psychometricians (undergraduates) reformulated existing personality test items according to written instructions. The new items were indeed lower in social desirability while essentially retaining the five factor structure and reliability of the inventory. We conclude that although neutralization is no miracle cure, it is simple and has beneficial effects. PMID:23252410

  20. Neural correlates of belief- and desire-reasoning.

    PubMed

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Wellman, Henry M

    2009-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children understand desires before beliefs. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag. Additionally, previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state concepts. Event-related brain potentials were recorded as participants (N = 24; mean age = 22 years) reasoned about diverse-desires, diverse-beliefs, and parallel physical situations. A mid-frontal late slow wave (LSW) was associated with desire and belief judgments. A right-posterior LSW was only associated with belief judgments. These findings demonstrate neural overlap and critical differences in reasoning explicitly about desires and beliefs, and they suggest children recruit additional neural processes for belief judgments beyond a common, more general, mentalizing neural system.

  1. Love styles and desire for closeness in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Goodboy, Alan K; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated differences in love styles (i.e., eros, ludus, storge, pragma, agape, mania) associated with the romantic desire for closeness. Participants were 197 undergraduate students (M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.9; 92 men, 104 women) currently in a romantic relationship who completed a survey assessing their love styles and current desire for closeness with their partner (i.e., desired less closeness, the same level of closeness, or more closeness). Results indicated small significant differences in individuals' preferences for closeness with the eros and ludus love styles. Specifically, individuals who desired less closeness scored lower on eros love and higher on ludus love than partners who reported an ideal level of closeness or who desired more closeness.

  2. Social desirability in personality inventories: symptoms, diagnosis and prescribed cure.

    PubMed

    Bäckström, Martin; Björklund, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    An analysis of social desirability in personality assessment is presented. Starting with the symptoms, Study 1 showed that mean ratings of graded personality items are moderately to strongly linearly related to social desirability (Self Deception, Impression formation, and the first Principal Component), suggesting that item popularity may be a useful heuristic tool for identifying items which elicit socially desirable responding. We diagnose the cause of socially desirable responding as an interaction between the evaluative content of the item and enhancement motivation in the rater. Study 2 introduced a possible cure; evaluative neutralization of items. To test the feasibility of the method lay psychometricians (undergraduates) reformulated existing personality test items according to written instructions. The new items were indeed lower in social desirability while essentially retaining the five factor structure and reliability of the inventory. We conclude that although neutralization is no miracle cure, it is simple and has beneficial effects.

  3. Is social desirability associated with self-reported physical activity?

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward; DiStefano, Christine

    2005-06-01

    Physical activity has been considered to be a socially desirable behavior that might be overreported because of a social desirability bias. This study involved an examination of the possible influence of social desirability on self-report measures of physical activity. Participants were male and female college students (N = 782) who completed the Lie scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (L-scale), Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (SDS), Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ), and Stanford Usual Activity Questionnaire. Scores from the Lie scale were not significantly correlated with scores from either the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire or the Stanford Usual Activity Questionnaire. With the Social Desirability Scale, there were statistically significant, but weak correlations with scores from the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Stanford Usual Activity Questionnaire. There was no influence of the Lie scale and Social Desirability Scale on the magnitude of the correlations between scores from the two measures of physical activity. This study provides minimal evidence of an influence of social desirability on scores from two self-report instruments for measuring physical activity in young adults.

  4. The Stability of Social Desirability: A Latent Change Analysis.

    PubMed

    Haberecht, Katja; Schnuerer, Inga; Gaertner, Beate; John, Ulrich; Freyer-Adam, Jennis

    2015-08-01

    Social desirability has been shown to be stable in samples with higher school education. However, little is known about the stability of social desirability in more heterogeneous samples differing in school education. This study aimed to investigate the stability of social desirability and which factors predict interindividual differences in intraindividual change. As part of a randomized controlled trial, 1,243 job seekers with unhealthy alcohol use were systematically recruited at three job agencies. A total of 1,094 individuals (87.8%) participated in at least one of two follow-ups (6 and 15 months after baseline) and constitute this study's sample. The Social Desirability Scale-17 was applied. Two latent change models were conducted: Model 1 tested for interindividual differences in intraindividual change of social desirability between both follow-ups; Model 2 included possible predictors (age, sex, education, current employment status) of interindividual differences in intraindividual change. Model 1 revealed a significant decrease of social desirability over time. Model 2 revealed school education to be the only significant predictor of change. These findings indicate that stability of social desirability may depend on school education. It may not be as stable in individuals with higher school education as in individuals with lower education. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Female adolescents' perceptions of male partners' pregnancy desire.

    PubMed

    Heavey, Elizabeth J; Moysich, Kirsten B; Hyland, Andrew; Druschel, Charlotte M; Sill, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the relationship between pregnancy desire among female adolescents and their perception of desire for pregnancy in their male partners. This is an observational cross-sectional study which examined 92 surveys administered to adolescent women between the ages of 14 to 19 years at two obstetrical care services serving a population from limited socioeconomic backgrounds. Participants were all pregnant or awaiting pregnancy test results. Participants were asked about their levels of pregnancy happiness and desire and their partners' levels of pregnancy happiness and desire. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated and discordant pairs were examined with McNemar's test. Logistic regression was utilized to examine the relationship between male and female pregnancy happiness and desire. We found that there was a significant correlation between the adolescents' feelings about pregnancy and their perceptions of their male partners' feelings about pregnancy (0.326; P = .004). McNemar's test indicated that male partners were significantly more likely to be reported to feel positively about the pregnancy than female partners (P = .017). Female adolescents who reported male partners who felt positively about the pregnancy were four times as likely to report having desired their pregnancy now or sooner (odds ratio [OR] = 4.35). We conclude that male partners may impact adolescent pregnancy desire. Further prospective studies are needed and male-focused adolescent pregnancy interventions should be developed.

  6. The pathophysiology of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Anita H

    2010-07-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is defined as a deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. The dysfunction cannot be better accounted for by another psychiatric disorder (except another sexual dysfunction) and must not be due exclusively to the physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. HSDD occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women in the USA and its prevalence appears to be similar in Europe. A number of potential causative and contributory factors to low sexual desire have been identified, reflecting the interplay among hormonal, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors. One theory is that sexual desire is controlled in the brain by a balance between inhibitory and excitatory factors. In general, dopamine, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone play an excitatory role in sexual desire, whereas serotonin, prolactin, and opioids play an inhibitory role. It is hypothesized that decreased sexual desire may be due to a reduced level of excitatory activity, an increased level of inhibitory activity, or both. A greater understanding of the complex pathophysiology of HSDD would improve the identification and management of women for whom low sexual desire is a concern.

  7. Self-transcendence, sexual desire, and sexual frequency.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Pestana, José; Costa, David

    2017-04-03

    Self-forgetfulness is a facet of self-transcendence characterized by tendency to experience altered states of consciousness. We examined associations of self-forgetfulness with sexual desire and frequency. 261 Portuguese completed the self-forgetfulness subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised, a measure of openness to experience, and a questionnaire on desired and actual frequency of vaginal intercourse, noncoital sex, and masturbation in the past month. In simple and partial correlations controlling for openness to experience and relationship status, women's self-forgetfulness correlated with desired frequency of intercourse and noncoital sex. For men, self-forgetfulness correlated with actual frequency of intercourse and noncoital sex.

  8. Romantic love and sexual desire in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Gian C; Turner, Rebecca A; Keltner, Dacher; Campos, Belinda; Altemus, Margaret

    2006-05-01

    Drawing on recent claims in the study of relationships, attachment, and emotion, the authors hypothesized that romantic love serves a commitment-related function and sexual desire a reproduction-related function. Consistent with these claims, in Study 1, brief experiences of romantic love and sexual desire observed in a 3-min interaction between romantic partners were related to distinct feeling states, distinct nonverbal displays, and commitment- and reproductive-related relationship outcomes, respectively. In Study 2, the nonverbal display of romantic love was related to the release of oxytocin. Discussion focuses on the place of romantic love and sexual desire in the literature on emotion.

  9. Disorders of desire: addiction and problems of intimacy.

    PubMed

    Keane, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This essay investigates the tensions produced by the categorization of different forms of excessive desire under the singular model of addiction, and it challenges the increasing acceptance of addiction as an all-purpose explanation for unruly desires through a comparison of the different forms of disordered desire in sex addiction and alcoholism. Moreover, it argues for a broad understanding of addictive processes to undermine the normative and moralizing assumptions of addiction discourses. Refiguring addiction as a kind of intimacy is one way of making sense of the intense relationships people can develop with substances and with activities.

  10. Pneumatic wrench retains or discharges nuts or bolts as desired

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouille, J. R.

    1966-01-01

    Pneumatic wrench grips, screws or unscrews, and discharges a nut or bolt as desired. The device consists of a standard pneumatic wrench modified with a special hex bolt head socket assembly and a diaphragm air cylinder.

  11. Social Desirability, Environmental Attitudes, and General Ecological Behaviour in Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerke, Britta; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-03-01

    Socially desirable responses have been widely discussed as potentially biasing self-reported measures of environmental attitude and behaviour assessment. The direct and moderating effect of social desirability on children has not been analysed before. By applying a Lie scale together with a two-factor environmental attitude set measure and a scale of self-reported General Ecological Behaviour (GEB) to 198 pupils, we found a moderate impact of Lie scores on only one of both attitude measures and a small impact on GEB. In a multiple regression analysis general behaviour was predicted by attitude, social desirability, and the interaction of both. Social desirability had no moderating effect on the relationship between environmental attitudes and behaviour. Implications of these outcomes for research on environmental issues with children are discussed.

  12. Investigating the influence of social desirability on personality factor structure.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, J E; Smith, D B; Sackett, P R

    2001-02-01

    This study provides a comprehensive investigation into whether social desirability alters the factor structure of personality measures. The study brought together 4 large data sets wherein different organizational samples responded to different personality measures. This facilitated conducting 4 separate yet parallel investigations. Within each data set, individuals identified through a social desirability scale as responding in an honest manner were grouped together, and individuals identified as responding in a highly socially desirable manner were grouped together. Using various analyses, the fit of higher order factor structure models was compared across the 2 groups. Results were the same for each data set. Social desirability had little influence on the higher order factor structures that characterized the relationships among the scales of the personality measures.

  13. Treating Inhibited Sexual Desire: A Marital Therapy Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Linda Stone; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Defines inhibited sexual desire (ISD) as a relational phenomenon best treated in the marital context. Discusses ISD as it relates to the central marital issues of power, intimacy, and boundaries. (JAC)

  14. Motivational neuroscience: instant desire for something you know is bad.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2013-03-18

    Avoiding what you know is bad is a major challenge for recovering addicts. New research suggests that powerful desire can develop even for cues that have always been repulsive. Memories about learned cues can promote addiction in certain conditions.

  15. Treating Inhibited Sexual Desire: A Marital Therapy Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Linda Stone; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Defines inhibited sexual desire (ISD) as a relational phenomenon best treated in the marital context. Discusses ISD as it relates to the central marital issues of power, intimacy, and boundaries. (JAC)

  16. Low sexual desire--is it all in her head? Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Simon, James A

    2010-11-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is thought to be the most prevalent form of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), affecting up to 1 in 10 US women. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) as persistent or recurrent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and thoughts, and/or desire for, or receptivity to, sexual activity, which causes personal distress or interpersonal difficulties and is not caused by a medical condition or drug. This definition has recently received criticism and recommendations for changes encompass the inclusion of duration, intensity, and frequency, and the elimination of distress as a diagnostic criterion. More recently, it has been suggested that arousal and desire be combined into one disorder for the upcoming DSM-V. Causes of low desire include chronic medical conditions, medications, surgeries, and psychosocial factors, but not necessarily increased age; both pre- and postmenopausal women can have HSDD, although the frequency appears to vary by age. Sexual function requires the complex interaction of multiple neurotransmitters and hormones, both centrally and peripherally, and sexual desire is considered the result of a complex balance between inhibitory and excitatory pathways in the brain. For example, dopamine, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone play an excitatory role, whereas serotonin and prolactin are inhibitory. Thus, decreased sexual desire could be due to a reduced level of excitatory activity, an increased level of inhibitory activity, or both. A number of validated self-report and clinician-administered instruments are available for assessing female sexual function; however, most have been used primarily in clinical research trials. The Decreased Sexual Desire Screener (DSDS) was developed for practicing clinicians who are neither trained nor specialized in FSD to assist in making an accurate diagnosis of

  17. Socially desirable responding by bariatric surgery candidates during psychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Ambwani, Suman; Boeka, Abbe G; Brown, Joshua D; Byrne, T Karl; Budak, Amanda R; Sarwer, David B; Fabricatore, Anthony N; Morey, Leslie C; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Most bariatric surgery programs in the United States require preoperative psychological evaluations for candidates for surgery. Among those who perform these evaluations is concern that many patients engage in "impression management" or minimizing the symptoms of distress to receive a recommendation to proceed with surgery from the mental health professional. We sought to assess the prevalence of socially desirable responding and its associations with measures of psychological functioning among bariatric surgery candidates at 2 academic medical centers in the United States. The participants were male (n = 66) and female (n = 293) bariatric surgery candidates who presented for psychological evaluation. The participants completed 2 measures of socially desirable response styles (Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and Personality Assessment Inventory Positive Impression Management scale) and standardized measures of anxiety, depression, and alcohol-related problems. The participants exhibited elevated scores on the social desirability indicators, with 33.3-39.8% scoring above the recommended cut-score on the Personality Assessment Inventory Positive Impression Management scale and 62.3-67% scoring 1 standard deviation above the standardization mean on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and Personality Assessment Inventory Positive Impression Management scale correlated inversely with the clinical measures of anxiety and depression, and the high/low scorers on the social desirability indices exhibited significant differences in anxiety and depression. Thus, elevated scores on the social desirability indices were associated with underreporting of certain clinical symptoms. A substantial proportion of bariatric surgery candidates appear to present themselves in an overly favorable light during the psychological evaluation. This response style is associated with less reporting of psychological

  18. Asexuality: an extreme variant of sexual desire disorder?

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Yule, Morag A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2015-03-01

    Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything. Various theories have been proposed to explain how asexuality should best be classified, and some have maintained that asexuality is an extreme variant of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD)-a sexual dysfunction characterized by a lack of interest in sex and significant distress. To date, this has never been empirically examined. Using measures of sexual desire and behavior, sex-related distress, personality, and psychopathology, the aim of the current study was to compare individuals scoring above the cutoff for asexuality identification (AIS >40) (n = 192) to sexual individuals (n = 231). The sexual group was further divided into a control group (n = 122), a HSDD group (n = 50), and a group with symptoms of low desire that were nondistressing (n = 59). Analyses were controlled for age. Individuals in the AIS >40 group had a greater likelihood of never previously engaging in sexual intercourse, fantasies, or kissing and petting than all other groups and a lower likelihood of experiencing sex-related distress than those with HSDD. For women, those in the HSDD and AIS >40 groups had significantly lower desire than the subclinical HSDD and control groups. Men in the AIS >40 group had significantly lower desire than the other three groups. Symptoms of depression were highest among those with subclinical HSDD and HSDD, whereas there were no group differences on alexithymia or desirable responding. A binary logistic regression indicated that relationship status (long-term dating/married), sexual desire, sex-related distress, and lower alexithymia scores were the best predictors of group membership (HSDD vs. AIS >40). Taken together, these results challenge the speculation that asexuality should be classified as a sexual dysfunction of low desire. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties

    DOEpatents

    Ally, Moonis R.; Braunstein, Jerry

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

  20. Depression and sexual desire: an exploratory study in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Mário; Azevedo, Leandra Pinheiro; Gouveia, José Luís

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to study the relation between depression and its effect on the sexual desire in psychiatric patients. The sample comprised 89 patients from the Psychiatric and Mental Health Department of Alto Ave's Hospital Center, Entidade Publica Empresarial. The obtained results in this exploratory study revealed that depressive symptomatology severity is directly related with sexual desire. Variables gender, age, and working status, as well as, sociocultural levels indicated important and significant differences between patients.

  1. Social desirability of subtle and blatant prejudice scales.

    PubMed

    Manganelli Rattazzi, Anna Maria; Volpato, Chiara

    2003-02-01

    The present paper analyzes the relation between the measurement of subtle and blatant prejudice proposed by Pettigrew and Meertens in 1995 and the tendency to give socially desirable responses. It also tests whether items that measure subtle prejudice are judged as more socially desirable than those that measure blatant prejudice. Data were obtained from two groups, one of 497 Italian high school students and one of 77 university students. In the first case, the analysis concerns the relation between the prejudice scores and scores on a shortened form of Marlowe and Crowne's Social Desirability Scale. In the second case, we analyzed the social desirability judgments expressed on single items of the Petrigrew and Meertens scales. Analyses indicate that (1) neither Subtle nor Blatant Prejudice scores correlate with the tendency to give socially desirable responses and (2) when the items of the two prejudice scales are placed in order on the social desirability continuum, with very few exceptions the Blatant Prejudice items are situated at the not socially acceptable pole and Subtle Prejudice items at the socially acceptable pole.

  2. Children’s Social Desirability: Effects of Test Assessment Mode

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Patricia H.; Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.; Smith, Albert F.; Collins, Kathleen L.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Alyssa L.; Puryear, Megan P.; Vaadi, Kate K.; Finney, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined a recently developed short version of the Children’s Social Desirability (CSD-S) scale with 157 fourth-grade children. Of interest was a) whether one-month test-retest reliability would vary as a function of test assessment mode (interview or classroom), gender, race, SES, and BMI percentile, and b) whether the degree of social desirability would vary as a function of these same variables. The CSD-S scale showed good test-retest reliability for both interview and classroom assessment modes (.85 and .83, respectively). Internal consistency also was good (first interview administration = .84; first classroom administration = .81). Reliability was good and did not vary significantly over assessment mode or any child subgroup variables, suggesting that the CSD-S scale is appropriate for general use. The interview mode elicited significantly more socially desirable answers than did the classroom mode. Social desirability did not differ across child subgroups. Some of these findings were examined, and replicated, on another sample. Thus, the CSD-S scale may be used with diverse groups of children to a) reliably assess a social desirability bias that may systematically bias other self-reports of interest to researchers and b) examine individual differences in degree of social desirability. PMID:25870465

  3. Children's Social Desirability: Effects of Test Assessment Mode.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patricia H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B; Smith, Albert F; Collins, Kathleen L; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Alyssa L; Puryear, Megan P; Vaadi, Kate K; Finney, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined a recently developed short version of the Children's Social Desirability (CSD-S) scale with 157 fourth-grade children. Of interest was a) whether one-month test-retest reliability would vary as a function of test assessment mode (interview or classroom), gender, race, SES, and BMI percentile, and b) whether the degree of social desirability would vary as a function of these same variables. The CSD-S scale showed good test-retest reliability for both interview and classroom assessment modes (.85 and .83, respectively). Internal consistency also was good (first interview administration = .84; first classroom administration = .81). Reliability was good and did not vary significantly over assessment mode or any child subgroup variables, suggesting that the CSD-S scale is appropriate for general use. The interview mode elicited significantly more socially desirable answers than did the classroom mode. Social desirability did not differ across child subgroups. Some of these findings were examined, and replicated, on another sample. Thus, the CSD-S scale may be used with diverse groups of children to a) reliably assess a social desirability bias that may systematically bias other self-reports of interest to researchers and b) examine individual differences in degree of social desirability.

  4. Desire thinking across the continuum of drinking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Gabriele; Ferla, Marta; Mezzaluna, Clarice; Rovetto, Francesco; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2012-01-01

    Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginary elaboration of a desired target. Recent research has highlighted the role of desire thinking in predicting addictive behaviours independent of other psychological constructs including negative affect and craving. The goal of this research project was to explore the role of desire thinking across the continuum of drinking behaviour. A sample of alcohol-dependent drinkers (n = 43), problem drinkers (n = 59), and social drinkers (n = 68) completed self-report instruments of desire thinking, negative affect, craving and drinking behaviour. Analyses revealed that alcohol-dependent drinkers and problem drinkers scored higher than social drinkers on imaginal prefiguration, and that alcohol-dependent drinkers scored higher than problem drinkers who in turn scored higher than social drinkers on verbal perseveration. A multi-group discriminant analysis showed that craving, imaginal prefiguration and verbal perseveration loaded on a first function whilst age loaded on a second function. The variables correctly classified 75.9% of cases. The findings suggest that desire thinking may be a risk factor across the continuum of drinking behaviour and that treatment may benefit from specifically targeting this cognitive process. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The Metacognitions about Desire Thinking Questionnaire: development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Gabriele; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that specific metacognitions may play a role in the activation and escalation of desire thinking and craving. The goal of this research project was to develop the first self-report instrument of metacognitions about desire thinking. We conducted three studies with nonclinical samples (N = 213, N = 279, N = 60) to construct the Metacognitions about Desire Thinking Questionnaire (MDTQ) and test its structure and psychometric properties. A fourth study was added to test the predictive validity of MDTQ in a sample of alcohol abusers (N = 75). Explorative and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 3-factor solution: positive metacognitions about desire thinking, negative metacognitions about desire thinking, and need to control desire related thoughts. Internal consistency, divergent validity, temporal stability were also examined in a community sample and predictive validity was confirmed even in a sample of alcohol abusers. The MDTQ was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as divergent and predictive validity within the populations that were tested. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Satisfaction with Appearance and the Desired Treatment to Improve Aesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zarea, Bader K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To identify participants' satisfaction with appearance and the desired treatment to improve aesthetics. Materials and Methods. 220 participants (127 males and 93 females, mean age = 21.4 ± 1.5 years) were recruited into the study. A structured questionnaire was used to assess patients' satisfaction with appearance and what treatment they desire to improve aesthetics. Participants scored the level of satisfaction with appearance using visual analogue scale. Results. The VAS mean score of satisfaction with general appearance was 6.8 ± 2.3. Half participants were dissatisfied with tooth appearance and 65.9% were dissatisfied with tooth colour. Higher VAS scores were associated with higher desire for all treatments that improve tooth appearance (P < .05). Dissatisfaction with tooth appearance increased with increased dissatisfaction with teeth colour, feeling of poor tooth alignment, presence of fractured anterior teeth, and increased desire for orthodontic, crowns, and dentures treatments (P < .05). Dissatisfaction with tooth colour was associated with increased desire for tooth whitening and tooth coloured fillings (P < .05). Conclusions. Participants had high levels of dissatisfaction with tooth appearance and tooth colour. Dissatisfaction with tooth colour contributed to the increased dissatisfaction with tooth appearance. Dissatisfaction with tooth appearance, colour, alignment, and condition was significantly related to high desire for aesthetic treatments. PMID:23509462

  7. Textbook use and the biology education desired state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Sandra S.; Kyle, William C., Jr.

    This microethnographic study investigated the use of textbooks in six high school biology teachers' classrooms. Purposeful sampling techniques identified three textbook-centered (TC) teachers and three multiple-reference (MR) teachers. Composite profiles of TC and MR teachers and their classroom environments were constructed using data collected during classroom observations. The data were categorized and analyzed using the Project Synthesis desired state and actual state categories and descriptors as a framework (Harms & Yager, 1981). Thus, this study sought to ascertain if the nature of teachers' textbook use reveals relationships between factors indicative of the biology education desired state or actual state criteria. TC biology classrooms aligned with the actual state criteria in over 95% of the data entries. MR biology classrooms aligned about equally with the actual state and desired state criteria. Regardless of textbook orientation, teachers did not utilize desired state criteria in the process of evaluating student performance. Factors other than textbook orientation appear to align with desired state criteria. Identified factors include (a) the curricular goals espoused by individual teachers, (b) the instructional strategies used to implement the curriculum, and (c) the teacher's commitment to professional development. Preservice and in-service education must enhance teachers' ability to formulate goals consistent with desired state criteria in science education, develop appropriate strategies to implement those goals, and understand the need for continuing professional development.

  8. Hungry for money: the desire for caloric resources increases the desire for financial resources and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Briers, Barbara; Pandelaere, Mario; Dewitte, Siegfried; Warlop, Luk

    2006-11-01

    This report attempts to provide an evolutionary explanation for humans' motivation to strive for money in present-day societies. We propose that people's desire for money is a modern derivate of their desire for food. In three studies, we show the reciprocal association between the incentive value of food and of money. In Study 1, hungry participants were less likely than satiated participants to donate to charity. In Study 2, participants in a room with an olfactory food cue, known to increase the desire to eat, offered less money in a give-some game compared with participants in a room free of scent. In Study 3, participants' desire for money affected the amount of M&M's they ate in a subsequent taste test, but only among participants who were not restricting their food intake in order to manage their weight.

  9. Sexual desire, distress, and associated factors in premenopausal women: preliminary findings from the hypoactive sexual desire disorder registry for women.

    PubMed

    Connor, Megan K; Maserejian, Nancy N; De Rogatis, Leonard; Meston, Cindy M; Gerstenberger, Eric P; Rosen, Raymond C

    2011-01-01

    This article presents data from a validation sample of 390 premenopausal women clinically diagnosed with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) enrolled in the HSDD Registry for Women. Participants completed validated measures of sexual distress (e.g., Female Sexual Distress Scale Revised, Question 13) and sexual function including desire (e.g., Female Sexual Function Index). Results showed that lower levels of desire in these women were associated with diminished sexual satisfaction, increased sexually related distress, and fatigue or stress in the women's lives. In addition, the level of distress related to sexual desire decreased with age. The authors conclude that even among women with clinically diagnosed HSDD, the level of sexually related distress varies with situational factors, such as stress and fatigue.

  10. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2008-09-01

    Fragmentation et astéroïdes binaires; Astéroïde géocroiseur triple; Rosetta sort de son hibernation; Messenger; Transit lunaire vu par Deep Impact; Titan; Phobos; Phoenix; Einstein avait raison; Le ballet des taches rouges; Le poids des lentilles;

  11. Le syndrome d'apert

    PubMed Central

    Benmiloud, Sarra; Chaouki, Sana; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha

    2013-01-01

    Le syndrome d'Apert est une affection congénitale rare, caractérisée par une sténose cranio-faciale associée à une syndactylie des mains et des pieds. Sa prise en charge doit être précoce et multidisciplinaire. Sa gravité réside dans la coexistence de plusieurs malformations avec un risque d'hypertension intracrânienne chronique responsable d'une cécité et d'une débilité mentale. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation à travers laquelle ils illustrent les aspects cliniques et évolutifs ainsi que les difficultés thérapeutiques de cette affection. PMID:23565313

  12. Intraday LeBaron effects

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Simone; Corsi, Fulvio; Renò, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation at intraday level between serial correlation and volatility of the Standard and Poor (S&P) 500 stock index futures returns. At daily and weekly levels, serial correlation and volatility forecasts have been found to be negatively correlated (LeBaron effect). After finding a significant attenuation of the original effect over time, we show that a similar but more pronounced effect holds by using intraday measures, by such as realized volatility and variance ratio. We also test the impact of unexpected volatility, defined as the part of volatility which cannot be forecasted, on the presence of intraday serial correlation in the time series by employing a model for realized volatility based on the heterogeneous market hypothesis. We find that intraday serial correlation is negatively correlated to volatility forecasts, whereas it is positively correlated to unexpected volatility.

  13. Le Point sur... Astronomie IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    Cet ouvrage regroupe des articles de mise au point sollicités par le rédacteur en chef de la rubrique Astronomie des Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Les textes se proposent de faire découvrir aux lecteurs, dans les principales disciplines de l'astronomie, les résultats les plus remarquables des dernières années.Leurs auteurs sont des spécialistes participant activement à l'accroissement des connaissances dans des domaines faisant l'objet de recherches intensives. Ces mises au point sur des questions particulièrement importantes de l'astronomie sont rédigées soit en français, soit en anglais et accompagnées d'une bibliographie détaillée.

  14. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women: case studies.

    PubMed

    Miner, Martin; Sadovsky, Richard; Buster, John E

    2012-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and is thus frequently encountered in the primary care provider and OB/GYN practices. Causes of low sexual desire may be hormonal, neurologic, vascular, psychologic, or a result of illness/surgery or medications. The condition is often left untreated because both women and clinicians feel embarrassed to bring up the topic and believe that there is no available treatment. The use of short, validated questionnaires, such as the Decreased Sexual Desire Screener, to be completed in the waiting room, can open up discussion between provider and patient. In addition, 2 other algorithms are designed for clinicians who are not specifically trained in FSD and can help in diagnosing and managing a broad range of conditions related to FSD. Treatment for low desire consists primarily of patient education and counseling, as well as treatment of underlying comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, or cancer. While testosterone products are approved in Europe for use in surgically postmenopausal women with HSDD, in the United States, no pharmacologic treatments are approved for the treatment of HSDD or any FSD. Testosterone products are being used off-label, but questions remain about their efficacy and safety in pre- and postmenopausal women. This article gives an overview of HSDD in clinical practice and provides 3 case descriptions to illustrate the treatment of low sexual desire in women with diverse histories.

  15. Dysregulated sexuality and high sexual desire: distinct constructs?

    PubMed

    Winters, Jason; Christoff, Kalina; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2010-10-01

    The literature on dysregulated sexuality, whether theoretical, clinical or empirical, has failed to differentiate the construct from high sexual desire. In this study, we tested three hypotheses which addressed this issue. A sample of 6458 men and 7938 women, some of whom had sought treatment for sexual compulsivity, addiction or impulsivity, completed an online survey comprised of various sexuality measures. Men and women who reported having sought treatment scored significantly higher on measures of dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire. For men, women, and those who had sought treatment, dysregulated sexuality was associated with increased sexual desire. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor model, indicating that, in both male and female participants, dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire variables loaded onto a single underlying factor. The results of this study suggest that dysregulated sexuality, as currently conceptualized, labelled, and measured, may simply be a marker of high sexual desire and the distress associated with managing a high degree of sexual thoughts, feelings, and needs.

  16. Desired emotions across cultures: A value-based account.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Maya; Schwartz, Shalom H; Cieciuch, Jan; Riediger, Michaela; Torres, Claudio; Scollon, Christie; Dzokoto, Vivian; Zhou, Xiaolu; Vishkin, Allon

    2016-07-01

    Values reflect how people want to experience the world; emotions reflect how people actually experience the world. Therefore, we propose that across cultures people desire emotions that are consistent with their values. Whereas prior research focused on the desirability of specific affective states or 1 or 2 target emotions, we offer a broader account of desired emotions. After reporting initial evidence for the potential causal effects of values on desired emotions in a preliminary study (N = 200), we tested the predictions of our proposed model in 8 samples (N = 2,328) from distinct world cultural regions. Across cultural samples, we found that people who endorsed values of self-transcendence (e.g., benevolence) wanted to feel more empathy and compassion, people who endorsed values of self-enhancement (e.g., power) wanted to feel more anger and pride, people who endorsed values of openness to change (e.g., self-direction) wanted to feel more interest and excitement, and people who endorsed values of conservation (e.g., tradition) wanted to feel more calmness and less fear. These patterns were independent of differences in emotional experience. We discuss the implications of our value-based account of desired emotions for understanding emotion regulation, culture, and other individual differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A Dyadic Typology of Social Desires in Couples.

    PubMed

    Czikmantori, Thomas; Hagemeyer, Birk; Engeser, Stefan

    2017-08-12

    Employing a couple-centered approach to social motivation in intimate relationships, we developed a dyadic typology based on the ABC model of communal and agentic social desires. Using latent profile analysis, 631 heterosexual couples (age women: M = 39.7, SD = 13.6; age men: M = 42.0, SD = 14.1) were categorized regarding both partners' self-reported desires for closeness with partner, for affiliation with friends, and for being alone. Couple types were described using self-reported indicators of relationship functioning. Relationship stability was assessed after one year, and in stable couples, social desires were reassessed to examine continuity and change. We identified four motivational couple types. Three profiles showed similar orientations between partners and were labelled the communion, closeness, and distance couple types. Additionally, the distanced-man type was characterized by a low desire for closeness and a high desire for being alone in men, but not women. The communion and closeness types showed better relationship functioning than the other types, and the distanced-man type showed an increased rate of relationship break-up. A couple-centered, typological approach provides a viable way of studying complex dyadic motivational constellations and their consequences. This is beneficial for researchers as well as practitioners. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Socially desirable responding on the web: investigating the candor hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Risko, Evan F; Quilty, Lena C; Oakman, Jonathan M

    2006-12-01

    The investigation presented here explores the hypothesis that participants are less likely to respond in a socially desirable fashion on self-report questionnaires completed on the Web relative to those completed in the laboratory--the candor hypothesis. A battery of social desirability questionnaires (i.e., Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding [Paulhaus, 1984], Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale [Crowne & Marlowe, 1964], Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Lie Scale [Eysenck & Eysenck, 1994]) was administered to 3 groups: 2 groups consisted of undergraduate participants who were randomly assigned to complete the measures either in the laboratory (n = 60) or on the Web (n = 60), and 1 group consisted of self-selected participants who visited our experimental Web page and completed the measures online (n = 284). This design allowed us to assess the role of Web administration while controlling for differences in sample type, an oft-neglected issue in the Web literature. Results do not support the claim that administering self-report measures over the Web results in a decrease in socially desirable responding. Furthermore, these findings highlight the problems associated with confounding sample and medium. Implications for the use of Web as a research tool are discussed.

  19. Detecting Social Desirability Bias Using Factor Mixture Models.

    PubMed

    Leite, Walter L; Cooper, Lou Ann

    2010-03-31

    Based on the conceptualization that social desirable bias (SDB) is a discrete event resulting from an interaction between a scale's items, the testing situation, and the respondent's latent trait on a social desirability factor, we present a method that makes use of factor mixture models to identify which examinees are most likely to provide biased responses, which items elicit the most socially desirable responses, and which external variables predict SDB. Problems associated with the common use of correlation coefficients based on scales' total scores to diagnose SDB and partial correlations to correct for SDB are discussed. The method is demonstrated with an analysis of SDB in the Attitude toward Interprofessional Service-Learning scale with a sample of students from health-related fields.

  20. Contributions of Social Desirability to Self-Reported Ageism.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Allen, Priscilla D; Denver, Jenny Y; Holland, Kayla R

    2015-09-01

    The authors examined the role of social desirability in 445 participants' responses to self-reported measures of ageism across two studies. In Study 1, college students and community adults completed the Relating to Older People Evaluation (ROPE) and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS). Study 2 was a conceptual replication that included the Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA). Correlation analyses confirmed a small but significant relationship between scores on the positive ageist items and the social desirability scale in both studies. Ageist attitudes were correlated with negative ageist behaviors in Study 2. Implications for current views on ageism and strategies for reducing ageist attitudes and behaviors in everyday life are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Adolescent expectations and desires about marriage and parenthood.

    PubMed

    Plotnick, Robert D

    2007-12-01

    Using data collected in 2000 on a racially and ethnically diverse sample of high school seniors, this study analyzes adolescents' expectations and desires about marriage and parenthood, including unwed parenthood. The conceptual framework combines family context, opportunity cost, and social-psychological perspectives. Each perspective receives empirical support. Race, ethnicity, gender, parental education, and parental expectations for their child's education show significant relationships with expectations and desires about marriage and parenthood. Adolescents with higher opportunity costs, as indicated by better grades and higher expectations for their schooling, expect and desire to marry and have children at older ages. The relationships between parental education and parental expectations for their child's education and the outcomes are largely mediated through opportunity costs. Significant relationships between locus of control and the outcomes provide empirical support for the social-psychological element of the framework.

  2. Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware."

  3. Impact of job insecurity on sexual desire: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Domenighetti, Gianfranco; Tomada, Angelo; Marazzi, Alfio; Abazi, Ornela; Quaglia, Jacqueline

    2009-08-22

    To explore, for the first time, the impact of job insecurity on sexual desire. Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 7247 individuals aged 20-64 years working as full or part-time employees in Switzerland. The logistic regression analysis showed that workers aged 20-49 years perceiving high levels of job insecurity are exposed to a significantly higher risk of decrease of sexual desire compared to the reference group. The risk is 53% higher among men (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.16-2.01) and 47% for woman (OR 1.47; 1.13-1.91). No increased risk was found for employees aged 50-64 years old. An increasing fear of job loss is associated with a deterioration in sexual desire. These first preliminary findings should promote further epidemiological and clinical prospective studies on the impact of job insecurity on intimate relationships and sexual dysfunction.

  4. Desire for hastened death among patients with advanced AIDS.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William; Gibson, Christopher; Kramer, Michael; Tomarken, Alexis; Nelson, Christian; Pessin, Hayley; Esch, Julie; Galietta, Michele; Garcia, Nerina; Brechtl, John; Schuster, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The recent debate over legalization of physician-assisted suicide has fueled interest in understanding factors that lead medically ill patients to seek a hastened death. The authors investigated the prevalence and predictors of desire for hastened death in 372 patients with advanced AIDS who were newly admitted to a palliative-care facility. Clinician-rated and self-report measures of desire for hastened death, depression, hopelessness, spiritual well-being, social support, pain, and physical symptom burden were administered to assess the factors that correspond to a high desire for death. The prevalence ranged from 4.6% to 8.3%, significantly lower than in previous studies of patients with advanced or terminal cancer. Multivariate models revealed significant and unique effects for both hopelessness and depression, with these variables accounting for a large proportion of the variance in each model. Authors discuss the implications of these findings for palliative care practice and the assisted-suicide debate.

  5. Is love colorblind? Political orientation and interracial romantic desire.

    PubMed

    Eastwick, Paul W; Richeson, Jennifer A; Son, Deborah; Finkel, Eli J

    2009-09-01

    The present research examined the association of political orientation with ingroup favoritism in two live romantic contexts. In Study 1, White participants had sequential interactions with both a White and Black confederate and reported their romantic desire for each. In Study 2, both White and Black participants speed-dated multiple potential romantic partners and reported whether they would be interested in meeting each speed-dating partner again. In both studies, White participants' political conservatism positively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: White conservatives were less likely than White liberals to desire Black (interracial) relative to White potential romantic partners. In contrast, Black participants' political conservatism negatively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: Consistent with system-justification theory, Black conservatives were more likely than Black liberals to desire White (interracial) relative to Black potential romantic partners. Political orientation may be a key factor that influences the initiation of interracial romantic relationships.

  6. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and current pharmacotherapeutic options in women.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is the most common female sexual dysfunction. The diagnosis of HSDD requires the existence of personal distress or interpersonal difficulties associated with low sexual desire, that cannot be explained by any other psychiatric affection and that is not exclusively due to a disease or substance. HSDD can have a serious effect on emotional wellbeing and interpersonal relationships, and it occurs in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The Decreased Sexual Desire Screener is a shortened diagnostic method designed to help doctors who are not specialized in female sexual dysfunction to diagnose acquired HSDD in women. There is evidence that treatment with androgens or with estrogens is effective in HSDD; however, important unanswered questions still exist. Presently, new therapeutic strategies to combat HSDD are being researched, including novel methods of testosterone provision and drugs that act upon the CNS.

  7. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory).

  8. Satisfaction with fishing and the desire to leave.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Sean; Cannard, Toni; Jebreen, Eddie; Dichmont, Catherine M; Schirmer, Jacki

    2015-09-01

    Predicting who may leave a fishery is an important consideration when designing capacity reduction programs to enhance both ecological and economic sustainability. In this paper, the relationship between satisfaction and the desire to exit a fishery is examined for the Queensland East Coast Trawl fishery. Income from fishing, and changes in income over the last 5 years, were key factors affecting overall satisfaction. Relative income per se was not a significant factor, counter to most satisfaction studies. Continuing a family tradition of fishing and, for one group, pride in being a fisher was found to be significant. Satisfaction with fishing overall and the challenge of fishing were found to be the primary drivers of the desire to stay or leave the fishery. Surprisingly, public perceptions of fishing, trust in management and perceptions of equity in resource allocation did not significantly affect overall satisfaction or the desire to exit the fishery.

  9. Tradition and the individual sodomite: Barnfield, Shakespeare, and subjective desire.

    PubMed

    Bredbeck, G W

    1992-01-01

    This article compares Shakespeare's sonnets with those written by Richard Barnfield in order to examine the possibility of homoerotic subjectivity in early Renaissance England. Social constructionist debates about sexual subjectivity have convincingly argued that "the homosexual"--the person defined by homosexuality--did not exist before the Enlightenment. The sequences of Shakespeare and Barnfield, both of which deal with homoerotic desire, suggest that homoerotic desire could indeed play a role in defining the individuated subject prior to the Enlightenment. However, the ways in which they use homoeroticism also suggest that subjectivity was defined in radically different ways during the period.

  10. Fluoxetine attenuates alcohol intake and desire to drink.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, C A; Poulos, C X; Bremner, K E; Lanctot, K L

    1994-09-01

    Several serotonin uptake inhibitors, including the long-acting fluoxetine, have been found to decrease alcohol intake in moderately dependent alcoholics. While the mechanism of their effect is not fully elucidated, a previous study with citalopram indicated that decreased desire to drink may be an important factor. Therefore, we tested fluoxetine effects on alcohol intake and desire to drink in a placebo-controlled study. Subjects, recruited by advertisement, were mildly/moderately dependent alcoholics (12 male, four female, aged 19-59 years, healthy, non-depressed) who did not believe they had a drinking problem and were not requesting treatment. After a 1 week baseline they received, single-blind, 2 weeks placebo followed by 2 weeks fluoxetine 60 mg/day. As out-patients, subjects recorded daily standard drinks (13.6 g ethanol) and rated interest, desire, craving and liking for alcohol biweekly. Each out-patient period was immediately followed by a double-blind experimental drinking session. Out-patient daily drinks slightly decreased during fluoxetine to 6.6 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with during placebo (7.16 +/- 0.95, p = 0.07, N.S.) and baseline (7.18 +/- 1.0, p > 0.1, N.S.). Desire, interest and craving for alcohol decreased during fluoxetine vs placebo baseline (p < 0.05), but not vs placebo. Appetite loss and decrease in food intake (p < 0.01, fluoxetine vs placebo) correlated with each other (r = 0.91, p < 0.01) but neither correlated with decrease in alcohol intake (appetite: r = 0.26, N.S.; food intake: r = 0.22, N.S.). Weight loss occurred during fluoxetine (p < 0.05 vs placebo) but did not correlate with decrease in alcohol intake (r = 0.1, N.S.). In the experimental drinking sessions after placebo and fluoxetine treatments subjects rated their desire for each of 18 mini-drinks (each one-third of a standard drink) offered at 5 min intervals. Fluoxetine decreased desire to drink throughout the sessions; both mean and maximum desire ratings were

  11. Public attitudes towards the selection of desirable characteristics in children

    PubMed Central

    Marteau, Theresa; Michie, Susan; Drake, Harriet; Bobrow, Martin

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of 973 members of the British public in which attitudes towards methods of achieving desired personal characteristics in their children are compared. While there was little support for the use of gene manipulation to achieve desirable traits in children, the proportion who would consider doing so has more than doubled in the 12 months since the public were last polled on this question. The small but growing public support for the use of gene therapy to enhance human characteristics points to the need for a debate involving the public as well as scientists before such techniques are feasible. PMID:8558558

  12. Social relationship and health among students with low social desirability.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu Hui; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lee, I Hui; Sun, Zih Jie; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Kao Chin; Tsai, Chung Hung; Yang, Yen Kuang; Yang, Yi Ching

    2014-06-01

    This survey aimed to probe the associations between altruism, social support and subjective health among incoming students with low level of social desirability. Totally, 5,634 incoming university students were assessed and 2,472 students with a low tendency toward social desirability were recruited for analysis. The results indicated that altruism and perceived social support were correlated and both could predict subjective health simultaneously. Path analysis indicated that altruism may promote health directly and indirectly by social support. Developing curriculums to enhance altruism and social support could be an important issue for university students. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2013-12-01

    ISON; (3200) Phaéton; Titan, lacs et hydrocarbures; Titan et le Soleil; Jets; z8_GND_5296; La nébuleuse de la Crevette; Planète isolée; Nébuleuse Toby Jug; Le pulsar du Crabe; Le bulbe de la Voie lactée; ALMA au grand complet; APEX, ArTéMiS; Sgr A*; Première détection de l’acétate de méthyle dans l’espace

  14. Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Julia R; Rupp, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Brauer, Marieke; Laan, Ellen

    2011-05-01

    The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two sites, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, and incorporated various measures of acute changes in sexual desire and arousal. A sample of 46 women who met criteria for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) was compared to 47 women who experienced no sexual problems (SF). Half of each group used oral contraceptives (OCs). The specific goal was to investigate whether there is a relationship between women's hormone levels and their genital and subjective sexual responsiveness. Background demographics and health variables, including oral contraceptive (OC) use, were recorded and hormones (total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), SHBG, and estradiol) were analyzed along with vaginal pulse amplitude and self-report measures of desire and arousal in response to sexual fantasy, visual sexual stimuli, and photos of men's faces. Self-reported arousal and desire were lower in the HSDD than the SF group, but only for women who were not using oral contraceptives. Relationships between hormones and sexual function differed depending on whether a woman was HSDD or not. In line with prior literature, FT was positively associated with physiological and subjective sexual arousal in the SF group. The HSDD women demonstrated the opposite pattern, in that FT was negatively associated with subjective sexual responsiveness. The findings suggest a possible alternative relationship between hormones and sexual responsiveness in women with HSDD who have characteristics similar to those in the present study.

  15. Sexual desire and hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women. Introduction and overview. Standard operating procedure (SOP Part 1).

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Johannes; Giraldi, Annamaria; Pfaus, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition as persistent or recurrent deficiency (or absence) of sexual fantasies/thoughts, and/or desire for or receptivity to sexual activity, which causes personal distress. As a largely subjective experience, sexual desire may or may not be accompanied by externally observable changes in sexual behavior. Describe the models of understanding HSDD and the contributing factors to provide the basis for a diagnostic interview and guidance for care for healthcare professionals as a standard operating procedure method. Review of the literature. There are several models which have been developed to describe sexual desire, although there is still no universally accepted definition or description of it. The models are generally divided into more general two-factor models (e.g., excitation-inhibition, appetitive-consummatory) or more specific multifactorial models (in which the different components of sexual activity and their interaction are delineated). The etiology of the disorder is generally considered as multifactorial. Biomedical factors like diseases, drugs, and hormones, and psychological factors like life events, sexual biography, affective state, etc., as well as interpersonal factors like partner satisfaction, communication, duration of the relationship, and sociocultural factors interact with each other and contribute to the individual experience of desire or lack or absence of desire. In analogy to the multifactorial pathogenesis the therapeutic approach is usually multidimensional and includes basic counseling, individual and couple psychotherapy, hormonal and psychopharmacological treatment. The standard operation procedure for HSDD in women must be based on a biopsychosocial, multidimensional, and integrative perspective. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Public Education in Neoliberal Times: Memory and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on the desire to defend and claim public education amidst the educational policy effects of contemporary neoliberal politics. The defence of public education, from schools to higher education, undoubtedly provides a powerful counter-veiling weight to the neoliberal policy logic of education-as-individual-value-accrual. At a…

  17. 50 CFR 80.9 - Notice of desire to participate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.9 Notice of desire to... Federal Assistance which contains plans for the use of Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program funds...

  18. Assessing the effect of social desirability on nativism attitude responses.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Benjamin R

    2013-11-01

    Attempts to measure and analyze public opinion attitudes toward racial/ethnic minorities often confront the "social desirability" problem: those who have prejudiced attitudes are rarely willing to admit them to surveyors. Instead, they may be more likely to give a socially acceptable answer rather an accurate reflection of their views. Previous research has clearly established that this effect presents a challenge for accurately measuring self-reported racial and policy attitudes that primarily affect African-Americans. It is less clear, however, how it might affect self-reported responses to attitudes dealing with Latinos and immigration. This study thus seeks to analyze the extent to which social desirability may affect survey measures of perceived levels of cultural threat (nativism). Results from two separate analyses using the Crowne-Marlowe "social desirability scale" and a survey "list experiment" demonstrate that social desirability is indeed a concern for accurately measuring nativism in the American public, but that it exerts an opposite effect from what has previously been observed: nativist attitudes tend to be over-reported in opinion surveys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Conning the conmen: Intelligence and female desire in Dedh Ishqiya.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra Kumar

    2017-04-11

    This article investigates the ostensibly paradoxical relationship that exists between the theme of excessive love, as suggested by the title of Abhishek Chaubey's film Dedh Ishqiya (2014), and the actual representation of it in the movie, which is not only restrained and disproportionate, but is also looked at with suspicion and contempt. It examines the logic of this seeming contradiction through the other two related themes that Chaubey's chef-d'œuvre foregrounds, namely that of intelligence and female desire. The quest for financial autonomy that the female protagonists of the movie are involved in-a necessary pre-condition for leading independent lives-is so inextricably intertwined with manipulation, dexterity, and subterfuge, that any overt expression of homoerotic female desire can only jeopardize their existing possibilities of self-aggrandizement. The heteronormative arrangements of Begum Para's palace thus constitute the elaborate mise en scène, behind which female desire is enacted through a politics of intelligence, resourcefulness, discretion, and anonymity. Through this strategic negotiation, which is also a tactical necessity, the female protagonists are not only able to con the con men in the movie, but also imagine alternative subject positions that recognize the need for both pragmatism and expediency as well as deconstructing heteropatriarchal economies of desire.

  20. Drawing Desire: Male Youth and Homoerotic Fan Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Although Western mass media aimed at juvenile audiences aggressively eliminates any references to same-sex desire and behavior, it inspires a tremendous amount of homoerotic fan art. To determine how same-sex potential is portrayed in juvenile fan art, a content analysis was conducted of 872 male homoerotic images by 442 juvenile male and female…

  1. Eliciting Change in Maltreating Fathers: Goals, Processes, and Desired Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena L.; Francis, Karen J.; Kelly, Tim; Reid, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    There has been a growing recognition of the need to provide appropriate intervention services to fathers who have been abusive in their families. This paper highlights four specific treatment goals for fathers who maltreat their children, along with therapeutic strategies necessary to accomplish desired outcomes. These goals were developed as part…

  2. Young children's attribution of action to beliefs and desires.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, K; Wellman, H

    1989-08-01

    When and how children understand beliefs and desires is central to whether they are ever childhood realists and when they evidence a theory of mind. Adults typically construe human action as resulting from an actor's beliefs and desires, a mentalistic interpretation that represents a common and fundamental form of psychological explanation. We investigated children's ability to do likewise. In Experiment 1, 60 subjects were asked to explain why story characters performed simple actions, such as looking under a piano for a kitten. Both preschoolers and adults gave predominantly psychological explanations, attributing the actions to the actor's beliefs and desires. Even 3-year-olds attributed actions to beliefs and false beliefs, demonstrating an understanding of belief not evident in previous research. In Experiment 2, 24 3-year-olds were tested further on their understanding of false belief. They were given both false belief prediction and explanation tasks. Children performed well on explanation taks, attributing an anomalous action to the actor's false belief, even when they failed to predict correctly what action would follow from a false belief. We concluded that 3-year-olds and adults share a fundamentally similar construal of human action in terms of beliefs and desires, even false beliefs.

  3. Perspectives on using prescribed fire to achieve desired ecosystem conditions

    Treesearch

    James M. Vose

    2000-01-01

    Fire is a potentially powerful tool for achieving desired conditions of forest ecosystems. From an ecological perspective, the use of fire requires affirmative answers to either of the following questions: (1) does it increase ecosystem health and sustainability? and (2) does it preserve or restore unique species or habitats? Health and sustainability can be measured...

  4. Desired Change in Couples: Gender Differences and Effects on Communication

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Richard E.; Hunt, Ashley N.; Malik, Jill; Smith Slep, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample (N = 453) drawn from a representative sampling frame of couples who are married or living together and have a 3–7 year old child, this study investigates (a) the amount and specific areas of change desired by men and women, (b) the relation between relationship adjustment and desired change; and (c) the ways in which partners negotiate change. On the Areas of Change Questionnaire, women, compared with men, wanted greater increases in their partners’ emotional and companionate behaviors, instrumental support, and parenting involvement; men wanted greater increases in sex. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (Kenny, 1996, both men’s and women’s relationship adjustment predicted desired change (i.e., actor effects), over and above the effects of their partners’ adjustment (i.e., partner effects); partner effects were not significant. Each couple was also observed discussing the man’s and the woman’s top desired change area. Both men and women behaved more positively during the partner-initiated conversations than during their own-initiated conversations. Women, compared with men, were more negative in their own and in their partners’ conversations. PMID:19685983

  5. Deaf children's use of beliefs and desires in negotiation.

    PubMed

    Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Rieffe, Carolien

    2004-01-01

    Although several studies have shown that deaf children demonstrated impaired performances on false-belief tasks, the children's belief understanding appeared intact when asked to explain emotions or behavior. However, this finding does not necessarily indicate a full-fledged theory of mind. This study aimed to investigate deaf children's negotiation strategies in false-belief situations, because situations that require negotiation provide a natural context with a clear motivational aspect, which might appeal more strongly to deaf children's false-belief reasoning capacities. The purpose of this study was to compare the reactions of 11- to 12-year-old deaf and hearing children to scenarios in which a mother, who is unaware of a change in the situation, threatens to block the fulfillment of the child's desire. The results showed that deaf children more often failed to correct the mother's false beliefs. In contrast with hearing children, who frequently left their own desires implicit, deaf children kept stressing their desires as a primary argument, even though the mother could be expected to be fully aware of these desires. Moral claims were used to the same extent by both groups. In general, deaf children more often used arguments that did not provide new information for their conversation partners, including repetitions of the same argument. The results were interpreted in terms of the special needs that are required by the hampered communication between deaf and hearing people as well as in terms of the ongoing discussion regarding theory-of-mind development in deaf children.

  6. Desirable Attributes and Practices for Mentees: Mentor Teachers' Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates attributes and practices for mentor teachers that can be used for effective mentoring. Universities provide guidelines for preservice teacher (mentee) engagement in schools generally from anecdotal evidence, however, what are desirable attributes and practices for mentees? This qualitative study gathers data from 25 mentor…

  7. Sensitive Data and Students' Tendencies to Give Socially Desirable Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James

    1994-01-01

    Developed two parallel short forms of Crandall Social Desirability Test for Children (CSDTC) and validated forms using factor analytical instrument reduction techniques on data from two samples of sixth and eighth graders (N1=356; N2=181). Concluded that short forms should be of use to those researching sensitive and/or controversial topics such…

  8. Desiring Diversity and Backlash: White Property Rights in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    In this theoretical essay, I argue that the current incidences of backlash to diversity are best understood as a dynamic of complicated, historic and intertwined desires for racial diversity and white entitlement to property. I frame this argument in the theories of critical race theory and settler colonialism, each of which provide necessary but…

  9. Consensus on Desirable Characteristics of Mail Questionnaires: Illusion or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    This study of survey research experts was conducted to determine desirable characteristics of mail questionnaires. The 82-item Likert-scale instrument used in the study covered general appearance, instructions, choice of items, choice of response options, wording, order of items, and item format. The instrument was administered to: 8 subjects who…

  10. Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. P.

    1967-01-01

    Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

  11. Desired Outcomes for Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beresford, Bryony; Tozer, Rosemary; Rabiee, Parvaneh; Sloper, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Within children's services, frameworks for assessing outcomes have been developed in the absence of consultation with children with autistic spectrum disorders and their parents. The research reported here worked with parents, other key adults and children with autistic spectrum disorders to identify desired outcomes. It found similarities with…

  12. Characteristics of Athletic Training Students That Preceptors Find Desirable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Thomas, Spencer; Paulsen, Jenica; Chiu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students acquire clinical hours under the direct supervision of athletic training preceptors. Objective: The purpose of this project was to explore what characteristics preceptors desire in their athletic training students. Design and Setting: Online survey instrument. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 286…

  13. Desirable Leadership Behaviours of Multi-Cultural Managers in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littrell, Romie F.

    2002-01-01

    Hotel managers (both expatriate and indigenous) and supervisors (n=122) in China identified desirable and actual leadership traits in English and Chinese versions of the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire. Indigenous managers had more tolerance of freedom than expatriate managers. Supervisors were more tolerant than managers.…

  14. Sexuality Education and Desire: Still Missing after All These Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle; McClelland, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Nearly twenty years after the publication of Michelle Fine's essay "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire," the question of how sexuality education influences the development and health of adolescents remains just as relevant as it was in 1988. In this article, Michelle Fine and Sara McClelland examine the…

  15. Writing Queer across the Borders of Geography and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malagreca, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author merges biographical notes, autoethnography and experimental writing to situate his migrant self as a self that "performs through writing," i.e. planned, experimental writing that subverts the centrality of the monolingual heterosexual identity. He explores the intersections of time, desire, and power across…

  16. Desirable Leadership Behaviours of Multi-Cultural Managers in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littrell, Romie F.

    2002-01-01

    Hotel managers (both expatriate and indigenous) and supervisors (n=122) in China identified desirable and actual leadership traits in English and Chinese versions of the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire. Indigenous managers had more tolerance of freedom than expatriate managers. Supervisors were more tolerant than managers.…

  17. Factors Influencing the Desire To Take Environmental Action in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire

    In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…

  18. Characteristics of Athletic Training Students That Preceptors Find Desirable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Thomas, Spencer; Paulsen, Jenica; Chiu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students acquire clinical hours under the direct supervision of athletic training preceptors. Objective: The purpose of this project was to explore what characteristics preceptors desire in their athletic training students. Design and Setting: Online survey instrument. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 286…

  19. Sexuality Education and Desire: Still Missing after All These Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle; McClelland, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Nearly twenty years after the publication of Michelle Fine's essay "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire," the question of how sexuality education influences the development and health of adolescents remains just as relevant as it was in 1988. In this article, Michelle Fine and Sara McClelland examine the…

  20. Helping Families Attain a Desirable Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Karen E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses important aspects of desirable quality of life or well-being of families: household maintenance and work activities (care of house, family, clothing, food preparation, health maintenance, and home management); consumer goods satisfaction; and interaction of household members. Home economics can help families to maintain these critical…

  1. Desirable forest structures for a restored Front Range

    Treesearch

    Yvette L. Dickinson; Rob Addington; Greg Aplet; Mike Babler; Mike Battaglia; Peter Brown; Tony Cheng; Casey Cooley; Dick Edwards; Jonas Feinstein; Paula Fornwalt; Hal Gibbs; Megan Matonis; Kristen Pelz; Claudia Regan

    2014-01-01

    As part of the federal Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program administered by the US Forest Service, the Colorado Front Range Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Project (FR-CFLRP, a collaborative effort of the Front Range Roundtable1 and the US Forest Service) is required to define desired conditions for lower montane ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa...

  2. Gender Typing and Social Desirability of Personality in Person Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoppard, Janet M.; Kalin, Rudolph

    1983-01-01

    Assessed whether evaluations of men and women are influenced by the gender appropriateness of personality characteristics. Students (N=211) rated written descriptions of masculine or feminine individuals with socially desirable or undesirable personality traits. Results showed gender appropriateness had no significant effect on evaluation. Ratings…

  3. Factor Analytic Procedures for Assessing Social Desirability in Binary Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes and describes factor-analytic procedures for assessing and controlling socially desirable responding in binary personality items. The basic procedures are applications of the restricted (confirmatory) item factor analysis model for ordered-categorical variables. Orthogonal and oblique solutions based on marker variables are…

  4. Social Desirability Responding in the Measurement of Assertive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiecolt, Janice; McGrath, Ellen

    1979-01-01

    Women completed behavioral measures of assertion and anxiety before and after assertiveness training. High social desirability scorers described themselves as more assertive and less anxious, but were behaviorally less assertive than low scorers. Although all scorers improved their assertion skills, high scorers did not appear less anxious after…

  5. Desire: A Key Factor for Successful Online GED Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita; Tham, Yuen San Sarah; Hogle, Julie; Koch, Jody

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences of 12 adult online General Educational Development (GED) students to determine the role of program and personal factors that influenced their successful passing of the GED or their dropping-out of the program. Through surveys and interviews, we discovered that desire was the key factor for…

  6. Desiring Diversity and Backlash: White Property Rights in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    In this theoretical essay, I argue that the current incidences of backlash to diversity are best understood as a dynamic of complicated, historic and intertwined desires for racial diversity and white entitlement to property. I frame this argument in the theories of critical race theory and settler colonialism, each of which provide necessary but…

  7. Chapter 15: A desired future condition for Sierra Nevada Forests

    Treesearch

    M. North

    2012-01-01

    An unexpected outcome of U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR 220, "An Ecosystem Management Strategy for Sierran Mixed-Conifer Forests" (North et al. 2009), was how it generated discussion about a desired future condition for Sierra Nevada forests. The paper did not convey leading-edge research results or provide an exhaustive literature...

  8. Desire: A Key Factor for Successful Online GED Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita; Tham, Yuen San Sarah; Hogle, Julie; Koch, Jody

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences of 12 adult online General Educational Development (GED) students to determine the role of program and personal factors that influenced their successful passing of the GED or their dropping-out of the program. Through surveys and interviews, we discovered that desire was the key factor for…

  9. Drawing Desire: Male Youth and Homoerotic Fan Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Although Western mass media aimed at juvenile audiences aggressively eliminates any references to same-sex desire and behavior, it inspires a tremendous amount of homoerotic fan art. To determine how same-sex potential is portrayed in juvenile fan art, a content analysis was conducted of 872 male homoerotic images by 442 juvenile male and female…

  10. Desired change in couples: gender differences and effects on communication.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Richard E; Hunt-Martorano, Ashley N; Malik, Jill; Slep, Amy M Smith

    2009-08-01

    Using a sample (N = 453) drawn from a representative sampling frame of couples who are married or living together and have a 3 to 7 year-old child, this study investigates (a) the amount and specific areas of change desired by men and women, (b) the relation between relationship adjustment and desired change; and (c) the ways in which partners negotiate change. On the Areas of Change Questionnaire, women compared with men, wanted greater increases in their partners' emotional and companionate behaviors, instrumental support, and parenting involvement; men wanted greater increases in sex. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (Kenny, 1996), both men's and women's relationship adjustment predicted desired change (i.e., actor effects), over and above the effects of their partners' adjustment (i.e., partner effects); partner effects were not significant. Each couple was also observed discussing the man's and the woman's top desired change area. Both men and women behaved more positively during the partner-initiated conversations than during their own-initiated conversations. Women, compared with men, were more negative in their own and in their partners' conversations.

  11. Public Education in Neoliberal Times: Memory and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on the desire to defend and claim public education amidst the educational policy effects of contemporary neoliberal politics. The defence of public education, from schools to higher education, undoubtedly provides a powerful counter-veiling weight to the neoliberal policy logic of education-as-individual-value-accrual. At a…

  12. Topology of Sustainable Management of Dynamical Systems with Desirable States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim

    2015-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as the recently suggested 'tolerable environment and development window', 'planetary boundaries', or 'safe (and just) operating space', in addition to the identification of the quantitative internal dynamics and the available options for influencing it (management), there is an urgent need to understand the systems' state space structure with regard to questions such as (i) which of its parts can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region, (ii) which parts are in a variety of senses 'safe' to stay in when management options break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this structure. To complement existing approaches from optimal control focusing on quantitative optimization and being much applied in both engineering and integrated assessment, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology that partitions the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states including terminology suggestions for the various resulting parts. Our detailed formal classification of the possible states and management options with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region indicates that before performing some form of quantitative optimization, the sustainable management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type, e.g. choosing between ultimate safety and permanent desirability, or between permanent safety and increasing future options.

  13. Belief-desire reasoning as a process of selection.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Alan M; German, Tim P; Polizzi, Pamela

    2005-02-01

    Human learning may depend upon domain specialized mechanisms. A plausible example is rapid, early learning about the thoughts and feelings of other people. A major achievement in this domain, at about age four in the typically developing child, is the ability to solve problems in which the child attributes false beliefs to other people and predicts their actions. The main focus of theorizing has been why 3-year-olds fail, and only recently have there been any models of how success is achieved in false-belief tasks. Leslie and Polizzi (Inhibitory processing in the false-belief task: Two conjectures. Developmental Science, 1, 247-254, 1998) proposed two competing models of success, which are the focus of the current paper. The models assume that belief-desire reasoning is a process which selects a content for an agent's belief and an action for the agent's desire. In false belief tasks, the theory of mind mechanism (ToMM) provides plausible candidate belief contents, among which will be a 'true-belief.' A second process reviews these candidates and by default will select the true-belief content for attribution. To succeed in a false-belief task, the default content must be inhibited so that attention shifts to another candidate belief. In traditional false-belief tasks, the protagonist's desire is to approach an object. Here we make use of tasks in which the protagonist has a desire to avoid an object, about which she has a false-belief. Children find such tasks much more difficult than traditional tasks. Our models explain the additional difficulty by assuming that predicting action from an avoidance desire also requires an inhibition. The two processing models differ in the way that belief and desire inhibitory processes combine to achieve successful action prediction. In six experiments we obtain evidence favoring one model, in which parallel inhibitory processes cancel out, over the other model, in which serial inhibitions force attention to a previously

  14. Perceptual blurring and recognition memory: A desirable difficulty effect revealed.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Tamara M; Davis, Hanae; Milliken, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Recent research in the area of desirable difficulty--defined as processing difficulty at either encoding or retrieval that improves long-term retention--has demonstrated that perceptually blurring an item makes processing less fluent, but does not improve remembering (Yue et al., 2013). This result led us to examine more closely perceptual blurring as a potential desirable difficulty. In Experiment 1, better recognition of blurry than clear words was observed, a result that contrasts with those reported by Yue et al. This result was replicated in Experiment 2, in which both mixed-list and pure-list designs were used. The following experiments were conducted to determine when blurring does and does not result in enhanced remembering. The desirable difficulty effect observed in Experiments 1 and 2 was replicated in Experiments 3A, 3B, and 3C, despite varying encoding intent during study, context reinstatement at the time of test, study list length, and the nature of the distractor task between study and test phases. It was only in Experiments 4A and 4B that a null effect of perceptual blurring on remembering was found. These experiments demonstrated that (1) the level of blurring used is critical, with a lower blurring level producing results similar to Yue et al. (2013), and (2) the introduction of judgments of learning at the time of study eliminated the benefit of blurring on remembering. These results extend the desirable difficulty principle to encoding manipulations involving perceptual blurring, and identify judgments of learning at encoding as a powerful moderator of this particular desirable difficulty effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Jan Potocki et le "Gothic Novel"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finne, Jacques

    1970-01-01

    Establishes a parallel between the supernatural and fantastic qualities of Le Comte Jan Potocki's literary works, and the English gothic novels by comparing the elements of terror, mysterious atmosphere, and the supernatural beings involved. (DS)

  16. Jan Potocki et le "Gothic Novel"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finne, Jacques

    1970-01-01

    Establishes a parallel between the supernatural and fantastic qualities of Le Comte Jan Potocki's literary works, and the English gothic novels by comparing the elements of terror, mysterious atmosphere, and the supernatural beings involved. (DS)

  17. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2006-06-01

    Deep Impact; Comète 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3; L'anneau bleu d'Uranus; Triplet de neptunes; Triton; Dunes de Titan; Aréologie; Tache Rouge Junior; Obliquité des grosses planètes; Le jour de Saturne; Xéna; Un compagnon pour le Soleil; Galaxies satellites; Séisme sur une étoile à neutrons; Trou noir double; Hydrogène lointain

  18. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2006-02-01

    le errant; Pluton et Charon; Du côté d'Uranus !; Stardust; G29-38; La chasse aux planètes; Étoile polaire; Véga; Vers un interféromètre infrarouge à base kilométrique; Des pulsars extraordinaires; Trous noirs intermédiaires; Le trou noir central de la Galaxie; N44; Tornade spatiale

  19. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2005-03-01

    Trou noir glouton, Matière noire, Integral et le centre de notre Galaxie, Essaim de trous noirs, Carrousel autour de trous noirs, Érosion de trous noirs, Un quasar dans NGC 7319?, Distance de T Tauri, Chai non manquant, Des planètes autour d'une naine brune?, Titan, Une quatrième planète pour le pulsar PSR B1257+12, Smart 1, Aurores de Saturne

  20. La Vie Politique sous la Restauration a Travers ’Le Rouge et le Noir’ de Stendahl (The Political Life during the Restauration as Depicted in Le Rouge et le Noir by Stendahl)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Valenod et Moirod, qul hissent le drapeau lib6ral uniquenient pour aznoIiorer leurs propres 20 conditions. Ils n’ont ni souci pour les paysans ni... propre benefice. Le lecteur est introduit a M. Valenod tres t~t dans le livre. 11 est le directeur du depot de mendicit6 A Verrlieres qui craint la visite... propres desse ins. Le groupe de vrais lib~t-aux stendhal lens comprend Fouqu6 qui est le bon ami de Julilen Sorel , le phi losophe Saint- Giraud. et

  1. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KarLE): In Situ Geochronology for Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    The search for life in the solar system depends upon discovering the right moments in planetary evolution: when habitable environments existed, when they declined, and when geologic processes operated to preserve traces of life after death. However, an incomplete knowledge of absolute Martian geochronology limits our ability to understand the timing of Martian evolutionary milestones, major climate changes, and stratigraphic epochs [1, 2]. Absolute dating relates these habitability markers to planetarywide geologic, atmospheric, and climate history places, and ties their occurrence to the history of the solar system, especially the Earth-Moon system and the timescale of evolution of life on Earth. KArLE is being developed to anchor the relative timeline of geological events to an absolute chronology that puts Mars into a wider solar system context. KArLE makes its measurements on rock samples that can be obtained by landers or rovers and inserted into a small, mechanically simple chamber. KArLE interrogates the samples using laser-induced breakdown spectrocopy (LIBS), mass spectrometry, and optical imaging. The KArLE experiment is flexible enough to accommodate any partner providing these instrument components, a creative approach that extends the ability of mission payloads to accomplish an additional highly-desirable science measurement for low cost and risk and minimal extra hardware.

  2. Social desirability, defense styles, and the Children's Role Inventory scale.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Daniel Lee; Anderson, Christopher E; Smith, Penni L; Shipley-Clark, Molly A

    2003-06-01

    This investigation was designed to answer several research questions. First, using each participant's dominant score to place that individual into one of the four Children's Role Inventory categories, what would be the distribution of college students across the categories? Second, is there a relationship between scores on scales of the Children's Role Inventory and (a) on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and (b) on scales of the Defense Style Questionnaire? 236 undergraduate students at a southern university completed the above questionnaires. The distribution of participants over Children's Role Inventory categories was Hero 179, Mascot 41, Scapegoat 1, Lost Child 9, and Not Classified 6. After Bonferroni correction, significant positive but small correlations were reported between the Hero Scale of the Children's Role Inventory and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, as well as between the Hero Scale of the Children's Role Inventory and the Adaptive Scale of the Defense Style Questionnaire.

  3. Hope over experience: desirability and the persistence of optimism.

    PubMed

    Massey, Cade; Simmons, Joseph P; Armor, David A

    2011-02-01

    Many important decisions hinge on expectations of future outcomes. Decisions about health, investments, and relationships all depend on predictions of the future. These expectations are often optimistic: People frequently believe that their preferred outcomes are more likely than is merited. Yet it is unclear whether optimism persists with experience and, surprisingly, whether optimism is truly caused by desire. These are important questions because life's most consequential decisions often feature both strong preferences and the opportunity to learn. We investigated these questions by collecting football predictions from National Football League fans during each week of the 2008 season. Despite accuracy incentives and extensive feedback, predictions about preferred teams remained optimistically biased through the entire season. Optimism was as strong after 4 months as it was after 4 weeks. We exploited variation in preferences and matchups to show that desirability fueled this optimistic bias.

  4. The conceptual link between social desirability and cultural normativity.

    PubMed

    Bou Malham, Philippe; Saucier, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    Psychologists have a recurrent concern that socially desirable responding (SDR) is a form of response distortion that compromises the validity of self-report measures, especially in high-stakes situations where participants are motivated to make a good impression. Psychologists have used various strategies to minimise SDR or its impact, for example, forced choice responding, ipsatization, and direct measures of social desirability. However, empirical evidence suggests that SDR is a robust phenomenon existing in many cultures and a substantive variable with meaningful associations with other psychological variables and outcomes. Here, we review evidence of the occurrence of SDR across cultures and tie SDR to the study of cultural normativity and cultural consonance in anthropology. We suggest that cultural normativity is an important component of SDR, which may partly explain the adaptiveness of SDR and its association with positive outcomes.

  5. Effect of desired speed variability on highway traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipshtat, Azi

    2009-06-01

    Traffic flow is a function of many natural, environmental, and human factors. Not only that weather and road condition can vary, but drivers’ decisions and policies also can affect the flow. Here we analyze the effect of distribution of desired speeds. We show that a broader distribution can reduce the flow efficiency and increase congestions. Since different drivers react differently to changes in weather or road conditions, such a change leads to a change in desired speed distribution as well. As a result, nonintuitive changes in traffic flow may occur. Besides providing insight and analyzing the underlying mechanism of a collective phenomenon, this example sheds light on a fundamental aspect of computational modeling. Although “mean-field” models that deal with average values only and ignore variability are simpler and easier to analyze, they can very easily turn into oversimplifications and miss relevant qualitative phenomena.

  6. Closing the loop In Practice to Assure the Desired Performance

    PubMed Central

    Stead, William W.; Patel, Neal R.; Starmer, John M.

    2008-01-01

    A closed loop control process assures that a system performs within control limits. In closed loop control, the system's output feeds back directly to change the system's inputs. We describe an approach to planning and monitoring care that uses closed loop control to assure the desired performance using examples from Vanderbilt University Medical Center's ventilator management initiative. The approach has three components: an explicit end-to-end plan; a record of what is done as it is done; and an instant display of the status of each patient against their plan. The status display provides process control by showing the clinical team where correction is needed while they have time to act prospectively. Plans, displays and performance evolve together iteratively until the desired performance is achieved. PMID:18596845

  7. Effect of desired speed variability on highway traffic flow.

    PubMed

    Lipshtat, Azi

    2009-06-01

    Traffic flow is a function of many natural, environmental, and human factors. Not only that weather and road condition can vary, but drivers' decisions and policies also can affect the flow. Here we analyze the effect of distribution of desired speeds. We show that a broader distribution can reduce the flow efficiency and increase congestions. Since different drivers react differently to changes in weather or road conditions, such a change leads to a change in desired speed distribution as well. As a result, nonintuitive changes in traffic flow may occur. Besides providing insight and analyzing the underlying mechanism of a collective phenomenon, this example sheds light on a fundamental aspect of computational modeling. Although "mean-field" models that deal with average values only and ignore variability are simpler and easier to analyze, they can very easily turn into oversimplifications and miss relevant qualitative phenomena.

  8. Desirable role in a price-setting international mixed duopoly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we study the order of moves in a mixed international duopoly for differentiated goods, where firms choose whether to set prices sequentially or simultaneously. We discuss the desirable role of the public firm by comparing welfare among three games. We find that, in the three possible roles, the domestic public firm put a lower price, and then produces more than the foreign private firm.

  9. A technique to determine a desired preparation axial inclination.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Harry; Ivanhoe, John R; Blalock, John S; Frazier, Kevin B; Plummer, Kevin D

    2003-10-01

    The guidelines recommended in the literature for the convergence angle of a crown preparation vary from 3 to 24 degrees. There is a lack of guidelines on techniques to achieve a specific axial inclination. The purpose of this article was to present a practical technique, with a diamond rotary cutting instrument of known axial inclination, to determine the diamond rotary cutting instrument angulations required to achieve the desired axial inclination of a preparation.

  10. Depression, hopelessness, and sleep in cancer patients' desire for death.

    PubMed

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Pathiaki, Maria; Galanos, Antonis; Vlahos, Lambros

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of clinical characteristics and risk factors for hastened death in advanced cancer patients. Patients completed the Greek version of Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death (G-SAHD), a sleep quality measure, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a Greek version of a depression inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), a hopelessness scale, the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for the assessment of pain. The final sample consisted of 102 terminally ill cancer patients attending a Palliative Care Unit. Statistically significant associations were found between G-SAHD and patients performance status (ECOG) (chi2 = 8.62, p = 0.003). Strongest associations were observed between desire for death, depression, and hopelessness (r = 0.468, p < 0.0005, r = 0.678, p < 0.0005, respectively). In the prediction of G-SHAD the contribution of "hopelessness" (p < 0.0005), "depression" (p < 0.0005), "use of sleeping medication" (p < 0.0005), and "sleep quality" (p = 0.001) was high (59% of variance). Depression, hopelessness, and sleep quality appeared to have a statistically significant relationship with desire for hastened death. Health care professionals finding desire for death in advanced cancer patients should not only consider depression and hopelessness, but also other factors such as poor sleep quality in their diagnostic formulations in order to provide the appropriate treatment.

  11. Desire thinking: A risk factor for binge eating?

    PubMed

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Fernie, Bruce A; Manfredi, Chiara; Boccaletti, Fabio; Dallari, Giulia; Gandini, Federica; Pinna, Eleonora; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Sassaroli, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    In the current study we explored the role of desire thinking in predicting binge eating independently of Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. A sample of binge eaters (n=77) and a sample of non-binge eaters (n=185) completed the following self-report instruments: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, Desire Thinking Questionnaire, and Binge Eating Scale. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that all variable scores were significantly higher for binge eaters than non-binge eaters. A logistic regression analysis indicated that verbal perseveration was a predictor of classification as a binge eater over and above Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. A hierarchical regression analysis, on the combined sample, indicated that verbal perseveration predicted levels of binge eating independently of Body Mass Index, negative affect and irrational food beliefs. These results highlight the possible role of desire thinking as a risk factor for binge eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Desired machines: cinema and the world in its own image.

    PubMed

    Canales, Jimena

    2011-09-01

    In 1895 when the Lumière brothers unveiled their cinematographic camera, many scientists were elated. Scientists hoped that the machine would fulfill a desire that had driven research for nearly half a century: that of capturing the world in its own image. But their elation was surprisingly short-lived, and many researchers quickly distanced themselves from the new medium. The cinematographic camera was soon split into two machines, one for recording and one for projecting, enabling it to further escape from the laboratory. The philosopher Henri Bergson joined scientists, such as Etienne-Jules Marey, who found problems with the new cinematographic order. Those who had worked to make the dream come true found that their efforts had been subverted. This essay focuses on the desire to build a cinematographic camera, with the purpose of elucidating how dreams and reality mix in the development of science and technology. It is about desired machines and their often unexpected results. The interplay between what "is" (the technical), what "ought" (the ethical), and what "could" be (the fantastical) drives scientific research.

  13. Sexual desire disorder in female healthcare personnel in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Gurdeep Singh; Gill, Jesjeet Singh; Sidi, Hatta; Gurpreet, Kaur; Jambunathan, Stephen Thevanathan; Suffee, Nusrat J

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for female sexual desire disorder (FSDD) among healthcare personnel at selected healthcare facilities in Malaysia. Two hundred and one female healthcare workers from three large tertiary hospitals were selected by stratified random sampling to participate in this cross-sectional study. Validated questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, and sexual function in women and erectile dysfunction (ED) in their partners. The prevalence of FSDD was 18.9%. Women with low sexual desire were more likely to have higher educational attainment (OR = 3.06; 95% CI; 1.22-7.66), lower frequency of sexual intercourse (OR = 12.81; 95% CI; 4.43-37.83), two or more children (OR = 3.05; 95% CI; 1.02-9.09), duration of marriage of 20 years or more (OR = 2.62; 95% CI; 1.27-5.40), and a spouse with ED (OR = 2.86; 95% CI; 1.08-7.56). FSDD is common among female healthcare personnel in Malaysia, affecting nearly one in five women. The implication of low sexual desire is important in terms of contributing to a meaningful sexual relationship, and indirectly affects the quality of life of the healthcare personnel. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Entrevue avec le Dr Charley Zeanah

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Le Dr Charles Zeanah est titulaire de la chaire de psychiatrie Mary K. Sellars-Polchow, professeur de pédiatrie clinique et vice-président de la pédopsychiatrie au département de psychiatrie et des sciences du comportement de la faculté de médecine de l’Université Tulane, à la Nouvelle-Orléans. Il est également directeur général de l’institut de la santé mentale des nourrissons et des jeunes enfants de Tulane. Il est récipiendaire de nombreux prix, notamment le prix de prévention Irving Phillips (AACAP), la mention élogieuse présidentielle pour sa recherche et son leadership exceptionnels en santé mentale des nourrissons (American Orthopsychiatric Association), le prix d’excellence clinique Sarah Haley Memorial (International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies), le prix de recherche en pédopsychiatrie Blanche F. Ittelson (APA), et le prix Serge Lebovici Award soulignant les contributions internationales à la santé mentale des nourrissons (World Association for Infant Mental Health). Le Dr Zeanah est fellow distingué de l’AACAP, fellow distingué de l’APA et membre du conseil d’administration de Zero to Three. Il est l’éditeur scientifique de Handbook of Infant Mental Health (3e édition) qui est considéré comme étant le manuel de pointe et la référence de base du domaine de la santé mentale des nourrissons.

  15. Brain activity and desire for Internet video game play.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue-induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for Internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those that have been linked with craving for drugs or pathologic gambling. This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 19 healthy male adults (age, 18-23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel Internet video game, "War Rock" (K2 Network, Irvine, CA). Using segments of videotape consisting of 5 contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control, and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a 7-point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. In responding to Internet video game stimuli, compared with neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (false discovery rate <0.05, P < .009243). Self-reported desire was positively correlated with the β values of left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right and left thalamus. Compared with the general players, subjects who played more Internet video game showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal precentral gyrus, right parietal postcentral gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the Internet video game in the subjects who played more Internet video game was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to Internet

  16. Brain activity and desire for internet video game play

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A.; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those which have been linked with craving for drugs or pathological gambling. Methods This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic MRI and fMRI data from 19 healthy male adults (ages 18–23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel internet video game, “War Rock” (K-network®). Using segments of videotape consisting of five contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a seven point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. Results In responding to internet video game stimuli, compared to neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (FDR <0.05, p<0.009243). Self-reported desire was positively correlated with the beta values of left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right and left thalamus. Compared to the general players, members who played more internet video game (MIGP) cohort showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal pre-central gyrus, right parietal post-central gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the internet video game in the MIGP cohort was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. Discussion The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed

  17. Sex in long-term relationships: a systemic approach to sexual desire problems.

    PubMed

    Clement, Ulrich

    2002-06-01

    Most concepts of sexual desire implicitly refer to early phases of attraction and youthful living systems. For an alternative conceptual approach of decreasing sexual desire in long-term relationships, three points are addressed which influence the definition and theorizing on decreasing sexual interest: (1) passive vs. active negation of desire; (2) desire as part of sexual function vs. desire as passion in its own right; and (3) desire as individual trait vs. emergent function of structural coupling of the partners.

  18. Processes of care desired by elderly patients with multimorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Allison E; Steiner, John F; Main, Deborah S

    2008-01-01

    Background. Most recommended care for chronic diseases is based on the research of single conditions. There is limited information on ‘best’ processes of care for persons with multiple morbidities. Our objective was to explore processes of care desired by elderly patients who have multimorbidities that may present competing demands for patients and providers. Methods. Qualitative investigation using one-on-one interviews of 26 community-dwelling HMO members aged 65–84 (50% male) who had, at a minimum, the combined conditions of diabetes, depression and osteoarthritis. Participants were chosen from a stratified random sample to have a range of 4–16 chronic medical conditions. Results. Participants’ desired processes of care included: the need for convenient access to providers (telephone, internet or in person), clear communication of individualized care plans, support from a single coordinator of care who could help prioritize their competing demands and continuity of relationships. They also desired providers who would listen to and acknowledge their needs, appreciate that these’ needs were unique and fluctuating and have a caring attitude. Conclusions. These respondents describe an ideal process of care that is patient centered and individualized and that supports their unique constellations of problems, shifting priorities and multidimensional decision making. Individual and ongoing care coordination managed by a primary contact person may meet some of these needs. Achieving these goals will require developing efficient methods of assessing patient care needs and flexible care management support systems that can respond to patients’ needs for different levels of support at different times. PMID:18628243

  19. Escalating health care spending: is it desirable or inevitable?

    PubMed

    Altman, Stuart H; Tompkins, Christopher P; Eilat, Efrat; Glavin, Mitchell P V

    2003-01-01

    This study analyzes changing trends in U.S. health spending and concludes that although the long-term growth trend has been a good predictor of future spending, periodic differences in the growth trend are important. Of particular concern is the rapid acceleration in health spending beginning in 1998. If left unchecked, the current growth rate will result in almost 24 percent of GDP spent on health by 2011. The authors question whether such unconstrained spending levels are either desirable or inevitable, and they offer a guide to how the United States might develop a long-term cost-containment strategy that is both effective and sustainable.

  20. Shrinking an arbitrary object as one desires using metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun; Yang, Xin Mi; Ma, Hui Feng; Cheng, Qiang

    2011-05-01

    Based on transformation optics, we present a shrinking device, which can transform an arbitrary object virtually into a small-size object with different material parameters as one desires. Such an illusion device will confuse the detectors or the viewers, and hence the real size and material parameters of the enclosed object cannot be perceived. We fabricated and measured a shrinking device by using metamaterials, which works at the nonresonant frequency and has low loss. The device has been validated by both numerical simulations and experiments on circular and square objects. Good shrinking performance has been demonstrated.

  1. Hypoactive sexual desire dysfunction in community-dwelling older women.

    PubMed

    Zeleke, Berihun M; Bell, Robin J; Billah, Baki; Davis, Susan R

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypoactive sexual desire dysfunction (HSDD) and its associated factors in women aged 65 to 79 years. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was conducted amongst community-dwelling older women. Participants were recruited between April and August 2014 from a national database based on electoral rolls. Sexual function and sexual distress were assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised, respectively. HSDD was defined as the presence of both low sexual desire and sexually related personal distress. The mean ± SD age of the 1,548 women was 71 ± 3.4 years and 52.6% were partnered. Among the participants, 88.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.3%-89.6%) had low sexual desire, 15.5% (95% CI, 13.8%-17.4%) had sexually related personal distress, and 13.6% (95% CI, 11.9%-15.4%) had HSDD. The HSDD was more common among partnered than among unpartnered women (23.7% vs 5.9%; P < 0.001). Being partnered (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.21; 95% CI, 2.50-7.07), having vaginal dryness during intercourse (AOR = 2.37; 95% CI, 1.58-3.55), having symptomatic pelvic floor dysfunction (AOR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.29-2.92), and having moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (AOR = 4.15; 95% CI, 2.16-7.96) were independently associated with having HSDD. In a subanalysis, HSDD was more common among sexually active than sexually inactive women (31.5% vs 17.3%; P < 0.001). Furthermore, 32% (95% CI, 27.7%-38.3%) of partnered sexually active women had HSDD, as did 22% (95% CI, 11.5%-37.8%) of unpartnered sexually active women. HSDD is common and associated with potentially modifiable risk factors in older women. It should not be assumed that unpartnered older women are sexually inactive or are not distressed by low sexual desire.

  2. Birth desires and intentions of women diagnosed with a meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Michelle A.; Craig, Benjamin M.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Reed, Damon R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT To the authors’ knowledge, no previous study has examined the impact of meningioma diagnosis on women’s birth desires and intentions. In an exploratory study, the authors surveyed women affected by meningioma to determine their attitudes toward childbearing and the influences, including physician recommendations, on this major life decision and compared their responses to those of women in the general population. METHODS Meningioma survivors from the Meningioma Mommas online support group participated in an online survey that included questions on their birth desires and intentions, whether the risk of disease recurrence influenced their reproductive decisions, and risks communicated to them by their physicians. Using chi-square and rank-sum tests, the authors compared the survey participants’ responses with those of the general population as assessed by the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Logistic regression was used to adjust for differences in age, race, ethnicity, education, parity, pregnancy status, and infertility status in these populations. RESULTS Respondents with meningioma were more likely than those in the general population to report wanting a baby (70% vs 54%, respectively), intending to have a baby (27% vs 12%, respectively), and being very sure about this intention (10% vs 2%, respectively). More than half (32 of 61) of the women of childbearing age reported being advised by a physician about potential risk factors for recurrence of the meningioma, and pregnancy was the most commonly cited risk factor (26 of 61). The most common factor influencing birth desires and intentions was risk of the meningioma returning and requiring more treatment, which was reported by nearly two-thirds of the women in their childbearing years. CONCLUSIONS A majority of the meningioma survivors of childbearing age who completed the survey reported a desire for children, although concern about the risk of meningioma recurrence was an important

  3. Birth desires and intentions of women diagnosed with a meningioma.

    PubMed

    Owens, Michelle A; Craig, Benjamin M; Egan, Kathleen M; Reed, Damon R

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT To the authors' knowledge, no previous study has examined the impact of meningioma diagnosis on women's birth desires and intentions. In an exploratory study, the authors surveyed women affected by meningioma to determine their attitudes toward childbearing and the influences, including physician recommendations, on this major life decision and compared their responses to those of women in the general population. METHODS Meningioma survivors from the Meningioma Mommas online support group participated in an online survey that included questions on their birth desires and intentions, whether the risk of disease recurrence influenced their reproductive decisions, and risks communicated to them by their physicians. Using chi-square and rank-sum tests, the authors compared the survey participants' responses with those of the general population as assessed by the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Logistic regression was used to adjust for differences in age, race, ethnicity, education, parity, pregnancy status, and infertility status in these populations. RESULTS Respondents with meningioma were more likely than those in the general population to report wanting a baby (70% vs 54%, respectively), intending to have a baby (27% vs 12%, respectively), and being very sure about this intention (10% vs 2%, respectively). More than half (32 of 61) of the women of childbearing age reported being advised by a physician about potential risk factors for recurrence of the meningioma, and pregnancy was the most commonly cited risk factor (26 of 61). The most common factor influencing birth desires and intentions was risk of the meningioma returning and requiring more treatment, which was reported by nearly two-thirds of the women in their childbearing years. CONCLUSIONS A majority of the meningioma survivors of childbearing age who completed the survey reported a desire for children, although concern about the risk of meningioma recurrence was an important factor for

  4. Socially desirable responding in Chinese university students: denial and enhancement?

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Yong

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) with one-, two-, three-, and four-dimensional models and tested the BIDR's discriminant validity with personality variables. A confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of responses from 600 Chinese university students (314 men, 282 women, 4 missing; M age=20.0 yr.) provided results indicating that the four-factor model fit the data best; i.e., self-deception and impression management split into denial and enhancement. The Denial and Enhancement subscales with personality variables show significant differences, confirming the four-factor model. The cultural differences as a possible reason for the split were discussed.

  5. [Desire disorders in the couple: accident, dream, sexuality].

    PubMed

    Stauffacher, M; Godat, A

    2013-03-20

    Eros, as few only would doubt about it, takes part in the deepest and most intimate area of the human being. Our contemporaries attach great importance to sexuality, but feed the illusion that mastering it could lead to miracles in the couple. We suggest that giving up control and committing himself to fully listening to the patient, the physician will be able to orient him in the blind rules of desire and to accept fortuity. Unexpected (?) accident, dream, hypnosis, often powerfully catalyze changes. Some clinical situations are described in this article with their evolution as consultations develop, without foreseeing their interpretation.

  6. Strategies for siRNA navigation to desired cells.

    PubMed

    Sioud, Mouldy

    2015-01-01

    Whilst small interfering (si) RNAs have emerged as a promising therapeutic modality for treating a diversity of human diseases, delivery constitutes the most serious obstacle to siRNA drug development. As the most used delivery agents can enter all cell types, specificity must be built into the delivery agents or directly attached to the siRNA molecules. The use of antibodies, peptides, Peptide-Fc fusions, aptamers, and other targeting ligands has now enabled efficient gene silencing in the desired cell populations/tissues in vitro and in vivo. The present review summarizes these current innovations, which are important for the design of safe therapeutic siRNAs.

  7. The desired moral attitude of the physician: (II) compassion.

    PubMed

    Gelhaus, Petra

    2012-11-01

    Professional medical ethics demands of health care professionals in addition to specific duties and rules of conduct that they embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired implied attitude of physicians. In a sequel of three articles, a set of three of these concepts is presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: "empathy", "compassion" and "care". In the first article of the series, "empathy" has been developed as a mainly cognitive and morally neutral capacity of understanding. In this article, the emotional and virtuous core of the desired professional attitude-compassion-is elaborated. Compassion is distinguished from sympathy, empathy and pity. Several problems of compassion as a spontaneous, warm emotion for being a professional virtue are discussed: especially questions of over-demand, of justice and of concerns because of a possible threat to the patient's dignity and autonomy. An interpretation of compassion as processed and learned professional attitude, that founds dignity on the general idea of man as a sentient being and on solidarity, not on his independence and capacities, is developed. It is meant to rule out the possible side effects and to make compassion as a professional attitude and as professional virtue attractive, teachable and acquirable. In order to reach the adequate warmth and closeness for the particular physician-patient-relation, professional compassion has to be combined with the capacity of empathy. If appropriate, the combination of both empathy and compassion as "empathic compassion" can demand a much warmer attitude towards the patient than each of the elements alone, or the simple addition of them can provide. The concept of "care" that will be discussed in a forthcoming article of this sequel is a missing necessary part to describe the active potential of the desired moral

  8. Biomoleküle in Bewegung: Proteindynamik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parak, Fritz G.

    2004-11-01

    Viele Proteinmoleküle sind kleine Maschinen. Im Stillstand ist ihr Aufbau wohlbekannt. Doch wie sie arbeiten, ist meistens unklar. Die Grundlagen dieser Proteindynamik werden am Beispiel des Sauerstoffspeicher-Proteins Myoglobin physikalisch untersucht. Dabei ist die Mößbauer-Spektroskopie am Hämeisen besonders hilfreich. Während sich das Myoglobin bei sehr tiefen Temperaturen in einem festkörperähnlichen Standby-Modus befindet, werden oberhalb einer charakteristischen Temperatur im Molekül proteinspezifische Bewegungsmoden aktiviert. Sie lassen sich als langsame, diffusionsartige Fluktuationen von Molekülsegmenten um die mittlere Struktur beschreiben. Diese Moden öffnen Kanäle in das Proteininnere, durch die Sauerstoffmoleküle zur Hämgruppe gelangen können. So ermöglichen sie Strukturänderungen, die für die biologische Funktion entscheidend sind.

  9. Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

  10. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2002-09-01

    Jeunes étoiles et vieilles galaxies; Chiens de Chasse; Des images en partie belges; Détection chimique de planètes?; Amas cannibale; Le pulsar œil de bœuf; Supernova 2002 DJ; Centaurus A; Et de cent; Près du trou noir; Un cratère sous la Merdu Nord; Des astéroï des frôlent la Terre; Photons fatigués; Taches solaires; Un grand lac martien; Les naines brunes en infrarouge; Bourrelet équatorial; Fusion de trous noirs; Le hamburger de Gomez; Matière sombre; Non aux étoiles à quarks

  11. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2005-06-01

    Rosetta, Deep Impact, Titan Cratère sur Titan, Point chaud sur Titan, Phoebé, Treize nouvelles lunes pour Saturne, Épiméthée, Le mystère d'Amalthée, L'anomalie Pioneer, 2M1207, Oui, c'est une planète, Mini cratères martiens, On a retrouvé le Mars Polar Lander, Au Soleil toute l'année, Amplification cosmique, Hubble a quinze ans, Collision de vents dans WR 140, Création d'un trou noir, Un anneau d'Einstein presque parfait, Super flares, Mira en X

  12. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2014-06-01

    Future lune ? - L'âge de la Lune - Des volcans actifs sur Vénus - Un lac dans le cratère Gusev ? - Météorites et atmosphère martiennes - L’hexagone de Saturne - Pluton - Exo-Terre - Bêta Pictoris b - Cérès et Vesta depuis Mars - Naine froide - Parallaxes par Hubble - L2 Puppis et le sort du Soleil - Supernova et lentille gravitationnelle - Champ magnétique galactique - L’objet de Sakurai - Fermi et la matière noire - Lentille naine

  13. Le continu contre l'espace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salanskis, Jean-Michel

    Disons pour conclure que, en tout état de cause, la façon de concevoir philosophiquement le conflit du continu et de l'espace que nous avons trouvée chez Hegel n'est pas homogène avec le style et les modalités de la pensée mathématique: 1) d'une part, le lien classique, le lien de référence entre continu et espace en mathématiques n'est pas que l'espace serait premier et privé de pensée, et le continu second, venant dissoudre l'espace en apportant la qualité, l'infini et la pensée, mais tout au contraire, il consiste en ce que l'espace est fondé sur l'abîme infinitaire du continu ; 2) d'autre part, l'éventuel divorce entre l'espace et le continu dans l'aire mathématique n'est pas celui d'une réflexivité purement conceptuelle du continu avec un positivisme géométrique, n'équivaut pas à une rupture disciplinaire ; il est plutôt le symptôme de la dérive d'une herméneutique à l'égard d'une autre, au sein d'un continent juridique commun définissant la discipline (la mathématique ensembliste), cette dérive pouvant, à la limite, induire une refonte de ce sol juridique, sans que jamais il soit question pour autant de nier l'unité des mathématiques, à comprendre ici comme l'unité ultime de responsabilité de la communauté mathématique à l'égard des trois questions Qu'est-ce que l'espace?”, “Qu'est-ce que le continu?” et “Qu'est-ce que l'infini?”.

  14. Social desirability bias in personality testing: implications for astronaut selection.

    PubMed

    Sandal, Gro M; Musson, Dave; Helmreich, Robert L; Gravdal, Lene

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of personality is recognized by space agencies as an approach to identify candidates likely to perform optimally during spaceflights. In the use of personality scales for selection, the impact of social desirability (SD) has been cited as a concern. Study 1 addressed the impact of SD on responses to the Personality Characteristic Inventory(PCI) and NEO-FFI. This was achieved by contrasting scores from active astronauts (N=65) with scores of successful astronaut applicants (N=63), and between pilots applicants (N=1271) and pilot research subjects (N=120). Secondly, personality scores were correlated with scores on the Marlow Crown Social Desirability Scale among applicants to managerial positions (N=120). The results indicated that SD inflated scores on PCI scales assessing negative interpersonal characteristics, and impacted on four of five scales in NEO-FFI. Still, the effect sizes were small or moderate. Study 2 addressed performance implications of SD during an assessment of males applying to work as rescue personnel operations in the North Sea (N=22). The results showed that SD correlated negatively with cognitive test performance, and positively with discrepancy in performance ratings between self and two observers. In conclusion, caution is needed in interpreting personality scores in applicant populations. SD maybe a negative predictor for performance under stress. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social desirability bias in personality testing: Implications for astronaut selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, Gro M.; Musson, Dave; Helmreich, Robert. L.; Gravdal, Lene

    2005-07-01

    The assessment of personality is recognized by space agencies as an approach to identify candidates likely to perform optimally during spaceflights. In the use of personality scales for selection, the impact of social desirability (SD) has been cited as a concern. Study 1 addressed the impact of SD on responses to the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and NEO-FFI. This was achieved by contrasting scores from active astronauts (N=65) with scores of successful astronaut applicants (N=63), and between pilots applicants (N=1271) and pilot research subjects (N=120). Secondly, personality scores were correlated with scores on the Marlow Crown Social Desirability Scale among applicants to managerial positions (N=120). The results indicated that SD inflated scores on PCI scales assessing negative interpersonal characteristics, and impacted on four of five scales in NEO-FFI. Still, the effect sizes were small or moderate. Study 2 addressed performance implications of SD during an assessment of males applying to work as rescue personnel operations in the North Sea (N=22). The results showed that SD correlated negatively with cognitive test performance, and positively with discrepancy in performance ratings between self and two observers. In conclusion, caution is needed in interpreting personality scores in applicant populations. SD may be a negative predictor for performance under stress.

  16. Getting the desired candidate: an exploration of the covert strategies.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Rajib Lochan

    2014-01-01

    Many people across the world believe that employment decisions are based on merit, on factors related to job knowledge, skills or abilities. People believe that decisions are biased or discriminatory if based on demographic criteria such as gender, race, caste, community, creed etc… unrelated to the job. The aim of this study is to explore the covert motives that might exist amongst senior managers when recruiting their desired candidates. Sixty senior managers belonging to two international corporations based in western India participated. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical foundation qualitative data was obtained through in-depth interviews with the sixty participants and analyzed using content analysis. Content analysis based on the Theory of Planned Behavior revealed five main strategies of covert recruitment practices: fulfilling vested interests, obligation creation, cultural bias, mirror reflection and status enhancement. The research findings indicate that 25% of those interviewed used premeditated strategies when recruiting their desired candidates which they concealed from coworkers. However in order to generalize the findings of the present study, a study with a larger sample size across different industries need to be done. Covert actions were central to employee recruitment in these settings and are likely fundamental to a more complete understanding of managers' recruitment behaviors beyond the context of this study.

  17. Preschoolers' current desires warp their choices for the future.

    PubMed

    Atance, Cristina M; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2006-07-01

    We introduce a new paradigm to assess how children's choices for the future are influenced by their current desires. Forty-eight 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds were assigned to one of four conditions. In two of these conditions (intervention), we manipulated children's current state of thirst by allowing them to eat pretzels. In the remaining two conditions (baseline), we did not give them pretzels. The children were then asked to choose between water and pretzels. In one intervention and one baseline condition, they chose what they would like "now," whereas in the other intervention and baseline conditions, they chose what they would like "tomorrow." Results revealed that, despite children's overwhelming desire for pretzels in the baseline conditions, children in both intervention conditions chose water. The data support the notion that children's current state influences not only their choices for the present, but also their choices for the future. We discuss this finding in terms of both cognitive-developmental and adult social-cognitive theory.

  18. Social desirability bias in reporting of holiday season healthfulness.

    PubMed

    Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Byrd, Elizabeth S; Dominick, S R; Wolf, Christopher A; Acharya, Lalatendu

    2016-12-01

    Respondents participating in survey or interview based research often tend to give answers that put themselves in a favorable light, displaying social desirability bias (SDB). Understanding the susceptibility of individuals to underreport their perceived unhealthy holiday behaviors or over report holiday behaviors they perceive as healthy has important implications for health promotion and health policy surrounding the holiday season. This study examines SDB specific to the reporting of holiday food consumption and health-related behaviors. An online survey of 620 U.S. consumers was utilized to collect data in which SDB was accounted for via indirect questioning. The online survey was conducted by Purdue University from November 17-19, 2014. Up to 64% of respondents displayed SDB for the eight holiday health statements studied. Respondents over the age of 45 and without children more frequently displayed social desirability bias. Respondents who displayed SDB with respect to acceptable health related holiday food consumption behaviors may be more susceptible to social pressures surrounding other consumption decision making. Understanding SDB in health and behavior reporting, in particular for the traditionally challenging, in terms of health outcomes, holiday season is critical for health practitioners as they seek to promote healthy behaviors.

  19. Sex and shame: the inhibition of female desires.

    PubMed

    Elise, Dianne

    2008-03-01

    A developmental narrative is presented that centers on bodily based narcissistic injury and sense of shame in response to unrequited oedipal longings. Through an experience of oedipal defeat in relation to both mother and father, a female sense of inadequacy and shame may be internalized and accepted as one's identity, in contrast to the male phallic-omnipotent trajectory. The demise of genital narcissism in females can underlie various expressions of pervasive inhibition and failure to actualize desire. The thesis offered goes beyond separation-individuation theory in suggesting that girls may inhibit sexuality and aggression, and themselves more generally, due to a representation of self as "not having what it takes" genitally, and then bodily and psychically. Mental representations of the self, based on positive imagery of the female body, are needed to give voice to a woman's bodily experience and sexual desire and agency in various realms. Two clinical vignettes illustrate female inhibitions in sexuality and in professional ambition as understood within the framework presented.

  20. Measuring mental illness stigma with diminished social desirability effects.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Patrick J; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-06-01

    For persons with mental illness, stigma diminishes employment and independent living opportunities as well as participation in psychiatric care. Public stigma interventions have sought to ameliorate these consequences. Evaluation of anti-stigma programs' impact is typically accomplished with self-report questionnaires. However, cultural mores encourage endorsement of answers that are socially preferred rather than one's true belief. This problem, social desirability, has been circumvented through development of faux knowledge tests (KTs) (i.e., Error-Choice Tests); written to assess prejudice. Our KT uses error-choice test methodology to assess stigmatizing attitudes. Test content was derived from review of typical KTs for façade reinforcement. Answer endorsement suggests bias or stigma; such determinations were based on the empirical literature. KT psychometrics were examined in samples of college students, community members and mental health providers and consumers. Test-retest reliability ranged from fair (0.50) to good (0.70). Construct validity analyses of public stigma indicated a positive relationship with the Attribution Questionnaire and inverse relationships with Self-Determination and Empowerment Scales. No significant relationships were observed with self-stigma measures (recovery, empowerment). This psychometric evaluation study suggests that a self-administered questionnaire may circumvent social desirability and have merit as a stigma measurement tool.

  1. From Framework to Action: The DESIRE Approach to Combat Desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessel, R.; Reed, M. S.; Geeson, N.; Ritsema, C. J.; van Lynden, G.; Karavitis, C. A.; Schwilch, G.; Jetten, V.; Burger, P.; van der Werff ten Bosch, M. J.; Verzandvoort, S.; van den Elsen, E.; Witsenburg, K.

    2014-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear that desertification can only be tackled through a multi-disciplinary approach that not only involves scientists but also stakeholders. In the DESIRE project such an approach was taken. As a first step, a conceptual framework was developed in which the factors and processes that may lead to land degradation and desertification were described. Many of these factors do not work independently, but can reinforce or weaken one another, and to illustrate these relationships sustainable management and policy feedback loops were included. This conceptual framework can be applied globally, but can also be made site-specific to take into account that each study site has a unique combination of bio-physical, socio-economic and political conditions. Once the conceptual framework was defined, a methodological framework was developed in which the methodological steps taken in the DESIRE approach were listed and their logic and sequence were explained. The last step was to develop a concrete working plan to put the project into action, involving stakeholders throughout the process. This series of steps, in full or in part, offers explicit guidance for other organizations or projects that aim to reduce land degradation and desertification.

  2. Early Reasoning about Desires: Evidence from 14- and 18-Month-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repacholi, Betty M.; Gopnik, Alison

    1997-01-01

    Observed infants' responses in a food-requested procedure to explore their understanding of other people's desires. Found that only the 18-month-olds were able to engage in some form of desire reasoning. Children not only inferred that another person held a desire, but also recognized how desires were related to emotions and understood something…

  3. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2008-04-01

    Jets stellaires; Structure géante et matière noire; Un mini-système solaire; Arcs gravitationnels et images multiples; Choc frontal dans notre Galaxie; Avalanches martiennes; Du sable autour de KH 15D; Le cratère de Carancas; Smart-1;

  4. Le Chatelier's principle in replicator dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-10-01

    The Le Chatelier principle states that physical equilibria are not only stable, but they also resist external perturbations via short-time negative-feedback mechanisms: a perturbation induces processes tending to diminish its results. The principle has deep roots, e.g., in thermodynamics it is closely related to the second law and the positivity of the entropy production. Here we study the applicability of the Le Chatelier principle to evolutionary game theory, i.e., to perturbations of a Nash equilibrium within the replicator dynamics. We show that the principle can be reformulated as a majorization relation. This defines a stability notion that generalizes the concept of evolutionary stability. We determine criteria for a Nash equilibrium to satisfy the Le Chatelier principle and relate them to mutualistic interactions (game-theoretical anticoordination) showing in which sense mutualistic replicators can be more stable than (say) competing ones. There are globally stable Nash equilibria, where the Le Chatelier principle is violated even locally: in contrast to the thermodynamic equilibrium a Nash equilibrium can amplify small perturbations, though both types of equilibria satisfy the detailed balance condition.

  5. Le Chatelier's principle in replicator dynamics.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-10-01

    The Le Chatelier principle states that physical equilibria are not only stable, but they also resist external perturbations via short-time negative-feedback mechanisms: a perturbation induces processes tending to diminish its results. The principle has deep roots, e.g., in thermodynamics it is closely related to the second law and the positivity of the entropy production. Here we study the applicability of the Le Chatelier principle to evolutionary game theory, i.e., to perturbations of a Nash equilibrium within the replicator dynamics. We show that the principle can be reformulated as a majorization relation. This defines a stability notion that generalizes the concept of evolutionary stability. We determine criteria for a Nash equilibrium to satisfy the Le Chatelier principle and relate them to mutualistic interactions (game-theoretical anticoordination) showing in which sense mutualistic replicators can be more stable than (say) competing ones. There are globally stable Nash equilibria, where the Le Chatelier principle is violated even locally: in contrast to the thermodynamic equilibrium a Nash equilibrium can amplify small perturbations, though both types of equilibria satisfy the detailed balance condition.

  6. Le Chatelier--Right or Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfferich, Friedrich G.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a class exercise designed to find out how well students understand the nature and consequences of the mass action law and Le Chatelier's principle as applied to chemical equilibria. The exercise relates to a practical situation and provides simple relations for maximizing equilibrium quantities not found in standard textbooks. (JN)

  7. Microscopic Description of Le Chatelier's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Igor

    2005-01-01

    A simple approach that "demystifies" Le Chatelier's principle (LCP) and simulates students to think about fundamental physical background behind the well-known principles is presented. The approach uses microscopic descriptors of matter like energy levels and populations and does not require any assumption about the fixed amount of substance being…

  8. Le Chatelier's Principle, Temperature Effects, and Entropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Arthur

    1985-01-01

    One of the most useful methods of understanding chemical equilibria is provided by Le Chatelier's principle. The relationships between this principle, temperature, and entropy are discussed. Tables with thermodynamic data for some net reactions commonly used to illustrate the principle and for reactions involving gases are included. (JN)

  9. Le Francais Courant: Part V, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Courant: Part 5" focus on the development of mastery of the basic numbering system and other grammatical structures. Structures include the formation of the present tense of the irregular verbs…

  10. A Compositional Analysis of "-GUO" and "-LE."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, L.; Li, Dingxuan

    1993-01-01

    Paper examines interaction of semantic contributions of aspect markers "-guo" and "-le"; negative adverbs "bu" and "mei"; and two classes of verbs. Proposed analysis systematically accounts for temporal orientation of members of several classes of sentences in terms of aspectual contributions made by two aspect markers, negative adverbs, verbs,…

  11. Technical Programme 1993 (Le Programme Technique, 1993)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Symposium sur "Les Effets de la Propagation Atmospherique a travers des Obscurcissants Naturels et Artificiels sur le Rayonnement des Ondes Millimetriques...for Small Gas Turbines" Reunion du Panel et Symposium sur "Les Technologies pour les Petites Turbines a Gaz " 4-8 CANADA TIP Panel Meeting/Specialists

  12. The Great Spanish "Le-Lo" Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roldan, Mercedes

    1975-01-01

    The distinction between the clitics "le" and "lo" is different for Peninsular Spanish than for Latin American Spanish but is in both cases systematic. The division in Castilian Spanish is along the line of animate-inanimate. The Latin American division is between accusative and dative case. (TL)

  13. A Compositional Analysis of "-GUO" and "-LE."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, L.; Li, Dingxuan

    1993-01-01

    Paper examines interaction of semantic contributions of aspect markers "-guo" and "-le"; negative adverbs "bu" and "mei"; and two classes of verbs. Proposed analysis systematically accounts for temporal orientation of members of several classes of sentences in terms of aspectual contributions made by two aspect markers, negative adverbs, verbs,…

  14. How To Prepare Materials With a Desired Refraction Coefficient?

    SciTech Connect

    Ramm, A. G.

    2010-05-21

    In this talk a method is described for preparing materials with a desired refraction coefficient. The method consists of embedding into a material with known refraction coefficient many small particles of size a. The number of particles per unit volume around any point is prescribed, the distance between neighboring particles is O(a{sup (2-kappa/3)}) as a->0, 00. The refraction coefficient is the coefficient n{sup 2}(x) in the wave equation [nabla{sup 2}+kappa{sup 2}n{sup 2}(x)]u = 0.

  15. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2007-01-01

    A test battery was developed for cursor control device evaluation: four tasks were taken from ISO 9241-9, and three from previous studies conducted at NASA. The tasks focused on basic movements such as pointing, clicking, and dragging. Four cursor control devices were evaluated with and without Extravehicular Activity (EVA) gloves to identify desirable cursor control device characteristics for NASA missions: 1) the Kensington Expert Mouse, 2) the Hulapoint mouse, 3) the Logitech Marble Mouse, and 4) the Honeywell trackball. Results showed that: 1) the test battery is an efficient tool for differentiating among input devices, 2) gloved operations were about 1 second slower and had at least 15% more errors; 3) devices used with gloves have to be larger, and should allow good hand positioning to counteract the lack of tactile feedback, 4) none of the devices, as designed, were ideal for operation with EVA gloves.

  16. The Role of Overconfidence in Romantic Desirability and Competition.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean C; von Hippel, William; Dubbs, Shelli L; Angilletta, Michael J; Wilson, Robbie S; Trivers, Robert; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2015-08-01

    Four studies and a computer simulation tested the hypothesis that people who are overconfident in their self-assessments may be more successful in attracting mates. In Study 1, overconfident people were perceived as more confident in their dating profiles, and this perceived confidence predicted increased romantic desirability. Study 2 revealed that overconfident people also tend to be perceived as arrogant, which counteracts the positive effects of perceived confidence. However, Study 3 revealed that overconfidence might confer an advantage in intrasexual competition, as people were less likely to compete with overconfident individuals by virtue of their perceived confidence and arrogance. Study 4 showed that overconfident raters were also more likely to choose to compete for romantic partners. In Study 5, agent-based modeling incorporating the coefficients from these studies suggested that overconfidence facilitates mate acquisition in the presence of intrasexual competition. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. Agreeableness: dimension of personality or social desirability artifact?

    PubMed

    Graziano, William G; Tobin, Renée M

    2002-10-01

    Agreeableness is linked to socially valued traits and prosocial motives, so self-reported Agreeableness may be distorted by self-favoring biases (SFB). A three-study multimethod research program explored links between the Big Five dimension of Agreeableness and SFB from three perspectives. First, we examined zero-order relations between Agreeableness and SFB measures (N = 316). Next, we used a round robin design (N = 351) and the Social Relations Model analyses (Kenny, 1994) to partition perceptions of Agreeableness into target and perceiver effects. These effects then were related to SFB concerns, and differential responsiveness to a manipulation of the social desirability of Agreeableness. Study 3 (N = 312) examined a manipulation of Agreeableness as a moderator of the relation between dispositional Agreeableness and interpersonal conflict tactics. Overall, results indicate that Agreeableness is not easily manipulated nor distorted by SFB. Results are discussed in terms of Agreeableness as a substantive system of motives.

  18. 30. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE, LE CLAIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND, LOOKING EAST - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  19. 29. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND, LOOKING WEST - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  20. Fat, desire and disgust in the colonial imagination.

    PubMed

    Forth, Christopher E

    2012-01-01

    This article tracks the relatively unexamined ways in which ethnographic, travel and medical knowledge interrelated in the construction of fat stereotypes in the nineteenth century, often plotted along a temporal curve from ‘primitive’ corpulence to ‘civilized’ moderation. By showing how the complementary insights of medicine and ethnography circulated in beauty manuals, weight-loss guides and popular ethnographic books – all of which were aimed at middle-class readers and thus crystallize certain bourgeois attitudes of the time – it argues that the pronounced denigration of fat that emerged in Britain and France by the early twentieth century acquired some of its edge through this ongoing tendency to depict desire for and acceptance of fat as fundamentally ‘savage’ or ‘uncivilized’ traits. This tension between fat and ‘civilization’ was by no means univocal or stable. Rather, this analysis shows, a complex and wide-ranging series of similarities and differences, identifications and refusals can be traced between British and French perceptions of their own bodies and desires and the shortcomings they saw in foreign cultures. It sheds light as well on those aspects of their own societies that seemed ‘primitive’ in ways that bore an uncomfortable similarity to the colonial peoples they governed, demonstrating how a gendered, yet ultimately unstable, double standard was sustained for much of the nineteenth century. Finally it reveals a subtle and persistent racial subtext to the anti-fat discourses that would become more aggressive in the twentieth century and which are ubiquitous today.

  1. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Claire; Wardle, Jane; Cooke, Lucy

    2008-12-02

    Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD) relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS.Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic) were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ.Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016), fruit squash (p = 0.042) and milk (p = 0.020) than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017) and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003). No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice.These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks.

  2. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, Claire; Wardle, Jane; Cooke, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD) relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS. Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic) were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ. Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016), fruit squash (p = 0.042) and milk (p = 0.020) than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017) and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003). No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice. These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks. PMID:19055714

  3. Desirable Traits of a Good Biocontrol Agent against Verticillium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Deketelaere, Silke; Tyvaert, Lien; França, Soraya C; Höfte, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The soil-borne fungus Verticillium causes serious vascular disease in a wide variety of annual crops and woody perennials. Verticillium wilt is notoriously difficult to control by conventional methods, so there is great potential for biocontrol to manage this disease. In this study we aimed to review the research about Verticillium biocontrol to get a better understanding of characteristics that are desirable in a biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt. We only considered studies in which the BCAs were tested on plants. Most biocontrol studies were focused on plants of the Solanaceae, Malvaceae, and Brassicaceae and within these families eggplant, cotton, and oilseed rape were the most studied crops. The list of bacterial BCAs with potential against Verticillium was dominated by endophytic Bacillus and Pseudomonas isolates, while non-pathogenic xylem-colonizing Verticillium and Fusarium isolates topped the fungal list. Predominant modes of action involved in biocontrol were inhibition of primary inoculum germination, plant growth promotion, competition and induced resistance. Many BCAs showed in vitro antibiosis and mycoparasitism but these traits were not correlated with activity in vivo and there is no evidence that they play a role in planta. Good BCAs were obtained from soils suppressive to Verticillium wilt, disease suppressive composts, and healthy plants in infested fields. Desirable characteristics in a BCA against Verticillium are the ability to (1) affect the survival or germination of microsclerotia, (2) colonize the xylem and/or cortex and compete with the pathogen for nutrients and/or space, (3) induce resistance responses in the plant and/or (4) promote plant growth. Potential BCAs should be screened in conditions that resemble the field situation to increase the chance of successful use in practice. Furthermore, issues such as large scale production, formulation, preservation conditions, shelf life, and application methods should be

  4. Desirable Traits of a Good Biocontrol Agent against Verticillium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Deketelaere, Silke; Tyvaert, Lien; França, Soraya C.; Höfte, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The soil-borne fungus Verticillium causes serious vascular disease in a wide variety of annual crops and woody perennials. Verticillium wilt is notoriously difficult to control by conventional methods, so there is great potential for biocontrol to manage this disease. In this study we aimed to review the research about Verticillium biocontrol to get a better understanding of characteristics that are desirable in a biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt. We only considered studies in which the BCAs were tested on plants. Most biocontrol studies were focused on plants of the Solanaceae, Malvaceae, and Brassicaceae and within these families eggplant, cotton, and oilseed rape were the most studied crops. The list of bacterial BCAs with potential against Verticillium was dominated by endophytic Bacillus and Pseudomonas isolates, while non-pathogenic xylem-colonizing Verticillium and Fusarium isolates topped the fungal list. Predominant modes of action involved in biocontrol were inhibition of primary inoculum germination, plant growth promotion, competition and induced resistance. Many BCAs showed in vitro antibiosis and mycoparasitism but these traits were not correlated with activity in vivo and there is no evidence that they play a role in planta. Good BCAs were obtained from soils suppressive to Verticillium wilt, disease suppressive composts, and healthy plants in infested fields. Desirable characteristics in a BCA against Verticillium are the ability to (1) affect the survival or germination of microsclerotia, (2) colonize the xylem and/or cortex and compete with the pathogen for nutrients and/or space, (3) induce resistance responses in the plant and/or (4) promote plant growth. Potential BCAs should be screened in conditions that resemble the field situation to increase the chance of successful use in practice. Furthermore, issues such as large scale production, formulation, preservation conditions, shelf life, and application methods should be

  5. How to simplify the CT diagnosis of Le Fort fractures.

    PubMed

    Rhea, James T; Novelline, Robert A

    2005-05-01

    The numerous components seen in the Le Fort fractures make classification difficult. Our objective is to simplify the task of classifying Le Fort fractures. Each of the Le Fort fractures has at least one unique component that is easily recognizable: I, the anterolateral margin of the nasal fossa; II, the inferior orbital rim; and III, the zygomatic arch. Classification of the Le Fort fractures is simplified by using these unique components to establish a tentative classification that is then confirmed.

  6. Le syndrome d’alcoolisme foetal

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    L’alcool est un tératogène physique et comportemental. Le syndrome d’alcoolisme foetal (SAF) est un trouble courant mais encore sous-diagnostiqué découlant de la consommation d’alcool par la mère pendant la grossesse. Bien qu’il puisse être prévenu, le SAF est également invalidant. Même si le SAF est présent dans tous les groupes socioéconomiques du Canada, sa prévalence est élevée dans certaines communautés inuites et des Premières nations du Canada. Le présent énoncé porte sur la prévention, le diagnostic, le dépistage précoce et la prise en charge du SAF par les professionnels de la santé. La prévention du SAF doit s’effectuer à deux échelons. La prévention primaire consiste à éliminer le SAF par une formation en classe ou dans la collectivité et à inciter les femmes à éviter de consommer de l’alcool avant la conception et pendant la grossesse. La prévention secondaire consiste à repérer les femmes qui boivent pendant leur grossesse et à réduire leur consommation. Le présent énoncé décrit plusieurs stratégies de dépistage, dont la stratégie T-ACE (tolérance-agacement, réduction, éveil). Les dispensateurs de soins devraient recommander l’abstinence dès la première visite prénatale. Un envoi rapide en consultation en vue de traiter l’alcoolisme est recommandé pour les femmes enceintes incapables d’arrêter de boire. Le présent énoncé décrit le diagnostic de SAF, de SAF partiel ou atypique, d’anomalies congénitales et de troubles neurodéveloppementaux reliés à l’alcool. En cas d’exposition à l’alcool in utero, un diagnostic de SAF devrait être envisagé en présence d’un retard de croissance courant ou antérieur, de certaines anomalies faciales touchant la lèvre supérieure et les yeux et d’anomalies neurodéveloppementales. Ces caractéristiques sont mieux quantifiées au moyen d’une méthode diagnostique à quatre chiffres. Des stratégies de dépistage précoce des

  7. Haematology patients' desire to access metropolitan hospital expertise.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam

    2016-06-01

    Objective To date, there is limited research to inform an understanding of cancer patients' choice as to location of treatment. This paper makes a contribution by providing findings on a group of regional, rural and remote cancer patients, namely those diagnosed with a haematological malignancy, who have to relocate for specialist care in Queensland, Australia. Methods A descriptive qualitative method was used based on 45 in-depth interviews with haematology patients living in Queensland who were supported by the Leukaemia Foundation of Queensland. Results Four key factors were found to affect the decision making of patients who prefer to travel to metropolitan hospitals for specialist haematology treatments, namely access to own doctor, bonds and familiarity with metropolitan staff, desire for 'quality' specialist care and a distrust of local clinical care and, for some, the absence of usual barriers to visiting the metropolitan area. Conclusions There are a group of patients who have experiences that lead them to distrust non-metropolitan hospitals and motivate them to travel long distances to attend specialist treating centres for 'quality' care. The literature affirms the concerns of this group. It is the hope and expectation in publishing this article that these patients' concerns will be taken into consideration in the development of health services and policy so that eventually all regional, rural and remote patients will be provided with equitable choice with regard to the location of accessing specialist care. What is known about the topic? The literature on haematology patients' experiences with and preferences for local verses metropolitan hospital treatment is limited. What does this paper add? To date, research on relocation for specialist treatment has documented the hardships for both patients and their families associated with distance from major treating hospitals. Although affirming the difficulties associated with travel and the desire of most

  8. Homosexual experience, desire and identity among young adults.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy; Kristiansen, Hans W

    2008-01-01

    Is young people's sexuality becoming more fluid and less tied to steady, stable identity patterns? Are we developing into a society where sexual relationships between individuals of the same sex are no longer reserved for the small minority of gay men and lesbian women? Adherents of so-called queer theory have promulgated such views. Using a population-based sample of young adults (aged 19 to 26, N 2753), we investigated homosexual experiences, desire and identity. We found that levels of prevalence of homosexuality were primarily a function of the criteria we used. Using the most restricted ("narrow") definitions, we found that about one percent of both genders reported "exclusive" homosexual interest and identity. Using the most inclusive criteria, we found that one of ten young men and one of four young women reported having some homosexual experience, interest or identity. Still, the most striking finding involved the substantial gender-specific differences: homoerotic activity and interest are far more interwoven with heterosexual activity for women. There are strong indications that homosexuality is a lot more threatening and potentially in conflict with traditional male gender roles than we find to be the case for women. In other words, while there may be signs of more fluid sexual identity categories, this phenomenon primarily applies to women.

  9. Teasing Apart Overclaiming, Overconfidence, and Socially Desirable Responding.

    PubMed

    Bensch, Doreen; Paulhus, Delroy L; Stankov, Lazar; Ziegler, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Contamination with positivity bias is a potential problem in virtually all areas of psychological assessment. To determine the impact of positivity bias, one common approach is to embed special indicators within one's assessment battery. Such tools range from social desirability scales to overconfidence measures to the so-called overclaiming technique. Despite the large literature on these different approaches and underlying theoretical notions, little is known about the overall nomological network-in particular, the degree to which these constructs overlap. To this end, a broad spectrum of positivity bias detection tools was administered in low-stakes settings ( N = 798) along with measures of the Big Five, grandiose narcissism, and cognitive ability. Exploratory factor analyses revealed six first-order and two second-order factors. Overclaiming was not loaded by any of the six first-order factors and overconfidence was not explained by either of the two second-order factors. All other measures were confounded with personality and/or cognitive ability. Based on our findings, overclaiming is the most distinct potential indicator of positivity bias and independent of known personality measures.

  10. Long distance atomic teleportation with as good success as desired

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Prakash, Hari

    2015-09-15

    Long distance atomic teleportation (LDAT) is of prime importance in long distance quantum communication. Scheme proposed by Bose et al. (1999) in principle enables us to have LDAT using cavity decay. However it gives message state dependent fidelity and success rate. Here, using interaction of entangled coherent states with atom–cavity systems and a two-step measurement, we show how, LDAT can be achieved with unit fidelity and as good success as desired under ideal conditions. The scheme is unique in that, the first measurement predicts success or failure. If success is predicted then second measurement gives perfect teleportation. If failure is predicted the message-qubit remains conserved therefore a second attempt may be started. We found that even in presence of decoherence due to dissipation of energy our scheme gives message state independent success rate and almost perfect teleportation in single attempt with mean fidelity of teleportation equal to 0.9 at long distances. However if first attempt fails, unlike ideal case where message-qubit remains conserved with unit fidelity, in presence of decoherence the message-qubit remains conserved to some degree, therefore mean fidelity of teleportation can be increased beyond 0.9 by repeating the process.

  11. Can Energy Drinks Increase the Desire for More Alcohol?1234

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. PMID:25593148

  12. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    PubMed

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino.

  13. Framing disease: the example of female hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2010-04-01

    Disease classification is an important part in the process of medicalisation and one important tool by which medical authority is exerted. The demand for, or proposal of a diagnosis may be the first step in casting life's experiences as medical in nature. Aronowitz has written about how diagnoses result from social framing mechanisms (2008) and consensus (2001), while Brown (1995) has demonstrated a complex range of interactions between lay and professionals, institutions and industries which underpin disease discovery. In any case, there are numerous social factors which shape the diagnosis, and in turn, provide a mechanism by which medicalisation can be enacted. Focussing on diagnostic classification provides an important perspective on the human condition and its relationship to medicine. To illustrate how layers of social meaning may be concealed in a diagnosis, this paper uses as heuristic the relatively obscure diagnosis of Female Hyposexual Desire Disorder which is currently surfacing in medical and marketing literature as a frequent disorder worthy of concern. I describe how this diagnosis embodies long-standing fascination with female libido, a contemporary focus on female hypersexuality, and commercial interest of the pharmaceutical industry and its medical allies to reify low sexual urge as a pathological disorder in women.

  14. Central Nervous System Multiparameter Optimization Desirability: Application in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Wager, Travis T; Hou, Xinjun; Verhoest, Patrick R; Villalobos, Anabella

    2016-06-15

    Significant progress has been made in prospectively designing molecules using the central nervous system multiparameter optimization (CNS MPO) desirability tool, as evidenced by the analysis reported herein of a second wave of drug candidates that originated after the development and implementation of this tool. This simple-to-use design algorithm has expanded design space for CNS candidates and has further demonstrated the advantages of utilizing a flexible, multiparameter approach in drug discovery rather than individual parameters and hard cutoffs of physicochemical properties. The CNS MPO tool has helped to increase the percentage of compounds nominated for clinical development that exhibit alignment of ADME attributes, cross the blood-brain barrier, and reside in lower-risk safety space (low ClogP and high TPSA). The use of this tool has played a role in reducing the number of compounds submitted to exploratory toxicity studies and increasing the survival of our drug candidates through regulatory toxicology into First in Human studies. Overall, the CNS MPO algorithm has helped to improve the prioritization of design ideas and the quality of the compounds nominated for clinical development.

  15. Flibanserin for hypoactive sexual desire disorder: place in therapy.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Faina; Atrio, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of female sexual interest in pre- and post-menopausal women present a complex arena for patients and physicians to navigate. Flibanserin was the first pharmacologic treatment, approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in August 2015, for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. Side effects, contraindications and lack of approval in postmenopausal women are all limitations, as are issues surrounding patient and physician knowledge and access. Testosterone, buspirone, sildenafil, bupropion, bremelanotide, as well as herbal medications (Herbal vX or Tribulus terrestris) have demonstrated some clinical benefit in women with sexual dysfunction disorders however, trials have significant design, dosing or generalizability limitations. Nonpharmaceutical cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, pelvic floor therapy, and clitoral stimulators are also interventions women may pursue. This manuscript will explore the clinical data regarding these therapeutic modalities so as to bring attention to this issue of female HSDD, to offer an overview of current research, and to incite providers to initiate discussion among themselves and their patients.

  16. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Flibanserin for hypoactive sexual desire disorder: place in therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Faina; Atrio, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of female sexual interest in pre- and post-menopausal women present a complex arena for patients and physicians to navigate. Flibanserin was the first pharmacologic treatment, approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in August 2015, for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. Side effects, contraindications and lack of approval in postmenopausal women are all limitations, as are issues surrounding patient and physician knowledge and access. Testosterone, buspirone, sildenafil, bupropion, bremelanotide, as well as herbal medications (Herbal vX or Tribulus terrestris) have demonstrated some clinical benefit in women with sexual dysfunction disorders however, trials have significant design, dosing or generalizability limitations. Nonpharmaceutical cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, pelvic floor therapy, and clitoral stimulators are also interventions women may pursue. This manuscript will explore the clinical data regarding these therapeutic modalities so as to bring attention to this issue of female HSDD, to offer an overview of current research, and to incite providers to initiate discussion among themselves and their patients. PMID:28203348

  18. One Visit Providing Desirable Smile by Laser Application

    PubMed Central

    Fekrazad, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Providing desirable smile is one of the main concerns in cosmetic dentistry. Hyperpigmentation is one of the esthetic concerns especially in gummy smile patients. Lasers with different wavelength are used for oral surgery including Carbon Dioxide Laser (CO2), Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG), Erbium family and diode laser. In this case, all esthetic procedures including gingival depigmentation, caries detection and removal were done by laser technology in one session. Case study: A 40- year-old male with a chief complaint of black gingiva in upper jaw was referred. The right side of maxillary was anesthetized and depigmentation was done by Erbium, Chromium doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er-Cr: YSGG) laser. Due to scores obtained from Diagnodent which indicated caries in dentin, the cavities were prepared by Er-Cr:YSGG laser. The cavities were restored by composite resin. The patient was advised to keep oral hygiene instructions and use mouthwash. Results: The patient reported no pain after surgery and did not use any systemic antibiotic. After 4 weeks, complete healing was observed. Conclusion: Considering acceptable clinical outcome, Er-Cr: YSGG laser can be considered as an effective method for combination of soft and hard tissue treatment. PMID:25606339

  19. EGBIRT and DESIRE; measuring the CIBR at 3 AU.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, J. C.; Beichman, C. A.

    A space mission with a small infrared telescope taken to 3 AU from the Sun could address the problem of detecting the first galaxies by measuring the accumulated radiation produced by all such objects. The cosmic infrared background radiation (CIBR) is the main repository for the energy liberated in early generations of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, but it has never been detected. Its measurement would be a quantum leap for cosmology, but Galactic stars and dust and interplanetary dust have set the limits so far. A new instrument, observing 3 AU from the Sun, could reduce the effects of the foregrounds by two orders of magnitude. Studies of two versions of such an instrument have already been proposed to NASA, the GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Extragalactic Infrared Background Telescope (EGBIRT) and the JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) Deep Space Infrared Experiment (DESIRE). Both involve very small telescopes with array detectors, cooled to reduce detector dark currents and telescope emission. The visible and near IR regions are scientifically very promising. A small deep space mission could easily measure the predicted levels of the CIBR at a price far less than that of COBE.

  20. Fertility Desire in Iranian Women with HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    BEHBOODI-MOGHADAM, Zahra; NIKBAKHT-NASRABADI, Alireza; EBADI, Abbas; ESMAELZADEH – SAEIEH, Sara; MOHRAZ, Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childbearing is a cause of concern for women living with HIV. To improve reproductive right of women with HIV and prevent the spread of HIV; it is needed to understand fertility experiences of infected women with HIV. The aim of this study was to explore fertility intentions and experiences of HIV-infected women in Iran. Methods: Totally, 15 in–depth interviews were conducted with HIV- infected women who were at reproductive age and had referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital Consultation Center for Clients with Risky Behaviors in Tehran, Iran. Data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method in MAXQDA 10. Results: Analysis of the meaning units of interviews showed themes in describing of fertility desires of HIV women as follows: 1) Motherhood as a way for stability of life; 2) Uncertainties about the future; and 3) Unpleasant experience of pregnancy and delivery. This theme has three sub-themes as stigma, discrimination and weakness in health care system. Conclusion: Health care provider and community should respect the right of infected women and inform them on sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26587477

  1. Desirable Characteristics Of A Frame Buffer For Multimodality Image Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horii, S. C.; Maguire, G. Q.; Noz, M. E.

    1988-06-01

    The basic goal of this paper is to present the characteristics of those frame buffers currently used to display images, versus those features which might more ideally suit frame buffers for this purpose. We use current and perceived needs and data based on our experience to identify the salient points which are useful and necessary. Over the last five years we have implemented the same image processing system on eight different frame buffers' (RAMTEK 9050 and 9400, Grinnell GMR-270, Hewlett-Packard 98710 and 98720, Nodecrest Ltd. TVN 256, Lexidata 3400, Pixar Image Computer). This paper extrapolates from these efforts on existing displays to determine what characteristics are desirable in a frame buffer used primarily for multimodality image display. Two case examples are presented: 1. A system developed for high quality computer graphics, as exemplified by the Pixar Image Computer (or in the future the AT&T PXM900 Pixel Machine). 2. A system developed for nuclear medicine and radiation therapy treatment planning as exemplified by the Nodecrest Ltd. TVN256 and TVN512 displays.

  2. Characteristics desired in clinical data warehouse for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Kim, Woo Sung; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-04-01

    Due to the unique characteristics of clinical data, clinical data warehouses (CDWs) have not been successful so far. Specifically, the use of CDWs for biomedical research has been relatively unsuccessful thus far. The characteristics necessary for the successful implementation and operation of a CDW for biomedical research have not clearly defined yet. THREE EXAMPLES OF CDWS WERE REVIEWED: a multipurpose CDW in a hospital, a CDW for independent multi-institutional research, and a CDW for research use in an institution. After reviewing the three CDW examples, we propose some key characteristics needed in a CDW for biomedical research. A CDW for research should include an honest broker system and an Institutional Review Board approval interface to comply with governmental regulations. It should also include a simple query interface, an anonymized data review tool, and a data extraction tool. Also, it should be a biomedical research platform for data repository use as well as data analysis. The proposed characteristics desired in a CDW may have limited transfer value to organizations in other countries. However, these analysis results are still valid in Korea, and we have developed clinical research data warehouse based on these desiderata.

  3. Characteristics Desired in Clinical Data Warehouse for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Kim, Woo Sung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Due to the unique characteristics of clinical data, clinical data warehouses (CDWs) have not been successful so far. Specifically, the use of CDWs for biomedical research has been relatively unsuccessful thus far. The characteristics necessary for the successful implementation and operation of a CDW for biomedical research have not clearly defined yet. Methods Three examples of CDWs were reviewed: a multipurpose CDW in a hospital, a CDW for independent multi-institutional research, and a CDW for research use in an institution. After reviewing the three CDW examples, we propose some key characteristics needed in a CDW for biomedical research. Results A CDW for research should include an honest broker system and an Institutional Review Board approval interface to comply with governmental regulations. It should also include a simple query interface, an anonymized data review tool, and a data extraction tool. Also, it should be a biomedical research platform for data repository use as well as data analysis. Conclusions The proposed characteristics desired in a CDW may have limited transfer value to organizations in other countries. However, these analysis results are still valid in Korea, and we have developed clinical research data warehouse based on these desiderata. PMID:24872909

  4. The Desired Sensation Level Multistage Input/Output Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Scollie, Susan; Seewald, Richard; Cornelisse, Leonard; Moodie, Sheila; Bagatto, Marlene; Laurnagaray, Diana; Beaulac, Steve; Pumford, John

    2005-01-01

    The Desired Sensation Level (DSL) Method was revised to support hearing instrument fitting for infants, young children, and adults who use modern hearing instrument technologies, including multichannel compression, expansion, and multimemory capability. The aims of this revision are to maintain aspects of the previous versions of the DSL Method that have been supported by research, while extending the method to account for adult-child differences in preference and listening requirements. The goals of this version (5.0) include avoiding loudness discomfort, selecting a frequency response that meets audibility requirements, choosing compression characteristics that appropriately match technology to the user's needs, and accommodating the overall prescription to meet individual needs for use in various listening environments. This review summarizes the status of research on the use of the DSL Method with pediatric and adult populations and presents a series of revisions that have been made during the generation of DSL v5.0. This article concludes with case examples that illustrate key differences between the DSL v4.1 and DSL v5.0 prescriptions. PMID:16424945

  5. Surface responses and desirability functions to determine optimal granulation domains.

    PubMed

    Giry, K; Viana, M; Genty, M; Wüthrich, P; Chulia, D

    2010-09-01

    Single pot mixer-granulator-dryer (high-shear granulator with in situ double jacket vacuum drying) and multiphase equipment (high-shear granulator associated with fluid bed dryer) are classically used for wet granulation. At present time, industrial production imperatives may require to switch one formulation from one equipment to another. To compare the two processes and to define, for each of them, the optimal formulation domain, experiments were organized according to Doehlert experimental designs. Response surfaces were used to identify the levels of each factor (binder and filler ratios) inducing the more satisfying responses. The contribution of binder and filler ratios to granule properties was highlighted according to the process. Then the desirability function was used to determine and compare the optimal formulation domain for each process. In the studied formulation domain and for the considered equipment, the transposition from a single pot to a multiphase high-shear granulation process did not seem to raise difficulties; the same formulations were out of specification for both processes and other trials, the technological properties were maintained or improved in the Fielder/Niro equipment.

  6. Desire for prenatal gender disclosure among primigravidae in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Tochukwu C; Enwereji, Jamike O; Okoro, Onyemaechi S; Iferikigwe, Eric S; Ikeako, Lawrence C; Ezenyeaku, Cyril C; Adiri, Charles O

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal gender disclosure is a nonmedical fetal ultrasonography view, which is considered ethically unjustified but has continued to grow in demand due to pregnant women’s requests. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of primigravidae who want prenatal gender disclosure and the reasons for it. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of randomly selected primigravidae seen at Enugu Scan Centre. The women were randomly selected using a table of random numbers. Results Ninety percent (225/250) of 250 primigravidae who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in this study wanted to know the gender of their unborn baby, while 10% (25/250) declined gender disclosure. Furthermore, 62% (155/250) of primigravidae had preference for male children. There was statistically significant desire for male gender (P=0.0001). Statistically significant number of primigravidae who wanted gender disclosure did so to plan for the new baby (P=0.0001), and those that declined gender disclosure “leave it to the will of GOD” (P=0.014). Conclusion Ninety percent of primigravidae wanted gender disclosure because of plans for the new baby, personal curiosity, partner and in-laws’ curiosity; moreover, some women wanted to test the accuracy of the findings at delivery and 62% of primigravidae had preference for male children. In view of these results, gender disclosure could be beneficial in this environment. PMID:25792816

  7. Factors affecting desired family size among preliterate New Guinea mothers.

    PubMed

    Pust, R E; Newman, J S; Senf, J; Stotik, E

    1985-10-01

    A random sample of 331 Enga mothers in Papua New Guinea perceived that an average of 5.96 live births (S.D. = 1.88) were needed to achieve their mean desired completed family size (DFS) of 4.65 children (S.D. = 1.32). The mean of the personal child mortality rates projected by the individual mothers. 194/1000, is very close to the rate of 198/1000 (224 deaths among 1134 live births) experienced by the women as a group and the 177/1000 documented in a 1972 prospective study in the area. This suggests that as a group preliterate women may possess an accurate estimate of prevailing child mortality rates. Considerable interest in family planning was shown. However for cultural or linguistic reasons, the majority (except in the case of the pill and tubal ligation) expressed no opinions about their readiness to use specific modern methods. The mean parity of 43 women seeking tubal ligation was 5.98 (S.D. = 1.81). An integrated maternal health and family planning program focusing on the health benefits to mother and child of the current 3-4-year birth interval seems indicated.

  8. Optical metrology in the conflict between desire and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osten, W.

    2016-08-01

    In the context of measurement technology, optical methods have a number of unique features. On the other hand the user is faced with serious challenges. One of the biggest challenges that currently attracts high attention in both the technical as well as life sciences, relates to exceeding the physical limits of resolution. Nowadays people prefer to talk about super-resolution. However, this concept creates an often excessive expectation, since this way only the diffraction limit can be achieved in many practical cases. Not to forget are those negative consequences that arise from the high information density in optical signals. The nature of light and its fascinating interaction with matter that makes our visual sense on the one hand the most valuable information carrier, often prevents on the other hand, the metrologically correct interpretation of the results. Nevertheless, it can be proven by numerous examples that no alternative to the optical principles exists. Because critical structures are getting smaller and functional surfaces are becoming increasingly complex, the wavelength of light provides the most flexible and traceable standard to cope with the challenges. But the potential of optical methods, often seduced to an overload of the wish list or to unrealistic promises. Therefore, this paper is dedicated to the tension between desire and reality in optical measuring techniques.

  9. Le matérialisme scientifique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Jean-François

    2004-03-01

    De nos jours, il arrive quotidiennement aux grands hommes d'avoir à fréquenter d'ignorants mortels épris d'une conviction maladive que la science est la grande responsable de tous les maux du monde. Évidemment sans physique atomique, il n'y aurait pas eu d'Hiroshima et sans révolution industrielle, pas de pollution et etc. Cependant, ces accusations envers le progrès technique sont tout à fait injustes, irréfléchies et, j'irai même jusqu'à dire, irresponsables, puisque le calcul, i.e. la planification, même la plus élémentaire, est ce qui caractérise le mieux, pragmatiquement, la société humaine. À mon avis, les problèmes sociaux tireraient plutôt leur origine de sciences sociales irréalistes, qui, concrètment, inspireraient ou serviraient d'alibis à ceux qui détiennent véritablement le pouvoir. Dans cet article, je tenterai donc de démontrer la meilleure véracité et efficacité du matérialisme scientifique. Cette doctrine, dont Mario Bunge est le plus illustre représentant, s'appuy sur les résultats théoriques et expérimentaux des sciences factuelles ainsi que sur l'exactitude logique des mathématiques, utilisées ici comme langage universel de l'expression des idées. Cette conception philosophique qui s'inspire principalement du modèle des théories physiques, stipule que les réalités sociales sont, comme tout autre réalité, matérielles, mathématisables et représentables comme des systèmes en interaction. En fait, le modèle des physiciens ayant historiquement fait ses preuves en matière de testabilité et de cohérence interne est proposé d'être appliquer aux sciences sociales, aujourd'hui scindées des sciences dites pures sous l'inspiration des pseudo penseurs néo-kantiens, phénoménologiques et post-moderne. Cette nouvelle approche permettrait ainsi d'évoluer plus exactement vers une compréhension des bases sociales et biologiques du comportement humain afin de développer une éthique sans cesse plus r

  10. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2003-09-01

    Système solaire poussiéreux; Combien d'étoiles dans le ciel?; Distance d'un pulsar; Planètes poussières et métaux; Un amateur belge bat les professionnels; Matière sombre; Supernova asymétrique; Anneau liégeois; Amas globulaires; Amas globulaires vagabonds; Baptême de satellites; Champ de gravité terrestre; Début de l'univers; XMM et Geminga; Carte neutrinos du ciel; Galaxies et trous noirs; Univers X; SMART-1: signal de départ pour l'aventure lunaire; Les saisons de Pluton; Planète dans M4; Rotation des pulsars; Un jumeau de Jupiter?; Le satellite ISO; Mars Express~:dernier clin d'oeil à la Terre; Waterworld: une réalité?

  11. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2013-06-01

    Une binaire remarquable; Collision de galaxies; La nébuleuse planétaire C1295; ALMA (suite); Couple massif; Astéroïdes lointains; L’eau de Jupiter; Occultation par Pluton; Super-Terres; Première image d’une planète massive autour d’une étoile double; Tempête au pôle de Saturne

  12. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2002-06-01

    Loi tchèque sur la pollution lumineuse; XTE J0929-314; Futurs amas de galaxies; Palomar 5; La météo des naines brunes; Trous noirs et galaxies elliptiques; Europe; 2MASS; Mars; Io; Matière sombre; Un objet très froid; Les oscillations stellaires; Un système lanétaire en formation; Binaire serrée; Satellites de Jupiter; Mars sous la loupe; Le Hubble nouveau

  13. Development of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) Instrument for In Situ Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Clegg, S. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Swindle, T. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. Traditionally, geochronology has only been accomplishable on samples from dedicated sample return missions or meteorites. The capability for in situ geochronology is highly desired, because it will allow one-way planetary missions to perform dating of large numbers of samples. The success of an in situ geochronology package will not only yield data on absolute ages, but can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache and/or return to Earth. In situ dating instruments have been proposed, but none have yet reached TRL 6 because the required high-resolution isotopic measurements are very challenging. Our team is now addressing this challenge by developing the Potassium (K) - Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) under the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP), building on previous work to develop a K-Ar in situ instrument [1]. KArLE uses a combination of several flight-proven components that enable accurate K-Ar isochron dating of planetary rocks. KArLE will ablate a rock sample, determine the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measure the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relate the two by the volume of the ablated pit using an optical method such as a vertical scanning interferometer (VSI). Our preliminary work indicates that the KArLE instrument will be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to +/-100 Myr, sufficient to address a wide range of geochronology problems in planetary science.

  14. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2003-01-01

    Premier plongeon d'Integral dans l'univers du rayonnement gamma; Collisions et cannibalisme galactique; Proplydes dans la Carène; Quasar record; Eta Carinae étoile double; Géantes rouges; La vitesse de la gravité; Sursaut gamma; Une planète lointaine; Un Troyen neptunien; L'univers lointain; Bébé galaxie; Le centre de notre Galaxie version X; Un HERO astronomique; Disque X géant; Electrons mystérieux dans RCW 38; Environnement martien; Interférométrie infrarouge; Méthane titanien; Micro-organismes atmosphériques; Réchauffement planétaire; La meilleure observation infrarouge de l'univers; Planètes en grand nombre?; Pôle sud et Big Bang; SS 433; Volcans et astéroïdes; Amalthée; De l'eau sur Mars; DEM L 106; Gliese 876; La taille des étoiles; Le danger des supernovas; Vieux cailloux

  15. Les Troubles Respiratoires Chez Le Brule

    PubMed Central

    Fassi Fihri, J.; Ezzoubi, M.; Boukind, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A travers une revue de la littérature, cet article se propose d'exposer les particularités des troubles respiratoires chez le brûlé. Ces troubles sont liés à un mécanisme direct, lorsque l'arbre respiratoire est lésé par le transfert d'énergie thermique du à la brûlure et/ou par un mécanisme indirect, lorsque la fonction respiratoire et ventilatoire du poumon est perturbée par les phénomènes loco-régionaux ou généraux du brûlé. Ces troubles respiratoires sont aggravés par l'inhalation des gaz contenus dans la fumée d'incendie. Le diagnostic de ces troubles est clinique et paraclinique. Il doit être précoce et continu. Les patients nécessitent de différents moyens thérapeutiques tels que l'oxygénothérapie, la libération des voies respiratoires, l'amélioration de la mécanique ventilatoire et de la fonction respiratoire, l'antibiothérapie ou la chirurgie des séquelles. Cette prise en charge doit nécessairement être multidisciplinaire. PMID:21991224

  16. The ethical desirability of moral bioenhancement: a review of reasons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The debate on the ethical aspects of moral bioenhancement focuses on the desirability of using biomedical as opposed to traditional means to achieve moral betterment. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the ethical reasons presented in the literature for and against moral bioenhancement. Discussion A review was performed and resulted in the inclusion of 85 articles. We classified the arguments used in those articles in the following six clusters: (1) why we (don’t) need moral bioenhancement, (2) it will (not) be possible to reach consensus on what moral bioenhancement should involve, (3) the feasibility of moral bioenhancement and the status of current scientific research, (4) means and processes of arriving at moral improvement matter ethically, (5) arguments related to the freedom, identity and autonomy of the individual, and (6) arguments related to social/group effects and dynamics. We discuss each argument separately, and assess the debate as a whole. First, there is little discussion on what distinguishes moral bioenhancement from treatment of pathological deficiencies in morality. Furthermore, remarkably little attention has been paid so far to the safety, risks and side-effects of moral enhancement, including the risk of identity changes. Finally, many authors overestimate the scientific as well as the practical feasibility of the interventions they discuss, rendering the debate too speculative. Summary Based on our discussion of the arguments used in the debate on moral enhancement, and our assessment of this debate, we advocate a shift in focus. Instead of speculating about non-realistic hypothetical scenarios such as the genetic engineering of morality, or morally enhancing ‘the whole of humanity’, we call for a more focused debate on realistic options of biomedical treatment of moral pathologies and the concrete moral questions these treatments raise. PMID:25227512

  17. PhySIC: a veto supertree method with desirable properties.

    PubMed

    Ranwez, Vincent; Berry, Vincent; Criscuolo, Alexis; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Guillemot, Sylvain; Scornavacca, Celine; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2007-10-01

    This paper focuses on veto supertree methods; i.e., methods that aim at producing a conservative synthesis of the relationships agreed upon by all source trees. We propose desirable properties that a supertree should satisfy in this framework, namely the non-contradiction property (PC) and the induction property (PI). The former requires that the supertree does not contain relationships that contradict one or a combination of the source topologies, whereas the latter requires that all topological information contained in the supertree is present in a source tree or collectively induced by several source trees. We provide simple examples to illustrate their relevance and that allow a comparison with previously advocated properties. We show that these properties can be checked in polynomial time for any given rooted supertree. Moreover, we introduce the PhySIC method (PHYlogenetic Signal with Induction and non-Contradiction). For k input trees spanning a set of n taxa, this method produces a supertree that satisfies the above-mentioned properties in O(kn(3) + n(4)) computing time. The polytomies of the produced supertree are also tagged by labels indicating areas of conflict as well as those with insufficient overlap. As a whole, PhySIC enables the user to quickly summarize consensual information of a set of trees and localize groups of taxa for which the data require consolidation. Lastly, we illustrate the behaviour of PhySIC on primate data sets of various sizes, and propose a supertree covering 95% of all primate extant genera. The PhySIC algorithm is available at http://atgc.lirmm.fr/cgi-bin/PhySIC.

  18. Perceived, Actual, and Desired Knowledge Regarding Medicare Billing and Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    Adiga, Kenna; Buss, Mary; Beasley, Brent W

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Economics and reimbursement have become a daily part of practicing physicians' lives. Yet, few internal medicine (IM) programs have offered formal curricula during residency about practice management or economics. OBJECTIVE To determine perceived, desired, and actual knowledge of Medicare billing and reimbursement among residents compared with community-based General Internists. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional needs assessment survey of community and university-based second-year IM residents from 4 geographic regions of the United States. RESULTS One hundred and thirty-three second-year IM residents completed the questionnaire. Residents rated their level of knowledge about Medicare as a 2.0 (SD = 0.9) on a Likert scale (1 = “very low,” 5 = “very high”). Residents agreed that Medicare reimbursement should be taught in residency with a score of 4.0 (SD = 1.1; 1 = “strongly disagree,” 5 = “strongly agree” SD = 1.1). On the knowledge assessment portion of the questionnaire, residents scored significantly lower than a group of general IM physicians who completed the same questions (percent correct = 41.8% vs 59.0%, P<.001). Residents' scores correlated with their self-assessed level of knowledge (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS Our study demonstrates that second year IM residents feel they have a low level of knowledge regarding outpatient Medicare billing, and have a lower test score than practicing Internists to back up their feelings. The residents also strongly agree that they do not receive enough education about Medicare reimbursement, and believe it should be a requirement in residency training. PMID:16704389

  19. The ethical desirability of moral bioenhancement: a review of reasons.

    PubMed

    Specker, Jona; Focquaert, Farah; Raus, Kasper; Sterckx, Sigrid; Schermer, Maartje

    2014-09-16

    The debate on the ethical aspects of moral bioenhancement focuses on the desirability of using biomedical as opposed to traditional means to achieve moral betterment. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the ethical reasons presented in the literature for and against moral bioenhancement. A review was performed and resulted in the inclusion of 85 articles. We classified the arguments used in those articles in the following six clusters: (1) why we (don't) need moral bioenhancement, (2) it will (not) be possible to reach consensus on what moral bioenhancement should involve, (3) the feasibility of moral bioenhancement and the status of current scientific research, (4) means and processes of arriving at moral improvement matter ethically, (5) arguments related to the freedom, identity and autonomy of the individual, and (6) arguments related to social/group effects and dynamics. We discuss each argument separately, and assess the debate as a whole. First, there is little discussion on what distinguishes moral bioenhancement from treatment of pathological deficiencies in morality. Furthermore, remarkably little attention has been paid so far to the safety, risks and side-effects of moral enhancement, including the risk of identity changes. Finally, many authors overestimate the scientific as well as the practical feasibility of the interventions they discuss, rendering the debate too speculative. Based on our discussion of the arguments used in the debate on moral enhancement, and our assessment of this debate, we advocate a shift in focus. Instead of speculating about non-realistic hypothetical scenarios such as the genetic engineering of morality, or morally enhancing 'the whole of humanity', we call for a more focused debate on realistic options of biomedical treatment of moral pathologies and the concrete moral questions these treatments raise.

  20. In Situ Geochronology on the Mars 2020 Rover with KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Swindle, T. D.; Roark, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    If extinct and/or extant life is discovered on Mars, knowledge of the chronology of the biosphere will be of paramount importance. KArLE will provide absolute ages of Mars 2020 rocks, which will allow us to understand them in the context of Mars' geologic history, connect them to other landing sites, and compare Martian epochs of habitability with the Earth's history and evolution of life. KArLE significantly enhances the ability of Mars 2020 to meet its science objectives by performing in situ age dating on key lithologies, enabling targeted searches for ancient biosignatures and increasing the chances of identifying evidence for Martian microbial life. The KArLE investigation makes its measurements on a core sample obtained with the rover drill, inserted into a small, mechanically simple chamber, followed by interrogation by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), mass spectrometry, and optical imaging. The KArLE experiment is flexible enough to accommodate any partner providing these instrument components, a creative approach that extends the ability of the Mars 2020 payload to accomplish an additional highly-desirable science measurement for low cost and risk and minimal extra hardware.

  1. Lignes directrices pour le suivi des cardiostimulateurs au canada : consensus du groupe de travail canadien sur la cardiostimulation

    PubMed

    D Fraser JD; M Gillis AM; Irwin; Nishimura; Tyers; Philippon

    2000-03-01

    Un sondage sur les pratiques de cardiostimulation au Canada effectue en 1997 a revele un profond desir pour des lignes directrices nationales sur le suivi des cardiostimulateurs. Ces lignes directrices sur le suivi des cardiostimulateurs representent une declaration de consensus du Groupe de travail canadien sur la cardiostimulation. Le suivi des patients en personne plutot que par moyens transtelephoniques est preferable. Les patients devraient etre examines au minimum dans les 72 heures suivant l'implantation, 2 a 12 semaines et 6 mois apres l'implantation, et annuellement par la suite. Des examens plus frequents peuvent etre requis pour certains patients. Ceci dependra des problemes cardiovasculaires associes et des appareils en particulier. Une visite de suivi typique devrait comprendre un examen cardiovasculaire oriente, l'interrogation du systeme de cardiostimulation et une revue des donnees de telemetrie, un examen du rythme sous-jacent, un examen des seuils de stimulation et de detection et une reprogrammation adequate des parametres pour optimaliser le fonctionnement et la longevite de l'appareil.

  2. Multimedia Astronomy Communication: Effectively Communicate Astronomy to the Desired Audience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Star Cartier, Kimberly Michelle; Wright, Jason

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of our jobs as scientists is communicating our work to others. In this, the field of astronomy holds the double-edged sword of ubiquitous fascination: the topic has been of interest to nearly the entire global population at some point in their lives, yet the learning curve is steep within any subfield and rife with difficult-to-synthesize details. Compounding this issue is the ever-expanding array of methods to reach people in today's Communications Era. Each communication medium has its own strengths and weaknesses, is appropriate in different situations, and requires its own specific skillset in order to maximize its functionality. Despite this, little attention is given to training astronomers in effective communication techniques, often relying on newcomers to simply pick up the ability by mimicking others and assuming that a firm grasp on the subject matter will make up for deficiencies in communication theory. This can restrict astronomers to a narrow set of communication methods, harming both the communicators and the audience who may struggle to access the information through those media.Whether writing a research paper to academic peers or giving an astronomy talk to a pubic audience, successfully communicating a scientific message requires more than just an expert grasp on the topic. A communicator must understand the makeup and prior knowledge of the desired audience, be able to break down the salient points of the topic into pieces that audience can digest, select and maximize upon a medium to deliver the message, and frame the message in a way that hooks the audience and compels further interest. In this work we synthesize the requirements of effective astronomy communication into a few key questions that every communicator needs to answer. We then discuss some of the most common media currently used to communicate astronomy, give both effective and poor examples of utilizing these media to communicate astronomy, and provide key

  3. Attitude, Desire, and Frequency of Extra-Marital involvement as Correlated with Subject Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Sharon; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A study of desire for, frequency of, and attitudes towards extramarital involvement (EMI) was conducted, using 100 male and female college students ranging in age from 19 to 55. Predictive factors other than desire, frequency, and attitude were number of marriages, and the social desirability scale. (Author)

  4. Unpacking a Liturgical Framing of Desire for the Purposes of Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renga, Ian Parker

    2017-01-01

    Much of the public discourse on education arguably reinforces the assumption that most stakeholders share the same desires for teaching and learning--desires reflecting a liberal paradigm that stresses individualism, control, and efficiency. But there are other desires, and additional empirical research informed by a Vygotskian sociocultural…

  5. Three- and Four-Year-Old Children's Ability to Use Desire- and Belief-Based Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Kimberly Wright

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of 3-year olds' reliance on desire when predicting behavior and their performance on false-belief tasks. Results suggested that young children may use the desires of the agent, rather than their own desires, to predict behavior in standard false-belief paradigms. Older preschoolers also have difficulty…

  6. Attitude, Desire, and Frequency of Extra-Marital involvement as Correlated with Subject Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Sharon; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A study of desire for, frequency of, and attitudes towards extramarital involvement (EMI) was conducted, using 100 male and female college students ranging in age from 19 to 55. Predictive factors other than desire, frequency, and attitude were number of marriages, and the social desirability scale. (Author)

  7. 48 CFR 52.211-9 - Desired and Required Time of Delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 52.211-9 Desired and Required Time of Delivery. As prescribed in 11.404(a)(3), insert the following clause: Desired and Required Time of Delivery (JUN 1997) (a) The Government desires delivery to be... beyond the time for delivery in the Government's required delivery schedule as follows: REQUIRED DELIVERY...

  8. Desire for Thinness among High School Cheerleaders: Relationship to Disordered Eating and Weight Control Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundholm, Jean K.; Littrell, John M.

    1986-01-01

    Examined cheerleaders' desire for thinness in relationship to disordered eating and weight control behaviors. A Desire for Thinness Scale and selected scales from three eating disorder instruments were administered to 751 high school cheerleaders. Cheerleaders who expressed a strong desire for thinness had significantly higher scores on seven of…

  9. Desire for Thinness among High School Cheerleaders: Relationship to Disordered Eating and Weight Control Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundholm, Jean K.; Littrell, John M.

    1986-01-01

    Examined cheerleaders' desire for thinness in relationship to disordered eating and weight control behaviors. A Desire for Thinness Scale and selected scales from three eating disorder instruments were administered to 751 high school cheerleaders. Cheerleaders who expressed a strong desire for thinness had significantly higher scores on seven of…

  10. Configurations of Identity among Sexual Minority Youth: Context, Desire, and Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Pilecki, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire.…

  11. An Investigation of Sex Differences and Social Desirability in the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demiany, Frances E.; Mulgrave, Norman W.

    Subjects were divided into three groups. Group 1 took the entire Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS). Group 2 rated the individual items from the EPPS using the original definitions of social desirability and personal desirability. Group 3 rated the individual items from the EPPS using redefinitions of social and personal desirability.…

  12. The Role of Perceived Control and the Desirability of Control among Abusive and Nonabusive Husbands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Joni E.; Arias, Ileana

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between husbands' (n=72) violence and desired and perceived control. Identified two subgroups of men at high risk for engaging in domestic violence: men low on self-esteem, low on desirability of control, and low on perceived personal control; and men high on self-esteem, high on desirability of control, but low on perceived…

  13. Elucidating women's (hetero)sexual desire: definitional challenges and content expansion.

    PubMed

    Meana, Marta

    2010-03-01

    The literature on women's sexual desire is reviewed with an emphasis on definitional challenges, an assessment of the empirical basis for the distinction between spontaneous and responsive desire, a reconsideration of the extent to which women's sexual desire is relational in nature, and an exploration of the incentive value of sex for women as a factor partially independent from the experience of sexual desire. Nine recommendations are made regarding research and diagnostic directions. The article concludes with an appeal for the inclusion of eroticism in research and clinical work on sexual desire.

  14. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will travel to the moon and Mars, and all future Exploration vehicles and habitats will be highly computerized, necessitating an accurate method of interaction with the computers. The design of a cursor control device will have to take into consideration g-forces, vibration, gloved operations, and the specific types of tasks to be performed. The study described here is being undertaken to begin identifying characteristics of cursor control devices that will work well for the unique Exploration mission environments. The objective of the study is not to identify a particular device, but to begin identifying design characteristics that are usable and desirable for space missions. Most cursor control devices have strengths and weaknesses; they are more appropriate for some tasks and less suitable for others. The purpose of this study is to collect some initial usability data on a large number of commercially available and proprietary cursor control devices. A software test battery was developed for this purpose. Once data has been collected using these low-level, basic point/click/drag tasks, higher fidelity, scenario-driven evaluations will be conducted with a reduced set of devices. The standard tasks used for testing cursor control devices are based on a model of human movement known as Fitts law. Fitts law predicts that the time to acquire a target is logarithmically related to the distance over the target size. To gather data for analysis with this law, fundamental, low-level tasks are used such as dragging or pointing at various targets of different sizes from various distances. The first four core tasks for the study were based on the ISO 9241-9:(2000) document from the International Organization for Standardization that contains the requirements for non-keyboard input devices. These include two pointing tasks, one dragging and one tracking task. The fifth task from ISO 9241-9, the circular tracking task was not used

  15. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will travel to the moon and Mars, and all future Exploration vehicles and habitats will be highly computerized, necessitating an accurate method of interaction with the computers. The design of a cursor control device will have to take into consideration g-forces, vibration, gloved operations, and the specific types of tasks to be performed. The study described here is being undertaken to begin identifying characteristics of cursor control devices that will work well for the unique Exploration mission environments. The objective of the study is not to identify a particular device, but to begin identifying design characteristics that are usable and desirable for space missions. Most cursor control devices have strengths and weaknesses; they are more appropriate for some tasks and less suitable for others. The purpose of this study is to collect some initial usability data on a large number of commercially available and proprietary cursor control devices. A software test battery was developed for this purpose. Once data has been collected using these low-level, basic point/click/drag tasks, higher fidelity, scenario-driven evaluations will be conducted with a reduced set of devices. The standard tasks used for testing cursor control devices are based on a model of human movement known as Fitts law. Fitts law predicts that the time to acquire a target is logarithmically related to the distance over the target size. To gather data for analysis with this law, fundamental, low-level tasks are used such as dragging or pointing at various targets of different sizes from various distances. The first four core tasks for the study were based on the ISO 9241-9:(2000) document from the International Organization for Standardization that contains the requirements for non-keyboard input devices. These include two pointing tasks, one dragging and one tracking task. The fifth task from ISO 9241-9, the circular tracking task was not used

  16. Le déficit immunitaire humoral: mieux le connaître pour mieux le prendre en charge

    PubMed Central

    El Bakkouri, Jalila; Aadam, Zahra; Ailal, Fatima; Alj, Hanane Salih; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Les déficits immunitaires humoraux (DIH) sont des maladies hétérogènes allant des formes asymptomatiques rencontrés lors des déficits sélectifs en immunoglobulines A (IgA) et en sous-classes d'IgG aux formes graves des agammaglobulinémies congénitales. Les patients atteints de DIH présentent souvent des infections ORL ou des voies respiratoires récidivantes ou sévères. Ces patients peuvent présenter un certain nombre de complications non infectieuses, telles que des manifestations auto-immunes et des entéropathies, qui pourraient être le seul symptôme clinique révélateur. Les formes sévères des DIH sont facilement diagnostiquées grâce au dosage des IgG totaux, des IgA et des IgM. La thérapie substitutive par les immunoglobulines reste le traitement de choix chez ces patients. PMID:25489366

  17. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.

    1986-05-01

    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  18. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2014-04-01

    Cartographie d’une naine brune; 2006DP14; Anatomie d’un astéroïde; L’astéroïde P/2013 R3; Formation des planètes; Planètes Kepler; Bêta Pictoris; Cratère Mojave; Les astéroïdes de la ceinture principale; Planète X; Mercure et la gravitation; Gloire sur Vénus; Galaxies elliptiques massives; Cas A; SN 2014J et les supernovae Ia; Le Grand Nuage de Magellan; Nébuleuse d’Andromède; ESO 137-001

  19. Books reconsidered: Emile Durkheim, Le Suicide.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Michael

    2006-12-01

    To reappraise Emile Durkheim's taxonomy of suicide in Le Suicide in the light of recent experience. While Durkheim's scientific method and argument are fundamentally flawed, some of his concepts have instrumental value in attempting to understand the complex origins of suicidal behaviour. Durkheim's baseless dismissal of mental illness as a key determinant of suicidal behaviour weakens his thesis significantly. However, his conceptualization of anomic, egoistic and altruistic suicide provides a means of comprehending recent trends in suicidal behaviour in the former Soviet states and a possible window into the psyche of the suicides of religious and political extremists.

  20. Le synovialosarcome primitif de la verge

    PubMed Central

    Saadi, Ahmed; Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Kerkeni, Walid; Ayed, Haroun; Znaidi, Nadia Sabbegh; Ben Miled, Aicha; Messai, Taha; Cherif, Mohamed; Ben Slama, Riadh; Rammeh, Soumaya; Mnif, Najla; Maalej, Mongi; Derouiche, Amine; Chebil, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Le synovialosarcome représente un sous-type rare des sarcomes des tissus mous. Son apparition au niveau de la verge est exceptionnelle et seulement deux cas ont été rapportés dans la littérature auparavant. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas de synovialosarcome de la verge chez un jeune patient de 27 ans, en essayant par l’entremise d’une revue de la littérature de discuter des aspects radiologiques, histologiques, immunohistochimiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de cette tumeur exceptionnelle. PMID:28163814

  1. Lele de l’omalizumab dans le traitement de l’asthme allergique grave

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Kenneth R; Cartier, André; Hébert, Jacques; McIvor, R Andrew; Schellenberg, R Robert

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXTE : Un nouveau traitement anti-immunoglobuline E (anti-IgE) contre l’asthme, l’omalizumab, a été approuvé au Canada. OBJECTIF : Passer en revue les données fondamentales et cliniques sur l’omalizumab et examiner lele possible de ce médicament dans la prise en charge de l’asthme au Canada. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans MEDLINE afin de repérer les études menées de 1960 à 2006 sur l’omalizumab. La recherche a également porté sur les résumés de réunions scientifiques récentes dans le domaine des maladies respiratoires et des allergies; par ailleurs, toute donnée non publiée a été demandée au fabricant. Après avoir revu et résumé les données, un comité mixte constitué de spécialistes des maladies respiratoires et des allergies a rédigé un ensemble de recommandations relatives à l’utilisation de l’omalizumab. RÉSULTATS : L’omalizumab est un anticorps monoclonal humanisé qui se lie au domaine C epsilon 3 de la molécule d’IgE pour former des complexes immuns solubles qui sont éliminés par le système réticulo-endothélial. L’administration d’injections sous-cutanées espacées de deux ou de quatre semaines à la dose recommandée entraîne une diminution rapide des taux d’IgE circulantes libres. Lors de deux essais cliniques de phase III menés auprès de 1 405 adultes et adolescents atteints d’asthme modéré à grave qui recevaient des doses moyennes stables de corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI), l’omalizumab a diminué les taux d’exacerbation par rapport au placebo et a été associé à une amélioration des symptômes ainsi qu’à une épargne plus importante des corticostéroïdes. Dans un essai mené auprès de 419 patients atteints d’asthme grave non maîtrisé malgré l’utilisation de doses élevées de CSI et de la prise concomitante d’agonistes bêta-2 à action prolongée, les exacerbations graves étaient de 50 % moins fréquentes chez

  2. Pregnancy desire among a sample of young couples who are expecting a baby.

    PubMed

    Sipsma, Heather; Divney, Anna A; Niccolai, Linda M; Gordon, Derrick; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S

    2012-12-01

    Adolescents' desire for a pregnancy has been explored more among females than among males. A more comprehensive understanding of teenagers' pregnancy desires is needed to inform pregnancy prevention efforts and to support couples as they undergo the transition to parenthood. In an observational cohort study conducted in 2007-2011 at clinics in Connecticut, data were collected from 296 couples (females aged 14-21 and their partners) who were expecting a baby. The degree to which each partner had wanted the pregnancy and partners' perceptions of each other's pregnancy desires were assessed. Multilevel regression models examined associations between pregnancy desire and individual, partner, family and community characteristics, and between desire and life and relationship satisfaction. Forty-nine percent of females and 53% of males reported having wanted the pregnancy. Pregnancy desire scores were positively associated with being male, expecting a first baby, perceived partner desire and parental response to the pregnancy; scores were negatively associated with being in school, being employed and parental support. Females' perceptions of their partners' pregnancy desires were slightly more accurate than males' (kappas, 0.36 and 0.28, respectively). Pregnancy desire was positively associated with both life and relationship satisfaction, particularly among males. Adolescents' pregnancy desires require further attention as a possible focus of pregnancy prevention efforts, and health care providers may want to ensure that young couples with unwanted pregnancies are offered additional psychological and social services as they transition to parenthood. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  3. Outcomes of using the internet for sexual purposes: fulfillment of sexual desires.

    PubMed

    Daneback, Kristian; Sevcikova, Anna; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Ross, Michael W

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the characteristics of those who report fulfillment of sexual desires as a result of internet use for sexual purposes and which sexually related online activities contribute to the fulfillment of sexual desires. Data were collected through a questionnaire posted on Swedish-language websites in 2009. The sample comprised 1614 respondents who reported using the internet for sexual purposes, 62% women and 38% men. The results showed that the majority of the respondents had their sexual desires fulfilled as a result of their sexually related activities on the internet; 21% to a great extent and 59% to a small extent, but 20% did not have their sexual desires fulfilled. Using a multinomial logistic regression analysis, respondents who had their sexual desires fulfilled to a small or great extent were each compared with those who did not have their sexual desires fulfilled at all. At the level of individual characteristics and sexual behaviours, those with no fulfillment of their sexual desires did not differ from those who had their sexual desires fulfilled, with the exceptions of age and masturbation. In comparison to fulfillment to a small extent, fulfillment of sexual desires to a great extent was predicted by a larger number of sexually related online activities that were based on interaction. The findings suggest that the internet may contribute to fulfillment of sexual desires among a large internet population, irrespective of sex or sexual identity.

  4. Narratives of desire in mid-age women with and without arousal difficulties.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Heiman, Julia R; Tolman, Deborah L

    2009-01-01

    There is controversy about the nature of women's sexual desire. The aim was to explore narrative descriptions of sexual desire among mid-aged women in hopes of clarifying how women define and experience sexual desire, and how these might differ among women with and without female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD). Mid-aged women without (age: M = 45, n = 12) and with (age: M = 55, n = 10) FSAD took part in in-depth interviews that invited them to share personal stories of sexual desire. Women also completed the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Women in both groups described sexual desire in genital, non-genital physical, and in cognitive-emotional terms. Although women with FSAD had low ratings of sexual desire on the FSFI, they could recall recent experiences of desire that did not differ from the control group. Women identified a number of triggers of desire including touch, memories, and partner's responses--the latter of which acted as both a trigger and an inhibitor. Women in the control group were more likely to express conflation about the distinction between desire and arousal. Among the different "objects" of women's desire, most women acknowledged emotional connection as most important.

  5. Pregnancy Desire Among a Sample of Young Couples Who Are Expecting a Baby

    PubMed Central

    Sipsma, Heather; Divney, Anna A.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Gordon, Derrick; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Adolescents’ desire for a pregnancy has been explored more among females than among males. A more comprehensive understanding of teenagers’ pregnancy desires is needed to inform pregnancy prevention efforts and to support couples as they undergo the transition to parenthood. METHODS In an observational cohort study conducted in 2007–2011 at clinics in Connecticut, data were collected from 296 couples (females aged 14–21 and their partners) who were expecting a baby. The degree to which each partner had wanted the pregnancy and partners’ perceptions of each other’s pregnancy desires were assessed. Multilevel regression models examined associations between pregnancy desire and individual, partner, family and community characteristics, and between desire and life and relationship satisfaction. RESULTS Forty-nine percent of females and 53% of males reported having wanted the pregnancy. Pregnancy desire scores were positively associated with being male, expecting a first baby, perceived partner desire and parental response to the pregnancy; scores were negatively associated with being in school, being employed and parental support. Females’ perceptions of their partners’ pregnancy desires were slightly more accurate than males’ (kappas, 0.36 and 0.28, respectively). Pregnancy desire was positively associated with both life and relationship satisfaction, particularly among males. CONCLUSIONS Adolescents’ pregnancy desires require further attention as a possible focus of pregnancy prevention efforts, and health care providers may want to ensure that young couples with unwanted pregnancies are offered additional psychological and social services as they transition to parenthood. PMID:23231332

  6. [Age-related differences in the effect of social desirability on self-reported emotional state].

    PubMed

    Nuevo, Roberto; Montorio, Ignacio; Márquez-González, María; Cabrera, Isabel; Izal, María; Pérez-Rojo, Gema

    2009-01-01

    It is usually assumed that social desirability increases with ageing, correlates with measures of emotional well-being, and represents a potential threat to research in older adults, and should therefore be systematically controlled. However, this assumption is controversial and lacks a strong empirical basis. The present study aimed to analyze the association between social desirability and measures of emotional well-being, as well as to test for age-related differences in the changes produced in emotional state after experimental anxiety induction. We randomly assigned 149 individuals (92 university students and 52 older adults) to one of three groups: a control group and two intervention groups in which anxiety was experimentally induced. Social desirability scores were significantly higher in older persons (Hedges'g=1.22). No statistically significant correlations were found in any age group between social desirability and measures of emotional well-being. Likewise, in a series of univariate ANOVAs, no differences were found according to the degree of social desirability in changes in emotional state after anxiety induction. Overall, social desirability was not related to the changes produced by experimental anxiety induction. The present study confirms the association between social desirability and age. However, social desirability did not seem to correlate with emotional well-being in any age group. Moreover, social desirability was not related to changes in emotional state after experimental anxiety induction. These results do not support the view that social desirability is a threat to the validity of experimental studies in the elderly.

  7. Sociosexual attitudes and dyadic sexual desire independently predict women's preferences for male vocal masculinity.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Jones, Benedict C; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R

    2014-10-01

    Research suggests that the desire to behave sexually with a partner (dyadic sexual desire) may reflect desire for intimacy whereas solitary sexual desire may reflect pleasure seeking motivations more generally. Because direct reproductive success can only be increased with a sexual partner, we tested whether dyadic sexual desire was a better predictor of women's preferences for lower pitched men's voices (a marker of relatively high reproductive success) than was solitary sexual desire. In Study 1, women (N = 95) with higher dyadic sexual desire scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 preferred masculinized male voices more than did women with lower dyadic sexual desire scores. We did not find a significant relationship between women's vocal masculinity preferences and their solitary sexual desire scores. In Study 2, we tested whether the relationship between voice preferences and dyadic sexual desire scores was related to differences in sociosexual orientation. Women (N = 80) with more positive attitudes towards uncommitted sex had stronger vocal masculinity preferences regardless of whether men's attractiveness was judged for short-term or long-term relationships. Independent of the effect of sociosexual attitudes, dyadic sexual desire positively predicted women's masculinity preferences when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term but not long-term relationships. These effects were independent of women's own relationship status and hormonal contraceptive use. Our results provide further evidence that women's mate preferences may independently reflect individual differences in both sexual desire and openness to short-term relationships, potentially with the ultimate function of maximizing the fitness benefits of women's mate choices.

  8. Screening for psychotic experiences: social desirability biases in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2015-08-01

    Subthreshold psychotic experiences are common in the population and may be clinically significant. Reporting of psychotic experiences through self-report screens may be subject to threats to validity, including social desirability biases. This study examines the influence of social desirability on the reporting of psychotic experiences. College students (n = 686) completed a psychosis screen and the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale as part of a self-report survey battery. Associations between psychosis and social desirability were tested using logistic regression models. With the exception of auditory hallucinations, all other measures of psychotic experiences were subject to social desirability biases. Respondents who gave more socially desirable answers were less likely to report psychotic experiences. Respondent's tendency to underreport psychotic experiences should be accounted for when screening for these symptoms clinically. Findings also suggest that population figures based on self-report may underestimate the prevalence of subthreshold delusions but not hallucinations. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Effects of social desirability on students' self-reporting of partner abuse perpetration and victimization.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kathryn M; Naugle, Amy E

    2007-01-01

    Little is still known about the degree to which social desirability affects reports of partner abuse. The current study builds on existing research exploring the relationship between social desirability and partner abuse reports by analyzing 49 male and 155 female students' responses to the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS). Sex differences were not associated with partner abuse rates, regardless of type, severity, and violence role. Women had significantly higher social desirability scores than men, and women's MCSDS scores were negatively correlated with partner abuse perpetration and victimization rates. Social desirability was a significant predictor of psychological abuse perpetration, whereas gender was a significant predictor of sexual coercion perpetration. In all partner abuse cases, however, social desirability and gender accounted for less than 10% of the variance in partner abuse reports.

  10. Eroticism in group psychotherapy: psychoanalytic reflections on desire, agony, and ecstasy.

    PubMed

    Tylim, Isaac

    2003-10-01

    To fully understand the complexities of eroticism in groups, it may be necessary to review a conceptual differentiation of desire and its allies: agony and ecstasy. This article suggests that psychoanalytic group psychotherapy is made for neither agony nor ecstasy. Sexual excitement maybe; eroticism and desire, yes; agony and ecstasy, no. While agony or ecstasy imply a threat to the survival of the group, eroticism and desire reaffirm its existence. In this manner the group may be converted into a theater where desire may be celebrated, while the threat of being dissolved in the depths or exaltation of agony and ecstasy is elaborated and worked through: "Desire is desire only if it succeeds in postponing something".

  11. Social desirability, psychological symptoms, and perceived health in burn injured patients.

    PubMed

    Willebrand, Mimmie; Wikehult, Björn; Ekselius, Lisa

    2005-12-01

    Social desirability was previously seen as a nuisance in assessment, but today it is regarded as a personality trait with an influence on health. The aim was to explore relations between social desirability and health in former burn patients. Eighty-four burn patients injured on average 3.8 years ago responded to a questionnaire booklet. Social desirability was assessed with the social desirability subscale of the Swedish universities Scales of Personality, which is standardized in a normative sample. The results showed that a subgroup with high degree of social desirability displayed significantly poorer perceived health on the burn-specific health subscales heat sensitivity, work, and body image than normal responders did. There were no differences regarding age, education, injury-related variables, sick leave, or symptoms of anxiety and depression. In conclusion, participants with high social desirability were characterized by postburn problems in outdoor and work-related situations, and more self-consciousness about appearance.

  12. Insights: Simple Models for Teaching Equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joan M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents three models that have been effective for teaching chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle: (1) the liquid transfer model, (2) the fish model, and (3) the teeter-totter model. Explains each model and its relation to Le Chatelier's principle. (MVL)

  13. Insights: Simple Models for Teaching Equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joan M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents three models that have been effective for teaching chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle: (1) the liquid transfer model, (2) the fish model, and (3) the teeter-totter model. Explains each model and its relation to Le Chatelier's principle. (MVL)

  14. Effects of LeY glycan expression on embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Gu, J; Sui, L-L; Cui, D; Ma, Y-N; Zhu, C-Y; Kong, Y

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the correlation between LeY glycan expression and embryo implantation. Uterine epithelial cells before implantation were transfected with FUT1siRNA to inhibit FUT1 (the gene encoding the key enzyme of LeY synthesis) expression and treated with 10 ng/ml leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Murine embryo implantation model in vitro was prepared by late blastocysts with identical morphology and treated uterine epithelial cells co-culture. Using RT-PCR, dot blot and observation of embryo attachment to analyze FUT1 gene expression and LeY synthesis of uterine epithelial cells and studied further the correlation of LeY expression level and embryo implantation. FUT1 gene expression and LeY synthesis declined after cells were transfected with FUT1siRNA, and LIF promoted FUT1 expression and LeY synthesis. After expression of FUT1 gene was inhibited, attachment rate of embryos lowered, but LIF up-regulated FUT1 expression and increased the attachment rate of embryos. These results indicated regulating FUT1 expression affected LeY synthesis, and then LeY regulated the recognition and attachment of uterus-embryo and participates in embryo implantation further.

  15. Second Language Acquisition of the Chinese Particle "Le."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaohong

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated 14 English speakers' interlanguage constructions using the Chinese perfective aspect and the sentence-final modal particle. The results show that although the surface forms of the perfective aspect "-le" and the sentence-final "le" are identical, they are learned differently, with the perfective aspect…

  16. Teen lesbian desires and identities in international cinema: 1931-2007.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of representations of teenage lesbian desires and/or identity in a global cinematic context, addressing twenty-seven films from fourteen nations released between 1931 and 2007. Despite temporal and geographical differences, three main forms of film texts emerged: those that engaged in sub or somewhat textual depictions of teen lesbian desires and relationships; others that offered a tragic take on lesbian desire; and the dominant form, engaging with a coming of age narrative structure.

  17. A Desired PAR-Achieving Precoder Design for Multiuser MIMO OFDM Based on Concentration of Measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Hyun-Su; Kim, Dong Ku

    2017-03-01

    For multi-user multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communications in orthogonal frequency di- vision multiplexing systems, we propose a MIMO precoding scheme providing a desired peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) at the minimum cost that is defined as received SNR degradation. By taking advantage of the concentration of measure, we formulate a convex problem with constraint on the desired PAR. Consequently, the proposed scheme almost exactly achieves the desired PAR on average, and asymptotically attains the desired PAR at the 0.001 point of its complementary cumulative distribution function, as the number of subcarriers increases.

  18. Reduced labial temperature in response to sexual films with distractors among women with lower sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Prause, Nicole; Heiman, Julia

    2010-02-01

    Sexual desire variation traditionally has been treated as due to variance in affective response to sexual stimulation, but differences in attention to the stimuli may better account for differences in sexual desire. Determine whether sexual desire varies due to attention biases towards sexual stimuli. Sexual arousal was quantified by physiological (labia minus temperature) and experienced (continuously adjusting a potentiometer) indicators. Twenty-two women who varied in their level of sexual desire attended one laboratory session during which they viewed a neutral nature film, a sexual film, and a sexual film with distractors while their labial temperature and self-reported sexual arousal were recorded. Participants reported and displayed lower sexual arousal during the sexual stimulus with distractors as compared to the sexual film without distractors. While all women reported lower sexual arousal to the sexual film with distractors, women with relatively lower sexual desire also reported lower sexual arousal to the sexual film with no distractors than women with higher sexual desire. Physiologically, women with lower sexual desire exhibited lower labial temperature. Since the predicted lower self-reported and physiological sexual arousal to the sexual stimulus with distractors for the women with lower sexual desire did not emerge, this study does not support that sexual desire levels vary due to differential attention to sexual stimuli.

  19. Use of Social Desirability Scales in Clinical Psychology: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Perinelli, Enrico; Gremigni, Paola

    2016-06-01

    There is still an open debate about the utility of social desirability indicators. This report systematically reviewed the use of social desirability scales in studies addressing social desirability in clinical psychology. A systematic review (January 2010-March 2015) was conducted, including 35 studies meeting the inclusion criteria of being published in peer-reviewed journals and describing quantitative findings about an association of social desirability with clinical psychology variables using a cross-sectional or longitudinal design. Social desirability was associated with self-reports of various clinical-psychological dimensions. Most of the included studies treated social desirability as a 1-dimensional variable and only 10 of 35 disentangled the impression management and self-deception components. Although theoretical literature does not consider social desirability a mere response bias, only 4 of the reviewed articles controlled for the possible suppressor effect of personality variables on social desirability, while the majority focused upon the stylistic (response bias) rather than the substantive (personality) nature of this construct. The present review highlighted some limitations in the use of social desirability scales in recent clinical psychology research and tried to offer a few suggestions for handling this issue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Son preference, fertility desire and contraceptive use in two largest cities of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, M N

    1990-01-01

    The preference for sons in deeprooted in Pakistan and the growth rate is 3.1%/year, which has long term implications for the Population Welfare Program. In this study, the relationship between living sons and contraceptive use is examined among 1243 currently married industrial workers and 307 control group workers from 13 sample industries in Karachi and Lahore, Pakistan. The Family Welfare Education for Workers' Project has been operating in these industries. Questions were asked about the number of living children by sex, desired number of children by sex, and ideal family size by sex. The ideal number of children was 4 (3.7) with an average of 2.2 sons and 1.5 daughters, which indicates son preference. Average desired children (living plus additional wanted) is 5.0 (4.7) with an average of 2.6 for sons and 2.1 for daughters. All workers with an ideal of 1 wanted a son. 90% of those wanting an ideal of 2 children desired 1 son and 1 daughter. 95% with an ideal of 3 children wanted 2 sons and 1 daughter. 83% with an ideal of 4 children desired 2 sons and 2 daughters, and 16% wanted 3 sons and 1 daughter. 85% with an ideal of 5 children wanted 3 sons and 2 daughters. Further evidence for son preference occurs with total desired number of children; i.e., 79% of those desiring 2 children preferred 1 of each sex, and 21%, 2 sons. This pattern was repeated for each increase in child desired. The desire for children was also examined in terms of existing children. Workers who have more sons were less likely to desire another child; however, those with 2 living daughters desired 1.63 more children and those with 1 of each desired .85 more children. Those with 2 sons desired .67 more children. The number of additional children desired decreases with the increasing number of living children, and with increasing numbers of living sons. Desiring no more children tends to increase with an increase in number of living children, and with an increase in the number of living

  1. Future desire for children among women living with HIV in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Lisa B; Machen, Leah Kathleen; Cordes, Sarah; Huylebroeck, Brian; Delaney, Augustina; Ofotokun, Igho; Nguyen, Minh Ly; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding family planning desires among women living with HIV in the United States. This study aimed to identify factors influencing desire for children in the future among HIV-infected women in Atlanta, Georgia. HIV-infected women ages 18-45 completed an ACASI (audio computer-assisted self-interview) questionnaire. Chi-square, t-tests, and multivariate logistic regression evaluated factors associated with desire for future children. Of 181 participants, 62 (34.3%) expressed desire for children in the future, with increased desire among younger women (age <26) and those with seronegative partners. Concerns for horizontal and vertical HIV transmission were deterrents to future childbearing. Condom use and overall knowledge of transmission risk was low. Over a third of women desiring a child never discussed their desire with a physician. Misinformation regarding HIV transmission risks persists and is a notable concern influencing desire for children. Providers should reassess family planning desires regularly through integrated HIV care.

  2. Sex, desire and pleasure: considering the experiences of older Australian women.

    PubMed

    Fileborn, Bianca; Thorpe, Rachel; Hawkes, Gail; Minichiello, Victor; Pitts, Marian; Dune, Tinashe

    2015-01-02

    Older age is often associated with asexuality. That is, older individuals are not viewed as desiring of sex, nor as sexually desirable to others. Broader social and cultural norms that downplay women's sexual desire and agency further compound these phenomena. Whether this popular image accurately reflects older women's sexual desires, behaviour and capacity to experience pleasure is unclear. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 43 partnered Australian women aged 55-81, this article considers women's sexual experiences and desires in older age. The findings of our research confirm that older women's experiences of sex and sexual desire are diverse and fluid. Some of the factors that influenced participants' sexual behaviour and desire will be considered in this article, as will their understandings of what "counts" as sexual satisfaction and "successful sex". The factors affecting sexual behaviour and desire also influence the way in which women are able to negotiate sexual interaction with their partners. Participants expressed a need for education and resources in order to gain greater control and to make autonomous choices over their sexual experiences, desire and ability to give and receive pleasure. The implications of these findings for practitioners are also considered.

  3. Does social desirability inflate the correlation between self-esteem and anxiety?

    PubMed

    Riketta, Michael

    2004-06-01

    Although several authors concluded that self-esteem is negatively related to anxiety, it is an open question what role social desirability plays in this relation. In a sample of 61 German students, the correlation between self-esteem and anxiety was significantly reduced from -.59 to -.51 when social desirability was partialed out. Thus, social desirability does seem to inflate the correlation between self-esteem and anxiety when both constructs are measured with self-reports. Yet, this effect of social desirability appears so small that it is probably negligible for most research purposes.

  4. Sex, desire and pleasure: considering the experiences of older Australian women

    PubMed Central

    Fileborn, Bianca; Thorpe, Rachel; Hawkes, Gail; Minichiello, Victor; Pitts, Marian; Dune, Tinashe

    2015-01-01

    Older age is often associated with asexuality. That is, older individuals are not viewed as desiring of sex, nor as sexually desirable to others. Broader social and cultural norms that downplay women's sexual desire and agency further compound these phenomena. Whether this popular image accurately reflects older women's sexual desires, behaviour and capacity to experience pleasure is unclear. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 43 partnered Australian women aged 55–81, this article considers women's sexual experiences and desires in older age. The findings of our research confirm that older women's experiences of sex and sexual desire are diverse and fluid. Some of the factors that influenced participants’ sexual behaviour and desire will be considered in this article, as will their understandings of what “counts” as sexual satisfaction and “successful sex”. The factors affecting sexual behaviour and desire also influence the way in which women are able to negotiate sexual interaction with their partners. Participants expressed a need for education and resources in order to gain greater control and to make autonomous choices over their sexual experiences, desire and ability to give and receive pleasure. The implications of these findings for practitioners are also considered. PMID:25544829

  5. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2006-11-01

    Glace et éclairs; Astéroïdes; Pluton; Avatars et avanie d'une petite planète (Xena, Eris); Nuage d'éthane sur Titan; Lacs de Titan; La NASA scrute Mars; Les express Mars et Venus; Cydonia, le visage sur Mars; Transit d'Ariel; Lune; Gonflée, la planète; Terres, terres!; Une planète extrasolaire aurait abrité de l'eau liquide; Des planètes au centre de la Voie Lactée; Anatomie d'un disque protoplanétaire; CHRX73 et pseudo-planète; Systèmes étranges; Premières galaxies; Voie Lactée; Neutrinos; RCW 86

  6. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2009-10-01

    Dunes de Titan; Lac Ontario; Titan; Anneaux de Saturne; Jupiter; Mars; Rotation de Saturne; Valles Marineris; Méthane martien; Epsilon Aurigae; Glycine cométaire; HD 87643; Pluton; Bételgeuse; Site astronomique; Andromède cannibale; Attaque de trou noir; BD+44 493; Formation d'étoiles; Gaz manquant; LIGO; M87; Naine blanche; Galaxie satellite; Galaxies naines sphéroïdales; Galaxies trapues; Cygnus X-1; L'avenir de la Voie Lactée; Naphtaline cosmique; Premiers trous noirs; Coup de foudre; Effet de serre; Glace lunaire; Impacts et extinctions; Exoplanètes rétrogrades; Kepler; Planète chaude; Collision planétaire; Disques dans le vent; Exoplanètes; Formation des planètes; Taches et transits

  7. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  8. Increasing women's sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-02-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women's sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a possible cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women's sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women's sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women's sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women's sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women's sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced.

  9. Prevalence of women's sexual desire problems: what criteria do we use?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Goldhammer, Denisa L

    2013-08-01

    Problems of sexual desire are often cited as the most prevalent of the female sexual dysfunctions. Despite this finding, considerable variability exists when comparing prevalence figures across studies, highlighting the inconsistency in how these problems are defined and therefore measured. The current study was designed to determine how the prevalence estimates of women's sexual desire problems varied according to the diagnostic criteria adopted to define such problems. The sample consisted of 741 women from Australia, the Americas, Europe, and Asia. Participants were between 18 and 71 years of age and were involved in a heterosexual relationship spanning between 3 months and 49 years duration. Sexual desire problems were defined using a variety of criteria, including (1) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), (2) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for HSDD, removing the sexual thoughts/fantasy requirement, (3) self-identified "lack of sexual interest," and (4) low average ratings of sexual desire levels, as assessed using the female sexual desire questionnaire. The prevalence of sexual desire problems varied from 3.0 to 31.0% depending upon the criteria used to define such problems. It is important to reach a consensus with regard to the criteria used to define sexual desire problems, in order to standardize and compare studies investigating these problems. How women's sexual desire problems are conceptualized has implications for their treatment. Therapists may or may not need to address absent sexual thoughts/fantasies and may be working with low normative levels of desire versus subjective evaluations of low desire.

  10. Increasing women’s sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women’s sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women’s sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women’s sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women’s sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women’s sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women’s sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced. PMID:26589379

  11. Social Desirability Bias in Self-Reporting of Hearing Protector Use among Farm Operators

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of this study were (i) to examine the relationship between reported hearing protector use and social desirability bias, and (ii) to compare results of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability instrument when administered using two different methods (i.e. online and by telephone). Methods: A shortened version of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability instrument, as well as a self-administered instrument measuring use of hearing protectors, was administered to 497 participants in a study of hearing protector use. The relationship between hearing protector use and social desirability bias was examined using regression analysis. The results of two methods of administration of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability instrument were compared using t-tests and regression analysis. Results: Reliability (using Cronbach’s alpha) for the shortened seven-item scale for this sample was 0.58. There was no evidence of a relationship between reported hearing protector use and social desirability reporting bias, as measured by the shortened Marlowe-Crowne. The difference in results by method of administration (i.e. online, telephone) was very small. Conclusions: This is the first published study to measure social desirability bias in reporting of hearing protector use among farmers. Findings of this study do not support the presence of social desirability bias in farmers’ reporting of hearing protector use, lending support for the validity of self-report in hearing protector use in this population. PMID:26209595

  12. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR): A Reliability Generalization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is one of the most widely used social desirability scales. The authors conducted a reliability generalization study to examine the typical reliability coefficients of BIDR scores and explored factors that explained the variability of reliability estimates across studies. The results indicated…

  13. The Religious Orientation Scale: Review and Meta-Analysis of Social Desirability Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Douglas E.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of the reliability and validity of scores on the Religious Orientation Scale (G. Allport and J. Ross, 1967) were reviewed with respect to social desirability. Meta analysis shows that one scale correlates with social desirability, but another does not, suggesting that partialing out this variance is not recommended. (SLD)

  14. The Random Response Technique as an Indicator of Questionnaire Item Social Desirability/Personal Sensitivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crino, Michael D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The random response technique was compared to a direct questionnaire, administered to college students, to investigate whether or not the responses predicted the social desirability of the item. Results suggest support for the hypothesis. A 33-item version of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale which was used is included. (GDC)

  15. Social Desirability as a Predictor of Argumentativeness, Communication Apprehension, and Communication Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    A study investigated the relationships between social desirability (the tendency to seek socially and culturally approved behaviors) and argumentativeness, communication apprehension, and communication competence. Using R. Strahan and K. C. Gerbasi's Social Desirability Scales, from a pool of 259 undergraduate students, 70 students were identified…

  16. Social Desirability in Intimate Partner Violence and Relationship Satisfaction Reports: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Visschers, Jonas; Jaspaert, Emma; Vervaeke, Geert

    2015-06-09

    The social desirability bias can be considered a two-dimensional construct, consisting of impression management and self-deception. Although social desirability is often considered a threat to the validity of intimate partner violence (IPV) reports, little is known about which dimension is most responsible for this distortion. Furthermore, it is unclear whether social desirability distorts the report of relationship satisfaction. In this study, two instruments that claim to measure social desirability are investigated on their ability to measure impression management and self-deception. Afterward, which dimension (if any) is responsible for a distortion in IPV and relationship satisfaction reports is examined. The survey consisted of the following measures: the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales for IPV, the Couples Satisfaction Index for relationship satisfaction and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, the Limited Disclosure Scale, and the Idealistic Distortion Scale for social desirability. The Limited Disclosure Scale was found to predominantly measure impression management. The Idealistic Distortion Scale did not measure social desirability well and appeared to be a bad measure for relationship satisfaction. Both the reports of IPV and relationship satisfaction were influenced by impression management, but not by self-deception. However, impression management and self-deception only accounted for a small portion of the variance in IPV and relationship satisfaction reports. These results indicate that the social desirability bias, when reporting IPV and relationship satisfaction, is a conscious process, but that its influence on IPV and relationship satisfaction reports might be overrated. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Social Desirability Bias in Self-Reporting of Hearing Protector Use among Farm Operators.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne

    2015-11-01

    The purposes of this study were (i) to examine the relationship between reported hearing protector use and social desirability bias, and (ii) to compare results of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability instrument when administered using two different methods (i.e. online and by telephone). A shortened version of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability instrument, as well as a self-administered instrument measuring use of hearing protectors, was administered to 497 participants in a study of hearing protector use. The relationship between hearing protector use and social desirability bias was examined using regression analysis. The results of two methods of administration of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability instrument were compared using t-tests and regression analysis. Reliability (using Cronbach's alpha) for the shortened seven-item scale for this sample was 0.58. There was no evidence of a relationship between reported hearing protector use and social desirability reporting bias, as measured by the shortened Marlowe-Crowne. The difference in results by method of administration (i.e. online, telephone) was very small. This is the first published study to measure social desirability bias in reporting of hearing protector use among farmers. Findings of this study do not support the presence of social desirability bias in farmers' reporting of hearing protector use, lending support for the validity of self-report in hearing protector use in this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  18. Violation of eating expectancies does not reduce conditioned desires for chocolate.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Karolien; van den Broek, Myrr; Havermans, Remco C; Jansen, Anita

    2016-05-01

    Although eating desires can be easily learned, their extinction appears more difficult. The present two-session study aimed to investigate the role of eating expectancies in the short and longer-term extinction of eating desires. In addition, the relationship between eating desires and conditioned evaluations was examined to test whether they might share a similar mechanism. It was hypothesized that the short-term extinction of eating desires would be more successful after the disconfirmation of eating expectancies (instructed extinction or IE), while resulting in worse longer-term extinction because omission of the food reward during extinction is not surprising. In contrast to the hypotheses, it was found that IE had no effect on the short-term and longer-term extinction of eating desires. Eating desires correlated with conditioned evaluations only to some extent. It is concluded that eating expectancies do not mediate the short-term extinction of conditioned eating desires. In addition, their longer-term extinction does not appear to be facilitated by a greater violation of eating expectancies. This suggests that it might not be necessary to focus on expectancy violation in cue exposure therapy to reduce eating desires. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Sex, Social Desirability, and Birth Order on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated effects of sex difference, social desirability instructions, and birth order of respondents on defense mechanisms inventory (DMI). Sex difference was found in projection only. Social desirability effects were found in turning-against-others, projection, principalization, and reversal. Thus, an interpretive caution is in order…

  20. Desire to Institutionalize a Relative with Dementia: Quality of Premorbid Relationship and Caregiver Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laraine; Gitlin, Laura N.; Dennis, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the relationship between individuals with dementia and their family caregivers has an impact on important clinical outcomes for both. It is unclear, however, how quality of relationship (QoR) affects caregivers' desire to place their relative in a nursing home. We examined the association of QoR with caregivers' desire to…

  1. Three-dimensional desirability spaces for quality-by-design-based HPLC development.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Hatem I; Abdel-Salam, Randa A; Hadad, Ghada M

    2015-04-01

    In this study, three-dimensional desirability spaces were introduced as a graphical representation method of design space. This was illustrated in the context of application of quality-by-design concepts on development of a stability indicating gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of vinpocetine and α-tocopheryl acetate in a capsule dosage form. A mechanistic retention model to optimize gradient time, initial organic solvent concentration and ternary solvent ratio was constructed for each compound from six experimental runs. Then, desirability function of each optimized criterion and subsequently the global desirability function were calculated throughout the knowledge space. The three-dimensional desirability spaces were plotted as zones exceeding a threshold value of desirability index in space defined by the three optimized method parameters. Probabilistic mapping of desirability index aided selection of design space within the potential desirability subspaces. Three-dimensional desirability spaces offered better visualization and potential design spaces for the method as a function of three method parameters with ability to assign priorities to this critical quality as compared with the corresponding resolution spaces.

  2. Principal's Desirability for Professional Development in Competencies Related to Leading Special Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Nicholas Frantz

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of public school principals within the Commonwealth of Virginia as to their desirability for professional development in leading special education programs within their schools. Given a list of 18 competencies related to leading special education principals rated their desirability for…

  3. Social Desirability as a Response Style on the Adjective Check List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, Val H.; Jackson, Kenneth

    The effect of social desirability on the variance accounted for by the scales of the Adjective Check List (ACL) was investigated in a sample of 366 female college students. Social desirability as a response style was defined as the tendency to present oneself in a favorable manner. The ACL was scored according to 23 of the 24 keys in the test…

  4. Educating Desire and Imagination in a "Faith in the World" Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Matt; Waalkes, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Recent conversations about Christian teaching and learning have discussed educating students' imaginations and desires. But how might one begin to educate desire and imagination? To answer, we narrate the experience of teaching a course, Living Well in a Car Culture, within a general education seminar required of all fourth-year students at a…

  5. Advertising, Desire, and the Unified Field: A Metaphysical Perspective on Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, David A.

    Suggesting that ills said to be perpetrated by advertising are really attributes of a unified field of consciousness, this paper discusses the concept that advertising creates desire. The generally undisputed notion that advertising helps to create specific desires is distinguished from the criticism that advertising increases the level and…

  6. Writing and Desire: Synthesizing Rhetorical Theories of Genre and Lacanian Theories of the Unconscious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the role of desire in discursive practice, this article examines rhetorical theories of genre and Lacanian theories of the unconscious. The former, it is argued, might be refined to shed more light on actors' unconscious investments in and resistance to the desires maintained by genres. The latter, meanwhile, might be refined to address…

  7. Comparing Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper to graduate and undergraduate students. Discusses response bias; describes use of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; and reports findings that reveal no differences in SDR between the Web-administered and paper-administered…

  8. Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    Social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper was examined, with 178 graduate and undergraduate students as participants. To assess the extent to which participants would demonstrate SDR, this study used the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) (Paulhus, 1993). The BIDR consists of 40…

  9. Advertising, Desire, and the Unified Field: A Metaphysical Perspective on Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, David A.

    Suggesting that ills said to be perpetrated by advertising are really attributes of a unified field of consciousness, this paper discusses the concept that advertising creates desire. The generally undisputed notion that advertising helps to create specific desires is distinguished from the criticism that advertising increases the level and…

  10. Uses and desirable properties of wood in the 21st century

    Treesearch

    Theodore Wegner; Kenneth E. Skog; Peter J. Ince; Charles J.. Michler

    2010-01-01

    The desirability of specific wood properties is driven by a number of social, economic, and environmental factors that influence wood-use trends. This article discusses current continuing commercial uses of wood, significant new or emerging commercial uses, and desirable wood properties indicated by projected changes in wood use. Emerging issues and applications such...

  11. A Quantitative Review of the Effect of Computerized Testing on the Measurement of Social Desirability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwight, Stephen A.; Feigelson, Melissa E.

    2000-01-01

    Conducted a meta-analysis to determine the extent to which the computer administration of a measure influences socially desirable responding. Discusses implications of the findings about impression management in terms of how they contribute to the explication of the construct of social desirability and cross-mode equivalence. (Author/SLD)

  12. The Desired Teaching Qualities of Lecturers in Higher Education: A Means End Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Roediger; Gruber, Thorsten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to aim to develop a deeper understanding of the teaching qualities of effective lecturers that students desire and to uncover the constructs that underlie these desire expectations and reveal the underlying benefits for which students look. Design/methodology/approach: A semi-standardized qualitative…

  13. Correlates of Changes in Desired Control Scores and in Life Satisfaction Scores among Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Michael; Reid, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the correlates of life satisfaction and desired control among 79 elderly residents by assessing residents at three points in time. Both life satisfaction and desired control were intercorrelated and related to other indices of psychological well-being at all three points in time. (Author/RC)

  14. The DSM diagnostic criteria for hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A

    2010-04-01

    Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is one of two sexual desire disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and is defined by the monosymptomatic criterion "persistently or recurrently deficient (or absent) sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity" that causes "marked distress or interpersonal difficulty." This article reviews the diagnosis of HSDD in prior and current (DSM-IV-TR) editions of the DSM, critiques the existing criteria, and proposes criteria for consideration in DSM-V. Problems in coming to a clear operational definition of desire, the fact that sexual activity often occurs in the absence of desire for women, conceptual issues in understanding untriggered versus responsive desire, the relative infrequency of unprovoked sexual fantasies in women, and the significant overlap between desire and arousal are reviewed and highlight the need for revised DSM criteria for HSDD that accurately reflect women's experiences. The article concludes with the recommendation that desire and arousal be combined into one disorder with polythetic criteria.

  15. How do men and women define sexual desire and sexual arousal?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye A; Graham, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how men and women define sexual desire and sexual arousal and how they distinguish between the two. The authors conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with individuals in South East England, using a purposive sampling strategy to maximize the variation in experience of sexual function across the group. The authors identified three criteria that participants used to define and distinguish between desire and arousal: the sequence in which they occurred; whether the mind or the body (or both) were engaged; and the extent to which feelings of desire or arousal were responsive (in response to person or stimulus) and motivational (oriented toward a goal). Most participants attempted to distinguish between desire and arousal when prompted, but often with difficulty. Participants commonly felt that desire preceded arousal; some felt that desire was "mind" and arousal "body"; and many felt that both desire and arousal were responsive and motivational. However, the authors identified numerous times when these distinctions were reversed or the differences between terms were blurred. The results support recent proposals to merge the two diagnostic categories of female sexual arousal disorder and hyposexual desire disorder into a single diagnostic category.

  16. Self-Reported Social Desirability in Sex-Stereotyped and Androgynous Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleran, Paula; And Others

    The relationships among self-reported social desirability, biological sex, and sex-role orientation are examined. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) consists of 60 personality characteristics divided equally into three subscales labeled Femininity (F), Masculinity (M), and Social Desirability (SD). One hundred and twenty-six undergraduates were…

  17. Risks and Pleasures: A Deleuzo-Guattarian Pedagogy of Desire in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of a "pedagogy of desire" from a Deleuzo-Guattarian perspective. A pedagogy of desire can be theorised in ways that mobilise creative, transgressive and pleasurable forces within teaching and learning environments. It also enables a new view on affect in education as a "landscape of becoming" in which forces,…

  18. Effects of Attractiveness and Social Status on Dating Desire in Heterosexual Adolescents: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent adolescent dating desire is based on attractiveness and social status of a potential short-term partner. Further, we tested whether self-perceived mate value moderated the relationship between dating desire and attractiveness of a potential partner. Data were used from a sample of 1,913 adolescents aged 13–18. Participants rated the importance of various characteristics of a potential partner and also participated in an experimental vignette study in which dating desire was measured with either low or high attractive potential partners having either a high or low social status. The results showed that boys rated attractiveness as more important than girls, while social status was rated as relatively unimportant by both sexes. In addition, in the experimental vignette study, it was found that attractiveness was the primary factor for boys’ dating desire. Only when a potential partner was attractive, social status became important for boys’ dating desire. For girls, on the other hand, it appeared that both attractiveness and social status of a potential partner were important for their dating desire. Finally, boys and girls who perceived themselves as having a high mate value showed more dating desire toward an attractive potential partner compared to adolescents who perceived themselves as having a low mate value. The present results extend previous research by showing that attractiveness of a potential partner is important to both adolescent boys and girls, but social status does not strongly affect dating desire during this particular age period. PMID:19830538

  19. Social Desirability as a Response Style on the Adjective Check List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, Val H.; Jackson, Kenneth

    The effect of social desirability on the variance accounted for by the scales of the Adjective Check List (ACL) was investigated in a sample of 366 female college students. Social desirability as a response style was defined as the tendency to present oneself in a favorable manner. The ACL was scored according to 23 of the 24 keys in the test…

  20. I-E Scores of Drug-Abusing Offenders: The Influence of Social Desirability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBridge, Kevin J.

    1982-01-01

    Tests the relationship between locus of control and drug abuse and the influence of test instructions and social desirability. Results of research with incarcerated offenders indicated test instructions aimed at heightening social desirability artificially inflated locus of control scores. Found no significant differences between drug abusers and…

  1. Dogmatism and Social Desirability: How to Change "Personality" in Two Easy Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Gary R.; Mulkey, Young J.

    This study describes the influence of social desirability on Rokeach Dogmatism scores and demonstrates how misleading self-report inventories can be. Dogmatism instruments with instructions suggesting either that commitment or control of personal beliefs is desirable were randomly distributed to 20 anonymous elementary teachers before a workshop…

  2. Effects of Sex Ratios on Occupational Prestige and Desirability among Black and White University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littig, Lawrence W.; Reynolds, Carolyn D.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the effect of increased proportion of women incumbents on the prestige and desirability of six high status occupations. Black and white male and female college students (N=200) rated these occupations. Proportion of women did not affect the prestige ratings of the occupations but did affect desirability. (Author/BH)

  3. Nineteen-Month-Olds' Understanding of the Conventionality of Object Labels versus Desires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Susan A.; Stock, Hayli; Henderson, Annette M. E.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed 19-month-olds' appreciation of the conventional nature of object labels versus desires. Infants played a finding game with an experimenter who stated her intention to find the referent of a novel word (word group), to find an object she wanted (desire group), or simply to look in a box (control group). A 2nd experimenter then…

  4. Overview of developing desired conditions: Short-term actions, long-term objectives

    Treesearch

    J. D. Chew; K. O' Hara; J. G. Jones

    2001-01-01

    A number of modeling tools are required to go from short-term treatments to long-term objectives expressed as desired future conditions. Three models are used in an example that starts with determining desired stand level structure and ends with the implementation of treatments over time at a landscape scale. The Multi-Aged Stocking Assessment Model (MASAM) is used for...

  5. Relationship Characteristics and Sexual Practices of African American Adolescent Girls Who Desire Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Susan L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Person, Sharina D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Harrington, Kathleen F.; Dix, Emily S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations between African American adolescent girls' desire to become pregnant and their sexual and relationship practices. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to detect significant associations between pregnancy desire and the assessed correlates. Of 522 participants (14 to 18 years old), 67 (12.8%) were…

  6. Suicide, Hopelessness, and Social Desirability: A Test of an Interactive Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Ronald R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships among suicidal indices, hopelessness, and social desirability of subjects (N=97) receiving treatment at psychiatric crisis intervention unit. Found hopelessness and measure of social desirability were significant indicators of suicidal manifestations. Results suggest that sense of general capability buffers link of…

  7. Desire to Institutionalize a Relative with Dementia: Quality of Premorbid Relationship and Caregiver Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laraine; Gitlin, Laura N.; Dennis, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the relationship between individuals with dementia and their family caregivers has an impact on important clinical outcomes for both. It is unclear, however, how quality of relationship (QoR) affects caregivers' desire to place their relative in a nursing home. We examined the association of QoR with caregivers' desire to…

  8. Effects of Sex, Social Desirability, and Birth Order on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated effects of sex difference, social desirability instructions, and birth order of respondents on defense mechanisms inventory (DMI). Sex difference was found in projection only. Social desirability effects were found in turning-against-others, projection, principalization, and reversal. Thus, an interpretive caution is in order…

  9. Educating Desire and Imagination in a "Faith in the World" Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Matt; Waalkes, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Recent conversations about Christian teaching and learning have discussed educating students' imaginations and desires. But how might one begin to educate desire and imagination? To answer, we narrate the experience of teaching a course, Living Well in a Car Culture, within a general education seminar required of all fourth-year students at a…

  10. Social Desirability, Psychological Distress, and Consumer Satisfaction With Mental Health Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Stephane; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Determined strength of relationship between social desirability, psychological distress, and consumer satisfaction with mental health treatment in 82 clients in therapy. Results indicated that both consumer satisfaction reports and psychological distress scores were contaminated by socially desirable responding. (Author/ABL)

  11. Risks and Pleasures: A Deleuzo-Guattarian Pedagogy of Desire in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of a "pedagogy of desire" from a Deleuzo-Guattarian perspective. A pedagogy of desire can be theorised in ways that mobilise creative, transgressive and pleasurable forces within teaching and learning environments. It also enables a new view on affect in education as a "landscape of becoming" in which forces,…

  12. Association between alexithymia, neuroticism, and social desirability scores among Italian graduate students.

    PubMed

    Messina, Antonino; Fogliani, Anna Maria; Paradiso, Sergio

    2010-08-01

    An inverse correlation between social desirability and alexithymia has been observed in undergraduate students in Japan and Australia. It is not clear how this association is influenced by the personality dimension of neuroticism. This study examined the association of scores on social desirability with those on alexithymia controlled for neuroticism, in a sample of 111 Italian graduate students, with age range of 24 to 58 years. Students completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (short form) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20). Social desirability scores inversely correlated with TAS-20 total scores, neuroticism scores, and the TAS-20 subscale, Difficulty identifying feelings. Neuroticism directly correlated with TAS-20 total score, Difficulty identifying feelings, and Difficulty describing feelings. Students with higher alexithymia and neuroticism scores seem to present themselves in less socially desirable ways. The correlation of social desirability with alexithymia was moderated by higher neuroticism scores.

  13. The Effect of Social Desirability on Reported Motivation, Substance Use Severity, and Treatment Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Zemore, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Research has not consistently supported an association between stage of change and substance abuse treatment retention. The current study examined whether social desirability response bias could help explain why. Participants (N=200), recruited from an outpatient program, completed the URICA, TREAT, Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS), and other measures. Number of treatment groups attended was collected from program records. In bivariate analyses, neither the URICA nor the TREAT was related to attendance. However, higher social desirability was strongly associated with lower URICA (but not TREAT) total scores, and in a multivariate path model, a moderately strong association emerged between higher URICA scores and greater treatment attendance when accounting for social desirability. Higher social desirability was also an independent predictor of greater treatment attendance, and was strongly associated with lower ASI Alcohol, Drug, and Psychiatric severity. Results underline a critical problem in measuring motivation and problem severity that has been largely neglected. PMID:22119180

  14. Influence of social desirability on age differences in self-reports of mood and personality

    PubMed Central

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased age has been found to be associated with differences in affect and personality which have been interpreted in terms of better emotional regulation and increased maturity. However, these findings have largely been based on self-report data, and the primary goal of the current research was to investigate the hypothesis that age-related differences in affect and in certain desirable personality traits might, at least partially, reflect age differences in social desirability. As expected, increased age was associated with lower levels of negative affect and neuroticism and higher levels of positive affect, life satisfaction, agreeableness and conscientiousness, and scores on the social desirability scale were positively related to age and to desirable self-report characteristics, but negatively related to undesirable self-report characteristics. Importantly, controlling for the variance in the social desirability measure resulted in less positive age trends in both types of self-report measures. PMID:21682727

  15. Relationship among prospective parents' locus of control, social desirability, and choice of psychoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Windwer, C

    1977-01-01

    This study sought to determine if there is a relationship among locus of control, social desirability, and choice of psychoprophylaxis (PPM). It was hypothesized that internal locus of control and low social desirability would correlate significantly with the choice of PPM by husbands and wives; that externally controlled wives who participated in PPM would have more internally controlled husbands than externally controlled wives who participated in PPM would have more internally controlled husbands than externally controlled wives who did not participate; and that locus of control and social desirability, when taken together, would be better predictors of choice of PPM than either taken separately. Ninety-eight middle-class nulliparous couples, participant and non-participant, were studied in the seventh or eighth month of the wife's pregnancy. Rotter's I-E Scale and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were used to measure locus of control and social desirability. Study findings did not support the hypotheses.

  16. The Heart Trumps the Head: Desirability Bias in Political Belief Revision

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how individuals revise their political beliefs has important implications for society. In a preregistered study (N = 900), we experimentally separated the predictions of 2 leading theories of human belief revision—desirability bias and confirmation bias—in the context of the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Participants indicated who they desired to win, and who they believed would win, the election. Following confrontation with evidence that was either consistent or inconsistent with their desires or beliefs, they again indicated who they believed would win. We observed a robust desirability bias—individuals updated their beliefs more if the evidence was consistent (vs. inconsistent) with their desired outcome. This bias was independent of whether the evidence was consistent or inconsistent with their prior beliefs. In contrast, we found limited evidence of an independent confirmation bias in belief updating. These results have implications for the relevant psychological theories and for political belief revision in practice. PMID:28557511

  17. Life satisfaction and social desirability across the late life span: what relationship?

    PubMed

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Penna, Maria Pietronilla; Hitchcott, Paul Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The current study mainly aimed to investigate the impact of social desirability in predicting life satisfaction in cognitively healthy elderly people. One hundred and seventy-eight 65- to 99-year-old adults were recruited in Sardinia, an Italian Isle known for the longevity of its inhabitants, and were presented a battery of questionnaires assessing subjective well-being, metacognitive efficiency, depressive symptoms and socially desirable responding style. An analysis of covariance and a hierarchical regression analysis showed that the social desirable style does have a marginal impact on self-referent measures of life satisfaction. Indeed, only 5 % of the variance in life satisfaction was predicted by self-rated social desirability. Social desirability does not seem to bias the self-assessment of an important aspect of quality of life in late adulthood. That is, life satisfaction of Italian elderly people does not seem to be impacted by the tendency to present themselves in a more favourable way.

  18. Hypersexuality and high sexual desire: exploring the structure of problematic sexuality.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Vieira, Armando L; Jurin, Tanja

    2015-06-01

    The concept of hypersexuality has been accompanied by fierce debates and conflicting conclusions about its nature. One of the central questions under the discussion is a potential overlap between hypersexuality and high sexual desire. With the relevant research in its early phase, the structure of hypersexuality remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to systematically explore the overlap between problematic sexuality and high sexual desire. A community online survey was carried out in Croatia in 2014. The data were first cluster analyzed (by gender) based on sexual desire, sexual activity, perceived lack of control over one's sexuality, and negative behavioral consequences. Participants in the meaningful clusters were then compared for psychosocial characteristics. To complement cluster analysis (CA), multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the same four constructs was carried out. Indicators representing the proposed structure of hypersexuality were included: sexual desire, frequency of sexual activity, lack of control over one's sexuality, and negative behavioral outcomes. Psychosocial characteristics such as religiosity, attitudes toward pornography, and general psychopathology were also evaluated. CA pointed to the existence of two meaningful clusters, one representing problematic sexuality, that is, lack of control over one's sexuality and negative outcomes (control/consequences cluster), and the other reflecting high sexual desire and frequent sexual activity (desire/activity cluster). Compared with the desire/activity cluster, individuals from the control/consequences cluster reported more psychopathology and were characterized by more traditional attitudes. Complementing the CA findings, CFA pointed to two distinct latent dimensions-problematic sexuality and high sexual desire/activity. Our study supports the distinctiveness of hypersexuality and high sexual desire/activity, suggesting that problematic sexuality might be more

  19. An investigation into between-meal food desires among hospitalised haematological cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Okkels, S L; Bredie, W L P; Klausen, T W; Beck, A M

    2016-04-01

    Hospitalised haematological cancer patients often suffer from reduced appetite and food intake, which negatively influences the patients' well-being and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to identify specific between-meal food desires in a patient group, in order to increase food intake. The study was conducted using a picture-aided questionnaire, and relating the preferences to factors that could easily be implemented in the hospital menu, such as time of the day and texture. Moreover, the results of the questionnaire were verified by acceptance tests on six selected food items. A structured 42 items food questionnaire was developed and used to quantify appetitive food desires in patients during morning (11 am) and afternoon (3 pm) sessions. Food items were scored according to patients' preferences and immediate desire to eat. A total of 112 hospitalised haematological cancer patients, screened for nutrition-related symptoms, participated. Univariate statistical models were used to investigate the influence of time-of-day and food texture on between-meal desires. Fresh fruit, ice cream, cheese and mashed potatoes with bacon were the most desired food items. Patients showed significant higher desire to eat in the morning as opposed to the afternoon. Moreover, texture had an influence on food desire, where liquid food was more desired than food with soft or coarse texture. Ranking of food desires among hospitalised cancer patients showed inclination for fresh fruit, ice cream, mashed potatoes with bacon, and cheese. Time of the day (morning) and texture (liquid) had the greatest and most positive impact on food desires. The findings may be easily implemented in hospital food service routines for cancer patients, and might positively contribute to patients' well-being and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Jonathan; Gasparis, Epameinondas; Eden, Ammon H.; Kazman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Specification and [visual] modelling languages are expected to combine strong abstraction mechanisms with rigour, scalability, and parsimony. LePUS3 is a visual, object-oriented design description language axiomatized in a decidable subset of the first-order predicate logic. We demonstrate how LePUS3 is used to formally specify a structural design pattern and prove ( verify ) whether any JavaTM 1.4 program satisfies that specification. We also show how LePUS3 specifications (charts) are composed and how they are verified fully automatically in the Two-Tier Programming Toolkit.

  1. L’apport de la dermoscopie dans le carcinome basosquameux

    PubMed Central

    Elmahi, Hakima; Lahlou, Asmae; Baybay, Hanane; Gallouj, Salim; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra; Reggad, Fatima Zahra; Harmouch, Taoufik

    2016-01-01

    Le carcinome basosquameux (CBS) est un cancer cutané rare qui présente des zones de carcinome basocellulaire (CBC) et de carcinome épidermoïde (SCC) et une zone de transition entre elles. Cependant, les caractéristiques dermoscopiques du BSC ne sont pas bien décrites dans la littérature, sauf deux études. Le but du présent cas était de mieux identifier et clarifier la contribution de la dermoscopie dans le diagnostic du BSC, malgré que la confirmation reste toujours histologique. PMID:28293368

  2. Les Hemorragies Gastroduodenales de Stress Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ababou, K.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Ihrai, I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les Auteurs rapportent trois observations d'hémorragies gastroduodénales de stress chez le brûlé grave. Ils rappellent l'importance des mesures thérapeutiques qui doivent être prises chez le brûlé grave, comme le traitement du choc, du sepsis, des plaies et de la douleur, la nutrition entérale précoce et l'oxygénothérapie. Tout cela permet de réduire les facteurs de risque de survenue d'une hémorragie gastroduodénale de stress. PMID:21991137

  3. Desiring Neoliberalism.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Gundula

    2016-01-01

    The paper is based on the premise that neoliberalism is a political rationality that is not only anti-social but also requires an anti-democratic and violent form of statehood. However, neoliberalism is not solely based on coercion and force, but paradoxically also on consensus. This consensus is not least organized through its flexibilized and pluralized sexual politics. By focussing on sexual politics in Germany's capital Berlin, the paper highlights that the flexibilization of the apparatus of sexuality is not merely a side effect of neoliberalism but a constitutive element of neoliberal governmentality that is deployed to legitimate an anti-democratic and violent neoliberal state. Neoliberalism uses the promise of sexual tolerance, flexibility, and pluralism in order to fulfill its anti-social, anti-democratic, and violent agenda. Furthermore, it is argued that neoliberal sexual politics require a rethinking of the concept of heteronormativity. Here, I propose to recast heteronormativity as heteronormalization.

  4. BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HYPOACTIVE SEXUAL DESIRE IN WOMEN: A NARRATIVE REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Malary, Mina; Khani, Soghra; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a mental response to sexual stimuli, sexual desire determines human sexual behavior and represents the cognitive capacity of sexual stimulation, so that avoiding sexual activity has a very negative effect on the discharge of intimacy and joy in couple’s relationship and threatens the stability relationship, which can finally end in sexual dissatisfaction and divorce; it may even affect the reproduction. This study, reviews the literature on biopsychosocial determinants of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women in childbearing ages. Method: The search was done from January to March 2015 by the use of the data bases ProQuest, Pubmed, CINAHL, Ovid and Medline and the words sexual desire, related factors and biopsychosocial determinants were used as free text words. The words reduce sexual desire, hypoactive sexual desire disorder, dyadic relationship, biopsychosocial factors and women were used as keywords in the search. Also, the articles focusing on any aspects of sexual desire such as biological, social and psychological factors and relationship factors alone or integrated, were included in the study. The articles which specifically targeted the hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pregnant and lactating women and also the articles targeting biopsychosocial factors related to other types of sexual function disorder such as arousal disorder, orgasm disorder and dyspareunia, were all excluded from this study. Findings: After reviewing the literature, the findings were categorized in three main class of effect of biologic factors on sexual desire and sexual hypoactivity, the effect of psychological factors on sexual desire and the effect of cultural factors and couple’s relationship on sexual desire, each of these domains cover a wide range (such as hormonal changes, chronic diseases, psychological difficulties (perceived stress, anxiety, depression). Incompatibility of couples, the spouse’s sexual function disorder) which may overlap. Because

  5. Le point sur les amas de galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, M.

    galaxies jouent donc un rôle de premier plan dans toute étude cosmologique et par conséquent, sont indispensables à notre compréhension globale de l'univers. Dans l'introduction générale, nous détaillons cet aspect fondamental en montrant comment l'étude des amas peut contribuer à contraindre les scénarios cosmologiques. Une fois le contexte scientifique délimité, les chapitres suivants s'attachent à présenter les diverses propriétés des amas et leur évolution cosmique observée dans diverses longueurs d'onde principalement dans les domaines visible (galaxies), X (gaz) et radio (gaz et particules). Nous verrons que l'étude détaillée d'un amas implique celle de l'interaction entre ses différentes composantes et est un passage obligé pour remonter au paramètre ultime (ou premier) qu'est sa masse. Loin d'être un détour ennuyeux, ceci sera l'occasion d'aborder des phénomènes physiques extrêmement variés tel l'aspect multi-phases du milieu intra-amas, les sursauts de formation d'étoiles et l'évolution morphologique des galaxies capturées par les amas, ou bien encore, l'interaction entre le plasma intra-amas et les particules relativistes accélérées lors de la fusion entre deux amas. Bien sûr, pour chaque longueur d'onde, nous ne manquerons pas de décrire simplement les techniques d'observation et d'analyse mises en oeuvre ; celles-ci sont particulièrement intéressantes dans le cas de l'instrumentation spatiale. Nous terminerons en présentant des projets d'observatoires pour l'horizon 2010 et leur impact prévu sur l'étude des amas de galaxies.

  6. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2007-09-01

    Anions interstellaires; S Orionis; Altaîr; Courants stellaires; Etoiles jeunes; 2MASSW J1207334-393254; Alpha Andromède; Etoiles à neutrons (1); LH54-425; AGNs invisibles; Deux supernovae; Les GRBs seon Swift; Peser les trous noirs; Formation de trous noirs; Trou noir; ondes gravitationnelles : Virgo entre dans sa phase d'exploitation scientifique; Amas de galaxies actifs; Amas de galaxies; Galaxies actives d'amas; L'univers statique: le retour; Macho; Exoplanètes; Exoplanètes habitables?; Exoplanètes habitables? (suite); Une année d'un an; Une année de 31 heures; Valse des Jupiters; Disque de HD 15115; Impact majeur; Planètes isolées; Super-Jupiter; Impact et mini-extinction; L'effet Pioneer; Toungouska; Spéléo martienne; Autres lunes dactives; Encelade; Hypérion; Pluton dépassé; Satellites d'Uranus; Titan

  7. Relation between Self-Esteem and Socially Desirable Responding and the Role of Socially Desirable Responding in the Relation between Self-Esteem and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines the relation between self-esteem and socially desirable responding by integrating previous findings via a meta-analysis. In 55 studies containing 73 independent samples (N?=?11,901), the correlation between self-esteem and Impression Management was weak, that between self-esteem and Self-Deceptive Enhancement was from…

  8. Relation between Self-Esteem and Socially Desirable Responding and the Role of Socially Desirable Responding in the Relation between Self-Esteem and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines the relation between self-esteem and socially desirable responding by integrating previous findings via a meta-analysis. In 55 studies containing 73 independent samples (N?=?11,901), the correlation between self-esteem and Impression Management was weak, that between self-esteem and Self-Deceptive Enhancement was from…

  9. Beyond 'MSM': Sexual Desire Among Bisexually-Active Latino Men in New York City.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A

    2004-02-01

    Latino male bisexuality has been studied for the most part with a focus on men who have sex with men (MSM) and with little attention to sexual desire. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive understanding of how sexual desire is organized, enacted through sexual activity, and interpreted in the sexual lives of bisexually-active Latino men. To achieve this aim, an analysis was made of 18 sexual histories of bisexually active Latino men who participated in a two-year ethnographic study. Four configurations of sexual desire were constructed to reflect what was found in this population of bisexually-active Latino men: (a) lifetime homoerotic desire and casual sex with women; (b) lifetime heteroerotic desire, but commercial sex with men; (c) lifetime heteroerotic/transgender desire; (d) lifetime sexual desire for women and men. These configurations are explored in detail in this article. The analysis presented here is intended to offer insights into the overall study of Latino male bisexuality and into the foundations for the design of HIV and STI prevention programs directed toward bisexually-active Latino men and their partners.

  10. Desire thinking as a predictor of craving and binge drinking: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Martino, Francesca; Caselli, Gabriele; Felicetti, Federica; Rampioni, Margherita; Romanelli, Pierluigi; Troiani, Lorena; Sassaroli, Sandra; Albery, Ian P; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2017-01-01

    Desire thinking is a conscious and voluntary cognitive process orienting to prefigure images, information and memories about positive target-related experience. Desire thinking has been found to be associated with both craving and alcohol use in clinical and non-clinical populations, however its role in predicting craving and problematic drinking patterns has never been investigated using a longitudinal design. The central aim of the present study was to explore the role of desire thinking at Time 2 (3months post-baseline) in predicting craving and binge drinking and Time 3 (6months post-baseline), controlling for levels of both these constructs and Time 1 (baseline). One hundred and thirty three non-hazardous drinkers were assessed on craving and binge drinking at Times 1 and 3, and on desire thinking at Time 2. Findings showed that desire thinking at Time 2 predicted craving and binge drinking at Time 3, controlling for craving and binge drinking at Time 1. Furthermore, the imaginal prefiguration component of desire thinking at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between craving at Times 1 and 3; conversely the verbal perseveration component of desire thinking at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between binge drinking at Times 1 and 3. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Problematic internet pornography use: The role of craving, desire thinking, and metacognition.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew; Kannis-Dymand, Lee; Katsikitis, Mary

    2017-07-01

    Defined as sexually explicit material that elicits erotic thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, internet pornography is a prevalent form of media that may facilitate problematic use and craving for engagement. Research suggests that superordinate cognitions and information processing, such as desire thinking and metacognition, are central to the activation and escalation of craving in addictive behaviours. The current study aimed to contribute to the literature by testing the proposed metacognitive model of desire thinking and craving in a sample of problematic pornography users, while revising the model by incorporating negative affect. From a theoretical perspective, environmental cues trigger positive metacognitions about desire thinking that directly influence desire thinking, resulting in the escalation of craving, negative metacognitions, and negative affect. Participants were recruited via an online survey and screened for problematic internet pornography use. Path analyses were used to investigate relationships among the aforementioned constructs in a final sample of 191 participants. Consistent with previous research, results of this study validated the existence of metacognitive processes in the activation of desire thinking and escalation of craving, while indicating that desire thinking has the potential to influence negative affect. Additionally, results supported the role of significant indirect relationships between constructs within the revised model of metacognition, desire thinking, and psychopathology. Collectively, the findings demonstrate the clinical value of a metacognitive conceptualisation of problematic pornography use. Exploring the metacognitive mechanisms that underpin problematic internet pornography use may give rise to the development of new treatment and relapse prevention strategies.

  12. Eating behavior in Portuguese higher education students: the effect of social desirability.

    PubMed

    Poínhos, Rui; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to relate social desirability with eating behavior dimensions among higher education students in Portugal, and to assess the effect of social desirability on the association between pairs of eating behavior dimensions. Data from 266 higher education students (62.8% women) aged between 18 and 27 y were evaluated. Social desirability and several eating behavior dimensions (emotional and external eating, flexible and rigid restraint, binge eating, and eating self-efficacy) were assessed. In both women and men, social desirability showed negative associations with emotional, external, and binge eating, and positive associations with eating self-efficacy. For the majority of the correlations, the control for social desirability led to a decrease in the strength of the association: Social desirability showed a greater effect on the associations between external and binge eating, external eating and eating self-efficacy, binge eating and eating self-efficacy, and emotional and external eating. This study demonstrated that social desirability should be considered when assessing the dimensions of eating behavior, namely eating self-efficacy and dimensions related to overeating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Like mother, like child: Offspring marital timing desires and maternal marriage timing and stability.

    PubMed

    Arocho, Rachel; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the determinants of marital timing is critical because it has implications for marital functioning and divorce. One salient predictor of marital timing is youth's desires for marriage timing. To shine light on predictors of both desires for marital timing and the timing of marriage itself, we examine offspring marital desires and maternal marriage characteristics in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79) cohort and 1979 Child and Young Adult cohort (NLSY79-CYA; biological offspring of the women in the 1979 cohort). Analyses showed that maternal cohabitation postdivorce predicted decreased expectations to ever marry in offspring. Maternal age at marriage was positively associated with offspring desires for age at marriage, but only for those whose mothers had not divorced. Maternal marital age was significantly associated with the offspring's transition into marriage even when controlling for the offspring's desires for marriage timing, but neither maternal marriage age nor offspring desires for marital timing were associated with the timing of entrance into cohabitation, whereas maternal divorce was associated with earlier cohabitation. Our findings suggest that maternal marriage characteristics, particularly divorce, are significant predictors of millennials' desires for and experiences with romantic relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Is High Sexual Desire a Risk for Women's Relationship and Sexual Well-Being?

    PubMed

    Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Bergeron, Sophie; Jurin, Tanja

    2016-09-01

    Historically, women's sexual desire has been deemed socially problematic. The growing popularity of the concept of hypersexuality-which lists high sexual desire among its core components-poses a risk of re-pathologizing female sexual desire. Data from a 2014 online survey of 2,599 Croatian women aged 18-60 years was used to examine whether high sexual desire is detrimental to women's relationship and sexual well-being. Based on the highest scores on an indicator of sexual desire, 178 women were classified in the high sexual desire (HSD) group; women who scored higher than one standard deviation above the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory mean were categorized in the hypersexuality (HYP) group (n = 239). Fifty-seven women met the classification criteria for both groups (HYP&HSD). Compared to other groups, the HSD was the most sexually active group. Compared to controls, the HYP and HYP&HSD groups-but not the HSD group-reported significantly more negative consequences associated with their sexuality. Compared to the HYP group, women with HSD reported better sexual function, higher sexual satisfaction, and lower odds of negative behavioral consequences. The findings suggest that, at least among women, hypersexuality should not be conflated with high sexual desire and frequent sexual activity.

  15. Beyond ‘MSM’: Sexual Desire Among Bisexually-Active Latino Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Latino male bisexuality has been studied for the most part with a focus on men who have sex with men (MSM) and with little attention to sexual desire. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive understanding of how sexual desire is organized, enacted through sexual activity, and interpreted in the sexual lives of bisexually-active Latino men. To achieve this aim, an analysis was made of 18 sexual histories of bisexually active Latino men who participated in a two-year ethnographic study. Four configurations of sexual desire were constructed to reflect what was found in this population of bisexually-active Latino men: (a) lifetime homoerotic desire and casual sex with women; (b) lifetime heteroerotic desire, but commercial sex with men; (c) lifetime heteroerotic/transgender desire; (d) lifetime sexual desire for women and men. These configurations are explored in detail in this article. The analysis presented here is intended to offer insights into the overall study of Latino male bisexuality and into the foundations for the design of HIV and STI prevention programs directed toward bisexually-active Latino men and their partners. PMID:26412977

  16. Sexual Desire in Iranian Female University Students: Role of Marital Satisfaction and Sex Guilt

    PubMed Central

    Teimourpour, Negar; Moshtagh Bidokhti, Nahaleh; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Bahrami Ehsan, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine association between sexual desire and marital satisfaction and sex guilt among a sample of Iranian female university students. Methods: The data presented here were obtained from a total of 192 married Iranian female university students who were selected via a multi-cluster sampling method from universities of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tarbiat Modarres, and Islamic Azad. The subjects' sociodemographic data, marital satisfaction (using ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire), sex guilt (using Mosher Revised Sex-Guilt Inventory), and sexual desire (using Hurlbert Index of Sexual Desire) were gathered. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis methods were used to analyse the data. Results: Findings showed there are significant relationships between sexual desire and marital satisfaction (r = 0.51, p < 0.01) and also between sexual desire and sex guilt (r = -0.44, p < 0.01). Also marital satisfaction and sex guilt were able to predict 31 percent of the variance of sexual desire. Conclusion: Marital satisfaction and sex guilt are two factors that significantly affect fluctuations in sexual desire of Iranian female university students. PMID:25798176

  17. Distinct oxytocin effects on belief updating in response to desirable and undesirable feedback

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Li, Shiyi; Wang, Chenbo; Liu, Yi; Li, Wenxin; Yan, Xinyuan; Chen, Qiang; Han, Shihui

    2016-01-01

    Humans update their beliefs upon feedback and, accordingly, modify their behaviors to adapt to the complex, changing social environment. However, people tend to incorporate desirable (better than expected) feedback into their beliefs but to discount undesirable (worse than expected) feedback. Such optimistic updating has evolved as an advantageous mechanism for social adaptation. Here, we examine the role of oxytocin (OT)―an evolutionary ancient neuropeptide pivotal for social adaptation―in belief updating upon desirable and undesirable feedback in three studies (n = 320). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subjects design, we show that intranasally administered OT (IN-OT) augments optimistic belief updating by facilitating updates of desirable feedback but impairing updates of undesirable feedback. The IN-OT–induced impairment in belief updating upon undesirable feedback is more salient in individuals with high, rather than with low, depression or anxiety traits. IN-OT selectively enhances learning rate (the strength of association between estimation error and subsequent update) of desirable feedback. IN-OT also increases participants’ confidence in their estimates after receiving desirable but not undesirable feedback, and the OT effect on confidence updating upon desirable feedback mediates the effect of IN-OT on optimistic belief updating. Our findings reveal distinct functional roles of OT in updating the first-order estimation and second-order confidence judgment in response to desirable and undesirable feedback, suggesting a molecular substrate for optimistic belief updating. PMID:27482087

  18. Quality of Life, Social Desirability and Their Relationship in Opium Addicted Persons in Southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Mansour; Kohan, Mehri; Ranjbar, Hadi; Arab, Nanaz; Rayani, Masoud; Mirrashidi, Salehe Sadat; Rafiei, Hossein; Amiri, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Addiction leads to many problems which may adversely affect addicted people, their families and impose health care agencies with many challenges. This study aimed to examined quality of life (QoL), social desirability and their relationship among opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran. Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2012 to January 2013, 123 addicted people were studied. Date collection tools were; checklist of demographic data, Iranian version of the 36-item short form QoL (SF-36) and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Results: While mean score of QoL was 60.4±29.5, mean score of social desirability were 14.2±3.7. Low, moderate and high levels of social desirability were observed in 4.9%, 90.2% and 4.9% of participants, respectively. Pearson’s correlation were not significant between mean score of social desirability and mean score of QoL (p=0.969, r=0.004). Conclusion: Addicted participants of present study showed a moderate level of QoL and social desirability, without any significant relationship between QoL and social desirability. Further research is suggested in addicts with social and cultural differences. PMID:24762351

  19. Living will status and desire for living will help among rural Alabama veterans.

    PubMed

    Mahaney-Price, Ann F; Hilgeman, Michelle M; Davis, Lori L; McNeal, Sandre F; Conner, Charles M; Allen, Rebecca S

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis of data from an earlier intervention study to increase Veterans Administration health care enrollment in rural Alabama veterans was to determine the veterans' living will status, desire for help completing a living will, and relationships between these and demographic, health insurance, health self-report, cumulative illness, disability, and trust characteristics. Baseline data for 201 rural Alabama veterans were extracted from the larger study. Chi-square and t tests were used to analyze group differences in categorical and continuous variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine multivariate associations of variables with living will status and desire for help. Only 13% of participants had living wills. Of those without living wills, 40% expressed a desire for help completing a living will. African Americans were less likely to have living wills than were Caucasians. Participants with more than high school education were more likely to desire help completing living wills than were those with less education. With the exception of moderate-severe respiratory illness, moderate-severe illness was not associated with having a living will. With the exception of moderate-severe vascular illness, moderate-severe illness was not associated with desire for help completing a living will. The racial and educational disparities in living will status and desire for help and the number of participants who desired help completing a living will suggests a need for action to increase advance care planning among rural veterans.

  20. Self-reports of Substance Abusers: The Relation between Social Desirability and Social Network Variables

    PubMed Central

    Groh, David R.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2010-01-01

    It is important to examine social desirability when interpreting self-report data from substance abusers. Social desirability is the tendency to respond on surveys that make people appear more favorable to others; thus, a strong desire for social approval is related to minimized reports of substance use. In the present study, the relationship between social desirability and different types of social support was examined within 582 residents of communal-living recovery homes (i.e., Oxford Houses). Although effect sizes were small, results may suggest that participants reported social network variables in a socially desirable manner; this tendency towards self-deception even predicted misrepresentations of these constructs eight months later. In addition, self-reports of the substance use habits of friends and family were more prone to social desirability than the reporting of other social network characteristics. Overall, it is suggested that social desirability might be taken into account when examining substance abusers’ self-reports of social support variables. PMID:20721306

  1. Self-reports of Substance Abusers: The Relation between Social Desirability and Social Network Variables.

    PubMed

    Groh, David R; Ferrari, Joseph R; Jason, Leonard A

    2009-01-01

    It is important to examine social desirability when interpreting self-report data from substance abusers. Social desirability is the tendency to respond on surveys that make people appear more favorable to others; thus, a strong desire for social approval is related to minimized reports of substance use. In the present study, the relationship between social desirability and different types of social support was examined within 582 residents of communal-living recovery homes (i.e., Oxford Houses). Although effect sizes were small, results may suggest that participants reported social network variables in a socially desirable manner; this tendency towards self-deception even predicted misrepresentations of these constructs eight months later. In addition, self-reports of the substance use habits of friends and family were more prone to social desirability than the reporting of other social network characteristics. Overall, it is suggested that social desirability might be taken into account when examining substance abusers' self-reports of social support variables.

  2. The context of desire to use marijuana: momentary assessment of young people who frequently use marijuana.

    PubMed

    Shrier, Lydia A; Walls, Courtney E; Kendall, Ashley D; Blood, Emily A

    2012-12-01

    Drawing on factors identified in the literature, this study explored in-the-moment associations of social, emotional, and temporal contexts and perceived marijuana availability with desire to use the drug, using momentary sampling methodology with young people who frequently use marijuana. Forty-one adolescent/young adult medical outpatients aged 15 to 24 years who reported using marijuana at least twice a week completed 2,912 brief questionnaires on a handheld computer in response to signals emitted at random four to six times a day for 2 weeks. The questionnaires assessed, for the moment when signaled, desire to use marijuana, location, companionship, perceived ease of getting marijuana (availability), positive affect, and negative affect. Participants reported any desire to use marijuana on 1,528 reports (55%). Companionship, perceived availability, and positive affect were independently associated with having any desire to use marijuana. Once desire to use marijuana was present, time of day, positive affect, and negative affect were independently associated with strength of desire. By collecting data in real time, in real life, this study highlights the importance of examining and intervening on emotional, environmental, and temporal contexts for youth who frequently use marijuana in order to reduce their desire to use the drug.

  3. Body Image in Dyadic and Solitary Sexual Desire: The Role of Encoding Style and Distracting Thoughts.

    PubMed

    Dosch, Alessandra; Ghisletta, Paolo; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the link between body image and desire to engage in sexual activity (dyadic and solitary desire) in adult women living in a long-term couple relationship. Moreover, it considered two psychological factors that may underlie such a link: the occurrence of body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity and encoding style (i.e., the tendency to rely on preexisting internal schemata versus external information at encoding). A total of 53 women (29 to 47 years old) in heterosexual relationships completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), body image, body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity, and encoding style. Results showed that poor body image was associated with low dyadic and solitary sexual desire. Body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity mediated the link between body image and solitary (but not dyadic) sexual desire. Finally, the mediation of body-related distracting thoughts between body image and solitary sexual desire was moderated by encoding style. A negative body image promoted the occurrence of body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity, especially in internal encoders. Our study highlights the importance of body image, distracting thoughts, and encoding style in women's solitary sexuality and suggests possible factors that may reduce the impact of those body-related factors in dyadic sexual desire.

  4. Quality of life, social desirability and their relationship in opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Arab, Mansour; Kohan, Mehri; Ranjbar, Hadi; Arab, Nanaz; Rayani, Masoud; Mirrashidi, Salehe Sadat; Rafiei, Hossein; Amiri, Masoud

    2014-02-22

    Addiction leads to many problems which may adversely affect addicted people, their families and impose health care agencies with many challenges. This study aimed to examined quality of life (QoL), social desirability and their relationship among opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran. In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2012 to January 2013, 123 addicted people were studied. Date collection tools were; checklist of demographic data, Iranian version of the 36-item short form QoL (SF-36) and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). While mean score of QoL was 60.4±29.5, mean score of social desirability were 14.2±3.7. Low, moderate and high levels of social desirability were observed in 4.9%, 90.2% and 4.9% of participants, respectively. Pearson's correlation were not significant between mean score of social desirability and mean score of QoL (p=0.969, r=0.004). Addicted participants of present study showed a moderate level of QoL and social desirability, without any significant relationship between QoL and social desirability. Further research is suggested in addicts with social and cultural differences.

  5. Developmental Continuity in Theory of Mind: Speed and Accuracy of Belief-Desire Reasoning in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apperly, Ian A.; Warren, Frances; Andrews, Benjamin J.; Grant, Jay; Todd, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    On belief-desire reasoning tasks, children first pass tasks involving true belief before those involving false belief, and tasks involving positive desire before those involving negative desire. The current study examined belief-desire reasoning in participants old enough to pass all such tasks. Eighty-three 6- to 11-year-olds and 20 adult…

  6. [Relationship of depression and anxiety with social desirability in chronic pain patients].

    PubMed

    Komarahadi, F L; Maurischat, C; Härter, M; Bengel, J

    2004-02-01

    This study examines the extent of self-reported pain and psychological distress in chronic pain patients and the influence of social desirability on the data collected. In a cross-sectional multi-center study with 494 chronic pain patients, a pain questionnaire was used similar to the German Federal Health Survey of 1998. Depression and anxiety were measured with the German version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) and social desirability with the German Marlowe-Crowne short scale for the measurement of social desirability (KS-SE). Chronic pain patients reported stronger and more frequent pain, as well as higher psychological distress than the general population of Germany. Of the patients, 36.4% showed depression (HADS-D/D >or =9) and 31.4% anxiety (HADS-D/A > or =11). Depressed/anxious patients stated pain intensities higher than non-depressed/non-anxious patients. In all, 48.4% of the patients achieved social desirability levels in the marked or moderate range. There were positive correlations for social desirability with self-reported pain and the use of therapy, as well as age. A negative correlation was found between anxiety and social desirability, while for depression this interaction appeared only after partial correlation analysis with control of pain and therapy variables. Both psychological distress and social desirability are common in chronic pain patients. Patients with high scores for social desirability reveal less depression and anxiety. The psychological distress caused by pain seems to be expressed by somatic complaints and therapy seeking. Since pain research is strongly dependent on the patient's self-report, social desirability should be considered as a factor which may impact measurements and decisions.

  7. Assessing food appeal and desire to eat: the effects of portion size & energy density.

    PubMed

    Burger, Kyle S; Cornier, Marc A; Ingebrigtsen, Jan; Johnson, Susan L

    2011-09-25

    Visual presentation of food provides considerable information such as its potential for palatability and availability, both of which can impact eating behavior. We investigated the subjective ratings for food appeal and desire to eat when exposed to food pictures in a fed sample (n=129) using the computer paradigm ImageRate. Food appeal and desire to eat were analyzed for the effects of food group, portion size and energy density of the foods presented as well as by participant characteristics. Food appeal ratings were significantly higher than those for desire to eat (57.9±11.6 v. 44.7±18.0; p<0.05). Body mass index was positively correlated to desire to eat (r=0.20; p<0.05), but not food appeal. Food category analyses revealed that fruit was the highest rated food category for both appeal and desire, followed by discretionary foods. Additionally, overweight individuals reported higher ratings of desire to eat large portions of food compared to smaller portions (p<0.001), although these effects were relatively small. Energy density of the foods was inversely correlated with ratings for both appeal and desire (r's=-0.27; p's<0.01). Results support the hypothesis that individuals differentiate between food appeal and desire to eat foods when assessing these ratings using the same type of metric. Additionally, relations among food appeal and desire to eat ratings and body mass show overweight individuals could be more responsive to visual foods cues in a manner that contributes to obesity.

  8. Eating behaviour among nutrition students and social desirability as a confounder.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Dóris; Oliveira, Bruno Mpm; Correia, Flora; Pinhão, Sílvia; Poínhos, Rui

    2017-06-01

    The study of eating behaviour should consider the presence of potential sources of bias, including social desirability. This is particularly relevant among students of Nutrition Sciences, since they have a higher risk of eating disorders. To analyse the effect of social desirability in the assessment of eating behaviour dimensions among nutrition students. In this cross-sectional study, we analysed data from 149 students of Nutrition Sciences. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing social desirability and eating behaviour dimensions (emotional, external and binge eating, flexible and rigid control, and eating self-efficacy). Among males, social desirability had a negative association with binge eating, while among women it had a negative association with emotional, external and binge eating and a positive association with eating self-efficacy. In both subsamples, social desirability showed no significant association with any of the two types of dietary restraint (rigid and flexible control). Overall, the association between social desirability and eating behaviour dimensions among students of Nutrition Sciences occurs in the same direction as found in students from other areas. However, alongside these similarities, there is a stronger association between social desirability and binge eating among male students of Nutrition Sciences. We hypothesize that this may be related with the different knowledge of students from different areas, and the way they perceive and face the treatment of eating disorders. Our study shows that social desirability should be considered while assessing eating behaviour among nutrition students, particularly when studying external eating, binge eating and eating self-efficacy. Moreover, when tailoring interventions to reduce the possible effects of eating behaviour on nutritionists and dieticians' practice, we should consider the influence of social desirability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing food appeal and desire to eat: the effects of portion size & energy density

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Visual presentation of food provides considerable information such as its potential for palatability and availability, both of which can impact eating behavior. Methods We investigated the subjective ratings for food appeal and desire to eat when exposed to food pictures in a fed sample (n = 129) using the computer paradigm ImageRate. Food appeal and desire to eat were analyzed for the effects of food group, portion size and energy density of the foods presented as well as by participant characteristics. Results Food appeal ratings were significantly higher than those for desire to eat (57.9 ± 11.6 v. 44.7 ± 18.0; p < 0.05). Body mass index was positively correlated to desire to eat (r = 0.20; p < 0.05), but not food appeal. Food category analyses revealed that fruit was the highest rated food category for both appeal and desire, followed by discretionary foods. Additionally, overweight individuals reported higher ratings of desire to eat large portions of food compared to smaller portions (p < 0.001), although these effects were relatively small. Energy density of the foods was inversely correlated with ratings for both appeal and desire (r's = - 0.27; p's < 0.01). Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that individuals differentiate between food appeal and desire to eat foods when assessing these ratings using the same type of metric. Additionally, relations among food appeal and desire to eat ratings and body mass show overweight individuals could be more responsive to visual foods cues in a manner that contributes to obesity. PMID:21943082

  10. Measuring social desirability across language and sex: A comparison of Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale factor structures in English and Mandarin Chinese in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kurz, A Solomon; Drescher, Christopher F; Chin, Eu Gene; Johnson, Laura R

    2016-06-01

    Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia. Two hundred and eighty-three students (64% female; 83% Chinese, 9% Indian) from two college campuses completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in their language of choice (i.e., English or Mandarin Chinese). Proposed factor structures were compared with confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicators-multiple causes models were used to examine measurement invariance across language and sex. Factor analyses supported a two-factor structure (i.e., Attribution and Denial) for the measure. Invariance tests revealed the scale was invariant by sex, indicating that social desirability can be interpreted similarly across sex. The scale was partially invariant by language version, with some non-invariance observed within the Denial factor. Non-invariance may be related to differences in the English and Mandarin Chinese languages, as well as cultural differences. Directions for further research include examining the measurement of social desirability in other contexts where both English and Mandarin Chinese are spoken (i.e., China) and further examining the causes of non-invariance on specific items. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Lymphoscintigraphy (LS) in lymphedema (LE) of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Gloviczki, P.; Vaqueiro, M.; Fisher, J.; Schirger, A.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Hollier, L.H.; Wahner, H.W.

    1985-05-01

    Twenty-two patients with primary and secondary LE and one with lipedema had LS using 0.4-0.6 mCi of Tc-99mSb2Sb3 subcutaneous at the second interdigital space. Three had excisional surgery, in four patients lympho-venous anastomosis (LVA) was attempted following LS. Results are presented in this paper. This study concludes that LS is a noninvasive method without side effects that visualizes the pattern of the lymphatic system in LE. If lymph channels were seen, LVA could be performed. LS seems adequate for patient selection and follow-up after LVA. It differentiated LE from lipedema. Image patterns or quantitative studies could not differentiate between primary and secondary LE.

  12. Microscopic Description of Le Châtelier's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Igor

    2005-08-01

    The analysis based on microscopic descriptors (energy levels and their populations) is given that provides visualization of free energies and conceptual rationalization of Le Châtelier's principle. The misconception "nature favors equilibrium" is highlighted.

  13. LePaProGen—lepton pair production generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dydyshka, Ya. V.; Yermolchyk, V. L.; Suarez, J. H.; Shumeiko, N. M.

    2017-09-01

    A Monte Carlo generator "LePaProGen" for simulation of lepton pair production at hadron colliders is presented. Higher order electroweak radiative effects are implemented. A new algorithm for selection of the optimal phase space parameterization is applied.

  14. Some Aspects of the Teaching of "-Guo" and "-Le"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Jing-heng S.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the two markers of Mandarin Chinese, "-guo" and "-le," and focuses primarily on areas of difficulty that the non-native speaker may encounter due to confusion of these markers. (CHK)

  15. Articulating "Indianness": woman-centered desire and the parameters for nationalism.

    PubMed

    Meghani, Shamira A

    2009-01-01

    In this article I explore some of the parameters for cinematic representations of women-centered desire in India. Although desire between women has been documented to demonstrate a long presence in history and literature, depictions in film over the last decade have drawn protests from nationalists that these films are "un-Indian." Through films such as Fire (1996), Girlfriend (2004), and The Journey (2004) I discuss the possibilities and limits for figuring desire in the context of postcolonial nationhood and the ways in which these films can adhere to or subvert national and sexual narratives and norms.

  16. Focusing light into desired patterns through turbid media by feedback-based wavefront shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Lipeng; Chen, Ziyang; Huang, Huiling; Pu, Jixiong

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that the focusing of light into desired patterns through turbid media can be realized using feedback-based wavefront shaping. Three desired focused patterns—a triangle, a circle, and a rectangle—are used as examples to study this ability. During the process of modulating scattered light, the Pearson's correlation coefficient is introduced as a feedback signal. It is found that the speckle field formed by the turbid media gradually transforms into the desired pattern through a process of modulation of the input beam wave front. The proposed approach has potential applications in biomedical treatment and laser material processing.

  17. Knowledge, Attitudes, Social Desirability, and Organizational Characteristics in Youth Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Izmirian, Sonia C; Nakamura, Brad J

    2016-10-01

    This project investigated the extent to which knowledge of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and organizational characteristics predicted attitudes toward EBPs, while controlling for social desirability and organization membership. Participants were 167 public sector youth practitioners. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine which factors significantly predicted EBP attitudes. Findings suggested that social desirability, organization membership, and various organizational characteristics predicted EBP attitudes. Results are discussed as they relate to the importance of including social desirability in future research and identifying different factors that influence EBP attitudes across various organizations.

  18. CIM - A Manufacturing Paradigm (Le CIM - Un Nouveau Modele Industriel),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    fait la plupart des entreprises , ont affind le module de "Rgvolution industrielle". Nous vivons A l’poque du spdcialiste. Toutefois, le modale de sp...program will serve as an umbrella under which specific projects are planned, financed , managed, and imple- mented. Well defined corporate goals must be...assets. Through an integration of financing strategies an enterprise can focus on capital investment in shared, value-added assets such as databases

  19. Le Soleil et ses relations avec la Terre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kenneth; Heidmann, M.

    C'est le 2e livre de K. Lang publié en français, considéré comme texte complementaire au célèbre Vagabonds de l'Espace qui avait gagné en 1994 le prix du livre d'astronomie en France. Maintenant l'auteur se concentre sur le système le plus élémentaire: l'étoile et son planète, et choisit celui qui est le plus intéressant pour nous: le Soleil et la Terre. Il a accumulé les observations terrestres et les plus récentes effectuées par des observatoires spatiales, et ceux des météorologues et géophysiciens, et nous présente un panorama fascinant du Soleil et ses relations avec la Terre. C'est la physique qui a les conséquences les plus fondamentales aux événements qui influencent notre environment, notre vie et même la condition humaine y inclu les arts et la litérature.

  20. Transmaxillary Sinus Approach for Le Fort II Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Satake, Toshihiko; Maegawa, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The Le Fort II osteotomy is a relatively rare operation. The posterior wall osteotomy of the maxillary sinus (MS) is often difficult for Le Fort III. We developed the transmaxillary sinus approach (TSA) for the Le Fort II osteotomy that cuts the posterior wall of the MS directly. This report illustrates this easy-to-use procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy in syndromic craniosynostosis. This procedure was performed in an 18-year-old patient with Apert syndrome and a 15-year-old patient with Pfeiffer syndrome. The thin anterior walls of the MS were removed through an intraoral approach to look inside the MS. Then, the posterior walls were cut by chisel under direct vision using light. The other osteotomy was performed as usual. Distraction osteogenesis with internal and external devices was used in combination. The advantages of TSA are the direct posterior wall osteotomy of the MS with no down fracture and minimal invasiveness to the mucosa of the MS under direct vision. However, the disadvantage is that TSA becomes a blind procedure in a case with no MS or hypoplasia. We developed the TSA for the Le Fort II osteotomy, which could provide direct observation and perform the posterior wall osteotomy of the MS without down fracture. We believe that TSA is an effective surgical procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy. PMID:27014548