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Sample records for le desir sexuel

  1. Prises de risques chez les jeunes de Bobo Dioulasso: une analyse des facteurs associés à la précocité et au multipartenariat sexuel

    PubMed Central

    Adohinzin, Clétus Come; Meda, Nicolas; Belem, Adrien Marie Gaston; Ouédraogo, Georges Anicet; Sombie, Issiaka; Berthe, Abdramane; Fond-Harmant, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malgré les efforts d'éducation à la santé, les jeunes continuent d'adopter des comportements sexuels à risques, susceptibles d'avoir des répercussions importantes sur leur santé. Cette étude visait à analyser les facteurs associés à la précocité sexuelle et au multipartenariat chez les jeunes de 19-24 ans de Bobo-Dioulasso. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude quantitative et transversale. Les données d'enquête ont été recueillies en décembre 2014 à Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso), auprès de 573 jeunes de 15 à 24 ans. Ces enquêtés ont été sélectionnés par un sondage en grappes à deux degrés. Des facteurs à risques relatifs à la précocité sexuelle et au multipartenariat ont été analysés à l'aide du logiciel Stata IC 13. Le seuil de signification de P<0,05 a été utilisée. Résultats Plus de la moitié des enquêtés (54%) étaient sexuellement actifs dont 14% avant l'âge de 16 ans. Le multipartenariat sexuel avait été observé chez 24% des jeunes sexuellement actifs. Parmi les facteurs déterminants de la précocité sexuelle et du multipartenariat figuraient l'âge, le sexe, le niveau d'étude, et la situation économique des parents. Nos données avaient aussi montré que les rapports sexuels trop précoces étaient associés au multipartenariat sexuel (p<0,005). Conclusion Les actions visant à renforcer les capacités des jeunes à retarder les premiers rapports sexuels et à mieux évaluer les risques seront de toute importance. Les capacités des parents, des enseignants et des prestataires devraient être aussi renforcées pour l'amélioration de la qualité des relations entre eux et les jeunes. PMID:28292094

  2. Facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Abessolo, Stéphanie Abo'o; Angwafo, Fru; Muna, Walinjom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer les facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala (Région du Sud) au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée de Février à Mai 2011. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats L’échantillon était constitué de 315 participants dont 181 (57,46%) hommes et 134 (42,54%) femmes. L’âge moyen était de 24,5±8ans (extrême: 15-45ans). Quarante personnes (40) étaient séropositifs, soit une prévalence de l'infection par le VIH de 12,7%. Cette prévalence augmentait significativement (p = 0) avec le nombre de partenaires occasionnels au cours des douze derniers mois, allant de 2,7% chez ceux n'ayant eu aucun partenaire occasionnel à 21,25% chez ceux ayant plus de trois partenaires occasionnels (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; P = 0,03). le fait d’être âgé entre 20 et 24 ans (RC = 4,88; IC = 1,74-13,67; p = 0), avoir plus de trois partenaires sexuels au cours des douze derniers mois (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; p = 0,03), avoir les rapports sexuels avec les prostitués (RC = 2,86; IC = 1,42-5,76; p = 0), avoir eu le chlamydia (RC = 3,00; IC = 1,07-8,39; p = 0,04), avoir eu la syphilis (RC = 3,35; IC = 1,57-7,14; p = 0), avoir des avantages sociaux lors du premier rapport sexuel (RC = 2,57; IC = 1,03-6,43; p = 0,04) constituaient des potentiels facteurs de risque du VIH. Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de sensibilisation au risque d'infection par le VIH et les maladies sexuellement transmissibles dans le district de santé de Meyomessala PMID:25419299

  3. Approche pour les comportements sexuels inappropriés chez des personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Joller, Petra; Gupta, Neeraj; Seitz, Dallas P.; Frank, Christopher; Gibson, Michelle; Gill, Sudeep S.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille une mise à jour sur l’approche au diagnostic et à la prise en charge des comportements sexuels inappropriés (CSI) chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Sources des données On a fait une recherche dans MEDLINE et EMBASE pour cerner des articles pertinents publiés avant juin 2012. On n’a trouvé aucune étude de niveau I; la plupart des articles fournissaient des données probantes de niveau III. Message principal Les comportements sexuels inappropriés sont fréquents chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Divers facteurs (p. ex., culturels, religieux, perspectives sociétales de la sexualité gériatrique, questions médicolégales) pourraient compliquer l’évaluation de tels comportements et doivent être pris en compte pour permettre une prise en charge appropriée à chaque patient. Il existe des outils pour documenter les CSI. Des interventions créatives non pharmacologiques pour les CSI pourraient être efficaces quand elles sont adaptées à chaque patient. Certaines pharmacothérapies (p. ex., antidépresseurs, antiandrogènes, antipsychotiques et anticonvulsifs) ont été proposées pour les symptômes qui ne répondent pas aux interventions non pharmacologiques. Par ailleurs, les données probantes à l’appui des traitements à l’aide de médicaments sont limitées, les effets secondaires demeurent un aspect important à considérer et il est incertain s’ils devraient être utilisés comme traitement de première ou de deuxième intention. Conclusion Quoiqu’il n’y ait pas d’algorithme de traitements empiriquement établi pour les CSI reliés à la démence, les ouvrages actuels offrent certaines données probantes concernant diverses thérapies pharmacologiques et non pharmacologiques. Des recherches de grande qualité plus approfondies sont nécessaires de toute urgence pour guider les médecins de famille qui prennent en charge des patients qui ont des CSI reliés à la

  4. Desire, Democracy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thogersen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the concept of eros has found its way back into educational literature with the aim of integrating human desires into educational theories and counteracting a devaluation of emotional life. This paper holds the view that this integration is important because desire expresses a fundamental way of relating to the world. However, part…

  5. Etude séro-epidémiologique de trois infections sexuellement transmissibles (Chlamydia Trachomatis, Hépatite B, Syphilis): cas de l’Hôpital de District de Nkoldongo à Yaoundé

    PubMed Central

    Essome, Marie Chantal Ngonde; Nsawir, Bonglaisin Julius; Nana, Rodrigue Dongang; Molu, Patrick; Mohamadou, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les infections sexuellement transmissibles sévissent toujours dans les pays en voie de développement et particulièrement au Cameroun. Le but de notre étude est de déterminer la distribution des infections sexuellement transmissibles suivantes: l’hépatite virale B, le Chlamydia trachomatis et de la syphilis dans une population de femmes venant consulter spontanément à l’Hôpital de District de Nkoldongo à Yaoundé, d’évaluer d’éventuelles coïnfections entre ces trois affections et de ressortir les connaissances de ces femmes sur leur mode de transmission sexuelle. Méthodes Notre étude prospective et descriptive a porté sur 182 femmes dont l’âge variait entre 18 et 48 ans. Les femmes ont été testées sérologiquement pour le Chlamydia trachomatis par une méthode ELISA (kit des laboratoires General Biological Corp). L’hépatite virale B a été dépistée par une méthode immunochromatographique (kit des laboratoires Human) et la syphilis par une méthode d’agglutination en ce qui concerne le RPR (Kit des laboratoires Biocentric) et le TPHA (kit des laboratoires Human). Résultats Nos résultats ont montré que: la distribution du Chlamydia trachomatis, de l’hépatite virale B et la syphilis a été respectivement de 22,52%, 4,39%, 0,54%.De plus, nous avons observé une coinfection Chlamydia trachomatis hépatite virale B avec un taux de 2,74%. Par ailleurs la réinfection au Chlamydia trachomatis a été rencontrée dans 4,94% de cas. S’agissant du mode de transmission de ces affections 67,57% et 70,87% de femmes ne connaissaient pas la voie de transmission sexuelle pour le Chlamydia trachomatis et pour l’hépatite virale B respectivement, tandis que 91,2 % des femmes connaissaient la voie de transmission sexuelle pour la syphilis. Conclusion Le diagnostic d’une infection à Chlamydia trachomatis chez une patiente doit susciter le dépistage de l’hépatite virale B. Introduction Sexually transmitted infections

  6. A Desire for Parsimony

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of wildness is being developed as a quality of interactive processing that increases survival opportunities in nature. A link is made between the need to improve interactive quality for wildness, and cognitive desires and interests in art, music, religion and philosophy as these can also be seen as attempts to improve interactive quality internally and externally. Interactive quality can be improved through gains in parsimony, that is, simplifications in the organisation of skills. The importance of parsimony in evolution is discussed, along with indicators of an internal parsimony desire that experiences joy if achieved through processes such as insight and understanding. A mechanism for the production and measurement of the parsimony desire is proposed, based on the number of subcortical pleasure hotspots that can be stimulated at once within the ‘archipelago’ available in the limbic system. PMID:25379257

  7. Schooling of Desire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlin, Karen E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses education in virtue, inviting college professors to see themselves not as "meddlers" in students' private lives but rather as interlocutors who prompt students to examine their desires--not simply what they hope to gain, but who they hope to become as a result of their university education. Focuses on the philosophies of Plato,…

  8. Hypoactive Sexual Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Helen S.

    1977-01-01

    Low-libido disorders are highly prevalent, may be extremely distressful to patients and their partners, and influence the course and prognosis of therapy. This paper focuses on this important aspect of human sexuality. Some clinical features of hypoactive sexual desire are described, and some hypotheses about etiology and prognosis are presented.…

  9. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  10. Le genre Cainotherium Bravard, 1828 en Limagne (Allier, France): perspectives nouvelles sur le dimorphisme sexuel et le régime alimentaireThe genus Cainotherium Bravard, 1828 in Limagne (Allier, France): new prospects on sexual dimorphism and food habits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthet, Didier; Hugueney, Marguerite

    2000-07-01

    In some Oligo-Miocene continental localities from Limagne (Allier, France) two Cainotherium populations, having an identical dental morphology, can be differentiated with the help of measurements. Various authors suggest that these two populations correspond either to two distinct species or to the expression of sexual dimorphism. It has been shown that the two forms of Cainotherium recently found in the same deposit and studied with new methods (mandibular analysis, SEM microphotographs) correspond to two species with different diets.

  11. My Desire for Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetrick, Laura J.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, Laura Hetrick focuses on what is inherently missing from the art education literature about teaching future teachers of art--of addressing nascent teachers' personal, pedagogical, and professional desires. Specifically, she considers teachers' desires for power and recognition, their desires to love and be loved, and…

  12. Psychosocial Maturity or Social Desirability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Ellen

    The psychosocial maturity scale (PSM) described in several earlier papers is a self-report questionnaire. It is vulnerable, as are other questionnaires of this type, to respondents' wishes to present themselves in a socially desirable light. In this study, scores on two social desirability scales are examined in relation to PSM. Correlations…

  13. Flibanserin and Female Sexual Desire.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice.

  14. A Compelling Desire for Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, David

    2006-01-01

    A case is described of a patient who has a compelling and persistent desire to become deaf. She often kept cotton wool moistened with oil in her ears and was learning sign language. Living without sound appeared to be a severe form of avoidance behavior from hyperacusis and misophonia. She had a borderline personality disorder that was associated…

  15. [Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, HSDD].

    PubMed

    Mimoun, S

    2011-01-01

    Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is the most common Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) affecting adult women of any age, including postmenopausal women. HSDD may have significant effects on the relationships and emotional balance of women and constitutes the most common form of FSD observed in clinical practice. HSDD is characterised by a deficiency or lack of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, causing serious distress or interpersonal difficulties, and it is not exclusively caused by the effects of another psychiatric disorder, pathology or substance (such as medication). HSDD pathophysiology is not yet well understood, but it is thought to involve an imbalance between factors controlling inhibition and excitation of sexual desire in the brain. Many physicians are reluctant to discuss sexual desire problems with their patients for various reasons, such as insufficient knowledge of the field, an absence of efficient treatments and time constraints. Even though current treatment options are limited, a better understanding of the physiopathology behind HSDD may help develop new therapies.

  16. Lifelong Learning, Policy and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Recent lifelong learning policies have been criticized for creating an illusion of freedom whilst simultaneously reducing choice. The concept of desire permits engagement with the conscious and unconscious drives that underpin individual decision-making, which direct the life course. Utilizing the ideas of Hume and Spinoza, the present article…

  17. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning

    PubMed Central

    BJORK, ROBERT A.; KROLL, JUDITH F.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  18. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  19. Sexual Desire and Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Boozalis, Amanda; Tutlam, Nhial T.; Robbins, Camaryn Chrisman; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormonal contraception on sexual desire. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,938 of the 9,256 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. This subset included participants enrolled between April and September 2011 who completed a baseline and six-month telephone survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between contraceptive method and report of lacking interest in sex, controlling for potential confounding variables. Results More than one in five participants (23.9%) reported lacking interest in sex at 6 months after initiating a new contraceptive method. Of 262 copper IUD users (referent group), 18.3% reported lacking interest in sex. Our primary outcome was more prevalent in women who are young (<18 years: adjusted odds ratio (ORadj)=2.04), black (ORadj=1.78), and married or living with a partner (ORadj=1.82). Compared to copper IUD users, participants using depot medroxyprogesterone (ORadj=2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47-4.61), the vaginal ring (ORadj=2.53, 95% CI=1.37-4.69), and the implant (ORadj=1.60, 95% CI=1.03-2.49) more commonly reported lack of interest in sex. We found no association between use of the hormonal IUD, oral contraceptive pill, and patch and lack of interest in sex. Conclusion CHOICE participants using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the contraceptive ring, and implant were more likely to report a lack of interest in sex compared to copper IUD users. Future research should confirm these findings and their possible physiological basis. Clinicians should be reassured that most women do not experience reduced sex drive with the use of most contraceptive methods. PMID:26855094

  20. Pleasure/Desire, Sexularism and Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Louise

    2012-01-01

    Pleasure and desire have been important components of researchers' vision for sexuality education for over 20 years, a trend inspired by Michelle Fine's seminal paper, "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire." This essay considers how discourses related to pleasure and desire have been taken up in the USA and…

  1. [How does summer affect sexual desire?].

    PubMed

    Kontula, Osmo; Väisälä, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Sexual desire involves many different things such as sexual thoughts and images, excitement, expectation and orgasm. Mood has a strong association with sexual desire. Fatigue and depression in particular cause lack of sexual desire. By affecting the state of alertness and energy in humans, sunlight may increase sexual activity.

  2. Desire on and off the couch.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2013-03-01

    The concept of desire is potentially useful and underutilized for elucidating and understanding psychoanalytic material and informing psychoanalytic technique. It can be employed as a lens for viewing and clarifying diverse clinical phenomenon and other mental productions. One way of defining desire as a conceptual framework as applied to psychoanalytic theory is to refract it into three components: (1) love (emotional desire), (2) sex (physical desire), and (3) passion (other manifestations of desire). These different aspects of desire are manifest in and of themselves and as enhancements of one another. Focusing on each of them as manifest in the transference/countertransference relationship in analysis can facilitate a patient becoming more aware of psychological conflicts and working them through in analysis. This paper presents and discusses a case study in which these different aspects of desire are employed and analyzed.

  3. Desire thinking as a predictor of gambling.

    PubMed

    Fernie, Bruce A; Caselli, Gabriele; Giustina, Lucia; Donato, Gilda; Marcotriggiani, Antonella; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2014-04-01

    Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginal elaboration of a desired target. A desired target can relate to an object, an internal state or an activity, such as gambling. This study investigated the role of desire thinking in gambling in a cohort of participants recruited from community and clinical settings. Ninety five individuals completed a battery of self-report measures consisting of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Gambling Craving Scale (GCS), the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Correlation analyses revealed that gender, educational level, recruitment source, anxiety and depression, craving and desire thinking were correlated with gambling. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that both recruitment source and desire thinking were the only independent predictors of gambling when controlling for all other study variables, including craving. These findings are discussed in the light of metacognitive therapy (MCT).

  4. Comparative vs. Absolute Judgments of Trait Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstee, Willem K. B.

    1970-01-01

    Reversals of trait desirability are studied. Terms indicating conservativw behavior appeared to be judged relatively desirable in comparative judgement, while traits indicating dynamic and expansive behavior benefited from absolute judgement. The reversal effect was shown to be a general one, i.e. reversals were not dependent upon the specific…

  5. Object of desire self-consciousness theory.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Brotto, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The authors suggest that object of desire self-consciousness may be an adaptive, evolved psychological mechanism allowing sexual and romantic tactics suitable to one's mate value. The authors also suggest that it can act as a signal that one has high mate value in the sexual marketplace. The authors then review literature (e.g., on fantasies, on sexual activity preferences, on sexual dysfunctions, on language) suggesting that object of desire self-consciousness plays a particularly important role in heterosexual women's sexual/romantic functioning and desires.

  6. [Desirable way for oral biomaterial research].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keiichi

    2007-07-01

    This review article is based on the ingredients of my lecture titled "Desirable way for oral biomaterial research in the JPS - considering Journal of Oral Rehabilitation Summer School 2006" at the JPS Advanced Seminar which was held with the general assembly meeting at March 4, 2007. How we explore the desirable way for oral biomaterial research in Japan was discussed with referral of the contents and discussion in the summer school.

  7. Validity of the decreased sexual desire screener for diagnosing hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Anita H; Goldfischer, Evan; Goldstein, Irwin; DeRogatis, Leonard; Nappi, Rossella; Lewis-D'Agostino, Diane J; Kimura, Toshio; Hebert, Antoine; Pyke, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The decreased sexual desire screener is a brief diagnostic instrument for generalized acquired hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women. During the screening visit of 2 clinical trials, the authors assessed sensitivity of the decreased sexual desire screener in premenopausal women presenting with decreased sexual desire. The authors compared diagnoses of generalized acquired hypoactive sexual desire disorder made by clinicians who were not trained or specialized in the diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction using the decreased sexual desire screener with diagnoses made by expert clinicians after an extensive diagnostic interview. The sensitivity of the decreased sexual desire screener was 0.946 in a North American trial and 0.960 in a European trial.

  8. Is committed desire intentional? A qualitative exploration of sexual desire and differentiation of self in couples.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luana Cunha; Fraenkel, Peter; Narciso, Isabel; Novo, Rosa

    2015-06-01

    The question of what heightens or diminishes sexual desire has long been a passionate theme across cultures in literature, arts, media, and medicine. Yet, little research has been conducted to determine what affects level of desire within couples. The degree of differentiation of self has been suggested as an important variable in shaping partners' level of desire. Through a qualitative analysis of dyadic couple interviews, this study provides an account of characteristics, processes, and trajectories of sexual desire and differentiation in 33 heterosexual couples of varying ages and relationship duration. Factors associated with high desire were change and autonomy, whereas conflict and children were reported to be desire-diminishing factors. Innovation, sharing, autonomy, and effort emerged as desire-promoting strategies, while fostering personal interests, investing in a positive connection, and enhancing personal integrity were identified as couples' strategies to promote and preserve differentiation of self. The results also shed light on couples' perceptions of whether and how sexual desire changes over the course of the relationship and challenge common cultural assumptions about desire in committed relationships-namely the myth that the only authentic expression of desire is that which occurs spontaneously and without intention and planning. Implications for couple therapy are discussed.

  9. Fertility Desires among Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ryan; Potter, JoNell Efantis; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Spence, Andrew; Byrne, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rates of pregnancy among women living with HIV (WLHIV) have increased with the availability of effective HIV treatment. Planning for pregnancy and childbirth is an increasingly important element of HIV care. Though rates of unintended pregnancies are high among women in general, among couples affected by HIV, significant planning and reproductive decisions must be considered to prevent negative health consequences for WLHIV and their neonates. To gain insight into this reproductive decision-making process among WLHIV, this study explored women’s knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding fertility planning, reproductive desires, and safer conception practices. It was hypothesized that pregnancy desires would be influenced by partners, families, the potential risk of HIV transmission to infants, and physicians’ recommendations. Methods WLHIV of childbearing age were recruited from urban South Florida, and completed an assessment of demographics (N = 49), fertility desires and a conjoint survey of factors associated with reproductive decision-making. Results Using conjoint analysis, we found that different decision paths exist for different types of women: Younger women and those with less education desired children if their partners wanted children; reproductive desires among those with less education, and with less HIV pregnancy-related knowledge, displayed a trend toward additional emphasis on their family’s desires. Conversely, older women and those with more education appeared to place more importance on physician endorsement in their plans for childbearing. Conclusions Results of this study highlight the importance of ongoing preconception counselling for all women of reproductive age during routine HIV care. Counselling should be tailored to patient characteristics, and physicians should consider inclusion of families and/or partners in the process. PMID:27610626

  10. Modeling Socially Desirable Responding and Its Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Buehner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The impact of socially desirable responding or faking on noncognitive assessments remains an issue of strong debate. One of the main reasons for the controversy is the lack of a statistical method to model such response sets. This article introduces a new way to model faking based on the assumption that faking occurs due to an interaction between…

  11. Age and the Desire to Marry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahay, Jenna; Lewin, Alisa C.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding attitudes toward marriage at older ages is increasingly important as young adults delay marriage and large numbers of people return to the marriage market after divorce. This study examines age differences in the desire to marry among singles age 18 to 69 years, taking into account selection into marriage. Using data drawn from the…

  12. CONSTRAINTS ON DESIRABLE ACTIVITIES: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    desirable but in which he has never engaged. This was a pilot study for one to be carried out in another cultural setting as well as part of a program to...analyze social change. Happy individuals were more constrained by environmental factors, such as lack of an accessable location to engage in the

  13. Schooling and a "Blamable Desire for Knowledge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2005-01-01

    As a teacher the author often wishes that his students were more curious. Yet, Alice Ramos (this issue) proposes that curiosity can be a vice. She writes that there are times when a student might be motivated by a "blamable desire for knowledge." Ramos bases this claim on a distinction made by Thomas Aquinas, the thirteenth-century Aristotelian…

  14. Teaching Bodies/Learning Desire: Rethinking the Role of Desire in the Pedagogic Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Desire is a crucial aspect of the pedagogic process. For too long, however, there has been a dichotomous relationship between understandings of teacher and student desire. The former is often configured as a pedagogic anachronism, problematised and needing to be contained. Conversely, the latter is essentialised as a force that should not be…

  15. Desirable attributes of public educational websites.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, Caroline

    2005-07-01

    Certain attributes are particularly desirable for public educational websites, and websites for ethics education in particular. Among the most important of these attributes is wide accessibility through adherence to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards for HTML code. Adherence to this standard produces webpages that can be rendered by a full range of web browsers, including Braille and speech browsers. Although almost no academic websites, including ethics websites, and even fewer commercial websites are accessible by W3C standards, as illustrated by the Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science , even websites created on limited budgets and with an undergraduate student staff can fulfill these standards. Other desirable attributes, such as provision of annotation for all links and the use of annotated links to give the user alternate ways of ordering and organizing content, are important for making full use of the educational possibilities of hypermedia for websites.

  16. Body, costume, and desire in Christopher Marlowe.

    PubMed

    Woods, G

    1992-01-01

    All the desired youths in Marlowe come clothed in favors, the tokens of older and richer men's yearning. These bribes and rewards, often feminine or effeminate ornaments, not only beautify the already gorgeous bodies of young men, but also label and augment their value and their power. The moment of virility's blooming, in adolescence, is seen as a time when boys can negotiate favorable terms of entry into the realms of manhood by the seductive use of their glamor. For their part, desirous men are distracted from the affairs and cares of state by their nostalgic encounters with girlish boys, at worst, to the extent that their own patriarchal power is compromised by sodomitic dalliance. Marlowe's involvement in these plots is iterative and committed.

  17. [Trigerred desire--new look at hypoactive sexual desire disorder among women].

    PubMed

    Iniewicz, Grzegorz; Strzelczak, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to present controversy surrounding current desire disorder criteria listed in DSM IV. Developed by Masters and Jonhson in 1996, completed later by Kaplan in 1974, the human sexual response cycle which is the basis for contemporary desire disorder criteria, in some aspects stands in opposition to the results of the newest research. This paper presents evidence to change the DSM criteria suggested by Basson and analyzes recent proposals for DSM V criteria for consideration of these arguments.

  18. Desired skills and attributes for dietitian preceptors.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sharon; Grosjean, Garnet

    2010-01-01

    We examined the research literature to determine the skills and attributes that dietetic interns desire in clinical preceptors. A search of three databases produced little information specific to dietetics. Literature on preceptors in other health disciplines identified preceptor attributes that students in clinical placements value. We were able to cluster the data from these studies into four themes: knowledge and experience, personal characteristics, teaching skills and attitudes, and interpersonal relationships. This review suggests a need for further development of dietitian preceptor training, as well as for further research specific to dietetic interns' needs.

  19. Le Figaro. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Linda

    These instructional materials are designed for students with some French reading skills and vocabulary in late beginning or early intermediate senior high school French. The objectives are to introduce students to a French newspaper, "Le Figaro," and develop reading skills for skimming, gathering specific information, and relying on cognates. The…

  20. Fighting desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    "Fighting Desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic" is an investigation of Tropic of Cancer that investigates the deeply repressed homoerotic desire that periodically surfaces. This reading is dependent upon an interpretation of Eve Sedgwick that proposes male sexuality as a continuum. By looking at the nature of the male-male relationships, as well as the lack of emotion and presence in the male-female relationships, I will show that the most intimate relationships are between men, and that these relationships are expressed through the telling of stories about (heterosexual) sex; this is the function of women within the novel: one has sex with a woman, not for the pleasure that the act brings, but for the pleasure that the recounting of the story to other men brings. Furthermore, I will look at Miller's use of puns within the novel and how they also contribute to a homoerotic reading. None of this is to argue that Miller was not homophobic and sexist--Miller very clearly was--the purpose of this essay is to show the complex nature of sexuality, even within a protagonist who asserts a very defined heterosexuality.

  1. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  2. Adaptive Arrays for Multiple Simultaneous Desired Signals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    weights [Equation (4)]. Using Equation (6), the inverse of the covariance matrix is given by 5 4 i *ŕm * T ". -1 1 I d Z dij (7) L -I + UT U* 4 di x di...Equations (11) and (12) p k = A k Ik d (14) dk aki*~~* ( ~ dk LJk Udk) and 1 t IjI II di l() 27 x = (1 + t UT U*) Thus, the output SNR of the kth desired...signals are assumed to be of the same frequency. There is no jammer 9 0 dB SIGNAL 10 dB SIGNAL 90 % 90 180 Fiur .dptdpatrnofalier rayo tn strpc lmet

  3. Substituting telecommunications for travel - Feasible or desirable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Vleck, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in telecommunications and examines the detailed structure of travel to estimate the feasibility of substituting telecommunications for various travel objectives. The impact of travel is analyzed from a social, economic, energy, and pollution standpoint to assess the desirability of substitution. Perhaps 35-50% of the nation's travel could, in theory, be replaced by very advanced telecommunications (such as a much improved large-screen teleconferencing network), but public resistance would be massive. Much economic dislocation would result since, for example, over 25% of retail sales are travel-related. The energy savings would be modest since only 25% of the nation's energy is consumed by transportation. However, all pollution would be reduced substantially since transportation accounts for 75% of the carbon monoxide, 60% of the hydrocarbon, and 55% of the nitrogen oxide pollution in the nation. Problems related to the implementation of large-scale substitution are discussed.

  4. Flibanserin for Treating Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Soo Ah

    2016-04-01

    There have been several products developed for male sexual dysfunction. However, developing agents for female sexual dysfunction is lagging behind for various reasons. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and Tadalafil (Cialis), which have been prescribed for male sexual function disorders, are known to act on vessels.[1] On the other hand, flibanserin is thought to act on brain. Flibanserin has been approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) of premenopausal women in 2015, and is expected to be released in South Korea soon. Authors wrote this article to acknowledge flibanserin to sexologists for females or physicians for menopausal medicine, so that this agent can be safely used for females who have HSDD.

  5. Images of desire: cognitive models of craving.

    PubMed

    May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Panabokke, Nathalie; Kavanagh, David

    2004-07-01

    Cognitive modelling of phenomena in clinical practice allows the operationalization of otherwise diffuse descriptive terms such as craving or flashbacks. This supports the empirical investigation of the clinical phenomena and the development of targeted treatment interventions. This paper focuses on the cognitive processes underpinning craving, which is recognised as a motivating experience in substance dependence. We use a high-level cognitive architecture, Interacting Cognitive Subsystems (ICS), to compare two theories of craving: Tiffany's theory, centred on the control of automated action schemata, and our own Elaborated Intrusion theory of craving. Data from a questionnaire study of the subjective aspects of everyday desires experienced by a large non-clinical population are presented. Both the data and the high-level modelling support the central claim of the Elaborated Intrusion theory that imagery is a key element of craving, providing the subjective experience and mediating much of the associated disruption of concurrent cognition.

  6. Effects of Sexual Experience on Dating Desirability and Marriage Desirability: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istvan, Joseph; Griffitt, William

    1980-01-01

    Inexperienced men and both inexperienced and moderately experienced women rated highly experienced opposite-sex peers as less desirable dates and marriage partners. Moderately and highly experienced men and highly experienced women tended to rate all opposite-sex peers similarly along these same dimensions. (Author)

  7. Grating image with desired shaped dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Hideaki; Toda, Toshiki; Takahashi, Susumu; Sawamura, Chikara; Iwata, Fujio

    2000-03-01

    A new type of Grating Image we dominate as `Sparklegram' is presented. The Sparklegram is characterized because it provides high quality and better design flexibility. These features are achieved by constructing it with shaped dots as desired. Each dot can be designed as an individual shape, for example, a star or a triangle. As dot shapes, we can use not only geometric patterns, but also some kind of symbols. Not only flexibility of each consists dot shape, but also the quality of reconstructed image is remarkably increased too. Because of these features, the constructed image with the new type of Grating Image, Sparklegram has high quality and high flexibility. It can be applied to security use, for example on credit-cards, tickets, etc., and also can be applied to the package of software products, CDs, videos and other kind of items requiring security. And with these features of flexibility and high quality, Sparklegram has also advantages to be applied to other use, for example amusement use, comics and game characters' goods and packages.

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae, le transformiste.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Calum; Campo, Nathalie; Bergé, Matthieu J; Polard, Patrice; Claverys, Jean-Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is an important human pathogen. Natural genetic transformation, which was discovered in this species, involves internalization of exogenous single-stranded DNA and its incorporation into the chromosome. It allows acquisition of pathogenicity islands and antibiotic resistance and promotes vaccine escape via capsule switching. This opinion article discusses how recent advances regarding several facets of pneumococcal transformation support the view that the process has evolved to maximize plasticity potential in this species, making the pneumococcus le transformiste of the bacterial kingdom and providing an advantage in the constant struggle between this pathogen and its host.

  9. Girls' Portraits of Desire: Picturing a Missing Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits the missing discourse of female desire [Fine, M. 1988. Sexuality, schooling and adolescent females: The missing discourse of desire. "Harvard Educational Review" 58, no. 1: 29-53] in secondary schools. Instead of echoing previous studies that have documented how female desire is missing, this research starts from the…

  10. An Investigation of Desired Friendships during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katelyn K.; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study of 384 young adolescents (45% girls, "M" age = 12.94 years) and their desired friendships (friendships that adolescents indicate they would like to form in the future) examined whether (a) adolescents desire to be friends with peers who are well-liked, popular, aggressive, and prosocial; (b) having desired friendships is…

  11. Executive Function and the Development of Belief-Desire Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    In two studies children's performance on tasks requiring the ascription of beliefs and desires was investigated in relation to their executive function. Study 1 (n = 80) showed that 3- and 4-year-olds were more proficient at ascribing subjective, mutually incompatible desires and desire-dependent emotions to two persons than they were at ascribing…

  12. A Contrapuntal Analysis of Discourses of Desire in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Implicated in contributing to the problems youth today face in trying to claim an education, an informed active participation in the social order, dominant discourses of desire in education foreclose formal, critical analysis of social structures that construct, police, entreat, and deny desire. Looking at the ways in which desire is encoded in…

  13. Aligning Task Control with Desire for Control: Implications for Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Alex T.; Etcheverry, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether matches between task control and participants' desire for control over their environment lead to better task performance than mismatches. Work control and desire for control were manipulated, and participants engaged in timed tasks. As predicted, performance was higher in cases of match, even when task control and desire for control were low. Task control and desire for control may predict work performance in combination, highlighting the importance of Person-Environment Fit theory for both selection and work design. By manipulating desire for control, our research also explores the potentially state-dependent quality of this individual difference variable. PMID:26045630

  14. The impact of social desirability on psychometric measures of aggression.

    PubMed

    Vigil-Colet, Andreu; Ruiz-Pamies, Mireia; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2012-05-01

    Although many studies have focused on the effects of social desirability in personality measures, few have analysed its effects on such highly undesirable behaviour as aggressiveness. The present study analyzes the impact of social desirability on measures of direct and indirect aggression and on the relationships between both kinds of aggression with impulsivity, using a method that enables the content factors of the measures to be isolated from social desirability. Results showed that aggression measures are highly affected by social desirability and that the relationships between the two forms of aggression and impulsivity are due to the content measured by the tests and not to a common social desirability factor.

  15. Aligning Task Control with Desire for Control: Implications for Performance.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Alex T; Etcheverry, Paul E

    The current study examined whether matches between task control and participants' desire for control over their environment lead to better task performance than mismatches. Work control and desire for control were manipulated, and participants engaged in timed tasks. As predicted, performance was higher in cases of match, even when task control and desire for control were low. Task control and desire for control may predict work performance in combination, highlighting the importance of Person-Environment Fit theory for both selection and work design. By manipulating desire for control, our research also explores the potentially state-dependent quality of this individual difference variable.

  16. Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

  17. [Testosterone therapy in female hypoactive sexual desire disorder].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick

    2016-03-16

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland.

  18. NEP facilities (LeRC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetrone, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Electric Propulsion Research Building (no. 16) the Electric Power Laboratory (BLDG. 301); the Tank 6 Vacuum Facility; and test facilities for electric propulsion and LeRC.

  19. "Ambivalence to Technology in Jeunet's" Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amelie Poulain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rick Clifton

    2006-01-01

    Although at one level Jean-Pierre Jeunets "Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amelie Poulain" is a sweet, attractive film about a young Parisian doing good deeds, it also offers a compelling analysis of the role of technology in our modern lives. The film paints a world where machines and a mechanistic worldview are appealing because humans have a desire to…

  20. Le bégaiement

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Hector R.; Stoeckle, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Fournir une mise à jour sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental. Qualité des données Une recherche d’études récentes ou non portant sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental a été effectuée dans les bases de données MEDLINE et Cochrane. La plupart des recommandations s’appuient sur des études de petite envergure, des données probantes de qualité limitée ou des consensus. Message principal Le bégaiement est un trouble d’élocution fréquent chez les personnes de tous âges, il altère la fluidité verbale normale et l’enchaînement du discours. Le bégaiement a été lié à des différences de l’anatomie, du fonctionnement et de la régulation dopaminergique du cerveau qui seraient de source génétique. Il importe de poser le diagnostic avec attention et de faire les recommandations qui conviennent chez les enfants, car de plus en plus, le consensus veut que l’intervention précoce par un traitement d’orthophonie soit cruciale chez les enfants bègues. Chez les adultes, le bégaiement est lié à une morbidité psychosociale substantielle, dont l’anxiété sociale et une piètre qualité de vie. Les traitements pharmacologiques ont soulevé l’intérêt depuis quelques années, mais les données cliniques sont limitées. Le traitement des enfants et des adultes repose sur l’orthophonie. Conclusion De plus en plus de recherches ont tenté de lever le voile sur la physiopathologie du bégaiement. La meilleure solution pour les enfants et les adultes bègues demeure la recommandation à un traitement d’orthophonie.

  1. Desired lifetime and end-of-life desires across adulthood from 20 to 90: a dual-source information model.

    PubMed

    Lang, Frieder R; Baltes, Paul B; Wagner, Gert G

    2007-09-01

    How long do people want to live, and how does scientific research on aging affect such desires? A dual-source information model proposes that aging expectations and desires are informed differently by two sources: personal experiences on the one hand, and scientific and societal influences on the other. Two studies with independent German national samples explored desires regarding length of life and end of life among adults between the ages of 20 and 90. FINDINGS ARE: First, desired lifetime is consistent at around 85 years with few age differences. Second, experimental induction of good or bad news from research on aging has little effect in Study 1. Third, interest in science has moderating effects on desired lifetime in Study 2. Fourth, there is a high prevalence of a strong desire to control the "when and how" of one's death, although only 11% of the individuals completed a living will. Findings are consistent with the dual-source information model.

  2. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Desire to Marry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Scott J.

    1993-01-01

    Used data from over 2,000 respondents to explore racial, ethnic, and gender differences in desire to marry. African Americans were significantly less desiring of marriage than whites; racial difference among men was significantly larger than difference among women. Compared to nonhispanic whites of same gender, Hispanic men were more likely,…

  3. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children developmentally acquire an understanding of desires before beliefs, even when compared via tasks with matched formats and demands. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag or the neurocognitive underpinnings of desire reasoning. Previous functional neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state concepts. Here we provide evidence for frontal and right-posterior neural activities associated with desire- and belief-judgments. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) were recorded as adult participants performed tasks requiring reasoning about diverse-desires and diverse-beliefs (and as a control, about parallel physical situations). A late slow wave (LSW), with a mid-frontal scalp distribution, was associated with desire- and belief-judgments. A LSW, with a right-posterior scalp distribution, was only associated with belief-judgments. These findings demonstrate neural overlap as well as critical differences in reasoning explicitly about desires and beliefs and provide an explanation for the developmental lag: children need to recruit additional neural processes for reasoning about beliefs beyond a common neural system for reasoning about mental states more generally (desires and beliefs). PMID:19630900

  4. Bibliotherapy for low sexual desire: evidence for effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Laurie B; Balzer, Alexandra M; Zhao, Xinting; Bush, Hannah E

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of bibliotherapy for low sexual desire among women, which is the most frequent sexual concern brought to counselors. Forty-five women responded to an advertisement for participation in a study on low sexual desire and were assigned to either the intervention or the wait-list control group. The intervention group completed the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Desire (HISD; Apt & Hurlbert, 1992) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; R. Rosen et al., 2000), read the self-help book under study in 6 weeks, and completed the measures a second time. The control group completed the same measures 6 weeks apart. Results demonstrated that the intervention group made statistically greater gains over time as compared with the control group on measures of sexual desire (HISD and FSFI Desire subscale), sexual arousal (FSFI Arousal subscale), sexual satisfaction (FSFI Satisfaction subscale), and overall sexual functioning (FSFI Total Score). A subset of participants in the intervention group participated in a 7-week follow-up study, and these participants maintained their gains in sexual desire and overall sexual functioning. Findings have important implications for future research on the efficacy of bibliotherapy generally and for low sexual desire specifically. Results also have vital implications for the treatment of low sexual desire.

  5. Bibliotherapy for Low Sexual Desire: Evidence for Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Balzer, Alexandra M.; Zhao, Xinting; Bush, Hannah E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of bibliotherapy for low sexual desire among women, which is the most frequent sexual concern brought to counselors. Forty-five women responded to an advertisement for participation in a study on low sexual desire and were assigned to either the intervention or the wait-list control group. The intervention…

  6. Desiring Silence: Gender, Race and Pedagogy in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzei, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    In my work with white teachers, predominantly female, I assert that "desire" is functioning to produce silent discourses that serve to perpetuate a continuation of white privilege. Based on a qualitative research study exploring the nature of silences in teacher education classrooms, this paper seeks to explore how desire is functioning…

  7. Intergalactic Encounters: Desire and the Political Immediacy of Children's Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The author of this article creates a semblance between Deleuze and Guattari's conception of a politics of desire and the four realities, as outlined by Brent and Marjorie Wilson. By making this theoretical move, the author advances the idea that children's drawing unfolds from one moment to the next through the assemblages of desire that are most…

  8. "Non-Coercive Rearrangements": Theorizing Desire in TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motha, Suhanthie; Lin, Angel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that at the center of every English language learning moment lies desire: desire for the language; for the identities that English represents; for capital, power, and images that are associated with English; for what is believed to lie beyond the doors that English unlocks. However, despite its centrality within…

  9. The Role of Creativity and Proactivity on Perceived Entrepreneurial Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampetakis, Leonidas A.

    2008-01-01

    The study tested the extent to which perceived desirability mediates the effects of student creativity and proactivity on entrepreneurial intent. Participants were 199 engineering and business university students from Greek Universities. Results using Structural Equation Modelling indicated that perceived desirability fully mediates the…

  10. Human Sexual Desire Disorder: Do We Have a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.; Henry, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD), loss of sexual desire for sexual activity, is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions of men and women in the United States. This article presents an overview of this specific sexual dysfunction including incidence, possible causes, treatment options, and the role of the health educator in addressing…

  11. Patterns of Workplace Supervisor Support Desired by Abused Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Nancy A.; Yragui, Nanette L.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Glass, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand differences in patterns of supervisor support desired by female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to examine whether the pattern of support desired at work is reflective of a woman's stage of change in the abusive relationship, IPV-related work interference, and IPV-related job reprimands or…

  12. Breaking up with Deleuze: Desire and Valuing the Irreconcilable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Eve Tuck grapples with Gilles Deleuze's conceptualization of desire, finding it simultaneously generative and unsatisfying. Recognizing that Deleuze will not "say" what Tuck wants him to say about desire--that it is smart, and constitutes expertise--Tuck reasons that there is only one thing she can do: break up with Deleuze. The…

  13. From desires to behavior: Moderating factors in a fertility transition

    PubMed Central

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Agadjanian, Victor

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Extensive research in both developed and developing countries has shown that preferences and intentions for future childbearing predict behavior. However, very little of this research has examined high-fertility contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the factors that increase or decrease correspondence between fertility desires and behavior in these settings are not well understood. OBJECTIVE This article documents the degree to which the desire to stop childbearing predicts fertility behavior over the short term among married women in rural southern Mozambique, a context where fertility transition is still in the early stages. Analyses test the moderating powers of individual, household, and community characteristics. METHODS Analyses use data from a longitudinal survey of married women of reproductive age (N=1678) carried out in 2006 and 2009 in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Logistic regression models are estimated to predict childbearing between 2006 and 2009 based on desires to stop childbearing and characteristics measured in 2006. RESULTS As expected, the desire to stop childbearing is strongly predictive of fertility behavior. Household wealth, local adult AIDS mortality, and being married to an unsuccessful labor migrant are associated with higher correspondence between reported desire to stop childbearing and fertility behavior. CONCLUSIONS Both factors related to the ability to carry out desires to stop childbearing and factors related to the strength and consistency of these desires moderate the association between desires and behaviors. Future research should expand measurement of fertility preferences to incorporate their strength and consistency as well as direction. PMID:23626485

  14. Social Desirability, Environmental Attitudes, and General Ecological Behaviour in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerke, Britta; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Socially desirable responses have been widely discussed as potentially biasing self-reported measures of environmental attitude and behaviour assessment. The direct and moderating effect of social desirability on children has not been analysed before. By applying a Lie scale together with a two-factor environmental attitude set measure and a scale…

  15. Library Users' Service Desires: A LibQUAL+ Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Kyrillidou, Martha; Cook, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore library users' desired service quality levels on the twenty-two core LibQUAL+ items. Specifically, we explored similarities and differences in users' desired library service quality levels across user groups (i.e., undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty), across geographic locations (i.e.,…

  16. The Desire Thinking Questionnaire: development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Gabriele; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2011-11-01

    Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process involving verbal and imaginal elaboration of a desired target. Recent research has highlighted the role of desire thinking in the maintenance of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders. The goal of this research project was to develop the first self-report measure of desire thinking. In Study 1 we constructed the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and conducted a preliminary factor analysis which identified two factors. The first factor concerned the perseveration of verbal thoughts about desire-related content and experience and was named 'Verbal Perseveration'. The second factor concerned the tendency to prefigure images about desire-related content and experience and was named 'Imaginal Prefiguration'. In Study 2 we performed a confirmatory factor analysis which provided support for this two factor solution, with both factors achieving adequate internal consistency. Divergent validity was also established through correlation analyses. In Study 3 the temporal stability of the DTQ was examined and confirmed. Finally, in Study 4, the predictive validity of the DTQ in a sample of alcohol abusers was investigated. The DTQ was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as divergent and predictive validity. This self-report measure may aid future research into desire thinking and craving, as well as facilitate assessment and case formulation within the context of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders.

  17. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children understand desires before beliefs. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag. Additionally, previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state…

  18. Evidence-based treatments for low sexual desire in women.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A

    2017-02-22

    Low sexual desire is the most common sexual complaint in women, with multinational studies finding that at least a third of women experience low sexual desire. No single etiology for the development of Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder, the diagnosis laid out by the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, has been established. There has been considerable interest in pharmacological approaches to improving low desire, and agents targeting a range of neurotransmitters have been examined. To date, only flibanserin, a centrally acting medication targeting the serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine systems, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite statistically significant effects on sexual desire, sexual distress, and sexually satisfying events, side-effects are significant, and flibanserin is completely contraindicated with alcohol. As such, there has been renewed interest in advancing the science of psychological approaches to low desire, including cognitive behavioral and mindfulness therapies.

  19. Desire to work as a death anxiety buffer mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yaakobi, Erez

    2015-01-01

    Four studies were conducted to examine the death anxiety buffering function of work as a terror management mechanism, and the possible moderating role of culture. In Study 1, making mortality salient led to higher reports of participants' desire to work. In Study 2, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work after mortality salience reduced the accessibility of death-related thoughts. In Study 3, activating thoughts of fulfillment of the desire to work reduced the effects of mortality salience on out-group derogation. In Study 4, priming thoughts about obstacles to the actualization of desire to work led to greater accessibility of death-related thoughts. Although two different cultures with contrasting work values were examined, the results were consistent, indicating that the desire to work serves as a death anxiety buffer mechanism in both cultures.

  20. Neural correlates of belief- and desire-reasoning.

    PubMed

    Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Wellman, Henry M

    2009-01-01

    Theory of mind requires an understanding of both desires and beliefs. Moreover, children understand desires before beliefs. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this developmental lag. Additionally, previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have neglected the direct comparison of these developmentally critical mental-state concepts. Event-related brain potentials were recorded as participants (N = 24; mean age = 22 years) reasoned about diverse-desires, diverse-beliefs, and parallel physical situations. A mid-frontal late slow wave (LSW) was associated with desire and belief judgments. A right-posterior LSW was only associated with belief judgments. These findings demonstrate neural overlap and critical differences in reasoning explicitly about desires and beliefs, and they suggest children recruit additional neural processes for belief judgments beyond a common, more general, mentalizing neural system.

  1. Social desirability in personality inventories: symptoms, diagnosis and prescribed cure.

    PubMed

    Bäckström, Martin; Björklund, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    An analysis of social desirability in personality assessment is presented. Starting with the symptoms, Study 1 showed that mean ratings of graded personality items are moderately to strongly linearly related to social desirability (Self Deception, Impression formation, and the first Principal Component), suggesting that item popularity may be a useful heuristic tool for identifying items which elicit socially desirable responding. We diagnose the cause of socially desirable responding as an interaction between the evaluative content of the item and enhancement motivation in the rater. Study 2 introduced a possible cure; evaluative neutralization of items. To test the feasibility of the method lay psychometricians (undergraduates) reformulated existing personality test items according to written instructions. The new items were indeed lower in social desirability while essentially retaining the five factor structure and reliability of the inventory. We conclude that although neutralization is no miracle cure, it is simple and has beneficial effects.

  2. Le pompage optique naturel dans le milieu astrophysique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    The title of this lecture abstracts only a part of it : the importance in astrophysics of the study of non-LTE situations has become considerable, as well in the stellar atmospheres as, still more, in the study of fortuitous coincidences as a mechanism of formation of emission line nebular spectra, or of molecular interstellar « masers ». Another part of this talk underlines the role of Kastler in his time, and describes his warm personality through his public reactions in front of the nuclear armement, of the Viet-Nam and Algerian wars, of the problems of political refugees... Kastler was a great scientist ; he was also a courageous humanist. 1976 : Les accords nucléaires du Brésil : allocution d'ouverture (19 mars). Colloque sur le sujet ci-dessus. 1976 : La promotion de la culture dans le nouvel ordre économique international, allocution à l'occasion d'une table ronde sur ce thème par l'UNESCO (23-27 juin 1976) ; « Sciences et Techniques », octobre 1976. 1979 : La bête immonde (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Matin », 20 mars. 1979 : Appel à nos ministres (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 13 décembre. 1979 : Le flou, le ténébreux, l'irrationnel (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 14 septembre. 1980 : Education à la paix, Préface, in : Publ. UNESCO. 1981 : Le vrai danger, « Le Monde », 6 août 1981. 1982 : Nucléaire civil et militaire, « Le Monde », 1er juin 1982. 1982 : Les scientifiques face à la perspective d'holocauste nucléaire (texte inédit). Le titre de cette communication en résume seulement une partie : l'importance prise en astrophysique par l'analyse des situations hors ETL est devenue considérable, qu'il s'agisse des atmosphères stellaires, ou plus encore, des coïncidences fortuites de la formation des spectres d'émission nébulaires, ou des « masers » moléculaires interstellaires. Une autre partie de cet exposé souligne lele de Kastler dans son époque, et décrit sa personnalité généreuse à travers ses r

  3. The Stability of Social Desirability: A Latent Change Analysis.

    PubMed

    Haberecht, Katja; Schnuerer, Inga; Gaertner, Beate; John, Ulrich; Freyer-Adam, Jennis

    2015-08-01

    Social desirability has been shown to be stable in samples with higher school education. However, little is known about the stability of social desirability in more heterogeneous samples differing in school education. This study aimed to investigate the stability of social desirability and which factors predict interindividual differences in intraindividual change. As part of a randomized controlled trial, 1,243 job seekers with unhealthy alcohol use were systematically recruited at three job agencies. A total of 1,094 individuals (87.8%) participated in at least one of two follow-ups (6 and 15 months after baseline) and constitute this study's sample. The Social Desirability Scale-17 was applied. Two latent change models were conducted: Model 1 tested for interindividual differences in intraindividual change of social desirability between both follow-ups; Model 2 included possible predictors (age, sex, education, current employment status) of interindividual differences in intraindividual change. Model 1 revealed a significant decrease of social desirability over time. Model 2 revealed school education to be the only significant predictor of change. These findings indicate that stability of social desirability may depend on school education. It may not be as stable in individuals with higher school education as in individuals with lower education.

  4. The pathophysiology of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Anita H

    2010-07-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is defined as a deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. The dysfunction cannot be better accounted for by another psychiatric disorder (except another sexual dysfunction) and must not be due exclusively to the physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. HSDD occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women in the USA and its prevalence appears to be similar in Europe. A number of potential causative and contributory factors to low sexual desire have been identified, reflecting the interplay among hormonal, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors. One theory is that sexual desire is controlled in the brain by a balance between inhibitory and excitatory factors. In general, dopamine, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone play an excitatory role in sexual desire, whereas serotonin, prolactin, and opioids play an inhibitory role. It is hypothesized that decreased sexual desire may be due to a reduced level of excitatory activity, an increased level of inhibitory activity, or both. A greater understanding of the complex pathophysiology of HSDD would improve the identification and management of women for whom low sexual desire is a concern.

  5. Self-transcendence, sexual desire, and sexual frequency.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Pestana, José; Costa, David

    2017-04-03

    Self-forgetfulness is a facet of self-transcendence characterized by tendency to experience altered states of consciousness. We examined associations of self-forgetfulness with sexual desire and frequency. 261 Portuguese completed the self-forgetfulness subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised, a measure of openness to experience, and a questionnaire on desired and actual frequency of vaginal intercourse, noncoital sex, and masturbation in the past month. In simple and partial correlations controlling for openness to experience and relationship status, women's self-forgetfulness correlated with desired frequency of intercourse and noncoital sex. For men, self-forgetfulness correlated with actual frequency of intercourse and noncoital sex.

  6. Disorders of desire: addiction and problems of intimacy.

    PubMed

    Keane, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This essay investigates the tensions produced by the categorization of different forms of excessive desire under the singular model of addiction, and it challenges the increasing acceptance of addiction as an all-purpose explanation for unruly desires through a comparison of the different forms of disordered desire in sex addiction and alcoholism. Moreover, it argues for a broad understanding of addictive processes to undermine the normative and moralizing assumptions of addiction discourses. Refiguring addiction as a kind of intimacy is one way of making sense of the intense relationships people can develop with substances and with activities.

  7. Romantic love and sexual desire in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Gian C; Turner, Rebecca A; Keltner, Dacher; Campos, Belinda; Altemus, Margaret

    2006-05-01

    Drawing on recent claims in the study of relationships, attachment, and emotion, the authors hypothesized that romantic love serves a commitment-related function and sexual desire a reproduction-related function. Consistent with these claims, in Study 1, brief experiences of romantic love and sexual desire observed in a 3-min interaction between romantic partners were related to distinct feeling states, distinct nonverbal displays, and commitment- and reproductive-related relationship outcomes, respectively. In Study 2, the nonverbal display of romantic love was related to the release of oxytocin. Discussion focuses on the place of romantic love and sexual desire in the literature on emotion.

  8. Pharmacologic treatment options for hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Bolour, Sheila Y; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2005-09-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is the most common cause of sexual dysfunction in women. According to a national survey, approximately a third of all women experience low sexual desire. The etiology of the disorder is often multifactorial. Research in treatment options for hypoactive sexual desire disorder is limited. In this article, treatment options including sex therapy, hormone therapy (estrogen, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, tibolone), non-hormonal medical therapies (buproprion, buspirone, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, amantadine and apomorphine) and herbal therapies (Avlimil(R), Arginmax(R), Zestra(R), yohimbine and Ginkgo biloba) are reviewed.

  9. Les hommes regardent le ciel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, C.

    Contents: 1. Le ciel nocturne. 2. Le mouvement du soleil. 3. La lune et ses mouvements. 4. L'orientation des bâtiments. 5. Les étoiles et les constellations. 6. Les planètes. 7. Les comètes, météores et météorites. 8. Les phénomènes météorologico-astronomiques. 9. Les éclipses. 10. Le temps et les calendriers. 11. Astres et destinée humaine - l'astrologie. 12. Les mythes de la création du monde. 13. Les mythes de la fin du monde. 14. Astronomie et société.

  10. Social Desirability, Environmental Attitudes, and General Ecological Behaviour in Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerke, Britta; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-03-01

    Socially desirable responses have been widely discussed as potentially biasing self-reported measures of environmental attitude and behaviour assessment. The direct and moderating effect of social desirability on children has not been analysed before. By applying a Lie scale together with a two-factor environmental attitude set measure and a scale of self-reported General Ecological Behaviour (GEB) to 198 pupils, we found a moderate impact of Lie scores on only one of both attitude measures and a small impact on GEB. In a multiple regression analysis general behaviour was predicted by attitude, social desirability, and the interaction of both. Social desirability had no moderating effect on the relationship between environmental attitudes and behaviour. Implications of these outcomes for research on environmental issues with children are discussed.

  11. Motivational neuroscience: instant desire for something you know is bad.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2013-03-18

    Avoiding what you know is bad is a major challenge for recovering addicts. New research suggests that powerful desire can develop even for cues that have always been repulsive. Memories about learned cues can promote addiction in certain conditions.

  12. Treating Inhibited Sexual Desire: A Marital Therapy Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Linda Stone; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Defines inhibited sexual desire (ISD) as a relational phenomenon best treated in the marital context. Discusses ISD as it relates to the central marital issues of power, intimacy, and boundaries. (JAC)

  13. Low sexual desire--is it all in her head? Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Simon, James A

    2010-11-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is thought to be the most prevalent form of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), affecting up to 1 in 10 US women. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) as persistent or recurrent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and thoughts, and/or desire for, or receptivity to, sexual activity, which causes personal distress or interpersonal difficulties and is not caused by a medical condition or drug. This definition has recently received criticism and recommendations for changes encompass the inclusion of duration, intensity, and frequency, and the elimination of distress as a diagnostic criterion. More recently, it has been suggested that arousal and desire be combined into one disorder for the upcoming DSM-V. Causes of low desire include chronic medical conditions, medications, surgeries, and psychosocial factors, but not necessarily increased age; both pre- and postmenopausal women can have HSDD, although the frequency appears to vary by age. Sexual function requires the complex interaction of multiple neurotransmitters and hormones, both centrally and peripherally, and sexual desire is considered the result of a complex balance between inhibitory and excitatory pathways in the brain. For example, dopamine, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone play an excitatory role, whereas serotonin and prolactin are inhibitory. Thus, decreased sexual desire could be due to a reduced level of excitatory activity, an increased level of inhibitory activity, or both. A number of validated self-report and clinician-administered instruments are available for assessing female sexual function; however, most have been used primarily in clinical research trials. The Decreased Sexual Desire Screener (DSDS) was developed for practicing clinicians who are neither trained nor specialized in FSD to assist in making an accurate diagnosis of

  14. Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties

    DOEpatents

    Ally, Moonis R.; Braunstein, Jerry

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

  15. Depression and sexual desire: an exploratory study in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Mário; Azevedo, Leandra Pinheiro; Gouveia, José Luís

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to study the relation between depression and its effect on the sexual desire in psychiatric patients. The sample comprised 89 patients from the Psychiatric and Mental Health Department of Alto Ave's Hospital Center, Entidade Publica Empresarial. The obtained results in this exploratory study revealed that depressive symptomatology severity is directly related with sexual desire. Variables gender, age, and working status, as well as, sociocultural levels indicated important and significant differences between patients.

  16. Children’s Social Desirability: Effects of Test Assessment Mode

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Patricia H.; Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.; Smith, Albert F.; Collins, Kathleen L.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Alyssa L.; Puryear, Megan P.; Vaadi, Kate K.; Finney, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined a recently developed short version of the Children’s Social Desirability (CSD-S) scale with 157 fourth-grade children. Of interest was a) whether one-month test-retest reliability would vary as a function of test assessment mode (interview or classroom), gender, race, SES, and BMI percentile, and b) whether the degree of social desirability would vary as a function of these same variables. The CSD-S scale showed good test-retest reliability for both interview and classroom assessment modes (.85 and .83, respectively). Internal consistency also was good (first interview administration = .84; first classroom administration = .81). Reliability was good and did not vary significantly over assessment mode or any child subgroup variables, suggesting that the CSD-S scale is appropriate for general use. The interview mode elicited significantly more socially desirable answers than did the classroom mode. Social desirability did not differ across child subgroups. Some of these findings were examined, and replicated, on another sample. Thus, the CSD-S scale may be used with diverse groups of children to a) reliably assess a social desirability bias that may systematically bias other self-reports of interest to researchers and b) examine individual differences in degree of social desirability. PMID:25870465

  17. Children's Social Desirability: Effects of Test Assessment Mode.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patricia H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B; Smith, Albert F; Collins, Kathleen L; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Alyssa L; Puryear, Megan P; Vaadi, Kate K; Finney, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined a recently developed short version of the Children's Social Desirability (CSD-S) scale with 157 fourth-grade children. Of interest was a) whether one-month test-retest reliability would vary as a function of test assessment mode (interview or classroom), gender, race, SES, and BMI percentile, and b) whether the degree of social desirability would vary as a function of these same variables. The CSD-S scale showed good test-retest reliability for both interview and classroom assessment modes (.85 and .83, respectively). Internal consistency also was good (first interview administration = .84; first classroom administration = .81). Reliability was good and did not vary significantly over assessment mode or any child subgroup variables, suggesting that the CSD-S scale is appropriate for general use. The interview mode elicited significantly more socially desirable answers than did the classroom mode. Social desirability did not differ across child subgroups. Some of these findings were examined, and replicated, on another sample. Thus, the CSD-S scale may be used with diverse groups of children to a) reliably assess a social desirability bias that may systematically bias other self-reports of interest to researchers and b) examine individual differences in degree of social desirability.

  18. Textbook use and the biology education desired state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Sandra S.; Kyle, William C., Jr.

    This microethnographic study investigated the use of textbooks in six high school biology teachers' classrooms. Purposeful sampling techniques identified three textbook-centered (TC) teachers and three multiple-reference (MR) teachers. Composite profiles of TC and MR teachers and their classroom environments were constructed using data collected during classroom observations. The data were categorized and analyzed using the Project Synthesis desired state and actual state categories and descriptors as a framework (Harms & Yager, 1981). Thus, this study sought to ascertain if the nature of teachers' textbook use reveals relationships between factors indicative of the biology education desired state or actual state criteria. TC biology classrooms aligned with the actual state criteria in over 95% of the data entries. MR biology classrooms aligned about equally with the actual state and desired state criteria. Regardless of textbook orientation, teachers did not utilize desired state criteria in the process of evaluating student performance. Factors other than textbook orientation appear to align with desired state criteria. Identified factors include (a) the curricular goals espoused by individual teachers, (b) the instructional strategies used to implement the curriculum, and (c) the teacher's commitment to professional development. Preservice and in-service education must enhance teachers' ability to formulate goals consistent with desired state criteria in science education, develop appropriate strategies to implement those goals, and understand the need for continuing professional development.

  19. Sexual desire, distress, and associated factors in premenopausal women: preliminary findings from the hypoactive sexual desire disorder registry for women.

    PubMed

    Connor, Megan K; Maserejian, Nancy N; De Rogatis, Leonard; Meston, Cindy M; Gerstenberger, Eric P; Rosen, Raymond C

    2011-01-01

    This article presents data from a validation sample of 390 premenopausal women clinically diagnosed with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) enrolled in the HSDD Registry for Women. Participants completed validated measures of sexual distress (e.g., Female Sexual Distress Scale Revised, Question 13) and sexual function including desire (e.g., Female Sexual Function Index). Results showed that lower levels of desire in these women were associated with diminished sexual satisfaction, increased sexually related distress, and fatigue or stress in the women's lives. In addition, the level of distress related to sexual desire decreased with age. The authors conclude that even among women with clinically diagnosed HSDD, the level of sexually related distress varies with situational factors, such as stress and fatigue.

  20. Hungry for money: the desire for caloric resources increases the desire for financial resources and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Briers, Barbara; Pandelaere, Mario; Dewitte, Siegfried; Warlop, Luk

    2006-11-01

    This report attempts to provide an evolutionary explanation for humans' motivation to strive for money in present-day societies. We propose that people's desire for money is a modern derivate of their desire for food. In three studies, we show the reciprocal association between the incentive value of food and of money. In Study 1, hungry participants were less likely than satiated participants to donate to charity. In Study 2, participants in a room with an olfactory food cue, known to increase the desire to eat, offered less money in a give-some game compared with participants in a room free of scent. In Study 3, participants' desire for money affected the amount of M&M's they ate in a subsequent taste test, but only among participants who were not restricting their food intake in order to manage their weight.

  1. Dysregulated sexuality and high sexual desire: distinct constructs?

    PubMed

    Winters, Jason; Christoff, Kalina; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2010-10-01

    The literature on dysregulated sexuality, whether theoretical, clinical or empirical, has failed to differentiate the construct from high sexual desire. In this study, we tested three hypotheses which addressed this issue. A sample of 6458 men and 7938 women, some of whom had sought treatment for sexual compulsivity, addiction or impulsivity, completed an online survey comprised of various sexuality measures. Men and women who reported having sought treatment scored significantly higher on measures of dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire. For men, women, and those who had sought treatment, dysregulated sexuality was associated with increased sexual desire. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor model, indicating that, in both male and female participants, dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire variables loaded onto a single underlying factor. The results of this study suggest that dysregulated sexuality, as currently conceptualized, labelled, and measured, may simply be a marker of high sexual desire and the distress associated with managing a high degree of sexual thoughts, feelings, and needs.

  2. Socially desirable responding on the web: investigating the candor hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Risko, Evan F; Quilty, Lena C; Oakman, Jonathan M

    2006-12-01

    The investigation presented here explores the hypothesis that participants are less likely to respond in a socially desirable fashion on self-report questionnaires completed on the Web relative to those completed in the laboratory--the candor hypothesis. A battery of social desirability questionnaires (i.e., Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding [Paulhaus, 1984], Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale [Crowne & Marlowe, 1964], Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Lie Scale [Eysenck & Eysenck, 1994]) was administered to 3 groups: 2 groups consisted of undergraduate participants who were randomly assigned to complete the measures either in the laboratory (n = 60) or on the Web (n = 60), and 1 group consisted of self-selected participants who visited our experimental Web page and completed the measures online (n = 284). This design allowed us to assess the role of Web administration while controlling for differences in sample type, an oft-neglected issue in the Web literature. Results do not support the claim that administering self-report measures over the Web results in a decrease in socially desirable responding. Furthermore, these findings highlight the problems associated with confounding sample and medium. Implications for the use of Web as a research tool are discussed.

  3. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women: case studies.

    PubMed

    Miner, Martin; Sadovsky, Richard; Buster, John E

    2012-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and is thus frequently encountered in the primary care provider and OB/GYN practices. Causes of low sexual desire may be hormonal, neurologic, vascular, psychologic, or a result of illness/surgery or medications. The condition is often left untreated because both women and clinicians feel embarrassed to bring up the topic and believe that there is no available treatment. The use of short, validated questionnaires, such as the Decreased Sexual Desire Screener, to be completed in the waiting room, can open up discussion between provider and patient. In addition, 2 other algorithms are designed for clinicians who are not specifically trained in FSD and can help in diagnosing and managing a broad range of conditions related to FSD. Treatment for low desire consists primarily of patient education and counseling, as well as treatment of underlying comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, or cancer. While testosterone products are approved in Europe for use in surgically postmenopausal women with HSDD, in the United States, no pharmacologic treatments are approved for the treatment of HSDD or any FSD. Testosterone products are being used off-label, but questions remain about their efficacy and safety in pre- and postmenopausal women. This article gives an overview of HSDD in clinical practice and provides 3 case descriptions to illustrate the treatment of low sexual desire in women with diverse histories.

  4. Le verifiche della relatività generale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesti, Piero

    2005-10-01

    La relatività di Einstein. La relatività generale messa alla prova. Le tre verifiche classiche: L'avanzamento del perielio di Mercurio - La deflessione della luce - Il redshift gravitazionale. Le verifiche di seconda generazione: Il rallentamento della luce - L'effetto Nordtvedt - Le onde gravitazionali e la "pulsar binaria".

  5. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2002-12-01

    XMM à la recherche de la matière exotique; Ancienne étoile; Le Trou noir volant; Magnétar; Stardust et Annefrank; Le centre de la galaxie; Deux trous noirs dans la même galaxie; Eruption géante sur Io; Le Soleil;

  6. Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware."

  7. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory).

  8. Is love colorblind? Political orientation and interracial romantic desire.

    PubMed

    Eastwick, Paul W; Richeson, Jennifer A; Son, Deborah; Finkel, Eli J

    2009-09-01

    The present research examined the association of political orientation with ingroup favoritism in two live romantic contexts. In Study 1, White participants had sequential interactions with both a White and Black confederate and reported their romantic desire for each. In Study 2, both White and Black participants speed-dated multiple potential romantic partners and reported whether they would be interested in meeting each speed-dating partner again. In both studies, White participants' political conservatism positively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: White conservatives were less likely than White liberals to desire Black (interracial) relative to White potential romantic partners. In contrast, Black participants' political conservatism negatively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: Consistent with system-justification theory, Black conservatives were more likely than Black liberals to desire White (interracial) relative to Black potential romantic partners. Political orientation may be a key factor that influences the initiation of interracial romantic relationships.

  9. Adolescent expectations and desires about marriage and parenthood.

    PubMed

    Plotnick, Robert D

    2007-12-01

    Using data collected in 2000 on a racially and ethnically diverse sample of high school seniors, this study analyzes adolescents' expectations and desires about marriage and parenthood, including unwed parenthood. The conceptual framework combines family context, opportunity cost, and social-psychological perspectives. Each perspective receives empirical support. Race, ethnicity, gender, parental education, and parental expectations for their child's education show significant relationships with expectations and desires about marriage and parenthood. Adolescents with higher opportunity costs, as indicated by better grades and higher expectations for their schooling, expect and desire to marry and have children at older ages. The relationships between parental education and parental expectations for their child's education and the outcomes are largely mediated through opportunity costs. Significant relationships between locus of control and the outcomes provide empirical support for the social-psychological element of the framework.

  10. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and current pharmacotherapeutic options in women.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is the most common female sexual dysfunction. The diagnosis of HSDD requires the existence of personal distress or interpersonal difficulties associated with low sexual desire, that cannot be explained by any other psychiatric affection and that is not exclusively due to a disease or substance. HSDD can have a serious effect on emotional wellbeing and interpersonal relationships, and it occurs in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The Decreased Sexual Desire Screener is a shortened diagnostic method designed to help doctors who are not specialized in female sexual dysfunction to diagnose acquired HSDD in women. There is evidence that treatment with androgens or with estrogens is effective in HSDD; however, important unanswered questions still exist. Presently, new therapeutic strategies to combat HSDD are being researched, including novel methods of testosterone provision and drugs that act upon the CNS.

  11. Contributions of Social Desirability to Self-Reported Ageism.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Allen, Priscilla D; Denver, Jenny Y; Holland, Kayla R

    2015-09-01

    The authors examined the role of social desirability in 445 participants' responses to self-reported measures of ageism across two studies. In Study 1, college students and community adults completed the Relating to Older People Evaluation (ROPE) and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS). Study 2 was a conceptual replication that included the Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA). Correlation analyses confirmed a small but significant relationship between scores on the positive ageist items and the social desirability scale in both studies. Ageist attitudes were correlated with negative ageist behaviors in Study 2. Implications for current views on ageism and strategies for reducing ageist attitudes and behaviors in everyday life are discussed.

  12. Fluoxetine attenuates alcohol intake and desire to drink.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, C A; Poulos, C X; Bremner, K E; Lanctot, K L

    1994-09-01

    Several serotonin uptake inhibitors, including the long-acting fluoxetine, have been found to decrease alcohol intake in moderately dependent alcoholics. While the mechanism of their effect is not fully elucidated, a previous study with citalopram indicated that decreased desire to drink may be an important factor. Therefore, we tested fluoxetine effects on alcohol intake and desire to drink in a placebo-controlled study. Subjects, recruited by advertisement, were mildly/moderately dependent alcoholics (12 male, four female, aged 19-59 years, healthy, non-depressed) who did not believe they had a drinking problem and were not requesting treatment. After a 1 week baseline they received, single-blind, 2 weeks placebo followed by 2 weeks fluoxetine 60 mg/day. As out-patients, subjects recorded daily standard drinks (13.6 g ethanol) and rated interest, desire, craving and liking for alcohol biweekly. Each out-patient period was immediately followed by a double-blind experimental drinking session. Out-patient daily drinks slightly decreased during fluoxetine to 6.6 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with during placebo (7.16 +/- 0.95, p = 0.07, N.S.) and baseline (7.18 +/- 1.0, p > 0.1, N.S.). Desire, interest and craving for alcohol decreased during fluoxetine vs placebo baseline (p < 0.05), but not vs placebo. Appetite loss and decrease in food intake (p < 0.01, fluoxetine vs placebo) correlated with each other (r = 0.91, p < 0.01) but neither correlated with decrease in alcohol intake (appetite: r = 0.26, N.S.; food intake: r = 0.22, N.S.). Weight loss occurred during fluoxetine (p < 0.05 vs placebo) but did not correlate with decrease in alcohol intake (r = 0.1, N.S.). In the experimental drinking sessions after placebo and fluoxetine treatments subjects rated their desire for each of 18 mini-drinks (each one-third of a standard drink) offered at 5 min intervals. Fluoxetine decreased desire to drink throughout the sessions; both mean and maximum desire ratings were

  13. Le LHC, un tunnel cosmique

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Et si la lumière au bout du tunnel du LHC était cosmique ? En d’autres termes, qu’est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter dans la connaissance de l’Univers ? Car la montée en énergie des accélérateurs de particules nous permet de mieux appréhender l’univers primordial, chaud et dense. Mais dans quel sens dit-on que le LHC reproduit des conditions proches du Big bang ? Quelles informations nous apporte-t-il sur le contenu de l’Univers ? La matière noire est-elle détectable au LHC ? L’énergie noire ? Pourquoi l’antimatière accumulée au CERN est-elle si rare dans l’Univers ? Et si le CERN a bâti sa réputation sur l’exploration des forces faibles et fortes qui opèrent au sein des atomes et de leurs noyaux, est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter des informations sur la force gravitationnelle qui gouverne l’évolution cosmique ? Depuis une trentaine d’années, notre compréhension de l’univers dans ses plus grandes dimensions et l’appréhension de son comportement aux plus petites distances sont intimement liées : en quoi le LHC va-t-il tester expérimentalement cette vision unifiée ? Tout public, entrée libre / Réservations au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  14. Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Julia R; Rupp, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Brauer, Marieke; Laan, Ellen

    2011-05-01

    The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two sites, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, and incorporated various measures of acute changes in sexual desire and arousal. A sample of 46 women who met criteria for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) was compared to 47 women who experienced no sexual problems (SF). Half of each group used oral contraceptives (OCs). The specific goal was to investigate whether there is a relationship between women's hormone levels and their genital and subjective sexual responsiveness. Background demographics and health variables, including oral contraceptive (OC) use, were recorded and hormones (total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), SHBG, and estradiol) were analyzed along with vaginal pulse amplitude and self-report measures of desire and arousal in response to sexual fantasy, visual sexual stimuli, and photos of men's faces. Self-reported arousal and desire were lower in the HSDD than the SF group, but only for women who were not using oral contraceptives. Relationships between hormones and sexual function differed depending on whether a woman was HSDD or not. In line with prior literature, FT was positively associated with physiological and subjective sexual arousal in the SF group. The HSDD women demonstrated the opposite pattern, in that FT was negatively associated with subjective sexual responsiveness. The findings suggest a possible alternative relationship between hormones and sexual responsiveness in women with HSDD who have characteristics similar to those in the present study.

  15. Factors Influencing the Desire To Take Environmental Action in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire

    In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…

  16. Desirable Leadership Behaviours of Multi-Cultural Managers in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littrell, Romie F.

    2002-01-01

    Hotel managers (both expatriate and indigenous) and supervisors (n=122) in China identified desirable and actual leadership traits in English and Chinese versions of the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire. Indigenous managers had more tolerance of freedom than expatriate managers. Supervisors were more tolerant than managers.…

  17. Sexuality Education and Desire: Still Missing after All These Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle; McClelland, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Nearly twenty years after the publication of Michelle Fine's essay "Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire," the question of how sexuality education influences the development and health of adolescents remains just as relevant as it was in 1988. In this article, Michelle Fine and Sara McClelland examine the…

  18. Characteristics of Athletic Training Students That Preceptors Find Desirable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Thomas, Spencer; Paulsen, Jenica; Chiu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students acquire clinical hours under the direct supervision of athletic training preceptors. Objective: The purpose of this project was to explore what characteristics preceptors desire in their athletic training students. Design and Setting: Online survey instrument. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 286…

  19. Desirable Attributes and Practices for Mentees: Mentor Teachers' Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates attributes and practices for mentor teachers that can be used for effective mentoring. Universities provide guidelines for preservice teacher (mentee) engagement in schools generally from anecdotal evidence, however, what are desirable attributes and practices for mentees? This qualitative study gathers data from 25 mentor…

  20. Desire: A Key Factor for Successful Online GED Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita; Tham, Yuen San Sarah; Hogle, Julie; Koch, Jody

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences of 12 adult online General Educational Development (GED) students to determine the role of program and personal factors that influenced their successful passing of the GED or their dropping-out of the program. Through surveys and interviews, we discovered that desire was the key factor for…

  1. Deaf children's use of beliefs and desires in negotiation.

    PubMed

    Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Rieffe, Carolien

    2004-01-01

    Although several studies have shown that deaf children demonstrated impaired performances on false-belief tasks, the children's belief understanding appeared intact when asked to explain emotions or behavior. However, this finding does not necessarily indicate a full-fledged theory of mind. This study aimed to investigate deaf children's negotiation strategies in false-belief situations, because situations that require negotiation provide a natural context with a clear motivational aspect, which might appeal more strongly to deaf children's false-belief reasoning capacities. The purpose of this study was to compare the reactions of 11- to 12-year-old deaf and hearing children to scenarios in which a mother, who is unaware of a change in the situation, threatens to block the fulfillment of the child's desire. The results showed that deaf children more often failed to correct the mother's false beliefs. In contrast with hearing children, who frequently left their own desires implicit, deaf children kept stressing their desires as a primary argument, even though the mother could be expected to be fully aware of these desires. Moral claims were used to the same extent by both groups. In general, deaf children more often used arguments that did not provide new information for their conversation partners, including repetitions of the same argument. The results were interpreted in terms of the special needs that are required by the hampered communication between deaf and hearing people as well as in terms of the ongoing discussion regarding theory-of-mind development in deaf children.

  2. Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. P.

    1967-01-01

    Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

  3. Desired Change in Couples: Gender Differences and Effects on Communication

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Richard E.; Hunt, Ashley N.; Malik, Jill; Smith Slep, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample (N = 453) drawn from a representative sampling frame of couples who are married or living together and have a 3–7 year old child, this study investigates (a) the amount and specific areas of change desired by men and women, (b) the relation between relationship adjustment and desired change; and (c) the ways in which partners negotiate change. On the Areas of Change Questionnaire, women, compared with men, wanted greater increases in their partners’ emotional and companionate behaviors, instrumental support, and parenting involvement; men wanted greater increases in sex. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (Kenny, 1996, both men’s and women’s relationship adjustment predicted desired change (i.e., actor effects), over and above the effects of their partners’ adjustment (i.e., partner effects); partner effects were not significant. Each couple was also observed discussing the man’s and the woman’s top desired change area. Both men and women behaved more positively during the partner-initiated conversations than during their own-initiated conversations. Women, compared with men, were more negative in their own and in their partners’ conversations. PMID:19685983

  4. Desiring Diversity and Backlash: White Property Rights in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    In this theoretical essay, I argue that the current incidences of backlash to diversity are best understood as a dynamic of complicated, historic and intertwined desires for racial diversity and white entitlement to property. I frame this argument in the theories of critical race theory and settler colonialism, each of which provide necessary but…

  5. 50 CFR 80.9 - Notice of desire to participate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.9 Notice of desire to... Federal Assistance which contains plans for the use of Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program...

  6. Writing Queer across the Borders of Geography and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malagreca, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author merges biographical notes, autoethnography and experimental writing to situate his migrant self as a self that "performs through writing," i.e. planned, experimental writing that subverts the centrality of the monolingual heterosexual identity. He explores the intersections of time, desire, and power across…

  7. Public Education in Neoliberal Times: Memory and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on the desire to defend and claim public education amidst the educational policy effects of contemporary neoliberal politics. The defence of public education, from schools to higher education, undoubtedly provides a powerful counter-veiling weight to the neoliberal policy logic of education-as-individual-value-accrual. At a…

  8. Consensus on Desirable Characteristics of Mail Questionnaires: Illusion or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    This study of survey research experts was conducted to determine desirable characteristics of mail questionnaires. The 82-item Likert-scale instrument used in the study covered general appearance, instructions, choice of items, choice of response options, wording, order of items, and item format. The instrument was administered to: 8 subjects who…

  9. Drawing Desire: Male Youth and Homoerotic Fan Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Although Western mass media aimed at juvenile audiences aggressively eliminates any references to same-sex desire and behavior, it inspires a tremendous amount of homoerotic fan art. To determine how same-sex potential is portrayed in juvenile fan art, a content analysis was conducted of 872 male homoerotic images by 442 juvenile male and female…

  10. Desired change in couples: gender differences and effects on communication.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Richard E; Hunt-Martorano, Ashley N; Malik, Jill; Slep, Amy M Smith

    2009-08-01

    Using a sample (N = 453) drawn from a representative sampling frame of couples who are married or living together and have a 3 to 7 year-old child, this study investigates (a) the amount and specific areas of change desired by men and women, (b) the relation between relationship adjustment and desired change; and (c) the ways in which partners negotiate change. On the Areas of Change Questionnaire, women compared with men, wanted greater increases in their partners' emotional and companionate behaviors, instrumental support, and parenting involvement; men wanted greater increases in sex. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (Kenny, 1996), both men's and women's relationship adjustment predicted desired change (i.e., actor effects), over and above the effects of their partners' adjustment (i.e., partner effects); partner effects were not significant. Each couple was also observed discussing the man's and the woman's top desired change area. Both men and women behaved more positively during the partner-initiated conversations than during their own-initiated conversations. Women, compared with men, were more negative in their own and in their partners' conversations.

  11. Topology of Sustainable Management of Dynamical Systems with Desirable States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim

    2015-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as the recently suggested 'tolerable environment and development window', 'planetary boundaries', or 'safe (and just) operating space', in addition to the identification of the quantitative internal dynamics and the available options for influencing it (management), there is an urgent need to understand the systems' state space structure with regard to questions such as (i) which of its parts can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region, (ii) which parts are in a variety of senses 'safe' to stay in when management options break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this structure. To complement existing approaches from optimal control focusing on quantitative optimization and being much applied in both engineering and integrated assessment, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology that partitions the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states including terminology suggestions for the various resulting parts. Our detailed formal classification of the possible states and management options with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region indicates that before performing some form of quantitative optimization, the sustainable management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type, e.g. choosing between ultimate safety and permanent desirability, or between permanent safety and increasing future options.

  12. The conceptual link between social desirability and cultural normativity.

    PubMed

    Bou Malham, Philippe; Saucier, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    Psychologists have a recurrent concern that socially desirable responding (SDR) is a form of response distortion that compromises the validity of self-report measures, especially in high-stakes situations where participants are motivated to make a good impression. Psychologists have used various strategies to minimise SDR or its impact, for example, forced choice responding, ipsatization, and direct measures of social desirability. However, empirical evidence suggests that SDR is a robust phenomenon existing in many cultures and a substantive variable with meaningful associations with other psychological variables and outcomes. Here, we review evidence of the occurrence of SDR across cultures and tie SDR to the study of cultural normativity and cultural consonance in anthropology. We suggest that cultural normativity is an important component of SDR, which may partly explain the adaptiveness of SDR and its association with positive outcomes.

  13. Closing the loop In Practice to Assure the Desired Performance

    PubMed Central

    Stead, William W.; Patel, Neal R.; Starmer, John M.

    2008-01-01

    A closed loop control process assures that a system performs within control limits. In closed loop control, the system's output feeds back directly to change the system's inputs. We describe an approach to planning and monitoring care that uses closed loop control to assure the desired performance using examples from Vanderbilt University Medical Center's ventilator management initiative. The approach has three components: an explicit end-to-end plan; a record of what is done as it is done; and an instant display of the status of each patient against their plan. The status display provides process control by showing the clinical team where correction is needed while they have time to act prospectively. Plans, displays and performance evolve together iteratively until the desired performance is achieved. PMID:18596845

  14. Effect of desired speed variability on highway traffic flow.

    PubMed

    Lipshtat, Azi

    2009-06-01

    Traffic flow is a function of many natural, environmental, and human factors. Not only that weather and road condition can vary, but drivers' decisions and policies also can affect the flow. Here we analyze the effect of distribution of desired speeds. We show that a broader distribution can reduce the flow efficiency and increase congestions. Since different drivers react differently to changes in weather or road conditions, such a change leads to a change in desired speed distribution as well. As a result, nonintuitive changes in traffic flow may occur. Besides providing insight and analyzing the underlying mechanism of a collective phenomenon, this example sheds light on a fundamental aspect of computational modeling. Although "mean-field" models that deal with average values only and ignore variability are simpler and easier to analyze, they can very easily turn into oversimplifications and miss relevant qualitative phenomena.

  15. Effect of desired speed variability on highway traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipshtat, Azi

    2009-06-01

    Traffic flow is a function of many natural, environmental, and human factors. Not only that weather and road condition can vary, but drivers’ decisions and policies also can affect the flow. Here we analyze the effect of distribution of desired speeds. We show that a broader distribution can reduce the flow efficiency and increase congestions. Since different drivers react differently to changes in weather or road conditions, such a change leads to a change in desired speed distribution as well. As a result, nonintuitive changes in traffic flow may occur. Besides providing insight and analyzing the underlying mechanism of a collective phenomenon, this example sheds light on a fundamental aspect of computational modeling. Although “mean-field” models that deal with average values only and ignore variability are simpler and easier to analyze, they can very easily turn into oversimplifications and miss relevant qualitative phenomena.

  16. Desirable role in a price-setting international mixed duopoly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we study the order of moves in a mixed international duopoly for differentiated goods, where firms choose whether to set prices sequentially or simultaneously. We discuss the desirable role of the public firm by comparing welfare among three games. We find that, in the three possible roles, the domestic public firm put a lower price, and then produces more than the foreign private firm.

  17. A technique to determine a desired preparation axial inclination.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Harry; Ivanhoe, John R; Blalock, John S; Frazier, Kevin B; Plummer, Kevin D

    2003-10-01

    The guidelines recommended in the literature for the convergence angle of a crown preparation vary from 3 to 24 degrees. There is a lack of guidelines on techniques to achieve a specific axial inclination. The purpose of this article was to present a practical technique, with a diamond rotary cutting instrument of known axial inclination, to determine the diamond rotary cutting instrument angulations required to achieve the desired axial inclination of a preparation.

  18. Desired machines: cinema and the world in its own image.

    PubMed

    Canales, Jimena

    2011-09-01

    In 1895 when the Lumière brothers unveiled their cinematographic camera, many scientists were elated. Scientists hoped that the machine would fulfill a desire that had driven research for nearly half a century: that of capturing the world in its own image. But their elation was surprisingly short-lived, and many researchers quickly distanced themselves from the new medium. The cinematographic camera was soon split into two machines, one for recording and one for projecting, enabling it to further escape from the laboratory. The philosopher Henri Bergson joined scientists, such as Etienne-Jules Marey, who found problems with the new cinematographic order. Those who had worked to make the dream come true found that their efforts had been subverted. This essay focuses on the desire to build a cinematographic camera, with the purpose of elucidating how dreams and reality mix in the development of science and technology. It is about desired machines and their often unexpected results. The interplay between what "is" (the technical), what "ought" (the ethical), and what "could" be (the fantastical) drives scientific research.

  19. LeFort I Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Edward P.; Hyman, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    The LeFort I osteotomy is one of the most commonly used procedures to correct midface deformities. It allows for correction in three dimensions including advancement, retrusion, elongation, and shortening. It is indicated, often in conjunction with mandibular surgery, for class II and III malocclusion, facial asymmetry, obstructive sleep apnea, and maxillary atrophy. Before surgery, proper orthodontics and surgical planning should be undertaken to ensure adequate outcomes. Overall, the surgery is widely used due to its low complication profile and reliable long-term results. PMID:24872761

  20. Processes of care desired by elderly patients with multimorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Allison E; Steiner, John F; Main, Deborah S

    2008-01-01

    Background. Most recommended care for chronic diseases is based on the research of single conditions. There is limited information on ‘best’ processes of care for persons with multiple morbidities. Our objective was to explore processes of care desired by elderly patients who have multimorbidities that may present competing demands for patients and providers. Methods. Qualitative investigation using one-on-one interviews of 26 community-dwelling HMO members aged 65–84 (50% male) who had, at a minimum, the combined conditions of diabetes, depression and osteoarthritis. Participants were chosen from a stratified random sample to have a range of 4–16 chronic medical conditions. Results. Participants’ desired processes of care included: the need for convenient access to providers (telephone, internet or in person), clear communication of individualized care plans, support from a single coordinator of care who could help prioritize their competing demands and continuity of relationships. They also desired providers who would listen to and acknowledge their needs, appreciate that these’ needs were unique and fluctuating and have a caring attitude. Conclusions. These respondents describe an ideal process of care that is patient centered and individualized and that supports their unique constellations of problems, shifting priorities and multidimensional decision making. Individual and ongoing care coordination managed by a primary contact person may meet some of these needs. Achieving these goals will require developing efficient methods of assessing patient care needs and flexible care management support systems that can respond to patients’ needs for different levels of support at different times. PMID:18628243

  1. Socially desirable responding in Chinese university students: denial and enhancement?

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Yong

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) with one-, two-, three-, and four-dimensional models and tested the BIDR's discriminant validity with personality variables. A confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of responses from 600 Chinese university students (314 men, 282 women, 4 missing; M age=20.0 yr.) provided results indicating that the four-factor model fit the data best; i.e., self-deception and impression management split into denial and enhancement. The Denial and Enhancement subscales with personality variables show significant differences, confirming the four-factor model. The cultural differences as a possible reason for the split were discussed.

  2. Shrinking an arbitrary object as one desires using metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun; Yang, Xin Mi; Ma, Hui Feng; Cheng, Qiang

    2011-05-01

    Based on transformation optics, we present a shrinking device, which can transform an arbitrary object virtually into a small-size object with different material parameters as one desires. Such an illusion device will confuse the detectors or the viewers, and hence the real size and material parameters of the enclosed object cannot be perceived. We fabricated and measured a shrinking device by using metamaterials, which works at the nonresonant frequency and has low loss. The device has been validated by both numerical simulations and experiments on circular and square objects. Good shrinking performance has been demonstrated.

  3. The desired moral attitude of the physician: (II) compassion.

    PubMed

    Gelhaus, Petra

    2012-11-01

    Professional medical ethics demands of health care professionals in addition to specific duties and rules of conduct that they embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired implied attitude of physicians. In a sequel of three articles, a set of three of these concepts is presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: "empathy", "compassion" and "care". In the first article of the series, "empathy" has been developed as a mainly cognitive and morally neutral capacity of understanding. In this article, the emotional and virtuous core of the desired professional attitude-compassion-is elaborated. Compassion is distinguished from sympathy, empathy and pity. Several problems of compassion as a spontaneous, warm emotion for being a professional virtue are discussed: especially questions of over-demand, of justice and of concerns because of a possible threat to the patient's dignity and autonomy. An interpretation of compassion as processed and learned professional attitude, that founds dignity on the general idea of man as a sentient being and on solidarity, not on his independence and capacities, is developed. It is meant to rule out the possible side effects and to make compassion as a professional attitude and as professional virtue attractive, teachable and acquirable. In order to reach the adequate warmth and closeness for the particular physician-patient-relation, professional compassion has to be combined with the capacity of empathy. If appropriate, the combination of both empathy and compassion as "empathic compassion" can demand a much warmer attitude towards the patient than each of the elements alone, or the simple addition of them can provide. The concept of "care" that will be discussed in a forthcoming article of this sequel is a missing necessary part to describe the active potential of the desired moral

  4. Strategies for siRNA navigation to desired cells.

    PubMed

    Sioud, Mouldy

    2015-01-01

    Whilst small interfering (si) RNAs have emerged as a promising therapeutic modality for treating a diversity of human diseases, delivery constitutes the most serious obstacle to siRNA drug development. As the most used delivery agents can enter all cell types, specificity must be built into the delivery agents or directly attached to the siRNA molecules. The use of antibodies, peptides, Peptide-Fc fusions, aptamers, and other targeting ligands has now enabled efficient gene silencing in the desired cell populations/tissues in vitro and in vivo. The present review summarizes these current innovations, which are important for the design of safe therapeutic siRNAs.

  5. Preschoolers' current desires warp their choices for the future.

    PubMed

    Atance, Cristina M; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2006-07-01

    We introduce a new paradigm to assess how children's choices for the future are influenced by their current desires. Forty-eight 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds were assigned to one of four conditions. In two of these conditions (intervention), we manipulated children's current state of thirst by allowing them to eat pretzels. In the remaining two conditions (baseline), we did not give them pretzels. The children were then asked to choose between water and pretzels. In one intervention and one baseline condition, they chose what they would like "now," whereas in the other intervention and baseline conditions, they chose what they would like "tomorrow." Results revealed that, despite children's overwhelming desire for pretzels in the baseline conditions, children in both intervention conditions chose water. The data support the notion that children's current state influences not only their choices for the present, but also their choices for the future. We discuss this finding in terms of both cognitive-developmental and adult social-cognitive theory.

  6. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2008-09-01

    Fragmentation et astéroïdes binaires; Astéroïde géocroiseur triple; Rosetta sort de son hibernation; Messenger; Transit lunaire vu par Deep Impact; Titan; Phobos; Phoenix; Einstein avait raison; Le ballet des taches rouges; Le poids des lentilles;

  7. Le syndrome d'apert

    PubMed Central

    Benmiloud, Sarra; Chaouki, Sana; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha

    2013-01-01

    Le syndrome d'Apert est une affection congénitale rare, caractérisée par une sténose cranio-faciale associée à une syndactylie des mains et des pieds. Sa prise en charge doit être précoce et multidisciplinaire. Sa gravité réside dans la coexistence de plusieurs malformations avec un risque d'hypertension intracrânienne chronique responsable d'une cécité et d'une débilité mentale. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation à travers laquelle ils illustrent les aspects cliniques et évolutifs ainsi que les difficultés thérapeutiques de cette affection. PMID:23565313

  8. Le Point sur... Astronomie IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    Cet ouvrage regroupe des articles de mise au point sollicités par le rédacteur en chef de la rubrique Astronomie des Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Les textes se proposent de faire découvrir aux lecteurs, dans les principales disciplines de l'astronomie, les résultats les plus remarquables des dernières années.Leurs auteurs sont des spécialistes participant activement à l'accroissement des connaissances dans des domaines faisant l'objet de recherches intensives. Ces mises au point sur des questions particulièrement importantes de l'astronomie sont rédigées soit en français, soit en anglais et accompagnées d'une bibliographie détaillée.

  9. Intraday LeBaron effects

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Simone; Corsi, Fulvio; Renò, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation at intraday level between serial correlation and volatility of the Standard and Poor (S&P) 500 stock index futures returns. At daily and weekly levels, serial correlation and volatility forecasts have been found to be negatively correlated (LeBaron effect). After finding a significant attenuation of the original effect over time, we show that a similar but more pronounced effect holds by using intraday measures, by such as realized volatility and variance ratio. We also test the impact of unexpected volatility, defined as the part of volatility which cannot be forecasted, on the presence of intraday serial correlation in the time series by employing a model for realized volatility based on the heterogeneous market hypothesis. We find that intraday serial correlation is negatively correlated to volatility forecasts, whereas it is positively correlated to unexpected volatility.

  10. Agreeableness: dimension of personality or social desirability artifact?

    PubMed

    Graziano, William G; Tobin, Renée M

    2002-10-01

    Agreeableness is linked to socially valued traits and prosocial motives, so self-reported Agreeableness may be distorted by self-favoring biases (SFB). A three-study multimethod research program explored links between the Big Five dimension of Agreeableness and SFB from three perspectives. First, we examined zero-order relations between Agreeableness and SFB measures (N = 316). Next, we used a round robin design (N = 351) and the Social Relations Model analyses (Kenny, 1994) to partition perceptions of Agreeableness into target and perceiver effects. These effects then were related to SFB concerns, and differential responsiveness to a manipulation of the social desirability of Agreeableness. Study 3 (N = 312) examined a manipulation of Agreeableness as a moderator of the relation between dispositional Agreeableness and interpersonal conflict tactics. Overall, results indicate that Agreeableness is not easily manipulated nor distorted by SFB. Results are discussed in terms of Agreeableness as a substantive system of motives.

  11. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2007-01-01

    A test battery was developed for cursor control device evaluation: four tasks were taken from ISO 9241-9, and three from previous studies conducted at NASA. The tasks focused on basic movements such as pointing, clicking, and dragging. Four cursor control devices were evaluated with and without Extravehicular Activity (EVA) gloves to identify desirable cursor control device characteristics for NASA missions: 1) the Kensington Expert Mouse, 2) the Hulapoint mouse, 3) the Logitech Marble Mouse, and 4) the Honeywell trackball. Results showed that: 1) the test battery is an efficient tool for differentiating among input devices, 2) gloved operations were about 1 second slower and had at least 15% more errors; 3) devices used with gloves have to be larger, and should allow good hand positioning to counteract the lack of tactile feedback, 4) none of the devices, as designed, were ideal for operation with EVA gloves.

  12. How To Prepare Materials With a Desired Refraction Coefficient?

    SciTech Connect

    Ramm, A. G.

    2010-05-21

    In this talk a method is described for preparing materials with a desired refraction coefficient. The method consists of embedding into a material with known refraction coefficient many small particles of size a. The number of particles per unit volume around any point is prescribed, the distance between neighboring particles is O(a{sup (2-kappa/3)}) as a->0, 00. The refraction coefficient is the coefficient n{sup 2}(x) in the wave equation [nabla{sup 2}+kappa{sup 2}n{sup 2}(x)]u = 0.

  13. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Claire; Wardle, Jane; Cooke, Lucy

    2008-12-02

    Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD) relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS.Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic) were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ.Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016), fruit squash (p = 0.042) and milk (p = 0.020) than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017) and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003). No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice.These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks.

  14. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, Claire; Wardle, Jane; Cooke, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD) relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS. Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic) were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ. Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016), fruit squash (p = 0.042) and milk (p = 0.020) than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017) and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003). No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice. These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks. PMID:19055714

  15. Fat, desire and disgust in the colonial imagination.

    PubMed

    Forth, Christopher E

    2012-01-01

    This article tracks the relatively unexamined ways in which ethnographic, travel and medical knowledge interrelated in the construction of fat stereotypes in the nineteenth century, often plotted along a temporal curve from ‘primitive’ corpulence to ‘civilized’ moderation. By showing how the complementary insights of medicine and ethnography circulated in beauty manuals, weight-loss guides and popular ethnographic books – all of which were aimed at middle-class readers and thus crystallize certain bourgeois attitudes of the time – it argues that the pronounced denigration of fat that emerged in Britain and France by the early twentieth century acquired some of its edge through this ongoing tendency to depict desire for and acceptance of fat as fundamentally ‘savage’ or ‘uncivilized’ traits. This tension between fat and ‘civilization’ was by no means univocal or stable. Rather, this analysis shows, a complex and wide-ranging series of similarities and differences, identifications and refusals can be traced between British and French perceptions of their own bodies and desires and the shortcomings they saw in foreign cultures. It sheds light as well on those aspects of their own societies that seemed ‘primitive’ in ways that bore an uncomfortable similarity to the colonial peoples they governed, demonstrating how a gendered, yet ultimately unstable, double standard was sustained for much of the nineteenth century. Finally it reveals a subtle and persistent racial subtext to the anti-fat discourses that would become more aggressive in the twentieth century and which are ubiquitous today.

  16. Early Reasoning about Desires: Evidence from 14- and 18-Month-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repacholi, Betty M.; Gopnik, Alison

    1997-01-01

    Observed infants' responses in a food-requested procedure to explore their understanding of other people's desires. Found that only the 18-month-olds were able to engage in some form of desire reasoning. Children not only inferred that another person held a desire, but also recognized how desires were related to emotions and understood something…

  17. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2013-12-01

    ISON; (3200) Phaéton; Titan, lacs et hydrocarbures; Titan et le Soleil; Jets; z8_GND_5296; La nébuleuse de la Crevette; Planète isolée; Nébuleuse Toby Jug; Le pulsar du Crabe; Le bulbe de la Voie lactée; ALMA au grand complet; APEX, ArTéMiS; Sgr A*; Première détection de l’acétate de méthyle dans l’espace

  18. One Visit Providing Desirable Smile by Laser Application

    PubMed Central

    Fekrazad, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Providing desirable smile is one of the main concerns in cosmetic dentistry. Hyperpigmentation is one of the esthetic concerns especially in gummy smile patients. Lasers with different wavelength are used for oral surgery including Carbon Dioxide Laser (CO2), Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG), Erbium family and diode laser. In this case, all esthetic procedures including gingival depigmentation, caries detection and removal were done by laser technology in one session. Case study: A 40- year-old male with a chief complaint of black gingiva in upper jaw was referred. The right side of maxillary was anesthetized and depigmentation was done by Erbium, Chromium doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er-Cr: YSGG) laser. Due to scores obtained from Diagnodent which indicated caries in dentin, the cavities were prepared by Er-Cr:YSGG laser. The cavities were restored by composite resin. The patient was advised to keep oral hygiene instructions and use mouthwash. Results: The patient reported no pain after surgery and did not use any systemic antibiotic. After 4 weeks, complete healing was observed. Conclusion: Considering acceptable clinical outcome, Er-Cr: YSGG laser can be considered as an effective method for combination of soft and hard tissue treatment. PMID:25606339

  19. EGBIRT and DESIRE; measuring the CIBR at 3 AU.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, J. C.; Beichman, C. A.

    A space mission with a small infrared telescope taken to 3 AU from the Sun could address the problem of detecting the first galaxies by measuring the accumulated radiation produced by all such objects. The cosmic infrared background radiation (CIBR) is the main repository for the energy liberated in early generations of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, but it has never been detected. Its measurement would be a quantum leap for cosmology, but Galactic stars and dust and interplanetary dust have set the limits so far. A new instrument, observing 3 AU from the Sun, could reduce the effects of the foregrounds by two orders of magnitude. Studies of two versions of such an instrument have already been proposed to NASA, the GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Extragalactic Infrared Background Telescope (EGBIRT) and the JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) Deep Space Infrared Experiment (DESIRE). Both involve very small telescopes with array detectors, cooled to reduce detector dark currents and telescope emission. The visible and near IR regions are scientifically very promising. A small deep space mission could easily measure the predicted levels of the CIBR at a price far less than that of COBE.

  20. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    PubMed

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino.

  1. Long distance atomic teleportation with as good success as desired

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Prakash, Hari

    2015-09-15

    Long distance atomic teleportation (LDAT) is of prime importance in long distance quantum communication. Scheme proposed by Bose et al. (1999) in principle enables us to have LDAT using cavity decay. However it gives message state dependent fidelity and success rate. Here, using interaction of entangled coherent states with atom–cavity systems and a two-step measurement, we show how, LDAT can be achieved with unit fidelity and as good success as desired under ideal conditions. The scheme is unique in that, the first measurement predicts success or failure. If success is predicted then second measurement gives perfect teleportation. If failure is predicted the message-qubit remains conserved therefore a second attempt may be started. We found that even in presence of decoherence due to dissipation of energy our scheme gives message state independent success rate and almost perfect teleportation in single attempt with mean fidelity of teleportation equal to 0.9 at long distances. However if first attempt fails, unlike ideal case where message-qubit remains conserved with unit fidelity, in presence of decoherence the message-qubit remains conserved to some degree, therefore mean fidelity of teleportation can be increased beyond 0.9 by repeating the process.

  2. Flibanserin for hypoactive sexual desire disorder: place in therapy.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Faina; Atrio, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of female sexual interest in pre- and post-menopausal women present a complex arena for patients and physicians to navigate. Flibanserin was the first pharmacologic treatment, approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in August 2015, for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. Side effects, contraindications and lack of approval in postmenopausal women are all limitations, as are issues surrounding patient and physician knowledge and access. Testosterone, buspirone, sildenafil, bupropion, bremelanotide, as well as herbal medications (Herbal vX or Tribulus terrestris) have demonstrated some clinical benefit in women with sexual dysfunction disorders however, trials have significant design, dosing or generalizability limitations. Nonpharmaceutical cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, pelvic floor therapy, and clitoral stimulators are also interventions women may pursue. This manuscript will explore the clinical data regarding these therapeutic modalities so as to bring attention to this issue of female HSDD, to offer an overview of current research, and to incite providers to initiate discussion among themselves and their patients.

  3. Fertility Desire in Iranian Women with HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    BEHBOODI-MOGHADAM, Zahra; NIKBAKHT-NASRABADI, Alireza; EBADI, Abbas; ESMAELZADEH – SAEIEH, Sara; MOHRAZ, Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childbearing is a cause of concern for women living with HIV. To improve reproductive right of women with HIV and prevent the spread of HIV; it is needed to understand fertility experiences of infected women with HIV. The aim of this study was to explore fertility intentions and experiences of HIV-infected women in Iran. Methods: Totally, 15 in–depth interviews were conducted with HIV- infected women who were at reproductive age and had referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital Consultation Center for Clients with Risky Behaviors in Tehran, Iran. Data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method in MAXQDA 10. Results: Analysis of the meaning units of interviews showed themes in describing of fertility desires of HIV women as follows: 1) Motherhood as a way for stability of life; 2) Uncertainties about the future; and 3) Unpleasant experience of pregnancy and delivery. This theme has three sub-themes as stigma, discrimination and weakness in health care system. Conclusion: Health care provider and community should respect the right of infected women and inform them on sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26587477

  4. Central Nervous System Multiparameter Optimization Desirability: Application in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Wager, Travis T; Hou, Xinjun; Verhoest, Patrick R; Villalobos, Anabella

    2016-06-15

    Significant progress has been made in prospectively designing molecules using the central nervous system multiparameter optimization (CNS MPO) desirability tool, as evidenced by the analysis reported herein of a second wave of drug candidates that originated after the development and implementation of this tool. This simple-to-use design algorithm has expanded design space for CNS candidates and has further demonstrated the advantages of utilizing a flexible, multiparameter approach in drug discovery rather than individual parameters and hard cutoffs of physicochemical properties. The CNS MPO tool has helped to increase the percentage of compounds nominated for clinical development that exhibit alignment of ADME attributes, cross the blood-brain barrier, and reside in lower-risk safety space (low ClogP and high TPSA). The use of this tool has played a role in reducing the number of compounds submitted to exploratory toxicity studies and increasing the survival of our drug candidates through regulatory toxicology into First in Human studies. Overall, the CNS MPO algorithm has helped to improve the prioritization of design ideas and the quality of the compounds nominated for clinical development.

  5. Flibanserin for hypoactive sexual desire disorder: place in therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Faina; Atrio, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of female sexual interest in pre- and post-menopausal women present a complex arena for patients and physicians to navigate. Flibanserin was the first pharmacologic treatment, approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in August 2015, for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. Side effects, contraindications and lack of approval in postmenopausal women are all limitations, as are issues surrounding patient and physician knowledge and access. Testosterone, buspirone, sildenafil, bupropion, bremelanotide, as well as herbal medications (Herbal vX or Tribulus terrestris) have demonstrated some clinical benefit in women with sexual dysfunction disorders however, trials have significant design, dosing or generalizability limitations. Nonpharmaceutical cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, pelvic floor therapy, and clitoral stimulators are also interventions women may pursue. This manuscript will explore the clinical data regarding these therapeutic modalities so as to bring attention to this issue of female HSDD, to offer an overview of current research, and to incite providers to initiate discussion among themselves and their patients. PMID:28203348

  6. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence.

  7. Framing disease: the example of female hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2010-04-01

    Disease classification is an important part in the process of medicalisation and one important tool by which medical authority is exerted. The demand for, or proposal of a diagnosis may be the first step in casting life's experiences as medical in nature. Aronowitz has written about how diagnoses result from social framing mechanisms (2008) and consensus (2001), while Brown (1995) has demonstrated a complex range of interactions between lay and professionals, institutions and industries which underpin disease discovery. In any case, there are numerous social factors which shape the diagnosis, and in turn, provide a mechanism by which medicalisation can be enacted. Focussing on diagnostic classification provides an important perspective on the human condition and its relationship to medicine. To illustrate how layers of social meaning may be concealed in a diagnosis, this paper uses as heuristic the relatively obscure diagnosis of Female Hyposexual Desire Disorder which is currently surfacing in medical and marketing literature as a frequent disorder worthy of concern. I describe how this diagnosis embodies long-standing fascination with female libido, a contemporary focus on female hypersexuality, and commercial interest of the pharmaceutical industry and its medical allies to reify low sexual urge as a pathological disorder in women.

  8. Optical metrology in the conflict between desire and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osten, W.

    2016-08-01

    In the context of measurement technology, optical methods have a number of unique features. On the other hand the user is faced with serious challenges. One of the biggest challenges that currently attracts high attention in both the technical as well as life sciences, relates to exceeding the physical limits of resolution. Nowadays people prefer to talk about super-resolution. However, this concept creates an often excessive expectation, since this way only the diffraction limit can be achieved in many practical cases. Not to forget are those negative consequences that arise from the high information density in optical signals. The nature of light and its fascinating interaction with matter that makes our visual sense on the one hand the most valuable information carrier, often prevents on the other hand, the metrologically correct interpretation of the results. Nevertheless, it can be proven by numerous examples that no alternative to the optical principles exists. Because critical structures are getting smaller and functional surfaces are becoming increasingly complex, the wavelength of light provides the most flexible and traceable standard to cope with the challenges. But the potential of optical methods, often seduced to an overload of the wish list or to unrealistic promises. Therefore, this paper is dedicated to the tension between desire and reality in optical measuring techniques.

  9. Factors affecting desired family size among preliterate New Guinea mothers.

    PubMed

    Pust, R E; Newman, J S; Senf, J; Stotik, E

    1985-10-01

    A random sample of 331 Enga mothers in Papua New Guinea perceived that an average of 5.96 live births (S.D. = 1.88) were needed to achieve their mean desired completed family size (DFS) of 4.65 children (S.D. = 1.32). The mean of the personal child mortality rates projected by the individual mothers. 194/1000, is very close to the rate of 198/1000 (224 deaths among 1134 live births) experienced by the women as a group and the 177/1000 documented in a 1972 prospective study in the area. This suggests that as a group preliterate women may possess an accurate estimate of prevailing child mortality rates. Considerable interest in family planning was shown. However for cultural or linguistic reasons, the majority (except in the case of the pill and tubal ligation) expressed no opinions about their readiness to use specific modern methods. The mean parity of 43 women seeking tubal ligation was 5.98 (S.D. = 1.81). An integrated maternal health and family planning program focusing on the health benefits to mother and child of the current 3-4-year birth interval seems indicated.

  10. Jan Potocki et le "Gothic Novel"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finne, Jacques

    1970-01-01

    Establishes a parallel between the supernatural and fantastic qualities of Le Comte Jan Potocki's literary works, and the English gothic novels by comparing the elements of terror, mysterious atmosphere, and the supernatural beings involved. (DS)

  11. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2006-06-01

    Deep Impact; Comète 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3; L'anneau bleu d'Uranus; Triplet de neptunes; Triton; Dunes de Titan; Aréologie; Tache Rouge Junior; Obliquité des grosses planètes; Le jour de Saturne; Xéna; Un compagnon pour le Soleil; Galaxies satellites; Séisme sur une étoile à neutrons; Trou noir double; Hydrogène lointain

  12. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2005-03-01

    Trou noir glouton, Matière noire, Integral et le centre de notre Galaxie, Essaim de trous noirs, Carrousel autour de trous noirs, Érosion de trous noirs, Un quasar dans NGC 7319?, Distance de T Tauri, Chai non manquant, Des planètes autour d'une naine brune?, Titan, Une quatrième planète pour le pulsar PSR B1257+12, Smart 1, Aurores de Saturne

  13. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2006-02-01

    le errant; Pluton et Charon; Du côté d'Uranus !; Stardust; G29-38; La chasse aux planètes; Étoile polaire; Véga; Vers un interféromètre infrarouge à base kilométrique; Des pulsars extraordinaires; Trous noirs intermédiaires; Le trou noir central de la Galaxie; N44; Tornade spatiale

  14. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KarLE): In Situ Geochronology for Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    The search for life in the solar system depends upon discovering the right moments in planetary evolution: when habitable environments existed, when they declined, and when geologic processes operated to preserve traces of life after death. However, an incomplete knowledge of absolute Martian geochronology limits our ability to understand the timing of Martian evolutionary milestones, major climate changes, and stratigraphic epochs [1, 2]. Absolute dating relates these habitability markers to planetarywide geologic, atmospheric, and climate history places, and ties their occurrence to the history of the solar system, especially the Earth-Moon system and the timescale of evolution of life on Earth. KArLE is being developed to anchor the relative timeline of geological events to an absolute chronology that puts Mars into a wider solar system context. KArLE makes its measurements on rock samples that can be obtained by landers or rovers and inserted into a small, mechanically simple chamber. KArLE interrogates the samples using laser-induced breakdown spectrocopy (LIBS), mass spectrometry, and optical imaging. The KArLE experiment is flexible enough to accommodate any partner providing these instrument components, a creative approach that extends the ability of mission payloads to accomplish an additional highly-desirable science measurement for low cost and risk and minimal extra hardware.

  15. The ethical desirability of moral bioenhancement: a review of reasons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The debate on the ethical aspects of moral bioenhancement focuses on the desirability of using biomedical as opposed to traditional means to achieve moral betterment. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the ethical reasons presented in the literature for and against moral bioenhancement. Discussion A review was performed and resulted in the inclusion of 85 articles. We classified the arguments used in those articles in the following six clusters: (1) why we (don’t) need moral bioenhancement, (2) it will (not) be possible to reach consensus on what moral bioenhancement should involve, (3) the feasibility of moral bioenhancement and the status of current scientific research, (4) means and processes of arriving at moral improvement matter ethically, (5) arguments related to the freedom, identity and autonomy of the individual, and (6) arguments related to social/group effects and dynamics. We discuss each argument separately, and assess the debate as a whole. First, there is little discussion on what distinguishes moral bioenhancement from treatment of pathological deficiencies in morality. Furthermore, remarkably little attention has been paid so far to the safety, risks and side-effects of moral enhancement, including the risk of identity changes. Finally, many authors overestimate the scientific as well as the practical feasibility of the interventions they discuss, rendering the debate too speculative. Summary Based on our discussion of the arguments used in the debate on moral enhancement, and our assessment of this debate, we advocate a shift in focus. Instead of speculating about non-realistic hypothetical scenarios such as the genetic engineering of morality, or morally enhancing ‘the whole of humanity’, we call for a more focused debate on realistic options of biomedical treatment of moral pathologies and the concrete moral questions these treatments raise. PMID:25227512

  16. PhySIC: a veto supertree method with desirable properties.

    PubMed

    Ranwez, Vincent; Berry, Vincent; Criscuolo, Alexis; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Guillemot, Sylvain; Scornavacca, Celine; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2007-10-01

    This paper focuses on veto supertree methods; i.e., methods that aim at producing a conservative synthesis of the relationships agreed upon by all source trees. We propose desirable properties that a supertree should satisfy in this framework, namely the non-contradiction property (PC) and the induction property (PI). The former requires that the supertree does not contain relationships that contradict one or a combination of the source topologies, whereas the latter requires that all topological information contained in the supertree is present in a source tree or collectively induced by several source trees. We provide simple examples to illustrate their relevance and that allow a comparison with previously advocated properties. We show that these properties can be checked in polynomial time for any given rooted supertree. Moreover, we introduce the PhySIC method (PHYlogenetic Signal with Induction and non-Contradiction). For k input trees spanning a set of n taxa, this method produces a supertree that satisfies the above-mentioned properties in O(kn(3) + n(4)) computing time. The polytomies of the produced supertree are also tagged by labels indicating areas of conflict as well as those with insufficient overlap. As a whole, PhySIC enables the user to quickly summarize consensual information of a set of trees and localize groups of taxa for which the data require consolidation. Lastly, we illustrate the behaviour of PhySIC on primate data sets of various sizes, and propose a supertree covering 95% of all primate extant genera. The PhySIC algorithm is available at http://atgc.lirmm.fr/cgi-bin/PhySIC.

  17. La Vie Politique sous la Restauration a Travers ’Le Rouge et le Noir’ de Stendahl (The Political Life during the Restauration as Depicted in Le Rouge et le Noir by Stendahl)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Valenod et Moirod, qul hissent le drapeau lib6ral uniquenient pour aznoIiorer leurs propres 20 conditions. Ils n’ont ni souci pour les paysans ni... propre benefice. Le lecteur est introduit a M. Valenod tres t~t dans le livre. 11 est le directeur du depot de mendicit6 A Verrlieres qui craint la visite... propres desse ins. Le groupe de vrais lib~t-aux stendhal lens comprend Fouqu6 qui est le bon ami de Julilen Sorel , le phi losophe Saint- Giraud. et

  18. Multimedia Astronomy Communication: Effectively Communicate Astronomy to the Desired Audience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Star Cartier, Kimberly Michelle; Wright, Jason

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of our jobs as scientists is communicating our work to others. In this, the field of astronomy holds the double-edged sword of ubiquitous fascination: the topic has been of interest to nearly the entire global population at some point in their lives, yet the learning curve is steep within any subfield and rife with difficult-to-synthesize details. Compounding this issue is the ever-expanding array of methods to reach people in today's Communications Era. Each communication medium has its own strengths and weaknesses, is appropriate in different situations, and requires its own specific skillset in order to maximize its functionality. Despite this, little attention is given to training astronomers in effective communication techniques, often relying on newcomers to simply pick up the ability by mimicking others and assuming that a firm grasp on the subject matter will make up for deficiencies in communication theory. This can restrict astronomers to a narrow set of communication methods, harming both the communicators and the audience who may struggle to access the information through those media.Whether writing a research paper to academic peers or giving an astronomy talk to a pubic audience, successfully communicating a scientific message requires more than just an expert grasp on the topic. A communicator must understand the makeup and prior knowledge of the desired audience, be able to break down the salient points of the topic into pieces that audience can digest, select and maximize upon a medium to deliver the message, and frame the message in a way that hooks the audience and compels further interest. In this work we synthesize the requirements of effective astronomy communication into a few key questions that every communicator needs to answer. We then discuss some of the most common media currently used to communicate astronomy, give both effective and poor examples of utilizing these media to communicate astronomy, and provide key

  19. Entrevue avec le Dr Charley Zeanah

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Le Dr Charles Zeanah est titulaire de la chaire de psychiatrie Mary K. Sellars-Polchow, professeur de pédiatrie clinique et vice-président de la pédopsychiatrie au département de psychiatrie et des sciences du comportement de la faculté de médecine de l’Université Tulane, à la Nouvelle-Orléans. Il est également directeur général de l’institut de la santé mentale des nourrissons et des jeunes enfants de Tulane. Il est récipiendaire de nombreux prix, notamment le prix de prévention Irving Phillips (AACAP), la mention élogieuse présidentielle pour sa recherche et son leadership exceptionnels en santé mentale des nourrissons (American Orthopsychiatric Association), le prix d’excellence clinique Sarah Haley Memorial (International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies), le prix de recherche en pédopsychiatrie Blanche F. Ittelson (APA), et le prix Serge Lebovici Award soulignant les contributions internationales à la santé mentale des nourrissons (World Association for Infant Mental Health). Le Dr Zeanah est fellow distingué de l’AACAP, fellow distingué de l’APA et membre du conseil d’administration de Zero to Three. Il est l’éditeur scientifique de Handbook of Infant Mental Health (3e édition) qui est considéré comme étant le manuel de pointe et la référence de base du domaine de la santé mentale des nourrissons.

  20. A Computer Program to Create a Population with Any Desired Centroid and Covariance Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John D.

    1975-01-01

    A Computer program written in FORTRAN IV is presented which will create a population of desired size with marginally normal score vectors manifesting any desired centroid and covariance matrix. Uses and documentation are provided. (Author)

  1. The Role of Perceived Control and the Desirability of Control among Abusive and Nonabusive Husbands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Joni E.; Arias, Ileana

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between husbands' (n=72) violence and desired and perceived control. Identified two subgroups of men at high risk for engaging in domestic violence: men low on self-esteem, low on desirability of control, and low on perceived personal control; and men high on self-esteem, high on desirability of control, but low on perceived…

  2. Attitude, Desire, and Frequency of Extra-Marital involvement as Correlated with Subject Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Sharon; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A study of desire for, frequency of, and attitudes towards extramarital involvement (EMI) was conducted, using 100 male and female college students ranging in age from 19 to 55. Predictive factors other than desire, frequency, and attitude were number of marriages, and the social desirability scale. (Author)

  3. Desire for Thinness among High School Cheerleaders: Relationship to Disordered Eating and Weight Control Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundholm, Jean K.; Littrell, John M.

    1986-01-01

    Examined cheerleaders' desire for thinness in relationship to disordered eating and weight control behaviors. A Desire for Thinness Scale and selected scales from three eating disorder instruments were administered to 751 high school cheerleaders. Cheerleaders who expressed a strong desire for thinness had significantly higher scores on seven of…

  4. Three- and Four-Year-Old Children's Ability to Use Desire- and Belief-Based Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Kimberly Wright

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of 3-year olds' reliance on desire when predicting behavior and their performance on false-belief tasks. Results suggested that young children may use the desires of the agent, rather than their own desires, to predict behavior in standard false-belief paradigms. Older preschoolers also have difficulty…

  5. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will travel to the moon and Mars, and all future Exploration vehicles and habitats will be highly computerized, necessitating an accurate method of interaction with the computers. The design of a cursor control device will have to take into consideration g-forces, vibration, gloved operations, and the specific types of tasks to be performed. The study described here is being undertaken to begin identifying characteristics of cursor control devices that will work well for the unique Exploration mission environments. The objective of the study is not to identify a particular device, but to begin identifying design characteristics that are usable and desirable for space missions. Most cursor control devices have strengths and weaknesses; they are more appropriate for some tasks and less suitable for others. The purpose of this study is to collect some initial usability data on a large number of commercially available and proprietary cursor control devices. A software test battery was developed for this purpose. Once data has been collected using these low-level, basic point/click/drag tasks, higher fidelity, scenario-driven evaluations will be conducted with a reduced set of devices. The standard tasks used for testing cursor control devices are based on a model of human movement known as Fitts law. Fitts law predicts that the time to acquire a target is logarithmically related to the distance over the target size. To gather data for analysis with this law, fundamental, low-level tasks are used such as dragging or pointing at various targets of different sizes from various distances. The first four core tasks for the study were based on the ISO 9241-9:(2000) document from the International Organization for Standardization that contains the requirements for non-keyboard input devices. These include two pointing tasks, one dragging and one tracking task. The fifth task from ISO 9241-9, the circular tracking task was not used

  6. Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

  7. Elucidating women's (hetero)sexual desire: definitional challenges and content expansion.

    PubMed

    Meana, Marta

    2010-03-01

    The literature on women's sexual desire is reviewed with an emphasis on definitional challenges, an assessment of the empirical basis for the distinction between spontaneous and responsive desire, a reconsideration of the extent to which women's sexual desire is relational in nature, and an exploration of the incentive value of sex for women as a factor partially independent from the experience of sexual desire. Nine recommendations are made regarding research and diagnostic directions. The article concludes with an appeal for the inclusion of eroticism in research and clinical work on sexual desire.

  8. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2014-06-01

    Future lune ? - L'âge de la Lune - Des volcans actifs sur Vénus - Un lac dans le cratère Gusev ? - Météorites et atmosphère martiennes - L’hexagone de Saturne - Pluton - Exo-Terre - Bêta Pictoris b - Cérès et Vesta depuis Mars - Naine froide - Parallaxes par Hubble - L2 Puppis et le sort du Soleil - Supernova et lentille gravitationnelle - Champ magnétique galactique - L’objet de Sakurai - Fermi et la matière noire - Lentille naine

  9. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2002-09-01

    Jeunes étoiles et vieilles galaxies; Chiens de Chasse; Des images en partie belges; Détection chimique de planètes?; Amas cannibale; Le pulsar œil de bœuf; Supernova 2002 DJ; Centaurus A; Et de cent; Près du trou noir; Un cratère sous la Merdu Nord; Des astéroï des frôlent la Terre; Photons fatigués; Taches solaires; Un grand lac martien; Les naines brunes en infrarouge; Bourrelet équatorial; Fusion de trous noirs; Le hamburger de Gomez; Matière sombre; Non aux étoiles à quarks

  10. Le continu contre l'espace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salanskis, Jean-Michel

    Disons pour conclure que, en tout état de cause, la façon de concevoir philosophiquement le conflit du continu et de l'espace que nous avons trouvée chez Hegel n'est pas homogène avec le style et les modalités de la pensée mathématique: 1) d'une part, le lien classique, le lien de référence entre continu et espace en mathématiques n'est pas que l'espace serait premier et privé de pensée, et le continu second, venant dissoudre l'espace en apportant la qualité, l'infini et la pensée, mais tout au contraire, il consiste en ce que l'espace est fondé sur l'abîme infinitaire du continu ; 2) d'autre part, l'éventuel divorce entre l'espace et le continu dans l'aire mathématique n'est pas celui d'une réflexivité purement conceptuelle du continu avec un positivisme géométrique, n'équivaut pas à une rupture disciplinaire ; il est plutôt le symptôme de la dérive d'une herméneutique à l'égard d'une autre, au sein d'un continent juridique commun définissant la discipline (la mathématique ensembliste), cette dérive pouvant, à la limite, induire une refonte de ce sol juridique, sans que jamais il soit question pour autant de nier l'unité des mathématiques, à comprendre ici comme l'unité ultime de responsabilité de la communauté mathématique à l'égard des trois questions Qu'est-ce que l'espace?”, “Qu'est-ce que le continu?” et “Qu'est-ce que l'infini?”.

  11. Sociosexual attitudes and dyadic sexual desire independently predict women's preferences for male vocal masculinity.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Jones, Benedict C; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R

    2014-10-01

    Research suggests that the desire to behave sexually with a partner (dyadic sexual desire) may reflect desire for intimacy whereas solitary sexual desire may reflect pleasure seeking motivations more generally. Because direct reproductive success can only be increased with a sexual partner, we tested whether dyadic sexual desire was a better predictor of women's preferences for lower pitched men's voices (a marker of relatively high reproductive success) than was solitary sexual desire. In Study 1, women (N = 95) with higher dyadic sexual desire scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 preferred masculinized male voices more than did women with lower dyadic sexual desire scores. We did not find a significant relationship between women's vocal masculinity preferences and their solitary sexual desire scores. In Study 2, we tested whether the relationship between voice preferences and dyadic sexual desire scores was related to differences in sociosexual orientation. Women (N = 80) with more positive attitudes towards uncommitted sex had stronger vocal masculinity preferences regardless of whether men's attractiveness was judged for short-term or long-term relationships. Independent of the effect of sociosexual attitudes, dyadic sexual desire positively predicted women's masculinity preferences when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term but not long-term relationships. These effects were independent of women's own relationship status and hormonal contraceptive use. Our results provide further evidence that women's mate preferences may independently reflect individual differences in both sexual desire and openness to short-term relationships, potentially with the ultimate function of maximizing the fitness benefits of women's mate choices.

  12. A Compositional Analysis of "-GUO" and "-LE."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, L.; Li, Dingxuan

    1993-01-01

    Paper examines interaction of semantic contributions of aspect markers "-guo" and "-le"; negative adverbs "bu" and "mei"; and two classes of verbs. Proposed analysis systematically accounts for temporal orientation of members of several classes of sentences in terms of aspectual contributions made by two aspect markers, negative adverbs, verbs,…

  13. Technical Programme 1993 (Le Programme Technique, 1993)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Symposium sur "Les Effets de la Propagation Atmospherique a travers des Obscurcissants Naturels et Artificiels sur le Rayonnement des Ondes Millimetriques...for Small Gas Turbines" Reunion du Panel et Symposium sur "Les Technologies pour les Petites Turbines a Gaz " 4-8 CANADA TIP Panel Meeting/Specialists

  14. Le Francais Courant: Part V, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Courant: Part 5" focus on the development of mastery of the basic numbering system and other grammatical structures. Structures include the formation of the present tense of the irregular verbs…

  15. Le Chatelier's principle in replicator dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-10-01

    The Le Chatelier principle states that physical equilibria are not only stable, but they also resist external perturbations via short-time negative-feedback mechanisms: a perturbation induces processes tending to diminish its results. The principle has deep roots, e.g., in thermodynamics it is closely related to the second law and the positivity of the entropy production. Here we study the applicability of the Le Chatelier principle to evolutionary game theory, i.e., to perturbations of a Nash equilibrium within the replicator dynamics. We show that the principle can be reformulated as a majorization relation. This defines a stability notion that generalizes the concept of evolutionary stability. We determine criteria for a Nash equilibrium to satisfy the Le Chatelier principle and relate them to mutualistic interactions (game-theoretical anticoordination) showing in which sense mutualistic replicators can be more stable than (say) competing ones. There are globally stable Nash equilibria, where the Le Chatelier principle is violated even locally: in contrast to the thermodynamic equilibrium a Nash equilibrium can amplify small perturbations, though both types of equilibria satisfy the detailed balance condition.

  16. Le Chatelier's principle in replicator dynamics.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-10-01

    The Le Chatelier principle states that physical equilibria are not only stable, but they also resist external perturbations via short-time negative-feedback mechanisms: a perturbation induces processes tending to diminish its results. The principle has deep roots, e.g., in thermodynamics it is closely related to the second law and the positivity of the entropy production. Here we study the applicability of the Le Chatelier principle to evolutionary game theory, i.e., to perturbations of a Nash equilibrium within the replicator dynamics. We show that the principle can be reformulated as a majorization relation. This defines a stability notion that generalizes the concept of evolutionary stability. We determine criteria for a Nash equilibrium to satisfy the Le Chatelier principle and relate them to mutualistic interactions (game-theoretical anticoordination) showing in which sense mutualistic replicators can be more stable than (say) competing ones. There are globally stable Nash equilibria, where the Le Chatelier principle is violated even locally: in contrast to the thermodynamic equilibrium a Nash equilibrium can amplify small perturbations, though both types of equilibria satisfy the detailed balance condition.

  17. Le Chatelier--Right or Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfferich, Friedrich G.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a class exercise designed to find out how well students understand the nature and consequences of the mass action law and Le Chatelier's principle as applied to chemical equilibria. The exercise relates to a practical situation and provides simple relations for maximizing equilibrium quantities not found in standard textbooks. (JN)

  18. Microscopic Description of Le Chatelier's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Igor

    2005-01-01

    A simple approach that "demystifies" Le Chatelier's principle (LCP) and simulates students to think about fundamental physical background behind the well-known principles is presented. The approach uses microscopic descriptors of matter like energy levels and populations and does not require any assumption about the fixed amount of substance being…

  19. Le Chatelier's Principle, Temperature Effects, and Entropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Arthur

    1985-01-01

    One of the most useful methods of understanding chemical equilibria is provided by Le Chatelier's principle. The relationships between this principle, temperature, and entropy are discussed. Tables with thermodynamic data for some net reactions commonly used to illustrate the principle and for reactions involving gases are included. (JN)

  20. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2008-04-01

    Jets stellaires; Structure géante et matière noire; Un mini-système solaire; Arcs gravitationnels et images multiples; Choc frontal dans notre Galaxie; Avalanches martiennes; Du sable autour de KH 15D; Le cratère de Carancas; Smart-1;

  1. 30. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE, LE CLAIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND, LOOKING EAST - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  2. 29. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND, LOOKING WEST - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  3. Eroticism in group psychotherapy: psychoanalytic reflections on desire, agony, and ecstasy.

    PubMed

    Tylim, Isaac

    2003-10-01

    To fully understand the complexities of eroticism in groups, it may be necessary to review a conceptual differentiation of desire and its allies: agony and ecstasy. This article suggests that psychoanalytic group psychotherapy is made for neither agony nor ecstasy. Sexual excitement maybe; eroticism and desire, yes; agony and ecstasy, no. While agony or ecstasy imply a threat to the survival of the group, eroticism and desire reaffirm its existence. In this manner the group may be converted into a theater where desire may be celebrated, while the threat of being dissolved in the depths or exaltation of agony and ecstasy is elaborated and worked through: "Desire is desire only if it succeeds in postponing something".

  4. Teen lesbian desires and identities in international cinema: 1931-2007.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of representations of teenage lesbian desires and/or identity in a global cinematic context, addressing twenty-seven films from fourteen nations released between 1931 and 2007. Despite temporal and geographical differences, three main forms of film texts emerged: those that engaged in sub or somewhat textual depictions of teen lesbian desires and relationships; others that offered a tragic take on lesbian desire; and the dominant form, engaging with a coming of age narrative structure.

  5. A Desired PAR-Achieving Precoder Design for Multiuser MIMO OFDM Based on Concentration of Measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Hyun-Su; Kim, Dong Ku

    2017-03-01

    For multi-user multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communications in orthogonal frequency di- vision multiplexing systems, we propose a MIMO precoding scheme providing a desired peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) at the minimum cost that is defined as received SNR degradation. By taking advantage of the concentration of measure, we formulate a convex problem with constraint on the desired PAR. Consequently, the proposed scheme almost exactly achieves the desired PAR on average, and asymptotically attains the desired PAR at the 0.001 point of its complementary cumulative distribution function, as the number of subcarriers increases.

  6. Sex, desire and pleasure: considering the experiences of older Australian women.

    PubMed

    Fileborn, Bianca; Thorpe, Rachel; Hawkes, Gail; Minichiello, Victor; Pitts, Marian; Dune, Tinashe

    2015-01-02

    Older age is often associated with asexuality. That is, older individuals are not viewed as desiring of sex, nor as sexually desirable to others. Broader social and cultural norms that downplay women's sexual desire and agency further compound these phenomena. Whether this popular image accurately reflects older women's sexual desires, behaviour and capacity to experience pleasure is unclear. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 43 partnered Australian women aged 55-81, this article considers women's sexual experiences and desires in older age. The findings of our research confirm that older women's experiences of sex and sexual desire are diverse and fluid. Some of the factors that influenced participants' sexual behaviour and desire will be considered in this article, as will their understandings of what "counts" as sexual satisfaction and "successful sex". The factors affecting sexual behaviour and desire also influence the way in which women are able to negotiate sexual interaction with their partners. Participants expressed a need for education and resources in order to gain greater control and to make autonomous choices over their sexual experiences, desire and ability to give and receive pleasure. The implications of these findings for practitioners are also considered.

  7. Future desire for children among women living with HIV in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Lisa B; Machen, Leah Kathleen; Cordes, Sarah; Huylebroeck, Brian; Delaney, Augustina; Ofotokun, Igho; Nguyen, Minh Ly; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding family planning desires among women living with HIV in the United States. This study aimed to identify factors influencing desire for children in the future among HIV-infected women in Atlanta, Georgia. HIV-infected women ages 18-45 completed an ACASI (audio computer-assisted self-interview) questionnaire. Chi-square, t-tests, and multivariate logistic regression evaluated factors associated with desire for future children. Of 181 participants, 62 (34.3%) expressed desire for children in the future, with increased desire among younger women (age <26) and those with seronegative partners. Concerns for horizontal and vertical HIV transmission were deterrents to future childbearing. Condom use and overall knowledge of transmission risk was low. Over a third of women desiring a child never discussed their desire with a physician. Misinformation regarding HIV transmission risks persists and is a notable concern influencing desire for children. Providers should reassess family planning desires regularly through integrated HIV care.

  8. Son preference, fertility desire and contraceptive use in two largest cities of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, M N

    1990-01-01

    The preference for sons in deeprooted in Pakistan and the growth rate is 3.1%/year, which has long term implications for the Population Welfare Program. In this study, the relationship between living sons and contraceptive use is examined among 1243 currently married industrial workers and 307 control group workers from 13 sample industries in Karachi and Lahore, Pakistan. The Family Welfare Education for Workers' Project has been operating in these industries. Questions were asked about the number of living children by sex, desired number of children by sex, and ideal family size by sex. The ideal number of children was 4 (3.7) with an average of 2.2 sons and 1.5 daughters, which indicates son preference. Average desired children (living plus additional wanted) is 5.0 (4.7) with an average of 2.6 for sons and 2.1 for daughters. All workers with an ideal of 1 wanted a son. 90% of those wanting an ideal of 2 children desired 1 son and 1 daughter. 95% with an ideal of 3 children wanted 2 sons and 1 daughter. 83% with an ideal of 4 children desired 2 sons and 2 daughters, and 16% wanted 3 sons and 1 daughter. 85% with an ideal of 5 children wanted 3 sons and 2 daughters. Further evidence for son preference occurs with total desired number of children; i.e., 79% of those desiring 2 children preferred 1 of each sex, and 21%, 2 sons. This pattern was repeated for each increase in child desired. The desire for children was also examined in terms of existing children. Workers who have more sons were less likely to desire another child; however, those with 2 living daughters desired 1.63 more children and those with 1 of each desired .85 more children. Those with 2 sons desired .67 more children. The number of additional children desired decreases with the increasing number of living children, and with increasing numbers of living sons. Desiring no more children tends to increase with an increase in number of living children, and with an increase in the number of living

  9. Sex, desire and pleasure: considering the experiences of older Australian women

    PubMed Central

    Fileborn, Bianca; Thorpe, Rachel; Hawkes, Gail; Minichiello, Victor; Pitts, Marian; Dune, Tinashe

    2015-01-01

    Older age is often associated with asexuality. That is, older individuals are not viewed as desiring of sex, nor as sexually desirable to others. Broader social and cultural norms that downplay women's sexual desire and agency further compound these phenomena. Whether this popular image accurately reflects older women's sexual desires, behaviour and capacity to experience pleasure is unclear. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 43 partnered Australian women aged 55–81, this article considers women's sexual experiences and desires in older age. The findings of our research confirm that older women's experiences of sex and sexual desire are diverse and fluid. Some of the factors that influenced participants’ sexual behaviour and desire will be considered in this article, as will their understandings of what “counts” as sexual satisfaction and “successful sex”. The factors affecting sexual behaviour and desire also influence the way in which women are able to negotiate sexual interaction with their partners. Participants expressed a need for education and resources in order to gain greater control and to make autonomous choices over their sexual experiences, desire and ability to give and receive pleasure. The implications of these findings for practitioners are also considered. PMID:25544829

  10. Le syndrome d’alcoolisme foetal

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    L’alcool est un tératogène physique et comportemental. Le syndrome d’alcoolisme foetal (SAF) est un trouble courant mais encore sous-diagnostiqué découlant de la consommation d’alcool par la mère pendant la grossesse. Bien qu’il puisse être prévenu, le SAF est également invalidant. Même si le SAF est présent dans tous les groupes socioéconomiques du Canada, sa prévalence est élevée dans certaines communautés inuites et des Premières nations du Canada. Le présent énoncé porte sur la prévention, le diagnostic, le dépistage précoce et la prise en charge du SAF par les professionnels de la santé. La prévention du SAF doit s’effectuer à deux échelons. La prévention primaire consiste à éliminer le SAF par une formation en classe ou dans la collectivité et à inciter les femmes à éviter de consommer de l’alcool avant la conception et pendant la grossesse. La prévention secondaire consiste à repérer les femmes qui boivent pendant leur grossesse et à réduire leur consommation. Le présent énoncé décrit plusieurs stratégies de dépistage, dont la stratégie T-ACE (tolérance-agacement, réduction, éveil). Les dispensateurs de soins devraient recommander l’abstinence dès la première visite prénatale. Un envoi rapide en consultation en vue de traiter l’alcoolisme est recommandé pour les femmes enceintes incapables d’arrêter de boire. Le présent énoncé décrit le diagnostic de SAF, de SAF partiel ou atypique, d’anomalies congénitales et de troubles neurodéveloppementaux reliés à l’alcool. En cas d’exposition à l’alcool in utero, un diagnostic de SAF devrait être envisagé en présence d’un retard de croissance courant ou antérieur, de certaines anomalies faciales touchant la lèvre supérieure et les yeux et d’anomalies neurodéveloppementales. Ces caractéristiques sont mieux quantifiées au moyen d’une méthode diagnostique à quatre chiffres. Des stratégies de dépistage précoce des

  11. Increasing women’s sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women’s sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women’s sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women’s sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women’s sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women’s sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women’s sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced. PMID:26589379

  12. Increasing women's sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-02-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women's sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a possible cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women's sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women's sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women's sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women's sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women's sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced.

  13. Prevalence of women's sexual desire problems: what criteria do we use?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Goldhammer, Denisa L

    2013-08-01

    Problems of sexual desire are often cited as the most prevalent of the female sexual dysfunctions. Despite this finding, considerable variability exists when comparing prevalence figures across studies, highlighting the inconsistency in how these problems are defined and therefore measured. The current study was designed to determine how the prevalence estimates of women's sexual desire problems varied according to the diagnostic criteria adopted to define such problems. The sample consisted of 741 women from Australia, the Americas, Europe, and Asia. Participants were between 18 and 71 years of age and were involved in a heterosexual relationship spanning between 3 months and 49 years duration. Sexual desire problems were defined using a variety of criteria, including (1) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), (2) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for HSDD, removing the sexual thoughts/fantasy requirement, (3) self-identified "lack of sexual interest," and (4) low average ratings of sexual desire levels, as assessed using the female sexual desire questionnaire. The prevalence of sexual desire problems varied from 3.0 to 31.0% depending upon the criteria used to define such problems. It is important to reach a consensus with regard to the criteria used to define sexual desire problems, in order to standardize and compare studies investigating these problems. How women's sexual desire problems are conceptualized has implications for their treatment. Therapists may or may not need to address absent sexual thoughts/fantasies and may be working with low normative levels of desire versus subjective evaluations of low desire.

  14. Development of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) Instrument for In Situ Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Clegg, S. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Swindle, T. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. Traditionally, geochronology has only been accomplishable on samples from dedicated sample return missions or meteorites. The capability for in situ geochronology is highly desired, because it will allow one-way planetary missions to perform dating of large numbers of samples. The success of an in situ geochronology package will not only yield data on absolute ages, but can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache and/or return to Earth. In situ dating instruments have been proposed, but none have yet reached TRL 6 because the required high-resolution isotopic measurements are very challenging. Our team is now addressing this challenge by developing the Potassium (K) - Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) under the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP), building on previous work to develop a K-Ar in situ instrument [1]. KArLE uses a combination of several flight-proven components that enable accurate K-Ar isochron dating of planetary rocks. KArLE will ablate a rock sample, determine the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measure the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relate the two by the volume of the ablated pit using an optical method such as a vertical scanning interferometer (VSI). Our preliminary work indicates that the KArLE instrument will be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to +/-100 Myr, sufficient to address a wide range of geochronology problems in planetary science.

  15. Le matérialisme scientifique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Jean-François

    2004-03-01

    De nos jours, il arrive quotidiennement aux grands hommes d'avoir à fréquenter d'ignorants mortels épris d'une conviction maladive que la science est la grande responsable de tous les maux du monde. Évidemment sans physique atomique, il n'y aurait pas eu d'Hiroshima et sans révolution industrielle, pas de pollution et etc. Cependant, ces accusations envers le progrès technique sont tout à fait injustes, irréfléchies et, j'irai même jusqu'à dire, irresponsables, puisque le calcul, i.e. la planification, même la plus élémentaire, est ce qui caractérise le mieux, pragmatiquement, la société humaine. À mon avis, les problèmes sociaux tireraient plutôt leur origine de sciences sociales irréalistes, qui, concrètment, inspireraient ou serviraient d'alibis à ceux qui détiennent véritablement le pouvoir. Dans cet article, je tenterai donc de démontrer la meilleure véracité et efficacité du matérialisme scientifique. Cette doctrine, dont Mario Bunge est le plus illustre représentant, s'appuy sur les résultats théoriques et expérimentaux des sciences factuelles ainsi que sur l'exactitude logique des mathématiques, utilisées ici comme langage universel de l'expression des idées. Cette conception philosophique qui s'inspire principalement du modèle des théories physiques, stipule que les réalités sociales sont, comme tout autre réalité, matérielles, mathématisables et représentables comme des systèmes en interaction. En fait, le modèle des physiciens ayant historiquement fait ses preuves en matière de testabilité et de cohérence interne est proposé d'être appliquer aux sciences sociales, aujourd'hui scindées des sciences dites pures sous l'inspiration des pseudo penseurs néo-kantiens, phénoménologiques et post-moderne. Cette nouvelle approche permettrait ainsi d'évoluer plus exactement vers une compréhension des bases sociales et biologiques du comportement humain afin de développer une éthique sans cesse plus r

  16. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2003-09-01

    Système solaire poussiéreux; Combien d'étoiles dans le ciel?; Distance d'un pulsar; Planètes poussières et métaux; Un amateur belge bat les professionnels; Matière sombre; Supernova asymétrique; Anneau liégeois; Amas globulaires; Amas globulaires vagabonds; Baptême de satellites; Champ de gravité terrestre; Début de l'univers; XMM et Geminga; Carte neutrinos du ciel; Galaxies et trous noirs; Univers X; SMART-1: signal de départ pour l'aventure lunaire; Les saisons de Pluton; Planète dans M4; Rotation des pulsars; Un jumeau de Jupiter?; Le satellite ISO; Mars Express~:dernier clin d'oeil à la Terre; Waterworld: une réalité?

  17. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2013-06-01

    Une binaire remarquable; Collision de galaxies; La nébuleuse planétaire C1295; ALMA (suite); Couple massif; Astéroïdes lointains; L’eau de Jupiter; Occultation par Pluton; Super-Terres; Première image d’une planète massive autour d’une étoile double; Tempête au pôle de Saturne

  18. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2002-06-01

    Loi tchèque sur la pollution lumineuse; XTE J0929-314; Futurs amas de galaxies; Palomar 5; La météo des naines brunes; Trous noirs et galaxies elliptiques; Europe; 2MASS; Mars; Io; Matière sombre; Un objet très froid; Les oscillations stellaires; Un système lanétaire en formation; Binaire serrée; Satellites de Jupiter; Mars sous la loupe; Le Hubble nouveau

  19. Violation of eating expectancies does not reduce conditioned desires for chocolate.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Karolien; van den Broek, Myrr; Havermans, Remco C; Jansen, Anita

    2016-05-01

    Although eating desires can be easily learned, their extinction appears more difficult. The present two-session study aimed to investigate the role of eating expectancies in the short and longer-term extinction of eating desires. In addition, the relationship between eating desires and conditioned evaluations was examined to test whether they might share a similar mechanism. It was hypothesized that the short-term extinction of eating desires would be more successful after the disconfirmation of eating expectancies (instructed extinction or IE), while resulting in worse longer-term extinction because omission of the food reward during extinction is not surprising. In contrast to the hypotheses, it was found that IE had no effect on the short-term and longer-term extinction of eating desires. Eating desires correlated with conditioned evaluations only to some extent. It is concluded that eating expectancies do not mediate the short-term extinction of conditioned eating desires. In addition, their longer-term extinction does not appear to be facilitated by a greater violation of eating expectancies. This suggests that it might not be necessary to focus on expectancy violation in cue exposure therapy to reduce eating desires.

  20. Comparing Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper to graduate and undergraduate students. Discusses response bias; describes use of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; and reports findings that reveal no differences in SDR between the Web-administered and paper-administered…

  1. Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    Social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper was examined, with 178 graduate and undergraduate students as participants. To assess the extent to which participants would demonstrate SDR, this study used the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) (Paulhus, 1993). The BIDR consists of 40…

  2. Relationship Characteristics and Sexual Practices of African American Adolescent Girls Who Desire Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Susan L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Person, Sharina D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Harrington, Kathleen F.; Dix, Emily S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations between African American adolescent girls' desire to become pregnant and their sexual and relationship practices. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to detect significant associations between pregnancy desire and the assessed correlates. Of 522 participants (14 to 18 years old), 67 (12.8%) were…

  3. Social Desirability as a Response Style on the Adjective Check List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, Val H.; Jackson, Kenneth

    The effect of social desirability on the variance accounted for by the scales of the Adjective Check List (ACL) was investigated in a sample of 366 female college students. Social desirability as a response style was defined as the tendency to present oneself in a favorable manner. The ACL was scored according to 23 of the 24 keys in the test…

  4. Writing and Desire: Synthesizing Rhetorical Theories of Genre and Lacanian Theories of the Unconscious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the role of desire in discursive practice, this article examines rhetorical theories of genre and Lacanian theories of the unconscious. The former, it is argued, might be refined to shed more light on actors' unconscious investments in and resistance to the desires maintained by genres. The latter, meanwhile, might be refined to address…

  5. Advertising, Desire, and the Unified Field: A Metaphysical Perspective on Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, David A.

    Suggesting that ills said to be perpetrated by advertising are really attributes of a unified field of consciousness, this paper discusses the concept that advertising creates desire. The generally undisputed notion that advertising helps to create specific desires is distinguished from the criticism that advertising increases the level and…

  6. The Desired Teaching Qualities of Lecturers in Higher Education: A Means End Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Roediger; Gruber, Thorsten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to aim to develop a deeper understanding of the teaching qualities of effective lecturers that students desire and to uncover the constructs that underlie these desire expectations and reveal the underlying benefits for which students look. Design/methodology/approach: A semi-standardized qualitative…

  7. Effects of Sex, Social Desirability, and Birth Order on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated effects of sex difference, social desirability instructions, and birth order of respondents on defense mechanisms inventory (DMI). Sex difference was found in projection only. Social desirability effects were found in turning-against-others, projection, principalization, and reversal. Thus, an interpretive caution is in order…

  8. The DSM diagnostic criteria for hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A

    2010-04-01

    Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is one of two sexual desire disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and is defined by the monosymptomatic criterion "persistently or recurrently deficient (or absent) sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity" that causes "marked distress or interpersonal difficulty." This article reviews the diagnosis of HSDD in prior and current (DSM-IV-TR) editions of the DSM, critiques the existing criteria, and proposes criteria for consideration in DSM-V. Problems in coming to a clear operational definition of desire, the fact that sexual activity often occurs in the absence of desire for women, conceptual issues in understanding untriggered versus responsive desire, the relative infrequency of unprovoked sexual fantasies in women, and the significant overlap between desire and arousal are reviewed and highlight the need for revised DSM criteria for HSDD that accurately reflect women's experiences. The article concludes with the recommendation that desire and arousal be combined into one disorder with polythetic criteria.

  9. How do men and women define sexual desire and sexual arousal?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye A; Graham, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how men and women define sexual desire and sexual arousal and how they distinguish between the two. The authors conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with individuals in South East England, using a purposive sampling strategy to maximize the variation in experience of sexual function across the group. The authors identified three criteria that participants used to define and distinguish between desire and arousal: the sequence in which they occurred; whether the mind or the body (or both) were engaged; and the extent to which feelings of desire or arousal were responsive (in response to person or stimulus) and motivational (oriented toward a goal). Most participants attempted to distinguish between desire and arousal when prompted, but often with difficulty. Participants commonly felt that desire preceded arousal; some felt that desire was "mind" and arousal "body"; and many felt that both desire and arousal were responsive and motivational. However, the authors identified numerous times when these distinctions were reversed or the differences between terms were blurred. The results support recent proposals to merge the two diagnostic categories of female sexual arousal disorder and hyposexual desire disorder into a single diagnostic category.

  10. Risks and Pleasures: A Deleuzo-Guattarian Pedagogy of Desire in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of a "pedagogy of desire" from a Deleuzo-Guattarian perspective. A pedagogy of desire can be theorised in ways that mobilise creative, transgressive and pleasurable forces within teaching and learning environments. It also enables a new view on affect in education as a "landscape of becoming" in which forces,…

  11. Principal's Desirability for Professional Development in Competencies Related to Leading Special Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Nicholas Frantz

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of public school principals within the Commonwealth of Virginia as to their desirability for professional development in leading special education programs within their schools. Given a list of 18 competencies related to leading special education principals rated their desirability for…

  12. I-E Scores of Drug-Abusing Offenders: The Influence of Social Desirability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBridge, Kevin J.

    1982-01-01

    Tests the relationship between locus of control and drug abuse and the influence of test instructions and social desirability. Results of research with incarcerated offenders indicated test instructions aimed at heightening social desirability artificially inflated locus of control scores. Found no significant differences between drug abusers and…

  13. Correlates of Changes in Desired Control Scores and in Life Satisfaction Scores among Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Michael; Reid, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the correlates of life satisfaction and desired control among 79 elderly residents by assessing residents at three points in time. Both life satisfaction and desired control were intercorrelated and related to other indices of psychological well-being at all three points in time. (Author/RC)

  14. Self-Reported Social Desirability in Sex-Stereotyped and Androgynous Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleran, Paula; And Others

    The relationships among self-reported social desirability, biological sex, and sex-role orientation are examined. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) consists of 60 personality characteristics divided equally into three subscales labeled Femininity (F), Masculinity (M), and Social Desirability (SD). One hundred and twenty-six undergraduates were…

  15. Three-dimensional desirability spaces for quality-by-design-based HPLC development.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Hatem I; Abdel-Salam, Randa A; Hadad, Ghada M

    2015-04-01

    In this study, three-dimensional desirability spaces were introduced as a graphical representation method of design space. This was illustrated in the context of application of quality-by-design concepts on development of a stability indicating gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of vinpocetine and α-tocopheryl acetate in a capsule dosage form. A mechanistic retention model to optimize gradient time, initial organic solvent concentration and ternary solvent ratio was constructed for each compound from six experimental runs. Then, desirability function of each optimized criterion and subsequently the global desirability function were calculated throughout the knowledge space. The three-dimensional desirability spaces were plotted as zones exceeding a threshold value of desirability index in space defined by the three optimized method parameters. Probabilistic mapping of desirability index aided selection of design space within the potential desirability subspaces. Three-dimensional desirability spaces offered better visualization and potential design spaces for the method as a function of three method parameters with ability to assign priorities to this critical quality as compared with the corresponding resolution spaces.

  16. Desire to Institutionalize a Relative with Dementia: Quality of Premorbid Relationship and Caregiver Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laraine; Gitlin, Laura N.; Dennis, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the relationship between individuals with dementia and their family caregivers has an impact on important clinical outcomes for both. It is unclear, however, how quality of relationship (QoR) affects caregivers' desire to place their relative in a nursing home. We examined the association of QoR with caregivers' desire to…

  17. Educating Desire and Imagination in a "Faith in the World" Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Matt; Waalkes, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Recent conversations about Christian teaching and learning have discussed educating students' imaginations and desires. But how might one begin to educate desire and imagination? To answer, we narrate the experience of teaching a course, Living Well in a Car Culture, within a general education seminar required of all fourth-year students at a…

  18. Suicide, Hopelessness, and Social Desirability: A Test of an Interactive Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Ronald R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships among suicidal indices, hopelessness, and social desirability of subjects (N=97) receiving treatment at psychiatric crisis intervention unit. Found hopelessness and measure of social desirability were significant indicators of suicidal manifestations. Results suggest that sense of general capability buffers link of…

  19. Social Desirability, Psychological Distress, and Consumer Satisfaction With Mental Health Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Stephane; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Determined strength of relationship between social desirability, psychological distress, and consumer satisfaction with mental health treatment in 82 clients in therapy. Results indicated that both consumer satisfaction reports and psychological distress scores were contaminated by socially desirable responding. (Author/ABL)

  20. Les Troubles Respiratoires Chez Le Brule

    PubMed Central

    Fassi Fihri, J.; Ezzoubi, M.; Boukind, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A travers une revue de la littérature, cet article se propose d'exposer les particularités des troubles respiratoires chez le brûlé. Ces troubles sont liés à un mécanisme direct, lorsque l'arbre respiratoire est lésé par le transfert d'énergie thermique du à la brûlure et/ou par un mécanisme indirect, lorsque la fonction respiratoire et ventilatoire du poumon est perturbée par les phénomènes loco-régionaux ou généraux du brûlé. Ces troubles respiratoires sont aggravés par l'inhalation des gaz contenus dans la fumée d'incendie. Le diagnostic de ces troubles est clinique et paraclinique. Il doit être précoce et continu. Les patients nécessitent de différents moyens thérapeutiques tels que l'oxygénothérapie, la libération des voies respiratoires, l'amélioration de la mécanique ventilatoire et de la fonction respiratoire, l'antibiothérapie ou la chirurgie des séquelles. Cette prise en charge doit nécessairement être multidisciplinaire. PMID:21991224

  1. Desiring Neoliberalism.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Gundula

    2016-01-01

    The paper is based on the premise that neoliberalism is a political rationality that is not only anti-social but also requires an anti-democratic and violent form of statehood. However, neoliberalism is not solely based on coercion and force, but paradoxically also on consensus. This consensus is not least organized through its flexibilized and pluralized sexual politics. By focussing on sexual politics in Germany's capital Berlin, the paper highlights that the flexibilization of the apparatus of sexuality is not merely a side effect of neoliberalism but a constitutive element of neoliberal governmentality that is deployed to legitimate an anti-democratic and violent neoliberal state. Neoliberalism uses the promise of sexual tolerance, flexibility, and pluralism in order to fulfill its anti-social, anti-democratic, and violent agenda. Furthermore, it is argued that neoliberal sexual politics require a rethinking of the concept of heteronormativity. Here, I propose to recast heteronormativity as heteronormalization.

  2. Relationship among prospective parents' locus of control, social desirability, and choice of psychoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Windwer, C

    1977-01-01

    This study sought to determine if there is a relationship among locus of control, social desirability, and choice of psychoprophylaxis (PPM). It was hypothesized that internal locus of control and low social desirability would correlate significantly with the choice of PPM by husbands and wives; that externally controlled wives who participated in PPM would have more internally controlled husbands than externally controlled wives who participated in PPM would have more internally controlled husbands than externally controlled wives who did not participate; and that locus of control and social desirability, when taken together, would be better predictors of choice of PPM than either taken separately. Ninety-eight middle-class nulliparous couples, participant and non-participant, were studied in the seventh or eighth month of the wife's pregnancy. Rotter's I-E Scale and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were used to measure locus of control and social desirability. Study findings did not support the hypotheses.

  3. The Effect of Social Desirability on Reported Motivation, Substance Use Severity, and Treatment Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Zemore, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Research has not consistently supported an association between stage of change and substance abuse treatment retention. The current study examined whether social desirability response bias could help explain why. Participants (N=200), recruited from an outpatient program, completed the URICA, TREAT, Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS), and other measures. Number of treatment groups attended was collected from program records. In bivariate analyses, neither the URICA nor the TREAT was related to attendance. However, higher social desirability was strongly associated with lower URICA (but not TREAT) total scores, and in a multivariate path model, a moderately strong association emerged between higher URICA scores and greater treatment attendance when accounting for social desirability. Higher social desirability was also an independent predictor of greater treatment attendance, and was strongly associated with lower ASI Alcohol, Drug, and Psychiatric severity. Results underline a critical problem in measuring motivation and problem severity that has been largely neglected. PMID:22119180

  4. Lignes directrices pour le suivi des cardiostimulateurs au canada : consensus du groupe de travail canadien sur la cardiostimulation

    PubMed

    D Fraser JD; M Gillis AM; Irwin; Nishimura; Tyers; Philippon

    2000-03-01

    Un sondage sur les pratiques de cardiostimulation au Canada effectue en 1997 a revele un profond desir pour des lignes directrices nationales sur le suivi des cardiostimulateurs. Ces lignes directrices sur le suivi des cardiostimulateurs representent une declaration de consensus du Groupe de travail canadien sur la cardiostimulation. Le suivi des patients en personne plutot que par moyens transtelephoniques est preferable. Les patients devraient etre examines au minimum dans les 72 heures suivant l'implantation, 2 a 12 semaines et 6 mois apres l'implantation, et annuellement par la suite. Des examens plus frequents peuvent etre requis pour certains patients. Ceci dependra des problemes cardiovasculaires associes et des appareils en particulier. Une visite de suivi typique devrait comprendre un examen cardiovasculaire oriente, l'interrogation du systeme de cardiostimulation et une revue des donnees de telemetrie, un examen du rythme sous-jacent, un examen des seuils de stimulation et de detection et une reprogrammation adequate des parametres pour optimaliser le fonctionnement et la longevite de l'appareil.

  5. In Situ Geochronology on the Mars 2020 Rover with KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Swindle, T. D.; Roark, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    If extinct and/or extant life is discovered on Mars, knowledge of the chronology of the biosphere will be of paramount importance. KArLE will provide absolute ages of Mars 2020 rocks, which will allow us to understand them in the context of Mars' geologic history, connect them to other landing sites, and compare Martian epochs of habitability with the Earth's history and evolution of life. KArLE significantly enhances the ability of Mars 2020 to meet its science objectives by performing in situ age dating on key lithologies, enabling targeted searches for ancient biosignatures and increasing the chances of identifying evidence for Martian microbial life. The KArLE investigation makes its measurements on a core sample obtained with the rover drill, inserted into a small, mechanically simple chamber, followed by interrogation by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), mass spectrometry, and optical imaging. The KArLE experiment is flexible enough to accommodate any partner providing these instrument components, a creative approach that extends the ability of the Mars 2020 payload to accomplish an additional highly-desirable science measurement for low cost and risk and minimal extra hardware.

  6. Relation between Self-Esteem and Socially Desirable Responding and the Role of Socially Desirable Responding in the Relation between Self-Esteem and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines the relation between self-esteem and socially desirable responding by integrating previous findings via a meta-analysis. In 55 studies containing 73 independent samples (N?=?11,901), the correlation between self-esteem and Impression Management was weak, that between self-esteem and Self-Deceptive Enhancement was from…

  7. Sexual Desire in Iranian Female University Students: Role of Marital Satisfaction and Sex Guilt

    PubMed Central

    Teimourpour, Negar; Moshtagh Bidokhti, Nahaleh; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Bahrami Ehsan, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine association between sexual desire and marital satisfaction and sex guilt among a sample of Iranian female university students. Methods: The data presented here were obtained from a total of 192 married Iranian female university students who were selected via a multi-cluster sampling method from universities of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tarbiat Modarres, and Islamic Azad. The subjects' sociodemographic data, marital satisfaction (using ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire), sex guilt (using Mosher Revised Sex-Guilt Inventory), and sexual desire (using Hurlbert Index of Sexual Desire) were gathered. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis methods were used to analyse the data. Results: Findings showed there are significant relationships between sexual desire and marital satisfaction (r = 0.51, p < 0.01) and also between sexual desire and sex guilt (r = -0.44, p < 0.01). Also marital satisfaction and sex guilt were able to predict 31 percent of the variance of sexual desire. Conclusion: Marital satisfaction and sex guilt are two factors that significantly affect fluctuations in sexual desire of Iranian female university students. PMID:25798176

  8. Beyond ‘MSM’: Sexual Desire Among Bisexually-Active Latino Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Latino male bisexuality has been studied for the most part with a focus on men who have sex with men (MSM) and with little attention to sexual desire. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive understanding of how sexual desire is organized, enacted through sexual activity, and interpreted in the sexual lives of bisexually-active Latino men. To achieve this aim, an analysis was made of 18 sexual histories of bisexually active Latino men who participated in a two-year ethnographic study. Four configurations of sexual desire were constructed to reflect what was found in this population of bisexually-active Latino men: (a) lifetime homoerotic desire and casual sex with women; (b) lifetime heteroerotic desire, but commercial sex with men; (c) lifetime heteroerotic/transgender desire; (d) lifetime sexual desire for women and men. These configurations are explored in detail in this article. The analysis presented here is intended to offer insights into the overall study of Latino male bisexuality and into the foundations for the design of HIV and STI prevention programs directed toward bisexually-active Latino men and their partners. PMID:26412977

  9. Body Image in Dyadic and Solitary Sexual Desire: The Role of Encoding Style and Distracting Thoughts.

    PubMed

    Dosch, Alessandra; Ghisletta, Paolo; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the link between body image and desire to engage in sexual activity (dyadic and solitary desire) in adult women living in a long-term couple relationship. Moreover, it considered two psychological factors that may underlie such a link: the occurrence of body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity and encoding style (i.e., the tendency to rely on preexisting internal schemata versus external information at encoding). A total of 53 women (29 to 47 years old) in heterosexual relationships completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), body image, body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity, and encoding style. Results showed that poor body image was associated with low dyadic and solitary sexual desire. Body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity mediated the link between body image and solitary (but not dyadic) sexual desire. Finally, the mediation of body-related distracting thoughts between body image and solitary sexual desire was moderated by encoding style. A negative body image promoted the occurrence of body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity, especially in internal encoders. Our study highlights the importance of body image, distracting thoughts, and encoding style in women's solitary sexuality and suggests possible factors that may reduce the impact of those body-related factors in dyadic sexual desire.

  10. Distinct oxytocin effects on belief updating in response to desirable and undesirable feedback

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Li, Shiyi; Wang, Chenbo; Liu, Yi; Li, Wenxin; Yan, Xinyuan; Chen, Qiang; Han, Shihui

    2016-01-01

    Humans update their beliefs upon feedback and, accordingly, modify their behaviors to adapt to the complex, changing social environment. However, people tend to incorporate desirable (better than expected) feedback into their beliefs but to discount undesirable (worse than expected) feedback. Such optimistic updating has evolved as an advantageous mechanism for social adaptation. Here, we examine the role of oxytocin (OT)―an evolutionary ancient neuropeptide pivotal for social adaptation―in belief updating upon desirable and undesirable feedback in three studies (n = 320). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subjects design, we show that intranasally administered OT (IN-OT) augments optimistic belief updating by facilitating updates of desirable feedback but impairing updates of undesirable feedback. The IN-OT–induced impairment in belief updating upon undesirable feedback is more salient in individuals with high, rather than with low, depression or anxiety traits. IN-OT selectively enhances learning rate (the strength of association between estimation error and subsequent update) of desirable feedback. IN-OT also increases participants’ confidence in their estimates after receiving desirable but not undesirable feedback, and the OT effect on confidence updating upon desirable feedback mediates the effect of IN-OT on optimistic belief updating. Our findings reveal distinct functional roles of OT in updating the first-order estimation and second-order confidence judgment in response to desirable and undesirable feedback, suggesting a molecular substrate for optimistic belief updating. PMID:27482087

  11. Quality of Life, Social Desirability and Their Relationship in Opium Addicted Persons in Southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Mansour; Kohan, Mehri; Ranjbar, Hadi; Arab, Nanaz; Rayani, Masoud; Mirrashidi, Salehe Sadat; Rafiei, Hossein; Amiri, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Addiction leads to many problems which may adversely affect addicted people, their families and impose health care agencies with many challenges. This study aimed to examined quality of life (QoL), social desirability and their relationship among opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran. Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2012 to January 2013, 123 addicted people were studied. Date collection tools were; checklist of demographic data, Iranian version of the 36-item short form QoL (SF-36) and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Results: While mean score of QoL was 60.4±29.5, mean score of social desirability were 14.2±3.7. Low, moderate and high levels of social desirability were observed in 4.9%, 90.2% and 4.9% of participants, respectively. Pearson’s correlation were not significant between mean score of social desirability and mean score of QoL (p=0.969, r=0.004). Conclusion: Addicted participants of present study showed a moderate level of QoL and social desirability, without any significant relationship between QoL and social desirability. Further research is suggested in addicts with social and cultural differences. PMID:24762351

  12. The context of desire to use marijuana: momentary assessment of young people who frequently use marijuana.

    PubMed

    Shrier, Lydia A; Walls, Courtney E; Kendall, Ashley D; Blood, Emily A

    2012-12-01

    Drawing on factors identified in the literature, this study explored in-the-moment associations of social, emotional, and temporal contexts and perceived marijuana availability with desire to use the drug, using momentary sampling methodology with young people who frequently use marijuana. Forty-one adolescent/young adult medical outpatients aged 15 to 24 years who reported using marijuana at least twice a week completed 2,912 brief questionnaires on a handheld computer in response to signals emitted at random four to six times a day for 2 weeks. The questionnaires assessed, for the moment when signaled, desire to use marijuana, location, companionship, perceived ease of getting marijuana (availability), positive affect, and negative affect. Participants reported any desire to use marijuana on 1,528 reports (55%). Companionship, perceived availability, and positive affect were independently associated with having any desire to use marijuana. Once desire to use marijuana was present, time of day, positive affect, and negative affect were independently associated with strength of desire. By collecting data in real time, in real life, this study highlights the importance of examining and intervening on emotional, environmental, and temporal contexts for youth who frequently use marijuana in order to reduce their desire to use the drug.

  13. Is High Sexual Desire a Risk for Women's Relationship and Sexual Well-Being?

    PubMed

    Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Bergeron, Sophie; Jurin, Tanja

    2016-09-01

    Historically, women's sexual desire has been deemed socially problematic. The growing popularity of the concept of hypersexuality-which lists high sexual desire among its core components-poses a risk of re-pathologizing female sexual desire. Data from a 2014 online survey of 2,599 Croatian women aged 18-60 years was used to examine whether high sexual desire is detrimental to women's relationship and sexual well-being. Based on the highest scores on an indicator of sexual desire, 178 women were classified in the high sexual desire (HSD) group; women who scored higher than one standard deviation above the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory mean were categorized in the hypersexuality (HYP) group (n = 239). Fifty-seven women met the classification criteria for both groups (HYP&HSD). Compared to other groups, the HSD was the most sexually active group. Compared to controls, the HYP and HYP&HSD groups-but not the HSD group-reported significantly more negative consequences associated with their sexuality. Compared to the HYP group, women with HSD reported better sexual function, higher sexual satisfaction, and lower odds of negative behavioral consequences. The findings suggest that, at least among women, hypersexuality should not be conflated with high sexual desire and frequent sexual activity.

  14. Like mother, like child: Offspring marital timing desires and maternal marriage timing and stability.

    PubMed

    Arocho, Rachel; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the determinants of marital timing is critical because it has implications for marital functioning and divorce. One salient predictor of marital timing is youth's desires for marriage timing. To shine light on predictors of both desires for marital timing and the timing of marriage itself, we examine offspring marital desires and maternal marriage characteristics in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79) cohort and 1979 Child and Young Adult cohort (NLSY79-CYA; biological offspring of the women in the 1979 cohort). Analyses showed that maternal cohabitation postdivorce predicted decreased expectations to ever marry in offspring. Maternal age at marriage was positively associated with offspring desires for age at marriage, but only for those whose mothers had not divorced. Maternal marital age was significantly associated with the offspring's transition into marriage even when controlling for the offspring's desires for marriage timing, but neither maternal marriage age nor offspring desires for marital timing were associated with the timing of entrance into cohabitation, whereas maternal divorce was associated with earlier cohabitation. Our findings suggest that maternal marriage characteristics, particularly divorce, are significant predictors of millennials' desires for and experiences with romantic relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Living will status and desire for living will help among rural Alabama veterans.

    PubMed

    Mahaney-Price, Ann F; Hilgeman, Michelle M; Davis, Lori L; McNeal, Sandre F; Conner, Charles M; Allen, Rebecca S

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis of data from an earlier intervention study to increase Veterans Administration health care enrollment in rural Alabama veterans was to determine the veterans' living will status, desire for help completing a living will, and relationships between these and demographic, health insurance, health self-report, cumulative illness, disability, and trust characteristics. Baseline data for 201 rural Alabama veterans were extracted from the larger study. Chi-square and t tests were used to analyze group differences in categorical and continuous variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine multivariate associations of variables with living will status and desire for help. Only 13% of participants had living wills. Of those without living wills, 40% expressed a desire for help completing a living will. African Americans were less likely to have living wills than were Caucasians. Participants with more than high school education were more likely to desire help completing living wills than were those with less education. With the exception of moderate-severe respiratory illness, moderate-severe illness was not associated with having a living will. With the exception of moderate-severe vascular illness, moderate-severe illness was not associated with desire for help completing a living will. The racial and educational disparities in living will status and desire for help and the number of participants who desired help completing a living will suggests a need for action to increase advance care planning among rural veterans.

  16. Desire thinking as a predictor of craving and binge drinking: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Martino, Francesca; Caselli, Gabriele; Felicetti, Federica; Rampioni, Margherita; Romanelli, Pierluigi; Troiani, Lorena; Sassaroli, Sandra; Albery, Ian P; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2017-01-01

    Desire thinking is a conscious and voluntary cognitive process orienting to prefigure images, information and memories about positive target-related experience. Desire thinking has been found to be associated with both craving and alcohol use in clinical and non-clinical populations, however its role in predicting craving and problematic drinking patterns has never been investigated using a longitudinal design. The central aim of the present study was to explore the role of desire thinking at Time 2 (3months post-baseline) in predicting craving and binge drinking and Time 3 (6months post-baseline), controlling for levels of both these constructs and Time 1 (baseline). One hundred and thirty three non-hazardous drinkers were assessed on craving and binge drinking at Times 1 and 3, and on desire thinking at Time 2. Findings showed that desire thinking at Time 2 predicted craving and binge drinking at Time 3, controlling for craving and binge drinking at Time 1. Furthermore, the imaginal prefiguration component of desire thinking at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between craving at Times 1 and 3; conversely the verbal perseveration component of desire thinking at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between binge drinking at Times 1 and 3. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Problematic internet pornography use: The role of craving, desire thinking, and metacognition.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew; Kannis-Dymand, Lee; Katsikitis, Mary

    2017-07-01

    Defined as sexually explicit material that elicits erotic thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, internet pornography is a prevalent form of media that may facilitate problematic use and craving for engagement. Research suggests that superordinate cognitions and information processing, such as desire thinking and metacognition, are central to the activation and escalation of craving in addictive behaviours. The current study aimed to contribute to the literature by testing the proposed metacognitive model of desire thinking and craving in a sample of problematic pornography users, while revising the model by incorporating negative affect. From a theoretical perspective, environmental cues trigger positive metacognitions about desire thinking that directly influence desire thinking, resulting in the escalation of craving, negative metacognitions, and negative affect. Participants were recruited via an online survey and screened for problematic internet pornography use. Path analyses were used to investigate relationships among the aforementioned constructs in a final sample of 191 participants. Consistent with previous research, results of this study validated the existence of metacognitive processes in the activation of desire thinking and escalation of craving, while indicating that desire thinking has the potential to influence negative affect. Additionally, results supported the role of significant indirect relationships between constructs within the revised model of metacognition, desire thinking, and psychopathology. Collectively, the findings demonstrate the clinical value of a metacognitive conceptualisation of problematic pornography use. Exploring the metacognitive mechanisms that underpin problematic internet pornography use may give rise to the development of new treatment and relapse prevention strategies.

  18. Measuring social desirability across language and sex: A comparison of Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale factor structures in English and Mandarin Chinese in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kurz, A Solomon; Drescher, Christopher F; Chin, Eu Gene; Johnson, Laura R

    2016-06-01

    Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia. Two hundred and eighty-three students (64% female; 83% Chinese, 9% Indian) from two college campuses completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in their language of choice (i.e., English or Mandarin Chinese). Proposed factor structures were compared with confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicators-multiple causes models were used to examine measurement invariance across language and sex. Factor analyses supported a two-factor structure (i.e., Attribution and Denial) for the measure. Invariance tests revealed the scale was invariant by sex, indicating that social desirability can be interpreted similarly across sex. The scale was partially invariant by language version, with some non-invariance observed within the Denial factor. Non-invariance may be related to differences in the English and Mandarin Chinese languages, as well as cultural differences. Directions for further research include examining the measurement of social desirability in other contexts where both English and Mandarin Chinese are spoken (i.e., China) and further examining the causes of non-invariance on specific items.

  19. Articulating "Indianness": woman-centered desire and the parameters for nationalism.

    PubMed

    Meghani, Shamira A

    2009-01-01

    In this article I explore some of the parameters for cinematic representations of women-centered desire in India. Although desire between women has been documented to demonstrate a long presence in history and literature, depictions in film over the last decade have drawn protests from nationalists that these films are "un-Indian." Through films such as Fire (1996), Girlfriend (2004), and The Journey (2004) I discuss the possibilities and limits for figuring desire in the context of postcolonial nationhood and the ways in which these films can adhere to or subvert national and sexual narratives and norms.

  20. Focusing light into desired patterns through turbid media by feedback-based wavefront shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Lipeng; Chen, Ziyang; Huang, Huiling; Pu, Jixiong

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that the focusing of light into desired patterns through turbid media can be realized using feedback-based wavefront shaping. Three desired focused patterns—a triangle, a circle, and a rectangle—are used as examples to study this ability. During the process of modulating scattered light, the Pearson's correlation coefficient is introduced as a feedback signal. It is found that the speckle field formed by the turbid media gradually transforms into the desired pattern through a process of modulation of the input beam wave front. The proposed approach has potential applications in biomedical treatment and laser material processing.

  1. Le déficit immunitaire humoral: mieux le connaître pour mieux le prendre en charge

    PubMed Central

    El Bakkouri, Jalila; Aadam, Zahra; Ailal, Fatima; Alj, Hanane Salih; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Les déficits immunitaires humoraux (DIH) sont des maladies hétérogènes allant des formes asymptomatiques rencontrés lors des déficits sélectifs en immunoglobulines A (IgA) et en sous-classes d'IgG aux formes graves des agammaglobulinémies congénitales. Les patients atteints de DIH présentent souvent des infections ORL ou des voies respiratoires récidivantes ou sévères. Ces patients peuvent présenter un certain nombre de complications non infectieuses, telles que des manifestations auto-immunes et des entéropathies, qui pourraient être le seul symptôme clinique révélateur. Les formes sévères des DIH sont facilement diagnostiquées grâce au dosage des IgG totaux, des IgA et des IgM. La thérapie substitutive par les immunoglobulines reste le traitement de choix chez ces patients. PMID:25489366

  2. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.

    1986-05-01

    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  3. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2014-04-01

    Cartographie d’une naine brune; 2006DP14; Anatomie d’un astéroïde; L’astéroïde P/2013 R3; Formation des planètes; Planètes Kepler; Bêta Pictoris; Cratère Mojave; Les astéroïdes de la ceinture principale; Planète X; Mercure et la gravitation; Gloire sur Vénus; Galaxies elliptiques massives; Cas A; SN 2014J et les supernovae Ia; Le Grand Nuage de Magellan; Nébuleuse d’Andromède; ESO 137-001

  4. Le synovialosarcome primitif de la verge

    PubMed Central

    Saadi, Ahmed; Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Kerkeni, Walid; Ayed, Haroun; Znaidi, Nadia Sabbegh; Ben Miled, Aicha; Messai, Taha; Cherif, Mohamed; Ben Slama, Riadh; Rammeh, Soumaya; Mnif, Najla; Maalej, Mongi; Derouiche, Amine; Chebil, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Le synovialosarcome représente un sous-type rare des sarcomes des tissus mous. Son apparition au niveau de la verge est exceptionnelle et seulement deux cas ont été rapportés dans la littérature auparavant. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas de synovialosarcome de la verge chez un jeune patient de 27 ans, en essayant par l’entremise d’une revue de la littérature de discuter des aspects radiologiques, histologiques, immunohistochimiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de cette tumeur exceptionnelle. PMID:28163814

  5. Traffic stability of a car-following model considering driver’s desired velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Liu, Wei-Ning; Liu, Hui

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed by considering driver’s desired velocity according to Transportation Cyber Physical Systems. The effect of driver’s desired velocity on traffic flow has been investigated through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. The linear stability condition shows that driver’s desired velocity effect can enlarge the stable region of traffic flow. From nonlinear analysis, the Burgers equation and mKdV equation are derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves in the stable and unstable regions respectively. Numerical simulation is carried out to verify the analytical results, which reveals that traffic congestion can be suppressed efficiently by taking driver’s desired velocity effect into account.

  6. Trait means and desirabilities as artifactual and real sources of differential stability of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dustin; Wortman, Jessica

    2012-06-01

    Using data from 3 personality trait inventories and 7 samples, we show that trait items that have means near the scale midpoint and that vary more in their perceived desirability (e.g., items related to dominance, creativity, traditionalism, and organization) tend to be more stable over time, whereas items with means near the scale maximum or minimum and that vary less in their perceived desirability (e.g., items related to agreeableness, intellect, and reliability) tend to be less stable. Our findings indicate that items with means near the scale maximum or minimum have lower stabilities primarily due to having lower measurement dependability (i.e., short-term stabilities unlikely to reflect true change). However, items varying more in their desirability are more stable even after accounting for measurement dependability, consistent with the view that trait stability is facilitated in part by individuals actively working to develop in the direction they find desirable.

  7. [Neurobiological, psychological and sociological approach to sexual desire and sexual satisfaction].

    PubMed

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Ammar, Nadia; Bolmont, Mylène; Dosch, Alessandra; Favez, Nicolas; Van der Linden, Martial; Widmer, Eric

    2016-03-16

    In the last years, University Fund Maurice Chalumeau (FUMC) launched a dynamic of research designed to promote scientific excellence and the development of Sexology with particular interest regarding sexual desire. The FUMC has supported a research project entitled "Neurobiological, psychological and sociological approach to sexual desire and sexual satisfaction". This project, sampled on 600 people (300 men and 300 women) aged between 25 and 46 years, was structured around three studies: a broad sociological study and two more specific ones, focused on some psychological mechanisms and neurobiological factors involved in sexual desire. The results show how the secondary socialization, personal expectations, beliefs and values in sexuality, sexual motivations, body image, as well as the neurobiological foundations and visual patterns, are of vital importance in the dynamics of sexual desire.

  8. Social desirability effects on measures of adjustment to university, independence from parents, and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, N A; Gekoski, W L

    1995-03-01

    Results of regression analyses on data from 96 first-year undergraduates indicated that social desirability (Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scales), particularly scores on the Jackson scale, is related strongly to scores on measures of adjustment (Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire), self-efficacy (Hale-Fibel Generalized Expectation for Success Scale), and independence (Psychological Separation Inventory) from mother, but not from father. In addition, both the Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne scales were correlated highly. Independence from parents and self-efficacy each continued to show a relationship with adjustment to university after social desirability effects were removed. Failure to remove the effect(s) of social desirability from the present measures is likely to lead to inflated estimates of their relation to each other or to other measures.

  9. AIDS and its treatments: two doctors' narratives of healing, desire, and belonging.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    In this essay, I analyze two memoirs--Rafael Campo's The Poetry of Healing: A Doctor's Education in Empathy, Identity, and Desire and Abraham Verghese's My Own Country: A Doctor's Story of a Town and Its People in the Age of AIDS--which describe the effects of treating HIV/AIDS on each doctor's identity, on his desire for community and belonging, and on his identification and/or disidentification with the medical profession in the United States. My readings of Campo and Verghese revolve around three key terms provided by Campo's subtitle: identity, empathy, and desire. I shift the order of these terms in Campo's subtitle because I want to read identity, empathy, and desire in Campo and Verghese through and along with the theoretical "pragmatics" of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari.

  10. Adolescents' and parents' evaluations of helping versus fulfilling personal desires in family situations.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Judith G; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Gettman, Denise C; Villalobos, Myriam; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Metzger, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 118 predominantly European American families with early and middle adolescents (M(ages)= 12.32 and 15.18 years) and 1 parent evaluated hypothetical conflicts between adolescents' and parents' requests for assistance versus the other's personal desires. Evaluations differed by level of need, but in low-need situations, adolescents viewed teens as more obligated to help parents than did parents, whereas parents rated it as more permissible for teens to satisfy personal desires than did teenagers. Justifications for helping focused on concern for others, role responsibilities, and among parents, psychological reasons. Middle adolescents reasoned about role responsibilities more and viewed satisfying personal desires as less selfish than did early adolescents, but satisfying personal desires was seen as more selfish by parents of middle than early adolescents. Implications for adolescent-parent relationships are discussed.

  11. Salinity tolerance of foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) and desirable pasture grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the relative salinity tolerance of foxtail barley and seven desirable pasture grasses. Grass species were reed canarygrass, timothy, altai wildrye, tall fescue, tall wheatgrass, orchardgrass, creeping meadow foxtail, and foxtail barley. Grasses were e...

  12. The neural basis of desire reasoning for self and others: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qin; Li, Peng; Li, Fuhong; Wang, Qi; Cao, Bihua; Li, Hong

    2016-01-20

    Theory of mind refers to the ability to attribute mental states to self and others, and predict actions in terms of mental states. It is still unclear how certain kinds of processing occur in theory of mind operation. The present study compared neural activities elicited by desire reasoning for self and for others under consistent or inconsistent conditions using the event-related potential method. The results showed that the late positive component (LPC) associated with desire reasoning was larger during the 450-550 ms time period in the condition of reasoning for self than that for others when desires were inconsistent. A left hemisphere effect on the scalp distribution was observed for the LPC component. The present study showed that a left frontal LPC component might reflect the subjective categorization process in desire reasoning.

  13. Sexual desire, not hypersexuality, is related to neurophysiological responses elicited by sexual images

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Vaughn R.; Staley, Cameron; Fong, Timothy; Prause, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Background Modulation of sexual desires is, in some cases, necessary to avoid inappropriate or illegal sexual behavior (downregulation of sexual desire) or to engage with a romantic partner (upregulation of sexual desire). Some have suggested that those who have difficulty downregulating their sexual desires be diagnosed as having a sexual ‘addiction’. This diagnosis is thought to be associated with sexual urges that feel out of control, high-frequency sexual behavior, consequences due to those behaviors, and poor ability to reduce those behaviors. However, such symptoms also may be better understood as a non-pathological variation of high sexual desire. Hypersexuals are thought to be relatively sexual reward sensitized, but also to have high exposure to visual sexual stimuli. Thus, the direction of neural responsivity to sexual stimuli expected was unclear. If these individuals exhibit habituation, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be diminished; if they merely have high sexual desire, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be increased. Neural responsivity to sexual stimuli in a sample of hypersexuals could differentiate these two competing explanations of symptoms. Methods Fifty-two (13 female) individuals who self-identified as having problems regulating their viewing of visual sexual stimuli viewed emotional (pleasant sexual, pleasant-non-sexual, neutral, and unpleasant) photographs while electroencephalography was collected. Results Larger P300 amplitude differences to pleasant sexual stimuli, relative to neutral stimuli, was negatively related to measures of sexual desire, but not related to measures of hypersexuality. Conclusion Implications for understanding hypersexuality as high desire, rather than disordered, are discussed. PMID:24693355

  14. The Circle of Female Sexual Desire-Have We Come a Long Way?

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the release of sildenafil (Viagra) two decades ago to treat erectile dysfunction in men, there has been a conversation around whether there is a need for a "female Viagra." Last year's release of flibanserin (Addyi) was hailed by some as an achievement in women's sexual health. But how effective is this drug in affecting women's sexual desire? And are the things being labeled as women's sexual desire problems really problems to be fixed with a drug?

  15. Distinguishing Intentions from Desires: Contributions of the Frontal and Parietal Lobes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Apperly, Ian A.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to represent desires and intentions as two distinct mental states was investigated in patients with parietal (N = 8) and frontal (N = 6) lesions and in age-matched controls (N = 7). A task was used where the satisfaction of the desire and the fulfilment of the intention did not co-vary and were manipulated in a 2 x 2 set. In two…

  16. Psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics and desire for orthodontic treatment among Chinese undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Song; Zhang, Chuqin; Ni, Chulei; Qian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in undergraduate students in the People’s Republic of China and to investigate the association between normal orthodontic treatment needs, psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics, and desire for orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in two universities in a city of the People’s Republic of China with 374 young adults aged between 19 years and 24 years. The students answered a Chinese version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) and addressed their desire for orthodontic treatment. Objective malocclusion severity was assessed with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS software (Version 15.0). Results There was no statistical sex difference in relation to the dental health component of IOTN (P=0.893) and PIDAQ scores (P=0.06), but it was found that the desire for orthodontic treatment was significantly stronger among females. The total and subscale PIDAQ scores and malocclusion severity differed significantly among the five grades of desire (P<0.01). Significant positive correlation was found among desire for orthodontic treatment, IOTN-dental health component grades, and total or subscale PIDAQ scores (P<0.01). High correlation was found between desire and PIDAQ score (r=0.93). Conclusion The desire for orthodontic treatment is higher among female young adults who have the same orthodontic treatment needs compared to males. The desire for orthodontic treatment has high positive correlation with PIDAQ scores and increases with the increase in self-perceived psychosocial impacts of malocclusion and the needs for orthodontic treatment. PMID:27354773

  17. STUDYING TRAVEL-RELATED INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENTS AND DESIRES BY COMBINING HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED ORDINAL VARIABLES.

    PubMed

    Diana, Marco; Song, Tingting; Wittkowski, Knut M

    2009-03-01

    Ordinal measures are frequently encountered in travel behavior research. This paper presents a new method for combining them when a hierarchical structure of the data can be presumed. This method is applied to study the subjective assessment of the amount of travel by different transportation modes among a group of French clerical workers, along with the desire to increase or decrease the use of such modes. Some advantages of this approach over traditional data reduction technique such as factor analysis when applied to ordinal data are then illustrated. In this study, combining evidence from several variables sheds light on the observed moderately negative relationship between the personal assessment of the amount of travel and the desire to increase or decrease it, thus integrating previous partial (univariate) results. We find a latent demand for travel, thus contributing to clarify the behavioral mechanisms behind the induced traffic phenomenon. Categorizing the above relationship by transportation mode shows a desire for a less environmental-friendly mix of modes (i.e. a greater desire to use heavy motorized modes and a lower desire to use two-wheeled modes), whenever the respondents do not feel to travel extensively. This result, combined with previous theoretical investigations concerning the determinants of the desire to alter trips consumption levels, shows the importance of making people aware of how much they travel.

  18. Sexual desire among Mexican-American older women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Luciana; Maciel, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Although researchers have related sexual desire in older women to quality-of-life variables such as overall physical health, well-being, and life satisfaction, little is known about the socio-cultural mechanisms that shape sexual desire in minority ethnic older women. We investigated this sexual variable among Mexican-American older women in a qualitative fashion. Date were collected from 25 community-dwelling women of Mexican descent (aged 59–89 years) using a semi-structured interview protocol and a grounded theory approach. We inquired about dimensions of sexual desire including sexual fantasies and the desire to engage in sexual activity within the context of several socio-cultural and health-related factors. Using content analysis, we were able to identify key themes differentiating among respondents’ levels of sexual desire and fantasies. These included the availability of a suitable partner, cultural and religious norms pertinent to women’s sexuality, stigma related to sexuality in older age, and health status. Traditional socio-cultural restrictions coupled with unmarried status and physical health problems emerged as critical issues associated with limited or no sexual fantasies and desire in our sample. Many respondents indicated that their sexual needs were unmet. PMID:20526982

  19. Gender Differences in Object of Desire Self-Consciousness Sexual Fantasies.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Visser, Beth A; Pozzebon, Julie A

    2015-11-01

    In a recent review article, Bogaert and Brotto (2014) discussed "object of desire self-consciousness," a perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. They argued that this perception is more relevant to women's sociosexual functioning than it is to men's. In the present study, we attempted to find direct evidence that object of desire themes are linked more to women's sexual desire and arousal than they are to men's by examining the differences in content between men's and women's sexual fantasies. A total of 198 men and women reported on arousing themes in sexual fantasies using three methodologies: endorsement of items on a sexual fantasy questionnaire, sentence completion of sexually-charged scenarios, and open-ended sexual fantasies. The men and women also rated their attractiveness and were rated for attractiveness by two female experimenters. On all three fantasy composites, women endorsed more object of desire themes than did men, and these effects occurred independent of the subjective and observer-rated attractiveness measures. The results were discussed in relation to theorizing that object of desire self-consciousness can function as part of many women's self-schemata or scripts related to romance and sexuality.

  20. Fulfilment of intention and desire in children's judgements of emotion for sociomoral events.

    PubMed

    Shiverick, Sean M; Moore, Colleen F

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated whether children appreciate that enacting an intention can emotionally affect an agent separately from whether the agent's desire is fulfilled. Children ages 5-11 years and adults heard several vignettes about an agent who intended to take another child's toy in which the agent's intention was either enacted or blocked and desire was fulfilled or unfulfilled. The effect of intention on judgements of the agent's emotion varied according to desire fulfilment and age. Overall, participants judged that an agent who acted intentionally to fulfil a desire felt happier than an agent whose intention was blocked. When the agent's desire was unfulfilled, the effect of enacting an intention varied by age. Five- to 6-year-olds judged that acting intentionally could decrease the negative emotion associated with an unfulfilled desire. The findings show relatively early appreciation of intentionality in children's judgements of emotion. Happy victimizer attributions decreased between 5 and 8 years, but attributions of positive emotion to transgressors did not vary by intentionality. The relationships between intentionality, agency, and emotion are discussed.

  1. Depressed affect as a predictor of increased desire for alcohol in current drinkers of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Greeley, J; Swift, W; Heather, N

    1992-07-01

    Male drinkers (n = 45) were asked to rate their desire for a drink of alcohol when presented with the sight, smell and taste of their preferred alcoholic beverage and of a lemon cordial drink. The subjects' level of depressed affect on that day and their average daily consumption of alcohol over the last 30 days were measured prior to exposure to these cues. Both level of depressed affect and log of mean daily alcohol consumption predicted increased desire for alcohol when alcohol cues were present, accounting for 40% of the variance in desire. When presented with the lemon cordial cues only 14% of the variance in desire for alcohol was explained by these variables. Also, Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated between heavy drinkers' (n = 19) ratings of self-efficacy to resist drinking and desire for alcohol in the presence of the alcohol cues. There were significant negative correlations between desire for alcohol and self-efficacy ratings on the 'urges and temptations' and 'positive social situations' subscales of the Situational Confidence Questionnaire-39. Several alternative accounts of these findings are discussed.

  2. For lack of wanting: Discourses of desire in Ukrainian opiate substitution therapy programs.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jennifer J

    2016-04-01

    Available treatments for addiction and substance abuse in Ukraine have been shaped by the economic, political, and social shifts that have followed the country's independence. The introduction of methadone-based opiate substitution therapy (OST) for opiate addicts is especially representative of this. Biomedical paradigms of addiction, its etiology, and its treatment, promoted and paid for by international donors and elite global health entities, are being met by Ukrainian notions of personhood and psychology in both public discourse and clinical settings. Ukrainian physicians who work in OST programs frequently reference desire (желание) as the most significant factor in determining the success or failure of treatment. They refer to a desire to be treated, desire to get better, desire to live. The moralized imperative to possess this desire to get better is, in many ways, a reflection of how addiction and the addicted psyche is constructed and understood in the Ukrainian context. By exploring discourses of desire in narratives of addiction and treatment, I examine how notions of psychology, will, and self-control intersect, shaping the subjectivity, agency, and daily experiences of this vulnerable population.

  3. Testing the Level of Social Desirability During Job Interview on White-Collar Profession.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Marek; Mejzlíková, Tereza; Rudá, Adéla; Krámský, David; Pitáková, Jindra

    2015-01-01

    Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N = 636). It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency toward social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984). Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected.

  4. Impact of Treatment for Depression on Desire for Hastened Death in Patients With Advanced AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Gibson, Christopher; Kramer, Michael; Li, Yuelin; Tomarken, Alexis; Nelson, Christian; Pessin, Hayley; Esch, Julie; Galietta, Michele; Garcia, Nerina; Brechtl, John; Schuster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the development of multi-drug regimens for HIV, palliative care and quality-of-life issues in patients with advanced AIDS remain important areas of clinical investigation. Objective Authors assessed the impact of treatment for depression on desire for hastened death in patients with advanced AIDS. Method Patients with advanced AIDS (N=372) were interviewed shortly after admission to a palliative-care facility, and were reinterviewed monthly for the next 2 months. Patients diagnosed with a major depressive syndrome were provided with antidepressant treatment and reinterviewed weekly. Desire for hastened death was assessed with two questionnaire measures. Results Desire for death was highly associated with depression, and it decreased dramatically in patients who responded to antidepressant treatment. Little change in desire for hastened death was observed in patients whose depression did not improve. Although improved depression was not significantly associated with the use of antidepressant medication, those individuals prescribed antidepressant medication showed the largest decreases in desire for hastened death. Discussion Successful treatment for depression appears to substantially decrease desire for hastened death in patients with advanced AIDS. The authors discuss implications of these findings for palliative-care treatment and the physician-assisted suicide debate. PMID:20332284

  5. Testing the Level of Social Desirability During Job Interview on White-Collar Profession

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, Marek; Mejzlíková, Tereza; Rudá, Adéla; Krámský, David; Pitáková, Jindra

    2015-01-01

    Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N = 636). It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency toward social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984). Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected. PMID:26696944

  6. STUDYING TRAVEL-RELATED INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENTS AND DESIRES BY COMBINING HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED ORDINAL VARIABLES

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tingting; Wittkowski, Knut M.

    2010-01-01

    Ordinal measures are frequently encountered in travel behavior research. This paper presents a new method for combining them when a hierarchical structure of the data can be presumed. This method is applied to study the subjective assessment of the amount of travel by different transportation modes among a group of French clerical workers, along with the desire to increase or decrease the use of such modes. Some advantages of this approach over traditional data reduction technique such as factor analysis when applied to ordinal data are then illustrated. In this study, combining evidence from several variables sheds light on the observed moderately negative relationship between the personal assessment of the amount of travel and the desire to increase or decrease it, thus integrating previous partial (univariate) results. We find a latent demand for travel, thus contributing to clarify the behavioral mechanisms behind the induced traffic phenomenon. Categorizing the above relationship by transportation mode shows a desire for a less environmental-friendly mix of modes (i.e. a greater desire to use heavy motorized modes and a lower desire to use two-wheeled modes), whenever the respondents do not feel to travel extensively. This result, combined with previous theoretical investigations concerning the determinants of the desire to alter trips consumption levels, shows the importance of making people aware of how much they travel. PMID:20953273

  7. [Reproductive medicine and the « desire for a child »: from normative judgment to conceptual analysis].

    PubMed

    Gaille, Marie

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive medicine is widely discussed today in France, far beyond the borders of medical community. It is a topic of public controversy. The notion of "desire for a child" is very frequently referred to in this debate. It is wrongly considered as an obvious idea. A philosophical examination of the "desire for a child" allows us to elaborate a critical definition of it, cut from the normative judgments made about it. It highlights its double nature, being a desire linked to the private sphere as well as to public policies and social norms. It gives some reasons to understand how it became something that could be said and even claimed for in the public sphere. It examines the explanations that have been proposed about the desire for a child (its origin, the goal it fulfills). It proposes a frame of analysis based on a case-by-case approach and acknowledges as essential features of this desire its complexity, its ambiguous frontiers and its variability. The normative evaluation of the "desire for a child" cannot skip the phase of this conceptual analysis.

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Interest and Desire Inventory-Female for Diagnosis of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: The Persian Version

    PubMed Central

    Malary, Mina; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Khani, Soghra; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hypoactive sexual desire Disorder (HSDD) is a common sexual problem among women. Sexual interest and desire inventory –female (SIDI-F) has been widely validated and used to measure sexual desire in women. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of SIDI-F for Iranian population. Method: This was a methodological study on the psychometric properties of SIDI –F. This report describes the process and principles used in the translation and cultural adaptation of the SIDI-F on 40 women of reproductive age who were selected using convenience sampling method. The content validity of this inventory was proved by analyzing the feedback solicited from women of reproductive age; professions specialized in health, sociology and psychology. Reliability was assessed through test-retest and internal consistency reliability. Results: Few cultural differences were identified and considered during the process of translation and validation. In Content Validity Ratio (CVR) measurement, the total score of SIDI-F was higher than Lawsche table (%51 for 14 experts), indicating the importance of including the mentioned items in the tool. CVR scores for all items were equal or more than 0.79. The internal consistency reliability measured for the whole tool was 0.89, showing considerable total reliability. Conclusion: The Persian version of the SIDI-F seems to be valid and reliable and can be used to identify women with low sexual desire through research and sexual health programs provided by the health centers in Iran, and to design appropriate interventions to treat HSDD. PMID:28050188

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Interest and Desire Inventory-Female for Diagnosis of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: The Persian Version.

    PubMed

    Malary, Mina; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Khani, Soghra; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Hypoactive sexual desire Disorder (HSDD) is a common sexual problem among women. Sexual interest and desire inventory -female (SIDI-F) has been widely validated and used to measure sexual desire in women. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of SIDI-F for Iranian population. Method: This was a methodological study on the psychometric properties of SIDI -F. This report describes the process and principles used in the translation and cultural adaptation of the SIDI-F on 40 women of reproductive age who were selected using convenience sampling method. The content validity of this inventory was proved by analyzing the feedback solicited from women of reproductive age; professions specialized in health, sociology and psychology. Reliability was assessed through test-retest and internal consistency reliability. Results: Few cultural differences were identified and considered during the process of translation and validation. In Content Validity Ratio (CVR) measurement, the total score of SIDI-F was higher than Lawsche table (%51 for 14 experts), indicating the importance of including the mentioned items in the tool. CVR scores for all items were equal or more than 0.79. The internal consistency reliability measured for the whole tool was 0.89, showing considerable total reliability. Conclusion: The Persian version of the SIDI-F seems to be valid and reliable and can be used to identify women with low sexual desire through research and sexual health programs provided by the health centers in Iran, and to design appropriate interventions to treat HSDD.

  10. Lele de l’omalizumab dans le traitement de l’asthme allergique grave

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Kenneth R; Cartier, André; Hébert, Jacques; McIvor, R Andrew; Schellenberg, R Robert

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXTE : Un nouveau traitement anti-immunoglobuline E (anti-IgE) contre l’asthme, l’omalizumab, a été approuvé au Canada. OBJECTIF : Passer en revue les données fondamentales et cliniques sur l’omalizumab et examiner lele possible de ce médicament dans la prise en charge de l’asthme au Canada. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans MEDLINE afin de repérer les études menées de 1960 à 2006 sur l’omalizumab. La recherche a également porté sur les résumés de réunions scientifiques récentes dans le domaine des maladies respiratoires et des allergies; par ailleurs, toute donnée non publiée a été demandée au fabricant. Après avoir revu et résumé les données, un comité mixte constitué de spécialistes des maladies respiratoires et des allergies a rédigé un ensemble de recommandations relatives à l’utilisation de l’omalizumab. RÉSULTATS : L’omalizumab est un anticorps monoclonal humanisé qui se lie au domaine C epsilon 3 de la molécule d’IgE pour former des complexes immuns solubles qui sont éliminés par le système réticulo-endothélial. L’administration d’injections sous-cutanées espacées de deux ou de quatre semaines à la dose recommandée entraîne une diminution rapide des taux d’IgE circulantes libres. Lors de deux essais cliniques de phase III menés auprès de 1 405 adultes et adolescents atteints d’asthme modéré à grave qui recevaient des doses moyennes stables de corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI), l’omalizumab a diminué les taux d’exacerbation par rapport au placebo et a été associé à une amélioration des symptômes ainsi qu’à une épargne plus importante des corticostéroïdes. Dans un essai mené auprès de 419 patients atteints d’asthme grave non maîtrisé malgré l’utilisation de doses élevées de CSI et de la prise concomitante d’agonistes bêta-2 à action prolongée, les exacerbations graves étaient de 50 % moins fréquentes chez

  11. The chronoarchitecture of human sexual desire: a high-density electrical mapping study.

    PubMed

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2008-11-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests that human sexual desire (SD) recruits both the limbic system and higher-order cognitive brain areas. Because of the temporal limitation of this technique, the chronoarchitecture of SD remains however unresolved. Here, we investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of SD by combining a behavioral desire decision task with high-density visual event-related potential (VEP) recordings and brain source estimations. VEPs were recorded from thirteen healthy participants when presented with pictures from two different stimulus categories (i.e., high and low desirability). In agreement with the literature, behavioral results showed that participants were faster to rate non-desired stimuli than desired stimuli (p=0.028). Electrophysiological results extended these behavioral data. Group-averaged VEPs peaked at 90 to 140 ms (P100), at 142 to 220 ms (N200), and at 222 to 360 ms (P300). Desired stimuli (DS) were distinguished from non-desired stimuli (NDS) over the N200 period, notably from 142 to 187 ms. Over this time period, DS processing was characterized by a significant scalp potential field. Although both conditions (DS and NDS) showed the recruitment of the occipito-temporal region (including the extrastriate body area, EBA), LAURA source estimation of the DS scalp potential field revealed a more right-lateralized current source density maximum in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) extending to the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). The recruitment of STS and TPJ for desired stimuli indicates that these brain areas, known to be respectively involved in social cognition, attention, integration of body-related information and self-processing, play a crucial role for the coding of desirability of visual sexual human stimuli within the first 200 ms after stimulus onset. These findings support the hypothesis that complex cognitive processing for desire occurs much faster than previously thought and open new perspectives with

  12. Sexual desire and linguistic analysis: a comparison of sexually-abused and non-abused women.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

    2007-02-01

    Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored.

  13. To be or not to be in sexual desire: the androgen dilemma.

    PubMed

    Nappi, R E

    2015-10-01

    The androgen milieu and sexual desire in women seem to be tightly linked because they both decline with age. However, we are still missing a cut-off plasma level for androgens (total testosterone, free testosterone) or androgen precursors (androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS)) to diagnose androgen deficiency in clinical practice. Apart from the complex multidimensional nature of sexual desire across the reproductive lifespan, the correlation between measurements of testosterone and specific signs and symptoms has been difficult because, according to guidelines, most available assays are unreliable at baseline and under hormonal treatments. Recent data obtained with accurate methods based on mass spectrometry to measure total testosterone levels found a significant positive association with sexual desire, arousal and masturbation in midlife US women across the menopausal transition. Even in a European cohort of healthy women aged 19-65 years, sexual desire, measured with a validated questionnaire, correlated overall with free testosterone and androstenedione measured with mass spectrometry. Collectively, these data support the therapeutic use of testosterone for low desire and sexual dysfunction in those clinical conditions in which androgen deficiency may be accurately diagnosed.

  14. Metacognitions about desire thinking predict the severity of binge eating in a sample of Italian women.

    PubMed

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Fernie, Bruce A; Nikčević, Ana V; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Boccaletti, Fabio; Dallari, Giulia; Sassaroli, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    In this study, our principal aim was to investigate whether metacognitions about desire thinking predict the severity of binge eating in women and, if so, whether this relationship is independent of age, self-reported body mass index (BMI), negative affect, irrational food beliefs and craving. One hundred and four women, consisting of 32 consecutive patients with binge eating disorder undergoing initial assessment for cognitive therapy for eating disorders, 39 moderate binge eaters, and 33 non-binge eaters (both from the general population), completed the following measures: Self-reported BMI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, General Craving Scale, Metacognitions about Desire Thinking Questionnaire, and Binge Eating Scale. A series of Spearman's rho correlation analyses revealed that self-reported BMI, anxiety, depression, irrational food beliefs, craving, and all three factors of the metacognitions about desire thinking questionnaire were significantly associated with the severity of binge eating. A stepwise regression analysis identified self-reported BMI, craving, and negative metacognitions about desire thinking as significant predictors of the severity of binge eating. These results, taken together, highlight the possible role of metacognitions about desire thinking in predicting the severity of binge eating. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Treatment Desires and Symptomatology among Substance Abusing Homeless Mothers: What I Want versus What I Need

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei

    2012-01-01

    The current study sought to identify information that may inform treatment providers regarding services for, and engagement of, substance abusing homeless mothers. Shelter-recruited, substance abusing homeless mothers' desires for treatment in several commonly reported problem areas including substance use, parenting, depressive symptoms/mood, physical health and childhood abuse history were assessed. The correspondence between mother's desire for treatment and self-reported problem severity was also examined. The majority of mothers reported at least some desire (versus no desire at all) for assistance with substance use, depressive symptoms/mood and parenting. A series of independent-sample T tests and chi-square tests showed that mothers indicating any treatment desire in the areas of substance use, depressive symptoms/mood, health problems and sexual abuse also reported higher levels of severity in the corresponding problem areas. The findings imply that psychosocial treatment should be available to all homeless mothers entering the shelter system, especially given that problem severity appears to be a fair indicator of interest in treatment. PMID:23076864

  16. Neural Substrates of Sexual Desire in Individuals with Problematic Hypersexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Ji-Woo; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the characteristics of individuals with hypersexual disorder have been accumulating due to increasing concerns about problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB). Currently, relatively little is known about the underlying behavioral and neural mechanisms of sexual desire. Our study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of sexual desire with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-three individuals with PHB and 22 age-matched healthy controls were scanned while they passively viewed sexual and nonsexual stimuli. The subjects' levels of sexual desire were assessed in response to each sexual stimulus. Relative to controls, individuals with PHB experienced more frequent and enhanced sexual desire during exposure to sexual stimuli. Greater activation was observed in the caudate nucleus, inferior parietal lobe, dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the PHB group than in the control group. In addition, the hemodynamic patterns in the activated areas differed between the groups. Consistent with the findings of brain imaging studies of substance and behavior addiction, individuals with the behavioral characteristics of PHB and enhanced desire exhibited altered activation in the prefrontal cortex and subcortical regions. In conclusion, our results will help to characterize the behaviors and associated neural mechanisms of individuals with PHB. PMID:26648855

  17. The desire to utilize postmastectomy breast reconstruction in Saudi Arabian women

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Basim A.; Samargandi, Osama A.; Alghamdi, Hattan A.; Sayegh, Anas A.; Hakeem, Yasir J.; Merdad, Leena; Merdad, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study factors that influence the desire to utilize breast reconstruction after mastectomy, and to investigate the barriers to reconstruction among women in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at 2 surgical centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all breast cancer patients attending the surgery clinics for follow-up after mastectomy between January and March 2013. Ninety-one patients met the study inclusion criteria. The first part of the questionnaire covered the demographic and socioeconomic information regarding factors that might influence the desire to utilize breast reconstruction including possible barriers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the significant predictors of the desire to undergo reconstruction. Results: Overall, 16.5% of patients underwent breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Young age and high educational attainment were significantly associated with an increased desire to undergo reconstruction. The main barriers to reconstruction were the lack of adequate information on the procedure (63%), concerns on the complications of the procedure (68%), and concerns on the reconstruction interfering with the detection of recurrence (54%). Conclusion: Age and educational level were significant predictors of the desire to utilize breast reconstruction. Furthermore, modifiable barriers included the lack of knowledge and misconceptions on the procedure. Addressing these issues may increase the rate of breast reconstruction in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25737172

  18. Seduction, prostitution, and the control of female desire in popular Antebellum fiction.

    PubMed

    Renner, Karen J

    2010-01-01

    During the antebellum era, increased attention to the prostitute coincided with a prevalent conception of women as, in Nancy Cott's words, essentially "passionless" unless aroused by sincere romantic love. Yet it seems paradoxical that this ideology existed alongside an increasing awareness of women whose livelihood depended upon manufacturing and marketing sexual desire. In this essay I argue that the prostitute became an object of antebellum fascination and concern less because of her defiance of the ideology of passionlessness and more because of the extent to which she could be made to reinforce this ideology. Casting the prostitute as a victim of seduction preserved predominant beliefs about the dependency of female desire on male impetus. The popular novels of George Thompson and Osgood Bradbury elide the sexual autonomy of the prostitute by making her a victim of men, but they do so in different ways. Thompson employs two variants of the seduction narrative that differ according to class, but both result in the subjection of female desire to male control. His indigent females are chaste victims of violent forms of sexual exploitation, while his licentious rich women reveal an inherent tendency toward monogamy or an inability to command their own aberrant desires. Bradbury, in contrast, is remarkable for his willingness to allow fallen women and prostitutes the chance to reform. As refreshingly progressive as Bradbury's novels seem, however, his adherence to the seduction narrative ultimately suggests that female desire is doomed to dissatisfaction unless properly channeled toward working-class men.

  19. Second Language Acquisition of the Chinese Particle "Le."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaohong

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated 14 English speakers' interlanguage constructions using the Chinese perfective aspect and the sentence-final modal particle. The results show that although the surface forms of the perfective aspect "-le" and the sentence-final "le" are identical, they are learned differently, with the perfective aspect…

  20. Insights: Simple Models for Teaching Equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joan M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents three models that have been effective for teaching chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle: (1) the liquid transfer model, (2) the fish model, and (3) the teeter-totter model. Explains each model and its relation to Le Chatelier's principle. (MVL)

  1. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2006-11-01

    Glace et éclairs; Astéroïdes; Pluton; Avatars et avanie d'une petite planète (Xena, Eris); Nuage d'éthane sur Titan; Lacs de Titan; La NASA scrute Mars; Les express Mars et Venus; Cydonia, le visage sur Mars; Transit d'Ariel; Lune; Gonflée, la planète; Terres, terres!; Une planète extrasolaire aurait abrité de l'eau liquide; Des planètes au centre de la Voie Lactée; Anatomie d'un disque protoplanétaire; CHRX73 et pseudo-planète; Systèmes étranges; Premières galaxies; Voie Lactée; Neutrinos; RCW 86

  2. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2009-10-01

    Dunes de Titan; Lac Ontario; Titan; Anneaux de Saturne; Jupiter; Mars; Rotation de Saturne; Valles Marineris; Méthane martien; Epsilon Aurigae; Glycine cométaire; HD 87643; Pluton; Bételgeuse; Site astronomique; Andromède cannibale; Attaque de trou noir; BD+44 493; Formation d'étoiles; Gaz manquant; LIGO; M87; Naine blanche; Galaxie satellite; Galaxies naines sphéroïdales; Galaxies trapues; Cygnus X-1; L'avenir de la Voie Lactée; Naphtaline cosmique; Premiers trous noirs; Coup de foudre; Effet de serre; Glace lunaire; Impacts et extinctions; Exoplanètes rétrogrades; Kepler; Planète chaude; Collision planétaire; Disques dans le vent; Exoplanètes; Formation des planètes; Taches et transits

  3. Older Women's Sexual Desire Problems: Biopsychosocial Factors Impacting Them and Barriers to Their Clinical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Michelle; Laganà, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Sexual desire is a major component of sexuality at any age, and inhibited desire is one of the main sexual dysfunctions reported by older women. Nonetheless, in medical settings, for a variety of reasons discussed herein, its assessment—as well as the assessment of older women's sexual health in general—is typically avoided or conducted by asking a single sex question. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature (most of which is preliminary in nature) regarding the main psychosocial and health factors that could impact older women's sexual desire, as well as potential obstacles to the assessment and treatment of this geriatric sexual issue. It is certainly advisable that medical care providers who are uncomfortable discussing older women's sexual concerns be prepared to make appropriate referrals to clinicians who possess the proper training to accurately assess and treat sexual challenges (and female sexual interest problems in particular) in this neglected patient population. PMID:24995267

  4. The gap between fatherhood and couplehood desires among Israeli gay men and estimations of their likelihood.

    PubMed

    Shenkman, Geva

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the frequencies of the desires and likelihood estimations of Israeli gay men regarding fatherhood and couplehood, using a sample of 183 gay men aged 19-50. It follows previous research which indicated the existence of a gap in the United States with respect to fatherhood, and called for generalizability examinations in other countries and the exploration of possible explanations. As predicted, a gap was also found in Israel between fatherhood desires and their likelihood estimations, as well as between couplehood desires and their likelihood estimations. In addition, lower estimations of fatherhood likelihood were found to predict depression and to correlate with decreased subjective well-being. Possible psychosocial explanations are offered. Moreover, by mapping attitudes toward fatherhood and couplehood among Israeli gay men, the current study helps to extend our knowledge of several central human development motivations and their correlations with depression and subjective well-being in a less-studied sexual minority in a complex cultural climate.

  5. Human punishment is motivated by inequity aversion, not a desire for reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Raihani, N J; McAuliffe, K

    2012-10-23

    Humans involved in cooperative interactions willingly pay a cost to punish cheats. However, the proximate motives underpinning punitive behaviour are currently debated. Individuals who interact with cheats experience losses, but they also experience lower payoffs than the cheating partner. Thus, the negative emotions that trigger punishment may stem from a desire to reciprocate losses or from inequity aversion. Previous studies have not disentangled these possibilities. Here, we use an experimental approach to ask whether punishment is motivated by inequity aversion or by a desire for reciprocity. We show that humans punish cheats only when cheating produces disadvantageous inequity, while there is no evidence for reciprocity. This finding challenges the notion that punishment is motivated by a simple desire to reciprocally harm cheats and shows that victims compare their own payoffs with those of partners when making punishment decisions.

  6. Romantic partners in a market perspective: expectations about what ensures a highly desirable partner.

    PubMed

    Castro, Felipe N; Hattori, Wallisen T; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Lopes, Fívia A

    2013-10-01

    This study used the biological market perspective and influential statistical models from the marketing field to investigate males' and females' expectations regarding which combination of characteristics are most relevant in ensuring desirable partnerships for same-sex individuals. Thus, 358 Brazilian undergraduates assessed eight descriptions of same-gender stimulus targets (formulated with different levels of physical attractiveness, social skills, and current or prospective social status) and evaluated the overall desirability of the targets' expected or probable partners. From the possible combinations, three groups emerged: for one group, mainly composed of men, status characteristics were the most important attributes; for the others, mostly composed of women, social skills or physical characteristics were identified as most important in appealing to a desirable partner. This work expands the understanding of variability in male and female romantic expectations, and its implications are discussed from an evolutionary perspective.

  7. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Greer, Stephanie M; Goldstein, Andrea N; Walker, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports a link between sleep loss and obesity. However, the detrimental impact of sleep deprivation on central brain mechanisms governing appetitive food desire remains unknown. Here we report that sleep deprivation significantly decreases activity in appetitive evaluation regions within the human frontal cortex and insular cortex during food desirability choices, combined with a converse amplification of activity within the amygdala. Moreover, this bi-directional change in the profile of brain activity is further associated with a significant increase in the desire for weight-gain promoting high-calorie foods following sleep deprivation, the extent of which is predicted by the subjective severity of sleep loss across participants. These findings provide an explanatory brain mechanism by which insufficient sleep may lead to the development/maintenance of obesity through diminished activity in higher-order cortical evaluation regions, combined with excess subcortical limbic responsivity, resulting in the selection of foods most capable of triggering weight-gain.

  8. Are self-reported physical activity levels associated with perceived desirability of activity-friendly communities?

    PubMed

    Librett, John J; Yore, Michelle M; Schmid, Thomas L; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-09-01

    People living in activity-friendly communities (AFCs) are more active but the self-selection influence is unknown. From 4856 respondents we explored mediating variables with expressed desire to live in AFCs. Association with desire to live in AFCs included ages 18-24 years (odds ratio [OR]=1.9), African American (OR=1.9) or Hispanic (OR=1.5), and believing AFCs would support activity-based transportation (OR=2.4). Regular physical activity (PA) was marginally associated with desire to live in AFCs (OR=1.3). These findings suggest that PA may be a significant factor in communities of this style. Strategies for social marketing along with changes to the built environment to increase PA levels are discussed.

  9. The attitudes of mental health professionals towards patients’ desire for children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When a patient with a serious mental illness expresses a desire for children, mental health professionals are faced with an ethical dilemma. To date, little research has been conducted into their strategies for dealing with these issues. Methods Seven focus groups with a total of 49 participants from all professional groups active in mental health (nurses, psychologists, social workers and psychiatrists) were conducted in a 330-bed psychiatric hospital. Group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed by the documentary method described by Bohnsack. Results Mental health professionals did not feel that their patients’ desire for children was as important in daily practice as were parenting issues. When discussing the desire for children on the part of patients, the following themes emerged: “the patient’s own decision”, “neutrality”, “the patient’s well-being”, “issues affecting the children of mentally ill parents” and “appropriate parenthood”. In order to cope with what they perceived as conflicting norms, mental health professionals developed the following (discursive) strategies: "subordination of child welfare", "de-professionalisation", "giving rational advice" and "resignation". Conclusions The theme of “reproductive autonomy” dominated mental health professionals’ discourse on the desire for children among psychiatric patients. “Reproductive autonomy” stood in conflict with another important theme (patient’s children). Treating reproductive issues as taboo is the result of the gap between MHPs’ perceptions of (conflicting) norms when dealing with a patient’s desire for children and the limited opportunities to cope with them appropriately. In order to support both patients with a desire for children and mental health professionals who are charged with providing counselling for such patients, there is a need to encourage ethical reflection and to focus on clinical recommendations in this important

  10. Evaluating the User Experience of Exercising Reaching Motions With a Robot That Predicts Desired Movement Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2016-01-01

    The notion of an optimal difficulty during practice has been articulated in many areas of cognitive psychology: flow theory, the challenge point framework, and desirable difficulties. Delivering exercises at a participant's desired difficulty has the potential to improve both motor learning and users' engagement in therapy. Motivation and engagement are among the contributing factors to the success of exercise programs. The authors previously demonstrated that error amplification can be used to introduce levels of challenge into a robotic reaching task, and that machine-learning algorithms can dynamically adjust difficulty to the desired level with 85% accuracy. Building on these findings, we present the results of a proof-of-concept study investigating the impacts of practicing under desirable difficulty conditions. A control condition with a predefined random order for difficulty levels was deemed more suitable for this study (compared to constant or continuously increasing difficulty). By practicing the task at their desirable difficulties, participants in the experimental group perceived their performance at a significantly higher level and reported lower required effort to complete the task, in comparison to a control group. Moreover, based on self-reports, participants in the experimental group were willing, on average, to continue the training session for 4.6 more training blocks (∼45 min) compared to the control group's average. This study demonstrates the efficiency of delivering the exercises at the user's desired difficulty level to improve the user's engagement in exercise tasks. Future work will focus on clinical feasibility of this approach in increasing stroke survivors' engagement in their therapy programs.

  11. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder: inventing a disease to sell low libido.

    PubMed

    Meixel, Antonie; Yanchar, Elena; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2015-10-01

    Condition branding is a marketing technique in which companies develop conditions concurrently with developing drugs; examples include gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, social anxiety disorder, erectile dysfunction and hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Although it is illegal for pharmaceutical companies to market drugs prior to regulatory approval, there are no restrictions on marketing diseases, and industry seeks to establish a disease state in the minds of clinicians years before an expected drug launch. Continuing medical education (CME) courses are an important part of promotion prior to drug approval and have become a key marketing tool for increasing clinician receptivity to new products. We systematically identified 14 free, internet-based, industry-funded, accredited CME modules on hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women which came out before a new drug, flibanserin, was being considered for regulatory approval in the USA. Common themes in these modules included the following: (1) Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is common, underdiagnosed and can have a profound effect on quality of life. (2) Women may not be aware that they are sick or distressed. (3) Simple questionnaires can assist clinicians in diagnosing the disorder. (4) It is problematic that there are medicines available to treat sexual problems for men but not women. In fact, there is no scientifically established norm for sexual activity, feelings or desire, and there is no evidence that hypoactive sexual desire disorder is a medical condition. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is a typical example of a condition that was sponsored by industry to prepare the market for a specific treatment.

  12. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  13. [The unsaid in the family context and the paradox of desire].

    PubMed

    Ulhoa, M J

    1991-06-01

    Through the reading of family discourse, some reflexions on the non said, within the family context, and the paradox of desire are proposed. Interpretations are based on family discourse by means of clinical practice and, as regards social phenomena, on their symbolic representations. The non said--i.e. what is said by oneself to oneself, or soliloquy (monologue),--is unlikely to be reduced to a linear cause: This is a permanent construction, and destruction work. In its paradoxal movement, the non said both nullifies desire, and proclaims it.

  14. Group-complementary code sets for implementing pulse compression with desirable range resolution properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathers, G.; Holliday, E. M.

    This paper describes the structure and properties of a waveform design technique intended to provide desirable range resolution properties in radar sensor systems. The waveform design, called group-complementary coding, consists of groups of binary sequences which can be used for bi-phase coding of a radar carrier pulsed waveform. When pulse compression processing is extended to include the composite of a number of pulses through coherent integration, then group-complementary coding provides the often desirable property of complete range sidelobe cancellation (for zero Doppler shift).

  15. "Wonderful, heavenly, beautiful, and ours": lesbian fantasy and media(ted) desire in Heavenly Creatures.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Peter Jackson's Heavenly Creatures (1994) is the story of two girls in New Zealand who form an intense erotic friendship based on a fantasy world they create, and how their forced separation leads them to commit matricide. Beneath the sensational surface, though, is another story: this is a film about cinema, about desire, and how queer spectators create new and unexpected meanings. This article argues that Heavenly Creatures is a queer love letter to the power of cinema, revealing how queer consciousness may indeed be constituted from foreclosed possibility by the medium--providing a landscape, a stage, and a mise-en-scène of desire.

  16. Desire for non-mutilative disability in a nonhomosexual, male-to-female transsexual.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2009-12-01

    In adults, the desire for a healthy limb amputation has been reported in both the lay press and the scientific literature. While the etiology of this condition is currently unknown, prevailing theories have tended to conceptualize the phenomenon as paraphilic in origin. In this report, we present the case of a 25-year-old, nonhomosexual male-to-female transsexual who manifested an intense desire to be afflicted with a nonmutilative neurological disability (multiple sclerosis). The patient categorically denied sexual attraction towards the thought of being an amputee or physically disabled. Hypotheses are proposed for the development of this condition with special emphasis accorded to the significance of the preferred target disability.

  17. Sexual arousal and lubrication problems in women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder: preliminary findings from the hypoactive sexual desire disorder registry for women.

    PubMed

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Shifren, Jan; Parish, Sharon J; Segraves, R Taylor; Huang, Liyuan; Rosen, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    Sexual desire and arousal difficulties are often correlated in women. However, no studies have examined characteristics of women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) that increase the likelihood of co-occurring arousal difficulties. The authors examined combined HSDD and arousal/ lubrication problems using baseline cross-sectional data from the HSDD Registry for Women. Their analyses were restricted to women who could be classified with certainty as having arousal or lubrication difficulties by the Female Sexual Function Index (requiring sexually activity in the past 4 weeks). Results showed that among 426 premenopausal women with HSDD, 50.2% had arousal problems, 42.5% lubrication problems, 39.0% combination, and 46.2% neither. Among 174 postmenopausal women, prevalence percentages were 58.0% arousal, 56.9% lubrication, 49.4% combined, and 34.5% neither. The strongest predictor of combined arousal/lubrication problems was self-reported severity of HSDD. Among premenopausal women, race/ethnicity, depression, and lower relationship happiness were also associated with combined arousal/lubrication problems. Among postmenopausal women, surgical menopause and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were positively associated with arousal problems. Arousal and lubrication problems were present in approximately half of this subsample of HSDD Registry participants, with distinctions in prevalence and predictors by menopausal status and type of arousal difficulty (arousal vs. lubrication).

  18. Social Desirability and Behavior Rating Scales: An Exploratory Study with the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merydith, Scott P.; Prout, H. Thompson; Blaha, John

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL/4-18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K-7. Results from correlational and multiple regression…

  19. Adolescents' and Parents' Evaluations of Helping versus Fulfilling Personal Desires in Family Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Gettman, Denise C.; Villalobos, Myriam; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Metzger, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 118 predominantly European American families with early and middle adolescents (M[subscript ages]=12.32 and 15.18 years) and 1 parent evaluated hypothetical conflicts between adolescents' and parents' requests for assistance versus the other's personal desires. Evaluations differed by level of need, but in low-need situations,…

  20. Deviations from Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences across Marital Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…

  1. Branding MBA Programs: The Use of Target Market Desired Outcomes for Effective Brand Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Louise A.; Nadeau, John

    2010-01-01

    Branding is about delivering on desired outcomes. The importance of positioning program offerings on the basis of outcomes sought in the education market is illustrated in this study of choice of an MBA program by prospective students. MBA fair attendees were surveyed and multiple methods were employed to determine the importance of desired…

  2. Students' Desired and Experienced Levels of Connectivity to an Asynchronous, Online, Distance Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Shawnda; Baker, Mary; Terras, Katherine; Mahar, Patti; Chiasson, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This study examined graduate students' desired and experienced levels of connectivity in an online, asynchronous distance degree program. Connectivity was conceptualized as the students' feelings of community and involvement, not their level of access to the Internet. Graduate students enrolled in a distance degree program were surveyed on both…

  3. The Effects of Reading Aloud in Motivating and Enhancing Students' Desire To Read Independently.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemerick, Kari Ann

    The purpose of this study was to determine if reading aloud to children regularly would have an effect on their motivation and desire to read independently. Subjects, 100 fourth and fifth grade students in Wayne, New Jersey, participated in the study. One fourth and one fifth grade class were read to on a daily basis for 30 minutes. The second…

  4. Mapping Students' Conceptual Modes When Thinking about Chemical Reactions Used to Make a Desired Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrich, M. L.; Talanquer, V.

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this qualitative research study was to uncover major implicit assumptions that students with different levels of training in the discipline apply when thinking and making decisions about chemical reactions used to make a desired product. In particular, we elicited different ways of conceptualizing why chemical reactions happen…

  5. Reframing "The Rainbow of Desire" as Embodied Self-Reflexivity in Initial Teacher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This is a photographic and textual account of research that reframes the Boalian technique "The Rainbow of Desire" (TRoD) as a form of embodied self-reflexivity within initial teacher education. In particular, TRoD is applied as an embodied reflective process to provoke reflection on the emotional dimensions of learning to teach. The…

  6. Family Sex Communication and the Sexual Desire, Attitudes, and Behavior of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboni, Brian D.; Silver, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Parental sex education might promote healthy sexual behavior among adolescents, but some parents assume that family communication about sex will lead to sexual activity. Family sex communication has been studied with a limited range of adolescent sexual behaviors but not sexual fantasy or desire. Two measures of family sex communication were…

  7. Power of the Desired Self: Influence of Induced Perceptions of the Self on Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustinova, Maria; Collange, Julie; Sanitioso, Rasyid Bo; Musca, Serban C.

    2011-01-01

    This research shows that the motivation to posses a desired characteristic (or to avoid an undesired one) results in self-perceptions that guide people's use of base rate in the Lawyer-Engineer problem (Kahneman & Tversky, 1973). In four studies, participants induced to believe (or recall, Exp. 2) that a rational cognitive style is…

  8. The Actual and Desired Role of Local Vocational Directors: A Comparison of Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary E.; And Others

    The current and desired role of local vocational directors (LVDs) in North Carolina was assessed through a survey of superintendents, principals, vocational teachers, and LVDs. A literature review indicated differences in various groups' perceptions regarding the actual and ideal role of LVDs. The instrument required respondents to reply 2 times…

  9. Does Technology Elicit Desired Behaviors in Emotionally Disturbed Students?: Perceptions of Elementary Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to identify the perceptions of educators regarding the potential impact of technology as a motivator to elicit desirable behaviors within students that have been identified with an educational diagnosis of emotional disturbance at the elementary school level. A review of the literature focused on key…

  10. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  11. Design, Demand, Development, and Desire: A Symposium on the Discourses of Workplace Learning. Innovative Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, John M.; Swanson, Richard A.; Watkins, Karen E.; Cseh, Maria

    Our understanding of workplace learning is shaped by four dominant discourses that may be labeled the discourses of design, demand, development and desire. Within these different discourses, understanding of workplace learning is shaped and bounded by particular assumptions about the "self in context," which includes the organizational…

  12. Enhancing the Undergraduate Industrial Engineering Curriculum: Defining Desired Characteristics and Emerging Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskandari, Hamidreza; Sala-Diakanda, Serge; Furterer, Sandra; Rabelo, Luis; Crumpton-Young, Lesia; Williams, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the results of an initial research study conducted to identify the desired professional characteristics of an industrial engineer with an undergraduate degree and the emerging topic areas that should be incorporated into the curriculum to prepare industrial engineering (IE) graduates for the future workforce.…

  13. A Model of Desired Performance in Phylogenetic Tree Construction for Teaching Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Steven D.

    This research paper examines phylogenetic tree construction-a form of problem solving in biology-by studying the strategies and heuristics used by experts. One result of the research is the development of a model of desired performance for phylogenetic tree construction. A detailed description of the model and the sample problems which illustrate…

  14. Sexual Minority Youth in the Schools: Issues and Desirable Counselor Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark

    This paper addresses the issues and desirable professional school counselor responses when working with sexual minority youth in the schools, including gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer, and questioning youth. The issues that are addressed include: developing a context in which to discuss these issues; coming out or the…

  15. Eye Movements Reveal the Time-Course of Anticipating Behaviour Based on Complex, Conflicting Desires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Heather J.; Breheny, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The time-course of representing others' perspectives is inconclusive across the currently available models of ToM processing. We report two visual-world studies investigating how knowledge about a character's basic preferences (e.g. "Tom's favourite colour is pink") and higher-order desires (his wish to keep this preference secret) compete to…

  16. The Level of Desirability of Information Technology Systems and Its Relation with Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allammeh, Sayyed Mohsen; Shavaran, Hamidreza; Dabaghi, Azizollah; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to define Information Technology (IT) desirability and determine IT relationship with organizational commitment. The existence of such a relationship between IT & organizational commitment can guide the organizational leaders to promote and to develop the IT potentials in order to improve the performance of employees,…

  17. An Expectancy-Value Perspective of Civic Education Motivation, Learning and Desirable Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Chua, Bee Leng

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the mediating role of expectancy for success and value beliefs in civic education in linking socio-academic factors (gender, ethnicity, school level and prior achievement) to desirable civic attributes. The sample comprised 1664 students in their Year-7-Year-12 (mean age = 14.79, range = 12-18). Structural equation…

  18. The Angel's Playground: Same-Sex Desires of Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Heather

    2003-01-01

    This article examines narratives about same-sex desires between teachers and students in physical education, based on the life histories of physical education teachers who described their sexual identities as "gay man," "lesbian," "bisexual," "queer" and racial identities as "White," "Bi-racial," "Latina" and "Armenian-American." Many teachers…

  19. Necessary Transformation or Safe Permanence? A Philosophical Approach to the Desire for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drouin-Hans, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    What is proposed is a meditation on the phrase "transformation of the educational system", paying attention to the sense of the words, and showing what the desire for educational change can reveal. After explaining to what extent "educational system" is a quasi-oxymoron, the meaning of "transformation" has to be…

  20. Learning, Teaching and Assessment Strategies in Higher Education: Contradictions of Genre and Desiring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue; Smith, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of ethnographic data collected by researchers as part of the process of rewriting an institutional learning and teaching strategy in an English university. The research was driven by a desire to understand what work a learning and teaching strategy might accomplish, and the form/s of address in strategy documents.…

  1. Community Effects and Desired Schooling of Parents and Children in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    Does living in a neighborhood with a high school affect children's decision to continue their schooling? A study of over 300 fifth graders and their parents in three Mexican cities found community residence is a significant predictor of desired schooling, even with comprehensive controls for child and family traits. (39 references) (MLH)

  2. Development of Program for Enhancing the Ideal Desirable Characteristic of Basic School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khakhlong, Chettha; Julsuwan, Suwat; Somprach, Kanokorn; Khangpheng, Samrit

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a program for enhancing ideal desirable characteristic of basic school administrators. An in-depth interview was done with experts. The opinions of school administrators, assistant school administrators, and teachers as the chiefs of academic work were found out. A total of 330 persons participated in…

  3. 48 CFR 52.211-9 - Desired and Required Time of Delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Desired and Required Time of Delivery. 52.211-9 Section 52.211-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions...

  4. Socially Desirable Responding and the Factorial Stability of the NEO PI-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Margarita B.; De Fruyt, Filip; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Bagby, R. Michael

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present investigation is to compare the factor structure of the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) in samples of respondents differentially motivated to respond in a socially desirable manner. In the French sample, the authors compared the NEO PI-R structure of job applicants…

  5. Desired Job Characteristics and Perceived Occupational Barriers Among Low-Income Youth in Kentucky. RS-60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Larry D.; Coleman, A. Lee

    In 1975, 263 low-income Kentucky youths aged 17-19 completed questionnaires about career aspirations according to desired job characteristics and perceived barriers to occupational attainment; the sample (approximately half male, half female) was from an urban inner city area in Fayette County (approximately half black, half white) and the two…

  6. Humanism, Administration and Education: The Demand of Documentation and the Production of a New Pedagogical Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plum, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, this paper analyses the emergence of a new pedagogical desire related to administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Two arguments are made: first, it is argued that the changes in administrative practices during…

  7. Desirable Reading: The Relationship between Women Students' Lives and Their Reading Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine A.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews of 36 women students in literature and cultural studies investigated reading habits and practices. Connections were found between reading attitudes and personal and family relationships. They used reading to explore familial and cultural issues. Reading was a matter of desire, aspiration, and identity formation. (Contains 55…

  8. Exposure to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) visual imagery increases smoking urge and desire.

    PubMed

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; Fridberg, Daniel J; Matthews, Alicia K; McNamara, Patrick J; Cao, Dingcai

    2016-02-01

    Use and awareness of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also known as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) has increased rapidly in recent years, particularly among young adults. As use of ENDS resembles traditional smoking in both hand-to-mouth movements and inhalation and exhalation behaviors, we determined whether exposure to e-cigarette use via video exposure would act as a cue to elicit urge and desire for a combustible cigarette. Young adult smokers (mean age of 26.3 ± 4.1 years) were randomized to view a brief video montage of advertisements depicting either e-cigarette vaping (n = 38) or bottled water drinking (n = 40). Pre- and postcue exposure assessments were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting without other smoking or vaping cues present or behaviors allowed. Primary outcomes included change from pre-exposure baseline in smoking urge (Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges) and desire for a combustible and e-cigarette (visual analogue scales). Results showed that relative to exposure to the bottled water video, exposure to the ENDS video significantly increased smoking urge (p < .001) as well as desire for a regular cigarette (p < .05) and an e-cigarette (p < .001). These findings provide preliminary evidence that passive exposure to video imagery of ENDS use may generalize as a condition cue and evoke urges for a combustible cigarette in young adult smokers. It remains to be determined whether such increases in urge and desire correspond to increases in actual smoking behavior.

  9. Report on the Desirability of Adopting an International Instrument for the Protection of Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report contains the formal documents leading to the inclusion on the provisional agenda of UNESCO's 1972 General Conference of a discussion considering the desirability of adopting an instrument for the protection of translators. Included in the document is the "Preliminary Study of the Technical and Legal Aspects of Copyright Protection for…

  10. Relationships between Motivations for Community Service Participation and Desire to Continue Service Following College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Thomas-Card, Traci

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether college students' motivations for participating in community service were associated with their perceptions that service enhanced their desire to continue participating in communityfocused activities after graduation, after statistically controlling for demographic variables and other variables of interest.…

  11. [Parenting facts and desires in relation to sexual orientation and gender identity].

    PubMed

    Kleinert, Evelyn; Riekena, Boris; Stöbel-Richter, Yve

    2012-08-01

    Homosexual parents as well as gay and lesbian individuals wanting children are increasingly a topic of public discourse. To estimate the importance of parenting for this group, 1 289 non-heterosexual individuals were examined by means of an anonymous online survey. Their answers were compared to 1 022 heterosexual participants of a representative control group. The respondents were questioned concerning their motives for desiring children, the external factors influencing this desire and their ideal number of children. 80% of the non-heterosexual respondents and 49% of the control group indicated that they have no children. In both groups emotional motives were reported to have far greater influence on their parenting desire than social recognition or personal and financial constraints. 85% of the non-heterosexual respondents and 60% of the control group have fewer children than they would like to have. Both groups considered work and their financial situation as the most important external factors influencing the realization of their desire to have children.

  12. Number of Samples Needed to Obtain Desired Bayesion Confidence Intervals for a Proportion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    This thesis analyzes a Bayesian method for determining the number of samples that are needed to produce a desired confidence interval size for a...relating sample size and confidence interval size when a Beta prior distribution is employed. Tables and graphs are developed to assist an experimenter

  13. Speed of Eating as a Determinant of Bulimic Desire to Vomit: A Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Kellen, Michael J.; Ehle, Christopher T.; Brooks, Jeannie S.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of self-induced vomiting of retarded persons have found that the rate of eating and the amount eaten alter this problem. The present study attempted to determine whether this same relationship was exhibited by the nonretarded bulimic. A nonretarded bulimic woman provided her subjective ratings of her desire to vomit after eating her taboo…

  14. Developing Reflective Thinking Instructional Model for Enhancing Students' Desirable Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porntaweekul, Satjatam; Raksasataya, Sarintip; Nethanomsak, Teerachai

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the reflective thinking instructional model for enhancing empowerment of pre-service and in-service educational students in Roi-Et Rajabhat University, Thailand. In this research, qualitative methods, observation, interview, short note, and group discussion were used to indicate students' desirable learning outcomes,…

  15. Learning to Read the Bible with Desire: Teaching the Eros of Exegesis in the Theological Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaage, Leif E.

    2007-01-01

    The article begins with two brief theoretical descriptions of a pedagogy of desire vis-a-vis the Christian Bible. The first of these is a poem; the second summarizes the conversation constituted by four quite different books: the "Confessions" by Augustine of Hippo, "Freud & Philosophy" by Paul Ricoeur, "Pedagogy of…

  16. 76 FR 56165 - Soliciting Input on Research and Development Priorities for Desirable Features of a Nationwide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... network that meets the needs of local, state, Tribal, and Federal public safety communities.\\1\\ The... safety is in areas not covered by the public safety broadband network. Network sharing: The shared use of... Desirable Features of a Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network AGENCY: National Institute of...

  17. Trustees' Perceptions of the Desired Qualifications for the next Generation of Community College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plinske, Kathleen; Packard, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the authority for hiring a community college president resides with the board of trustees, few studies have directly explored trustees' perceptions of the desired qualifications for presidents. Using a Delphi process, this study identified the characteristics, competencies, and professional experiences that Illinois community college…

  18. Study of Social Desirability Levels of Female Youth Camp Leader Candidates in Accordance with Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Üzümcü, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study examination of the study of social desirability levels of female youth camp leader candidates in according with some variables. The study the scope of the research consists of 326 female trainees participated in the relevant course of youth camp leader candidates, depending on the Youth and Sport Ministry. As a measurement…

  19. Gifted Israeli Students' Perceptions of Teachers' Desired Characteristics: A Case of Cultural Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie; Vidergor, Hava E.

    2011-01-01

    Gifted students' perceptions of the desired characteristics of teachers of the gifted were assessed from a sample comprised of 404 elementary- and junior high-school Israeli Jewish and Arab students studying in pullout centers. Perceptions were measured using a questionnaire comprising teachers' cognitive, personal, and pedagogical dimensions.…

  20. A Generalizability Analysis of Score Consistency for the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vispoel, Walter P.; Tao, Shuqin

    2013-01-01

    Our goal in this investigation was to evaluate the reliability of scores from the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) more comprehensively than in prior research using a generalizability-theory framework based on both dichotomous and polytomous scoring of items. Generalizability coefficients accounting for specific-factor, transient,…

  1. Annotations on a Scandal: Desire, Transgression, and the Filmic Fantasy of Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillwaggon, James; Jelinek, David

    2015-01-01

    From Socrates to Jean Brodie, we have become accustomed to teachers serving as placeholders for transgressive and powerful desires in our cultural imaginary. Evidenced by recent scholarship on teachers in film, however, as well as by the 2006 film "Notes on a Scandal", the way we ought to feel about teachers acting on their transgressive…

  2. Benjamin, Benson, and the Child's Gaze: Childhood Desire and Pleasure in the David Blaize Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribunella, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    Walter Benjamin's writings on children and their books reflect a desire to imagine different possibilities in perceiving and engaging with the world. Benjamin's child, like the flâneur, experiences a particular way of seeing unfettered by instrumentality and characterised by a sense of wonder, aimlessness of path or purpose, and keen interest in…

  3. Recodifications of Academic Positions and Reiterations of Desire: Change but Continuity in Gendered Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapping, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the analysis of changes in the social position of women needs to distinguish between levels of social practice and psychic subjectification. The argument draws on Lacan's conception of the relationship between subjectivity, desire and sexual difference to describe gendered aspects of subjectivity embedded within the…

  4. 12 CFR 209.2 - Banks desiring to become member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 209.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.2 Banks desiring to... for membership in the Federal Reserve System under Regulation H, 12 CFR part 208, shall file with...

  5. 12 CFR 209.2 - Banks desiring to become member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 209.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.2 Banks desiring to... for membership in the Federal Reserve System under Regulation H, 12 CFR part 208, shall file with...

  6. 12 CFR 209.2 - Banks desiring to become member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 209.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.2 Banks desiring to... for membership in the Federal Reserve System under Regulation H, 12 CFR part 208, shall file with...

  7. 12 CFR 209.2 - Banks desiring to become member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 209.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.2 Banks desiring to... for membership in the Federal Reserve System under Regulation H, 12 CFR part 208, shall file with...

  8. 12 CFR 209.2 - Banks desiring to become member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 209.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.2 Banks desiring to... for membership in the Federal Reserve System under Regulation H, 12 CFR part 208, shall file with...

  9. Beliefs of Applied Studio Faculty on Desirable Traits of Prospective Music Education Majors: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royston, Natalie Steele; Springer, D. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the beliefs of applied music faculty on desirable traits of prospective music education majors. Researcher-designed surveys were sent electronically to applied music faculty at 12 National Association of Schools of Music-accredited institutions randomly selected from each of the four major divisions…

  10. A Statewide Assessment of Preferences of Registered Nurses Desiring Academic Credit-Bearing Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Christine A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Responses from 535 of 844 nurses to a telephone survey found that 359 desired academic credit for continuing education courses. Interest was greatest among full-time hospital, and rural workers. Those interested in undergraduate credit preferred independent study; those interested in graduate credit were more receptive to the use of technology.…

  11. Knowing versus liking: Separating normative knowledge from social desirability in first impressions of personality.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Katherine H; Biesanz, Jeremy C

    2015-12-01

    There are strong differences between individuals in the tendency to view the personality of others as similar to the average person. That is, some people tend to form more normatively accurate impressions than do others. However, the process behind the formation of normatively accurate first impressions is not yet fully understood. Given that the average individual's personality is highly socially desirable (Borkenau & Zaltauskas, 2009; Wood, Gosling & Potter, 2007), individuals may achieve high normative accuracy by viewing others as similar to the average person or by viewing them in an overly socially desirable manner. The average self-reported personality profile and social desirability, despite being strongly correlated, independently and strongly predict first impressions. Further, some individuals have a more accurate understanding of the average individual's personality than do others. Perceivers with more accurate knowledge about the average individual's personality rated the personality of specific others more normatively accurately (more similar to the average person), suggesting that individual differences in normative judgments include a component of accurate knowledge regarding the average personality. In contrast, perceivers who explicitly evaluated others more positively formed more socially desirable impressions, but not more normatively accurate impressions.

  12. The Effect of Selected "Desirable Difficulties" on the Ability to Recall Anatomy Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John L.; Linderholm, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    "Desirable difficulties" is a theory from cognitive science used to promote learning in a variety of contexts. The basic premise is that creating a cognitively challenging environment at the learning acquisition phase, by actively engaging learners in the retrieval of to-be-learned materials, promotes long-term retention. In this study,…

  13. Social Utility versus Social Desirability of Students' Attributional Self-Presentation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteucci, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Research on impression management has shown that students can manage their social images by providing attributional self-presentation strategies (ASPSs). Based on the distinction between social desirability judgments and social utility judgments, two studies were conducted to examine the students' understanding of the impact of ASPSs both on…

  14. Love and Politics: Sister Quinlan and the Future We Have Desired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndebele, Njabulo S.

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney (like Stimpson and Parker in this issue) speaks of: "A historic dialectic [which] exists between the beautiful and the bestial". In this speech, delivered on 13 December 2012, Njabulo Ndebele reflects on the stories South Africa tells itself about past atrocity, as a way of achieving "the future we have desired".…

  15. Do Lecturers Delivering Higher Education in Further Education Desire to Conduct Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feather, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the views and perceptions of lecturers delivering Higher Education Business Programmes (HEBPs) in Further Education Colleges (FECs) about whether they desire to undertake research, thus enabling them to both become and be viewed as specialists in their subjects. The methodology employed took an interpretivist perspective,…

  16. Comparing two books and establishing probably efficacious treatment for low sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Balzer, Alexandra M; Mintz, Laurie B

    2015-04-01

    Using a sample of 45 women, this study compared the effectiveness of a previously studied (Mintz, Balzer, Zhao, & Bush, 2012) bibliotherapy intervention (Mintz, 2009), a similar self-help book (Hall, 2004), and a wait-list control (WLC) group. To examine intervention effectiveness, between and within group standardized effect sizes (interpreted with Cohen's, 1988 benchmarks .20 = small, .50 = medium, .80+ = large) and their confidence limits are used. In comparison to the WLC group, both interventions yielded large between-group posttest effect sizes on a measure of sexual desire. Additionally, large between-group posttest effect sizes were found for sexual satisfaction and lubrication among those reading the Mintz book. When examining within-group pretest to posttest effect sizes, medium to large effects were found for desire, lubrication, and orgasm for both books and for satisfaction and arousal for those reading the Mintz book. When directly comparing the books, all between-group posttest effect sizes were likely obtained by chance. It is concluded that both books are equally effective in terms of the outcome of desire, but whether or not there is differential efficacy in terms of other domains of sexual functioning is equivocal. Tentative evidence is provided for the longer term effectiveness of both books in enhancing desire. Arguing for applying criteria for empirically supported treatments to self-help, results are purported to establish the Mintz book as probably efficacious and to comprise a first step in this designation for the Hall book.

  17. Impact of a Sophomore Seminar on the Desire of STEM Majors to Pursue a Science Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Strong, Philip E.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact of a sophomore seminar on STEM majors desire to pursue a science career. This seminar was a component in a broader scholarship program and focused on helping students gain a broader understanding of the process of science, expose students to a range of career options and provide opportunities for outside of class…

  18. Rasch Modeling of the Self-Deception Scale of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervellione, Kelly L.; Lee, Young-Sun; Bonanno, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Self-deception has become a construct of great interest in individual differences research because it has been associated with levels of resilience and mental health. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is a self-report measure used for quantifying self-deception. In this study we used Rasch modeling to examine the properties of…

  19. Classifying Prosocial Behavior: Children's Responses to Instrumental Need, Emotional Distress, and Material Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunfield, Kristen A.; Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the diversity of early prosocial behavior by examining the ability of ninety-five 2- to 4-year-olds to provide aid to an adult experimenter displaying instrumental need, emotional distress, and material desire. Children provided appropriate aid in response to each of these cues with high consistency over multiple trials. In…

  20. Desired Competencies and Employment Prospects for Educational Research Personnel in Schools of Dental Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Stanley S.; Zullo, Thomas G.

    Curriculum innovation and research in the dental medicine field is addressed as a major area of concern to those faced with pressures to provide more efficient and effective health care services. A survey was undertaken to determine (1) the type of training and background desired and (2) recruitment procedures and employment prospects for persons…

  1. Eye movements reveal the time-course of anticipating behaviour based on complex, conflicting desires.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Heather J; Breheny, Richard

    2011-05-01

    The time-course of representing others' perspectives is inconclusive across the currently available models of ToM processing. We report two visual-world studies investigating how knowledge about a character's basic preferences (e.g. Tom's favourite colour is pink) and higher-order desires (his wish to keep this preference secret) compete to influence online expectations about subsequent behaviour. Participants' eye movements around a visual scene were tracked while they listened to auditory narratives. While clear differences in anticipatory visual biases emerged between conditions in Experiment 1, post-hoc analyses testing the strength of the relevant biases suggested a discrepancy in the time-course of predicting appropriate referents within the different contexts. Specifically, predictions to the target emerged very early when there was no conflict between the character's basic preferences and higher-order desires, but appeared to be relatively delayed when comprehenders were provided with conflicting information about that character's desire to keep a secret. However, a second experiment demonstrated that this apparent 'cognitive cost' in inferring behaviour based on higher-order desires was in fact driven by low-level features between the context sentence and visual scene. Taken together, these results suggest that healthy adults are able to make complex higher-order ToM inferences without the need to call on costly cognitive processes. Results are discussed relative to previous accounts of ToM and language processing.

  2. Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale: Effects of Social Desirability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Patrick C.

    1982-01-01

    Presented for 64 subjects a replication of the Family Environment Scale's maximum likelihood factor structure for which the two-factor, Varimax-rotated solution was found to be stable when the correlations among the subscales were corrected for the effects of social desirability response bias. (Author)

  3. Desirability of Personal Characteristics Associated with Creativity: Through the Eyes of Polish and Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudowicz, Elzbieta; Tokarz, Aleksandra; Beauvale, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    The social desirability of characteristics associated with creativity and cultural stereotypes was examined across Polish and Chinese cultures. Polish responses were compared with those from an earlier Chinese study (n = 451). First, we carried out an initial study among 116 Polish students to determine what traits are parts of the national…

  4. Creativity as a Desirable Graduate Attribute: Implications for Curriculum Design and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampersad, Giselle; Patel, Fay

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of graduate attributes are listed, categorized and prioritized by different higher education institutions. However, one attribute that is less visible in the literature is creativity. In the current study, creativity has emerged as a desirable graduate attribute among students and employers. This paper presents an exploratory…

  5. Fertility Desires and Intentions among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Hyma; Chowta, Nithyananda; Ramapuram, John; Bhaskaran, Unnikrishnan; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Chandran, Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The desire of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to have children can have significant public health implications. Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) has increased the life expectancy of PLWHA as a result of which they may consider child bearing. There are hardly any studies from India addressing the fertility desires among PLWHA. Aim This study was done to assess the fertility desires of PLWHA in Southern India. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted among 230 HIV-positive men and women who presented to Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India. Study was conducted between October 2012 and October 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 11.5. Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test and student t-test was used to find out the association of various factors affecting fertility desire. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean age of our study population was 36.3±5.5 years. The mean age of males was 37.3±6 years and for female 34.9±5 years. In our study 132 (57.4%) were males. Majority were literate 229 (99%). Majority of patients were employed 166 (72%). In our study 195 (84.7%) were on cART. Out of 230 PLWHA 39 (16.95%) were unmarried and 151(65.5%) married PLHIV were living with partners at the time of study. In our study 77 (33.5%) patients had fertility desire. Age, gender, marital status, number of children, partner’s fertility desire and HIV status of partner had an association with fertility desire. Conclusion Providing universal access to cART is the main aim of national programs. It is high time that these programs focus on fertility issues of PLWHA. Reproductive rights of PLWHA need to be respected. Physicians and HIV counselors should proactively discuss and address reproductive issues of PLWHA. PMID:27504328

  6. The context of perceived and desired social support among Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seunghyun

    2013-01-01

    Social support has multiple dimensions, the context of which can be explored by qualitative methods. In this study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 local senior center members (9 men and 12 women aged 65 and older) in Seoul, South Korea, in order to explore how they perceive and desire social support in an aging society. The qualitative methods in this study also included thematic analysis and constant comparison to identify three main themes: "no or denied support," "not to be greedy and shameless," and "justification and hopelessness." In the interviews, perceived and desired support did not emerge immediately as the participants were reluctant to share personal concerns with or to seek support from others. Nevertheless, they would turn to spouses and children for both emotional and instrumental support when in dire need. A shared norm among the participants was that seeking support would be an embarrassing and shameless act for themselves and a burden to others. They justified the discrepancy between the perceived and desired support as part of aging and felt hopelessness about it. The findings of this study have implications that implicit, individual social support may be effective than explicit, group support activities for those who are passive in recognizing the need for and seeking social support. In assessing and interpreting social support in old age, both perceived and desired support should be included and contextual approaches can be useful in so doing. The senior centers should be a more active advocate of successful aging that would offset hopelessness, negative attitude toward life, and social disconnection. Future research should focus on identifying effective strategies to bridge the gap between perceived and desired social support in older adults in this society of changing values and social norms.

  7. Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2014-04-01

    Feral cats are abundant in many parts of the world and a source of conservation conflict. Our goal was to clarify the beliefs and desires held by stakeholders regarding feral cat abundance and management. We measured people's desired abundance of feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands and identified an order of preference for 7 feral cat management techniques. In 2011 we disseminated a survey to 5407 Hawaii residents. Approximately 46% of preidentified stakeholders and 20% of random residents responded to the survey (1510 surveys returned). Results from the potential for conflict index revealed a high level of consensus (86.9% of respondents) that feral cat abundance should be decreased. The 3 most common explanatory variables for respondents' stated desires were enjoyment from seeing feral cats (84%), intrinsic value of feral cats (12%), and threat to native fauna (73%). The frequency with which respondents saw cats and change in the perceived abundance of cats also affected respondent's desired abundance of cats; 41.3% of respondents stated that they saw feral cats daily and 44.7% stated that the cat population had increased in recent years. Other potential environmental impacts of feral cats had little affect on desired abundance. The majority of respondents (78%) supported removing feral cats from the natural environment permanently. Consensus convergence models with data from 1388 respondents who completed the relevant questions showed live capture and lethal injection was the most preferred technique and trap-neuter-release was the least preferred technique for managing feral cats. However, the acceptability of each technique varied among stakeholders. Our results suggest that the majority of Hawaii's residents would like to see effective management that reduces the abundance of feral or free-roaming cats.

  8. L’apport de la dermoscopie dans le carcinome basosquameux

    PubMed Central

    Elmahi, Hakima; Lahlou, Asmae; Baybay, Hanane; Gallouj, Salim; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra; Reggad, Fatima Zahra; Harmouch, Taoufik

    2016-01-01

    Le carcinome basosquameux (CBS) est un cancer cutané rare qui présente des zones de carcinome basocellulaire (CBC) et de carcinome épidermoïde (SCC) et une zone de transition entre elles. Cependant, les caractéristiques dermoscopiques du BSC ne sont pas bien décrites dans la littérature, sauf deux études. Le but du présent cas était de mieux identifier et clarifier la contribution de la dermoscopie dans le diagnostic du BSC, malgré que la confirmation reste toujours histologique. PMID:28293368

  9. Les Hemorragies Gastroduodenales de Stress Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ababou, K.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Ihrai, I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les Auteurs rapportent trois observations d'hémorragies gastroduodénales de stress chez le brûlé grave. Ils rappellent l'importance des mesures thérapeutiques qui doivent être prises chez le brûlé grave, comme le traitement du choc, du sepsis, des plaies et de la douleur, la nutrition entérale précoce et l'oxygénothérapie. Tout cela permet de réduire les facteurs de risque de survenue d'une hémorragie gastroduodénale de stress. PMID:21991137

  10. Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Jonathan; Gasparis, Epameinondas; Eden, Ammon H.; Kazman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Specification and [visual] modelling languages are expected to combine strong abstraction mechanisms with rigour, scalability, and parsimony. LePUS3 is a visual, object-oriented design description language axiomatized in a decidable subset of the first-order predicate logic. We demonstrate how LePUS3 is used to formally specify a structural design pattern and prove ( verify ) whether any JavaTM 1.4 program satisfies that specification. We also show how LePUS3 specifications (charts) are composed and how they are verified fully automatically in the Two-Tier Programming Toolkit.

  11. Le point sur les amas de galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, M.

    galaxies jouent donc un rôle de premier plan dans toute étude cosmologique et par conséquent, sont indispensables à notre compréhension globale de l'univers. Dans l'introduction générale, nous détaillons cet aspect fondamental en montrant comment l'étude des amas peut contribuer à contraindre les scénarios cosmologiques. Une fois le contexte scientifique délimité, les chapitres suivants s'attachent à présenter les diverses propriétés des amas et leur évolution cosmique observée dans diverses longueurs d'onde principalement dans les domaines visible (galaxies), X (gaz) et radio (gaz et particules). Nous verrons que l'étude détaillée d'un amas implique celle de l'interaction entre ses différentes composantes et est un passage obligé pour remonter au paramètre ultime (ou premier) qu'est sa masse. Loin d'être un détour ennuyeux, ceci sera l'occasion d'aborder des phénomènes physiques extrêmement variés tel l'aspect multi-phases du milieu intra-amas, les sursauts de formation d'étoiles et l'évolution morphologique des galaxies capturées par les amas, ou bien encore, l'interaction entre le plasma intra-amas et les particules relativistes accélérées lors de la fusion entre deux amas. Bien sûr, pour chaque longueur d'onde, nous ne manquerons pas de décrire simplement les techniques d'observation et d'analyse mises en oeuvre ; celles-ci sont particulièrement intéressantes dans le cas de l'instrumentation spatiale. Nous terminerons en présentant des projets d'observatoires pour l'horizon 2010 et leur impact prévu sur l'étude des amas de galaxies.

  12. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2007-09-01

    Anions interstellaires; S Orionis; Altaîr; Courants stellaires; Etoiles jeunes; 2MASSW J1207334-393254; Alpha Andromède; Etoiles à neutrons (1); LH54-425; AGNs invisibles; Deux supernovae; Les GRBs seon Swift; Peser les trous noirs; Formation de trous noirs; Trou noir; ondes gravitationnelles : Virgo entre dans sa phase d'exploitation scientifique; Amas de galaxies actifs; Amas de galaxies; Galaxies actives d'amas; L'univers statique: le retour; Macho; Exoplanètes; Exoplanètes habitables?; Exoplanètes habitables? (suite); Une année d'un an; Une année de 31 heures; Valse des Jupiters; Disque de HD 15115; Impact majeur; Planètes isolées; Super-Jupiter; Impact et mini-extinction; L'effet Pioneer; Toungouska; Spéléo martienne; Autres lunes dactives; Encelade; Hypérion; Pluton dépassé; Satellites d'Uranus; Titan

  13. Some Aspects of the Teaching of "-Guo" and "-Le"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Jing-heng S.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the two markers of Mandarin Chinese, "-guo" and "-le," and focuses primarily on areas of difficulty that the non-native speaker may encounter due to confusion of these markers. (CHK)

  14. Lymphoscintigraphy (LS) in lymphedema (LE) of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Gloviczki, P.; Vaqueiro, M.; Fisher, J.; Schirger, A.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Hollier, L.H.; Wahner, H.W.

    1985-05-01

    Twenty-two patients with primary and secondary LE and one with lipedema had LS using 0.4-0.6 mCi of Tc-99mSb2Sb3 subcutaneous at the second interdigital space. Three had excisional surgery, in four patients lympho-venous anastomosis (LVA) was attempted following LS. Results are presented in this paper. This study concludes that LS is a noninvasive method without side effects that visualizes the pattern of the lymphatic system in LE. If lymph channels were seen, LVA could be performed. LS seems adequate for patient selection and follow-up after LVA. It differentiated LE from lipedema. Image patterns or quantitative studies could not differentiate between primary and secondary LE.

  15. Microscopic Description of Le Châtelier's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Igor

    2005-08-01

    The analysis based on microscopic descriptors (energy levels and their populations) is given that provides visualization of free energies and conceptual rationalization of Le Châtelier's principle. The misconception "nature favors equilibrium" is highlighted.

  16. CIM - A Manufacturing Paradigm (Le CIM - Un Nouveau Modele Industriel),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    fait la plupart des entreprises , ont affind le module de "Rgvolution industrielle". Nous vivons A l’poque du spdcialiste. Toutefois, le modale de sp...program will serve as an umbrella under which specific projects are planned, financed , managed, and imple- mented. Well defined corporate goals must be...assets. Through an integration of financing strategies an enterprise can focus on capital investment in shared, value-added assets such as databases

  17. Generating Self-Reliant Teams of Autonomous Cooperating Robots: Desired design Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1999-05-01

    The difficulties in designing a cooperative team are significant. Several of the key questions that must be resolved when designing a cooperative control architecture include: How do we formulate, describe, decompose, and allocate problems among a group of intelligent agents? How do we enable agents to communicate and interact? How do we ensure that agents act coherently in their actions? How do we allow agents to recognize and reconcile conflicts? However, in addition to these key issues, the software architecture must be designed to enable multi-robot teams to be robust, reliable, and flexible. Without these capabilities, the resulting robot team will not be able to successfully deal with the dynamic and uncertain nature of the real world. In this extended abstract, we first describe these desired capabilities. We then briefly describe the ALLIANCE software architecture that we have previously developed for multi-robot cooperation. We then briefly analyze the ALLIANCE architecture in terms of the desired design qualities identified.

  18. Adolescents' implicit theories predict desire for vengeance after peer conflicts: correlational and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David S; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Tirri, Kirsi; Nokelainen, Petri; Dweck, Carol S

    2011-07-01

    Why do some adolescents respond to interpersonal conflicts vengefully, whereas others seek more positive solutions? Three studies investigated the role of implicit theories of personality in predicting violent or vengeful responses to peer conflicts among adolescents in Grades 9 and 10. They showed that a greater belief that traits are fixed (an entity theory) predicted a stronger desire for revenge after a variety of recalled peer conflicts (Study 1) and after a hypothetical conflict that specifically involved bullying (Study 2). Study 3 experimentally induced a belief in the potential for change (an incremental theory), which resulted in a reduced desire to seek revenge. This effect was mediated by changes in bad-person attributions about the perpetrators, feelings of shame and hatred, and the belief that vengeful ideation is an effective emotion-regulation strategy. Together, the findings illuminate the social-cognitive processes underlying reactions to conflict and suggest potential avenues for reducing violent retaliation in adolescents.

  19. Drugs and the single woman: pharmacy, fashion, desire, and destitution in India.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    A cultural imaginary identified as "fashion" links single women with problems of desire in contemporary India, setting the stakes not only for independent living, but also for the ways distresses may be read and treated. From celebrity cases to films to clinical practices oriented around pharmaceuticals, the mechanisms of this imaginary locate female personhood at a series of critical junctures or "hinges," from pharmaceuticals to drugs of vice, from desire to expressions of disorder, and from singularity or independence to destitution. In each of these turns, as psychiatrists read female bodies for signs of affliction and media portray counter trajectories of aspiration and downfall, certain realities are shielded from consideration, including sexual violence in intimate settings.

  20. Can Multiple-Choice Testing Induce Desirable Difficulties? Evidence from the Laboratory and the Classroom.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon; Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Little, Jeri L

    2015-01-01

    The term desirable difficulties (Bjork, 1994) refers to conditions of learning that, though often appearing to cause difficulties for the learner and to slow down the process of acquisition, actually improve long-term retention and transfer. One known desirable difficulty is testing (as compared with restudy), although typically it is tests that clearly involve retrieval--such as free and cued recall tests--that are thought to induce these learning benefits and not multiple-choice tests. Nonetheless, multiple-choice testing is ubiquitous in educational settings and many other high-stakes situations. In this article, we discuss research, in both the laboratory and the classroom, exploring whether multiple-choice testing can also be fashioned to promote the type of retrieval processes known to improve learning, and we speculate about the necessary properties that multiple-choice questions must possess, as well as the metacognitive strategy students need to use in answering such questions, to achieve this goal.

  1. Women may underestimate their partners' desires to use condoms: possible implications for behaviour.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Gaynor L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2010-01-01

    Australian young adults reported how often they wanted to use condoms in both romantic (n = 667) and casual relationship (n = 152) contexts and how often they thought their partners wanted to use condoms. Young adults wanted to use condoms more often than they perceived their partners to in both casual and romantic relationship contexts. Gender interactions showed that this pattern was especially strong among young women. Women seemed to underestimate the frequency at which their male partners wanted to use condoms. Furthermore, both the participants' condom use desires and perceptions of their partners' condom use desires predicted condom use behavior. Results suggest that gendered expectations may play a part in how often individuals perceive their partners to want to use condoms, which, in effect, may determine condom use behavior.

  2. Comparison of 14 decibels versus 20 decibels desired to undesired signal protection ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badinelli, Martin; Cushman, Arthur; Randazzo, Philip

    1991-04-01

    Due to a shortage of very high frequency (VHF) communications frequencies, the FAA must use the same frequencies in different airspaces across the country. The geographical separation between ground transmitters is engineered to provide a desired signal that is at least 14 decibel (dB) above any co-channel signal the receiver may receive. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) recommends a greater 20-dB separation. This difference between the two signals is known as the desired to undesired (D/U) ratio. Tests performed on eight avionics receivers at the FAA Technical Center to compare receiver performance when exposed to 14- and 20-dB co-channel interference are described. It was concluded that at both D/U ratios, the receiver was able to reproduce clear, audible, and intelligible speech at both D/U ratios.

  3. An Interactive Procedure to Preserve the Desired Edges during the Image Processing of Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Yu; Huang, Hsuan-Yu; Lee, Lin-Tsang

    2010-12-01

    The paper propose a new procedure including four stages in order to preserve the desired edges during the image processing of noise reduction. A denoised image can be obtained from a noisy image at the first stage of the procedure. At the second stage, an edge map can be obtained by the Canny edge detector to find the edges of the object contours. Manual modification of an edge map at the third stage is optional to capture all the desired edges of the object contours. At the final stage, a new method called Edge Preserved Inhomogeneous Diffusion Equation (EPIDE) is used to smooth the noisy images or the previously denoised image at the first stage for achieving the edge preservation. The Optical Character Recognition (OCR) results in the experiments show that the proposed procedure has the best recognition result because of the capability of edge preservation.

  4. Cooperation, but not competition, improves 4-year-old children's reasoning about others' diverse desires.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xinyi; Li, Pengchao; He, Jie; Shen, Mowei

    2017-05-01

    Three experiments examined whether cooperation or competition affects 4-year-old children's reasoning about other people's desires-which differed from their own-in a gift selection task. Experiment 1 (N=72) found that children's performance in selecting an adult-preferred gift for an adult experimenter was enhanced by a short period of preceding cooperative, but not competitive or individualistic, play with the experimenter. Experiment 2 (N=24) ruled out the alternative explanation that children resisted satisfying their opponent after competition. Experiment 3 (N=48) replicated the cooperation advantage in selecting a gift for someone else, indicating that children's understanding of diverse desires was generally improved by cooperation but not competition. These findings support the constructivist view of social development and highlight the advantage of cooperation.

  5. An exploration of sexual desire and sexual activities of women with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Huguelet, Philippe; Mohr, Sylvia; Miserez, Céline; Castellano, Patrizia; Lutz, Christian; Boucherie, Maria; Yaron, Michal; Perroud, Nader; Bianchi Demicheli, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    Sexual disturbances in patients with severe mental disorders can be related to medication, to psychological issues such as self-stigma and anhedonia, but also to the social context. This research aims to gain knowledge of desire and sexual practices in women suffering from schizophrenia. Women outpatients suffering from schizophrenia were compared with healthy women. Contrary to previous research, women with schizophrenia featured dyadic and individual desire similar to women of comparable age. Yet, only half of women with psychosis had sexual practice, either alone or with a partner. They were less satisfied with their activity, both in terms of function and psychological issues such as sexual self-esteem. Keeping into account the fact that most clinicians avoid this topic, this finding underscores the stigmatization these women suffer from, which prevents the opportunity of a possible improvement in this important interpersonal domain.

  6. Desire to bargain and negotiation success: lessons about the need to negotiate from six hydropower disputes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkardt, Nina; Lamb, Berton Lee; Taylor, Jonathan G.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the notion that successful negotiations require that all parties to the dispute must have a desire to bargain. This desire is most likely to be present when the dispute exhibits ripeness and each party believes a bargained solution is the most cost-effective way to resolve differences. Structured interviews of participants in six Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hydropower licensing consultations were conducted to determine the level of need to negotiate for each party. The findings indicate that a need to negotiate is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for success. Several factors were associated with a need to negotiate: a weak BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement); a salient issue; participants’ sense of efficacy; a sense of inevitability; professional roles encouraging negotiation; and disputes about facts as opposed to disputes about values. Participants’ need to negotiate fluctuated throughout the process and intensified when questions were ripe: i.e., critical issues were debated or the regulatory process required action.

  7. Sexual desire, not hypersexuality, predicts self-regulation of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Moholy, Maxwell; Prause, Nicole; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; S Rahman, Ardeshir; Fong, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    A person's ability to control their own sexual arousal is important both to reduce the risks associated with some sexual behaviours and to respond sexually with intimate partners. A lack of control over sexual urges is a proposed feature of "hypersexual disorder", though some evidence suggests that sexual desire predicts the self-regulation of sexual arousal better than hypersexuality. In the current study, a sample (N = 116) of men and women recruited from community ads viewed a series of 20-second neutral and sexual films. Before each sexual film, participants were instructed to increase their sexual arousal, decrease their sexual arousal or respond as usual. Higher levels of desire for sex with a partner consistently predicted failures to downregulate sexual arousal. Hypersexuality was unrelated. These findings replicate Winters et al.'s study and extend their findings by including upregulation, women, a new measure of hypersexuality and a higher-trial design.

  8. Bullying as strategic behavior: relations with desired and acquired dominance in the peer group.

    PubMed

    Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A; Vermande, Marjolijn M; Aleva, Elisabeth A; van der Meulen, Matty

    2011-06-01

    To examine whether bullying is strategic behavior aimed at obtaining or maintaining social dominance, 1129 9- to 12-year-old Dutch children were classified in terms of their role in bullying and in terms of their use of dominance oriented coercive and prosocial social strategies. Multi-informant measures of participants' acquired and desired social dominance were also included. Unlike non-bullying children, children contributing to bullying often were bistrategics in that they used both coercive and prosocial strategies and they also were socially dominant. Ringleader bullies also expressed a higher desire to be dominant. Among non-bullying children, those who tended to help victims were relatively socially dominant but victims and outsiders were not. Generally, the data supported the claim that bullying is dominance-oriented strategic behavior, which suggests that intervention strategies are more likely to be successful when they take the functional aspects of bullying behavior into account.

  9. [Interactions between human sexual arousal and sexual desire: a challenge for social neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2007-03-28

    The frequent interaction and synergy between sexual arousal and sexual desire occuring during a sexual experience explains the difficulty in disentagling these two phenomena in the human sexual response. Sexual desire is defined as a goal-directed motivational state integrating the other in one's personal sphere on the basis of intentionality, rather than by instinct only. Sexual arousal includes physical manifestations and subjective perception of excitement. Interest in sexual arousal has engendered a growing body of research concerning its nature and function as well as the biological basis of the mechanisms sustaining it. Recent functional imaging has played a key role in seeking to isolate brain regions specific to sexual arousal. This field may represent a new challenge for social neuroscience.

  10. Sex offending and sexual appetite: the clinical and theoretical relevance of hypersexual desire.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Martin P

    2003-08-01

    Disinhibited sexual desire, clinically manifested as hypersexual desire disorders, can be operationally defined by considering three behavioral domains associated with sexual motivation or appetitive behavior: (a) sexual preoccupation (time/day consumed by fantasies, urges, and activities), (b) the repetitive frequency of enacted sexual behavior (total sexual outlet/week), and (c) adverse consequences associated with repetitive sexual behavior: Data are presented suggesting that clinical samples of males with paraphilias, paraphilia-related disorders, and sexual coercion may be associated with disinhibited sexual appetite. These conditions need to be addressed by an integrated combination of psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic interventions that specifically target disinhibited sexual appetitive behaviors, their antecedents, and consequences. Although combination therapies (empirically based specific psychotherapies in conjunction with psychopharmacological treatments) have demonstrated superior efficacy in many Axis I psychiatric disorders, such combination therapies to reduce paraphilias, paraphilia-related disorders, and adult sexual coercion are currently underutilized in both North and South America and Europe.

  11. Misery loves company: when sadness increases the desire for social connectedness.

    PubMed

    Gray, Heather M; Ishii, Keiko; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-11-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the effects of sadness on the desire for social connectedness. They hypothesized that sadness serves an adaptive function by motivating people to reach out to others and preferentially attend to information related to one's current level of social connectedness, but only when it is instigated by social loss. Consistent with this hypothesis, the authors observed that sadness induced by an emotional depiction of social loss enhanced (a) attention to nonverbal cues, an important source of information concerning an individual's current level of social connectedness (Experiment 1), and (b) the desire to engage in social behaviors (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 the authors found that sadness that results from imagined social loss uniquely produced this pattern of effects. Sadness that resulted from imagined failure had different effects on motivation and no effect on sensitivity to nonverbal cues. These results support and refine functional explanations for the universality of sadness.

  12. Method of manipulating the chemical properties of water to improve the effectiveness of a desired process

    DOEpatents

    Hawthorne, Steven B.; Miller, David J.; Lagadec, Arnaud Jean-Marie; Hammond, Peter James; Clifford, Anthony Alan

    2002-01-01

    The method of the present invention is adapted to manipulate the chemical properties of water in order to improve the effectiveness of a desired process. The method involves heating the water in the vessel to subcritical temperatures between 100.degree. to 374.degree. C. while maintaining sufficient pressure to the water to maintain the water in the liquid state. Various physiochemical properties of the water can be manipulated including polarity, solute solubility, surface tension, viscosity, and the disassociation constant. The method of the present invention has various uses including extracting organics from solids and semisolids such as soil, selectively extracting desired organics from liquids, selectively separating organics using sorbent phases, enhancing reactions by controlling the disassociation constant of water, cleaning waste water, removing organics from water using activated carbon or other suitable sorbents, and degrading various compounds.

  13. Positioning actuators in efficient locations for rendering the desired sound field using inverse approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wan-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon; Toi, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    For rendering a desired characteristics of a sound field, a proper conditioning of acoustic actuators in an array are required, but the source condition depends strongly on its position. Actuators located at inefficient positions for control would consume the input power too much or become too much sensitive to disturbing noise. These actuators can be considered redundant, which should be sorted out as far as such elimination does not damage the whole control performance significantly. It is known that the inverse approach based on the acoustical holography concept, employing the transfer matrix between sources and field points as core element, is useful for rendering the desired sound field. By investigating the information indwelling in the transfer matrix between actuators and field points, the linear independency of an actuator from the others in the array can be evaluated. To this end, the square of the right singular vector, which means the radiation contribution from the source, can be used as an indicator. Inefficient position for fulfilling the desired sound field can be determined as one having smallest indicator value among all possible actuator positions. The elimination process continues one by one, or group by group, until the remaining number of actuators meets the preset number. Control examples of exterior and interior spaces are taken for the validation. The results reveal that the present method for choosing least dependent actuators, for a given number of actuators and field condition, is quite effective in realizing the desired sound field with a noisy input condition, and in minimizing the required input power.

  14. Speed of Eating as a Determinant of the Bulimic Desire to Vomit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Brooks, Jeannie; Kellen, Michael J.; Ehle, Chris; Vinas, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    A single-case controlled study found that a bulimic's desire to vomit was virtually eliminated by slowed eating, but not by rapid eating. The present study attempted to determine whether this same relation was exhibited by a larger number (N = 6) of bulimics who were instructed to eat at a fast or a slow rate in a between-subjects reversal design.…

  15. Great Desire for Extended Life and Health amongst the American Public

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Yoni; Fortney, Kristen; Calimport, Stuart R. G.; Pfleger, Karl; Shah, Munjal; Betts-LaCroix, Joe

    2016-01-01

    People want to live long, healthy lives. Previous surveys suggest very limited interest in much longer lifespans, but we show that stipulating good health changes responses to favor longer lives by an order of magnitude. Advances in aging research hold out hope for greatly slowed aging with associated good health. Understanding the public's desires correctly is important to avoid misallocation of resources for research. PMID:26834780

  16. Qualitative Simulator Study of Longitudinal Stick Forces and Displacements Desirable During Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faber, Stanley

    1958-01-01

    In this study in which an airplane simulator with one degree of freedom (pitch) was used, results were determined for three conditions of airplane dynamics. For an undamped natural frequency of 1/2 cps with a damping ratio of 0.18 and for an undamped natural frequency of 1 cps with a damping ratio of 0.11, moderate longitudinal stick forces and displacements were desired.

  17. The electronic-cigarette: effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Lynne; Turner, John; Hasna, Surrayyah; Soar, Kirstie

    2012-08-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapour. Few studies have evaluated acute effects on craving and mood, and none have explored effects on cognition. This study aimed to explore the effects of the White Super e-cigarette on desire to smoke, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, attention and working memory. Eighty-six smokers were randomly allocated to either: 18 mg nicotine e-cigarette (nicotine), 0mg e-cigarette (placebo), or just hold the e-cigarette (just hold) conditions. Participants rated their desire to smoke and withdrawal symptoms at baseline (T1), and five (T2) and twenty (T3) minutes after using the e-cigarette ad libitum for 5 min. A subset of participants completed the Letter Cancellation and Brown-Peterson Working Memory Tasks. After 20 min, compared with the just hold group, desire to smoke and some aspects of nicotine withdrawal were significantly reduced in the nicotine and placebo group; the nicotine e-cigarette was superior to placebo in males but not in females. The nicotine e-cigarette also improved working memory performance compared with placebo at the longer interference intervals. There was no effect of nicotine on Letter Cancellation performance. To conclude, the White Super e-cigarette alleviated desire to smoke and withdrawal symptoms 20 min after use although the nicotine content was more important for males. This study also demonstrated for the first time that the nicotine e-cigarette can enhance working memory performance. Further evaluation of the cognitive effects of the e-cigarette and its efficacy as a cessation tool is merited.

  18. The Understanding of Intentions, Desires and Beliefs in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broekhof, Evelien; Ketelaar, Lizet; Stockmann, Lex; van Zijp, Annette; Bos, Marieke G. N.; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive picture of three core elements (Intentions, Desires, Beliefs) of Theory of Mind (ToM) in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 63, "M"age = 55 months) and typically developing children (TD, n = 69, "M"age = 54 months). Outcomes showed that ASD and TD children understood…

  19. Touching moments: desire modulates the neural anticipation of active romantic caress

    PubMed Central

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J.; Ferri, Francesca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    A romantic caress is a basic expression of affiliative behavior and a primary reinforcer. Given its inherent affective valence, its performance also would imply the prediction of reward values. For example, touching a person for whom one has strong passionate feelings likely is motivated by a strong desire for physical contact and associated with the anticipation of hedonic experiences. The present study aims at investigating how the anticipatory neural processes of active romantic caress are modulated by the intensity of the desire for affective contact as reflected by passionate feelings for the other. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning was performed in romantically involved partners using a paradigm that allowed to isolate the specific anticipatory representations of active romantic caress, compared with control caress, while testing for the relationship between neural activity and measures of feelings of passionate love for the other. The results demonstrated that right posterior insula activity in anticipation of romantic caress significantly co-varied with the intensity of desire for union with the other. This effect was independent of the sensory-affective properties of the performed touch, like its pleasantness. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis showed that the same posterior insula cluster interacted with brain regions related to sensory-motor functions as well as to the processing and anticipation of reward. The findings provide insight on the neural substrate mediating between the desire for and the performance of romantic caress. In particular, we propose that anticipatory activity patterns in posterior insula may modulate subsequent sensory-affective processing of skin-to-skin contact. PMID:24616676

  20. Topology of sustainable management in dynamical Earth system models with desirable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzig, J.; Kittel, T.

    2015-03-01

    To keep the Earth system in a desirable region of its state space, such as the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space", one not only needs to understand the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management), but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are: which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region? Which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this article, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that before performing some form of quantitative optimization, the sustainable management of the Earth system may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmata, e.g., choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and increasing flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmata with conceptual models from classical mechanics, climate science, ecology, economics, and coevolutionary Earth system modelling and discuss their potential relevance for the climate and sustainability debate.

  1. Touching moments: desire modulates the neural anticipation of active romantic caress.

    PubMed

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J; Ferri, Francesca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    A romantic caress is a basic expression of affiliative behavior and a primary reinforcer. Given its inherent affective valence, its performance also would imply the prediction of reward values. For example, touching a person for whom one has strong passionate feelings likely is motivated by a strong desire for physical contact and associated with the anticipation of hedonic experiences. The present study aims at investigating how the anticipatory neural processes of active romantic caress are modulated by the intensity of the desire for affective contact as reflected by passionate feelings for the other. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning was performed in romantically involved partners using a paradigm that allowed to isolate the specific anticipatory representations of active romantic caress, compared with control caress, while testing for the relationship between neural activity and measures of feelings of passionate love for the other. The results demonstrated that right posterior insula activity in anticipation of romantic caress significantly co-varied with the intensity of desire for union with the other. This effect was independent of the sensory-affective properties of the performed touch, like its pleasantness. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis showed that the same posterior insula cluster interacted with brain regions related to sensory-motor functions as well as to the processing and anticipation of reward. The findings provide insight on the neural substrate mediating between the desire for and the performance of romantic caress. In particular, we propose that anticipatory activity patterns in posterior insula may modulate subsequent sensory-affective processing of skin-to-skin contact.

  2. Health Care in the Military. Feasibility and Desirability of a Health Enrollment System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Health Maior r~a1 minuAin PREFACE This report responds to a Congressional mandate for a study of the feability and desirability of changing the miliUa...peacetme and wartime medical care. 7he study was performed within Rand’s Health Sciences Proram under contract with the U.S. Department of Defense...Assistant Secre- tary for Health Affairs, Office of the Deputy’ Assistant Secretary for Health Progam valuation. At The Rand Corporation, the study was

  3. Searching the animal psyche with Charles Le Brun.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah R

    2010-07-01

    Around 1670 the French court painter and Academician Charles Le Brun produced a series of drawings featuring naturalistic animal heads, as well as imaginary heads in which he refashioned various nonhuman animal species to make humanoid physiognomies. What were the purpose and significance of these unusual works? I argue that they show Le Brun's interest in what we today would call animal psychology: focusing upon the sensory organs and their connections with the animal's brain, Le Brun studied his animals as conscious protagonists of the natural realm. One source that may have served him in this project was Marin Cureau de La Chambre's De la Connoissance des bestes of 1645, in which the physician argued that animals possess a conscious soul grounded in the senses. However, Le Brun's animal-humans have no clear place in the artist's taxonomy--nor, indeed, in any seventeenth-century understandings of species. It is rather John Locke, at his most skeptical, who offers the best parallel in the realm of natural philosophy to Le Brun's unsettling animal-humans. Probably without meaning to, Le Brun demonstrated through his eerie, boundary-crossing creatures the limits of visual classification.

  4. Transmaxillary Sinus Approach for Le Fort II Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Satake, Toshihiko; Maegawa, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The Le Fort II osteotomy is a relatively rare operation. The posterior wall osteotomy of the maxillary sinus (MS) is often difficult for Le Fort III. We developed the transmaxillary sinus approach (TSA) for the Le Fort II osteotomy that cuts the posterior wall of the MS directly. This report illustrates this easy-to-use procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy in syndromic craniosynostosis. This procedure was performed in an 18-year-old patient with Apert syndrome and a 15-year-old patient with Pfeiffer syndrome. The thin anterior walls of the MS were removed through an intraoral approach to look inside the MS. Then, the posterior walls were cut by chisel under direct vision using light. The other osteotomy was performed as usual. Distraction osteogenesis with internal and external devices was used in combination. The advantages of TSA are the direct posterior wall osteotomy of the MS with no down fracture and minimal invasiveness to the mucosa of the MS under direct vision. However, the disadvantage is that TSA becomes a blind procedure in a case with no MS or hypoplasia. We developed the TSA for the Le Fort II osteotomy, which could provide direct observation and perform the posterior wall osteotomy of the MS without down fracture. We believe that TSA is an effective surgical procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy. PMID:27014548

  5. Le Soleil et ses relations avec la Terre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kenneth; Heidmann, M.

    C'est le 2e livre de K. Lang publié en français, considéré comme texte complementaire au célèbre Vagabonds de l'Espace qui avait gagné en 1994 le prix du livre d'astronomie en France. Maintenant l'auteur se concentre sur le système le plus élémentaire: l'étoile et son planète, et choisit celui qui est le plus intéressant pour nous: le Soleil et la Terre. Il a accumulé les observations terrestres et les plus récentes effectuées par des observatoires spatiales, et ceux des météorologues et géophysiciens, et nous présente un panorama fascinant du Soleil et ses relations avec la Terre. C'est la physique qui a les conséquences les plus fondamentales aux événements qui influencent notre environment, notre vie et même la condition humaine y inclu les arts et la litérature.

  6. Comparative Pessimism or Optimism: Depressed Mood, Risk-Taking, Social Utility and Desirability.

    PubMed

    Milhabet, Isabelle; Le Barbenchon, Emmanuelle; Cambon, Laurent; Molina, Guylaine

    2015-03-05

    Comparative optimism can be defined as a self-serving, asymmetric judgment of the future. It is often thought to be beneficial and socially accepted, whereas comparative pessimism is correlated with depression and socially rejected. Our goal was to examine the social acceptance of comparative optimism and the social rejection of comparative pessimism in two dimensions of social judgment, social desirability and social utility, considering the attributions of dysphoria and risk-taking potential (studies 2 and 3) on outlooks on the future. In three experiments, the participants assessed either one (study 1) or several (studies 2 and 3) fictional targets in two dimensions, social utility and social desirability. Targets exhibiting comparatively optimistic or pessimistic outlooks on the future were presented as non-depressed, depressed, or neither (control condition) (study 1); non-depressed or depressed (study 2); and non-depressed or in control condition (study 3). Two significant results were obtained: (1) social rejection of comparative pessimism in the social desirability dimension, which can be explained by its depressive feature; and (2) comparative optimism was socially accepted on the social utility dimension, which can be explained by the perception that comparatively optimistic individuals are potential risk-takers.

  7. Power of the desired self: Influence of induced perceptions of the self on reasoning.

    PubMed

    Augustinova, Maria; Collange, Julie; Sanitioso, Rasyid Bo; Musca, Serban C

    2011-12-01

    This research shows that the motivation to posses a desired characteristic (or to avoid an undesired one) results in self-perceptions that guide people's use of base rate in the Lawyer-Engineer problem (Kahneman & Tversky, 1973). In four studies, participants induced to believe (or recall, Exp. 2) that a rational cognitive style is success-conducive (or an intuitive cognitive style failure-conducive) subsequently viewed themselves as more rational and relied more on base rate in their probability estimates than those induced to believe that a rational cognitive style is failure-conducive (or an intuitive cognitive style success-conducive). These findings show that the desired self had an influence on reasoning in the self-unrelated lawyer-engineer task, since the use of base rates was mediated by changes in participants' perceptions of their own rationality. These findings therefore show that the desired self, through the working self-concept that it entails, constitutes another factor influencing people's use of distinct modes of reasoning.

  8. [The desire for a child in today parenthood: Infertility and reproductive techniques].

    PubMed

    Alkolombre, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The advances in reproductive medicine have unprecedentedly expanded the possibilities to form a family. Today we can speak of a diversity of ways to access to parenthood. The paradigm of family formations has also changed following the diversity of parenting projects: heterosexual couples, blended families (post-divorce), couples formed by lesbians and gays and single parenting. The vicissitudes of "desire for a child" under current parenthood lead us to think about their scope in clinical reproductive disorders or infertility and new family configurations. One of the destinies of the desire for a child in women is the "passion for a child", the child at any cost. Thinking of the changes in parenthood in this field involves not only the desire to have a child in a woman, a man or a couple, but also the history of the origins in children. Especially with some of the reproductive techniques used, such as surrogacy and the donation of gametes-eggs (ovum and sperm). In these cases we are dealing with new articulations of blood ties, kinship and parenthood.

  9. The Association Between Belief in God and Fertility Desires in Slovenia and the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Cranney, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Context Research on the association between religiosity and fertility—and, particularly, on the effects of secularization on fertility desires and outcomes—has been concerned primarily with mechanisms that are fundamentally institutional and are embedded in formal religious structures. Supplementary explanations focused on noninstitutional dimensions of religiosity have never been tested. Methods Conventional ordinary least-squares regression was used to test the association between belief in God (i.e., a personal God or some sort of life force) and fertility desires among 2,251 women aged 18–45 in Slovenia and 951 women aged 15–44 in the Czech Republic who participated in the European Family and Fertility Survey in the mid-1990s. Results In both samples, substantial proportions of women either were nonbelievers or believed in God but were not institutionally religious. Belief in God was independently associated with fertility desires even in analyses controlling for self-reported religiosity. Women who believed in a personal God wanted approximately 0.2 more children, and those who believed in a life force wanted approximately 0.1 more children, than nonbelievers. Results were similar across several alternative measures of religiosity. Conclusions At least some of the connection between religiosity and fertility apparently is attributable to metaphysical beliefs. Future research on the effect of secularization on fertility decline should investigate the potentially distinct effects of different dimensions of religiosity. PMID:25682844

  10. Desire and deviate nymphos: performing inversion(s) as a lesbian consumer.

    PubMed

    Matrix, S

    1996-01-01

    This paper uses a personalist methodology to discuss my experience of being a lesbian consumer of pop-culture representations of lesbianism. It details, through cultural and feminist/lesbian theory, film theory, and performance criticism, my confusing and contradictory postmodern-feminist-lesbian-theorist response to and desire for what I read as lesbophobia inscribed all over a postcard photo of the cover of a lesbian 1950s pulp novel. I discuss my position as a lesbian looking at a lesbian looking and note the obvious elements of lesbo/homophobia present in this cultural artefact: the trivialization of lesbian desire; the stereotyping of lesbian women; the censorship or erasure of the possibilities of healthy same-sex desire; the prefiguration of the male voyeuristic gaze turning lesbian sex into a spectacle for male pleasure. The paper aims to underline the critical strategies of lesbian experience, the required negotiations in a hostile culture, and the ways that cultural criticism in the academy shape and prefigure my responses to lesbophobic performances in mass media. I question the nature of my pleasure in lesbophobic fictions and detail the process of reversing discourse in the Foucauldian sense. As I identify with the representations, however inaccurate, however fictional, I must invert or queer the lesbophobic message, finding pleasure in the very discourses that oppress me, stereotype me, tolerate me, target me.

  11. A Symbolic Interaction Approach to Cigarette Smoking: Smoking Frequency and the Desire to Quit Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Reitzes, Donald C.; DePadilla, Lara; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    This study applies a symbolic interaction perspective to the investigation of smoking frequency and a person’s desire to quit smoking cigarettes. Data derived from 485 Atlanta area adult smokers provide a diverse, community-based sample of married and single men and women, aged 18 to 70 years old with a range of income, education, and occupational experiences. Multiple regression was used to analyze the data in order to explore the influence of social demographic characteristics, social interaction, subjective assessments of health, self conceptions, and smoker identity on smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Findings include: (1) the relationship with a non-smoker and hiding smoking negatively impacted smoking frequency, while perceiving positive consequences from smoking has a positive effect on smoking frequency; and (2) perceiving positive consequences of smoking was negatively related to the desire to quit smoking, while a negative smoker identity has a positive influence on the desire to quit. Taken as a whole, the symbolic interaction-inspired variables exerted strong and independent effects on both smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Future smoking interventions should focus on meanings and perceived consequences of smoking in general, and on the smoker identity in the development of campaigns to encourage quitting cigarette smoking. PMID:23869112

  12. The unethical use of ethical rhetoric: the case of flibanserin and pharmacologisation of female sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Chańska, Weronika; Grunt-Mejer, Katarzyna

    2016-06-08

    The current debate around sexual dysfunctions focuses mostly on the pharmacological regulation of lowered sexual desire in women. The Food and Drug Administration approval of the first drug-Addyi-to treat this condition was preceded by a campaign, in which ethically saturated arguments were used to lobby policy makers. This article provides a critical evaluation of these arguments. In particular, we focus our attention on deceitful and unethical use of moral arguments and concepts. First, we present the context in which hypoactive sexual desire disorder is defined as a serious medical condition, showing how non-medical and non-scientific influences shaped the understanding of the problem. Further, we demonstrate how in current discussions regarding lower sexual interest attention has been shifted from psychosocial to pharmacological solutions and we trace the ethical consequences of such a change. We argue that, in addition to typical detrimental effects of overmedicalisation, there are new serious perils. In particular, we demonstrate that it is highly probable that pharmacologisation of female desire-contrary to the emancipatory declarations of the drug proponents-exerts pressure on women and narrows the range of potential choices they can make. As a result, it is inconsistent with the very idea of free choice.

  13. Desirable attributes of the ambulance technician, paramedic, and clinical supervisor: findings from a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Kilner, T

    2004-01-01

    Methods: The Delphi technique was used to gain a consensus view from a panel of experts. The first round of the study asked the experts to list the attributes they believed were desirable for the ambulance technician, the ambulance paramedic, and the clinical supervisor. The first round of the study generated 3403 individual statements that were collapsed into 25 broad categories, which were returned to the experts, who were required to rate each of the attributes along a visual analogue scale in respect of each of the identified occupational groups. Results: On completion of the second round the data were analysed to demonstrate rank ordering of desirable attributes by occupational group. The level of agreement within each group was determined by analysis using the Kendall coefficient of concordance. This showed high levels of agreement within the technician group but less agreement within the paramedic and clinical supervisor group. All were highly significant p<0.0001. Conclusions: There was significant agreement among the experts as to the desirable attributes of ambulance staff, many of which do not feature in existing ambulance training curriculums. The findings of this study may therefore be of value in informing future curriculum development and in providing guidance for the selection of staff for each of the occupational groups. PMID:15107388

  14. The sustainability, feasibility and desirability of breeding livestock for disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Stear, M J; Bishop, S C; Mallard, B A; Raadsma, H

    2001-08-01

    Selective breeding for disease resistance utilises proven animal breeding methods to improve animal health, welfare and productivity. Unsurprisingly, it is receiving more and more attention from livestock breeders. However, there are a number of largely theoretical arguments that have been raised as potential problems in selection for disease resistance. These can be classified under sustainability, feasibility and desirability. This review considers each of these areas in turn. Several examples show that enhanced resistance to disease is stable under natural selection and therefore deliberate selection for disease resistance should also be stable and sustainable. The feasibility of selective breeding depends in part upon the heritability of the trait or traits used to measure disease resistance, as well as the amount of variation among animals. The heritability of traits associated with resistance to many important diseases is often high and considerable variation among animals exists. Consequently, selective breeding for enhanced disease resistance is certainly feasible. The desirability of breeding for disease resistance depends upon whether there are trade-offs with other economically important traits. By and large these remain to be defined. However, even if unfavourable associations exist, breeders can create selection indices that include traits with unfavourable associations and maximise the desired responses while attempting to minimise undesirable effects. In conclusion, so long as one or more diseases exert a significant influence on livestock production, selective breeding will be a useful tool to assist in disease control.

  15. Two novel combined drug treatments for women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Poels, Saskia; Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Koppeschaar, Hans; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2014-06-01

    Low sexual desire is the most common sexual complaint in women. As a result, many women suffer from sexual dissatisfaction which often negatively interferes with their quality of life. These complaints have been classified as the condition Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD), and have recently been merged with the condition Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) into the diagnosis Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD) in the DSM-5. To date, no drug treatment approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA)/European Medicines Agency (EMA) is available to treat women with HSDD/FSIAD. As a result, there is an unmet need for a drug treatment for HSDD/FSIAD. In our search for an adequate treatment we followed a different approach compared to other pharmaceutical companies. Based on a personalized sexual medicine approach we proposed that different mechanisms cause low sexual desire in women, namely an insensitive system for sexual cues or dysfunctional activation of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. Subsequently we developed two new on-demand drug treatments for women with HSDD/FSIAD based on these different causal mechanisms. One treatment (testosterone combined with a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor) has been developed for women with HSDD/FSIAD due to a relatively insensitive system for sexual cues, while the second treatment (testosterone combined with a 5-HT₁A receptor agonist) has been developed for women with HSDD/FSIAD due to dysfunctional activation of sexual inhibitory mechanisms.

  16. Validity of a questionnaire survey: response patterns in different subgroups and the effect of social desirability.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, Ove; Holst, Dorthe

    2002-06-01

    Questionnaire surveys are often used in epidemiology and survey research. However, investigations have shown that the method suffers from biases. If the intention is to examine differences between subgroups in a sample, studies have shown that people tend to give answers to questionnaires more according to a social norm than to the actual situation. This has been called social desirability. The aim of this study was to investigate response bias in subgroups of a sample in a large questionnaire survey (n = 9,200) and to study whether social desirability has an impact on survey results in dental research. The answers were divided into subgroups according to gender, age, and residence and were compared with corresponding data from dental insurance claims. The levels of agreement were found to vary considerably and the differences were highly statistically significant. The variation in agreement showed that bias on the group level increased when the distance from an anticipated social norm was larger. This implies that the divergence from a socially desirable mode of action influences the magnitude of the bias.

  17. Cancer stage knowledge and desire for information: mismatch in Latino cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Costas-Muniz, Rosario; Sen, Rohini; Leng, Jennifer; Aragones, Abraham; Ramirez, Julia; Gany, Francesca

    2013-09-01

    Having more health knowledge has a crucial and positive impact on cancer outcomes. Patients' cancer knowledge influences their ability to participate actively in decision-making processes for medical care and in treatment choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic and medical correlates of lack of cancer stage knowledge and desire for information among Latino cancer patients. The sample included 271 underserved Latino cancer patients recruited from four cancer clinics in New York City. Participants completed a needs assessment survey in their preferred language, which included sociodemographic and health-related questions. Close to two-thirds of the sample (65%) had no knowledge of their stage, and 38% were unaware of the metastatic state of their tumor. Only 15% of the patients expressed that they would like additional information about their diagnosis and/or treatment. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, being an immigrant with limited English proficiency and monolingual in Spanish were predictors of stage unawareness and less desire/need for cancer information. Patients needing interpretation for health care were less likely to know whether their tumor had metastasized and their cancer stage and to desire information about their cancer diagnosis and/or treatment. This study shows considerably low levels of stage awareness among Latinos diagnosed with cancer. This lack of knowledge might adversely impact their treatment decisions and disease management. Future studies should focus on identifying barriers to acquisition of disease information and other disease-specific informational deficits.

  18. Effects of attractiveness and status in dating desire in homosexual and heterosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; van den Berg, Judith E M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined partner preferences of homosexual and heterosexual men and woman, focusing on attractiveness and status. Homosexual (N=591 men; M age=28.87 years, SD=10.21; N=249 women; M age=33.36 years, SD=13.12) and heterosexual participants (N=346 men; M age=39.74 years, SD=14.26; N=400 women; M age=35.93 years, SD=13.72) rated the importance of attractiveness and social status of potential partners and then, in a vignette test, expressed their desire to date hypothetical potential partners based on photographs that varied in attractiveness and status-related profiles. With ratings, heterosexual men valued attractiveness the most, followed by homosexual men, heterosexual women, and homosexual women. Heterosexual women rated social status as most important. When status profiles were manipulated and accompanied with photographs of faces, the pattern of differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals supported the self-reported results. Overall, homosexual men and women have similar mate preferences to heterosexual men and women by showing more dating desire for attractive and high social status persons. Compared to attractiveness, status played a smaller role in dating desire.

  19. Modeling and multi-response optimization of pervaporation of organic aqueous solutions using desirability function approach.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, C; Khayet, M; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G; Jaworska, A

    2009-08-15

    The factorial design of experiments and desirability function approach has been applied for multi-response optimization in pervaporation separation process. Two organic aqueous solutions were considered as model mixtures, water/acetonitrile and water/ethanol mixtures. Two responses have been employed in multi-response optimization of pervaporation, total permeate flux and organic selectivity. The effects of three experimental factors (feed temperature, initial concentration of organic compound in feed solution, and downstream pressure) on the pervaporation responses have been investigated. The experiments were performed according to a 2(3) full factorial experimental design. The factorial models have been obtained from experimental design and validated statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The spatial representations of the response functions were drawn together with the corresponding contour line plots. Factorial models have been used to develop the overall desirability function. In addition, the overlap contour plots were presented to identify the desirability zone and to determine the optimum point. The optimal operating conditions were found to be, in the case of water/acetonitrile mixture, a feed temperature of 55 degrees C, an initial concentration of 6.58% and a downstream pressure of 13.99 kPa, while for water/ethanol mixture a feed temperature of 55 degrees C, an initial concentration of 4.53% and a downstream pressure of 9.57 kPa. Under such optimum conditions it was observed experimentally an improvement of both the total permeate flux and selectivity.

  20. Self-perceived attractiveness, romantic desirability and self-esteem: a mating sociometer perspective.

    PubMed

    Bale, Christopher; Archer, John

    2013-01-26

    Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is an adaptation which evolved to monitor and regulate interpersonal relationships. It is therefore sensitive to self-assessments in domains relevant to relational desirability. Positive relationships between self-perceived physical attractiveness and self-esteem found in previous studies may reflect the functioning of a mating sociometer, designed to monitor individuals' desirability as romantic or sexual partners. We thus predicted that these relationships should be mediated by self-perceptions of romantic desirability, or more specifically, individuals' confidence in their abilities to successfully establish and maintain romantic relationships. Two hundred and eighty seven young adults (98 male) completed an online measure of self-perceived attractiveness, together with measures of self-confidence in appearance and romantic relationships, body-esteem and global self-esteem. Linear regression analyses indicated that self-perceived attractiveness, self-confidence in appearance and body-esteem all significantly predicted self-esteem, and that in each case, the relationship was mediated by romantic self-confidence. Self-perceived attractiveness predicted self-esteem significantly more strongly in females than in males. We discuss these results in relation to sociometer and parental investment theories, and explore limitations and future directions.

  1. Le Point sur la Pharmacologie des Agents Anesthesiques Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Ababou, K.; Benziane, H.; El Jaoudi; Bensghir, M.; Bakali, H.; El Wali, A.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary La pharmacologie des agents anesthésiques chez le brûlé est variable et imprévisible. Dans les premières 48 h, il y a une hypovolémie avec chute du débit cardiaque et des fuites plasmatiques. Après 48 h, il y a une hypervolémie avec augmentation du débit cardiaque, hypermétabolisme et la clearance des médicaments est augmentée. Parmi les facteurs de déséquilibre, on retrouve les variations des protéines plasmatiques. Deux protéines sont importantes chez le brûlé grave : l'albumine et l'alpha 1- glycoprotéine. Leur taux varie beaucoup au cours de l'évolution de la brûlure. Les agents anesthésiques dont la liaison avec ces deux protéines est prédominante verront leur pharmacocinétique modifiée. L'anesthésiste-réanimateur du service des brûlés va maîtriser ces notions pharmacologiques pour utiliser à bon escient les agents anesthésiques. PMID:21991108

  2. Etude de la transition tribologique entre le fretting et le meso-fretting pour des materiaux de contact electrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Daniel

    Dans les installations electriques, les contacts sont toujours soumis a des contraintes alternees ou a des micro-deplacements. Il en resulte une corrosion par fretting, phenomene defini comme un type de deterioration de la surface qui se produit lorsque deux materiaux en contact sont soumis a des mouvements microscopiques d'oscillations de tres faible amplitude (0 a 100 mum). Ceci a pour effet de provoquer une degradation de la resistance de contact et une interruption du passage du courant. Ce phenomene a des repercussions considerables sur le plan pratique puisque les micro-deplacements de pieces en contact peuvent etre causes par la dilatation thermique differentielle des metaux, par des vibrations mecaniques, par la relaxation des contraintes ou par l'echauffement des contacts lorsqu'on interrompt et retablit le courant. Nous avons donc dans le cadre de cette these etudie plusieurs aspects du fretting (0--100 mum) et du meso-fretting (100 a 1000 mum) pour differents materiaux de contact electrique. Des travaux experimentaux ont ete realises a partir de deux montages reproduisant divers aspects de la degradation par le fretting. Un premier montage de fretting de type bille-plaque a ete entierement developpe a l'ETS et un second montage, de type fil-plaque a ete utilise en collaboration avec Hydro Quebec IREQ a Varennes. Plusieurs techniques de mesures et d'analyse relevant tant du domaine de la mecanique du contact que de la metallurgie ont ete utilisees pour traiter les resultats. L'influence du courant sur le taux d'usure et la force de friction a ete examinee pour divers materiaux de contacts. Des essais de fatigue thermique et electrique ont ete realises sur divers materiaux et lubrifiants de contact. Il a ete demontre que pour le domaine entre 100 mum et 1000 mum, le taux d'usure n'est pas le meme de 0 a 100 mum et au dela de 1000 mum. La plupart des materiaux evalues montrent un stade de comportement intermediaire dont le debut se situe entre 100 mum et

  3. You can’t always want what you get: Children’s intuitions about ownership and desire

    PubMed Central

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Ownership is a central element of human experience. The present experiments were designed to examine the influence of psychological state on ownership judgments. In three experiments, 4-year-olds were asked to make ownership attributions about owners and non-owners who either desired or did not desire a gift. Despite exhibiting a clear sensitivity to the desires of others, children made accurate ownership attributions independent of individuals’ desires. At the same time, there are subtle influences of desires on children’s ownership judgments, as well as subtle influences of ownership on children’s desire judgments. Thus, the two factors are largely but not wholly distinct in young children’s thinking. PMID:25018586

  4. Mother and Father Socially Desirable Responding in Nine Countries: Two Kinds of Agreement and Relations to Parenting Self-Reports

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Maria Uribe Tirado, Liliana; Zelli, Arnaldo; Peña Alampay, Liane; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Silvia Bombi, Anna; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We assessed 2 forms of agreement between mothers’ and fathers’ socially desirable responding in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States (N = 1110 families). Mothers and fathers in all nine countries reported socially desirable responding in the upper half of the distribution, and countries varied minimally (but China was higher than the cross-country grand mean and Sweden lower). Mothers and fathers did not differ in reported levels of socially desirable responding, and mothers’ and fathers’ socially desirable responding were largely uncorrelated. With one exception, mothers’ and fathers’ socially desirable responding were similarly correlated with self-perceptions of parenting, and correlations varied somewhat across countries. These findings are set in a discussion of socially desirable responding, cultural psychology, and family systems. PMID:25043708

  5. Mother and father socially desirable responding in nine countries: Two kinds of agreement and relations to parenting self-reports.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Lansford, Jennifer E; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul

    2015-06-01

    We assessed 2 forms of agreement between mothers' and fathers' socially desirable responding in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand and the United States (N = 1110 families). Mothers and fathers in all 9 countries reported socially desirable responding in the upper half of the distribution, and countries varied minimally (but China was higher than the cross-country grand mean and Sweden lower). Mothers and fathers did not differ in reported levels of socially desirable responding, and mothers' and fathers' socially desirable responding were largely uncorrelated. With one exception, mothers' and fathers' socially desirable responding were similarly correlated with self-perceptions of parenting, and correlations varied somewhat across countries. These findings are set in a discussion of socially desirable responding, cultural psychology and family systems.

  6. Synthesis of a BSA-Le(x) glycoconjugate and recognition of Le(x) analogues by the anti-Le(x) monoclonal antibody SH1: the identification of a non-cross reactive analogue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jo-Wen; Asnani, Ari; Auzanneau, France-Isabelle

    2010-10-15

    A Le(x) trisaccharide functionalized with a cysteamine arm was prepared and this synthesis provided additional information on the reactivity of N-acetylglucosamine O-4 acceptors when they are glycosylated with trichloroacetimidate donors activated with excess BF(3)·OEt(2). In turn, this trisaccharide was conjugated to BSA lysine side chains through a squarate-mediated coupling. This BSA-Le(x) glycoconjugate displayed 35 Le(x) haptens per BSA molecule. The relative affinity of the anti-Le(x) monoclonal antibody SH1 for the Le(x) antigen and analogues of Le(x) in which the D-glucosamine, L-fucose or D-galactose residues were replaced with D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-glucose, respectively, was measured by competitive ELISA experiments. While all analogues were weaker inhibitors than the Le(x) antigen, only the analogue of Le(x) in which the galactose residue was replaced by a glucose unit showed no binding to the SH1 mAb. To confirm that the reduced or loss of recognition of the Le(x) analogues by the anti-Le(x) mAb SH1 did not result from different conformations adopted by the analogues when compared to the native Le(x) antigen, we assessed the conformational behavior of all trisaccharides by a combination of stochastic searches and NMR experiments. Our results showed that, indeed, the analogues adopted the same stacked conformation as that identified for the Le(x) antigen. The identification of a trisaccharide analogue that does not cross-react with Le(x) but still retains the same conformation as Le(x) constitutes the first step to the design of a safe anti-cancer vaccine based on the dimeric Le(x) tumor associated carbohydrate antigen.

  7. Transitions de phase dans le oxyde de yttrium vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, Benoit

    Dans le mémoire qui suit, les ordres structural, magnétiques et orbital dans le YVO3 sont étudiés avec l'aide de la diffraction des rayons X,de la spectroscopie Raman et de la technique de la cavité résonnante hyperfréquence. L'objectif premier consiste à observer l'évolution de ces ordres en fonction de la température. Le mémoire met ensuite en évidence le couplage entre les différents ordres cohabitants dans le YVO3 . Les mesures effectuées par la diffraction des rayons X permettent de mesurer le caractère polycrystallin des échantillons du YVO 3. Une comparaison de nos mesures avec des mesures de diffraction des rayons X faites sur la poudre de YVO3 indique la faible présence de maclage. Les mesures effectuées avec la technique de résonnance hyperfréquence permettent de suivre l'évolution de la constante diélectrique en fonction de la température. Les changements impliquant l'ordre orbital se manifestent de manière évidente dans la constante diélectrique à 200 K et à 77 K. La transition diélectrique détectée à 77 K est une transition de premier ordre. Un couplage entre les propriétés diélectriques et magnétiques est observable à la température de Néel à 114 K. L'effet d'un champ magnétique fixe sur la température de transition de l'ordre orbital survenant à 77 K est également remarquable. Cela indique un couplage magnétodiélectrique démontrant ainsi le caractère multiferroïque du YVO 3. Finalement, l'observation d'un mécanisme de relaxation pouvant être modélisé par le modèle d'Havriliak-Negami est observé en dessous de 77 K. En utilisant le modèle d'Arrhénius et le modèle d'Havriliak-Negami, on peut caractériser le mécanisme avec son énergie d'activation et son temps de relaxation. Les mesures effectuées en spectroscopie Raman permettent de suivre l'évolution de la structure du YVO3 en fonction de la température. Les deux changements structuraux survenant à 200 K et 77 K sont observés. Le

  8. The relationship between sex guilt and sexual desire in a community sample of Chinese and Euro-Canadian women.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jane S T; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have documented significant differences in sexual desire between individuals of European and Chinese descent, but few have examined the mechanisms that underlie these differences. A recent study of university students found that sex guilt is one mechanism by which culture influences sexual desire among Chinese and Euro-Canadian women. The goal of this study was to examine whether sex guilt also mediates the relationship between ethnicity and sexual desire in a sample that is more representative of women in the general population. Euro-Canadian (n = 78; mean age = 42.1 years) and Chinese (n = 87; mean age = 42.8 years) women were recruited from the community. Euro-Canadian women reported greater sexual desire and less sex guilt. In the entire sample, sex guilt mediated the relationship between ethnicity and sexual desire such that the Chinese women reported greater sex guilt, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual desire. Among the Chinese women, sex guilt mediated the relationship between mainstream acculturation (degree of Westernization) and sexual desire such that more Westernized Chinese women reported less sex guilt, which, in turn, was associated with greater sexual desire. These results support recent findings and further suggest that sex guilt may be one mechanism by which ethnicity affects sexual desire.

  9. A framework for tracking post-wildfire trajectories and desired future conditions using NDVI time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, S. P.; Hargrove, W. W.; Lee, D. C.; Spruce, J.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfires could provide a cost-effective means to maintain or restore some aspects of fire-adapted landscapes. Yet with the added influence of climate change and invasives, wildfires may also facilitate or accelerate undesired type conversions. As megafires are becoming increasingly common across portions of the US West, managers require a framework for long-term monitoring that integrates the trajectories of fire-prone landscapes and objectives, not just conditions immediately after a burn. Systematic use of satellite data provides an efficient cross-jurisdictional solution to this problem. Since 2000, MODIS-technology has provided high frequency, 240m resolution observations of Earth. Using this data stream, the ForWarn system, developed through a partnership of the US Forest Service, NASA-Stennis and others, provides 46 estimates of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) per year for the conterminous US. From this time series, a variety of secondary metrics have been derived including median annual NDVI, amplitude, and phenological spikiness. Each is both a fire and recovery sensitive measure that allows managers to systematically track conditions with respect to either the pre-fire baseline or desired future conditions more adaptively. In dry interior forests where wildfires could be used to thin stands, recovery to untreated conditions may not be desired given fuels objectives or climate change. In more mesic systems, fire effects may be monitored as staged succession. With both coarse filter monitoring and desired conditions in hand, managers can better recognize and prioritize problems in disturbance-prone landscapes.

  10. The effect of selected "desirable difficulties" on the ability to recall anatomy information.

    PubMed

    Dobson, John L; Linderholm, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    "Desirable difficulties" is a theory from cognitive science used to promote learning in a variety of contexts. The basic premise is that creating a cognitively challenging environment at the learning acquisition phase, by actively engaging learners in the retrieval of to-be-learned materials, promotes long-term retention. In this study, the degree of desirable difficulties was varied to identify how cognitively challenging the learning acquisition phase must be to benefit university-level students' learning of anatomy concepts. This is important to investigate as applied studies of desirable difficulties are less frequent than laboratory-based studies and the implementation of this principle may need to be tailored to the specific field of study, such as anatomy. As such, a read-read-read-read (R-R-R-R) condition was compared to read-generate-read-generate (R-G-R-G) and read-test-read-test (R-T-R-T) conditions. The three conditions varied in terms of how effortful the retrieval task was during the learning acquisition phase. R-R-R-R required little effort because participants passively read the materials four times. R-G-R-G required some effort to generate a response as participants completed a word fragment task during the learning acquisition phase. R-T-R-T was thought to be most demanding as participants performed a free recall task twice during the learning phase. With regard to the absolute amount of anatomy information recalled, the R-T-R-T condition was superior at both immediate and delayed (one week) assessment points. Thus, instructors and learners of anatomy would benefit from embedding more free recall components, or self-testing, into university-level course work or study practices.

  11. Defining desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding objective using analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lim, P; Komen, H; Kause, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Barfoot, A J; Martin, K E; Parsons, J E

    2012-06-01

    Distributing animals from a single breeding program to a global market may not satisfy all producers, as they may differ in market objectives and farming environments. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to estimate preferences, which can be aggregated to consensus preference values using weighted goal programming (WGP). The aim of this study was to use an AHP-WGP based approach to derive desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding and to study whether breeding trait preferences vary depending on commercial products and farming environments. Two questionnaires were sent out. Questionnaire-A (Q-A) was distributed to 178 farmers from 5 continents and used to collect information on commercial products and farming environments. In this questionnaire, farmers were asked to rank the 6 most important traits for genetic improvement from a list of 13 traits. Questionnaire B (Q-B) was sent to all farmers who responded to Q-A (53 in total). For Q-B, preferences of the 6 traits were obtained using pairwise comparison. Preference intensity was given to quantify (in % of a trait mean; G%) the degree to which 1 trait is preferred over the other. Individual preferences, social preferences, and consensus preferences (Con-P) were estimated using AHP and WGP. Desired gains were constructed by multiplying Con-P by G%. The analysis revealed that the 6 most important traits were thermal growth coefficient (TGC), survival (Surv), feed conversion ratio (FCR), condition factor (CF), fillet percentage (FIL%), and late maturation (LMat). Ranking of traits based on average Con-P values were Surv (0.271), FCR (0.246), TGC (0.246), LMat (0.090), FIL% (0.081), and CF (0.067). Corresponding desired genetic gains (in % of trait mean) were 1.63, 1.87, 1.67, 1.29, 0.06, and 0.33%, respectively. The results from Con-P values show that trait preferences may vary for different types of commercial production or farming environments. This study demonstrated that combination of AHP and WGP can

  12. Interpersonal Violence and its Association with US Migration Desires and Plans among Youths in Guanajuato, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Steven; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined interpersonal physical and sexual violence and its association with desires and plans to migrate to the USA among 500 alternative high school students, aged 14–17 years, from Guanajuato, Mexico. Two thirds of the youths had ever experienced interpersonal violence, the most common form being physical fights. More youths, and more boys relative to girls, reported wanting to migrate than planning to migrate. Although those who had experienced interpersonal violence were not more likely to want to migrate to the USA, their odds of planning to migrate were 44% greater. Gender did not moderate the effect of interpersonal violence. PMID:24611031

  13. Reading "Rights of Desire" and "Rights of Opacity" in J. M. Coetzee's Disgrace.

    PubMed

    Canelli, Alyssa Stalsberg

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the novel Disgrace points toward a politics of illegiblity and opacity that aligns more readily with anti-identitarian queer theory instead of rights- and recognition-based human rights discourses. Through an extended consideration of the relation between national allegory, history, and legibility, I argue that the novel sustains two interpretations of the category of lesbian-first, the national allegorical reading that erases her rights of lesbian desire in the transmission of racialized and sexual historical debts and second, Lucy's refusal of legibility as a lesbian in the national narrative and legal structures.

  14. Realization of Desired Plasmonic Structures via a Direct Laser Writing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Quang Cong; Luong, Mai Hoang; Tran, Thi Mo; Remmel, Jacqueline; Do, Minh Thanh; Kieu, Duy Manh; Ghasemi, Rasta; Nguyen, Duc Tho; Lai, Ngoc Diep

    2016-11-01

    We present a recent investigation of fabrication of desired plasmonic structures. First, the polymeric templates were realized by a simple and low-cost fabrication technique based on direct laser writing with a continuous-wave laser source. The plasmonic structures have been then realized by two methods, namely, a combination of gold evaporation and lift-off techniques, and a combination of gold sputtering and thermal annealing techniques. Each method presents its own advantages. Numerous metallic submicro- and nano-structures have been realized, which should be very interesting for different applications, such as high-transmission bandpass filters, plasmonic data storage, and plasmonic photonic devices.

  15. Commentary on text of interview with Professor Lord Ara Darzi: 'Desirable? Yes; but is it achievable?'.

    PubMed

    Ferlie, Ewan

    2015-01-01

    This personal commentary explores some issues that arise in the text of the interview with Lord Darzi published in LJPC 6.6, from a point of view of an interest in health policy and change in healthcare organisations. It suggests that the vision is desirable but that there are four major questions about ready implementation that the field needs to consider: 1 Can primary care development and investment be protected in a cold financial climate? 2 Does the current marketisation of health care erode integration? 3 Does the health and social care system in London behave like a real system? 4 Is there really a cultural shift towards empowerment and organisational learning?

  16. Interpersonal Violence and its Association with US Migration Desires and Plans among Youths in Guanajuato, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nieri, Tanya; Hoffman, Steven; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen S

    2013-08-01

    This study examined interpersonal physical and sexual violence and its association with desires and plans to migrate to the USA among 500 alternative high school students, aged 14-17 years, from Guanajuato, Mexico. Two thirds of the youths had ever experienced interpersonal violence, the most common form being physical fights. More youths, and more boys relative to girls, reported wanting to migrate than planning to migrate. Although those who had experienced interpersonal violence were not more likely to want to migrate to the USA, their odds of planning to migrate were 44% greater. Gender did not moderate the effect of interpersonal violence.

  17. Factors predicting desired autonomy in medical decisions: Risk-taking and gambling behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, Erica E; Shotwell, Jessica J; Buccellato, Kiara; Moran, Erin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated factors that influence patients’ desired level of autonomy in medical decisions. Analyses included previously supported demographic variables in addition to risk-taking and gambling behaviors, which exhibit a strong relationship with overall health and decision-making, but have not been investigated in conjunction with medical autonomy. Participants (N = 203) completed measures on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, including two measures of autonomy. Two hierarchical regressions revealed that the predictors explained a significant amount of variance for both measures, but the contribution of predictor variables was incongruent between models. Possible causes for this incongruence and implications for patient–physician interactions are discussed. PMID:28070406

  18. Composite materials with enhanced dimensionless Young’s modulus and desired Poisson’s ratio

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, H. X.; Fan, T. X.; Zhang, D.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a new type of composite materials which not only has a Young’s modulus much larger than the Voigt limit, but also is always nearly isotropic. Moreover, its Poisson’s ratio can be designed at a desired value, e.g. positive, or negative, or zero. We have also demonstrated that structural hierarchy can help to enhance the stiffness of this type of composite materials. The results obtained in this paper provide a very useful insight into the development of new functional materials and structures. PMID:26359910

  19. Desirable attributes of vaccines for deployment in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dexiang; Zehrung, Darin

    2013-01-01

    A number of product development partnerships are actively developing new vaccines to combat infectious diseases in developing countries. To be effective, the products under development should not only be safe, efficacious, and affordable, but they should also have additional desirable technical attributes, including enhanced stability, efficient packaging, and improved ease of delivery. New technologies are now available to achieve these attributes; however, many of the technologies have yet to be adopted by the vaccine industry. This commentary discusses the opportunities and challenges associated with advancing such attributes, especially vaccine thermostability and dose sparing strategies, and the critical issues that must be addressed to bridge the gap between technology development and product development.

  20. Factors predicting desired autonomy in medical decisions: Risk-taking and gambling behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Erica E; Shotwell, Jessica J; Buccellato, Kiara; Moran, Erin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated factors that influence patients' desired level of autonomy in medical decisions. Analyses included previously supported demographic variables in addition to risk-taking and gambling behaviors, which exhibit a strong relationship with overall health and decision-making, but have not been investigated in conjunction with medical autonomy. Participants (N = 203) completed measures on Amazon's Mechanical Turk, including two measures of autonomy. Two hierarchical regressions revealed that the predictors explained a significant amount of variance for both measures, but the contribution of predictor variables was incongruent between models. Possible causes for this incongruence and implications for patient-physician interactions are discussed.

  1. Anti-miroestrol polyclonal antibodies: a comparison of immunogen preparations used to obtain desired antibody properties.

    PubMed

    Kitisripanya, Tharita; Jutathis, Kamonthip; Inyai, Chadathorn; Komaikul, Jukrapun; Udomsin, Orapin; Yusakul, Gorawit; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2016-04-01

    Immunogen quality is one important factor that contributes to desirable antibody characteristics. Highly specific antibodies against miroestrol can be used to develop a quality control immunoassay for Pueraria candollei products. In this study, we investigated how various immunogen preparations affect antibody properties. The results show that immunogen prepared using the Mannich reaction provides antibodies with higher specificity and sensitivity against miroestrol than immunogen prepared with the periodate reaction. The results suggest the Mannich reaction maintains the original structure of miroestrol and generates useful antibodies for developing immunoassays.

  2. Inhomogeneites dans le Vent des Etoiles Wolf-Rayet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Carmelle

    1992-01-01

    Des mesures spectroscopiques effectuees avec un haut rapport signal sur bruit et une bonne resolution ont demontre l'existence de regions perturbees en mouvement dans le vent d'etoiles Wolf-Rayet (WR). L'echantillon d'objets etudies ici comprend 9 etoiles WR couvrant differents sous-types WN et WC. De nombreuses petites structures variables superposees au profil des raies d'emission formees dans le vent stellaire signalent la presence des perturbations. L'etude des variations globales des raies et l'examen des micro-structures individuelles ont permis de decrire plusieurs caracteristiques des perturbations. Entre autres, on observe des correlations significatives entre le niveau de variabilite des raies et certains parametres des etoiles qui confirment que le phenomene de variabilite est intrinseque au vent stellaire. En comparant les changements des vitesses radiales et des largeurs equivalentes des differentes raies d'une meme etoile, on conclut que les regions perturbees ont une etendue finie par rapport a l'enveloppe des etoiles. On peut facilement suivre les structures individuelles sur une periode de temps couvrant ~eq8 heures (et peut etre meme 24 heures) avant qu'elles ne disparaissent. Durant ce temps les structures se deplacent en s'eloignant du centre de la raie. A partir des differents comportements notes lors de l'analyse des variations globales et lors de l'examen des structures individuelles, on propose de representer les perturbations par un modele d'inhomogeneites discretes en expansion dans le vent. On suppose simplement que les inhomogeneites emettent comme le vent global (et absorbent aussi si le vent global montre un profil P Cyg). La superposition du graphique de l'acceleration radiale moyenne des inhomogeneites de WR140 en fonction de leur vitesse radiale et du modele theorique d'inhomogeneites qui suivent la loi generale de vitesse donne un taux d'acceleration lent, avec beta >= 3 pour les inhomogeneites de cette etoile. On obtient, entre

  3. Etude du Photochromisme et de la Photorefractivite dans le Poly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghailane, Fatima

    1995-11-01

    Nous avons etudie la possibilite d'utiliser un materiau organique, le poly(vinylcarbazole) comme milieu de stockage optique de masse en temps reel. Ce materiau dope aux photochromes presente un potentiel non negligeable pour l'holographie de volume en temps reel. Plusiers cycles, Ecriture-Lecture-Effacement, ont ete enregistres dans cette matrice polymerique avec une resolution assez elevee. Une etude a ete menee afin d'obtenir la valeur des parametres comme l'epaisseur du film et l'intensite d'ecriture pour un angle d'enregistrement theta_{ acute ecriture} donne qui permettent d'obtenir les meilleures efficacites diffractionelles tout en preservant ce milieu de tout effet de fatigue ou de degradation. Ce polymere devient photorefractif une fois melange avec un bon accepteur de charge, le trinitrofluorenone et un bon chromophore non-lineaire, le disperse orange 25. Nous avons etudie experimentalement la conductivite en obscurite et la photoconductivite de ce materiau. Des simulations numeriques ont ete realisees en se basant sur le modele de Poole-Frenkel. Nous avons aussi etudie l'implantation de faisceaux d'ions d'oxygene d'energie 200 keV pour inscrire dans le PVCz un guide d'onde plan a profil d'indice. Une etude ESCA complete cette partie afin de savoir les modifications induites par implementation ionique a l'interieur du film polymerique.

  4. Well...She Wants It More: Perceptions of Social Norms about Desires for Marriage and Children and Anticipated Chore Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erchull, Mindy J.; Liss, Miriam; Axelson, Sarah J.; Staebell, Samantha E.; Askari, Sabrina F.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined how desire for marriage and children related to anticipated chore involvement for both men and women. An online survey was completed by 466 college students recruited from multiple colleges and universities in Virginia. Participants provided information about their own desire for marriage and children, expectations for…

  5. Desire for Increased Autonomy and Adolescents' Perceptions of Peer Autonomy: "Everyone Else Can; Why Can't I?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddis, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined adolescents' personal autonomy beliefs and their perceptions of peer autonomy. Study 1 sampled 527 adolescents (M = 15.40 years) and found that adolescents desired increased autonomy most over personal and multifaceted issues and least over moral and conventional issues. Younger adolescents and girls desired increased autonomy…

  6. "If It Is Dreamable It Is Doable": The Role of Desired Job Flexibility in Imagining the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmi, Dina; Chiesa, Rita; Mazzetti, Greta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare how the dimension of attitudes toward future that consists in perception of dynamic future may be affected by desirable goals (desired job flexibility) and probable events (probable job flexibility) in a group of permanent vs temporary employees. Moreover the aim is to explore the gender differences…

  7. Modality-Specific Imagery Reduces Cravings for Food: An Application of the Elaborated Intrusion Theory of Desire to Food Craving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2007-01-01

    Based on converging evidence that visual and olfactory images are key components of food cravings, the authors tested a central prediction of the elaborated intrusion theory of desire, that mutual competition between modality-specific tasks and desire-related imagery can suppress such cravings. In each of Experiments 1 and 2, 90 undergraduate…

  8. Students' Feelings of and Desire for Sense of Community in Face-to-Face and Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drouin, Michelle; Vartanian, Lesa Rae

    2010-01-01

    In this study, face-to-face (FTF) and online students' (N = 198) feelings of and desire for sense of community (SOC) in their courses were compared. In support of previous research, FTF students felt more SOC than online students. However, overall, relatively few students (FTF or online) expressed desire for SOC. Additionally, regression analyses…

  9. The Relationships between Emerging Adults' Expressed Desire to Marry and Frequency of Participation in Risk-Taking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Dworkin, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    The impact that desire to marry has on risk-taking behaviors during emerging adulthood is examined in the current investigation using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Looking both at the simple relationships between desire to marry and risk-taking behaviors, as well as the…

  10. Internal and External Validity of Scores on the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding and the Paulhus Deception Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanyon, Richard I.; Carle, Adam C.

    2007-01-01

    The internal and external validity of scores on the two-scale Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) and its recent revision, the Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS), developed to measure two facets of social desirability, were studied with three groups of forensic clients and two groups of college undergraduates (total N = 519). The two…

  11. Children's Anticipated Responses to Hypothetical Peers with Undesirable Characteristics: Role of Peers' Desire to Change, Effort to Change, and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Mark A.; Livengood, Jennifer L.; Sonnentag, Tammy L.; Barlett, Natalie D.; Witham, Rachel Y.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored the extent to which 5th- and 6th-grade students' anticipated responses to hypothetical peers with undesirable characteristics (e.g., being overweight) are influenced by information that each peer (a) desired (or did not desire) to change the characteristic, (b) exerted effort (or did not exert effort) to change the…

  12. Children's belief- and desire-reasoning in the temporoparietal junction: evidence for specialization from functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Lindsay C; Kovelman, Ioulia; Hu, Xiaosu; Wellman, Henry M

    2015-01-01

    Behaviorally, children's explicit theory of mind (ToM) proceeds in a progression of mental-state understandings: developmentally, children demonstrate accurate explicit desire-reasoning before accurate explicit belief-reasoning. Given its robust and cross-cultural nature, we hypothesize this progression may be paced in part by maturation/specialization of the brain. Neuroimaging research demonstrates that the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) becomes increasingly selective for ToM reasoning as children age, and as their ToM improves. But this research has narrowly focused on beliefs or on undifferentiated mental-states. A recent ERP study in children included a critical contrast to desire-reasoning, and demonstrated that right posterior potentials differentiated belief-reasoning from desire-reasoning. Taken together, the literature suggests that children's desire-belief progression may be paced by specialization of the right TPJ for belief-reasoning specifically, beyond desire-reasoning. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis directly by examining children's belief- and desire-reasoning using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with structural magnetic resonance imaging to pinpoint brain activation in the right TPJ. Results showed greatest activation in the right TPJ for belief-reasoning, beyond desire-reasoning, and beyond non-mental reasoning (control). Findings replicate and critically extend prior ERP results, and provide clear evidence for a specific neural mechanism underlying children's progression from understanding desires to understanding beliefs.

  13. Survey of Middle School Teacher Desire for Staff Development Focused on Competencies to Teach Gifted and Talented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Deborah O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, to determine the level of teacher desire for professional development in competencies needed to teach gifted learners, and second, to identify differences in the level of teacher desirability as it related to a number of independent measures (gender, life stage, teacher concerns, primary teaching…

  14. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Strizzi, Jenna; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Pappadis, Monique; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Valdivia Tangarife, Edgar Ricardo; Fernandez Agis, Inmaculada; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can substantially alter many areas of a person's life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls) from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS). Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p < 0.001), FSFI subscales of desire (p < 0.05), arousal (p < 0.05), lubrication (p < 0.05), orgasm (p < 0.05), and satisfaction (p < 0.05), and the ISS (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs.

  15. Managing for Desired Experiences and Site Preferences: The Case of Fee-Fishing Anglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuett, Michael A.; Pierskalla, Chad D.

    2007-02-01

    Fee-fishing involves paying a fee for the privilege of fishing a body of water where fish populations are enhanced by stocking fish. Past literature on this activity has focused more on the operation of the enterprise and management of the fish than the people and site characteristics. The objectives of the study were to profile anglers and describe their site/management preferences. This study utilized an on-site interview and mail-back questionnaire at fee-fishing establishments in West Virginia ( n = 212). Factor analysis of desired recreation experiences yielded five factors: Experience nature & adventure, Stress release & relaxation, Trophy fishing, Escape, and Family time. Cluster analysis showed that these anglers can be segmented into two distinct clusters, differing by sociodemographic characteristics, fishing behavior, and site/management preferences. The findings from this study provide baseline data to aid public resource managers and fee-fishing business owners in determining how to provide satisfying outdoor experiences and deliver desired services on-site. Future research will be needed from additional fee-fishing sites to obtain more detail about this outdoor recreation cohort and be able to generalize to a larger population of participants.

  16. A System for Enzymatic Lysine Methylation in a Desired Sequence Context

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A number of lysine-specific methyltransferases (KMTs) are responsible for the post-translational modification of cellular proteins on lysine residues. Most KMTs typically recognize specific motifs in unstructured, short peptide sequences. However, we have recently discovered a novel KMT that appeared to have a more relaxed sequence specificity, namely, valosin-containing protein (VCP)-KMT, which trimethylates Lys-315 in the molecular chaperone VCP. On the basis of this, here, we explored the possibility of using the VCP-KMT/VCP system to obtain specific lysine methylation of desired sequences grafted onto a VCP-derived scaffold. We generated VCP-derived proteins in which three amino acid residues on each side of Lys-315 had been replaced by various sequences representing lysine methylation sites in histone H3. We found that all of these chimeric proteins were subject to efficient VCP-KMT-mediated methylation in vitro, and methylation was also observed in mammalian cells. Thus, we here describe a versatile system for introducing lysine methylation into a desired peptide sequence, and the approach should be readily expandable for generating combinatorial libraries of methylated sequences. PMID:28357416

  17. Sexual and relationship satisfaction among heterosexual men and women: the importance of desired frequency of sex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony; Lyons, Anthony; Ferris, Jason; Richters, Juliet; Pitts, Marian; Shelley, Julia; Simpson, Judy M

    2011-01-01

    Little is known of the extent to which heterosexual couples are satisfied with their current frequency of sex and the degree to which this predicts overall sexual and relationship satisfaction. A population-based survey of 4,290 men and 4,366 women was conducted among Australians aged 16 to 64 years from a range of sociodemographic backgrounds, of whom 3,240 men and 3,304 women were in regular heterosexual relationships. Only 46% of men and 58% of women were satisfied with their current frequency of sex. Dissatisfied men were overwhelmingly likely to desire sex more frequently; among dissatisfied women, only two thirds wanted sex more frequently. Age was a significant factor but only for men, with those aged 35-44 years tending to be least satisfied. Men and women who were dissatisfied with their frequency of sex were also more likely to express overall lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. The authors' findings not only highlight desired frequency of sex as a major factor in satisfaction, but also reveal important gender and other sociodemographic differences that need to be taken into account by researchers and therapists seeking to understand and improve sexual and relationship satisfaction among heterosexual couples. Other issues such as length of time spent having sex and practices engaged in may also be relevant, particularly for women.

  18. Optimization on drying conditions of a solar electrohydrodynamic drying system based on desirability concept

    PubMed Central

    Dalvand, Mohammad Jafar; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Rafiee, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to present a new drying method for agricultural products. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) has been applied for drying of agricultural materials due to several advantages such as energy saving, low cost equipment, low drying temperatures, and superior material quality. To evaluate this method, an EHD dryer based on solar (photovoltaic) energy was designed and fabricated. Moreover, the optimum condition for the EHD drying of kiwi fruit was studied by applying the Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology. The desirability function was applied for optimization in case of single objective and multiobjective functions. By using the multiobjective optimization method, maximum desirability value of 0.865 was obtained based on the following: applied voltage of 15 kV, field strength of 5.2 kV cm−1, without forced air stream, and finally a combination of 17 discharge electrodes (needles). The results indicated that increasing the applied voltage from 6 to 15 kV, moisture ratio (MR) decreased, though energy efficiency and energy consumption were increasing. On the other hand, field strength of 5.2 kV cm−1 was the optimal point in terms of MR. PMID:25493195

  19. Desire to Bargain and Negotiation Success: Lessons About the Need to Negotiate from Six Hydropower Disputes.

    PubMed

    BURKARDT; LAMB; TAYLOR

    1998-11-01

    / We investigated the notion that successful negotiations require that all parties to the dispute must have a desire to bargain. This desire is most likely to be present when the dispute exhibits ripeness and each party believes a bargained solution is the most cost-effective way to resolve differences. Structured interviews of participants in six Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hydropower licensing consultations were conducted to determine the level of need to negotiate for each party. The findings indicate that a need to negotiate is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for success. Several factors were associated with a need to negotiate: a weak BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement); a salient issue; participants' sense of efficacy; a sense of inevitability; professional roles encouraging negotiation; and disputes about facts as opposed to disputes about values. Participants' need to negotiate fluctuated throughout the process and intensified when questions were ripe: i.e., critical issues were debated or the regulatory process required action.KEY WORDS: Alternative dispute resolution; Federal licenses; Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Instream flow; Environmental planning

  20. Desired attributes and skills of program managers in translation of evidence-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rhonda; Woodell, Carol; McCarville, Erin; Damitz, Maureen; Banks, Tinesha; Montoya, Jorge; Lesch, Julie Kennedy; Peretz, Patricia; Lara, Marielena

    2011-11-01

    Successful chronic disease project management, especially of multiyear initiatives using evidence-based interventions (EBIs), is of great importance to funders, health care decision makers, and researchers, particularly in light of limited funding. However, a gap in knowledge may exist regarding which attributes and skills are most desirable in a program manager to help him or her ensure successful implementation of EBIs. Although some literature examines the dynamics contributing to the success of community coalitions, public health leadership, and community health education, there is minimal literature exploring the significance of a program manager's role in the conceptualization, implementation, and sustainability of initiatives to improve patient and community health. The authors present their experiences as participants in a large-scale asthma initiative implemented in priority communities, as well as results of a survey distributed among all personnel of the program sites. The survey aimed to assess the key skills and attributes, in addition to contextual factors, that contribute to the strength of a program manager overseeing EBIs in asthma initiatives. The results suggest that certain attributes and skills are desirable in recruiting and hiring of a program manager, especially when augmented by ongoing skill-building training, and can help ensure program and research success.

  1. Affect, Behavior, Cognition, and Desire in the Big Five: An Analysis of Item Content and Structure.

    PubMed

    Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William

    2015-01-01

    Personality psychology is concerned with affect (A), behavior (B), cognition (C) and desire (D), and personality traits have been defined conceptually as abstractions used to either explain or summarize coherent ABC (and sometimes D) patterns over time and space. However, this conceptual definition of traits has not been reflected in their operationalization, possibly resulting in theoretical and practical limitations to current trait inventories. Thus, the goal of this project was to determine the affective, behavioral, cognitive and desire (ABCD) components of Big-Five personality traits. The first study assessed the ABCD content of items measuring Big-Five traits in order to determine the ABCD composition of traits and identify items measuring relatively high amounts of only one ABCD content. The second study examined the correlational structure of scales constructed from items assessing ABCD content via a large, web-based study. An assessment of Big-Five traits that delineates ABCD components of each trait is presented, and the discussion focuses on how this assessment builds upon current approaches of assessing personality.

  2. Affect, Behavior, Cognition, and Desire in the Big Five: An Analysis of Item Content and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William

    2015-01-01

    Personality psychology is concerned with affect (A), behavior (B), cognition (C) and desire (D), and personality traits have been defined conceptually as abstractions used to either explain or summarize coherent ABC (and sometimes D) patterns over time and space. However, this conceptual definition of traits has not been reflected in their operationalization, possibly resulting in theoretical and practical limitations to current trait inventories. Thus, the goal of this project was to determine the affective, behavioral, cognitive and desire (ABCD) components of Big-Five personality traits. The first study assessed the ABCD content of items measuring Big-Five traits in order to determine the ABCD composition of traits and identify items measuring relatively high amounts of only one ABCD content. The second study examined the correlational structure of scales constructed from items assessing ABCD content via a large, web-based study. An assessment of Big-Five traits that delineates ABCD components of each trait is presented, and the discussion focuses on how this assessment builds upon current approaches of assessing personality. PMID:26279606

  3. Designing Hyperchaotic Cat Maps With Any Desired Number of Positive Lyapunov Exponents.

    PubMed

    Hua, Zhongyun; Yi, Shuang; Zhou, Yicong; Li, Chengqing; Wu, Yue

    2017-01-04

    Generating chaotic maps with expected dynamics of users is a challenging topic. Utilizing the inherent relation between the Lyapunov exponents (LEs) of the Cat map and its associated Cat matrix, this paper proposes a simple but efficient method to construct an n-dimensional (n-D) hyperchaotic Cat map (HCM) with any desired number of positive LEs. The method first generates two basic n-D Cat matrices iteratively and then constructs the final n-D Cat matrix by performing similarity transformation on one basic n-D Cat matrix by the other. Given any number of positive LEs, it can generate an n-D HCM with desired hyperchaotic complexity. Two illustrative examples of n-D HCMs were constructed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method, and to verify the inherent relation between the LEs and Cat matrix. Theoretical analysis proves that the parameter space of the generated HCM is very large. Performance evaluations show that, compared with existing methods, the proposed method can construct n-D HCMs with lower computation complexity and their outputs demonstrate strong randomness and complex ergodicity.

  4. Educational differences in fertility desires, intentions and behaviour: A life course perspective.

    PubMed

    Berrington, Ann; Pattaro, Serena

    2014-09-01

    Despite a long tradition of studying the relationship between education and fertility outcomes less is known about how educational differences in fertility intentions are formed and translated into achieved births over the life course. This paper provides new insights using data from a large cohort study and Miller's Traits-Desires-Intentions-Behaviour framework for understanding childbearing. We examine how parental aspirations for education, educational ability in childhood, and educational attainment in young adulthood relate to: males' and females' fertility desires in adolescence; fertility intentions in early adulthood; and educational differences in the achievement of fertility intentions. We conclude that family building preferences expressed in adolescence, especially those for the timing of entry into parenthood are shaped by parental socio-economic background, mediated through educational ability and parental expectations for education. In young adulthood, no clear, consistent educational gradient in intended family size is found. However, there is a negative educational gradient in the likelihood of achieving intended births by age 46, especially for women. The findings indicate the importance of educational differences in employment and partnership behaviour in mediating these relationships.

  5. The physical examination in cosmetic surgery: communication strategies to promote the desirability of surgery.

    PubMed

    Mirivel, Julien C

    2008-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is a controversial medical practice that is rapidly expanding in the United States. In 2004 alone, 9.2 million procedures were performed. From breast augmentation to tummy tuck, Americans are taking surgical/medical/health risks to alter their bodily appearance. Although many scholars have criticized the practice, few have looked closely at how plastic surgeons interact with prospective surgical candidates. This essay explores videotaped data of naturally occurring interactions between plastic surgeons and patients seeking to transform their physical appearance. Drawing on action-implicative discourse analysis (Tracy, 2005), the article describes plastic surgeons' embodied and discursive activities during a typical physical examination. The core analysis shows how the patient's body and its aesthetic features can be used by plastic surgeons as interpretive resources to promote the desirability of surgery. By touching excess tissue, pinching it, moving it, or applying tools and artifacts (e.g., tape measurer) on and around the body, plastic surgeons literally bring to life patients' bodily "flaws." Through their multimodal performance, I argue, plastic surgeons mark the desirability of surgical transformation. As medicine meets consumerism, medical activities turn persuasive, incrementally constructing the patient's body as a territory of surgical need.

  6. The "neutron channel design"—A method for gaining the desired neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, G.; Hu, H. S.; Wang, S.; Pan, Z. H.; Jia, Q. G.; Yan, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    The neutrons with desired parameters can be obtained after initial neutrons penetrating various structure and component of the material. A novel method, the "neutron channel design", is proposed in this investigation for gaining the desired neutrons. It is established by employing genetic algorithm (GA) combining with Monte Carlo software. This method is verified by obtaining 0.01eV to 1.0eV neutrons from the Compact Accelerator-driven Neutron Source (CANS). One layer polyethylene (PE) moderator was designed and installed behind the beryllium target in CANS. The simulations and the experiment for detection the neutrons were carried out. The neutron spectrum at 500cm from the PE moderator was simulated by MCNP and PHITS software. The counts of 0.01eV to 1.0eV neutrons were simulated by MCNP and detected by the thermal neutron detector in the experiment. These data were compared and analyzed. Then this method is researched on designing the complex structure of PE and the composite material consisting of PE, lead and zirconium dioxide.

  7. Love, drive and desire in the works of Freud, Lacan and Proust.

    PubMed

    Gammelgaard, Judy

    2011-08-01

    Both Freud and Lacan have made love the object of scientific enquiry, which is in itself remarkable, since we usually turn this subject over to literary and philosophical treatment. This article discusses Freud and Lacan's contributions to the psychology of love through dialogue with Marcel Proust's seminal novel, Remembrance of Things Past, with special emphasis on the middle sections. The point of departure is love's manifestation in the analytical situation. Freud has described transference love as both resistance and as an extreme variant of normal falling in love, to which Lacan adds the deceptive character of transference. From transference love the investigation continues to the contradictions Freud has described in Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality as love's affectionate and sensual currents. Lacan contributes the concept of desire, which must be distinguished from drive and love. The differentiation between desire, drive and love introduces the perspective necessary for a psychoanalytic reading of Proust's opus. The main objective is a reading of the protagonists, Albertine and the Baron de Charlus, as representatives of the vicissitudes of love and drive, respectively.

  8. Love and desire amongst middle-class Gujarati Indians in the UK and India.

    PubMed

    Twamley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes findings from an ethnographic study exploring understandings of love and intimacy amongst young heterosexual middle-class Indians of Gujarati origin in the UK and India. A two-site comparative study was used to enable an understanding of how social and economic contexts shape cultural constructions of intimate relationships and sexuality. Focusing on attitudes to 'love at first sight', this paper shows that, for Indian participants, love based on physical attraction denotes a lesser kind of love. A relationship based on 'physical love' is not expected to last, since it has been formed without regard to family and status concerns. Even couples who meet outside of the arranged marriage system demonstrate the quality of their love by not having sex with one another before marriage. In the UK, however, participants view love as properly spontaneous. Love at first sight is considered desirable and demonstrates how the relationship must be based on love only, without any concern for (for example) material gain. This spontaneous love entails both physical attraction and emotional connection - an early transition to sex, usually before marriage, was seen as both desirable and inevitable.

  9. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Strizzi, Jenna; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Pappadis, Monique; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Valdivia Tangarife, Edgar Ricardo; Fernandez Agis, Inmaculada; Perrin, Paul B.; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can substantially alter many areas of a person's life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls) from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS). Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p < 0.001), FSFI subscales of desire (p < 0.05), arousal (p < 0.05), lubrication (p < 0.05), orgasm (p < 0.05), and satisfaction (p < 0.05), and the ISS (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs. PMID:26556951

  10. Shape control of composite plates and shells with embedded actuators. 2: Desired shape specified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koconis, David B.; Kollar, Laszlo P.; Springer, George S.

    The changes in shapes of fiber-reinforced composite beams, plates and shells affected by embedded piezoelectric actuators were investigated. An analytical method was developed to determine the voltages needed to achieve a specified desired shape. The method is formulated on the basis of mathematical models using two-dimensional, linear, shallow shell theory including transverse shear effects which are important in the case of sandwich construction. The solution technique is a minimization of an error function which is a measure of the difference between the deformed shape caused by the application of voltages and the desired shape. A computationally efficient, user-friendly computer code was written which is suitable for performing the numerical calculations. The code, designated as SHAPE2, gives the voltages needed to achieve specified changes in shape. To validate the method and the computer code, results generated by the code were compared to existing analytical and experimental results. The predictions provided by the SHAPE2 code were in excellent agreement with the results of the other analyses and data.

  11. Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward.

  12. Structure-based fragment shuffling of two fungal phytases for combination of desirable properties.

    PubMed

    Bei, Jinlong; Chen, Zhuang; Fu, Jie; Jiang, Zongyong; Wang, Jinwen; Wang, Xunzhang

    2009-01-15

    Aspergillus niger NRRL 3135 phytase (Anp) and Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 13073 phytase (Afp) are quite different but mutually complementary in many properties. A semi-rational protein engineering strategy based on 3D structure and sequence alignment was used to take advantage of the desirable characteristics of both enzymes. Each phytase was divided into seven fragments, including regions I-VII (I, 1-47; II, 59-133; III, 139-172; IV, 178-237; V, 246-329; VI338-381; VII, 404-444). The equivalent regions were swapped to construct an array of chimeras. Among the functional chimeras expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, novel phytases with combinations of the most desirable properties, including heat-resistance, were obtained. Correlations of individual regions with detailed differences were established by systematic evaluation of the substitutions. Regions II and VI contributed to the difference in specific activity at pH 5.0. Regions IV and V of Anp fully accounted for its second pH optimum at pH 2.5. Most influences of substitutions were additive, except those of regions V and VI. Exchanging both regions led to different impacts upon K(m) and activity at approximately pH 4.0 compared with the replacement of either.

  13. RNA-guided Cas9 as an in vivo desired-target mutator in maize.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuxi; Liu, Changlin; Qi, Xiantao; Wu, Yongchun; Fei, Xiaohong; Mao, Long; Chen, Beijiu; Li, Xinhai; Xie, Chuanxiao

    2017-04-05

    The RNA-guided Cas9 system is a versatile tool for genome editing. Here, we established a RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN) system as an in vivo desired-target mutator (DTM) in maize to reduce the linkage drag during breeding procedure, using the LIGULELESS1 (LG1) locus as a proof-of-concept. Our system showed 51.5% to 91.2% mutation frequency in T0 transgenic plants. We then crossed the T1 plants stably expressing DTM with six diverse recipient maize lines and found that 11.79% to 28.71% of the plants tested were mutants induced by the DTM effect. Analysis of successive F2 plants indicated that the mutations induced by the DTM effect were largely heritable. Moreover, DTM-generated hybrids had significantly smaller leaf angles that were reduced more than 50% when compared with that of the wild type. Planting experiments showed that DTM generated maize plants can be grown with significantly higher density and hence greater yield potential. Our work demonstrate that stably expressed RGEN could be implemented as an in vivo DTM to rapidly generate and spread desired mutations in maize through hybridization and subsequent backcrossing, and hence bypassing the linkage drag effect in convention introgression methodology. This proof-of-concept experiment can be a potentially much more efficient breeding strategy in crops employing the RNA-guided Cas9 genome editing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. The anatomy of a forbidden desire: men, penetration and semen exchange.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dave; Warner, Dan

    2005-03-01

    The rising popularity of unprotected anal sex (bareback sex) among men who have sex with men (MSM) is perplexing healthcare providers working in sexual health clinics. Epidemiological research on the topic overlooks several socio-cultural and psychological dimensions. Our research attempts to construct an appropriate theoretical edifice by which we can understand this sexual practice. In order to achieve this objective, a qualitative design was selected and 18 semiconductive in-depth interviews were carried out with barebackers from five European and North American cities. We then analyzed the data using two theoretical approaches that were sensitive to the issues of desire, transgression and pleasure. These theories are those of the late French psychoanalyst, Jacques Lacan, and those of poststructural thinkers, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. These theoretical frameworks helped shed light on the significance of bareback sex, and can potentially influence healthcare providers in gaining a better understanding not only of their clients, but also of their own role in the circuitry of desire at work within bareback. We found that while the exchange of semen constitutes a dangerous and irrational practice to healthcare professionals, it is nevertheless a significant variable in the sexual lives of barebackers that needs to be taken into consideration in the provision of healthcare services.

  15. Setting the space for sex: architecture, desire and health issues in gay bathhouses.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dave; O'Byrne, Patrick; Gastaldo, Denise

    2007-02-01

    This aim of this study was to describe and compare the physical design, as well as the atmosphere of urban gay bathhouses, and reflect on how desire operates within these premises when it intersects with the bathhouse environment and health imperatives. Three bathhouses were studied for a total of 147 h of observation. Men's desire for other men has created a landscape of spaces (real and virtual) where sex takes place in parks, alleys, restrooms, rest stops, adult theatres, video arcades, bookstores, bars, gay bathhouses and finally, the Internet. Although the Internet is perceived as an easy way for encountering sexual partners, gay bathhouses remain the most popular and convenient way, for men having sex with men to meet for regular or casual sex. This paper presents the descriptive results of an ethnographic nursing study that took place in three gay bathhouses located in two Canadian metropolitan areas. Gay bathhouses offer patrons a space within which a wide range of interactions, sensations and pleasure can be experienced. This paper highlights the specific features of three gay bathhouses, compares settings according to their specific architectural features and related sexual activities, and finally, proposes some changes in light of certain health issues.

  16. Optimization on drying conditions of a solar electrohydrodynamic drying system based on desirability concept.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Mohammad Jafar; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Rafiee, Shahin

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to present a new drying method for agricultural products. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) has been applied for drying of agricultural materials due to several advantages such as energy saving, low cost equipment, low drying temperatures, and superior material quality. To evaluate this method, an EHD dryer based on solar (photovoltaic) energy was designed and fabricated. Moreover, the optimum condition for the EHD drying of kiwi fruit was studied by applying the Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology. The desirability function was applied for optimization in case of single objective and multiobjective functions. By using the multiobjective optimization method, maximum desirability value of 0.865 was obtained based on the following: applied voltage of 15 kV, field strength of 5.2 kV cm(-1), without forced air stream, and finally a combination of 17 discharge electrodes (needles). The results indicated that increasing the applied voltage from 6 to 15 kV, moisture ratio (MR) decreased, though energy efficiency and energy consumption were increasing. On the other hand, field strength of 5.2 kV cm(-1) was the optimal point in terms of MR.

  17. Tubo-ovarian abscess management options for women who desire fertility.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Mitchell; Breitkopf, Dan; Waud, Kay

    2009-10-01

    Tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA), a serious sequela of pelvic inflammatory disease, occurs usually in women of ages 20 to 40. Up to 59% of these women are nulliparous. Traditionally, pregnancy rates after TOA are estimated to be 15% or less. Current proposed management algorithms for TOA do not include a separate pathway for women of reproductive age who may desire future pregnancies. A MEDLINE search and extensive review of published literature was undertaken to study management options for patients with TOA, and to compare rates of responders, pregnancies and complications associated with each management option. If intra-abdominal rupture is suspected, and patients are treated with fertility-preserving, conservative surgery, reported pregnancy rate is 25%. If no rupture is suspected and patients are treated with medical management alone, reported pregnancy rates vary between 4% and 15%. If no rupture is suspected, and the treatment is medical management with immediate laparoscopic drainage within 24 hours, reported pregnancy rates vary between 32% and 63%. Laparoscopy should be considered to all patients with TOA who desire future conception. Overall, the advantages of immediate laparoscopy allow for an accurate diagnosis, effective treatment under magnification with minimal complications, possibly faster response rates with shorter hospitalization times and decreased infertility.

  18. Comparison of sensory specific satiety and sensory specific desires to eat in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Annemarie; Ritz, Christian; Hartvig, Ditte L; Møller, Per

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this experiment is to compare sensory specific satiety (SSS) and sensory specific desire to eat (SSD), which can be described as general wanting for certain taste categories and go beyond specific foods, in children and adults and their impact on subsequent food choices. Eighty-seven children (10.3 ± 0.6 years) and 49 adults (31.0 ± 2.0 years) participated in the study. Sweet pear banana yoghurt was used as the food eaten to satiation, and test foods representing sweet, salty, sour, bitter, "fatty", and "spicy" flavors were also evaluated (foods not eaten). At baseline and post meal participants evaluated hunger, satiation, liking, and wanting for test foods and yoghurt, and desires on a 150 mm visual analogue score (VAS) scale. The yoghurt was eaten until a state of "comfortable satiation" was reached. Results showed that SSS and SSD were expressed differently in children and adults. In children, SSS was primarily product specific and bound to the yoghurt, whereas in adults SSS was transferred to the uneaten foods sharing sensory characteristics with the yoghurt (namely sweet, sour and "fatty"), which all decreased in their liking post meal. Similar differences were found for SSD. We conclude that children and adults differ in their expression of SSS and SSD, and this might have implications for planning meal compositions.

  19. An Advanced Electrospinning Method of Fabricating Nanofibrous Patterned Architectures with Controlled Deposition and Desired Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sheikh Md

    We introduce a versatile advanced method of electrospinning for fabricating various kinds of nanofibrous patterns along with desired alignment, controlled amount of deposition and locally variable density into the architectures. In this method, we employed multiple electrodes whose potentials have been altered in milliseconds with the help of microprocessor based control system. Therefore, key success of this method was that the electrical field as well as charge carrying fibers could be switched shortly from one electrode's location to another, as a result, electrospun fibers could be deposited on the designated areas with desired alignment. A wide range of nanofibrous patterned architectures were constructed using proper arrangement of multiple electrodes. By controlling the concurrent activation time of two adjacent electrodes, we demonstrated that amount of fibers going into the pattern can be adjusted and desired alignment in electrospun fibers can be obtained. We also revealed that the deposition density of electrospun fibers in different areas of patterned architectures can be varied. We showed that by controlling the deposition time between two adjacent electrodes, a number of functionally graded patterns can be generated with uniaxial alignment. We also demonstrated that this handy method was capable of producing random, aligned, and multidirectional nanofibrous mats by engaging a number of electrodes and switching them in desired patterns. A comprehensive study using finite element method was carried out to understand the effects of electrical field. Simulation results revealed that electrical field strength alters shortly based on electrode control switch patterns. Nanofibrous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds and its composite reinforced with wollastonite and wood flour were fabricated using rotating drum electrospinning technique. Morphological, mechanical, and thermal, properties were characterized on PVA/wollastonite and PVA/wood flour nanocomposites

  20. To Have Control Over or to Be Free From Others? The Desire for Power Reflects a Need for Autonomy.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Joris; Stoker, Janka I; Rink, Floor; Galinsky, Adam D

    2016-04-01

    The current research explores why people desire power and how that desire can be satisfied. We propose that a position of power can be subjectively experienced as conferring influence over others or as offering autonomy from the influence of others. Conversely, a low-power position can be experienced as lacking influence or lacking autonomy. Nine studies show that subjectively experiencing one's power as autonomy predicts the desire for power, whereas the experience of influence over others does not. Furthermore, gaining autonomy quenches the desire for power, but gaining influence does not. The studies demonstrated the primacy of autonomy across both experimental and correlational designs, across measured mediation and manipulated mediator approaches, and across three different continents (Europe, United States, India). Together, these studies offer evidence that people desire power not to be a master over others, but to be master of their own domain, to control their own fate.