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Sample records for le technetium 99m

  1. Technetium-99m generator system

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Collins, E.D.

    1998-06-30

    A {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating {sup 99m}Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of {sup 99m}Tc includes the general steps of: (a) providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; (b) eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute {sup 99m}Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted {sup 99m}Tc on the ion-exchange column; and (c) eluting the concentrated {sup 99m}Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent. 1 fig.

  2. Technetium-99m generator system

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Collins, Emory D.

    1998-01-01

    A .sup.99 Mo/.sup.99m Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating .sup.99m Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of .sup.99m Tc includes the general steps of: a. providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; b. eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute .sup.99m Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted .sup.99m Tc on the ion-exchange column; and c. eluting the concentrated .sup.99m Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent.

  3. Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Katherine M.

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8-18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 μA with an energy window of 18→10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron

  4. Radiolabelling of platelets with technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Sundrehagen, E.; Urdal, P.; Heggli, D.E.; Lindegaard, M.W.; Jacobsen, E. )

    1990-03-01

    A method for labelling of platelets with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) is presented. In principle, aminobenzoic acid and tartaric acid are used as reagents, allowing Tc-99m complexes of intermediate chemical stability to be formed. These complexes react rapidly with proteins, such as platelet proteins, when added. We have examined the isolation procedure for the platelets and the labelling procedure using residual aggregational ability and residual content of beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) as indicators of damage to the platelets. In its final version the method allowed a 32.6 +/- 2.7% (mean +/- SD) incorporation of Tc-99m into platelets which again showed a 66 +/- 15% residual aggregational ability, tested by 50 mumol/l of ADP, and a 79 +/- 17% residual content of beta-TG releasable by 10 IU/ml of thrombin. In a pilot clinical study involving 28 patients we found labelled autologous platelets useful in detecting lung embolism and deep vein thrombosis.

  5. Technetium-99m APD compared with technetium-99m MDP as a bone scanning agent

    SciTech Connect

    Degrossi, O.J.; Oliveri, P.; Garcia del Rio, H.; Labriola, R.; Artagaveytia, D.; Degrossi, E.B.

    1985-10-01

    The authors have investigated the possibilities of technetium-99m-(-3-aminohydroxypropylidene)-1-1-bisphosphonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)APD) as a bone scanning agent in 14 normal subjects and 28 patients. Similar studies in the same normal subjects and patients were carried out with /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-bisphosphonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)MDP). The compounds were labeled with /sup 99m/Tc by means of an electrolytical method; the free pertechnetate content was always under 1%. The (/sup 99m/Tc)APD T1/2 of the third component of the disappearance plasma curve in six normal subjects was 152 +/- 46 min (mean +/- s.d.), while the 24-hr whole-body retention (WBR) was 17.6% +/- 4.6. The (99mTc)MDP value of the 24-hr WBR was 28.6% +/- 3.9. The bone/soft-tissue ratio (B/ST) was investigated in eight control subjects on the eleventh thoracic and the fourth lumbar vertebrae. The B/ST ratios were similar for both APD and MDP studies. In 28 patients with suspected bone metastasis or primary bone disease, bone scintigraphy was carried out; both compounds showed similar findings and the same number of positive results. In five of these patients, the lesion/normal bone ratio was determined with values of 4.6 +/- 2.0 in APD studies and 4.8 +/- 2.3 with MDP. APD was also used in 126 patients; no adverse reactions were observed. The APD dose used i.v. for bone scanning was 200-fold less than those employed by mouth per day, for the treatment of bone disease for long periods. In our experience, APD appears to be an adequate agent for bone scintigraphy.

  6. 99M-Technetium labeled tin colloid radiopharmaceuticals

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1976-07-06

    An improved 99m-technetium labeled tin(II) colloid, size-stabilized for reticuloendothelial organ imaging without the use of macromolecular stabilizers and a packaged tin base reagent and an improved method for making it are disclosed.

  7. Myocardial infarct imaging in patients with technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid. Superiority of technetium-99m pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.P.; Milne, N.; Karlsberg, R.P.; Olson, H.G.; Kuperus, J.

    1987-07-01

    Technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m DMSA) has been used successfully for imaging acute myocardial infarction in a canine model. The application in humans, however, has not been previously reported. In order to determine the feasibility of using this agent in clinical studies and to compare the agent to technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi), ten patients with proven myocardial infarction were studied. While imaging of transmural infarctions in humans was achieved using Tc-99m DMSA, scores for the Tc-99m DMSA images (1.8 +/- 0.96) were not as high as for Tc-99m PPi (2.5 +/- 0.45) (P less than 0.05). Discordance among four independent interpreters was greater for images obtained with Tc-99m DMSA. The superiority of Tc-99m PPi was evident whether images were obtained early (within 24 hours) or late (within five days). Although DMSA images were not obscured by rib uptake, they were less sensitive (63%) than Tc-99m PPi (97%). A potential advantage of Tc-99m DMSA in imaging acute myocardial infarction is that radiotracer concentration in the infarct occurs primarily in the early postinfarction period. The longer postinfarction that Tc-99m DMSA imaging was attempted, the lower the concentration of radiotracer. Thus, Tc-99m DMSA would not be expected to have the same persistence pattern as Tc-99m PPi into the remote postinfarction period. The persistent positivity of Tc-99m PPi has made it difficult to diagnose reinfarction.

  8. Mechanism of renal concentration of technetium-99m glucoheptonate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1985-11-01

    Seventy female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the mechanism of tubular localization and the effects of commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance on renal uptake and urinary excretion of technetium-99m glucoheptonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)GHA). The in-vivo protein binding and protein-free plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA also were quantitated. Kidney uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA averaged 11% of the injected dose in control animals. This varied slightly among groups but was significantly reduced by probenecid blockade and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) competition to 4 and 2, respectively. Technetium-99m DMSA was not affected in its renal accumulation by these maneuvers. The total plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA was lower than iodine-125( SVI)iothalamate but the clearance of the protein free supernate was higher, raising a possibility of some tubular secretion. Hepatic uptake was minimal in all groups averaging less than 1% injected dose. These data demonstrate that renal accumulation of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA is blocked by probenecid and PAH suggesting that it is actively concentrated in the proximal tubule by enzyme systems similar to those involved in PAH and hippuran transport. It appears that (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA uptake measures a different aspect of kidney function than (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA.

  9. Images of liposarcoma using technetium-99m bleomycin and technetium (V)-99m DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Shane, F.I.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.; Horiuchi, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Ishii, M.

    1986-12-01

    The effectiveness of Tc-99m bleomycin (BLM) and Tc(V)-99m DMSA are compared with that of Ga-67 citrate, which is currently the most widely used agent. In four patients with lipomatous tumors, the clinical significance of tumor imaging with each of these three agents is discussed and compared. Results indicate that both Tc-99m BLM and Tc(V)-99m DMSA are superior in detecting the extension or localization of liposarcomas.

  10. Molybdenum-99/technetium-99m management: race against time.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2011-11-01

    Molybdenum-99 is a parent of diagnostic nuclear medicine. It decays to technetium-99m, which used in over 30 million investigations per year around the world. Supplies of Tc-99m remained fragile in the last few years, which may occur again in the short and long term. Few suggestions have been registered in this letter to cope inadequate supply of the most wanted radionuclide for patient care.

  11. Technetium-99m antimony colloid for bone-marrow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Martindale, A.A.; Papadimitriou, J.M.; Turner, J.H.

    1980-11-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was prepared in our laboratory for bone-marrow imaging. Optimal production of colloid particles of size range 1 to 13 nm was achieved by the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone of mol. wt. 44,000. Electron microscopy was used to size the particles. Studies in rabbits showed exclusive concentration in the subendothelial dendritic phagocytes of the bone marrow. Pseudopods from these cells were found to traverse interendothelial junctions and concentrate colloid from the sinusoids. Imaging studies of bone marrow in rabbits showed the superiority of the Tc-99m antimony colloid over the much larger colloidal particle of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Tissue distribution studies in the rat confirmed that bone-marrow uptake of Tc-99m antimony colloid was greater than that of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, although blood clearance was much slower.

  12. Detection of esophageal ulcerations with technetium-99m albumin sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.S.; Adcock, K.A.; Schmelter, R.

    1986-07-01

    Technetium-99m albumin-sucralfate ((/sup 99m/Tc)Su) can be used to demonstrate peptic ulcer disease in man and animals. We evaluated the usefulness of (/sup 99m/Tc)Su for detecting various grades of esophagitis. (/sup 99m/Tc)Su adhered to the distal esophagus for up to 3 hr in five of six patients with esophageal ulcers but adhered to only two of nine with lesser degrees of esophagitis. No adherence was seen in five patients without esophagitis. Thus, (/sup 99m/Tc)Su may not be useful for detecting any but the most severe grade of esophagitis. Based on these results, we speculate that the previously documented beneficial effects of sucralfate on mild to moderate esophagitis may be due to other mechanisms besides adherence to the ulcerated mucosa.

  13. Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m is a linear electron accelerator-based technology for producing medical imaging radioisotopes from a separation process that heats, vaporizes and condenses the desired radioisotope. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  14. Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m is a linear electron accelerator-based technology for producing medical imaging radioisotopes from a separation process that heats, vaporizes and condenses the desired radioisotope. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Diagnosis of bone infection by complementary role of technetium-99m MDP and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime-leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zahrani, Abdullah; El-Saban, Khaled; Al-Sakhri, Hijji

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Valuate complementary role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan and 99mTechnetium hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone infection. Patients and Methods: Ninety one sites suspected to have bone infection were divided in to two groups: Group I 49 sites with current endo-prothesis; and group II 42 sites with no prosthesis. All patients were subjected to serial images of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte (99mTc-white blood cells (WBCs)), triple phase bone scan (99mTc-MDP) and plain X-ray, in addition to clinical and bacteriological assessment, together with follow-up. Results: The overall sensitivity (Sn) was found to be 34.9%, 95.4%, and 86% for plain X-ray, 99mTc-MDP, and 99mTc-WBCs respectively. Concerning specificity (Sp) was found to be 47.9%, 45.8%, and 91.7% respectively for the three imaging modalities. 99mTc-WBCs showed better Sn, Sp, and accuracy in group I (95%, 93.1% and 93.9%, respectively) compared to 40%, 41.4%, and 40.8% for plain X-ray and 90%, 62%, and 73.5% respectively for 99mTc-MDP. On the other hand, 99mTc-MDP proved to have best Sn 100% versus 78.3% and 30.4% for 99mTc-WBCs and plain X-ray respectively. Yet, Sp and accuracy was found to best for 99mTc-WBCs (89.5% and 83.3% respectively) compared to 57.9% and 42.9% for plain X-ray and 21.1% and 64.3% for 99mTc-MDP. Conclusion: Combined imaging with 99mTc-WBCs and 99mTc-MDP proved to be effective in early detection of bone infection in the presence or absence of prosthesis. PMID:23919069

  16. Sustained Availability of Technetium-99m - Possible Paths Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, M R A; Dash, A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2013-01-01

    The availability of technetium-99m (99mTc) for single-photon imaging in diagnostic nuclear medicine is crucial, and current availability is based on the molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/99mTc generator fabricated from fission-based molybdenum (F 99Mo) produced by use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. The use of HEU targets is being phased out because of risks related to nuclear material proliferation, so alternative strategies for production of both 99Mo and 99mTc are being evaluated intensely. There are evidently no plans for replacement of the limited number of reactors that have primarily provided most of the 99Mo. The uninterrupted, dependable availability of 99mTc is a crucial issue. For these reasons, new options being pursued include both reactor- and accelerator-based strategies to sustain the continued availability of 99mTc without the use of HEU. In this paper the scientific and economic issues for transitioning from HEU to non-HEU are also discussed. In addition, the comparative advantages, disadvantages, technical challenges, present status, future prospects, security concerns, economic viability, and regulatory obstacles are reviewed. In addition, the international actions in progress towards evolving possible alternative strategies to produce 99Mo and/or 99mTc are analyzed. The breadth of technologies and new strategies under development to provide 99Mo and 99mTc reflects both the broad interest in and the importance of the pivotal role of 99mTc in diagnostic nuclear medicine.

  17. Technetium-99m labelling of glycosylated somatostatin-14.

    PubMed

    Du, J; Hiltunen, J; Marquez, M; Nilsson, S; Holmberg, A R

    2001-08-01

    This study presents a technetium-99m labelling method based on organometallic chemistry. It describes the simple mixing of a 99mTc(I)-carbonyl compound [99mTc(OH2)3(CO)3]+ with a histidine-tagged somatostatin-dextran (SMS-Dx-His) conjugate. Somatostatin and histidine was coupled to periodate activated dextran. The linkage was stabilised by reductive amination. The conjugate was then radiolabelled with 99mTc by using the 99mTc(CO)3 core. The labelling efficiency was 65-80% and the radiochemical purity > 95%. In the in vitro cysteine challenge, the result showed that 25% of the radiolabel was released after 1 h incubation at 37 degrees C (cysteine-conjugate at 1000:1 molar ratio). The radiolabelled SMS-Dx-His showed similar HPLC profile as the unlabelled conjugate. This labelling method, employing non reducing conditions, is useful for the labelling of peptides containing disulphide bonds. It should be possible to be used also for labelling with rhenium-188 for therapeutic applications.

  18. Rapid preparation method for technetium-99m bicisate.

    PubMed

    Hung, J C; Chowdhury, S; Redfern, M G; Mahoney, D W

    1997-06-01

    The method currently recommended for the preparation of technetium-99m bicisate (99mTc-bicisate) requires a lengthy 30-min incubation at room temperature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an alternative method to shorten the preparation time. 99mTc-bicisate was prepared with 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) 99mTc according to the manufacturer's instructions, except for the final incubation step, which was replaced with the microwave heating procedure. A standard thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method (i.e., Baker-Flex silica gel IB-F TLC plate with ethyl acetate as mobile phase) was used for the determination of the radiochemical purity (RCP) of 99mTc-bicisate. Our evaluation with different microwave heating processes (300 W with different heating times) demonstrated that as the microwave heating temperature was increased (i.e., 44 masculine-71 masculine C), an increased percentage of samples reached 95% within 5 min post preparation (n=58). The highest RCP value (i.e., 97.4%+/-0.5%, n=10) could be obtained immediately after an 8-s microwave heating time at 300 W (microwave temperature at 69 masculine C), and an average RCP value of 96.4%+/-1.3% (n=90) was maintained throughout the 24-h evaluation period. However, the trend seemed to reverse at higher microwave temperatures (i.e., 76 masculine-90 masculine C), which reconfirmed our initial findings that overheating had no benefit for the preparation of 99mTc-bicisate. To ensure that temperature was the only determining factor, a hot water incubator set at 69 masculine C was used (n=6). Similar RCP results were achieved. In conclusion, the use of a microwave oven at a low heat cycle provides a rapid and efficient way to prepare 99mTc-bicisate.

  19. Myocardial redistribution of technetium-99m-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (SESTAMIBI)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Q.S.; Solot, G.; Frank, T.L.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Becker, L.C. )

    1990-06-01

    To determine whether technetium-99m-hexakis-2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (SESTAMIBI) remains fixed in the myocardium following its initial uptake or undergoes time-related redistribution, anesthetized dogs underwent occlusion of the anterior descending coronary artery for 6 min, followed by 3-hr reperfusion. Technetium-99m-SESTAMIBI and thallium-201 (201Tl) were injected intravenously after 1 min occlusion and regional myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres. Tomographic imaging of Tc-SESTAMIBI revealed a perfusion defect with slight but definite filling in over 2 hr. Quantitative analysis indicated a significant rise in the nadir and decrease in the width of the defect in circumferential profile curves. After 3-hr of reperfusion, Tc-SESTAMIBI activity in the previously ischemic area was always greater than the activity of microspheres injected during coronary occlusion (mean normalized values, 0.32 versus 0.11, p less than 0.0001). Our results indicate that following transient ischemia and reperfusion, Tc-SESTAMIBI clearly undergoes myocardial redistribution, although more slowly and less completely than {sup 201}Tl.

  20. Simultaneous technetium-99m MIBI angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baillet, G.Y.; Mena, I.G.; Kuperus, J.H.; Robertson, J.M.; French, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Resting first-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRNA) was performed with the myocardial perfusion agent technetium-99m MIBI. In 27 patients, it was compared with technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid FPRNA. A significant correlation was present in left (r = 0.93, p less than 0.001) as well as right (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) ventricular ejection fraction measured with both radiopharmaceuticals. In 13 patients, MIBI derived segmental wall motion was compared with contrast ventriculography. A high correlation was present (p less than 0.001), and qualitative agreement was found in 38/52 segments. In 19 patients with myocardial infarction a significant correlation was present between MIBI segmental wall motion and perfusion scores (p less than 0.001). In ten patients with a history of myocardial infarction, 18 myocardial segments demonstrated diseased coronary vessels and impaired wall motion at contrast angiography. These segments were all identified by the MIBI wall motion and perfusion study. We conclude that MIBI is a promising agent for simultaneous evaluation of cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at rest.

  1. Technetium-99m NGA functional hepatic imaging: preliminary clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Vera, D.R.; Woodle, E.S.; Trudeau, W.L.; Porter, B.A.; Ward, R.E.; Krohn, K.A.; O'Grady, L.F.

    1985-11-01

    Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin ( (Tc)NGA) is a radiolabeled ligand to hepatic binding protein, a receptor which resides at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. This receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical and its kinetic model provide a noninvasive method for the assessment of liver function. Eighteen patients were studied: seven with hepatoma, eight with liver metastases, four with cirrhosis, and one patient with acute fulminant non-A, non-B hepatitis. Technetium-99m NGA liver imaging provided anatomic information of diagnostic quality comparable to that obtained with other routine imaging modalities, including computed tomography, angiography, ultrasound, and (Tc)sulfur colloid scintigraphy. Kinetic modeling of dynamic (Tc)NGA data produced estimates of standardized hepatic blood flow, Q (hepatic blood flow divided by total blood volume), and hepatic binding protein concentration, (HBP). Significant rank correlation was obtained between (HBP) estimates and CTC scores. This correlation supports the hypothesis that (HBP) is a measure of functional hepatocyte mass. The combination of decreased Q and markedly reduced (HBP) may have prognostic significance; all three patients with this combination died of hepatic failure within 6 wk of imaging.

  2. Quantification of technetium-99m lung radioactivity from planar images.

    PubMed

    Forge, N I; Mountford, P J; O'Doherty, M J

    1993-01-01

    Six methods of quantifying technetium-99m lung uptake from planar gamma camera images were evaluated. Camera sensitivities, the broad beam attenuation coefficient and build-up factors were derived from suitable phantom measurements. The accuracy of the methods was evaluated by quantifying the lung uptake of 99mTc macroaggregated albumin (MAA) in ten patients and assuming complete trapping by the lung of the known activity of injected MAA particles. Three methods based on published techniques which related the count rate from an image of a lung to that from a lung phantom were the least accurate, producing lung activities which were typically about 70% of the injected activity. Of the other three techniques, the depth-dependent build-up factor method was slightly more accurate than the geometric mean and the depth-independent build-up factor methods, producing average values (+/- SD) of lung activity which were 100% +/- 3%, 106% +/- 3% and 101% +/- 5%, respectively, of the injected activity. To measure lung uptake, all of these latter three methods required an attenuation correction with a flood source transmission scan, and therefore their accuracy was affected by the variation in the activity distribution and attenuation across an image of the thorax. PMID:8420777

  3. Leukocyte labeling with technetium-99m tin colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, B.H.; English, D.

    1987-09-01

    Triple density gradients of metrizamide in plasma (MP) were used to characterize label distribution in human leukocyte preparations incubated with /sup 99m/Tc tin colloids. Less than 50% of the cell-associated radioactivity was specifically bound to leukocytes when heparinized blood was rotated with stannous fluoride colloid ((Tc)SFC). Labeling efficiency in leukocyte rich plasma (LRP) averaged 44%, of which greater than 90% was specifically bound to leukocytes. MP-gradient analysis also revealed that leukocyte labeling did not occur with stannous chloride colloid, nor when citrate was present during rotation with (Tc)SFC. When citrate was added after labeling to solubilize unbound (Tc)SFC, radiocolloid was removed from the leukocytes, indicating that the mechanism of (Tc)SFC labeling is adherence rather than phagocytosis. Technetium-labeled neutrophils exhibited normal in vitro chemotaxis and no lung uptake in vivo. Technetium-labeled mononuclear leukocytes, on the other hand, exhibited prolonged lung transit in vivo. Neither (Tc)SFC cell preparation showed signs of in vivo reoxidation to pertechnetate.

  4. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-02-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

  5. Gated technetium-99m methoxy-isobutylisonitrile perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Avery, P G; Hudson, N M; Hubner, P J

    1992-05-01

    Technetium-99m methoxy-isobutylisonitrile, has been shown to be a useful perfusion agent for detecting coronary artery disease. Gated acquisition of perfusion images may remove motion artefact and improve detection. We compared the results of sensitivity and specificity for detecting coronary artery disease using perfusion images from the whole cardiac cycle (ungated) or from end-diastolic (gated) frames in 46 subjects, 31 with significant coronary disease and 15 with normal coronary arteries. There was no significant difference in detection of patients with coronary disease between the ungated and end-diastolic images: 25/31 with the ungated image and 28/31 with the end-diastolic. An improvement was made in detecting defects in the left anterior descending artery territory: 17/20 with the end-diastolic vs 11/20 with the ungated image (P less than 0.05) and in the right coronary artery region: 16/21 vs 10/21 (P less than 0.05), with an overall improvement in detecting regions supplied by stenosed coronary arteries: 45/55 end-diastolic vs 31/55 ungated (P less than 0.01). These results suggest use of the end-diastolic frame can significantly enhance the diagnostic capacity of methoxy-isobutylisonitrile perfusion imaging.

  6. Technetium-99m production issues in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Green, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine developed when it was realised that a radioisotopic substitution of Iodine-131 for the stable Iodine-127 would follow the same metabolic pathway in the body enabling the thyroid to be imaged and the thyroid uptake measured. The Iodine could be complexed with pharmaceutical substrates to enable other organs to be imaged, but its use was limited and high gamma energy and beta emission restricted the activity of each radiopharmaceutical used, leading to long acquisition times and degraded images. As a pure gamma emitter of 140 keV and with a 6-h half-life, Technetium-99m is a better radionuclide and images a wider range of bodily organs. However, its short half-life also requires it to be eluted from its mother radionuclide, Mo-99, in a generator, delivered weekly from radiopharmaceutical companies who obtain the Mo-99 in liquid form from high-flux research reactors. All went well till around 2007, when the NRU Reactor in Canada was closed and all other reactors went down for various periods for unrelated problems, leading to widespread Mo-99 shortages. Although the reactors have since recovered, they are 48 to 57 years old, and it seems that few governments have made any future provision such as building replacement reactors. PMID:22557795

  7. Fractionated elution using the TEKCIS technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Jonathan; De Mil, Rémy; Peyronnet, Damien; Hecquard, Claudine; Agostini, Denis; Lemonnier, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The TEKCIS technetium-99m (Tc) generator was designed to allow dry column shipment and automatized conception. A high Tc radioactive concentration is required in a subset of radiopharmacy procedures. Fractionated elution can be a useful tool to meet this requirement, especially when current elution is close to the generator expiration date. The aim of our study was to assess TEKCIS generator elution kinetics and to determine the optimal fractionated elution time to fit with procedures requiring the highest Tc radioactive concentration in clinical use. After duplicate elution at several predetermined elution times, the volume and activity of each eluate were measured. Two optimal time points were selected to perform fractionated elution and repeatability (n=34 and 33) assessed on TEKCIS generators calibrated at 6 or 8 GBq. The complete eluate volume (5 ml) was collected after 60 s of elution. A logarithmic equation was established between eluate volume (v, ml) from elapsed elution time (t, s): v=1.8335ln(t)-2.5965. Using the reciprocal equation, elution times required to obtain some commonly eluted volumes were calculated. Fractionated elutions during 15 and 20 s were selected and an average elution volume from 2.74 to 3.27 ml was collected, with an average elution yield of approximately 90 and 100%, respectively. Our work provides a simple and reliable methodology for the use of fractionated elution with the new TEKCIS generator.

  8. Spontaneous perforation of the ureter diagnosed on technetium 99m DTPA excretory urography

    SciTech Connect

    Barasch, E.; Kashdan, B.; Rathore, A.

    1988-01-01

    A case of nontraumatic rupture of the ureter secondary to a nonopaque calculus is presented. Because of the inherent high image contrast caused by the leak of technetium 99m-DTPA-labeled urine, the technetium 99m-DTPA excretory urogram is seen as an alternative to the intravenous urogram or contrast-enhanced computed tomography in selected cases of suspected ureteral rupture.

  9. Indications for /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan in children

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, I.

    1987-03-01

    The /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan provides an image of functional renal parenchyma. This static scan has specific indications and cannot be used simply in place of a /sup 99m/technetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scan. The major clinical indications for this investigation are the detection and/or evaluation of a renal scar, the small or absent kidney, an occult duplex system, certain renal masses, systemic hypertension or suspected vasculitis. The physiology of the /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan is reviewed briefly.

  10. Adverse allergic reaction to Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, J.A.; Preston, D.F.; Stephens, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    Adverse allergic reactions to radiopharmaceuticals are rare but have been documented in the literature. This report presents data consistent with a definite adverse reaction to the radiopharmaceutical (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP.

  11. Technetium-99m DMSA imaging and the obstructed kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Piepsz, A.; Ham, H.R.; Roland, J.H.; Froideville, J.L.; Kinthaert, J.; Hall, M.; Verboven, M.; Collier, F.

    1986-06-01

    Although several authors have claimed that the function of an obstructed kidney could be overestimated on Tc-99m DMSA imaging, the clinical importance of such an overestimation has not been well documented. Partial obstruction of one ureter was created in a rat, and a relative Tc-99m DMSA uptake was obtained 4 hours after intravenous injection. By puncture of the isolated obstructed kidney, it was shown that the function of that kidney was overestimated by at least 17%.

  12. Exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile: a comparative study with thallium-201.

    PubMed

    Najm, Y C; Maisey, M N; Clarke, S M; Fogelman, I; Curry, P V; Sowton, E

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease requires comparative validation against thallium-201, the established perfusion imaging agent. We have compared myocardial and lung uptake of both radiotracers following maximal exercise in 52 patients: 40 with angiographically proven coronary disease. Qualitative and quantitative image analysis showed the diagnostic sensitivity of technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile to compare favourably with that of thallium-201 as reflected by the mean number of ischaemic segments identified: 5.6 +/- 2.5 vs 4.8 +/- 2.1 by qualitative analysis, and 5.7 +/- 3.2 vs 5.0 +/- 2.6 segments by quantitative analysis. More reversibly ischaemic segments per patient were identified with technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile than with thallium-201: 3.6 +/- 2.3 vs 1.8 +/- 1.9. There was a higher exercise myocardial to background count ratio with technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile: 3.16:1 vs 2.58:1, and the mean exercise lung uptake normalised to left ventricular uptake ('lung index'), was lower for technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile than for thallium-201 (36 +/- 8% vs 40 +/- 10%). Five of the six patients with abnormal elevation of the thallium-201 exercise lung index also had elevation of the technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile exercise lung index, and all had extensive coronary artery disease. These results indicate that technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile is at least as effective as thallium-201 for detecting exercise induced myocardial ischaemia. However, technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile provides a better image quality and may be a more sensitive marker of defect reversibility. For both radiotracers lung uptake is increased with extensive coronary artery disease and measurement of this variable provides prognostic information.

  13. Evaluation of focal defects on technetium-99m sulfur colloid scans with new hepatobiliary agents

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B.K.; Pastakia, B.; Lieberman, L.M.

    1980-08-01

    In 3600 patients evaluated with technetium-99m sulfur colloid for metastatic liver disease, 40 had equivocal scans due to a solitary defect in the inferior margin of the right lobe. In these patients, the authors differentiated the gallbladder fossa from a metastatic focus using one of two new hepatobiliary agents: technetium-99m labeled pyridoxylideneglutamate and paraisopropylacetanilido iminodiacetic acid. The need for laparoscopic biopsy was obviated in a majority (78%) of the patients by identifying the gallbladder fossa.

  14. Technetium-99m MDP vs technetium-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate. A clinical comparison in various pathologic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Godart, G.; Durez, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Abramovici, J.; Robience, Y.

    1986-02-01

    The performance of Tc-99m MDP vs Tc-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) was evaluated in 20 patients with various skeletal bone diseases. Each patient was investigated twice, with an interval of three days between studies and using the same protocol, hence each case served as its own control. The results were: In a subjective interpretation by five independent and experienced investigators, the difference between agents was small, yet in favor of MDP. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the pooled results in 74.4% of all cases shows a higher bone lesion to normal bone ratio (BL/NB), and in 79.3% of all cases, a better bone lesion to soft tissue ratio (BL/ST) with Tc-99m MDP. When considering pathology types separately, the BL/NB ratio of Tc-99m MDP was 17.7% higher than the one of Tc-99m DPD in metastases, 9.5% higher in rheumatoid arthritis, 2.8% higher in metabolic diseases, and 24% higher in bone fractures. Student's paired t test on the pooled BL/NB ratios shows a difference of 15.5% for Tc-99m MDP, significant at P = 0.00155. The overall results of our study favor Tc-99m MDP.

  15. Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

  16. Radio-UHPLC: a tool for rapidly determining the radiochemical purity of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals?

    PubMed

    Kryza, David; Janier, Marc

    2013-08-01

    Determining the radiochemical purity (RCP) of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radiopharmaceuticals using the method described in the package insert is a time-consuming process, requiring particular attention in order to achieve accurate RCP results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether radio-ultra high performance liquid chromatography (radio-UHPLC) may be an alternative method for RCP testing of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin, (99m)Tc-MAG3 and (99m)Tc-sestamibi. Results obtained using radio-UHPLC were in excellent agreement with the standard method, with total analysis time being reduced to less than 3 min.

  17. Placental localization in abdominal pregnancy using technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.; Payan, J.M.; Jones, J.S.; Buse, M.G. )

    1990-06-01

    In a patient with third trimester abdominal pregnancy with fetal demise, technetium-99m-labeled erythrocytes ({sup 99m}Tc-RBCs) localized the placenta preoperatively, after nonvisualization by ultrasonography and arteriography. Extrauterine placental localization by blood-pool imaging may be useful when ultrasound fails.

  18. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Israel, O.; Groshar, D.; Weininger, J.

    1984-07-01

    Red blood cells labeled with 99mTc constitute a suitable intravascular agent for imaging of vascular abnormalities. Hemangiomas are characterized by low perfusion and a high blood pool. This ''perfusion blood-pool mismatch,'' not encountered in other lesions, may help in the specific diagnosis of this tumor. This is particularly so in cavernous hemangiomas of the liver where three-phase 99mTc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy should precede liver biopsy. Red cell scintigraphy also is useful for establishing the vascular nature of hemangiomas of the head and neck and the skin and for diagnosis of venous occlusion. Heat-damaged red blood cells provide a specific spleen imaging agent. This should be used when patients with suspected splenic pathology have equivocal colloid scintigraphy.

  19. Technetium-99m chelators in nuclear medicine. A review.

    PubMed

    Hjelstuen, O K

    1995-03-01

    Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses radioactive tracers to examine the function of body systems. The radionuclide used in about 90% of all examinations is 99Tcm, which is available from 99Mo/99Tcm generators at most nuclear medicine departments. In aqueous medium, technetium is chemically stable as pertechnetate, 99TcmO4-. Injected into the human body, pertechnetate will be absorbed by the thyroid gland because of the similarity to iodide in its radius and charge. To reach targets in the human body other than glandula thyreoidea, 99Tcm needs a carrier molecule, usually a chelating agent. Many chelators that form stable complexes with 99Tcm have affinities for certain tissues in the human body. Other chelators can be manipulated by pharmaceutical formation to be retained in certain body systems. In order to form bonds with technetium, the chelator must contain electron donors like nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. Space between multiple electron donor atoms is required to allow several bonds to form with the central metal. The stability of the complex increases with increasing number of bonds. Today, chelators for the use with 99Tcm exist for a number of highly sensitive scintigraphic studies of the brain, heart, skeleton, kidneys, hepatobiliary system and lungs. This includes chelators such as dimercaptosuccinic acid, 1,2-ethylenediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl ester, methylenediphosphonate, hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime and hexakis(methoxy isobutyl isonitrile).

  20. Characterization of technetium-99m-L,L-ECD for brain perfusion imaging, Part 1: Pharmacology of technetium-99m ECD in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Walovitch, R.C.; Hill, T.C.; Garrity, S.T.; Cheesman, E.H.; Burgess, B.A.; O'Leary, D.H.; Watson, A.D.; Ganey, M.V.; Morgan, R.A.; Williams, S.J. )

    1989-11-01

    Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (({sup 99m}Tc)ECD) is a neutral, lipophilic complex which rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier. Brain retention and tissue metabolism of ({sup 99m}Tc)ECD is dependent upon the stereochemical configuration of the complex. While both L,L and D,D enantiomers are extracted by the brain, only the L,L but not the D,D form, is metabolized and retained in the monkey brain (4.7% injected dose initially, T 1/2 greater than 24 hr). Dynamic single photon emission computed tomography imaging studies in one monkey indicates {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD to be distributed in a pattern consistent with regional cerebral blood flow for up to 16 hr postinjection. Dual-labeled {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD and ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine autoradiography studies performed 1 hr after administration show cortical gray to white matter ratios of both isotopes to be equivalent (approximately 4-5:1). These data suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD will be useful for the scintigraphic assessment of cerebral perfusion in humans.

  1. Use of technetium-99m sulfur colloid as a marker for experimental venous thrombosis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Bardfeld, P.A.; Rand, J.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The binding of technetium-99m sulfur colloid to in vivo thrombi was studied in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis. After thrombosis was induced by mechanical traumatization of a right femoral vein segment, technetium-99m sulfur colloid was injected into the peripheral veins of different experimental groups at intervals of 30 min and 1-7 days. Ratios of mean activity in traumatized right femoral vein segment to activity in control segments of left femoral vein (R/L ratios) ranged form 2.97-11.0 for all in situ venous thrombi studied. There was no relation between clot size and R/L ratios. The significant uptake ratios observed by us for venous thrombi up to 1 wk in age suggest that in vivo thrombus detection may be feasible by imaging with a gamma camera after technetium-99m sulfur colloid injection in a peripheral vein.

  2. Use of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid as a marker for experimental venous thrombosis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Bardfeld, P.A.; Rand, J.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The binding of technetium-99m sulfur colloid to in vivo thrombi was studied in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis. After thrombosis was induced by mechanical traumatization of a right femoral vein segment, technetium-99m sulfur colloid was injected into the peripheral veins of different experimental groups at intervals of 30 min and 1 to 7 days. Ratios of mean activity in traumatized right femoral vein segment to activity in control segments of left femoral vein (R/L ratios) ranged from 2.97 to 11.0 for all in situ venous thrombi studied. There was no relation between clot size and R/L ratios. The significant uptake ratios observed by us for venous thrombi up to 1 wk in age suggest that in vivo thrombus detection may be feasible by imaging with a gamma camera after technetium-99m sulfur colloid injection in a peripheral vein.

  3. Thallium-201 and technetium-99m-pyrophosphate: myocardial imaging in the coronary care unit

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The editor and contributors have developed a textbook that explains the use of thallium 201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate for the detection of acute myocardial infarct. Their integrated approach emphasizes the complementary nature of both imaging modalities. One aim of this book is to discuss the technical characteristics of the two myocardial imaging methods. The text has fourteen chapters. Instrumentation, mechanisms of accumulation of thallium 201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate, acute myocardial infarct, unstable angina pectoris, atypical chest pain, and the interrelationship of the techniques are among the topics discussed. (JMT)

  4. Technetium-99m-HIDA visualization of an obstructed gallbladder via an accessory hepatic duct

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, D.E.; Donald, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) and paraisopropyliminodiacetic acid (PIPIDA) scintigraphy after sonographic evaluation of the gallbladder have been advocated recently for the diagnosis of acute obstructive cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Several authors have stated or inferred that gallbladder visualization with /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA excludes acute cholecystitis and cystic duct obstruction. We describe a patient with surgically proven cystic duct obstruction whose gallbladder visualized on a /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA scan via an accessory hepatic duct which directly entered the gallbladder.

  5. Labeling of Tannic Acid with Technetium-99m for Diagnosis of Stomach Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I. T.; El-Tawoosy, M.; Talaat, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Tannic acid is a polyphenolic compound that could be labeled with technetium-99m. To produce about 90% yield of  99mTc-tannic acid in acidic media (pH), the conditions required were 150 μg tin chloride, 30 min reaction time, and 200 μg of the substrate. 99mTc-tannic was stable for 6 h. Oral biodistribution of 99mTc-tannic showed that it concentrated in the stomach ulcer to reach about 50% of the total injected dose at 1 h after orall administration. This concentration of 99mTc-tannic in stomach ulcer may be sufficient to radio-image the presence of ulcer in the stomach. PMID:22389852

  6. Demonstration of reperfusion after thrombolysis with technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kayden, D.S.; Mattera, J.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Wackers, F.J.

    1988-11-01

    Technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial perfusion imaging was employed in a patient undergoing thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction. Technetium-99m isonitrile does not demonstrate significant myocardial redistribution after intravenous injection. The imaging agent was administered in the emergency room, prior to the initiation of thrombolytic therapy. The initial area at risk for infarction was visualized on images obtained after the patient had been effectively treated. Imaging performed 5 days later, after repeat injection of (99mTc)isonitrile, showed a smaller myocardial perfusion defect indicating salvage of myocardium. Thus, this technique offers promise as a noninvasive means of assessing the area at risk, the success of reperfusion, and the presence of salvaged myocardium, early in the course of acute myocardial infarction.

  7. Delayed skin rash following administration of technetium-99m diphosphonate: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, B.; Sorenson, J.F.; Eisenberg, B.; Glactz, G.; Owens, D.; Hladik, W.B. III.; Curry, M.C. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors report a case of a 48-yr-old woman who developed a delayed skin rash following intravenous (i.v.) administration of technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-HDP). The rash was characterized by skin biopsy, and it was concluded that the reaction was due to the diphosphonate compound. The rash resolved spontaneously without treatment. With most {sup 99m}Tc-based agents, adverse reactions are considered rare and are usually allergic in nature, but the delayed nature of this reaction is more common with diphosphonate compounds than with other radiopharmaceuticals. If a repeat examination is required, alternative agents (such as {sup 99m}Tc-pyrosphosphate) or any other diagnostic modality (magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered. An intradermal skin test may be helpful to determine the safest alternative bone agent.

  8. Renal handling of amino acid /sup 99m/technetium chelates

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, M.; Banerjee, S.

    1988-09-01

    Four amino acids--alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, cystine, and cystein--and also one diamine, ethylenediamine, were chelated with /sup 99m/-technetium (/sup 99m/Tc), and their renal excretion patterns were studied in rabbits in the presence and absence of two renal tubular transport inhibitors, probenecid and 2,4-dinitrophenol. From the depression of renal excretion for the first three amino acid chelates, in the presence of the inhibitors, a renal tubular excretory pathway of elimination was suggested for these compounds. The renal excretions of /sup 99m/Tc-cystein and /sup 99m/Tc-ethylenediamine however, remained undepressed under similar experimental conditions. An explanation of these observations was forwarded from the possible chemical structures of these chelates.

  9. Effects of concurrent drug therapy on technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate biodistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, G.H.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Peek, C.; Barker, K.K.; Ice, R.D.

    1982-11-01

    Drug interactions with /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate resulting in altered biodistribution were studied using chart review and animal tests. Charts of nine patients who had abnormal gallbladder uptake of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate during a two-year period were reviewed to obtain data such as concurrent drug therapy, primary diagnosis, and laboratory values. Adult New Zealand white rabbits were then used for testing the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate when administered concurrently with possibly interacting drugs identified in the chart review--penicillamine, penicillin G potassium, penicillin V potassium, acetaminophen, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Chart review revealed no conclusive patterns of altered biodistribution associated with other factors. The data did suggest the possibility that the five drugs listed above might cause increased hepatobiliary clearance of the radiopharmaceutical. Animal tests showed that i.v. penicillamine caused substantial distribution of radioactivity into the gallbladder and small bowel. Minimally increased gallbladder radioactivity occurred when oral acetaminophen and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were administered concurrently. Oral and i.v. penicillins did not increase gallbladder activity. Penicillamine may cause substantial alteration of the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate.

  10. A neutral lipophilic technetium-99m complex for regional cerebral blood flow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Narra, R.K.; Nunn, A.D.; Kuczynski, B.L.; DiRocco, R.J.; Feld, T.; Silva, D.A.; Eckelman, W.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Technetium-99m-DMG-2MP (Chloro(bis(2,3-butanedionedioxime(1-)-0)(2,3- butanedionedioximato (2-)-N,N{prime},N{double prime},N{prime}{double prime},N{double prime}{double prime},N{prime}{double prime}{double prime}) (2-methylpropyl borato (2-))technetium)), also known as SQ 32097 is a member of a family of neutral lipophilic compounds generally known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime complexes (BATOs). After i.v. administration, the concentration of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in various regions of the brain appears to be proportional to blood flow. In rats, 1.1% ID was in the brain at 5 min postinjection when the blood contained less than 3% ID. Over 24 hr excretion was 59% in the feces and 23% in the urine. The activity in monkey brain at 5 min was 2.8% ID and it cleared with a t1/2 of 86 min. Autoradiographs of monkey brain sections showed excellent regional detail with a gray/white ratio of 3.6 at 10 min. The distribution of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in the monkey brain corresponds to the known cytoarchitectural pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism. The properties of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP make it a potentially useful agent for cerebral perfusion imaging in man.

  11. Clinical experience with technetium-99m teboroxime, a neutral, lipophilic myocardial perfusion imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Seldin, D.W. )

    1990-10-16

    Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) teboroxime is a new technetium-based myocardial perfusion imaging agent (investigational code = SQ30217 (Cardiotec, Squibb Diagnostics)). A member of a class of neutral, lipophilic, technetium-containing complexes known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime (BATO) complexes, this agent is chemically very different from the cationic tracer thallium-201 (Tl-201) and from the cationic technetium complex Tc-99m sestamibi (Cardiolite, Du Pont Imaging Agents). Tc-99m teboroxime has high myocardial extraction, rapid blood clearance, little lung uptake and rapid myocardial washout. A biexponential pattern of myocardial washout is demonstrated in animals and in man. Effective half-lives of the 2 washout components in man are 5.2 minutes and 3.8 hours and represent approximately 66 and 33% of the myocardial activity, respectively. The first half-life for the myocardium is approximately 11 minutes. As the agent washes out of the heart, hepatic uptake occurs, peaking at about 5 minutes after injection. The liver is the major organ of excretion and receives, along with the large bowel, the largest radiation dose. Rapid imaging protocols using standard cameras have achieved good myocardial counts from 3 planar views acquired over a 4- to 5-minute period or for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images acquired over a 10-minute period. An entire stress/rest procedure can be completed in 1 hour. Analysis of data from 155 patients from 4 centers using planar or SPECT imaging showed a sensitivity and specificity for blinded readings of 82 and 91%, respectively, when compared against overall clinical impression. 13 references.

  12. Hypertension in children. Increased efficacy of technetium Tc/sup 99m/ succimer in screening for renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Treves, S.; Ingelfinger, J.

    1985-02-01

    Renal scintigraphy with technetium Tc-99m succimer (DMSA) and technetium Tc-99m pentetate (DTPA) was used to study 80 hypertensive pediatric and adolescent patients. Renal abnormalities such as asymmetry of function, size, or shape were identified in 13 patients. Both excretory urography and technetium Tc-99m pentetate studies were successful in detecting 54% of the abnormalities in patients studied; technetium Tc-99m succimer identified 92%. The accuracy of the latter was 96%, with a specificity of 97%. The ability of technetium Tc-99m succimer renal scintigraphy to identify accurately the presence or absence of renal abnormalities warrants its inclusion in the initial examination of pediatric and adolescent patients with hypertension.

  13. Distribution of technetium-99m PEG-liposomes during oligofructose-induced laminitis development in horses.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Claire; Pollitt, Christopher C; Metselaar, Josbert M; Laverman, Peter; van Bloois, Louis; van den Hoven, Jolanda M; Storm, Gert; van Eps, Andrew W

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are phospholipid nanoparticles used for targeted drug delivery. This study aimed to determine whether intravenous liposomes accumulate in lamellar tissue during laminitis development in horses so as to assess their potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery. Polyethylene-glycol (PEG) coated liposomes were prepared according to the film hydration method and labelled using (99m)Tc-hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime. Six horses received 10 g/kg oligofructose via nasogastric tube to induce laminitis, and four control horses received water via nasogastric tube. All horses received 300 µmol (99m)Tc-PEG-liposomes (5.5 GBq) plus 5.5 µmol/kg PEG-liposomes by slow intravenous infusion. Scintigraphic imaging was performed at 0, 6 and 12 h post-infusion. Technetium-99m liposome uptake was measured in regions of interest over the hoof, fetlock and metacarpus. At the study end-point horses were euthanased, tissue samples collected and tissue liposome levels were calculated as the percentage of the injected dose of (99m)Tc-liposomes per kilogram of tissue. Data were analysed non-parametrically. All horses receiving oligofructose developed clinical and histological signs of laminitis. Technetium-99m liposome uptake in the hoof increased with time in laminitis horses (P = 0.04), but decreased with time in control horses (P = 0.01). Technetium-99m liposome levels in lamellar tissue from laminitis horses were 3.2-fold higher than controls (P = 0.02) and were also higher in laminitis vs. control skin, muscle, jejunum, colon, and kidney (P < 0.05). Liposomes accumulated in lamellar tissue during oligofructose-induced laminitis development and demonstrated potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery in acute laminitis. This study provides further evidence that lamellar inflammation occurs during laminitis development. Liposome accumulation also occurred in the skin, muscle, jejunum, colon and kidneys, suggesting systemic inflammation in this

  14. Quantitative analysis of planar technetium-99m-sestamibi myocardial perfusion images using modified background subtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, K.; Wackers, F.J.; Mattera, J.A.; Fetterman, R.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Standard interpolative background subtraction, as used for thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl), may create artifacts when applied to planar technetium-99m-Sestamibi ({sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi) images, apparently because of the oversubtraction of relatively high extra-cardiac activity. A modified background subtraction algorithm was developed and compared to standard background subtraction in 16 patients who had both exercise-delayed {sup 201}Tl and exercise-rest {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi imaging. Furthermore, a new normal data base was generated. Normal {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi distribution was slightly different compared to {sup 201}Tl. Using standard background subtraction, mean defect reversibility was significantly underestimated by {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi compared to {sup 201}Tl (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus -1.8 +/- 8.4, p less than 0.05). Using the modified background subtraction, mean defect reversibility on {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images was comparable (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus 1.7 +/- 5.2, p = NS). We conclude, that for quantification of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images a new normal data base, as well as a modification of the interpolative background subtraction method should be employed to obtain quantitative results comparable to those with {sup 201}Tl.

  15. Distribution, elimination, and renal handling of (99m)technetium-Demogastrin 1.

    PubMed

    Trejtnar, Frantisek; Laznickova, Alice; Laznicek, Milan; Novy, Zbynek; Maina, Theodosia; Nock, Berthold A; Behe, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Radiolabeled cholecystokinin/gastrin (CCK) receptor-targeting peptides are promising compounds for radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy of certain malignancies. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile of a CCK-2 receptor-specific peptide, Demogastrin 1, labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1), in rats. To investigate the fate of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 in the rat, biodistribution and elimination studies in vivo were performed, and elimination parameters in perfused rat liver and kidney were determined. Biodistribution studies showed that (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 was rapidly cleared from the blood and most organs. A significant amount of radioactivity was detected in the CCK-2 receptor-rich organs, such as the stomach. Low radioactivity was found in the CCK-1 receptor-rich organs. Radioactivity in bowels and stomach declined relatively slowly. High and long-term retention of radioactivity in the kidneys was observed. Elimination of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 via the bile was negligible. A high and rapid renal excretion was observed in elimination experiments in vivo. In the perfused kidney, glomerular filtration was found to be the main renal excretion mechanism of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1. Demogastrin 1 was distributed preferentially to the organs expressing CCK-2 receptors. The decisive elimination route of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 in rats was urinary excretion. A high and prolonged renal retention may limit potential clinical use of the compound.

  16. Effect of DMSA loading on the renal handling of technetium-99m in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1986-01-01

    The renal handling of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) was studied in rats treated with high doses of nonradioactive DMSA to inhibit the renal uptake mechanism(s). A static scan was obtained 1 hour after the intravenous (iv) injection of 99mTc DMSA and the radioactivity in kidneys and bladder was calculated as a percentage of the injected amount. Total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow were also determined. Preloading with DMSA caused a fall in the renal accumulation of 99mTc DMSA together with a small increase in the amount excreted into the urinary bladder. Despite a stable GFR, the total amount of 99mTc DMSA handled by the kidneys (i.e., renal plus bladder activity) was reduced. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that peritubular uptake and subsequent intracellular fixation are of importance in the renal accumulation of 99mTc DMSA. On the other hand, the radioactivity excreted into the urine probably stems from non-reabsorbed 99mTc DMSA initially filtered by the glomeruli.

  17. Technetium-99m sestamibi in chronic coronary artery disease: The European experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sochor, H. )

    1990-10-16

    Since the introduction of technetium-99m methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m sestamibi) in Europe, there has been a growing interest in its use. Several European multicenter trials have been conducted to evaluate this new agent in relation to the traditional perfusion marker thallium-201, and other studies are in progress to understand the use of this perfusion marker for the diagnosis of coronary disease, for use in conjunction with pharmacologic vasodilation, for use in the assessment of ventricular function and wall motion and for the assessment of interventions.

  18. Future of low specific activity molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, A

    2012-10-01

    In last few years, the shortage of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) was felt in the developed and developing countries hospitals, where diagnostic nuclear medicine is practiced. To overcome the shortage of 99Mo various routes of its production by accelerators and reactors generating low and high specific activity products have been planned. High specific activity 99Mo obtained by fission of uranium-235 (235U) has completely dominated in the manufacturing of technetium-99m (99mTc) generators in last 3-4 decades, but due to proliferation and dirty bomb, issues non fission routes of 99Mo production are emphasized. Future of low specific activity 99Mo is discussed.

  19. Extracranial metastatic glioblastoma: Appearance on thallium-201-chloride/technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT images

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, P.A.; Schwartz, R.B.; Alexander, E. III; Loeffler, J.S.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Nagel, J.S.; Holman, B.L. )

    1991-02-01

    Sequential thallium-201-chloride and technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained in a patient with extracranial metastatic glioblastoma multiforme. Thallium-201 uptake was high (three times the scalp background) in all pathologically confirmed extracranial metastases and moderate (1.6 times scalp background) intracranially, where most biopsy specimens showed gliosis with scattered atypical astrocytes. Technetium-99m-HMPAO uptake was decreased intracranially in the right frontal and parietal lobes which had been irradiated. It was also decreased in one well-encapsulated scalp lesion and high in another scalp mass with less defined borders. Possible mechanisms of tumor uptake of these agents are reviewed.

  20. Efficacy of technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate imaging in patients with equivocal myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.A.; Tyler, J.L.; Kulkarni, M.V.

    1983-03-01

    We studied the efficacy of technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate imaging in patients with equivocal evidence of acute myocardial infarction. Only patients with positive enzyme findings (regardless of ECG findings) had scans with greater than or equal to 2+ focal uptake. None of 26 patients with negative or equivocal enzyme findings (regardless of ECG findings) had greater than 2+ diffuse uptake. These results support the contention that infarct-avid imaging has little clinical utility in patients with equivocal evidence of myocardial infarction.

  1. Development new radiopharmaceutical based on 5-thio-d- glucose labeled technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasyuk, E. S.; Skuridin, V. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Rogov, A. S.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sadkin, V. L.; Larionova, L. A.; Varlamova, N. V.; Zelchan, R.

    2016-06-01

    The article considers the obtaining and possibility of using 5-thio-D-glucose labeled technetium-99m for the diagnosis of malignant tumors by single photon emission computed tomography. The analysis of the level of international developments of radiopharmaceuticals based on derivatives of glucose has been carried out. Also the article provides information on of using experimental batches of lyophilisate on the basis of 5-thio-D-glucose for preliminary biomedical testing on the mice.

  2. Factors affecting uptake and retention of technetium-99m-diphosphonate and 99m-pertechnetate in osseous, connective and soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Francis, M D; Slough, C L; Tofe, A J

    1976-06-14

    The bone scanning complex, 99mTc-Sn-EHDP, consisting of the nuclide technetium-99m, stannous ion and ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate, administered intravenously is retained in soft tissues in proportion to increasing calcium content of the tissues. Within bone tissue, the retention is proportional to vascularity and to surface area of calcium phosphate in bones and not necessarily to calcium and phosphate concentration. The nuclidic agent 99mTcO4-BUT NOT THE 99MTc-diphosphonate is selectively taken up by the thyroid and this uptake can be blocked by administering sodium perchlorate. Among the connective tissues studied, the tracheal cartilage seems to have the greatest potential to calcify with increasing age of the animal and man. Soft tissue does not retain the bone scanning complex 99mTc-Sn-EHDP but does retain 99mTcO4-. PMID:182328

  3. Planar imaging techniques used with technetium-99m sestamibi to evaluate chronic myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Maisey, M.N.; Mistry, R.; Sowton, E. )

    1990-10-16

    The results of published and some unpublished studies comparing planar imaging performed with 2 radionuclides, thallium-201 (T1-201) and technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi, are reviewed. The average sensitivity for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) in studies involving 594 patients was 85% (range 73 to 96%). The average sensitivity for individual vessels was 65% (range 60 to 70%). The average segmental concordance between T1-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi was 89%. End-diastolic gated perfusion images improved the concordance between Tc-99m sestamibi and angiography in 22 patients from 83.4 to 87%. Semiquantitative analysis increased the concordance between T1-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi from 89 to 91%. Ventricular function derived from gated Tc-99m sestamibi perfusion images showed a significant correlation with echocardiography (n = 62, r = 0.85); with angiography (n = 70, r = 0.91); and with equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (n = 18, r = 0.86). The ratio of lung to left ventricle uptake and the ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle uptake was assessed. Eight of 52 patients had an abnormally elevated lung index (greater than 42%) and these patients had the most severe CAD. Six of the 52 patients had an abnormally elevated right ventricular index (greater than 56%) and these patients had more severe CAD.

  4. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract. PMID:16691636

  5. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Abreu, P R C; Almeida, M C; Bernardo, R M; Bernardo, L C; Brito, L C; Garcia, E A C; Fonseca, A S; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2006-06-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with (99m)Tc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with (99m)Tc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with (99m)Tc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with (99m)Tc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract.

  6. Determination of left ventricular ejection fraction in technetium-99m-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile radionuclide angiocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Malcolm H.; Rezaie, Bahman; Weiland, Frederick L.

    1992-06-01

    Abnormal left ventricular function is a diagnostic indication of cardiac disease. Left ventricular function is most commonly quantified by ejection fraction measurements. This paper presents a novel approach for the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (L VEF) using the recently introduced myocardial imaging agent, technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-sestamibi). The approach utilizes computer image processing techniques to determine L VEF in equilibrium 99mTc-sestamibi multiple gated radionuclide angiography (RNA). Equilibrium RNA is preferred to first-pass RNA techniques due to the higher signal-to-noise ratio of equilibrium RNA resulting from longer image acquisition times. Data from 23 patients, symptomatic of cardiac disease, indicate that L VEFs determined using this radionuclide technique correlate well with contrast x-ray single plane cineangiography (r equals 0.83, p < 0.0000003).

  7. Technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial imaging: Same-day rest-stress studies and dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Taillefer, R. )

    1990-10-16

    Unlike thallium-201, technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi does not redistribute in the myocardium after injection. Thus, 2 separate injections, 1 at rest and the other at stress (or after dipyridamole), are required to differentiate ischemia from scar. From a physical viewpoint, a 24-hour interval between the 2 injections is preferable for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging. However, same-day studies are more convenient in clinical practice. Results of studies using different Tc-99m sestamibi injection protocols are presented with emphasis on the advantages of a rest-stress injection sequence with a low dose at rest (7 mCi) followed 2 hours later by a higher dose at stress (25 mCi). A prospective study was conducted in a patient population with proven CAD using same-day studies to compare a rest-stress (7 and 25 mCi, respectively) to a stress-rest (7 and 25 mCi) Tc-99m sestamibi injection sequence. There was an agreement in 87.3% of the analyzed segments between the 2 protocols. However, the largest discordance for type of defect applied to 7.4% of the segments judged ischemic in the rest-stress protocol, which were called scars on stress-rest. This study showed that a rest-stress sequence is preferable when using a same-day protocol with a short time interval (less than 2 hours) between the 2 Tc-99m sestamibi injections because the rest image performed initially represents a true rest study, which is not necessarily the case with the stress-rest sequence. Preliminary studies were performed to evaluate dipyridamole with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging in normal subjects and in patients with CAD. These studies showed that treadmill and dipyridamole Tc-99m sestamibi imaging are comparable and the results are similar to those obtained with thallium-201.

  8. Thallium-201-chloride and technetium-99m-MIBI SPECT of primary and metastatic lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kashitani, N; Makihara, S; Maeda, T; Eda, R; Takeyama, H; Hiraki, Y

    1999-01-01

    We compared technetium-99m-MIBI (Tc-99m MIBI) with thallium-201-chloride (Tl-201) SPECT imaging in patients with lung carcinoma. In addition, we compared the imaging characteristics of Tl-201 and Tc-99m MIBI after radiation therapy. Thirty-seven patients with primary lung carcinoma were evaluated with SPECT imaging for metastasis to the mediastinal lymph nodes and brain. Patients were imaged with Tl-201 chloride images 10 and 180 min after injection. Patients were also imaged 10 min after injection of Tc-99m MIBI. The sensitivity of Tl-201 SPECT for the primary lesion and brain metastasis was 97.1% and 70.0% respectively at 10 min and 97.1% and 60.0% at 180 min. The sensitivity of Tc-99m MIBI SPECT was 97.1% (for the identification of the primary lesion) and 50.0% (for the detection of brain metastasis) at 10 min. The uptake ratios (count in tumor/count in normal lung or brain) at 10 min on the Tl-201 SPECT and on the Tc-99m MIBI SPECT were not significantly different for the primary tumor or for brain metastasis. The uptake ratios were better for Tc-99m MIBI than for Tl-201 [2.82 vs. 1.99 (p<0.05)] for mediastinal lymph nodes. Decreasing uptake ratios and retention index with both agents after radiation therapy are concordant to the follow-up clinical course. Tc-99m MIBI SPECT is more sensitive in the detection of metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes than Tl-201 SPECT.

  9. Measurement of lymphatic function with technetium-99m-labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Svensson, W; Glass, D M; Bradley, D; Peters, A M

    1999-05-01

    A reliable method for measuring lymph flow in physiological units would be valuable, especially in conditions in which it is uncertain whether lymph flow is increased or decreased. The requirements of a radiopharmaceutical for such measurement include stable radionuclide labelling and rapid access to lymphatic vessels following tissue injection but no access to blood vessels. A soluble macromolecule is likely to come closest to meeting these requirements. Technetium-99m-labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) was therefore investigated firstly in comparison with 99mTc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA) in patients undergoing routine lymphoscintigraphy and secondly with respect to injection site in a group of volunteers with post-mastectomy oedema (PMO). Subcutaneous injection of 99mTc-HIG into the web space of a distal extremity gave images in which lymphatic vessels were more clearly defined compared with images obtained after injection of 99mTc-HSA. Lymph nodes were also more clearly defined, suggesting specific retention of HIG, possibly through Fc-mediated binding. Peripheral blood sampling showed a delayed arrival in blood of radioactivity after 99mTc-HIG compared with 99mTc-HSA, although ultimately, the blood recovery of 99mTc-HIG was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of 99mTc-HSA. Clearance rates of radioactivity from the injection site were not significantly different, however, between the two agents. In patients with PMO, web space injection of 99mTc-HIG gave excellent images of normal lymphatic vessels, of lymph nodes and of abnormal lymph drainage such as dermal backflow in swollen arms. In contrast, neither lymphatic vessels nor lymph nodes were visualised after injection into the skin of the dorsum of the distal forearm. Although there was no difference in clearance rates from the injection sites between normal and swollen arms with either agent in PMO, clearance was significantly faster following injection into the web space (0.11% per

  10. Simulation for the Production of Technetium-99m Using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaita, Courtney; Gentile, Charles; Zelenty, Jennifer

    2010-11-01

    The Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) is employed to simulate the radioisotope production process that leads to the creation of Technetium-99m (Tc-99m). Tc-99m is a common metastable nuclear isomer used in nuclear medicine tests and is produced from the gamma decay of Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). Mo-99 is commonly produced from the fission of Uranium-235, a complicated process which is only performed at a limited number of facilities. Due to the age of these facilities, coupled with the critical importance of a steady flow of Mo-99, new methods of generating Mo-99 are being investigated. Current experiments demonstrate promising alternatives, one of which consists of the neutron activation of Molybdenum-98 (Mo-98), a naturally occurring element found in nature. Mo-98 has a small cross section (.13 barns), so investigations are also aimed at overcoming this natural obstacle for producing Tc-99m. The neutron activated Mo-98 becomes Mo-99 and subsequently decays into radioactive Tc-99m. The MCNP code is being used to examine the interactions between the particles in each of these situations, thus determining a theoretical threshold to maximize the reaction's efficiency. The simulation results will be applied to ongoing experiments at the PPPL, where the empirical data will be compared to predictions from the MCNP code.

  11. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Braga, A C; Oliveira, M B; Feliciano, G D; Reiniger, I W; Oliveira, J F; Silva, C R; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2000-07-01

    The influence of drugs on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc has been reported. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. We have evaluated the effect of Thuya occidentalis, Peumus boldus and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) extracts on the labeling of RBC and plasma and cellular proteins with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with the drugs. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solutions and 99mTc were added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to P and BC was determined. The %ATI on the plasma and cellular proteins was also evaluated by precipitation of P and BC samples with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and isolation of soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in %ATI (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with Thuya occidentalis extract. The labeling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco. The analysis of radioactivity in samples of P and BC isolated from samples of whole blood treated with Peumus boldus showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the Peumus boldus, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. This study shows that extracts of some medicinal plants can affect the radiolabeling of red blood cells with 99mTc using an in vitro technique. PMID:10903389

  12. Myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi SPECT in the evaluation of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Maddahi, J.; Kiat, H.; Van Train, K.F.; Prigent, F.; Friedman, J.; Garcia, E.V.; Alazraki, N.; DePuey, E.G.; Nichols, K.; Berman, D.S. )

    1990-10-16

    Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi is a new myocardial perfusion imaging agent that offers significant advantages over thallium-201 (Tl-201) for myocardial perfusion imaging. The results of the current clinical trials using acquisition and processing parameters similar to those for Tl-201 and a separate (2-day) injection protocol suggest that Tc-99m sestamibi and Tl-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provide similar information with respect to detection of myocardial perfusion defects, assessment of the pattern of defect reversibility, overall detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) and detection of disease in individual coronary arteries. Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT appears to be superior to Tc-99m sestamibi planar imaging because the former provides a higher defect contrast and is more accurate for detection of disease in individual coronary arteries. Research is currently under way addressing optimization of acquisition and processing of Tc-99m sestamibi studies and development of quantitative algorithms for detection and localization of CAD and sizing of transmural and nontransmural myocardial perfusion defects. It is expected that with the implementation of the final results of these new developments, further significant improvement in image quality will be attained, which in turn will further increase the confidence in image interpretation. Development of algorithms for analysis of end-diastolic myocardial images may allow better evaluation of small and nontransmural myocardial defects. Furthermore, gated studies may provide valuable information with respect to regional myocardial wall motion and wall thickening. With the implementation of algorithms for attenuation and scatter correction, the overall specificity of Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT should improve significantly. 32 references.

  13. A study of technetium-99m wastage in selected private sector nuclear medicine imaging departments

    PubMed Central

    Bresser, Philippa; Teixeira, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Background South African nuclear medicine imaging departments have been fortunate in being able to receive an uninterrupted supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/technetium-99m (99mTc) generators. Nuclear medicine radiographers practising in private sector services in the northern Gauteng region indicated a possible problem with the quantities of wasted and unused 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals returned to the radiopharmaceutical supply laboratory. Daily radiopharmaceutical deliveries are a combination of ordered packages and standard packages. The purpose of the standard package is to accommodate emergency and after-hours nuclear medicine services. The purpose of the study was to interrogate the unconfirmed reports of 99mTc radiopharmaceutical wastage. Methods A descriptive quantitative research design was conducted in six private sector nuclear medicine imaging practices in the northern Gauteng region. Overt observations of the quantities of radiopharmaceutical supply, usage and wastage were conducted over 2 days in each of these practices. Results Ordered packages comprised 14% of the total 99mTc radiopharmaceutical deliveries to these six nuclear medicine imaging departments. It was identified that: (1) a total of 83.2% of ordered packages and 35.1% of standard packages of preprepared syringes were utilized; (2) a total of 36% of ordered packages and 22.6% of standard packages of bulk 99mTc were utilized; and (3) a total of 70.6% of the total quantity of radiopharmaceuticals was returned to the radiopharmaceutical laboratory. The total wastage represented 45.5% of the ordered packages and 75.8% of the standard packages. Conclusion Wastage of 74 GBq of 99mTc from six sites over 12 days should raise concerns for the nuclear medicine industry. A review of the system framework that supports communication between the radiopharmaceutical supplier/s and the nuclear medicine imaging practices is recommended. PMID:24089081

  14. Distribution of technetium-99m PEG-liposomes during oligofructose-induced laminitis development in horses.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Claire; Pollitt, Christopher C; Metselaar, Josbert M; Laverman, Peter; van Bloois, Louis; van den Hoven, Jolanda M; Storm, Gert; van Eps, Andrew W

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are phospholipid nanoparticles used for targeted drug delivery. This study aimed to determine whether intravenous liposomes accumulate in lamellar tissue during laminitis development in horses so as to assess their potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery. Polyethylene-glycol (PEG) coated liposomes were prepared according to the film hydration method and labelled using (99m)Tc-hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime. Six horses received 10 g/kg oligofructose via nasogastric tube to induce laminitis, and four control horses received water via nasogastric tube. All horses received 300 µmol (99m)Tc-PEG-liposomes (5.5 GBq) plus 5.5 µmol/kg PEG-liposomes by slow intravenous infusion. Scintigraphic imaging was performed at 0, 6 and 12 h post-infusion. Technetium-99m liposome uptake was measured in regions of interest over the hoof, fetlock and metacarpus. At the study end-point horses were euthanased, tissue samples collected and tissue liposome levels were calculated as the percentage of the injected dose of (99m)Tc-liposomes per kilogram of tissue. Data were analysed non-parametrically. All horses receiving oligofructose developed clinical and histological signs of laminitis. Technetium-99m liposome uptake in the hoof increased with time in laminitis horses (P = 0.04), but decreased with time in control horses (P = 0.01). Technetium-99m liposome levels in lamellar tissue from laminitis horses were 3.2-fold higher than controls (P = 0.02) and were also higher in laminitis vs. control skin, muscle, jejunum, colon, and kidney (P < 0.05). Liposomes accumulated in lamellar tissue during oligofructose-induced laminitis development and demonstrated potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery in acute laminitis. This study provides further evidence that lamellar inflammation occurs during laminitis development. Liposome accumulation also occurred in the skin, muscle, jejunum, colon and kidneys, suggesting systemic inflammation in this

  15. Phantom evaluation of simultaneous thallium-201/technetium-99m aquisition in single-photon emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z; Chen, C C; Maunoury, C; Holder, L E; Abraham, T C; Tehan, A

    1996-11-01

    This study investigated downscatter effects in cardiac single-photon emission tomographic studies with simultaneous thallium-201/technetium-99m acquisition, and evaluated a previously proposed subtraction technique for downscatter compensation. Ten studies were carried out with different defect sizes and locations and varying activity distributions using four energy windows: 70+/-10% keV, 140+/-10% keV, 100+/-10% KeV, and 103+/-16% keV. The subtraction technique used the 100- or 103-keV data to remove scattered 99mTc counts from the 70-keV data. The size and contrast of infarcts in the dual-isotope 70-keV image were artificially decreased compared to those in the 140-keV image, caused by scattered 99mTc counts that were comparable to the primary 201Tl counts in the 70-keV window. The subtraction technique produced larger defects and more heterogeneous activity in the myocardial wall in dual-isotope 70-keV images compared to the corresponding 201Tl-only images. These artifacts were caused by the markedly different spatial distributions of scattered 99mTc counts in the 100-keV (or 103-keV) window as compared with the 70-keV window. It is concluded that scattered 99mTc photons may cause overestimation of ischemia and myocardial viability in simultaneous dual-isotope patient studies. The proposed subtraction technique was inaccurate and produced image artifacts. Adequate downscatter compensation methods must be developed before applying simultaneous 201Tl/99mTc acquisition in clinical practice.

  16. Subcellular distribution of technetium-99m-N-NOEt in rat myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Uccelli, L.; Giganti, M.; Duatti, A. ||

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the subcellular distribution of bis(N-ethoxy N-ethyl)dithiocarbamato, nitrido technetium(V) ({sup 99m}TcN-NOEt) in rat heart by differential centrifugation techniques. Extraction of the activity from homogenized rat heart tissue was also performed to assess whether myocardial retention might induce changes in the chemical identity of the complex. Anesthetized rats were intravenously injected with {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt, the heart tissue was extracted and homogenized and tissue fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. The efficiency of organelle separation was determined by assay of each centrifugal fraction using enzyme markers. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and 5{prime}-nucleotidase (5{prime}ND) activities were assayed using standard spectrophotometric methods. Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was determined using a p-iodo-nitrotetrazolium-linked assay. Severe cell membrane and organelle disruption were induced by prolonging the homogenization time and their effect on the subcellular distribution of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt was studied. The activity from homogenized heart tissue was extracted using the Folch technique and analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Most of the {sup 99}TcN-NOEt activity was found to be associated with the hydrophobic components of the cell. No evidence of specific association of activity with the cytosolic and mitochondrial components was observed. Organelle and membrane cleavage did not cause release of activity into the cytosol. Approximately 90% of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt activity was extracted from ventricular tissue and the chemical nature of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt was not altered by uptake by myocardium. Cell membranes are the most apparent site of localization of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt in heart tissue. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Future of low specific activity molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, A

    2012-10-01

    In last few years, the shortage of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) was felt in the developed and developing countries hospitals, where diagnostic nuclear medicine is practiced. To overcome the shortage of 99Mo various routes of its production by accelerators and reactors generating low and high specific activity products have been planned. High specific activity 99Mo obtained by fission of uranium-235 (235U) has completely dominated in the manufacturing of technetium-99m (99mTc) generators in last 3-4 decades, but due to proliferation and dirty bomb, issues non fission routes of 99Mo production are emphasized. Future of low specific activity 99Mo is discussed. PMID:22642420

  18. Technetium-99m HM-PAO-SPECT study of regional cerebral perfusion in early Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Perani, D.; Di Piero, V.; Vallar, G.; Cappa, S.; Messa, C.; Bottini, G.; Berti, A.; Passafiume, D.; Scarlato, G.; Gerundini, P.

    1988-09-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion was evaluated by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO) in sixteen patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in early clinical phase and in 16 healthy elderly controls. In all patients transmission computed tomography (TCT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show focal brain abnormalities. Relative to normal subjects, AD patients showed significant reductions in cortical/cerebellar activity ratio: cortical perfusion was globally depressed with the largest reductions in frontal and posterior temporo-parietal cortices. Asymmetries of relative perfusion between cerebral hemispheres were also demonstrated when language was affected or visuospatial functions were unevenly impaired. In patients with early AD, SPECT provides functional information to be compared with clinical and psychometric data.

  19. Acetylsalicylic acid decreases the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99M.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A S; Frydman, J N G; Rocha, Vanessa C; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2007-06-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid is the most widely used drug as antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory agent and for secondary prevention of thrombotic phenomena in the heart, brain and peripheral circulation. Drugs can modify the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc). This work has evaluated the effect of in vivo treatment with acetylsalicylic acid on the in vitro labeling of the blood constituents with 99mTc. Wistar rats were treated with different doses (1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 mg/kg) of acetylsalicylic acid during 1 hour. At higher dose used (6.0 mg/kg) animals were treated during different period of time (0.25, 1.0 and 4.0 hours). Animals treated with physiologic saline solution were used as control. After the labeled process; plasma (P), blood cells (BC), insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) fractions were separated. Afterwards, the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was calculated. The treatment during 1 hour with acetylsalicylic acid at higher dose has significantly (p < 0.05) modified the fixation of 99mTc on blood cells. Considering the results, we suggest that acetylsalicylic acid used at therapeutic doses may interfere with the nuclear medicine procedures related to these blood constituents.

  20. Technetium-99m calcium phytate - optimization of calcium content for liver and spleen scintigraphy: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.; Bellen, J.C.; Baker, R.J.; Cook, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    The addition of ionic calcium to technetium-99m stannous phytate produced an agent with improved splenic uptake. In a series of patients, it was found that molar ratios of 2:1 and 3:1 produced scans of optimal diagnostic quality. Studies in mice showed dose-related changes in the biodistribution. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the addition of calcium produced progressive aggregation of the colloid as the molar ratio was increased. Chemical analysis of sodium phytate was essential to obtain accurate ratios.

  1. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1986-10-01

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.

  2. Evaluation of hemangiomas with technetium 99m-labeled RBCs: the perfusion-blood pool mismatch

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Israel, O.; Joachims, H.; Brown, Y.; Eliachar, I.

    1983-03-18

    A case report is presented of a woman with a tumor mass in the nasopharynx. Early and delayed scintigraphy with Technetium 99m-labeled RBCs showed a large area of increased uptake which was later shown to be a hemangioma by contrast angiography. The perfusion-blood pool mismatch observed in hemangiomas is characteristic of these lesions and has not been described in any other abnormalities. The Tc-RBC using both early and delayed scintigraphy is a simple, noninvasive method for assessing the vascular characteristics of these tumors. (JMT)

  3. Mirizzi Syndrome in a Cirrhotic Patient After TIPS Resolved by Technetium99m Mebrofenin Hepatobiliary Scan

    PubMed Central

    Fierro-Fine, Amelia; Brown, Kyle E.

    2016-01-01

    Cholestatic pattern on the hepatic panel is common and can be caused by a broad array of etiologies. Although rare, with a prevalence as low as 0.06%, it is imperative to keep Mirizzi syndrome in the differential diagnosis when evaluating cholestasis. Due to the nonspecific presentation and inconsistent radiologic features, a high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose Mirizzi Syndrome. We present an unusual case of a 51-year-old man with worsening cholestatic laboratory tests and a normal ultrasound and abdominal computerized tomography. A technetium99m mebrofenin hepatobiliary acid scan suggested the diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome that was later confirmed during an open cholecystectomy.

  4. The preparation of kits for labelling macromolecules of biological interest with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Zanelli, G D; Ellison, D; Barrowcliffe, M P

    1987-04-01

    A method has been developed for producing 'kits' for labelling porphyrins, dextrans, myoglobin and cytochromes with technetium-99m. The kits have a shelf life of at least 3 months and can be reconstituted by the simple addition of 99TcmO4 from a commercial generator diluted in a buffer. The most suitable buffer was found to be isotonic citrate/saline at pH 9.0 to 9.5. When the kits are prepared as described and reconstituted with the above buffer, labelling yields of more than 95% are routinely achieved and polymerization or stacking of the labelled compounds is prevented.

  5. Serendipity in Technetium-99m dimethyl iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy. [Visualization of nonbiliary incidental abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Sugarman, L.A.; Frank, M.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1980-05-01

    Technetium-99m dimethyl iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy has contributed significantly to the diagnosis of acute and chronic biliary tract disorders. Yet attention should also be focused on the other structres visualized during the blood pool, hepatocyte, renal excretory, and intestinal phases of the study. Nonbiliary pathology was detected in 42 of 294 patients (14.3%) studied for suspected acute cholecystitis. The serendipitous detection of previously unsuspected abnormalities assisted in directing further work-up away from suspected biliary disease and towards the real source of the patient's acute problem in 28 cases (9.5%).

  6. Technical considerations in gastric ulcer localization using technetium-99m sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, S.G.; Wcislo, W.J.

    1985-09-01

    After the completion and evaluation of 17 patients studies using technetium-99m-labeled sucralfate for the detection of ulcerated areas, the authors felt that the technical aspects of the studies should be evaluated. The factors for evaluation are: the time the patient is kept fasting; the time the patient is being imaged and rotated for various anatomic views; the technologist time and camera time that are involved in one study; and the cost factor of the testing procedure. Based on the findings of their small sample of patients, the sensitivity of the test is uncertain.

  7. Pentavalent technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc-99m (V) DMSA] brain SPECT: does it have a place in predicting survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme?

    PubMed

    Amin, Amr; Mustafa, M; Abd El-Hadi, E; Monier, A; Badwey, A; Saad, E

    2015-01-01

    Pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m (V) DMSA) is reported as a useful tool for detection of residual or recurrent gliomas. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). 40 patients [21 males and 19 females; mean age 48.6 ± 12.2 years] with GBM were included. Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT was done after surgery and before onset of radiation therapy or chemotherapy (Baseline study), at 4-6 weeks and at 6 months as a follow-up after therapy. The end point of the study was clinical follow-up for 2 years and/or death. 4-6 weeks after therapy, 40 and 60 % had negative and positive Tc-99m (V) DMSA for viable tumor tissues respectively (P = 0.09). At 6 months follow-up, 62.5 % of (V) DMSA negative patients and 12.5 % of the positive subjects were responders (P = 0.001). The median over-all survival (OS) of all patients was 12.3 month [range 5-24 month]. Patients with positive (V) DMSA had worse survival (8.87 month) compared to the negative ones (16.67 month) (P = 0.0001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT studies at 4-6 weeks and 6-months follow-up were independent prognostic factors for survival [OR 1.069; 95 % CI 1.417-2.174; P = 0.03 and OR 1.055; 95 % CI 0.821-1.186; P = 0.01 respectively]. Stratification of tumors into risk groups based on prognostic parameters may improve outcome by altering or intensifying treatment methods. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid brain SPECT may have an additional prognostic role in patients with GBM which needs further evaluation in larger future series.

  8. Comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO and technetium-99m-ECD cerebral SPECT images in Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dyck, C.H. van; Lin, C.H.; Smith, E.O.

    1996-11-01

    SPECT has shown increasing promise as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer`s disease (AD). Recently, a new SPECT brain perfusion agent, {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) has emerged with purported advantages in image quality over the established tracer, {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in discriminating patients with AD form control subjects. 51 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Experimental studies of the physiologic properties of technetium-99m agents: Myocardial transport of perfusion imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Meerdink, D.J.; Leppo, J.A. )

    1990-10-16

    The physiologic properties of new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial imaging agents (Tc-99m sestamibi, an isonitrile; and Tc-99m teboroxime, a boronic acid adduct of technetium dioxime) are discussed and compared to thallium-201 (Tl-201). Studies with isolated hearts, subcellular fractions and cell cultures indicate that Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 do not share common transport or sequestration mechanisms. Although peak Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial extraction over time is about half that of Tl-201 at equivalent coronary blood flows, the amount of Tc-99m sestamibi that remains in the heart is similar to that of Tl-201 because of its higher retention efficiency. The high retention efficiency for Tc-99m sestamibi also results in minimal redistribution. In contrast, Tc-99m teboroxime myocardial extraction is higher than that of Tl-201, but its retention is less efficient, resulting in relatively rapid washout characteristics which may quickly result in tracer redistribution. During reperfusion after a no-flow period, Tc-99m sestamibi extraction and retention increase, but for Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 these values tend to decrease. All tracers show adequate transport characteristics for perfusion imaging, and differences in transport and retention should lead to the development of new clinical protocols.27 references.

  10. On-site preparation of technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuh-Feng; Chuang, Mei-Hua; Chiu, Jainn-Shiun; Cham, Thau-Ming; Chung, Mei-Ing

    2007-04-01

    Technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin (Tc-99m HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical for clinical applications, such as cardiac function tests or protein-losing gastroenteropathy assessment. However, because of transfusion-induced infectious diseases, the safety of serum products is a serious concern. In this context, serum products acquired from patients themselves are the most ideal tracer. However, the development of rapid separation and easy clinical labeling methods is not yet well established. Under such situation, products from the same ethnic group or country are now recommended by the World Health Organization as an alternative preparation. This article describes the on-site preparation of Tc-99m HSA from locally supplied serum products. Different formulations were prepared and the labeling efficiency and stability were examined. Radio-labeling efficiencies were more than 90% in all preparation protocols, except for one that omitted the stannous solution. The most cost-effective protocol contained HSA 0.1 mg, treated with stannous fluoride 0.2 mg, and mixed with Tc-99m pertechnetate 30 mCi. A biodistribution study was performed in rats using a gamma camera immediately after intravenous administration of radiolabeled HSA. Tissue/organ uptake was obtained by measuring the radioactivity in organs after sacrificing the rats at timed intervals. The biologic half-life was about 32 min, determined from sequential venous blood collections. These data indicate that our preparation of Tc-99m HSA is useful and potentially applicable clinically. In addition, this on-site preparation provides the possibility of labeling a patient's own serum for subsequent clinical application.

  11. Comprehensive radiolabeling, stability, and tissue distribution studies of technetium-99m single amino acid chelates (SAAC).

    PubMed

    Maresca, Kevin P; Hillier, Shawn M; Femia, Frank J; Zimmerman, Craig N; Levadala, Murali K; Banerjee, Sangeeta R; Hicks, Justin; Sundararajan, Chitra; Valliant, John; Zubieta, Jon; Eckelman, William C; Joyal, John L; Babich, John W

    2009-08-19

    Technetium tricarbonyl chemistry has been a subject of interest in radiopharmaceutical development over the past decade. Despite the extensive work done on developing chelates for Tc(I), a rigorous investigation of the impact of changing donor groups and labeling conditions on radiochemical yields and/or distribution has been lacking. This information is crucially important if these platforms are going to be used to develop molecular imaging probes. Previous studies on the coordination chemistry of the {M(CO)(3)}(+) core have established alkylamine, aromatic nitrogen heterocycles, and carboxylate donors as effective chelating ligands. These observations led to the design of tridentate ligands derived from the amino acid lysine. Such amino acid analogues provide a tridentate donor set for chelation to the metal and an amino acid functionality for conjugation to biomolecules. We recently developed a family of single amino acid chelates (SAAC) that serve this function and can be readily incorporated into peptides via solid-phase synthesis techniques. As part of these continuing studies, we report here on the radiolabeling with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and stability of a series of SAAC analogues of lysine. The complexes studied include cationic, neutral, and anionic complexes. The results of tissue distribution studies with these novel complexes in normal rats demonstrate a range of distribution in kidney, liver, and intestines.

  12. Technetium-99m-labeled nanofibrillar cellulose hydrogel for in vivo drug release.

    PubMed

    Laurén, Patrick; Lou, Yan-Ru; Raki, Mari; Urtti, Arto; Bergström, Kim; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2014-12-18

    Nanoscale celluloses have recently gained an increasing interest in modern medicine. In this study, we investigated the properties of plant derived nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) as an injectable drug releasing hydrogel in vivo. We demonstrated a reliable and efficient method of technetium-99m-NFC labeling, which enables us to trace the in vivo localization of the hydrogel. The release and distribution of study compounds from the NFC hydrogel after subcutaneous injection in the pelvic region of BALB/c mice were examined with a multimodality imaging device SPECT/CT. The drug release profiles were simulated by 1-compartmental models of Phoenix® WinNonlin®. The NFC hydrogel remained intact at the injection site during the study. The study compounds are more concentrated at the injection site when administered with the NFC hydrogel compared with saline solutions. In addition, the NFC hydrogel reduced the elimination rate of a large compound, technetium-99m-labeled human serum albumin by 2 folds, but did not alter the release rate of a small compound (123)I-β-CIT (a cocaine analogue). In conclusion, the NFC hydrogels is easily prepared and readily injected, and it has potential use as a matrix for controlled release or local delivery of large compounds. The interactions between NFC and specific therapeutic compounds are possible and should be investigated further.

  13. Technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning in evaluation of afferent loop syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Sivelli, R.; Farinon, A.M.; Sianesi, M.; Percudani, M.; Ugolotti, G.; Calbiani, B.

    1984-08-01

    A study of 118 patients, operated on with Billroth II gastrectomy for peptic disease and affected by postgastrectomy syndromes, was carried out. Fifty patients were investigated by means of technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning. In 18 patients, in whom an afferent loop syndrome was clinically suspected, hepatobiliary scanning demonstrated an altered afferent loop emptying in 8 and atonic distension of the gallbladder without afferent loop motility changes in 10. Among the patients in the first group, four were treated with a biliary diversion surgical procedure and in the second group, two patients underwent cholecystectomy. Our findings indicate that biliary vomiting, right upper abdominal pain pyrosis, and biliary diarrhea in Billroth II gastrectomized patients are not always pathognomonic symptoms of afferent loop syndrome. Technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning represents the only diagnostic means of afferent loop syndrome definition. A differential diagnosis of abnormal afferent loop emptying and gallbladder dyskinesia is necessary for the management planning of these patients, and furthermore, when a surgical treatment is required, biliary diversion with Roux-Y anastomosis or Braun's biliary diversion seems the treatment of choice for afferent loop syndrome, whereas cholecystectomy represents the best procedure for atonic distension of the gallbladder.

  14. Sensitivity of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy in diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, R.H.; Lee, V.W.; Rubinow, A.; Hood, W.B. Jr.; Cohen, A.S.

    1983-03-01

    To determine the value of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of amyloid heart disease this procedure was prospectively performed in 20 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven primary amyloidosis. Eleven patients had echocardiographic abnormalities compatible with amyloid cardiomyopathy, 9 of whom had congestive heart failure. Diffuse myocardial pyrophosphate uptake was of equal or greater intensity than that of the ribs in 9 of the 11 patients with echocardiograms suggestive of amyloidosis, but in only 2 of the 9 with normal echocardiograms, despite abnormal electrocardiograms (p less than 0.01). Increased wall thickness measured by M-mode echocardiography correlated with myocardial pyrophosphate uptake (r . 0.68, p less than 0.01). None of 10 control patients with nonamyloid, nonischemic heart disease had a strongly positive myocardial pyrophosphate uptake. Thus, myocardial technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scanning is a sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis in patients with congestive heart failure of obscure origin. It does not appear to be of value for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with known primary amyloidosis without echocardiographic abnormalities.

  15. Effect of technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate on bacterial survival in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Stathis, V.J.; Miller, C.M.; Doerr, G.F.; Coffey, J.L.; Hladik, W.B.

    1983-04-01

    Survival of Staphylococcus epidermidis (10(2) organisms/ml) in solutions containing various levels of radioactivity was assessed. Six test preparations contained nonbacteriostatic 0.9% sodium chloride solution; four of these contained technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate (99mTcO-4) in various quantities (80, 250, 500, and 750 mCi). A fifth contained technetium that had decayed to an essentially nonradioactive form, and a sixth contained 0.9% sodium chloride solution only. Each of the six 20-ml solutions was inoculated with 2 ml of single-strength trypticase soy broth (TSB) containing 10(3) organisms/ml. At various times up to 12 hours after inoculation, 1-ml aliquots of each test solution were withdrawn and passed through 0.22-micron filters, thereby preventing further irradiation of the filtered organisms. The filters were incubated in single-strength TSB at 37 degrees C, and samples were examined for turbidity at 24, 48, and 72 hours. After 24 hours, 25 of the 36 sample tubes showed turbidity; after 48 hours, the turbid samples totaled 28. Bacteria in the two nonradioactive solutions remained viable throughout the 12-hour sampling period. Accumulated doses of radiation obtained in the 250-, 500-, and 750-mCi samples inhibited bacterial growth. To be a valid quality-control measure, sterility monitoring of prepared radiopharmaceutical dosage forms may need to be performed concurrently with their preparation.

  16. Evaluation of bone-marrow scanning with technetium-99m sulfur colloid in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, A R; Oseas, R S; Wellman, H N; Doerr, D R; Baehner, R L

    1979-05-01

    Eighty-six technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) bone-marrow scans in 56 pediatric oncology patients were reviewed. The distribution of the sulfur colloid was similar to that in adult bone marrow in normal children older than 10 yr, and involved progressively more marrow of the extremities in normal children under 10 years of age. After irradiation or chemotherapy there was an extension of the Tc-SC to peripheral marrow sites. There was also diminished uptake of the tracer in sites corresponding to irradiated areas. In most patients there was recovery of these defects by 6 mo after completion of therapy. Tumor replacement of the marrow was reflected in the scans, and the extent of the scan defect paralleled the course of the disease. In four patients, despite normal bone scans and radiographs, marrow-scan abnormalities due to tumor replacement were present and confirmed by needle aspiration and/or biopsy. In two other patients, the marrow-scan abnormality preceded radiographic and histologic evidence of tumor metastasis. Two patients who responded clinically showed persistent defects; biopsy in one revealed fibrosis. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid bone-marrow scanning appears to be a sensitive monitor of marrow alteration caused by metastases, irradiation damage, or tissue fibrosis in children receiving treatment for cancer.

  17. Comprehensive radiolabeling, stability, and tissue distribution studies of technetium-99m single amino acid chelates (SAAC).

    PubMed

    Maresca, Kevin P; Hillier, Shawn M; Femia, Frank J; Zimmerman, Craig N; Levadala, Murali K; Banerjee, Sangeeta R; Hicks, Justin; Sundararajan, Chitra; Valliant, John; Zubieta, Jon; Eckelman, William C; Joyal, John L; Babich, John W

    2009-08-19

    Technetium tricarbonyl chemistry has been a subject of interest in radiopharmaceutical development over the past decade. Despite the extensive work done on developing chelates for Tc(I), a rigorous investigation of the impact of changing donor groups and labeling conditions on radiochemical yields and/or distribution has been lacking. This information is crucially important if these platforms are going to be used to develop molecular imaging probes. Previous studies on the coordination chemistry of the {M(CO)(3)}(+) core have established alkylamine, aromatic nitrogen heterocycles, and carboxylate donors as effective chelating ligands. These observations led to the design of tridentate ligands derived from the amino acid lysine. Such amino acid analogues provide a tridentate donor set for chelation to the metal and an amino acid functionality for conjugation to biomolecules. We recently developed a family of single amino acid chelates (SAAC) that serve this function and can be readily incorporated into peptides via solid-phase synthesis techniques. As part of these continuing studies, we report here on the radiolabeling with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and stability of a series of SAAC analogues of lysine. The complexes studied include cationic, neutral, and anionic complexes. The results of tissue distribution studies with these novel complexes in normal rats demonstrate a range of distribution in kidney, liver, and intestines. PMID:19572702

  18. Effect of cyclodextrin complexation on the in vivo disposition of the brain imaging radiopharmaceutical 99mTechnetium ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD).

    PubMed

    Oliver, D W; Dormehl, I C; Louw, W; Kilian, E; de Beco, V; Morretti, J L

    2000-08-01

    The brain imaging radiopharmaceutical, 99mTechnetium ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD, 99mTc-bicisate) is the most recent addition to the available set of radiopharmaceuticals for measuring cerebral blood flow. Ideally radiotracers should be trapped in the brain long enough so that their distribution can be quantitated and should demonstrate good spatial resolution. Furthermore, the stability (chemical and metabolic) and bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals have in general proved to be a challenge during development and clinical administration. In view of these challenges and background, this study with 99mTc-ECD is presented. The aims of this research program were to develop novel approaches to improve the chemical and metabolic stability and the bioavailability of 99mTc-ECD across the blood brain barrier for cerebral blood flow determinations, using the well known non-human primate in vivo baboon model. These aims were addressed by investigating the influence of cyclodextrin--99mTc-ECD complexation on normal cerebral blood flow patterns, using two different cyclodextrins, i.e., gamma-cyclodextrin (CAS 17465-86-0) and beta-trimethylcyclodextrin (CAS 55216-11-0). The effect of incubation of 99mTc-ECD (with or without cyclodextrin complexation) in plasma, on metabolic esterase action, was also investigated. Possible protection against plasma esterase by acetylcholine (CAS 51-84-3) of 99mTc-ECD was further determined. The current study has shown that cyclodextrin complexation of 99mTc-ECD indeed offers a useful approach to improve the stability of the radiopharmaceutical against peripheral metabolism. The acetylcholine shows also potential to protect 99mTc-ECD. However, it is clear from the current data that the choice of cyclodextrin is of utmost importance, as has been observed from significantly reduced the bioavailability of 99mTc-ECD when complexed with beta-trimethylcyclodextrin. The plasma incubation procedures showed that gamma-cyclodextrin offers

  19. Effect of EHDP on calcium accumulation and technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in experimental myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Buja, L.M.; Tofe, A.J.; Parkey, R.W.; Francis, M.D.; Lewis, S.E.; Kulkarni, P.V.; Bonte, F.J.; Willerson, J.T.

    1981-11-01

    Ethane-l-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) inhibits bone mineral growth. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that EHDP would interfere with the process of calcium uptake and deposition in evolving myocardial infarction and thereby influence other parameters, including technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PYP) uptake and scintigraphic visualization of the infarcts. Permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was produced in beagles. In seven dogs, serum EHDP was maintained at 10-15 ..mu..g/ml for 24 hours by continuous i.v. infusion, and seven control dogs were infused with saline. The Tc-99m PYP was infected 2 hours before sacrifice. EHDP-treated dogs showed a mild decrease (20%) in mean calcium content of infarcted myocardium (102.4 +/- 6.4 ..mu..g (+/- SEM) per gram wet weight (n = 51) vs 126.7 +/- 9.5 (n = 49) (p < 0.05)). These dogs showed a prominent decrease (37%) in mean Tc-99m PYP content of infarcted myocardium (18.2 +/- 1.4 (% dose/g x 10/sup -3/) (n = 46) vs 28.9 +/- 4.3 (n = 46) (p < 0.005)) and a marked decrease (65%) in infarct-to-normal ratio (6.1 +/- 0.9 (n = 6) vs 15.9 +/- 3.7 (n = 6) (p < 0.05)). Positive relationships were demonstrated between myocardial Tc-99m PYP and calcium levels in the EHDP-treated dogs (r = 0.69) and the control dogs (r = 0.77). Infarct size and regional myocardial blood flow changes were similar in the EHDP-treated and control dogs. The average grade (0-4+) of the Tc-99m PYP myocardial scintigrams for infarcts greater than 3.5 g was 2.4 +/- 0.2 for control dogs and 1.1 +/- 0.4 for EHDP-treated dogs (p < 0.05). Thus, EHDP infusion at the dose tested produced a mild decrease in calcium accumulation in canine infarcts; however, it produced a greater reduction in Tc-99m PYP uptake in the infarcts.

  20. Technetium-99m labelling of the anti-tumour antibody PR1A3 by photoactivation.

    PubMed

    Stalteri, M A; Mather, S J

    1996-02-01

    Irradiation of antibody with ultraviolet light leads to reduction of disulphide bonds. Thus irradiation can be used to generate free thiols prior to direct labelling of antibody with technetium-99m, and has a potential advantage over methods using chemical reducing agents such as mercaptoethanol or tin, in that no purification step is needed to remove excess reducing agent. We have used the photoactivation method developed by Sykes et al. to label the anti-tumour antibody PR1A3 with 99mTc. The antibody was irradiated at 300 nm using a Rayonet photochemical reactor with eight RMR3000 lamps. In a typical experiment, the antibody solution was injected into a nitrogen-filled borosilicate glass vial and purged with nitrogen. A degassed solution containing stannous fluoride and methylene diphosphonate was then added to the antibody and the vial was irradiated. Following the irradiation, [99mTc]pertechnetate was injected into the vial and the reaction mixture was incubated for 30 min at room temperature before being analysed by size-exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography and instant thin-layer chromatography. Labelling yields greater than 95% were obtained using antibody concentrations ranging from 0.5mg/ml to 5mg/ml. Irradiation times as short as 5 min and tin to antibody ratios in the range between 11 and 32 microg tin per mg antibody gave high labelling yields. Labelling yields greater than 95% were obtained after storage of the photoactivated antibody at -70 degrees C for several weeks. The stability of the 99mTc-labelled photoactivated PR1A3 was similar to that of 99mTc-labelled mercaptoethanol-reduced PR1A3. The mean immunoreactive fraction was 77% for the photoactivation-labelled PR1A3, compared to 93% for PR1A3 labelled by mercaptoethanol reduction. Biodistribution studies were carried out using 99mTc-photoactivation-labelled PR1A3 or PR1A3 labelled by mercaptoethanol reduction in Balb/c mice and in nude mice with MKN-45 human tumour xenografts. There was

  1. Use of Technetium (99mTc) as a Bacterial Label in Lung Clearance Studies

    PubMed Central

    Johanson, Waldemar G.; Kennedy, Marina G.; Bonte, Frederick J.

    1973-01-01

    The suitability of technetium (99mTc), a gamma emitter, for labeling of Diplococcus pneumoniae in studies of lung bacterial clearance was examined. A killed bacterial slurry with high specific activity was obtained with a ferric ascorbate reducing system. Approximately 5.5% of radioactive counts dissociated from labeled bacteria in 6 h. Rats were exposed to a uniformly mixed aerosol of untagged, viable pneumococci and killed, 99mTc-tagged pneumococci. The aerodynamic behavior of labeled and unlabeled pneumococci was similar. Viable bacterial counts and radioactive counts were determined in lung homogenates at intervals following exposure, and rates of bacterial killing and disappearance of radioactive counts were plotted. Radioactive counts did not increase in the liver during the period of observation, suggesting that the decrease in lung radioactivity represents mucociliary clearance and not release of isotope to the systemic circulation. The use of 99mTc for bacterial labeling provides advantages of technical simplicity and personnel safety compared to the use of beta-emitting isotopes. PMID:4144653

  2. Myocardial clearance of technetium-99m-teboroxime in reperfused injured canine myocardium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent technical developments using solid-state technology have enabled rapid image acquisition with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and have led to a renewed interest in technetium-99m-teboroxime (Tc-99m-teboroxime) as a myocardial imaging agent. Tc-99m-teboroxime has demonstrated high myocardial extraction, linear myocardial uptake relative to flow even at high flow rates, rapid uptake and clearance kinetics, and differential clearance in the setting of ischemia. However, the myocardial clearance kinetics of Tc-99m-teboroxime in a model of myocardial injury has not been previously reported. Thus, the purposes of this study were to use a canine model of ischemia-reperfusion to (1) compare Tc-99m-teboroxime clearance kinetics in normal and ischemic-reperfused myocardium and (2) assess the utility of Tc-99m-teboroxime clearance kinetics in determining the severity of injury following ischemia-reperfusion. Methods Thirteen dogs underwent left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) occlusion for either 30 min (IR30, n = 6) or 120 min (IR120, n = 7), followed by reperfusion, and finally Tc-99m-teboroxime administration 120 min after reperfusion. Microsphere blood flows were determined at baseline, during occlusion, after reperfusion, and before euthanasia. Post-mortem, area at risk was determined using Evans blue dye, and viability was determined using triphenytetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The hearts were then subdivided into 24 pieces and Tc-99m activity was measured in a well counter. Results TTC-determined infarct area as a percentage of total left ventricular myocardium was 1.1% ± 0.3% for the IR30 group and 7.5% ± 2.9% for the IR120 group (p < 0.05). During coronary occlusion, both the IR30 and IR120 groups demonstrated decreases in percent wall thickening in the ischemia-reperfusion zone (IRZ) as compared with the normal zone (NZ). In the IR30 group, percent wall thickening in the IRZ recovered during the

  3. Comparative evaluation of glutamate-sensitive radiopharmaceuticals: Technetium-99m-glutamic acid and technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-bis(glutamate) conjugate for tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Dipti; Tiwari, Anjani K; Chuttani, Krishna; Kaul, Ankur; Singh, Harpal; Mishra, Anil K

    2010-12-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography has become a significant imaging modality with huge potential to visualize and provide information of anatomic dysfunctions that are predictive of future diseases. This imaging tool is complimented by radiopharmaceuticals/radiosubstrates that help in imaging specific physiological aspects of the human body. The present study was undertaken to explore the utility of technetium-99m (⁹⁹(m)Tc)-labeled glutamate conjugates for tumor scintigraphy. As part of our efforts to further utilize the application of chelating agents, glutamic acid was conjugated with a multidentate ligand, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The DTPA-glutamate conjugate [DTPA-bis(Glu)] was well characterized by IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The biological activity of glutamic acid was compared with its DTPA conjugate by radiocomplexation with ⁹⁹(m)Tc (labeling efficiency ≥98%). In vivo studies of both the radiolabeled complexes ⁹⁹(m)Tc-Glu and ⁹⁹(m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Glu) were then carried out, followed by gamma scintigraphy in New Zealand albino rabbits. Improved serum stability of ⁹⁹(m)Tc-labeled DTPA conjugate indicated that ⁹⁹(m)Tc remained bound to the conjugate up to 24 hours. Blood clearance showed a relatively slow washout of the DTPA conjugate when compared with the labeled glutamate. Biodistribution characteristics of the conjugate in Balb/c mice revealed that DTPA conjugation of glutamic acid favors less accumulation in the liver and bone and rapid renal clearance. Tumor scintigraphy in mice showed increasing tumor accumulation, stable up to 4 hours. These preliminary studies show that ⁹⁹(m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Glu) can be a useful radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic applications in single-photon emission computed tomography imaging.

  4. Technical aspects of myocardial SPECT imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.V.; Cooke, C.D.; Van Train, K.F.; Folks, R.; Peifer, J.; DePuey, E.G.; Maddahi, J.; Alazraki, N.; Galt, J.; Ezquerra, N. )

    1990-10-16

    Most reports to date using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi have used acquisition parameters that were optimized for thallium-201. To fully utilize the superior imaging characteristics of Tc-99m sestamibi, there is a need to optimize the technical aspects of SPECT imaging for this agent. Performance can be enhanced through the careful selection of optimal radiopharmaceutical doses, imaging sequences, acquisition parameters, reconstruction filters, perfusion quantification methods and multidimensional methods for visualizing perfusion distribution. The current report describes theoretical considerations, phantom studies and preliminary patient results that have led to optimized protocols, developed at Emory University and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, for same-day rest-stress studies, given existing instrumentation and recommended dose limits. The optimizations were designed to fit a low-dose-high-dose rest-stress same-day imaging protocol. A principal change in the acquisition parameters compared with previous Tc-99m sestamibi protocols is the use of a high-resolution collimator. The approach is being developed in both prone and supine positions. A new method for extracting a 3-dimensional myocardial count distribution has been developed that uses spherical coordinates to sample the apical region and cylindrical coordinates to sample the rest of the myocardium. New methods for visualizing the myocardial distribution in multiple dimensions are also described, with improved 2-dimensional, as well as 3- and 4-dimensional (3 dimensions plus time) displays. In the improved 2-dimensional display, distance-weighted and volume-weighted polar maps are used that appear to significantly improve the representation of defect location and defect extent, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of Technetium-99m glucoheptonate single photon emission computed tomography for brain tumor grading

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Syed Shafiq; Junaid, Syed; Ahmed, Syed Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study is designed to appraise the diagnostic value of technetium-99m glucoheptonate (Tc-99m GHA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in brain tumor grading. Subjects and Methods: The study was performed on 30 patients referred from the Department of Neurosurgery, who were from both urban and rural areas. Data were collected through interview, history taking, and clinical examination followed by recording the desired parameters and finally imaging. The study subjects were divided into five groups: Controls (n = 4), low-grade tumors (n = 8), high-grade tumors (n = 8), metastases (n = 5), and nonneoplastic lesions (n = 5). This division was based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification postclinico-histological diagnosis. Each of the subjects underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography/contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance and Tc-99m GHA SPECT preoperatively. All were followed up postoperatively, and histopathological reports were regarded as the gold standard for tumor grading wherever available. Results: It was found that high-grade tumors (Grades III/IV and IV/IV according to the WHO classification) showed significantly higher tumor to normal (T/N) ratios as well as Tmax/N ratios when compared with low-grade tumors (Grades I/IV and II/IV), metastases or nonneoplastic lesions. Conclusions: In summary, the results of this study suggest that in situations where a preoperative grading of tumor is required Tc-99m GHA can be used in tumor grading and its use should be encouraged. Semi-quantitative analysis using both T/N as well as Tmax/N can be used in differentiating high-grade tumors from low-grade ones. PMID:27057217

  6. (99m)Technetium Sestamibi-(123)Iodine Scintigraphy Is More Accurate Than (99m)Technetium Sestamibi Alone before Surgery for Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ryhänen, Eeva M; Schildt, Jukka; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Väisänen, Mika; Ahonen, Aapo; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Välimäki, Matti J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Studies comparing outcome of single-(99m)Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ((99m)Tc-sestamibi) and dual-tracer (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy in combination with (123)I before primary surgery of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are scarce. Methods. We compared (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I and (99m)Tc-sestamibi in a single-centre retrospective series of 269 PHPT patients. The results were related to laboratory, surgical and histological findings. Results. (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I and (99m)Tc-sestamibi were positive in 206 (76.6%) and 111 (41.3%) of 269 patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Accuracies for (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I and (99m)Tc-sestamibi were 63.4% and 34.9%, respectively (96% CI, P < 0.001). Prevalence of multiglandular disease was 15.2%. In multiglandular disease, (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I and (99m)Tc-sestamibi revealed 43.8 and 22.1% of pathological glands, respectively (P < 0.001). Cure rate was similar for patients with (191/206; 92.7%) and without (59 of 63; 93.7%) a positive (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I finding. Duration of targeted surgery (one or two quadrants) was 21 and 15 minutes shorter than bilateral neck exploration, respectively (both P < 0.001). Higher serum calcium (P = 0.014) and PTH (P = 0.055) concentrations and larger tumours (P < 0.001) characterized the 206 patients with a positive preoperative scan who were cured by removal of a single adenoma. Conclusions. (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I scintigraphy is more accurate than (99m)Tc-sestamibi before surgery of PHPT. However, outcome of surgery is not determined by scintigraphy alone.

  7. Evaluation of reduction-mediated labelling of antibodies with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z M; Ballinger, J R; Sheldon, K; Boxen, I

    1992-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies can be labelled with technetium-99m by prereduction of the antibody with 2-mercaptoethanol, then reduction of pertechnetate with an aliquot of a stannous kit, resulting in greater than 97% labelling without the need for further purification. The present work shows that equally high labelling can be obtained with a variety of weak ligands and that the optimum quantity of stannous chloride is 2-4 micrograms. Although the label was stable to challenge with excess DTPA, cysteine was able to remove a portion of the label. We have also shown that this technique works with the IgG2a isotype in addition to the previously reported IgG1 isotype. This approach is simple, convenient and reproducible, and warrants further clinical evaluation.

  8. Technetium-99m human immunoglobulin (HIG): a new substance for scintigraphic detection of bone and joint infections.

    PubMed

    Machens, H G; Pallua, N; Becker, M; Mailaender, P; Schaller, E; Brenner, P; Bihl, H; Friedl, W; Berger, A

    1996-01-01

    Technetium (99m-Tc)-labelled, polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) has been described as a new agent to detect local infection and inflammation. In this study, we tested 99m-Tc HIG in 55 patients with suspected chronic (n = 42) and acute (n = 13) skeletal infection. Diagnosis was proven operatively (n = 44) and clinically (n = 11), including microbiological culture tests (n = 46). A gamma camera scan was performed 4 and 24 hours after I.v. injection of 500 MBq 99m-Tc-HIG. 99m-Tc-HIG scanning achieved a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 93%. We found one false negative and five false positive scintigraphic results in 55 patients. No clinical or biochemical side effects were encountered after 99m-Tc-HIG injection. We recommend this technique especially for localisation of low-grade, chronic osteomyelitis. The mechanisms and kinetics of 99m-Tc-HIG, however, are worth investigating more extensively.

  9. Technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan. False-normal findings in elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaeffer, F.; Mikolich, D.J.; Mates, S.M.

    1987-11-01

    Hematogenous osteomyelitis is usually diagnosed by an abnormal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan in symptomatic patients who have positive blood cultures. False-normal 99mTc bone scans have been described recently in neonates with biopsy-proved osteomyelitis. This phenomenon seems to be extremely rare in adults. Two elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis had normal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scans when first evaluated. In both cases the bone scans became abnormal four to six weeks after onset of symptoms and two to four weeks after the initial normal results of the study. When suggested by the clinical picture, hematogenous osteomyelitis cannot be ruled out by a normal 99mTc bone scan at any age. Gallium scan, computed tomographic scan, or bone biopsy can be helpful in such cases.

  10. Sipple's syndrome with liver tumors examined by iodine-131 MIBG and technetium-99m(V)-DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Endo, K.; Fujita, T.; Koizumi, M.; Konishi, J.; Maki, A.; Mori, K.; Ozawa, K.; Inoue, G.; Nakano, Y.

    1988-06-01

    This case report describes the localization and categorization of tumors using /sup 99m/Tc(V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid and (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine scans in a very uncommon case of medullary thyroid carcinoma associated with pheochromocytoma (Sipple's syndrome) and hepatocellular carcinoma. Technetium-99m(V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid showed accumulation only in medullary thyroid carcinoma, but (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine scans were positive in both medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. In advanced Sipple's syndrome, combined use of (/sup 99m/Tc(V))dimercaptosuccinic acid and (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine may be useful for the categorization of tumor mass lesions and planning appropriate therapy.

  11. Analysis of binding of a technetium-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody to lentivirus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Papageorges, M.; Gavin, P.R.; Adams, D.S.; Cheevers, W.P.; Barbee, D.D.; Sande, R.D. )

    1990-11-01

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is a model for the study of lentiviral infections. The authors' hypothesis is that radioimmunodetection has the potential to detect lentiviral proteins at the surface of infected cells. A monoclonal antibody (CAEV92A1) specific for a CAE virus (CAEV)-associated glycoprotein and a control antibody were radiolabeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) using the pretinning method. Cell binding assays were used to evaluate immunoreactivity and binding properties of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled antibodies to CAEV-infected cells. {sup 99m}Tc-CAEV92A1 bound preferentially to paraformaldehyde-fixed and live CAEV-infected cells. {sup 99m}Tc-CAEV92A1 did not appear to be shed rapidly from its binding site.

  12. Technetium-99m bis (aminoethanethiol) complexes with amine sidechains--potential brain perfusion imaging agents for SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Efange, S.M.; Kung, H.F.; Billings, J.; Guo, Y.Z.; Blau, M.

    1987-06-01

    In an effort to develop new clinically useful technetium-99m bis(aminoethanethiol) ((/sup 99m/Tc)BAT) complexes for the evaluation of regional cerebral perfusion, two new BAT ligands containing amines in the sidechain were synthesized and subsequently complexed with /sup 99m/Tc to yield the target complexes: (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA and (/sup 99m/Tc)TMPDA. Each complex was obtained as mixtures of two isomers, syn and anti, which were separated chromatographically. In biodistribution studies, both isomers of (/sup 99m/Tc)TMPDA showed little uptake in the brain. In contrast, the brain uptake values at 2 and 15 min for (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA-anti were 0.99 and 0.26, whereas, the corresponding values for DEA-syn were 2.27, 0.64% dose/organ, respectively. Autoradiographic studies (in rats) using both isomers of (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA show a fixed regional distribution and a higher concentration of radioactivity in the gray matter relative to the white matter. Planar imaging using (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA-syn clearly demonstrates localization of the complex in the brain with a T 1/2 of 41 min, suggesting some potential for use with single photon emission computed tomography.

  13. Diagnostic value of technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scintigraphy in detecting thyroid cancer metastases: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alam, M S; Kasagi, K; Misaki, T; Miyamoto, S; Iwata, M; Iida, Y; Konishi, J

    1998-12-01

    Technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scintigraphy has recently been used in clinical application for detecting thyroid cancer metastases, its role being considered supplementary to serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements and radioactive iodine (131I) whole-body scans (WBS). The present retrospective study was designed to elucidate the role of 99mTc-MIBI scans in localizing metastatic lesions by assessing sensitivity and specificity of the scan results obtained in a group of 68 thyroidectomized thyroid cancer patients. Presence or absence of thyroid cancer was judged with other diagnostic modes including serum Tg measurements, 131I WBS, bone scans, chest x-rays, computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography, histopathology, and evolution of disease during follow-up. All scans were read on lesion basis for detecting neck, lung, and bone metastases and also on region basis, namely head-neck, chest, and abdomen-pelvis-extremities (ab-p-ex) areas. The sensitivity of detection was 94.4% (17/18) for neck, 78.4% (40/51) for lung, and 92.8% (64/69) for skeletal lesions. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 96.3% (26/27) and 97.7% (43/44) for head-neck; 94.7% (71/75) and 50.0% (12/24) for chest; 100.0% (25/25) and 93.1% (54/58) for ab-p-ex regions, respectively. For all scan sites taken together, PPV and NPV were 96.1% (122/127) and 86.5% (109/126), respectively. In conclusion, the present study reveals that 99mTc-MIBI can be proposed as a first-line diagnostic agent for the follow-up protocol of thyroid cancer patients, although the ability to detect small lung metastases is somewhat limited.

  14. Technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging for detecting prosthetic joint infection in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng; Wang, Feng; Hou, Yanjie; Lu, Shanshan; Tian, Wei; Xu, Yan; Jin, Chengzhe; Wang, Liming

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection is essential to initiate early treatment and achieve a favorable outcome. In this study, we used a rabbit model to assess the feasibility of technetium-99m-labeled annexin V for detecting prosthetic joint infection. Right knee arthroplasty was performed on 24 New Zealand rabbits. After surgery, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was intra-articularly injected to create a model of prosthetic joint infection (the infected group, n = 12). Rabbits in the control group were injected with sterile saline (n = 12). Seven and 21 days after surgery, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging was performed in 6 rabbits of each group. Images were acquired 1 and 4 hours after injection of technetium-99m-labeled annexin V (150 MBq). The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios were calculated for quantitative analysis. Seven days after surgery, increased technetium-99m-labeled annexin V uptake was observed in all cases. However, at 21 days a notable decrease was found in the control group, but not in the infected group. The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the infected group were 1.84 ± 0.29 in the early phase and 2.19 ± 0.34 in the delay phase, both of which were significantly higher than those of the control group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02). The receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed that the operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the delay phase at 21 days was the best indicator, with an accuracy of 80%. In conclusion, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging could effectively distinguish an infected prosthetic joint from an uninfected prosthetic joint in a rabbit model.

  15. Dependence of technetium-99m red blood cell labeling efficiency on red cell surface charge.

    PubMed

    Seldin, D W; Simchon, S; Jan, K M; Chien, S; Alderson, P O

    1988-10-01

    The mechanisms by which [99mTc]pertechnetate becomes attached to stannous-primed red blood cells are not known in detail. To study the problem further, the effect of red cell surface charge on labeling efficiency was evaluated. Red cell surface charge was reduced by using the enzyme neuraminidase to remove the terminal charge-bearing sialic acid moiety of the membrane glycoprotein. Forty-five blood samples from six volunteers were treated with neuraminidase for varying lengths of time, resulting in the removal of from 11% to 99% of the normal negative surface charge, as determined from electrophoretic mobility measurements. There was excellent linear correlation between labeling efficiency and the remaining red cell surface charge for values down to 20% of normal (r = 0.89). When surface charge was less than 20% of normal, labeling efficiency was constant at 30%. Eleven blood samples from three donors were divided into two groups that were treated with neuraminidase either before or after they were labeled. The labeling efficiency was independent of the order in which the steps were performed. No evidence for shifting of the radiolabel from the cell membrane to hemoglobin was found. The results suggest that clinical conditions associated with a reduction of sialic acid on the erythrocyte membrane may be one cause of decreased red blood cell labeling efficiency, and that increased membrane permeability for reduced technetium species may be responsible for the decrease.

  16. A comparison of infarct identification with technetium-99m pyrophosphate and staining with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo, C.; Devous, M.D. Sr.; Nicod, P.; Buja, L.M.; Parkey, R.W.; Bonte, F.J.; Willerson, J.T.; Lewis, S.E.

    1983-06-01

    The topographic relationship between the uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate (PPi) and myocardial infarction delineated by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was studied in a canine model of permanent coronary occlusion (24-48 hr). Photographs of TTC staining and scintigraphic images of PPi uptake were planimetered for infarct area. In addition, narrow tissue samples (3 X 10 mm) were taken on both sides of the TTC border and counted for PPi uptake. A significant correlation (p less than 0.001) was found between area of PPi uptake and area of myocardium unstained by TTC (r . 0.84 in epicardium and r . 0.91 in endocardium). The slope relating PPi to TTC for all infarcts was 1.01 +/- 0.11, indicating that variations in infarct size were followed equally by the two techniques. Tissue counting showed the ratio of PPi activity just inside the infarct to activity just outside the infarct to be 9.2 +/- 0.6 (mean +/- s.e.m.). Thus, PPi is distributed topographically in a manner identical to the distribution of irreversibly injured myocardium as delineated by TTC.

  17. Structural Investigation of Technetium-Diphosphonate Complex 99mTc-MDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ling; Lin, Jian-guo; Ju, Xue-hai; Gong, Xue-dong; Luo, Shi-neng

    2011-06-01

    Density functional theory method has been employed to investigate the structures of the prototypical technetium-labeled diphosphonate complex 99mTc-MDP, where MDP represents methylenediphosphonic acid. A total of 14 trial structures were generated by allowing for the geometric, conformational, charge, and spin isomerism. Based on the optimized structures and calculated energies at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level, two stable isomers were determined for the title complex. And they were further studied systematically in comparison with the experimental structure. The basis sets 6-31G*(LANL2DZ for Tc), 6-31G*(cc-pVDZ-pp for Tc), and DGDZVP have also been employed in combination with the B3LYP functional to study the basis set effect on the geometries of isomers. The optimized structures agree well with the available experimental data, and the bond lengths are more sensitive to the basis set than the bond angles. The charge distributions were studied by the Mulliken population analysis and natural bond orbital analysis. The results reflect a significant ligand-to-metal electron donation.

  18. Estimation of Residual Peritoneal Volume Using Technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Katopodis, Konstantinos P; Fotopoulos, Andrew D; Balafa, Olga C; Tsiouris, Spyridon Th; Triandou, Eleni G; Al-Bokharhli, Jichad B; Kitsos, Athanasios C; Dounousi, Evagelia C; Siamopoulos, Konstantinos C

    2015-01-01

    Residual peritoneal volume (RPV) may contribute in the development of ultrafiltration failure in patients with normal transcapillary ultrafiltration. The aim of this study was to estimate the RPV using intraperitoneal technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid (Tc). Twenty patients on peritoneal dialysis were studied. RPV was estimated by: 1) intraperitoneal instillation of Tc (RPV-Tc) and 2) classic Twardowski calculations using endogenous solutes, such as urea (RPV-u), creatinine (RPV-cr), and albumin (RPV-alb). Each method's reproducibility was assessed in a subgroup of patients in two consecutive measurements 48 h apart. Both methods displayed reproducibility (r = 0.93, p = 0.001 for RPVTc and r = 0.90, p = 0.001 for RPV-alb) between days 1 and 2, respectively. We found a statistically significant difference between RPV-Tc and RPV-cr measurements (347.3 ± 116.7 vs. 450.0 ± 67.8 ml; p =0.001) and RPV-u (515.5 ± 49.4 ml; p < 0.001), but not with RPV-alb (400.1 ± 88.2 ml; p = 0.308). A good correlation was observed only between RPV-Tc and RPV-alb (p < 0.001). The Tc method can estimate the RPV as efficiently as the high molecular weight endogenous solute measurement method. It can also provide an imaging estimate of the intraperitoneal distribution of RPV.

  19. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in patients with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis: a prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Leclerc, J.R.; Wolfson, C.; Arzoumanian, A.; Blake, G.P.; Rosenthall, L.

    1988-09-01

    We have compared technetium-99m (99mTc) red blood cell (RBC) venography to serial impedance plethysmography (IPG) in 110 consecutive patients with a first episode of clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). IPG was performed at Day 0 and, if abnormal, contrast venography was also performed to rule out a falsely positive result. Patients with an initially normal IPG had the test repeated at Days 1, 3, 5 to 7, and 10 to 14. Contrast venography was not performed and anticoagulant treatment was withheld in all patients who remained normal during repeated IPG testing. Technetium-99m RBC venography was performed at Day 0 in patients with an initially abnormal IPG and during the period of serial IPG testing in those with an initially normal IPG. The sensitivity of (99mTc)RBC venography for proximal DVT was 0.68, with 95% confidence limits (CL) from 0.48 to 0.89. Specificity was 0.88 (95% CL from 0.81 to 0.95). When the findings of (99mTc)RBC venography for the entire lower extremity were compared to the reference method, the sensitivity increased to 0.90 (95% CL from 0.82 to 0.97) but the specificity decreased to 0.56 (95% CL from 0.51 to 0.62). Technetium-99m RBC venography is a sensitive but less specific method for detecting DVT of the entire lower extremity. An abnormal (99mTc)RBC venogram, particularly in the calf region, should always be confirmed by another diagnostic method.

  20. Production of Molybdenum-99 by (n, ) activation and direct separation of Technetium-99m without column generator fabrication: A viable strategy for enhanced availability of technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp Jr, Russ F; Pillai, M R A

    2012-01-01

    Fission-produced 99Mo (F 99Mo) is traditionally used for fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc adsorption-type column generators. In this paper, several emerging strategies that are being pursued or have been suggested to overcome the continuing shortages of F 99Mo are discussed. To provide an alternative source of 99Mo, the principal focus of this analysis is a detailed discussion of the advantages and strategies for enhanced production of low-specific-activity 99Mo (LSA 99Mo) by direct activation of molybdenum targets in nuclear reactors. In order to enhance the availability of 99Mo, development of an increased network of reactors for production of LSA 99Mo is described, as well as utilization of currently unused reactors. The time spent in manufacturing of 99Mo/99mTc column generators is responsible for the loss of more than 50% of F99Mo produced. Hence, the authors propose a paradigm shift in the use of 99Mo by recovering clinical-grade 99mTc from 99Mo solution as an alternative to use of 99Mo/99mTc column generators, thereby avoiding substantial decreased availability of 99Mo from radioactive decay. Implementation of the suggested strategies would be expected to increase availability of 99mTc to the clinical user community by several folds. Additional important advantages of the use of LSA 99Mo include precluding the need for fission product waste management and phasing out the need for high- and low-enriched uranium as target materials for medical radioisotope production.

  1. Preliminary studies of acetylcholinesterase activity in the rat brain using N-phenylferrocenecarboxamide labelled by the technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Mejri, Najoua; Said, Nadia Malek; Guizani, Sihem; Essouissi, Imen; Saidi, Mouldi

    2013-05-01

    There is currently great interest in developing radiolabeled substrates for acetylcholinesterase that would be useful in the in vivo imaging of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The reduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain has been measured in dementia disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies using (11)C and (18)F-labeled acetylcholine analogues. Our aim was to develop a new 99mTc-labeled acetylcholine analogue: N-phenylferrocenecarboxamide labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc-TPCC) to study acetylcholinesterase activity. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that the labelled compound was a substrate for acetylcholinesterase. The hydrolytic rate of this substrate was measured and the specificity was evaluated using the inhibitor BW 284 C51. In rat experiments, the 99mTc-TPCC showed desirable properties for studying the acetylcholinesterase in the rat brain: high hydrolytic rate and a moderate specificity of the substrate for acetylcholinesterase.

  2. Comparison of technetium-99m-HM-PAO leukocytes with indium-111-oxine leukocytes for localizing intraabdominal sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Mountford, P.J.; Kettle, A.G.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Coakley, A.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Technetium-99m-HM-PAO (({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO) leukocyte and indium-111-oxine (111In-oxine) leukocyte scanning were carried out simultaneously in 41 patients at 4 hr and 24 hr after reinjection to determine whether the 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc scan could replace the 24-hr {sup 111}In scan for detecting intraabdominal sepsis. Abdominal infection was confirmed in 12 cases. The 4-hr {sup 99}Tc-leukocyte scan, the 4-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan, and the 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan yielded a sensitivity of 100%, 67%, and 100%, respectively, and a specificity of 62%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The 24-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scan also produced a sensitivity of 100%, but it was falsely positive in all 29 cases without infection due to physiologic bowel uptake. False-positive 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scans were also produced by physiologic bowel uptake in seven cases all of whom had true-negative 4-hr and 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans. Because of the high incidence of false-positive 4-hr ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO leukocyte scans, it was concluded that they could not replace 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans for detecting intraabdominal sepsis, and that serial {sup 99m}Tc leukocyte scans starting earlier than 4 hr after reinjection must be evaluated.

  3. Assessment of gastric motility using meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid

    SciTech Connect

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1983-12-01

    During a 2 year period, 83 patients with gastric motility problems were evaluated using radionuclide imaging. The patients presented with epigastric distress, postprandial fullness, pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; signs and symptoms suggestive of either gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy, or both, demonstrated no mechanical obstruction. After oral administration of a 300 g meal labeled with 600 muCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid, a gastric emptying study consisting of serial images and data acquisition was performed. Of the patients studied, 52 had had peptic ulcer surgery, 17 were suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux, 8 were diabetic and suspected of having visceral enteropathy, and 6 had a history of irritable bowel syndrome. The normal mean gastric half emptying time was 77 +/- 16 minutes. Of the patients who had had gastric surgery, 90.4 percent had abnormal emptying: 69.2 percent had delayed gastric emptying and 21.2 percent had rapid gastric emptying time; 9.6 percent had normal emptying time. Of the gastroesophageal reflux group, all but two had normal gastric emptying time; 65 percent demonstrated gastroesophageal reflux within 15 minutes. Two of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome had prolonged emptying; the rest had normal emptying. All diabetic patients with gastroparesis had prolonged gastric emptying time, and all responded favorably to metoclopramide. Of the patients who previously had peptic ulcer surgery and had prolonged emptying time, 72 percent also responded favorably to metoclopramide. We conclude that radionuclide gastric imaging is a useful diagnostic test for the measurement of gastric emptying in patients with a variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders and may be helpful in assessing medical therapy and selecting those who may be candidates for surgery.

  4. Localization of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding by technetium 99m-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Wang, C S; Tzen, K Y; Huang, M J; Wang, J Y; Chen, M F

    1992-01-01

    When a bleeding source from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract cannot be identified with conventional diagnostic studies, it is known as GI bleeding of an obscure origin. In the past three years, in vivo Technetium 99m-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy (RBC scan) has been added to our armamentarium for the diagnosis of obscure GI bleeding. Out of a total of 26 cases, the bleeders could be detected in 12 or 46.2% by RBC scan. The time required ranged from 15 minutes to 24 hours (median, one hour). In 14 patients with active bleeding during the scan period, 11 had positive scans (sensitivity, 78.6%). In 12 patients with inactive bleeding, 11 had negative scans (specificity, 91.7%). Angiography was conducted in nine cases, with all showing negative findings; however, six of them had a positive focus by RBC scan. Laparotomy was performed in seven scan-positive patients, and in three scan-negative patients because of a positive Meckel's scan (two cases) or recurrent bleeding (one case). Of the 12 scan-positive patients, incorrect localization was noted in two patients due to rapid transit of the labeled RBC in the small bowel. False localization could be prevented by shortening the sequential imaging interval. It is concluded that an RBC scan is a very sensitive and safe tool for detection of GI bleeding of an intermittent nature, because the bleeder can be monitored for 24 hours after a single injection. It can be used as a preangiographic screening test and to guide the surgeon in surgical planning or decision-making.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1352337

  5. Right ventricular ejection fraction measured by first-pass intravenous krypton-81m: reproducibility and comparison with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Wong, D F; Natarajan, T K; Summer, W; Tibbits, P A; Beck, T; Koller, D; Kasecamp, W; Lamb, J; Olynyk, J; Philp, M S

    1985-11-01

    Study of the effects of various diseases and therapeutic manipulation of pulmonary vascular resistance on the right ventricle has been restricted by methodologic limitations. The radioactive gas in solution, krypton-81m was used to study the right ventricle and the technique was compared with a technetium-99m method. In 22 subjects, first-pass krypton-81m right ventricular ejection fraction, acquired both in list mode and electrocardiogram-gated frame mode, correlated well (r = 0.81 and 0.86, respectively, p less than 0.01) with that determined by technetium-99m first-pass studies over a broad range of ventricular function. The reproducibility of the technique was excellent (r = 0.84 and 0.95 for each acquisition mode, respectively). Krypton-81m first-pass studies provide accurate and reproducible estimates of right ventricular function. Use of krypton allows multiple measurements, with or without perturbations, over a short period of time.

  6. Scintigraphic detection of occult hemorrhage using RBCs labeled in vitro with technetium Tc 99m sodium pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, S.R.; Kolina, J.S.; Kaplan, K.A.; McAuley, R.J.; Lull, R.J.

    1983-05-01

    Scintigraphy with RBCs labeled with technetium Tc 99m sodium pertechnetate effectively located the source of hemorrhage in a patient receiving long-term anticoagulant therapy. (The patient was initially seen with a large hematoma on the flank.) More important, the procedure was used to monitor activity in this otherwise-occult bleeding site. Scintigraphic studies may be useful in the management of these difficult clinical problems.

  7. Thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction: Assessment of efficacy by myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J. )

    1990-10-16

    Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi has been used to evaluate the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy. Improved image quality due to the higher photon energy of Tc-99m and the increased allowable doses of this radiopharmaceutical along with its lack of redistribution makes Tc-99m sestamibi an acceptable imaging agent for such studies. This imaging agent was used for serial quantitative planar and tomographic imaging to assess the initial risk area of infarction, its change over time and the relation to infarct-related artery patency in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction. Twenty-three of 30 patients were treated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 4 hours after onset of acute chest pain. Seven patients were treated in the conventional manner and did not receive thrombolytic therapy. The initial area at risk varied greatly both in patients treated with rt-PA and in those who received conventional therapy. Patients with successful thrombolysis and patient infarct arteries had a significantly greater reduction of Tc-99m sestamibi defect size than patients who had persistent coronary occlusion. Serial imaging with Tc-99m sestamibi could find important application in future clinical research evaluating the efficacy of new thrombolytic agents. Direct measurements of the amount of hypoperfused myocardium before and after thrombolysis could provide rapid and unequivocal results using fewer patients and avoiding the use of mortality as an end point. This approach has not yet been widely tested in the clinical arena.

  8. Technetium-99m labeled RBC imaging in gastrointestinal bleeding from gastric leiomyoma

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, U.A.; Jhingran, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging is becoming increasingly useful in detecting gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding sites. A patient is presented who had massive GI bleeding from an unsuspected gastric leiomyoma in whom a Tc-99m sulfur colloid GI bleed image was negative. The Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging done on the day after sulfur colloid imaging revealed increased gastric activity due to active bleeding from an intragastric leiomyoma. Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging helped in early detection of the bleeding site resulting in its successful treatment. This experience also reinforces the assertion that Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging may be more helpful than Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging in patients with upper GI or intermittent bleeding.

  9. Imaging of experimental myocardial infarction with technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsberg, R.P.; Milne, N.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.

    1981-03-01

    We have studied the use of Tc-99m-labeled 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid(Tc-99m DMSA) to scintigraph acute myocardial infaction after coronary occlusion in dogs. Optimal images were obtained 5 hr after injection of radiotracer, with consistent delineation 48 hr after occlusion. Delivery of tracer was dependent on blood flow. Uptake of tracer correlated to extent of infarction as determined by the myocardial depletion of creatine kinase. Myocardial Tc-99m DMSA was protein-bound.

  10. Effect of ischemia and postischemic dysfunction on myocardial uptake of technetium-99m-labeled methoxyisobutyl isonitrile and thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Sinusas, A.J.; Watson, D.D.; Cannon, J.M. Jr.; Beller, G.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The myocardial uptake of a new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial perfusion agent, methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI), and thallium-201 was correlated with microsphere flow in an open chest canine model of low coronary flow and postischemic dysfunction. Eighteen dogs were given an injection of thallium-201 (0.5 mCi) and Tc-99m MIBI (5 mCi) either after 40 min of partial left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group I, 10 dogs) or during reperfusion after 15 min of left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group II, 8 dogs). Regional dysfunction was documented during injection in both groups by quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography. Regional blood flow was assessed by radiolabeled microspheres. The heart was excised 15 min after radionuclide injection and the left ventricle divided into 96 segments for gamma well counting. Among Group I dogs, central ischemic thallium-201 and Tc-99m MIBI activity (expressed as a percent of the activity in the corresponding nonischemic zone) was comparable, respectively, for endocardial (54 +/- 17% and 52 +/- 17%), mid-wall (71 +/- 20% and 69 +/- 17%) and epicardial (89 +/- 13% and 94 +/- 9%) segments and increased proportionally with flow. There was a good linear correlation among these endocardial segments between flow and both thallium-201 (r = 0.78) and Tc-99m MIBI (r = 0.85) activity. Among Group II dogs, central ischemic endocardial flow (59 +/- 14%) was comparable to thallium-201 (70 +/- 18%) and Tc-99m MIBI (74 +/- 12%) activity. Similarly, relative endocardial flow in the intermediate ischemic region (71 +/- 11%) was comparable to thallium-201 (77 +/- 11%) and Tc-99m MIBI (81 +/- 10%) activity. Thus, myocardial uptake of Tc-99m MIBI and thallium-201 is comparable under conditions of low coronary flow and postischemic dysfunction and closely parallels flow alterations.

  11. Development of a physiologically based kinetic model for 99m-technetium-labelled carbon nanoparticles inhaled by humans.

    PubMed

    Péry, Alexandre R R; Brochot, Céline; Hoet, Peter H M; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Bois, Frédéric Y

    2009-11-01

    Particulate air pollution is associated with respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies investigated whether and to which extent inhaled ultrafine particles are able to translocate into the bloodstream in humans. However, their conclusions were conflicting. We developed a physiologically based kinetic model for (99m)technetium-labelled carbon nanoparticles (Technegas). The model was designed to analyse imaging data. It includes different translocation rates and kinetics for free technetium, and small and large technetium-labelled particles. It was calibrated with data from an experiment designed to assess the fate of nanoparticles in humans after inhalation of Technegas. The data provided time courses of radioactivity in the liver, stomach, urine, and blood. Parameter estimation was performed in a Bayesian context with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. Our analysis points to a likely translocation of particle-bound technetium from lung to blood, at a rate about twofold lower than the transfer rate of free technetium. Notably, restricting the model so that only free technetium would have been able to reach blood circulation resulted in much poorer fits to the experimental data. The percentage of small particles able to translocate was estimated at 12.7% of total particles. The percentage of unbound technetium was estimated at 6.7% of total technetium. To our knowledge, our model is the first PBPK model able to use imaging data to describe the absorption and distribution of nanoparticles. We believe that our modeling approach using Bayesian and MCMC techniques provides a reasonable description on which to base further model refinement.

  12. Renal handling of technetium-99m DMSA: Evidence for glomerular filtration and peritubular uptake

    SciTech Connect

    de Lange, M.J.; Piers, D.A.; Kosterink, J.G.; van Luijk, W.H.; Meijer, S.; de Zeeuw, D.; van der Hem, G.K.

    1989-07-01

    The finding of an enhanced excretion of (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in patients with tubular reabsorption disorders prompted us to investigate the role of filtration in the renal handling of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA. Our studies in human serum indicated that binding to serum proteins was approximately 90%. Chromatography of human urine and studies in rats showed that the complex was excreted unaltered into the urine. Renal extraction of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in a human volunteer was 5.8%. Continuous infusion of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in 13 individuals with normal renal function gave the following results (mean +/- s.d.): plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA 34 +/- 4 ml/min, urinary clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA 12 +/- 3 ml/min. The calculated filtered load of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA closely resembled the urinary clearance, whereas the plasma clearance was about three times faster. This indicates that peritubular uptake accounts for approximately 65% and filtration for approximately 35% of the renal handling of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA.

  13. [Situation of supply and boom of PET imaging: what is the future for technetium-99m in nuclear medicine?].

    PubMed

    Maia, S; Ayachi Hatit, N; Paycha, F

    2011-05-01

    Molecular imaging has shown its interest in the diagnosis, staging and therapy monitoring of many diseases, especially in the field of cancer. This imaging modality can detect non-invasively early molecular changes specific to these diseases. Its expansion includes two aspects linked firstly with the advanced techniques of imaging modalities and secondly with the development of tracers as radio pharmaceuticals for imaging new molecular targets. Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), because of its physical characteristics, its widespread availability and low cost, is the most used radionuclide in molecular imaging with the technique of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Nevertheless, the current difficulty concerning the supply and the great interest of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the "competitor" imaging modality-using molecules labelled with fluorine-18 ((18)F), legitimates the question about the future of (99m)Tc, its supremacy and the emergence of new tracer labelled with (99m)Tc. Focusing on the actual and future supply situation, the place of SPECT imaging in nuclear medicine, as well as the development of new molecules labelled with (99m)Tc is necessary to show that this radionuclide will remain essential for the speciality in the next years.

  14. Technetium 99m-labeled VQ peptide: a new imaging agent for the early detection of tumors or premalignancies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiyun; Cui, Liyang; Jia, Bing; Liu, Zhaofei; He, Peng; Dong, Chengyan; Jin, Xiaona; Zhao, Huiyun; Li, Fang; Wang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need to develop diagnostic procedures enabling early detection of tumors while at a curable stage. Technetium 99m (99mTc)-labeled VQ peptide (99mTc-HYNIC-VQ) identified through screening phage display peptide libraries against fresh human colonic adenomas was prepared and evaluated for tumor detection. 99mTc-HYNIC-VQ was prepared by a non-SnCl2 method with more than 99% radiochemical purity. The biodistribution in the HT-29 tumor model showed that although the absolute tumor uptake values were relatively low (0.60 ± 0.09, 0.41 ± 0.09, 0.36 ± 0.18, and 0.19 ± 0.08 %ID/g at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 hours postinjection, respectively), the tumor uptake was higher than that of any of the other organs except for the kidneys at any time point examined, which led to the high tumor to nontarget ratios. The tumors and inflammation were clearly visualized with high contrast. Although the mechanism of accumulation of radiolabeled VQ peptide in tumors and inflammation needs to be further investigated, 99mTc-HYNIC-VQ is a promising imaging agent for the early detection of tumors or premalignancies, at least for screening patients with a high risk of developing cancers.

  15. Modulation of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein: Detection with technetium-99m-sestamibi in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Luker, G.D.; Fracasso, P.M.; Dobkin, J.; Piwnica-Worms, D.

    1997-03-01

    Overexpression of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) has been documented in nearly all forms of human cancers and increased levels of Pgp in some tumors correlate with poor response to treatment. Technetium-99m-sestamibi has recently been validated as a Pgp transport substrate. Pgp is also normally expressed along the biliary canalicular surface of hepatocytes and the luminal side of proximal tubule cells in the kidney, while not expressed in heart. Focused on these organs with known Pgp status, we present the findings on {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi showed normal, prompt clearance of the radiotracer from the liver and kidneys relative to the heart. After administration of the Pgp modulator, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi was selectively retained in the liver and kidneys. Hepatobiliary and renal clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi are Pgp-mediated, and inhibition of Pgp transport in these organs can be successfully imaged using {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in patients. Similar results might be expected with this and related radiopharmaceuticals for functional imaging of Pgp transport and modulation in tumors. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Technetium-99m MDP imaging of acute radiation-induced inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, J.V.; Ziessman, H.A.

    1988-06-01

    Tc-99m MDP three-phase bone imaging demonstrated the acute hyperemic inflammatory soft tissue phase of radiation injury to the hand in a patient receiving radiation therapy to bone lesions of multiple myeloma.

  17. Technetium-99m -- new production and processing strategies to provide adequate levels for SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Osso, J A; Catanoso, M F; Barrio, G; Brambilla, T P; Teodoro, R; Dias, C R B R; Suzuki, K N

    2012-07-01

    The most important radioisotope for use in Nuclear Medicine is (99m)Tc, supplied in the form of a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator. After the supply crisis of (99)Mo starting in 2008 the availability of (99)Mo became a worldwide concern. The purpose of this work is to do a brief story of the availability of (99)Mo in the world followed by an overview of the production routes of (99)Mo and the generators technology.

  18. Imaging of glutathione localization in brain with technetium-99M meso-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Toyama, H.; Oda, K.

    1995-05-01

    Previous studies have shown decreasing [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake in accordance with glutathione (GSH) content in diethyl, maleate (DEM) treated mice brain. In order to elucidate the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO in brain and to visualize the regional localization of GSH in the brain with [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO, the relationship between the tissue GSH content and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO was studied in rats and rabbits. Increasing pre-load of DEM (550 mg/kg body weight), an agent to reduce GSH content by glutathione transferase, led to a decrease in GSH (control 1.972{plus_minus}0.017 vs DEM 1.138{plus_minus}0.106 mM) and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO to half of the control in the rat brain (control 0.281{plus_minus}0.024 vs DEM 0.153 {plus_minus} 0.009 % dose/g). On the other hand, the DEM did not decrease GSH or the uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO in the rabbit brain, in which glutathione transferase activity is very low. These results were also demonstrated by images with pin-hole collimated gamma camera. The uptake of [Tc-99m] meso showed variations in the regional distribution, but the d,l-isomer was uniform. [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake was well correlated with GSH content in mice brain regions (r=0.800, p<0.02), whereas [Tc-99m]d,l-HM-PAO was not (r=0.017, p>0.5). Both [Tc-99m] mesa HM-PAO uptake and GSH content were especially high at cerebellum (Uptake: 2.598{plus_minus}0.256 % dose/g. GSH: 2.372{plus_minus}0.107 mM) as compared to other areas (Uptake;cerebral cortex 1.797{plus_minus}0.100 brain stem 1.607 {plus_minus}0.112 % dose/g. GSH: cerebral cortex 1.635{plus_minus}0.142 brain stem 1.478{plus_minus}0.141 mM).

  19. Melanoma-targeting properties of (99m)technetium-labeled cyclic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide analogues.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Cheng, Z; Hoffman, T J; Jurisson, S S; Quinn, T P

    2000-10-15

    Preliminary reports have demonstrated that (99m)technetium (Tc)-labeled cyclic [Cys(3,4,10), D-Phe7]alpha-MSH(3-13) (CCMSH) exhibits high tumor uptake and retention values in a murine melanoma mouse model. In this report, the tumor targeting mechanism of 99mTc-CCMSH was studied and compared with four other radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) peptide analogues: 125I-(Tyr2)-[Nle4, D-Phe7]alpha-MSH [125I-(Tyr2)-NDP]; 99mTc-CGCG-NDP; 99mTc-Gly11-CCMSH; and 99mTc-Nle11-CCMSH. In vitro receptor binding, internalization, and cellular retention of radiolabeled alpha-MSH analogues in B16/F1 murine cell line demonstrated that >70% of the receptor-bound radiolabeled analogues were internalized together with the receptor. Ninety % of the internalized 125I-(Tyr2)-NDP, whereas only 36% of internalized 99mTc-CCMSH, was released from the cells into the medium during a 4-h incubation at 37 degrees C. Two mouse models, C57 mice and severe combined immunodeficient (Scid) mice, inoculated s.c. with B16/F1 murine and TXM-13 human melanoma cells were used for the in vivo studies. Tumor uptake values of 11.32 and 2.39 [% injected dose (ID)/g] for 99mTc-CCMSH at 4 h after injection, resulted in an uptake ratio of tumor:blood of 39.0 and 11.5 in murine melanoma-C57 and human melanoma-Scid mouse models, respectively. Two strategies for decreasing the nonspecific kidney uptake of 99mTc-CCMSH, substitution of Lys11 in CCMSH with Gly11 or Nle11, and lysine coinjection, were evaluated. The biodistribution data for the modified peptides showed that Lys11 replacement dramatically decreased the kidney uptake, whereas the tumor uptakes of 99mTc-Nle11- and 99mTc-Gly11-CCMSH were significantly lower than that of 99mTc-CCMSH. Lysine coinjection significantly decreased the kidney uptake (e.g., from 14.6% ID/g to 4.5% ID/g at 4 h after injection in murine melanoma-C57 mice) without significantly changing the value of tumor uptake of 99mTc-CCMSH. In conclusion, the compact

  20. Experimental study of radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose for tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. Radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B 1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 minutes. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D- glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3±0.15MBq and 1.07±0.6MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio- D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  1. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  2. Comparison of stress-only vs. stress/rest with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Worsley, D F; Fung, A Y; Coupland, D B; Rexworthy, C G; Sexsmith, G P; Lentle, B C

    1992-01-01

    Unlike conventional thallium-201 myocardial imaging, technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) requires separate stress and rest injections. We prospectively studied 148 consecutive patients referred for myocardial perfusion studies to determine the diagnostic value of rest images once normal exercise or dipyridamole tomographic images had been obtained. In patients referred with no history of previous myocardial infarction in whom the diagnosis of coronary artery disease was suspected, 45 of 109 (41%) patients had normal stress tomographic images. Obtaining rest images did not alter the final interpretation in any of these cases. From this we infer that in patients with normal images after exercise or dipyridamole administration and no past history of myocardial infarction, 99mTc-MIBI rest images are not required. This provides several advantages including increased speed of diagnosis, decreased patient radiation exposure, improved cost efficiency and decreased demand on tomographic camera time.

  3. Clinical application of autologous technetium-99m-labelled eosinophils to detect focal eosinophilic inflammation in the lung.

    PubMed

    Loutsios, Chrystalla; Farahi, Neda; Simmonds, Rosalind; Cullum, Ian; Gillett, Daniel; Solanki, Chandra; Solanki, Kishor; Buscombe, John; Condliffe, Alison M; Peters, A Mike; Chilvers, Edwin R

    2015-11-01

    The detection of focal eosinophilic inflammation by non-invasive means may aid the diagnosis and follow-up of a variety of pulmonary pathologies. All current methods of detection involve invasive sampling, which may be contraindicated or too high-risk to be performed safely. The use of injected autologous technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labelled eosinophils coupled to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been demonstrated to localise eosinophilic inflammation in the lungs of a patient with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis. Here, we report on the utility of this technique to detect active eosinophilic inflammation in a patient with focal lung inflammation where a biopsy was contraindicated.

  4. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake in long-term catheterized kidney. Comparison with renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Higashihara, E.; Tokuda, H.; Kishi, H.; Niijima, T.; Okada, Y.; Nishikawa, J.; Iio, M.

    1988-04-01

    We studied 23 long-term catheterized kidneys in 14 patients. The uptake of /sup 99m/Tc acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DMSA) was measured at one- and two-hour intervals after injection, and the uptake was corrected for variations in renal depth. These values were compared with inulin, creatinine, and para-amino hippurate (PAH) clearances which were measured in each kidney by collecting urine through long-term catheterization. Correlation coefficient was obtained between PAH clearance corrected for the body surface area and the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA. The correlation coefficients between the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA and the clearance values are not significantly different from those between the one-hour uptake and the clearance values. Corrections of the uptake for variations in renal depth did not improve the correlation coefficients. The results show that /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA is an excellent method to estimate the renal plasma flow and the one-hour uptake without correction for renal depth is clinically sufficient to evaluate the split renal function.

  5. Urine excretion of inhaled technetium-99m-DTPA: an alternative method to assess lung epithelial transport.

    PubMed

    Köhn, H; König, B; Klech, H; Pohl, W; Mostbeck, A

    1990-04-01

    Technetium-99m DTPA clearance (99mTc-DTPA) clearance measured by a gamma camera or a scintillation probe not only reflects epithelial transport, but is also influenced by an unknown amount of mucociliary clearance depending on particle size and aerosol deposition. This is confirmed by factor analysis of dynamic inhalation studies. Assessment of epithelial absorption by urinary excretion of inhaled 99mTc-DTPA is largely independent of aerosol lung deposition. Twenty-four-hour excretion reflects the amount of aerosol cleared by absorption, while two-hour excretion is a quantitative measure of the aerosol absorption rate from the epithelium into blood. Urinary 99mTc-DTPA excretion of two aerosols with different particle size correlated significantly (p less than 0.001) with analysis of lung clearance curves. A very similar regression in the form of a cumulative exponential function was found with both aerosols. Two-hour urine values of nonsmokers differed significantly from those of smokers or patients with active interstitial or infectious lung disease. This alternative procedure is suited as a bedside test and holds promise for patient monitoring and follow-up.

  6. Delayed positive gastrointestinal bleeding studies with technetium-99m-red blood cells: Utility of a second injection

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.F. )

    1991-02-01

    Two patients studied with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells (RBCs) for gastrointestinal bleeding had positive findings only on 24-hr delayed images, at which time the site of bleeding could not be ascertained. In each instance, when additional delayed images suggested that active bleeding was occurring, a second aliquot of RBCs was labeled and injected. Sites of active hemorrhage were identified following further imaging in both patients. When delayed GI bleeding images are positive, further views should be obtained to ascertain if the pattern of intraluminal activity changes. If renewed active hemorrhage is suspected, reinjection with a second dose of labeled RBCs may identify the bleeding site.

  7. Evaluation of alternative rapid thin layer chromatography systems for quality control of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Mang'era, Kennedy; Wong, Derek; Douglas, David; Franz, Kellie; Biru, Taddese

    2014-04-01

    Whatman 3MM™ and Tec-Control™ systems were evaluated as ITLC-SG alternatives for 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals. They compare well in accuracy and reproducibility, and are faster and more convenient than ITLC-SG. Tec-Control™ radiochemical purity values for 99mTc-sestamibi were more conservative than ITLC-SG. Full solvent migration was not reproduced for 99mTc-tetrofosmin in Tec-Control™, and for this Whatman 3MM™ is preferred. Developing times were 10-15 min, 7-9 min and ~1min for ITLC-SG, Whatman 3MM™ and Tec-Control™, respectively. Overall, Tec-Control™ strips are preferred due to speed and ease of use.

  8. Technetium-99m-exametazine: Pitfalls in preparation and quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Karesh, S.M. )

    1989-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently approved the drug exametazine (Cretec or hexamethylenepropylene-amineoxime) for use in preparation of a {sup 99m}Tc-chelate suitable for human use. This radiopharmaceutical is indicated for detection of altered regional cerebral perfusion in patients with stoke. Unlike the majority of radiopharmaceuticals containing stannous ion (Sn{sup 2+}), which can be prepared by addition of varying volumes and activities of ({sup 99m}Tc)pertechnetate, successful preparation of {sup 99m}Tc-exametazime requires careful control of both volume and activity. The necessity for careful control of the final chemical concentration and radioconcentration is based on the minimal amount of Sn{sup 2+} ion present.

  9. Gallbladder visualization during technetium-99m RBC blood pool imaging. Case report and literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyarov, E.V.; Mattay, V.S.; Reba, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    Gallbladder visualization occurred after a Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) cardiac gated blood pool scan. To date, seven cases of gallbladder visualization after the intravenous injection of Tc-99m RBCs have been reported. In the previous six patients the gallbladder was visualized incidentally during a search for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. All of the patients were anemic, six of seven had chronic renal failure, and five of seven had received multiple blood transfusions. When interpreting GI bleeding scans in patients with anemia and renal failure, awareness of the possibility of gallbladder visualization in the delayed images is important to avoid false-positive results. 3 references.

  10. Technetium-99m pertechnetate and gallium-67 imaging in salivary gland disease.

    PubMed

    Higashi, T; Shindo, J; Everhart, F R; Mori, Y; Kasai, H; Kogure, S; Wakao, H

    1989-07-01

    Thirty-two patients with salivary gland tumors or sialadenitis were studied with Tc-99m pertechnetate and Ga-67 imaging and, in some instances, sialography. The diagnostic algorithm presented allows the correct categorization of the salivary gland pathology in the vast majority of patients. The patients were studied serially with Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 and in certain situations sialography (or CT-sialography). Use of the algorithm can distinguish benign salivary tumors from malignant tumors and malignant tumors from inflammatory disease. The limitations and pitfalls of interpretation are discussed.

  11. Detection of an ileal cavernous hemangioma by technetium-99m red blood cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, H.; Johnson, J.; Sandler, M.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with arteriovenous malformations of the bowel may have multiple symptoms secondary to chronic blood loss. A case of ileal cavernous hemangioma detected by Tc-99m labeled red blood cell imaging in the absence of active gastrointestinal bleeding is presented.

  12. Gallbladder visualization during technetium-99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy for gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1985-12-01

    Localization of radionuclide activity in the gallbladder was seen on delayed views following injection of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells for gastrointestinal bleeding in five patients. The mechanism for this unusual finding probably relates to labeling of heme, the biochemical precursor of bilirubin. All patients had had prior transfusions. All but one had severe renal impairment, probably an important predisposing factor.

  13. Extraosseous localization of technetium-99m MDP in benign cystic teratoma.

    PubMed

    Fuller, C; Leonard, J C

    1986-08-01

    Two cases of primary retroperitoneal benign teratoma, in which Tc-99m MDP localized in the primary tumor are presented. Localization of bone-imaging agents in neuroblastoma has been reported but, extraosseous localization of bone-imaging agents in teratomas has not been confirmed.

  14. Technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate uptake in the fetal skeleton at 30 weeks gestation

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, A.F.; Budd, R.S.; Yang, C.

    1994-08-01

    Retention of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the fetal skeleton and placenta at 30 and 32 wk gestation was observed during bone scan examination of the maternal skeleton for staging of malignant tumors. The implications and significance of these observations are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Synthesis and biodistribution studies of technetium-99m-labeled aminopeptidase N inhibitor conjugates.

    PubMed

    Pathuri, Gopal; Hedrick, Andria F; Disch, Bryan C; Ihnat, Michael A; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Gali, Hariprasad

    2012-07-15

    Probestin is a potent aminopeptidase N (APN) inhibitor. Four probestin conjugates containing a tripeptide chelator (N(3)S) and a PEG(2) linker were synthesized and radiolabeled with Tc-99m. The number of -COOH groups on the chelator was altered to increase the excretion of the radiotracer from blood stream via the renal-urinary pathway and to decrease its hepatobiliary uptake. Biodistribution of the radiolabeled conjugates was evaluated in healthy CF-1™ mice at 1h post-injection. The results revealed that the Tc-99m labeled probestin conjugate preferentially (>85% injected dose) excreted via the renal route when an aspartic acid residue was added to the linker (conjugate 4). These results suggest that the pharmacokinetic properties of probestin-based APN-targeted agents could be optimized by adding an appropriate amino acid residue in between the linker and the payload.

  16. Atypical appearance of an hepatic hemangioma with technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Larcos, G.; Farlow, D.C.; Gruenewald, S.M.; Antico, V.F. )

    1989-11-01

    Three-phase 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy is an established technique for distinguishing hemangiomas from other focal liver lesions. The most widely recognized feature is the perfusion to blood-pool mismatch characterized by decreased or normal arterial perfusion, with lesion activity which progressively increases over 1-2 hr. Although increased arterial vascularity of hemangiomas has been described, such cases either involved small portions of the lesion only or occurred in lesions not conclusively proven to be hemangiomas. We report a case of an angiography proven hemangioma with increased arterial vascularity involving a significant portion of the lesion as well as intense early blood-pool activity similar to that seen on delayed imaging. This case emphasizes the diverse appearance of hepatic hemangiomas using 99mTc blood cell scintigraphy.

  17. Failure to visualize acutely injured kidneys with technetium-99m DMSA does not preclude recoverable function

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Akiya, F.; Gregory, M.C.

    1986-03-01

    A 35-yr-old patient developed severe acute tubular necrosis requiring hemodialysis. A (99mTc)dimercaptosuccinic acid scan of the kidneys showed no renal uptake at 4 or 24 hr, but the patient subsequently recovered normal renal function as judged by a normal serum creatinine. Based on this case report and a review of the literature, one cannot assume irreversible loss of function in patients with acute renal failure, based on the absence of radiopharmaceutical uptake by the kidneys.

  18. Abdominal varices mimicking an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage during technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Byrd, B.F.; Berger, D.E.; Turnbull, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    Abdominal varices consisting of a caput medusae and dilated mesenteric veins resulted in pooling of Tc-99m tagged red blood cells (RBC) within these dilated vessels in a 57-year-old man with severe Laennec's cirrhosis. The atypical radiotracer localization within the abdomen mimicked an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Clinical suspicion and careful evaluation of scintigraphic gastrointestinal bleeding studies will avoid false-positive interpretations.

  19. Differentiating histologic malignancy of primary brain tumors: Pentavalent Technetium-99m-DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Tsuneo; Otake, Hidenori; Shibasaki, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    This study assessed pentavalent {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA uptake in primary brain tumors and evaluated the relationship between retention and histologic malignancy. SPECT images of the brain were obtained at 30 min and 3 hr after intravenous administration of approximately 555 MBq {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA in patients with brain tumors. Sixty studies were performed in 57 patients and 63 lesions were demonstrated: 11 glioblastomas, 13 anaplastic astrocytomas (Grade 3), 11 astrocytomas (Grade 2), 18 meningiomas and 10 schwannomas. Uptake ratios, retention ratio and retention index were calculated and compared with tumor histology and malignancy grade. Approximately 95% of both benign and malignant primary brain tumors were demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA SPECT images. False negative was noted in three cases. The early uptake ratios were closely related to the tumor vascularity but had no statistically significant difference in the tumor vascularity but had no statistically significant difference in the tumor histology or histologic malignancy. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.

    1986-11-01

    Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy.

  1. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

  2. Significance of technetium-99m human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid scintigraphy in patients with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Tsuyoshi; Kishi, Tomoya; Onozawa, Koji; Rikitake, Shuichi; Miyazono, Motoaki; Otsuka, Takateru; Irie, Hiroyuki; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Ikeda, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that a large amount of albumin leaking from the glomerulus in nephrotic syndrome (NS) is reabsorbed at the proximal tubule and catabolized. Therefore, it is possible the final quantity of urinary protein does not always reflect the amount of leakage of protein from the glomerulus. We experienced two cases without nephrotic range proteinuria thought to involve hypoproteinemia due to the same pathophysiology as NS. On these patients, we performed protein leakage scintigraphy with technetium-99m human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-HSAD) to exclude a diagnosis of protein-losing gastroenteropathy and observed diffuse positive accumulation in the kidneys with more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration. In healthy adults intravenously given 99mTc-HSAD, the same dynamics are observed as in albumin metabolism, and the organ radioactivity of the liver and kidneys after 24 hours is equal. Therefore, we thought it was possible that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration was a characteristic finding of NS. In order to confirm it, the subjects were divided into two groups: the NS group (n = 10) and the non-NS group (n = 7). We defined more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration as Dense Kidney (+). Furthermore, we designed regions of interest in the right and left kidneys and liver on anterior and posterior images, then calculated the kidney-liver ratio. Nine of the ten patients had Dense Kidney (+) in the NS group, compared to none in the non-NS group. And the kidney-liver ratio was significantly higher in the NS group than in the non-NS group on each view in the bilateral kidneys. In conclusion, our results suggest that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration is a characteristic finding of NS.

  3. Significance of Technetium-99m Human Serum Albumin Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid Scintigraphy in Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Tsuyoshi; Kishi, Tomoya; Onozawa, Koji; Rikitake, Shuichi; Miyazono, Motoaki; Otsuka, Takateru; Irie, Hiroyuki; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Ikeda, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that a large amount of albumin leaking from the glomerulus in nephrotic syndrome (NS) is reabsorbed at the proximal tubule and catabolized. Therefore, it is possible the final quantity of urinary protein does not always reflect the amount of leakage of protein from the glomerulus. We experienced two cases without nephrotic range proteinuria thought to involve hypoproteinemia due to the same pathophysiology as NS. On these patients, we performed protein leakage scintigraphy with technetium-99m human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-HSAD) to exclude a diagnosis of protein-losing gastroenteropathy and observed diffuse positive accumulation in the kidneys with more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration. In healthy adults intravenously given 99mTc-HSAD, the same dynamics are observed as in albumin metabolism, and the organ radioactivity of the liver and kidneys after 24 hours is equal. Therefore, we thought it was possible that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration was a characteristic finding of NS. In order to confirm it, the subjects were divided into two groups: the NS group (n = 10) and the non-NS group (n = 7). We defined more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration as Dense Kidney (+). Furthermore, we designed regions of interest in the right and left kidneys and liver on anterior and posterior images, then calculated the kidney-liver ratio. Nine of the ten patients had Dense Kidney (+) in the NS group, compared to none in the non-NS group. And the kidney-liver ratio was significantly higher in the NS group than in the non-NS group on each view in the bilateral kidneys. In conclusion, our results suggest that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration is a characteristic finding of NS. PMID:25859658

  4. Early identification of amyloid heart disease by technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy: a study with familial amyloid polyneuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Hongo, M.; Hirayama, J.; Fujii, T.; Yamada, H.; Okubo, S.; Kusama, S.; Ikeda, S.

    1987-03-01

    To determine whether technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scanning or two-dimensional echocardiography can detect amyloid heart disease in an earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy, 15 patients were examined. Although 10 of the 15 patients had no clinical evidence of congestive heart failure, as well as normal ventricular wall thickness and normal values for left ventricular systolic function, five (50%) of them showed mild or moderate myocardial uptake. On the other hand, none had characteristic highly refractile myocardial echoes on the two-dimensional echocardiographic images (p less than 0.01), and values for diastolic function were reduced in four of the five and normal in the remaining one. In 85 control subjects, diffuse positive pyrophosphate scans of the heart were found in four (5%) of them (three with dilated cardiomyopathy and one with sarcoidosis), and highly refractile granular sparkling echoes were observed in nine (11%) (five with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, three with aortic stenosis, and one with hypereosinophilic syndrome). We conclude that Tc-99m-PYP scanning is a more sensitive and specific method and may have the potential ability to detect amyloid heart disease in the earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy than two-dimensional echocardiography.

  5. Double sentinel lymph node mapping with indocyanine green and 99m-technetium-tin colloid in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Murase, R; Tanaka, H; Hamakawa, T; Goda, H; Tano, T; Ishikawa, A; Hino, S; Sumida, T; Nakashiro, K; Hamakawa, H

    2015-10-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) frequently metastasizes to cervical lymph nodes, which is the most known prognostic factor. Screening methods to identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are therefore of great interest for the management of potential neck metastasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefit of double SLN mapping with indocyanine green (ICG) and 99m-technetium-tin colloid ((99m)Tc-tin colloid) for sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS). Between 2007 and 2010, 16 patients diagnosed with OSCC were investigated by SLN biopsy using the double mapping method. (99m)Tc-tin colloid was injected into the peri-tumoural region on the preoperative day, and ICG was administered intraoperatively in the same position to assist in detecting nodes during surgery. Based on the gamma-ray signal and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence of ICG, SLNs were identified and thereafter assessed pathologically and genetically for cancer involvement. Radio-guided detection was successful for all patients. ICG mapping identified a relatively larger number of nodes, suggesting that several non-SLNs were potentially involved. The double mapping method assisted surgeons to explore SLNs. Since the ICG fluorescence was shielded by the subcutaneous fatty tissue and the muscle layer including platysma and sternocleidomastoid, it was necessary to retract the tissue away from nodes.

  6. Technetium-99m (v) dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake in patients with head and neck squamous carcinoma: Experience in imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Watkinson, J.C.; Lazarus, C.R.; Mistry, R.; Shaheen, O.H.; Maisey, M.N.; Clarke, S.E.

    1989-02-01

    A recently developed imaging agent, technetium-99m (v) dimercaptosuccinic acid (/sup 99m/Tc (v) DMSA), has been used to assess head and neck squamous carcinoma (SCC). We have prospectively studied 62 patients of whom 53 had a histologically proven head and neck SCC. The remaining nine had benign lesions. The results of planar imaging in patients with primary disease yielded an 85% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Planar imaging in patients with cervical lymphadenopathy revealed a 59% sensitivity. Nineteen patients also had single photon emission computed tomography imaging which improved the image quality, spatial resolution and sensitivity of the investigation. Twenty-seven patients were scanned before and after radiotherapy and, of these, 96% showed positive uptake in the salivary glands with no evidence of tumor recurrence. This study has shown /sup 99m/Tc (v) DMSA imaging provides a cheap and rapid method of investigating head and neck SCC and further studies are necessary to evaluate its role in the management of patients with this disease.

  7. A 1-methyl-4-piperidinyl cytectrene carboxylate labeled by the technetium 99m, a radiotracer for rat brain acetylcholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Mejri, Najoua; Barhoumi, Chokri; Trabelsi, Moez; Mekni, Abdelkader; Said, Nadia Malek; Saidi, Mouldi

    2010-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative neurological disorder that causes progressive and irreversible loss of connections between brain cells and loss of mental functions. Clinical and postmortem studies show that the biochemical changes in brains of AD patients include decrease in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Our aim was to study AChE activity using piperidinyl ester labelled with technetium-99m. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that labelled piperidinyl ester was a substrate for AChE. The hydrolytic rate of this substrate was measured and the specificity was evaluated using the inhibitor BW284c51. The rhenium analogues of the technetium-labelled substrate were used to determine the affinity constant (K(m)) and the maximum reaction velocity (V(max)) because of the high specific activity of technetium. The high hydrolytic rate and high specificity of the substrate for AChE make it suitable as an in vivo radiotracer for studying AChE activity in the brain.

  8. Evaluation of a technetium-99m labeled bombesin homodimer for GRPR imaging in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zilin; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Ananias, Hildo J K; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Liu, Shuang; Helfrich, Wijnand; Wang, Fan; de Jong, Igle J; Elsinga, Philip H

    2013-02-01

    Multimerization of peptides can improve the binding characteristics of the tracer by increasing local ligand concentration and decreasing dissociation kinetics. In this study, a new bombesin homodimer was developed based on an ε-aminocaproic acid-bombesin(7-14) (Aca-bombesin(7-14)) fragment, which has been studied for targeting the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in prostate cancer. The bombesin homodimer was conjugated to 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) and labeled with (99m)Tc for SPECT imaging. The in vitro binding affinity to GRPR, cell uptake, internalization and efflux kinetics of the radiolabeled bombesin dimer were investigated in the GRPR-expressing human prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Biodistribution and the GRPR-targeting potential were evaluated in PC-3 tumor-bearing athymic nude mice. When compared with the bombesin monomer, the binding affinity of the bombesin dimer is about ten times lower. However, the (99m)Tc labeled bombesin dimer showed a three times higher cellular uptake at 4 h after incubation, but similar internalization and efflux characters in vitro. Tumor uptake and in vivo pharmacokinetics in PC-3 tumor-bearing mice were comparable. The tumor was visible on the dynamic images in the first hour and could be clearly distinguished from non-targeted tissues on the static images after 4 h. The GRPR-targeting ability of the (99m)Tc labeled bombesin dimer was proven in vitro and in vivo. This bombesin homodimer provides a good starting point for further studies on enhancing the tumor targeting activity of bombesin multimers.

  9. Quantitation of renal uptake of technetium-99m DMSA using SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Groshar, D.; Frankel, A.; Iosilevsky, G.; Israel, O.; Moskovitz, B.; Levin, D.R.; Front, D.

    1989-02-01

    Quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) methodology based on calibration with kidney phantoms has been applied for the assessment of renal uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in 25 normals; 16 patients with a single normal kidney; 30 patients with unilateral nephropathy; and 17 patients with bilateral nephropathy. An excellent correlation (r = 0.99, s.e.e. = 152) was found between SPECT measured concentration and actual concentration in kidney phantoms. Kidney uptake at 6 hr after injection in normals was 20.0% +/- 4.6% for the left and 20.8% +/- 4.4% for the right. Patients with unilateral nephropathy had a statistically significant (p less than 0.001) low uptake in the diseased kidney (7.0% +/- 4.7%), but the contralateral kidney uptake did not differ from the normal group (20.0% +/- 7.0%). The method was especially useful in patients with bilateral nephropathy. Significantly (p less than 0.001) decreased uptake was found in both kidneys (5.1% +/- 3.4% for the left and 6.7% +/- 4.2% for the right). The total kidney uptake (right and left) in this group showed to be inversely correlated (r = 0.83) with serum creatinine. The uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in single normal kidney was higher (p less than 0.001) than in a normal kidney (34.7% +/- 11.9%), however, it was lower than the total absolute uptake (RT + LT = 41.5% +/- 8.8%) in the normal group. The results indicate that SPECT is a reliable and reproducible technique to quantitate absolute kidney uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA.

  10. Technetium-99m colloidal bismuth subcitrate: A novel method for the evaluation of peptic ulcer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, T.E.; Lyons, K.P.; Raiszadeh, M.; Fardi, M.; Snider, P.

    1984-01-01

    The therapeutic agent colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) selectively binds to peptic ulcers. The authors have developed a method for labeling this agent with Tc-99m. Chromatographic quality control studies of the agent on silica gel coated strips (ITLC-SG) showed that more than 97% of Tc-99m was bound to CBS. During in-vitro stability testing, the radio-label was stable for a minimum of 6 hours. The chromatographic findings are in agreement with the in-vivo distribution of the agent which showed no significant radioactivity in thyroid, kidneys, liver, or bladder. The resulting Tc-99m-CBS solution is administered orally in drinking water. Preliminary animal studies have been conducted on 5 adult 3 kg New Zealand rabbits sedated with 50 mg Ketamine I.M. The rabbits were intubated with I.V. tubing advanced to the stomach. They were given a gastric erosive suspension of 600-1000 mg/kg of pulverized ASA in 10 cc tap water. Four hours later they were given 3-4 mCi of the radiotracer in a 5 cc volume of water. Serial in-vivo images were obtained for 2 hours which included thyroid, abdomen, and urinary bladder. Next the stomachs were excised, opened along the greater curvature, imaged, vigorously washed and reimaged. All 5 rabbits showed avid localized binding of radiotracer which remained fixed even with vigorous washing. Areas of normal appearing mucosa were relatively devoid of radiotracer. This new compound may have significant clinical usefulness in the detection of peptic ulcer disease. In addition, such a non-invasive technique, carrying none of the risks or discomfort of endoscopy could also find application in the evaluation of the response to therapy.

  11. Technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scans in children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Laxer, R.M.; Allen, R.C.; Malleson, P.N.; Morrison, R.T.; Petty, R.E.

    1985-03-01

    Eleven children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy were investigated by technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate bone scanning. Eight of 12 scans demonstrated abnormal findings, four showing diffusely decreased uptake and four diffusely increased uptake of the radionuclide in the affected site. Three scans showed normal findings initially, as did one previously abnormal scan when repeated in the asymptomatic patient 6 months later. Diffusely abnormal findings can be helpful in the diagnosis of childhood reflex neurovascular dystrophy, but a normal scan does not exclude the diagnosis.

  12. Technetium-99m labeled monoclonal antibodies in the detection of metastatic melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Serafini, A.N.; Kotler, J.; Feun, L.; Dewanjee, M.; Robinson, D.; Salk, D.; Sfakianakis, G.; Abrams, P.; Savaraj, N.; Goodwin, D.; )

    1989-08-01

    Twenty-six stage II/III malignant melanoma patients with 321 measurable metastatic lesions were imaged using Fab fragments of an IgG murine monoclonal antibody labeled specifically with 10-30 mCi Tc-99m with a bi-functional chelating method (NeoRx, Seattle, WA). There were no side effects or adverse reactions. Immunoscintigraphy demonstrated 66.6% of lesions larger than 1 cm and 92.5% of lesions larger than 3 cm. Most frequently detected metastases were in lymph nodes, subcutaneous areas, and bone. Of lesions less than 1 cm, 23.6% were detected if superficial cutaneous lesions were excluded. The smallest detectable lesion was 4 mm. Twenty-one additional clinically unsuspected sites were visualized in 12 of the 26 patients studied. Of these, 56% were confirmed as metastasis by other tests. There were apparent nonspecific localizations owing to other causes, including fracture, varicosities, skin abscess and pneumonitis. Increased experience in image analysis facilitates correct interpretation of these localizations. This study demonstrates that imaging with Tc-99m labeled antibody fragments detects melanoma lesions in organs routinely surveyed and in other areas not routinely assessed by other imaging techniques. The procedure is readily performed and safe. The principal advantage of the test is its ability to survey the entire body and all organs with a single test. Its principal limitation, in common with other diagnostic imaging procedures, is its poor sensitivity for detecting lesions less than 1 cm.

  13. Calculation of relative glomerular filtration rate and correlation with delayed technetium-99m DMSA imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.; Witztum, K.

    1986-01-01

    The relative renal uptake of Tc-99m DMSA was compared with the relative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in ten patients with serum creatinines ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 mg/dl. Relative GFR was based on the renal uptake of Tc-99m DTPA determined by two methods: 1) integrating the counts from 1 to 3 minutes postinjection and correcting for background. 2) Totalizing the individual renal counts in a single 15-second frame from 2:45 minutes to 3:00 minutes postinjection and correcting for background. The two methods of determining relative DTPA uptake showed excellent correlation, r = 0.98. Relative DMSA uptake determined at 24 hours post-injection using computer-assisted regions of interest showed excellent correlation with the relative GFR determined by either the integral or single-frame method, r = 0.98. The addition of background subtraction for the DMSA images at 24 hours did not improve the correlation.

  14. Extensive gastric varices demonstrated by technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; Loh, F.G.; Pulmano, C.

    1987-04-01

    An alcohol abuse patient complicated by chronic pancreatitis had splenic vein thrombosis leading to gastric varices and underwent abdominal Tc-99m red blood cell scintigraphy. First pass study, sequential images up to 1 hour, and a 2.5 hour image showed abnormal radioactivity in the left side of the abdomen and midabdomen. In 24 hour images, the high level of activity in the left side persisted; in addition, there was accumulation of radioactivity in the cecum, ascending, transverse colon, the splenic flexure, and descending colon. A splenectomy was performed and during the surgical procedure, a large dilated vein in the greater omentum was noted. It is reemphasized that delayed imaging up to 24 hours is important when the results of earlier images are equivocal or negative.

  15. Factors affecting eluation characteristics of sorption generators of technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Chernov, V. I.; Sadkin, V. L.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Rogov, A. S.; Nesterov, E. A.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Medvedeva, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the adsorbed mass of molybdenum on the width of eluation profiles of generators and the patterns of molybdenum distribution in the amount of chromatographic columns by scanning them on the germanium-gallium detector using collimating device are studied. The boundary conditions under which the maximum value of 99mTc yield from generators Ye = 1 are defined. After scanning the columns, it was found out that the degree of filling the columns with molybdenum Q and the value of its maximum adsorption depend naturally on the total weight of the adsorbed mass. In order to achieve the condition Ye = 1 the value of Q should be at least 85%.

  16. Radiotherapy and technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy for hemoptysis from chronic MRSA infection

    PubMed Central

    Lapuz, Carminia; Gupta, Sandeep K.; Bennett, Elizabeth A.; Tang, Colin I.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To discuss the application of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy (LRBCS) in life-threatening hemoptysis from a non-malignant condition. Materials and methods This case report presents a patient with persistent hemoptysis secondary to chronic Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in whom conventional management failed to localize the site of pulmonary bleeding or to provide effective therapy. Results EBRT was successfully given for life-threatening hemoptysis with improvement in quality of life for nearly 1 year. LRBCS was used to localize the source of further bleeding and facilitate targeted therapy. Conclusion EBRT can be an effective and well-tolerated modality in treating life-threatening hemoptysis refractory to conventional methods. LRBCS is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that can be used to detect the source of pulmonary bleeding. PMID:24416570

  17. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells in the evaluation of hemangiomas of the liver in infants and children

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.

    1987-09-01

    The vascular origin lesions of the liver (capillary hemangioma/infantile hemangioendothelioma) that present in infancy or early childhood often have a typical clinical picture of hepatomegaly and congestive heart failure. These lesions rarely present as asymptomatic hepatomegaly, simulating a primary hepatic malignancy. These lesions may also simulate a primary or secondary hepatic malignancy on cross-sectional imaging or angiography. Scintigraphic evaluations with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells offers an accurate method of identification of these lesions, and allows differentiation from other common primary or secondary hepatic masses in infancy or childhood. This scintigraphic method may also be used to follow these patients after medical, radiation, or embolization therapy. Experience with seven patients with these tumors is reported and compared with eight children with other primary or secondary liver tumors also evaluated by this method.

  18. Thallium-201 versus technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging in detection and evaluation of patients with acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, B.; Thrall, J.H.

    1980-12-18

    Thallium-201 myocardial imaging is of value in the early detection and evaluation of patients with suspected acute infarction. Thallium imaging may have a special value in characterizing patients with cardiogenic shock and in detecting patients at risk for subsequent infarction or death or death or both, before hospital discharge. Approximately 95 percent of pateints with transmural or nontransmural myocardial infarction can be detected with technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging if the imaging is performed 24 to 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Pyrophosphate imaging may have an important role in the evaluation of patients during the early follow-up period after hospital discharge from an episode of acute infarction. The finding of a persistently positive pyrophosphate image suggests a poor prognosis and is associated with a relatively large incidence of subsequent myocardial infarction and death.

  19. Conversion to Paradoxical Finding on Technetium-99m-labeled RBC Scintigraphy after Treatment for Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Chong, Ari; Ha, Jung-Min; Song, Ho-Chun; Kim, Jahae; Choi, Soo Jin Na

    2013-12-01

    An 18-year-old woman reported that after exposure to cold temperatures her fingers appeared blue and her hands and feet felt cold. Secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) associated with peripheral vascular disease was suspected. Technetium (Tc)-99m-labeled RBC hand scintigraphy after cold change showed decreased blood pool activity in her fingers. The patient's symptoms improved after she received sarpogrelate HCL (200 mg/day) and nifedifine (40 mg/day). Follow-up scintigraphy performed 7 months after the patient started treatment showed paradoxically increased blood pool activity in her fingers after cold challenge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with secondary RP showing paradoxical change on scintigraphy after she received medication that improved her symptoms.

  20. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆].

    PubMed

    Faria, D P; Buchpiguel, C A; Marques, F L N

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆]⁺ as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol:chloroform (25:75), Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75), and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol:chloroform (10:90) were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆]⁺ since impurities such as (99m)Tc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH), (99m)TcO(4)(-) and [(99m)Tc(cysteine)₂]⁻ complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines.

  1. Value of positive myocardial technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy in the noninvasive diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wizenberg, T.A.; Muz, J.; Sohn, Y.H.; Samlowski, W.; Weissler, A.M.

    1982-04-01

    Ten consecutive patients with tissue-proven amyloidosis, seven of whom presented with congestive heart failure, were found to exhibit intense diffuse uptake of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) on cardiac radionuclide imaging. The patients exhibited echocardiographic and systolic time interval abnormalities suggesting combined restrictive and congestive cardiomyopathic changes. On M-mode echocardiograms, there was symmetrically increased thickness of the interventricular septum and left ventricular (LV) posterior wall in diastole (10 of 10), decreased fractional shortening of the LV minor axis diameter in systole (eight of nine), and decreased percent thickening of the LV minor axis diameter in systole (eight of nine) and LV posterior wall (10 of 10) in systole. Three patients demonstrated enlarged LV end-diastolic diameter. All 10 patients had abnormal PEP/LVET and eight had shortened LVETI. When combined with noninvasive tests of LV performance, positive myocardial pyrophosphate (PYP) scanning provides a new and useful adjunct in the diagnosis of amyloid heart disease.

  2. Kinetic sensitivity of a receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical: Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, D.R.; Woodle, E.S.; Stadalnik, R.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Kinetic sensitivity is the ability of a physiochemical parameter to alter the time-activity curve of a radiotracer. The kinetic sensitivity of liver and blood time-activity data resulting from a single bolus injection of ({sup 99m}Tc)galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (( Tc)NGA) into healthy pigs was examined. Three parameters, hepatic plasma flow scaled as flow per plasma volume, ligand-receptor affinity, and total receptor concentration, were tested using (Tc)NGA injections of various molar doses and affinities. Simultaneous measurements of plasma volume (iodine-125 human serum albumin dilution), and hepatic plasma flow (indocyanine green extraction) were performed during 12 (Tc)NGA studies. Paired data sets demonstrated differences (P(chi v2) less than 0.01) in liver and blood time-activity curves in response to changes in each of the tested parameters. We conclude that the (Tc)NGA radiopharmacokinetic system is therefore sensitive to hepatic plasma flow, ligand-receptor affinity, and receptor concentration. In vivo demonstration of kinetic sensitivity permits delineation of the physiologic parameters that determine the biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical. This delineation is a prerequisite to a valid analytic assessment of receptor biochemistry via kinetic modeling.

  3. Exercise increases the lung clearance of inhaled technetium-99m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Leveau, J.; Katz, A.; Cinotti, L.; Madelaine, G.; Galle, P.

    1986-02-01

    The regional lung clearance of a deposited aerosol of (/sup 99m/Tc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was successively computed at rest and at exercise in seven nonsmoking volunteers in upright posture. The subjects were seated on a bicycle with their backs against a gamma camera. At rest there was a gradient of clearance from the apex to the base of the lung, the apical clearance being significantly higher. At exercise this regional gradient was enhanced by a large and significant increase of the apical clearances (3.40 +/- 0.63% min-1 s.d. compared with 1.82 +/- 0.75% min-1 s.d. at rest, n = 7, p less than 0.01). By contrast the changes of the basal clearances were slight and unsignificant (1.46 +/- 0.71% min-1 s.d. compared with 1.40 +/- 0.82% min-1 s.d.). This increase of the apical lung clearance could be attributed primarily to the increase of apical blood flow induced by exercise and to the subsequent increase of the permeability surface area product.

  4. Scintigraphic monitoring of mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Zwas, S.T.; Katz, I.; Belfer, B.; Baum, G.L.; Aharonson, E.

    1987-02-01

    A simple method for in vivo monitoring mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance is described. Eighteen healthy subjects and 13 patients with various chronic lung diseases were studied by this method. The principle of using an aerosol administration system similar to the system used for routine ventilation lung studies is stressed. Proximal large airway deposition of the radioaerosol was obtained by using relatively large particles (average diameter 2 microM) of (99mTc)MAA aerosol. Monitoring was performed by visual inspection of the tracheo-bronchial cinescintigraphic ascendence of the accumulated radioactive boli and by assessing their rate of clearance via automated computer analysis of the time-activity curves, following the movement of each bolus. The normal mean +/- s.d. clearance rate thus obtained was 4.7 +/- 1.3 mm/min. This rate appears to be more precise as compared with the range of results obtained by other radioisotopic methods. Significantly faster rates, mean 8.2 +/- 1.4 mm/min (p less than 0.001) were obtained in bronchiectatic patients while slower rates (2.8 mm/min) were seen in a patient with ciliary dyskinesia.

  5. [Assessment of cicatrisation potential in arteritic patients by means of an isotopic method employing technetium 99 m to measure cutaneous perfusion pressure (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Le Héron, D; Serise, J M; Busquet, J; Tingaud, R

    1981-01-01

    Cicatrisation potential was assessed in arteritic patients by an isotopic method employing technetium 99 m to measure cutaneous perfusion pressures. Pressure threshold-values obtained showed that cicatrisation was absent when pressure was below 35 cm of water, that infectious complications developed in half of the cases with values between 35 and 65 cm, and that cicatrisation generally occurred at values above 65 cm.

  6. The role of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate in myocardial imaging to recognize, localize and identify extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willerson, J. T.; Parkey, R. W.; Bonte, F. J.; Stokely, E. M.; Buja, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams to aid diagnostically in recognizing, localizing, and identifying extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients was evaluated. The present study is an extension of previous animal and patient evaluations that were recently performed utilizing this myocardial imaging agent.

  7. Comparison of dobutamine and exercise using technetium-99m sestamibi imaging for the evaluation of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Herman, S D; LaBresh, K A; Santos-Ocampo, C D; Garber, C E; Barbour, M M; Messinger, D E; Cloutier, D J; Ahlberg, A W; Heller, G V

    1994-01-15

    Studies using dobutamine thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging have suggested a high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of coronary artery disease. However, few data are available comparing dobutamine with exercise stress for the detection and localization of perfusion defects. This study compared the effects of dobutamine and exercise stress using technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging in the same patients in a prospective crossover trial. Twenty-four patients with a high likelihood of coronary artery disease underwent tomographic myocardial imaging at rest, after symptom-limited treadmill exercise, and after intravenous dobutamine (maximum 30 micrograms/kg/min). Tomograms of the left ventricle were divided into 20 segments and were interpreted without knowledge of patient identity or stress protocol. Dobutamine was well tolerated by all patients. Segment-by-segment concordance between exercise and dobutamine images was highly significant (kappa = 0.56, p < 0.0001). Global first-order agreement (normal vs abnormal) between exercise and dobutamine studies was 96% (kappa = 0.65, p = 0.02); global second-order agreement (normal vs fixed vs ischemic defect) was 88% (kappa = 0.45, p = 0.02). Regional first- and second-order agreement were 96 and 93%, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Twenty patients underwent coronary angiography. Comparisons between exercise and angiography and between dobutamine and angiography were similar for both global agreement (95 vs 100%, p = NS) and regional agreement (77 vs 72%, p = NS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Distribution of injected technetium(99m)-labeled mesenchymal stem cells in horses with naturally occurring tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Patricia; Valdés Vázquez, Miguel A; Dudhia, Jayesh; Fiske-Jackson, Andrew R; Neves, Francisco; Hartman, Neil G; Smith, Roger K W

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate immediate cell survival and distribution following different administration routes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into naturally occurring tendon injuries. Ten million MSCs, labeled with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime, were implanted into 13 horses with naturally occurring tendon or ligament injuries intra-lesionally, intravenously and by regional perfusion, and traced for up to 48 h using planar gamma scintigraphy. Labeling efficiencies varied between 1.8% and 18.5% (mean 9.3%). Cells were retained in the damaged area after intra-lesional administration but only 24% of cells were still present within the tendon after 24 h. After intravenous injection, cells largely distributed to the lung fields, with no detectable cells in the tendon lesions. Significant labeling of the tendon lesions was observed in 11/12 horses following regional perfusion but at a lower level to intra-lesional injection. The highest cell numbers were retained after intra-lesional injection, although with considerable cell loss, while regional perfusion may be a viable alternative for MSC delivery. Cells did not "home" to damaged tendon in large numbers after intravenous administration. Cells were detected in the lungs most frequently after intravascular administration, although with no adverse effects. Low cell retention has important implications for designing effective clinical therapies for human clinical use.

  9. Development of a radiopharmaceutical activity schedule for technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid in children based on image quality criteria.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Gordon, I; Evans, K; Anderson, P J; Lythgoe, M F

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine an activity schedule (amount of administered activity in relation to body weight) for technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid examinations in children, from information present in renal scintigraphic images. Scans from 48 children (5 weeks to 14.8 years old) were graded for image quality according to the clarity of both kidney outline and internal structure. Numerical image data (kidney and background counts, signal-to-noise ratio) were associated with these subjective gradings to formulate three criteria, specifying the required values of the above-measured parameters to yield optimum grades of image quality. When applied to derived functions, a kidney uptake of 20% was required to satisfy the criterion based on the signal-to-noise ratio. Using this value with the other two criteria predicts the form of the weight-dependent activity schedule as a function of imaging time. Examples of schedules for imaging times of 300 and 600 s are compared with a schedule based on surface area.

  10. High-risk angina patient. Identification by clinical features, hospital course, electrocardiography and technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.G.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.; Stinson, P.J.; Kuperus, J.; Waters, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    We evaluated 193 consecutive unstable angina patients by clinical features, hospital course and electrocardiography. All patients were managed medically. Of the 193 patients, 150 (78%) had a technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) myocardial scintigram after hospitalization. Of these, 49 (33%) had positive scintigrams. At a follow-up of 24.9 +/- 10.8 months after hospitalization, 16 of 49 patients (33%) with positive scintigrams died from cardiac causes, compared with six of 101 patients (6%) with negative scintigrams (p less than 0.001). Of 49 patients with positive scintigrams, 11 (22%) had had nonfatal myocardial infarction at follow-up, compared with seven of 101 patients (7%) with negative scintigrams (p less than 0.01). Age, duration of clinical coronary artery disease, continuing angina during hospitalization, ischemic ECG, cardiomegaly and a history of heart failure also correlated with cardiac death at follow-up. Ischemic ECG and a history of angina with a crescendo pattern also correlated with nonfatal infarction at follow-up. Patients with continuing angina, an ischemic ECG and a positive scintigram constituted a high-risk unstable angina subgroup with a survival rate of 58% at 6 months, 47% at 12 months and 42% at 24 and 36 months. We conclude that the assessment of clinical features, hospital course, ECG and Tc-PYP scintigraphy may be useful in identifying high-risk unstable angina patients.

  11. High-risk angina patient: identification by clinical features, hospital course, electrocardiography, and technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.G.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.; Stinson, P.J.; Kuperus, J.; Waters, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    We evaluated 193 consecutive unstable angina patients by clinical features, hospital course and electrocardiography. All patients were managed medically. Of the 193 patients, 150 (78%) had a technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) myocardial scintigram after hospitalization. Of these, 49 (33%) had positive scintigrams. At a follow-up of 24.9 +- 10.8 months after hospitalization, 16 of 49 patients (33%) with positive scintigrams died from cardiac causes, compared with six of 101 patients (6%) with negative scintigrams (p < 0.001). Of 49 patients with positive scintigrams, 11 (22%) had had nonfatal myocardial infarction at follow-up, compared with seven of 101 patients (7%) with negative scintigrams (p < 0.01). Age, duration of clinical coronary artery disease, continuing angina during hospitalization, ischemic ECG, cardiomegaly and a history of heart failure also correlated with cardiac death at follow-up. Ischemic ECG and a history of angina with a crescendo pattern also correlated with nonfatal infarction at follow-up. Patients with continuing angina, an ischemic ECG and a positive scintigram constituted a high-risk unstable angina subgroup, with a survival rate of 58% at 6 months, 47% at 12 months and 42% at 24 and 36 months. We conclude that the assessment of clinical features, hospital course, ECG and Tc-PYP scintigraphy may be useful in identifying high-risk unstable angina patients.

  12. Evaluation of dysthymic disorder with technetium-99 m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, A; Karaşin, E; Cermik, T F; Abay, E; Berkarda, S

    1999-03-01

    Dysthymic disorder is a chronic disorder characterised by the presence of a depressed mood and is classified as a distinct category in DSM-IV, separately from major depression. Although brain imaging studies have been performed in major depressive disease, there have to date been no reports of such studies in dysthymic disorder. In this study 36 patients with dysthymic disorder were compared with 16 normal subjects using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography. A relative blood flow ratio was calculated for each region of interest using the average tissue activity in the region divided by activity in the cerebellum. There were significant differences in the bilateral inferior frontal, bilateral parietal, right superior frontal and left posterior temporal regions in the patients with dysthymic disorder compared with the healthy controls. These findings support the hypothesis that the biological bases for dysthymic disorder and major depression are similar. Recognition of these regional abnormalities may have clinical utility in both the diagnosis and the treatment of dysthymic disorder. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to assess the influence of treatment in patients with dysthymic disorder.

  13. Recruitment of 99m-technetium- or 111-indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in experimentally induced pyogranulomas in lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Guilloteau, L.; Pepin, M.; Pardon, P.; Le Pape, A. )

    1990-10-01

    The recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during the development of experimental pyogranulomas induced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was followed in nine male lambs by scintigraphic examination. Autologous blood PMNs were labelled with 99m-technetium or 111-indium and were re-injected intravenously into infected lambs. The functional properties of the labelled cells were monitored (1) in vitro by measuring their phagocytic and bactericidal activity against C. pseudotuberculosis and their chemotaxis under agarose, and (2) in vivo by following scintigraphically their capacity to accumulate in an inflammatory focus induced by intradermal injection of latex beads coated with Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide. Following inoculation of corynebacteria into the right ear of lambs, radioactive foci were observed to be localized in the right ear and in the draining lymph nodes during the 4 days following inoculation. Histopathological examination performed 32 h after inoculation confirmed the intense accumulation of PMNs at these sites. With the exception of one animal, which presented visible foci in the neck 14 days postinoculation, no radioactive foci were observed during the later phases of experimental infection, despite the presence of multiple pyogranulomas which were confirmed by bacteriological examination after necropsy of the lambs. Histopathological examination of these lesions revealed layers of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages surrounding a necrotic centre. The results of these studies suggest that the contribution of PMNs during the chronic phase of inflammation is considerably reduced in comparison with the acute inflammatory phase of the infectious process.

  14. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and bioevaluation of technetium-99m labeled N-(2-Hydroxybenzyl)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose as a tumor imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Qaisar; Khan, Irfanullah; Javed, Muhammad; Mahmood, Zaid; Dar, Ume-Kalsoom; Ali, Muhammad; Hyder, Syed Waqar; Murad, Sohail

    2013-03-01

    N-(2-Hydroxybenzyl)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose (NHADG) was synthesized by conjugation of salicylaldehyde to glucosamine. The obtained compound was well characterized via different analytical techniques. Labeling of the synthesized compound with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) in pertechnetate form ((99m)Tc O4-) was carried out via chelation reaction in the presence of stannous chloride dihydrate. Maximum radiochemical yield of (99m)Tc-NHADG complex (99%) was obtained by using 1 mg NHADG, 200 μg SnCl2.2H2O, at pH 9.5 and reaction time of 15 min. The radiochemical purity of the (99m)Tc-NHADG complex was measured by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) and paper chromatography (PC), without any notable decomposition at room temperature over a period of 4h. The biological evaluation results show that the (99m)Tc labeled NHADG conjugate is able to specifically target mammary carcinoma in mice models, thus highlighting its potential as an effective (99m)Tc labeled glucose-derived agent for tumor imaging.

  16. Simultaneous technetium-99m/thallium-201 SPECT imaging with model-based compensation for cross-contaminating effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadrmas, Dan J.; Frey, Eric C.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    1999-07-01

    Simultaneous acquisition of dual-isotope SPECT data offers a number of advantages over separately acquired data; however, simultaneous acquisition can result in cross-contamination between isotopes. In this work we propose and evaluate two frameworks for iterative model-based compensation of cross-contamination in dual-isotope SPECT. The methods were applied to cardiac imaging with technetium-99m-sestamibi and thallium-201, and they were compared with a subtraction-based compensation method using a cross-talk estimate obtained from an auxiliary energy window. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to carefully study aspects of bias and noise for the methods, and a torso phantom with cardiac insert was used to evaluate the performance of the methods for experimentally acquired data. The cross-talk compensation methods substantially improved lesion contrast and significantly reduced quantitative errors for simultaneously acquired data. Thallium image normalized mean square error (NMSE) was reduced from 0.522 without cross-talk compensation to as low as 0.052 with model-based cross-talk compensation. This is compared with a NMSE of 0.091 for the subtraction-based compensation method. The application of a preliminary model for cross-talk arising from lead fluorescence x-rays and collimator scatter gave promising results, and the future development of a more accurate model for collimator interactions would probably benefit simultaneous Tc/Tl imaging. Model-based compensation methods provide feasible cross-talk compensation in clinically acceptable times, and they may ultimately make simultaneous dual-isotope protocols an effective alternative for many imaging procedures.

  17. Technetium-99m sestamibi uptake in human breast carcinoma cell lines displaying glutathione-associated drug-resistance.

    PubMed

    Kabasakal, L; Ozker, K; Hayward, M; Akansel, G; Griffith, O; Isitman, A T; Hellman, R; Collier, D

    1996-05-01

    An in vitro study was designed to evaluate the uptake of sestamibi (MIBI) in P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and glutathione-associated (GSH) multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines. MIBI uptake was studied in various human breast carcinoma cell lines, i.e. in wild-type (MCF7/wt) cells, in adriamycin-resistant (MCF7/adr) cells which express Pgp and in melphalan-resistant (MCF7/mph) cells with increased levels of GSH. The effects of buthiomine sulphoximine (BSO) and verapamil on MIBI uptake were also studied in the MCF7/mph and MCF7/adr cells respectively. The cells were incubated for 1 h with a dose of 0.1 MBq thallium-201 and technetium-99m MIBI. Both MIBI and 201Tl uptakes were higher for MCF7/mph cells than for the other cells studied. The mean MIBI uptake in MCF7/adr cells was significantly lower than that in MCF7/wt cells (1.9%+/-0.5% vs 3. 1%.0.6%; P <0.01). Verapamil treatment increased the MIBI uptake in MCF7/adr cells (to 2.6%.0.3%; P <0.05). Treatment of MCF7/mph cells with BSO resulted in a significant reduction in GSH content (from 243.2+/-81.1 nmol/mg protein to 17.6+/-4.4 nmol/mg protein; P <0. 001). However, MIBI uptake in BSO-treated and untreated MCF7/mph cells was similar (4.43%+/-0.5% and 5.93%+/-1.7%, respectively; P >0. 1). This study suggests that the uptake of MIBI is not diminished by glutathione-associated drug resistance and that MIBI uptake in a tumour sample does not necessarily indicate that a cancer is sensitive to drugs.

  18. Biodistribution and kinetic studies of technetium-99m labeled Naja naja karachiensis venom via gamma scintigraphic and SPECT images.

    PubMed

    Bin-Asad, Muhammad Hassham-Hassan; e-Sabih, Durr; Ahmad, Israr; Choudhry, Bashir Ahmad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Hussain, Izhar

    2015-07-01

    Naja naja karachiensis have been responsible for plentiful deaths in Pakistan. To investigate bio distribution and blood kinetics, venom was labeled with the radiotracer (technetium-99m) by following the method of direct labeling technique. Its maximum labeling percentage was 97.7% (pH 6, 100 µg stannous chloride dihydrate) which was higher than some other reported venom. Radio labeled venom was stable for more than 4 hours both in vivo (96%) and in vitro (serum 94.1%, saline 94.3%) experimentations. Intravenous doses of venom (250 µg, 0.5 mCi) were found to be evenly distributed (having R/L ratio=1.0) in all parts of sacrificed rabbits. Kidneys (53.75% activity/g) and urinary bladder (23.70% activity/g) were found with the copious quantity of injected dose of venom. Rest of all other organs was found with subsequent remaining dose of venom. Among them, lungs (14.2% activity/g), liver (4.32% activity/g), bones (1.38% activity/g), heart (0.8% activity/g), blood (0.56% activity/g), skin (0.45% activity/g), intestines (0.35% activity/g), skeleton muscles (0.3% activity/g), brain (0.14% activity/g) and stomach (0.05% activity/g) are included. After 24 hours of injection, poisoned blood of rabbits was almost cleared from venom. Gamma scintigraphic images (up to 2 hours) along with bio distribution suggest that kidneys are main organs of excretion in rabbits. Elimination started immediately after administration of venom however, possible sites for metabolism of venom are liver and lungs. More accumulation of venom in heart compared to brain suggests its higher affinity (thus possible higher toxicity) to cardiac muscles as compared to brain tissues.

  19. Detection of occult pericardial hemorrhage early after open-heart surgery using technetium-99m red blood cell radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, T.M.; Czer, L.S.; Gray, R.J.; Kass, R.M.; Raymond, M.J.; Garcia, E.V.; Chaux, A.; Matloff, J.M.; Berman, D.S.

    1984-11-01

    Pericardial or mediastinal hemorrhage requiring reoperation occurs in 2% to 5% of patients, usually early (0 to 48 hours), after open-heart surgery. This hemorrhage may be occult, and resulting cardiac tamponade may easily be misinterpreted as ventricular dysfunction, common early postoperatively. In such cases, appropriate and timely intervention may not occur. Of 50 patients evaluated by technetium-99m red blood cell gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) because of early postoperative cardiogenic shock of uncertain etiology, 17 had unique scintigraphic images suggestive of intrathoracic hemorrhage. Of these 17, 5 had a generalized halo of abnormal radioactivity surrounding small hyperdynamic right and left ventricles, 11 had localized regions of intense blood pool activity outside the cardiac chambers (two with compression of single chambers), and one demonstrated marked radionuclide activity in the right hemithorax (2000 ml of blood at reoperation). Twelve patients had exploratory reoperation for control of hemorrhage as a direct result of the scintigraphic findings, three were successfully treated with fresh frozen plasma and platelet infusions along with medical interventions to optimize cardiac performance, and two patients died in cardiogenic shock (presumed tamponade) without reoperation. In the 12 reoperated patients, all were confirmed to have active pericardial bleeding. Scintigraphic localization of abnormal blood pools within the pericardium corresponded to the sites at which active bleeding was witnessed at reoperation. The abnormal bleeding was etiologically related to the tamponade state, with marked improvement in hemodynamics after reoperation. Nine additional patients were reoperated for presumed tamponade after RNV revealed an exaggerated halo of photon deficiency surrounding the cardiac chambers.

  20. Hot spot(s) of the lung in technetium-99m albumin colloid liver-spleen scintigraphy: case report

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Brandenburg, S.; Coupal, J.J.; Sullivan, J.D.; Beeler, J.A.; Magoun, S.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1988-06-01

    The authors replaced /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid for /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid as a radiopharmaceutical for liver-spleen imaging and found two instances of hot spot(s) in the lung. The preparation procedure of albumin colloid is easier and more convenient as compared to that of sulfur colloid. Whereas replacement of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid by /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid is inevitable, it should be emphasized that one should avoid blood withdrawal in the syringe containing albumin colloid to prevent formation of clot(s) during the venous puncture for /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid.

  1. Techniques for loading technetium-99m and rhenium-186/188 radionuclides into pre-formed liposomes for diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Goins, Beth; Bao, Ande; Phillips, William T

    2010-01-01

    Liposomes can serve as carriers of radionuclides for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. Herein, procedures are outlined for radiolabeling liposomes with the gamma-emitting radionuclide, technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), for non-invasive detection of disease and for monitoring the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of liposomal drugs, and/or with therapeutic beta-emitting radionuclides, rhenium-186/188 ((186/188)Re), for radionuclide therapy. These efficient and practical liposome radiolabeling methods use a post-labeling mechanism to load (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re into pre-formed liposomes prepared in advance of the labeling procedure. For all liposome radiolabeling methods described, a lipophilic chelator is used to transport (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re across the lipid bilayer of the pre-formed liposomes. Once within the liposome interior, the pre-encapsulated glutathione or ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient provides for stable entrapment of the (99m)Tc and (186/188)Re within the liposomes. In the first method, (99m)Tc is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and (99m)Tc-HMPAO becomes trapped by interaction with the pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the second method, (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N',N'-diethylethylenediamine (BMEDA), and (99m)Tc-BMEDA or (186/188)Re-BMEDA becomes trapped by interaction with pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the third method, an ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient loading technique is employed using liposomes with an extraliposomal pH of 7.4 and an interior pH of 5.1. BMEDA, which is lipophilic at pH 7.4, serves as a lipophilic chelator for (99m)Tc or (186/188)Re to transport the radionuclides across the lipid bilayer. Once within the more acidic liposome interior, (99m)Tc/(186/188)Re-BMEDA complex becomes protonated and more hydrophilic, which

  2. Use of a new tandem cation/anion exchange system with clinical-scale generators provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.R. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Guhlke, S. |

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the authors describe the first application of a simple and inexpensive post elution tandem cation-anion exchange column system which is based on generator elution with salts of weak acids such as ammonium acetate instead of saline solution to provide very high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188 from clinical scale molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator prepared from low specific activity (n,y) molybdenum-99, and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators, respectively. Initial passage of the bolus through a strong cation exchange cartridge converts the ammonium acetate to acetic acid which is essentially not ionized at the acidic pH, allowing specific subsequent amine type (QMA SepPak{trademark}) anion exchange cartridge column trapping of the microscopic levels of the pertechnetate or perrhenate. Subsequent elution of the anion cartridge with a small volume (< 1 mL) of saline then provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m by concentration of the high eluant volumes obtained by elution of clinical-scale (1 Ci) generators. This new approach also works very effectively to obtain high specific volume solutions of rhenium-188 (> 500 mCi/mL) from the alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator.

  3. Quantitative temporal analysis of /sup 99m/Technetium p-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid (PIPIDA) as a measure of hepatic function in health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, S.N.; George, E.A.; Perrillo, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Excretory liver function was analyzed in 10 healthy volunteers and 28 subjects with acute or chronic liver injury following intravenous administration of /sup 99m/technetium p-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid. Hepatobiliary transit of this agent was quantitated at 5-min intervals for a total of 60 min. Indices of total liver activity, liver cell uptake, liver parenchymal clearance, and bile duct clearance of /sup 99m/technetium p-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid were calculated from time--activity curves over heart, liver, extrahepatic bile ducts, and gallbladder. Seven subjects with acute viral hepatitis, 15 with extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and 6 with intrahepatic cholestasis were evaluated. Compared with healthy volunteers, a significant (p less than 0.0001) reduction in total liver activity and liver parenchymal clearance was demonstrated in all patient groups. Major resolution in all liver-derived indices, particularly total liver activity, occurred during convalescence from hepatitis and after biliary drainage. Nonmeasurable bile duct clearance always indicated a diagnosis of extrahepatic obstruction in cholestatic subjects, and this index normalized in subjects following biliary drainage. Whereas visual assessment of /sup 99m/technetium p-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid scans provided limited, useful information about the functional status of the liver, quantitative temporal analysis proved to be a much more effective technique.

  4. Review of diagnostic uses of shunt fraction quantification with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin perfusion scan as illustrated by a case of Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chokkappan, Kabilan; Kannivelu, Anbalagan; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian; Babut, Suresh Balasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare and are often associated with the hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT/Osler-Weber-Rendu) syndrome. We present a woman who presented with neurological symptoms due to a cerebral abscess. On further evaluation, bilateral pulmonary AVMs were identified. The patient was diagnosed with HHT, based on positive family history and multiple cerebral AVMs recognized on subsequent catheter angiogram, in addition to the presence of bilateral pulmonary AVMs. Craniotomy with drainage of the brain abscess and endovascular embolization of the pulmonary AVMs was offered to the patient. As a preembolization work-up, the patient underwent nuclear lung perfusion scan with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) to assess the right-to-left shunt secondary to the pulmonary AVMs. Postembolization follow-up perfusion scan was also obtained to estimate the hemodynamic response. The case is presented to describe the role of Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan in preoperatively evaluating patients with pulmonary AVMs and to emphasize on the scan's utility in posttreatment follow-up. Various present day usages of the Tc-99m MAA lung perfusion scan, other than diagnosing pulmonary thromboembolism, are discussed. Providing background knowledge on the physiological and hemodynamic aspects of the Tc-99m MAA lung perfusion scan is also attempted. Various imaging pitfalls and necessary precautions while performing Tc-99m MAA lung perfusion scan are highlighted.

  5. Radionuclide imaging of the spleen with heat denatured technetium-99m RBC when the splenic reticuloendothelial system seems impaired

    SciTech Connect

    Owunwanne, A.; Halkar, R.; Al-Rasheed, A.; Abubacker, K.C.; Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1988-03-01

    Imaging of the spleen of 10 patients who had been hematologically diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia (SCA) was studied with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid and heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs. In all ten patients, there was faint or nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid. However, with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs, nine spleens were well visualized, and the uptake was homogenous. One spleen had two patchy areas of uptake. The results indicate that when splenic phagocytic function is impaired as reflected by nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid, it is still possible to image such a spleen with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs

  6. Use of 99m-technetium-glucoheptonate as a tracer for brain tumor imaging: An overview of its strengths and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Santra, Amburanjan; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Punit

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumors represent a vexing clinical problem in oncology due to their increasing incidence, difficulties in treatment and high rates of recurrence. It is especially challenging to evaluate the posttreatment disease status because differentiation of recurrence from treatment-induced changes (radiation necrosis) is not possible with the use of magnetic resonance imaging, the most commonly used imaging method in this setting. Various functional imaging methods, including positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been employed in this context. SPECT with 99m-technetium (99mTc)-glucoheptonate (GHA) has shown promising results for differentiation of recurrent brain tumor from radiation necrosis. In this review, we have discussed in details the basics of 99mTc-GHA SPECT imaging in brain tumor along with the available literature in this regard. PMID:25589798

  7. Glioma residual or recurrence versus radiation necrosis: accuracy of pentavalent technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc-99m (V) DMSA] brain SPECT compared to proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS): initial results.

    PubMed

    Amin, Amr; Moustafa, Hosna; Ahmed, Ebaa; El-Toukhy, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    We compared pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m (V) DMSA) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) for the detection of residual or recurrent gliomas after surgery and radiotherapy. A total of 24 glioma patients, previously operated upon and treated with radiotherapy, were studied. SPECT was acquired 2-3 h post-administration of 555-740 MBq of Tc-99m (V) DMSA. Lesion to normal (L/N) delayed uptake ratio was calculated as: mean counts of tumor ROI (L)/mean counts of normal mirror symmetric ROI (N). (1)H-MRS was performed using a 1.5-T scanner equipped with a spectroscopy package. SPECT and (1)H-MRS results were compared with pathology or follow-up neuroimaging studies. SPECT and (1)H-MRS showed concordant residue or recurrence in 9/24 (37.5%) patients. Both were true negative in 6/24 (25%) patients. SPECT and (1)H-MRS disagreed in 9 recurrences [7/9 (77.8%) and 2/9 (22.2%) were true positive by SPECT and (1)H-MRS, respectively]. Sensitivity of SPECT and (1)H-MRS in detecting recurrence was 88.8 and 61.1% with accuracies of 91.6 and 70.8%, respectively. A positive association between the delayed L/N ratio and tumor grade was found; the higher the grade, the higher is the L/N ratio (r = 0.62, P = 0.001). Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT is more accurate compared to (1)H-MRS for the detection of tumor residual tissues or recurrence in glioma patients with previous radiotherapy. It allows early and non-invasive differentiation of residual tumor or recurrence from irradiation necrosis.

  8. Imaging of head and neck tumors with technetium(V)-99m DMSA. A new tumor-seeking agent

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Endo, K.; Fujita, T.; Nakashima, T.; Sakahara, H.; Torizuka, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Makimoto, K.; Hata, N.

    1985-12-01

    Tumor scintigraphy, using Tc(V)-99m DMSA was performed on 76 patients with head and neck tumors. In 32 cases, SPECT also was performed. Tc(V)-99m DMSA was found to have a sensitivity of 75% (56 cases), a specificity of 85% (20 cases) and an accuracy of 78% on planar imaging. ECT studies showed accumulation of Tc(V)-99m DMSA in all 25 malignant cases studied. However, in benign tumors, four of seven cases (57%) showed radionuclide uptake. Tc(V)-99m DMSA has superior physical properties to Ga-67 and could be of use in the diagnosis of head and neck tumors.

  9. Measurement of Technetium-99m Sestamibi Signals in Rats Administered a Mitochondrial Uncoupler and in a Rat Model of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Akira; Kato, Takao; Shioi, Tetsuo; Okuda, Junji; Kawashima, Tsuneaki; Tamaki, Yodo; Niizuma, Shinichiro; Tanada, Yohei; Takemura, Genzou; Narazaki, Michiko; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Many methods have been used to assess mitochondrial function. Technetium-99m sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI), a lipophilic cation, is rapidly incorporated into myocardial cells by diffusion and mainly localizes to the mitochondria. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether measurement of 99mTc-MIBI signals in animal models could be used as a tool to quantify mitochondrial membrane potential at the organ level. Methods and Results We analyzed 99mTc-MIBI signals in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat hearts perfused with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), a mitochondrial uncoupler known to reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential. 99mTc-MIBI signals could be used to detect changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential with sensitivity comparable to that obtained by two-photon laser microscopy with the cationic probe tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE). We also measured 99mTc-MIBI signals in the hearts of SD rats administered CCCP (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle. 99mTc-MIBI signals decreased in rat hearts administered CCCP, and the ATP content, as measured by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, decreased simultaneously. Next, we administered 99mTc-MIBI to Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet, which leads to hypertension and heart failure. The 99mTc-MIBI signal per heart tissue weight was inversely correlated with heart weight, cardiac function, and the expression of atrial natriuretic factor, a marker of heart failure, and positively correlated with the accumulation of labeled fatty acid analog. The 99mTc-MIBI signal per liver tissue weight was lower than that per heart tissue weight. Conclusion Measurement of 99mTc-MIBI signals can be an effective tool for semiquantitative investigation of cardiac mitochondrial membrane potential in the SD rat model by using a chemical to decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential. The 99mTc-MIBI signal per heart tissue weight was inversely correlated with the severity of heart failure in

  10. Comparison of electrocardiographic-gated technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging and rest-redistribution thallium-201 in the prediction of myocardial viability.

    PubMed

    Duncan, B H; Ahlberg, A W; Levine, M G; McGill, C C; Mann, A; White, M P; Mather, J F; Waters, D D; Heller, G V

    2000-03-15

    Although the combined assessment of perfusion and function using rest electrocardiographic (ECG)-gated technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging has been shown to improve sensitivity and accuracy over perfusion alone in the prediction of myocardial viability, no data are available comparing this technique with rest-redistribution thallium-201. Thirty patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < or = 40%) underwent rest-redistribution thallium-201 and rest ECG-gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT imaging before revascularization and rest ECG-gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT imaging at 1 or 6 weeks after revascularization. All thallium-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi images were interpreted by a consensus agreement of 3 experienced readers without knowledge of patient identity or time of imaging with Tc-99m sestamibi (before or after revascularization) using a 17-segment model. Concordance between techniques for the prediction of viability was 89% (kappa 0.556 +/- 0.109). With rest-redistribution thallium-201, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and predictive accuracy were 95%, 59%, 88%, 78%, and 86%, respectively. With rest ECG-gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT imaging, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and predictive accuracy were 96%, 55%, 87%, 80%, and 86%, respectively (p = NS vs rest-redistribution thallium-201). Although both techniques are comparable for detecting viable myocardium, rest ECG-gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT imaging allows direct assessment of both myocardial perfusion and ventricular function, which may be clinically useful in patients who require assessment of myocardial viability.

  11. Attenuation of apoptosis by telmisartan in atherosclerotic plaques of apolipoprotein E-/- mice: evaluation using technetium 99m-annexin A5.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Songji; Kuge, Yuji; Strauss, H William; Blankenberg, Francis G; Tamaki, Nagara

    2013-01-01

    Technetium 99m (99mTc)-annexin A5, a marker of ongoing apoptosis, is supposed to be useful in the detection of metabolically active atheroma. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of 99mTc-annexin A5 for evaluating the therapeutic effects of an angiotensin II receptor type 1 blocker (ARB) (telmisartan) on atherosclerosis. Male apolipoprotein E-/- mice were divided into telmisartan-treated (3 mg/kg/d, n  =  10) and control (n  =  10) groups. After 16 to 21 weeks of treatment, 99mTc-annexin A5 was injected and cryostat sections of aortic tissues (n  =  10-12/aorta) were prepared. The 99mTc-annexin A5 accumulation level in the plaques was evaluated by autoradiography. Serial sections of the plaques were histologically examined to identify the lesion phenotypes (normal vessels, early lesions, atheromatous lesions, and fibrotic lesions), plaque size, macrophage infiltration levels, and lipid deposition levels. Telmisartan treatment significantly decreased the plaque size (0.05 ± 0.05 vs 0.11 ± 0.08, mm2), macrophage infiltration level (0.02 ± 0.02 vs 0.03 ± 0.02, mm2), lipid deposition level (0.01 ± 0.01 vs 0.02 ± 0.02, mm2), and 99mTc-annexin A5 accumulation level (1.30 ± 1.09 vs 2.15 ± 1.91, × 10-6/g). 99mTc-annexin A5 accumulation levels in the plaques positively correlated with macrophage infiltration (r  =  .69, p < .05) and lipid deposition (r  =  .66, p < .05) levels. Apoptosis imaging with 99mTc-annexin A5 may be useful for evaluating the therapeutic effects of ARBs on atherosclerosis.

  12. Preparation and Biodistribution of Technetium-99m-Labeled Bis- Misonidazole (MISO) as an Imaging Agent for Tumour Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Fan, Di; Qian, Jun; Zhang, Zhe; Zhu, Jianhua; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of tumour hypoxia is an important aspect in determining the course of tumour therapy. In this study, we developed a novel imaging agent, (99m)Tc-ethylenedicysteine-bis-misonidazole ((99m)Tc-EC-MISO), for diagnosing tumour hypoxia. We used 2-nitroimidazole as a reactant to synthesize the amino derivative of misonidazole (MISO) in the first step and then conjugated the di-amino derivative of MISO to the chelating agent ethylenedicysteine (EC) for labelling (99m)Tc in the second step. (99m)Tc-pertechnetate ((99m)TcO4-) was reduced by tin chloride (SnCl2) for radiolabeling. The radiochemical purity was up to 94%. Tissue biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging studies were conducted on subcutaneous gliomal tumour-bearing mice. The tumour-to-muscle ratio in the (99m)Tc-EC-MISO group increased with time, up to 4.6 at 4 h after injection. SPECT/CT imaging confirmed that the tumours could be visualized clearly with (99m)Tc-EC-MISO at 2 h. By introducing a second 2-nitroimidazole redox centre, an apparent hypoxic accumulation of this novel (99m)Tc-labeled imaging agent in the tumour was observed.

  13. Pentavalent technetium-99m (V)-DMSA uptake in a pheochromocytoma in a patient with Sipple's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.K.; Fataar, A.; Byrne, M.J.; Levitt, N.S.; Matley, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This case report describes {sup 99m}Tc(V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) accumulation in a pheochromocytoma in a patient with Sipple's syndrome. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA demonstrated uptake in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT). Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed the bilateral pheochromocytomas but did not demonstrate uptake in the MCT.

  14. Anacardium occidentale bark lectin: purification, immobilization as an affinity model and influence in the uptake of technetium-99M by rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Maria Inês Sucupira; de Mendonça Cavalcanti, Maria do Socorro; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; de Almeida Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2012-10-01

    Lectins, proteins that recognize carbohydrates, have been immobilized on inert supports and used in the screening or purification of glycoproteins. Anacardium occidentale bark infusion has been used as a hypoglycemic agent in Brazil. The toxicity of natural products may be evaluated determining their capability to alter the biodistribution of technetium-99M ((99m)Tc). This work reports the isolation and characterization of a lectin from A. occidentale bark (AnocBL), its evaluation as an affinity support for glycoprotein isolation and lectin effect on the uptake of (99m)Tc by rat adipocytes. AnocBL was isolated from 80 % ammonium sulphate supernatant by affinity chromatography on fetuin-agarose. SDS-PAGE showed a single protein band of 47 kDa. The monossacharide L-arabinose and the glycoproteins fetuin, asialofetuin, ovomucoid, casein, thyroglobulin, peroxidase, fetal bovine serum and IgG inhibited the activity. The lectin activity was stable until 70 °C and at a pH range of 3.0-7.5. AnocBL-Sepharose column bound fetuin indicating that the lectin matrix may be used to obtain glycoconjugates of biotechnological interest. In vitro assay revealed that glucose and insulin increase (99m)Tc uptake by rat adipocytes. AnocBL decreases (99m)Tc uptake, and this effect was not detected in the presence of glucose. Fetuin inhibited AnocBL effect in all insulin concentrations.

  15. Clinical significance of reverse redistribution on technetium-99m tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography: an 18-month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Swinkels, B.M.; Hooghoudt, T.E.H.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Zinder, C.G.; de Boo, T.M.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Background The clinical and prognostic significance of reverse redistribution on technetium-99m (99mTc) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is unclear. Objectives To determine outcomes of chest pain patients showing reverse redistribution after 99mTc tetrofosmin SPECT versus SPECT showing no reverse redistribution. Methods Patient outcomes (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) within 18 months after 99mTc tetrofosmin SPECT were determined in two populations of ambulatory patients, most of whom had been evaluated because of chest pain: a population of 57 patients whose SPECT images showed reverse redistribution without reversible or fixed defects, versus a control population of 98 patients whose SPECT images were normal (no reverse redistribution, no reversible defects, no fixed defects). Results Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the population of patients with reverse redistribution did not have a worse 18-month outcome in comparison with the control population of patients without reverse redistribution (3.5% versus 9.2%, respectively; p=0.15 corrected for age and gender). Conclusion Reverse redistribution on 99mTc tetrofosmin SPECT does not appear to be an unfavourable prognostic factor in ambulatory chest pain patients. PMID:25696192

  16. Subacute splenic abscess. Appearance on indium-111 leukocyte, gallium-67, and technetium-99m sulfur colloid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ammann, W.; Chiu, B.K.; Wright, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    A case of a 23-year-old man with an encapsulated, anaerobic splenic abscess is reported. Both the In-111 leukocyte and Tc-99m sulfur colloid scans demonstrated an intrasplenic defect. The Ga-67 citrate scan revealed uptake in the rim of the abscess only where the abscess cavity was relatively photon-deficient. The combined Tc-99m sulfur colloid/In-111 leukocyte/Ga-67 scan appearance of a subacute splenic abscess has not been described previously. In cases suspected to be splenic abscesses the combined In-111 leukocyte/Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging is the most useful.

  17. Kinetics of a putative hypoxic tissue marker, Technetium-99m-nitroimidazole (BMS181321), in normoxic, hypoxic, ischemic and stunned myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Kusuoka, Hideo; Hashimoto, Katsuji; Fukuchi, Kazuki

    1994-08-01

    This study focused on the kinetics of the newly developed {sup 99m}TTc-nitroimidazole, propyleneamine oxime-1,2-nitroimidazole (BMS181321) in the different setting of myocardial perfusion states and oxygenation levels, and compared the kinetics of BMS181321 with those of other technetium analogues. The kinetics of BMS181321 were evaluated in isolated perfused rat hearts. Technetium-99m-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and a non-nitroimidazole-containing analogue of BMS 181321 (6-methyl propyleneamine oxime; PAO-6-Me) were used to compare their kinetics with those of BMS181321. BMS181321 cleared quickly from normoxic hearts and the retention in the myocardium 10 min after injection was 0.84% {plus_minus} 0.04% ID/g wet wt (mean {plus_minus} s.e.m.). In contrast, BMS181321 was retained after reperfusion when it was injected before ischemia; the uptake in the myocardium 10 min after reperfusion was significantly greater than in controls (23.9% {plus_minus} 3.9%ID/g wt, p<0.05). These results indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-BMS181321 is well trapped in ischemic myocardium and moderately trapped in hypoxic myocardium, but washed out quickly in stunned myocardium. The residence time influences the amount retained. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Technetium-99m ECD: a new brain imaging agent: in vivo kinetics and biodistribution studies in normal human subjects.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, S; Zimmerman, R E; Picard, M; Stritzke, P; Mena, I; Hellman, R S; Tikofsky, R S; Stabin, M G; Morgan, R A; Goldsmith, S J

    1989-05-01

    Lipophilic neutral 99mTc complexes of diaminedithiol (DADT) ligands cross the brain-blood barrier. A new derivative of DADT family, 99mTc ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) showed high brain uptake in nonhuman primates. We report here the in vivo kinetics and biodistribution results in 16 normal human subjects. Dynamic images of brain obtained for 10 min following an i.v. administration of [99mTc]ECD showed that the maximum 99mTc brain activity reached within 1 min and remained near that level for the next 10 min. The blood clearance of the tracer was very rapid and the activity remaining in blood after 5 min was less than 10%. Within 2 hr 50% of 99mTc activity was excreted in urine. Anterior and posterior total-body images were obtained at 5, 30, 60 min, 2, 4, 24, and 48 hr using a moving table at 20 cm/min. Percent injected dose was calculated for different organs and tissues. The brain uptake was 6.5 +/- 1.9% at 5 min postinjection and remained relatively constant over several hours. Two-compartment analysis of brain time-activity curve showed that 40% of brain activity washed out faster (T 1/2 = 1.3 hr) while the remaining 60% had a slower clearance rate (T 1/2 = 42.3 hr). Some of the tracer was excreted through the hepatobiliary system. Lung uptake and retention of [99mTc]ECD was negligible. Radiation dosimetry is favorable for the administration of up to 20-40 mCi of [99mTc]ECD. These results show that [99mTc]ECD is rapidly extracted and retained by the brain providing favorable conditions for single photon emission computed tomography imaging.

  19. Technetium-99m ECD: a new brain imaging agent: in vivo kinetics and biodistribution studies in normal human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Picard, M.; Stritzke, P.; Mena, I.; Hellman, R.S.; Tikofsky, R.S.; Stabin, M.G.; Morgan, R.A.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1989-05-01

    Lipophilic neutral /sup 99m/Tc complexes of diaminedithiol (DADT) ligands cross the brain-blood barrier. A new derivative of DADT family, /sup 99m/Tc ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) showed high brain uptake in nonhuman primates. We report here the in vivo kinetics and biodistribution results in 16 normal human subjects. Dynamic images of brain obtained for 10 min following an i.v. administration of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD showed that the maximum /sup 99m/Tc brain activity reached within 1 min and remained near that level for the next 10 min. The blood clearance of the tracer was very rapid and the activity remaining in blood after 5 min was less than 10%. Within 2 hr 50% of /sup 99m/Tc activity was excreted in urine. Anterior and posterior total-body images were obtained at 5, 30, 60 min, 2, 4, 24, and 48 hr using a moving table at 20 cm/min. Percent injected dose was calculated for different organs and tissues. The brain uptake was 6.5 +/- 1.9% at 5 min postinjection and remained relatively constant over several hours. Two-compartment analysis of brain time-activity curve showed that 40% of brain activity washed out faster (T 1/2 = 1.3 hr) while the remaining 60% had a slower clearance rate (T 1/2 = 42.3 hr). Some of the tracer was excreted through the hepatobiliary system. Lung uptake and retention of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD was negligible. Radiation dosimetry is favorable for the administration of up to 20-40 mCi of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD. These results show that (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD is rapidly extracted and retained by the brain providing favorable conditions for single photon emission computed tomography imaging.

  20. Radioactive technetium-99m labelling of Salmonella abortusovis for the assessment of bacterial dissemination in sheep by in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Perin, F; Laurence, D; Savary, I; Bernard, S; Le Pape, A

    1997-09-01

    We report the development and validation of a 99mTc-labelling technique of bacteria, applied to Salmonella abortusovis. The radioactive labelling is obtained using a pre-tinning step of the cells followed by direct incubation of S. abortusovis suspension with 99mTc-pertechnetate. Several procedures with different amounts of stannous tin (SnF2 or SnCl2) were evaluated. The selected method, respectful of bacterial viability, provided a 30% labelling yield. Viability of 99mTc-labelled bacteria was assessed by flow cytometry using rhodamine 123 and was demonstrated to be unchanged, turbidimetric measurements showing only a slight increase in the growth rate for radiolabelled cells. Incubation of 99mTc-labelled S. abortusovis with pronase, saponine and urea demonstrated labelling stability and suggested an intra-cellular localization for 99mTc. A preliminary study was also conducted in sheep to evaluate the value of the imaging of radiolabelled S. abortusovis. Spatial and temporal patterns of their in vivo dissemination in the lymphatic system after a sub-cutaneous injection were compared with control lymphoscintigraphic agents. These imaging data supported the assumption that the radioactivity detected in vivo was proportional to the number of 99mTc-labelled bacteria. PMID:9355252

  1. Molybdenum-99 production from reactor irradiation of molybdenum targets: a viable strategy for enhanced availability of technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Pillai, M R A; Knapp, F F Russ

    2012-08-01

    Fission-produced 99Mo (F 99Mo) is traditionally used for fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc alumina-based column generators. In this paper, several emerging strategies are discussed which are being pursued or have been suggested to overcome the continuing shortages of F 99Mo. In addition to the hopeful eventual success of these proposed new 99Mo and 99mTc production technologies, an additional attractive strategy is the alternative production and use of low specific activity (LSA) 99Mo. This strategy avoids fission and is accomplished by direct activation of molybdenum targets in nuclear reactors, which would preclude sole continued reliance on F 99Mo. The principal focus of this paper is a detailed discussion on the advantages and strategies for enhanced production of LSA 99Mo using an international network of research reactors. Several effective strategies are discussed to obtain 99mTc from LSA 99Mo as well as more efficient use of the alumina-based generator system. The delayed time period between 99Mo production and traditional 99Mo/99mTc alumina column generator manufacture and distribution to user sites results in the loss of more than 50% of 99Mo activity. Another strategy is a paradigm shift in the use of 99Mo by recovering clinical-grade 99mTc from 99Mo solution as an alternative to use of 99Mo/99mTc column generators, thereby avoiding substantial decreased availability of 99Mo from radioactive decay. Implementation of the suggested strategies would be expected to increase availability of 99mTc to the clinical user community by several fold. Additional important advantages for the use of LSA 99Mo include eliminating the need for fission product waste management and precluding proliferation concerns by phasing out the need for high (HEU)- and low (LEU)-enriched uranium targets required for F 99Mo production.

  2. Post-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head predicted by preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid scan: an experimental and clinical study. [Rabbits; patients

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.H.

    1983-07-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was used to visualize the bone marrow of the head of the femur within twenty-four hours after interruption of the blood supply by subcapital osteotomy and section of the ligamentum teres in thirteen rabbits and within twenty-four hours after a subcapital fracture in thirty patients. Of the rabbits, all showed loss of marrow radioactivity over the affected femoral head. Bone-imaging with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate, in contrast, failed to demonstrate any abnormality in the avascular head of the femur for as long as forty-eight hours after osteotomy. This difference between the marrow scan and the bone scan was attributed to earlier loss of function in the marrow cells than in the osteocytes. The thirty patients who had a preoperative scan within twenty-four hours after sustaining a subcapital fracture were treated by internal fixation with a Richards screw and plate and were followed for as long as two years, or until the patient died or radiographs showed evidence of avascular necrosis. The preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid activity in the head of the fractured femur was normal in sixteen patients and absent in fourteen; two of the fourteen had no activity in either hip, which precluded assessment of the fractured hip in these patients. In fifteen of the sixteen hips, preservation of the uptake in the marrow of the head of the fractured femur preoperatively predicted normal healing. Late segmental collapse developed in the remaining hip. In eleven of the twelve patients who had loss of marrow activity in the femoral head preoperatively, avascular necrosis developed within two years.

  3. Technetium-99m human immunoglobulin scintigraphy in patients with adhesive capsulitis: a correlative study with bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Senocak, Ozlem; Degirmenci, Berna; Ozdogan, Ozhan; Akalin, Elif; Arslan, Gülhan; Kaner, Burcu; Taşci, Cengiz; Peker, Ozlen

    2002-06-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (AC) is a disorder that is characterized by shoulder pain and progressive limitation of both active and passive shoulder motion. Although the underlying pathological mechanisms of the disease are not well understood, the inflammatory reactions depending on the stage have been demonstrated histologically. The purpose of the study is to investigate the inflammatory changes that can be demonstrated with Tc-99m HIG in AC, and to determine the presence of correlations between scintigraphic findings and the clinical assessment. Twenty-one patients (12 females and 9 males) with a mean age of 50.57+/-8.49 were included in the study. AC was diagnosed according to recognized criteria. The planar X-ray images of the affected shoulders of all patients were normal. The patients were evaluated with the Constant Scoring System, and the functional and pain assessment parts of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons' Form (ASES). Three phase bone scans and Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy were performed at least two days apart. Bone scan and Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy were evaluated visually and HIG uptake was evaluated in comparison with the contralateral normal shoulder. Bone scan demonstrated hypervascularity in 9 of the 21 patients (43%), whereas increased osteoblastic activity was detected in 19 (90%) in the affected shoulder. Tc-99m HIG uptake was positive in 12 (57%), and negative in 9 (43%) patients. All patients with increased Tc-99m HIG accumulation in the affected shoulder, also had increased osteoblastic activity on Tc-99m bone scintigraphy. A significant correlation was found between HIG uptake and constant, functional and pain scores. The difference between these scores was also statistically significant in patients with HIG positive and negative uptake. This study indicates that there is a good correlation between Tc-99m HIG scan findings and clinical scores. Tc-99m HIG accumulation in the affected shoulder may be related to continuing inflammatory reaction

  4. Diagnostic value of bone marrow imaging with /sup 111/indium-transferrin and /sup 99m/technetium-colloids in myelofibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Arrago, J.P.; Rain, J.D.; Vigneron, N.; Poirier, O.; Chomienne, C.; D'Agay, M.F.; Najean, Y.

    1985-03-01

    /sup 111/Indium--transferrin (/sup 111/In) and /sup 99m/Technetium-colloids (/sup 99m/Tc) bone marrow imaging of 55 myelofibrosis (MF) cases has been compared with clinical, histological, and iron-kinetics data. The best correlations are seen between the splenic uptake of /sup 111/In with the spleen/sacrum ratio of /sup 59/Fe at the first hour and also with the splenic erythropoiesis histologically assessed in ten splenectomized patients. Moreover, sacrum uptake of /sup 111/In, when compared with sacrum uptake of /sup 59/Fe and with hematopoietic cellularity of the bone marrow reflects faithfully the hematopoietic cell content of the marrow. Thus, /sup 111/In bone marrow imaging provides a noninvasive and useful tool for the diagnosis of myeloid metaplasia in MF. Ferrokinetic studies still appreciate with better insight the amount of ineffective erythropoiesis or hemolysis and remain therefore of great value when splenectomy is discussed.

  5. Detection and assessment of unstable angina using myocardial perfusion imaging: Comparison between technetium-99m sestamibi SPECT and 12-lead electrocardiogram

    SciTech Connect

    Gregoire, J.; Theroux, P. )

    1990-10-16

    Forty-five studies using technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed on patients hospitalized for spontaneous chest pain suggestive of myocardial ischemia. The studies were done after an injection during an episode of chest pain and a repeated injection when the patients were free of pain. All patients were hospitalized with a presumed diagnosis of unstable angina, and none had evidence of a previous myocardial infarction. The presence of a perfusion defect observed with Tc-99m sestamibi injected during chest pain had a 96% sensitivity and a 79% specificity for the detection of significant coronary artery disease (stenosis greater than or equal to 50%) on subsequent angiography. When the criterion of a larger perfusion defect during pain compared to absence of pain was used, the sensitivity was 81% and the specificity was 84%. In contrast, transient electrocardiographic ischemic changes during pain had a sensitivity of 35% and a specificity of 68%; electrocardiographic changes during or outside episodes of chest pain had a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 63% for the diagnosis. Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT represents a reliable noninvasive diagnostic tool that could aid in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia in patients with spontaneous chest pain and provide additional information to that provided by the electrocardiogram.

  6. Aptamers directly radiolabeled with technetium-99m as a potential agent capable of identifying carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in tumor cells T84.

    PubMed

    Correa, Cristiane Rodrigues; de Barros, André Luís Branco; Ferreira, Carolina de Aguiar; de Goes, Alfredo Miranda; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2014-04-15

    Aptamers are small oligonucleotides that are selected to bind with high affinity and specificity to a target molecule. Aptamers are emerging as a new class of molecules for radiopharmaceutical development. In this study a new method to radiolabel aptamers with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) was developed. Two aptamers (Apt3 and Apt3-amine) selected against the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were used. Labeling was done by the direct method and the developed complex was subjected to quality control tests. Radiochemical purity and stability were monitored by Thin Layer Chromatography. Binding and specificity assays were carried out in the T84 cell line (CEA+) to evaluate tumor affinity and specificity after radiolabeling. Aptamers were successfully labeled with (99m)Tc in high radiochemical yields, showing in vitro stability in presence of plasma and cystein. In binding assays the radiolabeled aptamer Apt3-amine showed the highest affinity to T84 cells. When evaluated with HeLa cells (CEA-), lower uptake was observed, suggesting high specificity for this aptamer. These results suggest that the Apt3-amine aptamer directly labeled with (99m)Tc could be considered a promising agent capable of identifying the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) present in tumor cells.

  7. Biological and imaging characteristics and radiation dose rates associated with the use of technetium-99m-labelled imidodiphosphate in the horse.

    PubMed

    Riddolls, L J; Byford, G G; McKee, S L

    1996-04-01

    The biological and imaging characteristics of technetium-99m imidodiphosphate (Tc99m-IDP) were measured in 4 horses once and in 1 horse twice. All computational results are expressed with 95.5% (mean +/- 2 SD) confidence limits. The clearance half-time of the radiopharmaceutical from the blood was 29.6 +/- 2.3 min. The percentage of the administered dose circulating in the whole-blood volume at 4 h was 3.9 +/- 0.8%. The Tc99m-IDP radioactivity confined at the plasma fraction of the whole blood at 4 h was 85.3 +/- 1.6%. At 8 h, approximately 45 +/- 16% of the dose administered had been excreted via the urine. The mean effective half-time of the urine activity concentration was 1.1 +/- 0.3 h. The ratios of bone-to-soft tissue activities increased with time postinjection. Urinary radioactivity concentration measurements and radiation dose rate measurements immediately behind the elbows were analysed and it was determined that 24 h is an appropriate radioisolation time for mature horses administered 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) Tc99m-IDP.

  8. Effect of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Reiniger, I W; de Oliveira, J F; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-08-01

    Peumus boldus is used in popular medicine in Brazil. The influence of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc was studied. Stannous chloride and 99mTc pertechnetate were incubated with blood and a tincture of Peumus boldus. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were isolated from the mixture and treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). After separation, analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the drug, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. PMID:10376326

  9. Thallium-201/technetium-99m-RP-30A disparity in the course of myocardial infarction after attempted reperfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tatum, J.L.; Rehr, R.B.; DiSciascio, G.; Romhilt, D.W.; Fratkin, M.J.

    1988-07-01

    Recent reports have established that /sup 201/Tl may be taken up in areas of recent myocardial infarction after myocardial blood flow is re-established. In addition, there is accelerated /sup 201/Tl washout from these regions producing a pattern of reverse redistribution. We present a case in which these phenomena may have contributed to a disparity of findings between a /sup 201/Tl stress imaging study and a repeat stress imaging study performed with a (/sup 99m/Tc) isonitrile (/sup 99m/Tc-RP-30A).

  10. Technetium-99m and rhenium-188 complexes with one and two pendant bisphosphonate groups for imaging arterial calcification.

    PubMed

    Bordoloi, Jayanta Kumar; Berry, David; Khan, Irfan Ullah; Sunassee, Kavitha; de Rosales, Rafael Torres Martin; Shanahan, Catherine; Blower, Philip J

    2015-03-21

    The first (99m)Tc and (188)Re complexes containing two pendant bisphosphonate groups have been synthesised, based on the mononuclear M(v) nitride core with two dithiocarbamate ligands each with a pendant bisphosphonate. The structural identity of the (99)Tc and stable rhenium analogues as uncharged, mononuclear nitridobis(dithiocarbamate) complexes was determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The (99m)Tc complex showed greater affinity for synthetic and biological hydroxyapatite, and greater stability in biological media, than the well-known but poorly-characterised and inhomogeneous bone imaging agent (99m)Tc-MDP. It gave excellent SPECT images of both bone calcification (mice and rats) and vascular calcification (rat model), but the improved stability and the availability of two pendant bisphosphonate groups conferred no dramatic advantage in imaging over the conventional (99m)Tc-MDP agent in which the bisphosphonate group is bound directly to Tc. The (188)Re complex also showed preferential uptake in bone. These tracers and the biological model of vascular calcification offer the opportunity to study the biological interpretation and clinical potential of radionuclide imaging of vascular calcification and to deliver radionuclide therapy to bone metastases.

  11. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

  12. Comparison of SPECT using technetium-99m agents and thallium-201 and PET for the assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Van Train, K.F.; Friedman, J.; Garcia, E.V.; Maddahi, J. )

    1990-10-16

    This report reviews the applications of tomographic imaging with current and new tracers in assessing myocardial perfusion and viability. Multiple studies with thallium-201 (TI-201) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) have demonstrated high sensitivity, high rates of normalcy and high reproducibility. In assessing viability, fixed defects are frequently detected in viable zones in 4-hour studies with TI-201 imaging. Redistribution imaging performed 18 to 72 hours after injection or reinjection of TI-201 before 4-hour redistribution imaging has been shown to improve accuracy of viability assessment. TI-201 SPECT studies are limited by the suboptimal physical properties of TI-201, which result in variable image quality. The 2 new technetium-99m (Tc-99m) - labeled myocardial perfusion tracers offer the ability to inject much higher amounts of radioactivity, making it possible to assess ventricular function as well as myocardial perfusion from the same injection of radiotracer. Tc-99m sestamibi has very slow myocardial clearance, which allows for prolonged imaging time and results in image quality superior to that obtained with TI-201 and Tc-99m teboroxime. The combination of minimal redistribution of Tc-99m sestamibi and high count rates makes gated SPECT imaging feasible, and also permits assessment of patients with acute ischemic syndromes by uncoupling the time of injection from the time of imaging. The combination of high image quality and first-pass exercise capabilities may lead to a choice of this agent over TI-201 for assessment of chronic CAD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Assessment of systolic wall thickening using technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile in patients with coronary artery disease: relation to thallium-201 scintigraphy with re-injection.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, E; Cuocolo, A; Pace, L; Maurea, S; Nappi, A; Imbriaco, M; Morisco, C; Argenziano, L; Salvatore, M

    1995-09-01

    The results of resting planar ECG-gated technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) imaging were compared with those of thallium-201 (Tl) re-injection after exercise-redistribution scintigraphy in 20 patients (19 men, 1 woman, mean age 53 +/- 10 years) with angiographically proven coronary artery disease. Eight normal subjects (seven men, one woman, mean age 50 +/- 8 years) constituted the control group. In these subjects, only resting 99mTc-MIBI imaging was performed. The standardized percent count increase from end-diastole to end-systole was calculated as an index of wall thickening in 13 segments for each study. Regional wall thickening index (WTI) and 99mTc-MIBI uptake were significantly different (P < 0.05) among segments classified as normal, reversible defects, irreversible defects with increased tracer uptake after re-injection (Re+) or irreversible defects with unchanged tracer uptake after re-injection (Re-) on Tl imaging. Furthermore, WTI and 99mTc-MIBI uptake were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Re- segments with moderate reduction of Tl uptake (> or = 50% of peak activity) than in Re- segments with severe reduction of Tl uptake (< 50% of peak activity). A significant relationship between WTI and the results of Tl scintigraphy was observed (rho = 0.71, P < 0.0001). The percentage of Re- segments with severe reduction of WTI was significantly higher compared to Re+ segments (64% vs 3%, P < 0.01). Furthermore, compared with moderate Re- segments, a significantly higher percentage of severe Re- segments showed a severe reduction of WTI (86% vs 48%, P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Technical Solutions to Ensure Safe Yttrium-90 Radioembolization in Patients With Initial Extrahepatic Deposition of {sup 99m}Technetium-Albumin Macroaggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Barentsz, M. W.; Vente, M. A. D.; Lam, M. G. E. H.; Smits, M. L. J.; Nijsen, J. F. W.; Seinstra, B. A.; Rosenbaum, C. E. N. M.; Verkooijen, H. M.; Zonnenberg, B. A.; Van den Bosch, M. A. A. J.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of extrahepatic deposition of technetium-99m-labeled albumin macroaggregates ({sup 99m}Tc-MAA) after pretreatment angiography, before yttrium-90 radioembolizaton ({sup 90}Y-RE), and to report on technical solutions that can be used to ensure safe delivery of {sup 90}Y-microspheres in patients with initial extrahepatic deposition. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 26 patients with primary and secondary liver malignancies, who were scheduled for treatment with {sup 90}Y-RE in our institution in 2009, was performed. The angiograms and single-photon emission computed tomography images of all patients were reviewed by an interventional radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician, respectively, to identify and localize extrahepatic deposition of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA when present. Subsequently, the technical solutions were used to successfully perform {sup 90}Y-RE in these patients were evaluated and described. Results: Extrahepatic deposition of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA was observed in 8 of 26 patients (31%). In 7 of 8 patients, a second pretreatment angiography was performed to detect the cause of extrahepatic deposition. The technical solutions to enable safe {sup 90}Y microspheres delivery included more distal placement of the microcatheter in the proper/right hepatic artery in 4 of 7 (57%) patients; (super)selective catheterization of multiple segmental branches in 2 of 7 (29%); and additional coiling of a newly detected branch in the remaining patient (14%). This was confirmed by a second MAA procedure. {sup 90}Y-RE was eventually performed in 25 of 26 (96%) patients. No procedure-related complications (<30 days) were observed. Conclusion: Extrahepatic deposition of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA after pretreatment angiography did occur in 8 of 26 (31%) patients. The technical solutions as presented allowed safe {sup 90}Y-RE delivery in 25 of 26 (96%) patients.

  15. Compartmental analysis of technetium-99m-teboroxime kinetics employing fast dynamic SPECT at rest and stress

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, P.C.; Ficaro, E.P.; Dayaniki, F.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have examined the feasibility of compartmental analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime kinetics in measuring physiological changes in response to adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation. To evaluate the effect of tracer recirculation on {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime kinetics in the myocardium, they also compared compartmental analysis with washout analysis (monoexponertial fitting), which does not account for this effect. Eight healthy male volunteers were imaged using fast dynamic SPECT protocols (5 sec per tomographic image) at rest and during adenosine infusion. A two-compartment model was used and compartmental parameters K1 and k2 (characterizing the diffusion of {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime from the blood to the myocardium and from the myocardium to the blood, respectively) were fitted from myocardial time-activity curves and left ventricular input functions. Both K1 and washout estimates for the whole left ventricular myocardium changed significantly in response to coronary vasodilation. Mean stress-to-rest (S/R) ratios were almost two times higher for K1 (S/R = 2.7 {plus_minus} 1.1) than for washout estimates (S/R = 1.5 {plus_minus} 0.3). Estimation of K1 for all local regions, except the septal wall, is feasible because variations in K1 estimates for all local regions, except the septum during stress, are comparable with those for the global region. The authors conclude that quantitative compartmental analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-teboroxime kinetics provides a sensitive indicator for changes in response to adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation. 39 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Comparison of personnel radiation dosimetry from myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: Technetium-99m-sestamibi versus thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, C.M.; Dworkin, H.J. )

    1993-07-01

    The whole-body and hand radiation doses to our technical staff were retrospectively compared for three distinct 4-mo periods when either 201TI or 99mTc-sestamibi were exclusively used for stress myocardial perfusion imaging. During the initial 4-mo period when 99mTc-sestamibi replaced 201TI, the mean whole-body film badge readings increased from 100 to 450 microSv/mo (p < 0.001) for nuclear medicine technologists (n = 10) and from 240 to 560 microSv/mo (p < 0.05) for radiopharmacy technologists (n = 2). Mean TLD readings to the hands also increased, although the differences were not statistically significant for the nuclear medicine technologists. Noninvasive cardiology staff were monitored with film badges and the mean whole-body film badge reading, when 99mTc-sestamibi was the imaging agent, was 360 microSv per month. Radiation reduction methods that decreased radiation exposure to staff were utilized. The most effective included the use of a lead face shield and lead lined storage container in the noninvasive imaging area, handling spills by shielding instead of decontamination and methods to reduce time spent in close proximity to the patient.

  17. Global Xenon-133 Emission Inventory Caused by Medical Isotope Production and Derived from the Worldwide Technetium-99m Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, Martin B.; Grosch, Martina; Hebel, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Emissions from medical isotope production are the most important source of background for atmospheric radioxenon measurements, which are an essential part of nuclear explosion monitoring. This article presents a new approach for estimating the global annual radioxenon emission inventory caused by medical isotope production using the amount of Tc-99m applications in hospitals as the basis. Tc-99m is the most commonly used isotope in radiology and dominates the medical isotope production. This paper presents the first estimate of the global production of Tc-99m. Depending on the production and transport scenario, global xenon emissions of 11-45 PBq/year can be derived from the global isotope demand. The lower end of this estimate is in good agreement with other estimations which are making use of reported releases and realistic process simulations. This proves the validity of the complementary assessment method proposed in this paper. It may be of relevance for future emission scenarios and for estimating the contribution to the global source term from countries and operators that do not make sufficient radioxenon release information available. It depends on sound data on medical treatments with radio-pharmaceuticals and on technical information on the production process of the supplier. This might help in understanding the apparent underestimation of the global emission inventory that has been found by atmospheric transport modelling.

  18. Determination of tumour vascularity using selective hepatic angiography as compared with intrahepatic-arterial technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin scan in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Leung, T W; Lau, W Y; Ho, S K; Chan, M; Leung, N W; Lin, J; Metreweli, C; Johnson, P J; Li, A K

    1994-01-01

    A total of 51 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were studied to determine the tumour vascularity as determined by selective hepatic angiography (HAG) and by intrahepatic-arterial technetium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin (Tc99m-MAA) scan. The tumour vascularity was graded on the HAG films by an interventional radiologist using a scale ranging from 1 (hypovascular) to 4 (extremely hypervascular). The grades of vascularity on HAG were grade 1 in 5 patients, grade 2 in 13 patients, grade 3 in 24 patients and grade 4 in 9 patients. The tumour vascularity on scintigraphy was determined by quantifying the count rates over the tumour and normal liver areas by an analog/digital gamma-camera, and the resultant tumour-to-normal ratio (T/N ratio) gave a quantitative measure of the vascularity. The range of the T/N ratio was 0.9 to 11.1, with a median of 3.7. There was no correlation between the tumour vascularity grading on HAG and the T/N ratio on the Tc99m-MAA scan (Wilcoxon rank test, P = 0.83). Thus, we conclude that HAG cannot reveal the true vascularity nor reflect the T/N ratio in HCC.

  19. p-Tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion: preparation, characterization and comparative evaluation of its decontamination efficacy against Technetium-99m, Iodine-131 and Thallium-201.

    PubMed

    Rana, Sudha; Sharma, Navneet; Ojha, Himanshu; Shivkumar, Hosakote Gurumalappa; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to develop p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene o/w nanoemulsion for decontamination of radioisotopes from skin. Formulation was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), multi-photon confocal microscopy techniques and in vitro dissolution studies. In vivo evaluation of nano-emulsion was done using nuclear medicine technique. Stability studies and dermal toxicity studies were also carried out. Comparative decontamination efficacy (DE) studies were performed on synthetic human tissue equivalent material and Sprague Dawley rat against three commonly used medical radioisotopes, i.e., Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), Iodine-131 ((131)I) and Thallium-201 ((201)Tl). Decontamination was performed using cotton swabs soaked in nanoemulsion at different time intervals of contaminants exposure. Whole body imaging and static counts were recorded using gamma camera before and after each decontamination attempt data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). DE of the nanoemulsion loaded with p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene was observed to be 88±5%, 90±3% and 89±3% for (99m)Tc, (131)I and (201)Tl respectively. Dermal toxicity studies revealed no significant differences between treated and control animals. Skin histopathology slides with and without API (Active pharmaceutical ingredients) also found to be comparable. p-Tertbutylcalix[4]arene loaded nanoemulsion shows great promise for skin decontamination against broad ranges of radiological contaminants besides being stable and safe.

  20. Diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis with technetium 99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, C.A.; Keeffe, E.B.; Lieberman, D.A.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Gilbert, S.; Eklem, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid planar biliary scintigraphy combined with single photon emission computed tomography could detect sclerosing cholangitis and provide additional information regarding the extent and severity of disease. Thirteen patients with sclerosing cholangitis and 13 normal control subjects were studied. Scintigraphic results were also compared with previously reported studies of patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction and with primary biliary cirrhosis. The planar scintigraphy in patients with sclerosing cholangitis showed beading or bandlike constrictions of the biliary tract corresponding to lesions seen on cholangiography, and the image pattern was distinctly different from images obtained from patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction or primary biliary cirrhosis. The single photon emission computed tomography images of the liver in patients with sclerosing cholangitis demonstrated multiple focal areas of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid retention, representing bile stasis in intrahepatic bile ducts. Compared to controls, the mean hepatic clearance half-time of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid was markedly delayed in patients with sclerosing cholangitis (6-10 times normal). Individual patients with sclerosing cholangitis had wider variation in isotope clearance half-time from three regions of the liver than patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction, consistent with regional difference in disease severity and variable impairment of bile flow. In 4 patients with sclerosing cholangitis with incomplete filling of the right and left hepatic ducts at cholangiography, planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy provided evidence of significant intrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis.

  1. [Dual isotope myocardial scintigraphy (201thallium at rest/99 M technetium tetrofosmin with exercise) in the detection of reversible hypoperfusion].

    PubMed

    Peix González, A; López Díaz, A; Ponce Vicente, F; Maltas Pineda, A M; García Fernández, R; Barrera Sarduy, J D; García Barreto, D

    2000-02-01

    The dual-isotope technique (rest 201Tl and stress 99mTc-sestamibi) is useful to assess myocardial perfusion in coronary disease patients. 99mTc-labeled tetrofosmin is a radiopharmaceutical whose characteristics are similar to sestamibi. Thus, we decided to use it to detect reversible myocardial hypoperfusion in patients with a background of myocardial infarction and ischemia. A sequential dual-isotope scintigraphy (3 mCi rest 201Tl and 25 mCi stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin) with 24-hour 201Tl redistribution (RD) was performed in 20 patients with previously confirmed myocardial infarction and clinical and ergometric signs of ischemia. Each patient also underwent a stress-redistribution protocol with redistribution at 4 and 24 hours post injection with 201Tl scintigraphy within two weeks of the first study. The qualitative uptake analysis showed no significant differences in the number of myocardial segments with severe reduction of tracer uptake on stress that improved at rest or in RD images, even if 24-hour RD images were considered. The quantitative global uptake analysis showed a similar defect reversibility with both protocols; however if 24-hour RD images were considered the uptake improvement was significant only when compared with the rest 201Tl images in dual-isotope scintigraphy protocol (75+/-8% vs. 81+/-9% of peak activity, rest vs. 24-hour RD; p<0.01) and not when compared with the 4-hour RD in the 201Tl scintigraphy. On the other hand, when only the segments with severely reduced uptake (<50% of peak activity) were analyzed, the 24-hour RD improved myocardial uptake significantly (p<0.001 vs. rest and vs 4-hour RD) in both protocols. We conclude that a sequential dual-isotope rest 201Tl/stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin scintigraphy is comparable with stress-redistribution 201Tl scintigraphy to detect reversible myocardial hypoperfusion; however in both cases, the addition of 24-hour images increases its usefulness in severely hypoperfused segments, if the uptake of

  2. The effect of an iodine restricted including no sea foods diet, on technetium-99m thyroid scintigraphy: a neglected issue in nuclear medicine practice.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Neshandarasli, Isa; Mogharrabi, Mehdi; Jalallat, Sara; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Although it is recommended to patients to avoid sea food and iodine-containing medications prior to iodine-131 (¹³¹I) scanning, the efficacy of this diet as for technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) thyroid scintigraphy is not well addressed in the literature. We evaluated a self-managed, outpatients, iodine restricted diet (IRD) designed to reduce total body iodine in preparation for such a scan. We have studied 39 patients who referred to our Department for multinodular goiter, 30 females and 9 males, aged:14-54 years and their (99m)Tc-P thyroid scintigraphy showed poor visualization of the thyroid gland. These patiens were living in regions with high consumption of sea foods went underwent a two-weeks iodine restriction including restriction of sea food diet for the reduction of iodine body content. These patients were called for a repeated scan after going on a IRD for at least two weeks. The two scans were compared visually, and by semiquantitative analysis. Semiquantitative analysis was applied in 8 regions of interest (ROI) by using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Thirty-six subjects had better quality scintigraphy images in the post IRD thyroid scan, as was visually assessed by two nuclear medicine physicians. Semiquantitatetively, there was a significant difference in the mean counts of ROI of the right and the left thyroid lobes in favor of the post IRD scans (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study suggests that in patients with multinodular goiter, living in regions with high consumption of sea foods a two-weeks diet for the reduction of iodine body content induces in most of the cases a slightly better diagnostic thyroid (99m)Tc-P scan.

  3. The effect of an iodine restricted including no sea foods diet, on technetium-99m thyroid scintigraphy: a neglected issue in nuclear medicine practice.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Neshandarasli, Isa; Mogharrabi, Mehdi; Jalallat, Sara; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Although it is recommended to patients to avoid sea food and iodine-containing medications prior to iodine-131 (¹³¹I) scanning, the efficacy of this diet as for technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) thyroid scintigraphy is not well addressed in the literature. We evaluated a self-managed, outpatients, iodine restricted diet (IRD) designed to reduce total body iodine in preparation for such a scan. We have studied 39 patients who referred to our Department for multinodular goiter, 30 females and 9 males, aged:14-54 years and their (99m)Tc-P thyroid scintigraphy showed poor visualization of the thyroid gland. These patiens were living in regions with high consumption of sea foods went underwent a two-weeks iodine restriction including restriction of sea food diet for the reduction of iodine body content. These patients were called for a repeated scan after going on a IRD for at least two weeks. The two scans were compared visually, and by semiquantitative analysis. Semiquantitative analysis was applied in 8 regions of interest (ROI) by using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Thirty-six subjects had better quality scintigraphy images in the post IRD thyroid scan, as was visually assessed by two nuclear medicine physicians. Semiquantitatetively, there was a significant difference in the mean counts of ROI of the right and the left thyroid lobes in favor of the post IRD scans (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study suggests that in patients with multinodular goiter, living in regions with high consumption of sea foods a two-weeks diet for the reduction of iodine body content induces in most of the cases a slightly better diagnostic thyroid (99m)Tc-P scan. PMID:22413111

  4. Technetium-99m labeled red blood cells for the detection and localization of cavernous hemangiomas of the bone

    SciTech Connect

    Lenane, P.

    1986-09-01

    Labeled red blood cells (RBCs) have already been proven useful in the detection and localization of many vascular abnormalities. One such abnormality is that of a cavernous hemangioma. Cavernous hemangiomas have a distinct circulation and have been found in many areas of the body. The ability to utilize this unique circulation is important to consider when choosing a diagnostic exam. This paper reports a case demonstrating the usefulness of labeled red blood cells for the detection and localization of cavernous hemangioma of the bone. A 31-yr-old female present with a history of persistent generalized headaches for many years. About 1 yr prior to the exam, she noticed that her headaches had become more localized to the right side of her head. Physical examination revealed a palpable lump developing on the right side of her head which was sensitive to the touch. The patient was then scheduled for a CT scan to be followed by both a bone scan and a /sup 99m/Tc blood-pool scan. A flow study using 15 mCi /sup 99m/Tc labeled RBCs was performed in the right lateral position at 1.5 sec/frame for 32 frames. Immediate blood-pool images 30-min, and 1-hr delayed images were recorded.

  5. Prospective study of sequential technetium-99m phosphate and gallium imaging in painful hip prostheses (comparison of diagnostic modalities)

    SciTech Connect

    Tehranzadeh, J.; Gubernick, I.; Blaha, D.

    1988-04-01

    Twenty-two painful hip prostheses were studied prospectively with plain radiography, aspiration and arthrography, Tc-99m phosphate bone imaging, and gallium imaging to evaluate loosening, infection, or both and to compare the accuracy of these modalities. Fifteen prostheses were revised yielding 14 loose femoral and eight loose acetabular components. Five proved to have infected prostheses. Arthrograms, plain radiographs, and bone scans are highly sensitive in detecting loosening of the femoral component. This study confirmed a previous retrospective study in demonstrating that accuracy of diagnosis of an abnormal acetabular component using all four modalities is less than that for the femoral component. In infected prostheses, phosphate bone imaging showed high sensitivity of a pattern that accurately diagnosed all the infected cases, whereas gallium imaging missed one case.

  6. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid uptake by a malignant fibrous histiocytoma: Phagocytosis by tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Klein, M.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1990-09-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte imaging, performed on a patient with a calcified mass in the right thigh, demonstrated labeled leukocyte accumulation in this mass. Technetium-99m-sulfur colloid imaging was performed to differentiate labeled leukocyte uptake in heterotopic bone marrow from uptake in a focus of infection. Leukocyte and sulfur colloid images were virtually identical, and the study was interpreted as without evidence of infection. Excision of the mass revealed an angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma with metaplastic bone formation. While no marrow elements were present in either the tumor or the metaplastic bone, phagocytosis of leukocytes by tumor cells was identified. Phagocytosis of leukocytes by tumor cells may be another cause of white cell accumulation in uninfected neoplasms.

  7. Comparison of shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and technetium-99m-pertechnetate in a group of dogs with experimentally-induced chronic biliary cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Koblik, P.D.; Hornof, W.J.; Yen, C.K.; Komtebedde, J.; Breznock, E.; Fisher, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Portosystemic shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine (IMP) has been previously validated relative to portal vein macroaggregated albumin injections using an experimental model of cirrhosis. Transcolonic technetium-99m-pertechnetate (TcO4-) has been proposed as an alternative tracer to IMP to study portal circulation in cirrhotic patients. We compared shunt fraction estimates from paired transcolonic IMP and TcO4- studies performed on a group of dogs before and after common bile duct ligation surgery. Pertechnetate over-estimated shunt fraction in 6/7 postoperative studies relative to IMP. A good correlation between the two methods was demonstrated, however, the slope of the regression line was substantially less than 1.0 with TcO4- values reaching 100% at IMP shunt values of approximately 60%. This apparent inability to accurately assess high shunt flows may limit the quantitative aspects of TcO4- studies on patients with severe portosystemic shunting.

  8. Regional brain perfusion in 12 cats measured with technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

    PubMed

    Waelbers, Tim; Peremans, Kathelijne; Vermeire, Simon; Dobbeleir, André; Boer, Vo; de Leeuw, Hendrik; Vente, Maarten A D; Piron, Koen; Hesta, Myriam; Polis, Ingeborgh

    2013-02-01

    With the use of perfusion tracers, in vivo examination of the regional cerebral blood flow in cats can be performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Reliable perfusion data of normal, healthy cats are necessary for future clinical studies or other research use. Therefore, this dataset of the regional perfusion pattern of the normal feline brain was created. Twelve cats were used in this study. Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer ((99m)Tc-ECD) was injected intravenously and the acquisition, using a triple head gamma camera equipped with three multi-pinhole collimators (pinhole SPECT), was started 40 mins after tracer administration under general anaesthesia. Nineteen regions of interest were defined using 7T magnetic resonance images of the feline brain and a topographical atlas. Regional counts were normalised to the counts of two reference regions: the total brain and the cerebellum. The highest tracer uptake was noticed in the subcortical structures, and the lowest in the frontal cortex and the cerebellum. Also left-right asymmetry in the temporal cortex and a rostrocaudal gradient of 5% were observed.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow imaging: A quantitative comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT with C15O2 PET

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmell, H.G.; Evans, N.T.; Besson, J.A.; Roeda, D.; Davidson, J.; Dodd, M.G.; Sharp, P.F.; Smith, F.W.; Crawford, J.R.; Newton, R.H. )

    1990-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). As investigation of dementia is likely to be one of the main uses of routine rCBF imaging, 18 demented patients were imaged with both techniques. The PET data were compared quantitatively with three versions of the SPECT data. These were, first, data normalized to the SPECT cerebellar uptake, second, data linearly corrected using the PET cerebellar value and, finally, data Lassen corrected for washout from the high flow areas. Both the linearly-corrected (r = 0.81) and the Lassen-corrected (r = 0.79) HMPAO SPECT data showed good correlation with the PET rCBF data. The relationship between the normalized HMPAO SPECT data and the PET data was nonlinear. It is not yet possible to obtain rCBF values in absolute units from HMPAO SPECT without knowledge of the true rCBF in one reference region for each patient.

  10. Comparison of left ventricular function and infarct size in patients with and without persistently positive technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams after myocardial infarction: analysis of 357 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, C.H.; Rude, R.E.; Lewis, S.E.; Parkey, R.W.; Poole, W.K.; Parker, C.; Fox, N.; Roberts, R.; Strauss, H.W.; Thomas, L.J.

    1984-02-01

    One hundred nine patients with persistently positive technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PPi) myocardial scintigrams 6 months after acute myocardial infarction (MI) (Group A) and 185 patients without such persistently positive scintigrams (Group B) were compared with regard to enzymatically determined infarct size, early and late measurements of left ventricular (LV) function determined by radionuclide ventriculography, and preceding clinical course during the 6 months after MI. The CK-MB-determined infarct size index in Group A (17.4 +/- 10.6 g-Eq/m2) did not differ significantly from that in Group B (16.0 +/- 14.6 g-Eq/m2). Similarly, myocardial infarct areas in the 2 groups, determined by planimetry of acute Tc-99m-PPi scintigrams in those patients with well-localized 3+ or 4+ anterior pyrophosphate uptake, were not significantly different (35.7 +/- 13.4 vs 34.4 +/- 13.1 cm2, respectively). However, patients in Group A had significantly lower LV ejection fractions than those in Group B, both within 18 hours of the onset of MI (0.42 +/- 0.14 vs 0.49 +/- 0.14, p less than 0.01) and at 3 months after MI, both at rest (0.42 +/- 0.14 vs 0.51 +/- 0.14, p less than 0.01) and at maximal symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise (0.44 +/- 0.17 vs 0.51 +/- 0.17, p less than 0.01). Peak exercise levels achieved in the 2 groups were not significantly different. Furthermore, patients in Group A demonstrated a greater incidence of congestive heart failure during the initial hospital admission (41 vs 24%; p less than 0.01) and a greater requirement for digoxin (p less than 0.05) and furosemide (p less than 0.01) after discharge.

  11. Detection of a local staphylococcal infection in mice with technetium-99m-labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Calame, W.; Feitsma, H.I.; Ensing, G.J.; Goedemans, W.T.; Camps, J.A.; van Furth, R.; Pauwels, E.K. )

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate both the ability of 99mTc-labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) to localize an infection and the modes of action involved in this process. Mice, infected with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 in a thigh muscle, received HIG intravenously. Scintigrams were made 1, 4, and 24 hr later; subsequently the mice were killed and the activity in several organs and thighs was determined. The radiopharmaceutical demonstrated a time-dependent accumulation at the site of infection. It was found that vascular permeability or Fc binding alone could not account for the mode of action of HIG. Neither the origin of Ig (human versus murine) nor the total amount of protein (0.01-1.0 mg Ig per mouse) affected the target-to-background (T/B) ratios. Ratios were not different for leukocytopenic animals. A correlation (p less than 0.001) was demonstrated between the number of bacteria at the site of infection and the T/B ratio. This was also found after antibiotic treatment (p less than 0.02).

  12. Detection of diffuse glomerular lesions in rats: II. Comparison of indium-111 cationic small macromolecules with technetium-99m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, J.G.; Thomas, F.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.D.; Lyons, B.; Roskopf, M.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Whaley, D.

    1986-04-01

    Dextrans with average molecular weights of 5000, 10,000, and 17,500 and inulin were rendered cationic by amination with 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide. After limited coupling with DTPA cyclic dianhydride, they were labeled with 111In. A good correlation was found between their early renal uptake quantitated by camera-computer techniques and their renal clearance from multiple plasma samples in rats with glomerular damage induced by puromycin aminonucleoside and controls. However, there was poor correlation between the early renal uptake of these agents and the clearance of simultaneously injected (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA. The 2-hr organ distribution and urinary excretion of these agents were compared with the corresponding values of DTPA. The differences in clearance between rats with glomerular damage and controls were greater with aminated dextran (mol wt 5000) than with DTPA, confirming previous work with infusions of nonradioactive charged dextrans and neutral inulin. The cationic dextrans appear to reflect the presence or absence of the normal anionic charge of the glomerular membrane as well as changes in filtration rate. Aminated inulin did not differentiate between controls and rats with glomerular disease any better than DTPA, probably because the number of amino groups conjugated was insufficient to produce the charge effect.

  13. Indium-111-antimyosin antibody imaging for detecting different stages of myocardial infarction: Comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, N.; Yamada, T.; Matsumori, A.; Yoshida, A.; Fujita, T.; Ohtani, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Endo, K.; Konishi, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The diagnostic value of {sup 111}In-antimyosin (AM) imaging for identifying myocardial infarction was evaluated in comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate (PPi) imaging. Twenty-four patients with various stages of myocardial infarction, ranging from three days to nine months after the onset of infarction, underwent both AM and PPi scans. Of 26 infarct lesions AM scan identified 22 (85%), while PPi scans detected 10 (38%) (p less than 0.01). When less than a week had passed since the onset both scans demonstrated all infarct lesions. For seven subacute lesions studied within one to two weeks of onset, AM scans detected (100%), while PPi scans identified only 2 (29%). Furthermore, AM scans showed discrete myocardial uptake in 7 (64%) of those studied more than two weeks after onset. The intensity of AM uptake in the infarcts studied more than seven days after onset was less than that in acute infarcts studied within seven days of onset (p less than 0.05). These preliminary data indicate that the abnormal myocardial uptake of AM persists beyond the first two weeks when PPi no longer accumulates. Thus, AM scans can be considered to provide a sensitive diagnosis of subacute as well as acute myocardial necrosis.

  14. Comparison of thallium-201 and technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile single-photon emission computed tomography for estimating the extent of myocardial ischemia and infarction in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Narahara, K A; Villanueva-Meyer, J; Thompson, C J; Brizendine, M; Mena, I

    1990-12-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using thallium-201 (Tl-201) was compared with technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI) in 24 patients with coronary artery diseaes. Patients exercised to the same work load as each isotope was studied. Normal and hypoperfused left ventricular mass was determined with an automated method. Estimated total left ventricular mass was similar for both stress/redistribution Tl-201 and stress/rest Tc-99m MIBI images. The mean estimated defect size in the redistribution Tl-201 images was 32 +/- 34.7 vs 33 +/- 38.4 g in the resting Tc-99m MIBI studies (difference not significant). The individual determinations of defect mass were highly correlated (r = 0.93; p less than 0.0001). Estimated defect size in the stress Tl-201 images (52 +/- 46.2 g) was significantly larger than the exercise Tc-99m MIBI estimates of defect mass (42 +/- 39.9 g; p less than 0.05). A linear correlation existed between stress thallium and technetium estimates of defect size (r = 0.85) but 15 of 24 Tc-99m MIBI defects were smaller than the Tl-201 defects. Partial redistribution of Tc-99m MIBI could explain the discordance. Stress Tc-99m MIBI SPECT defect size determined by visual interpretation or by the use of isocount analysis may be smaller than what is seen with stress Tl-201 SPECT.

  15. Comparison of thallium-201 and technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile single-photon emission computed tomography for estimating the extent of myocardial ischemia and infarction in coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Narahara, K.A.; Villanueva-Meyer, J.; Thompson, C.J.; Brizendine, M.; Mena, I. )

    1990-12-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using thallium-201 (Tl-201) was compared with technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI) in 24 patients with coronary artery diseaes. Patients exercised to the same work load as each isotope was studied. Normal and hypoperfused left ventricular mass was determined with an automated method. Estimated total left ventricular mass was similar for both stress/redistribution Tl-201 and stress/rest Tc-99m MIBI images. The mean estimated defect size in the redistribution Tl-201 images was 32 +/- 34.7 vs 33 +/- 38.4 g in the resting Tc-99m MIBI studies (difference not significant). The individual determinations of defect mass were highly correlated (r = 0.93; p less than 0.0001). Estimated defect size in the stress Tl-201 images (52 +/- 46.2 g) was significantly larger than the exercise Tc-99m MIBI estimates of defect mass (42 +/- 39.9 g; p less than 0.05). A linear correlation existed between stress thallium and technetium estimates of defect size (r = 0.85) but 15 of 24 Tc-99m MIBI defects were smaller than the Tl-201 defects. Partial redistribution of Tc-99m MIBI could explain the discordance. Stress Tc-99m MIBI SPECT defect size determined by visual interpretation or by the use of isocount analysis may be smaller than what is seen with stress Tl-201 SPECT.

  16. Use of technetium-99m-HM-PAO in the assessment of patients with dementia and other neuropsychiatric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.W.; Besson, J.A.; Gemmell, H.G.; Sharp, P.F.

    1988-12-01

    One hundred fourteen patients suffering from neuropsychiatric conditions have been studied using 99mTc-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Ninety-one patients had a firm clinical diagnosis while 23 were examined without knowledge of the clinical diagnosis. Of the 91 patients, 51 were suffering from dementia, 25 multi-infarct type and 26 Alzheimer's disease. In 19 of the Alzheimer's patients, a characteristic pattern of decreased perfusion in the parieto-occipital regions was demonstrated while those with multi-infarct type showed varying degrees of irregular uptake in the cerebral cortex. These appearances are similar to those shown with positron emission tomography (PET) and we believe that HM-PAO will provide a widely available method for identifying patients with Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-nine patients were suffering from diseases involving the basal ganglia. Fifteen patients with Parkinson's disease showed no significant abnormality in basal ganglia uptake, while 7 or 8 patients with Huntington's disease who had full examinations showed decreased uptake in the caudate nuclei. Similarly, four of six patients with other basal ganglia diseases showed impaired uptake by basal ganglia, and it is concluded that HM-PAO may be useful for the diagnosis and management of this type of patient. Twenty-three patients received HM-PAO imaging as part of their diagnostic work-up; in 19 of them, detailed follow-up was obtained, which indicated that in 7 cases the result of the HM-PAO scan altered the clinical diagnosis and in 9 cases resulted in a change in management. In the remaining 13 cases, the study was found to be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

  17. [Reduction of the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake on technetium-99m myocardial SPECT; usefulness and problems of a mask processing method].

    PubMed

    Takaki, A; Okada, K; Urata, J; Matsuda, H; Takao, Y

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a mask processing method for obtaining the true myocardial tracer distribution by eliminating the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake on myocardial SPECT images by using technetium-99m (99mTc) blood flow agents. A SPECT imaging was performed with a two-head SPECT system (GCA-7200A/DI) in both phantom and clinical studies. The mask processing method was applied to the reconstructed and projection images. The phantom consisted of heart, lung, liver and spine. A defect was located in the inferior wall of the left ventricle and other parts of the heart and liver were filled with 99mTc solution. For clinical study 10 patients with difficulty in the interpretation of the inferior wall were selected for the evaluation of usefulness of the mask method. In the phantom study, the mask processing method applied to the reconstructed images was able to remove the overlapped liver from the heart, but was not able to remove the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake. Nevertheless, the mask processing method applied to the projection images successfully eliminated not only the overlapped liver but also the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake. In the clinical study, the liver uptake could be removed from the uptake in the inferior wall in 8 of 10 patients with the mask processing methods. In 2 patients, the overlapped liver uptake could not be eliminated from the uptake in the inferior wall because the distance between the liver and heart was too short. The mask processing method applied to the projection images was thought to be superior to that applied to the reconstruction images in both phantom and clinical studies. The mask processing method, especially applied to the projection images, seems to be useful for the elimination of the liver uptake from the inferior wall of the myocardium on myocardial SPECT images using 99mTc blood flow agents.

  18. Thallium-201 is comparable to technetium-99m-sestamibi for estimating cardiac function in patients with abnormal myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Che; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Hui-Chun; Sun, Fang-Ju; Lin, Ku-Hung

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the left-ventricular functional data obtained by cardiac-gated single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with thallium-201 (Tl-201) and technetium-99m-sestamibi (MIBI) protocols in different groups of patients, and compared the data between Tl-201 and MIBI. Two hundred and seventy-two patients undergoing dipyridamole stress/redistribution Tl-201 MPI and 563 patients undergoing 1-day rest/dipyridamole stress MIBI MPI were included. Higher mean stress ejection fraction (EF), rest EF, and change in EF (ΔEF) were noticed in the normal MPI groups by both Tl-201 and MIBI protocols. Higher mean EF was observed in the females with normal MPI results despite their higher mean age. Comparisons between the Tl-201 and MIBI groups suggested a significant difference in all functional parameters, except for the rest end diastolic volume/end systolic volume and ΔEF between groups with negative MPI results. For the positive MPI groups, there was no significant difference in all parameters, except for the change in end diastolic volume and change in end systolic volume after stress between both protocols. The Tl-201 provides comparable left-ventricular functional data to MIBI cardiac-gated single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with positive MPI results, and may therefore be undertaken routinely for incremental functional information that is especially valuable to this patient group.

  19. Measurement of infarct size in acute canine myocardial infarction by single-photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, S.E.; Devous, M.D. Sr.; Corbett, J.R.; Izquierdo, C.; Nicod, P.; Wolfe, C.L.; Parkey, R.W.; Buja, L.M.; Willerson, J.T.

    1984-07-01

    The location and extent of myocardial infarction (MI) are important predictors of patient course. The current study tests the hypothesis that MI size could be measured accurately using rotating gamma camera single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and technetium-99m pyrophosphate (PPi) and that the accuracy of these measurements was independent of MI location and transmural or nontransmural distribution. SPECT was performed in 38 dogs 48 hours after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (14 dogs) or left circumflex coronary artery (LC) (24 dogs) at the mid-level or below. The boundary of PPi uptake in each slice was marked automatically using an algorithm that combined a directional derivative and a threshold, and required continuity of the boundary in 3 dimensions. The total number of volume elements that showed abnormal tracer uptake were summed, corrected to absolute volume, and multiplied by the specific weight of cardiac muscle. Scintigraphic MI weight was compared with pathologic MI weight. There was an excellent correlation between scintigraphic and pathologic MI weight. The poorer correlation for nontransmural compared with transmural MIs is most likely a function of size alone.

  20. Thallium-201 is comparable to technetium-99m-sestamibi for estimating cardiac function in patients with abnormal myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Che; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Hui-Chun; Sun, Fang-Ju; Lin, Ku-Hung

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the left-ventricular functional data obtained by cardiac-gated single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with thallium-201 (Tl-201) and technetium-99m-sestamibi (MIBI) protocols in different groups of patients, and compared the data between Tl-201 and MIBI. Two hundred and seventy-two patients undergoing dipyridamole stress/redistribution Tl-201 MPI and 563 patients undergoing 1-day rest/dipyridamole stress MIBI MPI were included. Higher mean stress ejection fraction (EF), rest EF, and change in EF (ΔEF) were noticed in the normal MPI groups by both Tl-201 and MIBI protocols. Higher mean EF was observed in the females with normal MPI results despite their higher mean age. Comparisons between the Tl-201 and MIBI groups suggested a significant difference in all functional parameters, except for the rest end diastolic volume/end systolic volume and ΔEF between groups with negative MPI results. For the positive MPI groups, there was no significant difference in all parameters, except for the change in end diastolic volume and change in end systolic volume after stress between both protocols. The Tl-201 provides comparable left-ventricular functional data to MIBI cardiac-gated single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with positive MPI results, and may therefore be undertaken routinely for incremental functional information that is especially valuable to this patient group. PMID:26678935

  1. Structural and Perfusion Abnormalities of Brain on MRI and Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kamer Singh; Narwal, Varun; Chauhan, Lokesh; Singh, Giriraj; Sharma, Monica; Chauhan, Suneel

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral palsy has traditionally been associated with hypoxic ischemic brain damage. This study was undertaken to demonstrate structural and perfusion brain abnormalities. Fifty-six children diagnosed clinically as having cerebral palsy were studied between 1 to 14 years of age and were subjected to 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain and Technetium-99m-ECD brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan. Male to female ratio was 1.8:1 with a mean age of 4.16 ± 2.274 years. Spastic cerebral palsy was the most common type, observed in 91%. Birth asphyxia was the most common etiology (69.6%). White matter changes (73.2%) such as periventricular leukomalacia and corpus callosal thinning were the most common findings on MRI. On SPECT all cases except one revealed perfusion impairments in different regions of brain. MRI is more sensitive in detecting white matter changes, whereas SPECT is better in detecting cortical and subcortical gray matter abnormalities of perfusion.

  2. [A phantom study for the evaluation of the effect of the high uptake in the liver on technetium-99m myocardial perfusion SPECT images].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, H; Masuda, K; Takada, M; Yamamoto, I; Morita, R

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate influences of the high hepatic uptake on parameters such as filtering, attenuation coefficient, and scatter correction at reconstructing of the myocardial SPECT images. Hepatic and cardiac spaces of a myocardial phantom (RH-2, Kyoto Kagaku), were filled with technetium-99m and a three-detector SPECT system (GCA 9300-DI, TOSHIBA) was used. The hepatic activity's influence was estimated from a qualitative percent regional scattering and the effects of attenuation and scatter correction were evaluated by a circumferential profile curve. Percent regional scattering increased in reverse to hepato-cardiac distance (HCD) and in proportion to hepatic to cardiac activity ratio (HCR). This tendency was observed the most significantly in the inferior region, followed by in the lateral, anterior and septal regions, declining in this order. An artifactual defect adjacent to the liver was observed when HCR is three and HCD is zero. However, when the Butterworth filter was used with small filtering-sizes and lower orders in combination with attenuation and scatter correction, the defects were decreased up to 15% at counts in the inferior region. This study showed that the hepatic to cardiac activity ratio, and the hepatocardiac distance should be considered for reconstruction of the SPECT images.

  3. [Clinical evaluation of patients with right ventricular infarction detected by dual SPECT imaging of thallium-201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate].

    PubMed

    Kuwano, H; Kimura, M; Sakai, K; Ishiguro, J; Ishida, H; Okabe, M

    1994-10-01

    We evaluated clinical significance of dual-nuclide SPECT imaging (D-SPECT) of thallium-201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) in patients of acute inferior left ventricular infarction with PYP uptake in the right ventricle (PYP (+) group) in comparison with those without PYP uptake (PYP (-) group). There was no difference in coronary risk factors, history of angina, blood pressure, heart rate, and hemodynamics on admission between PYP (+) group and PYP (-) group. The duration from onset to admission was longer in PYP (+) group and coronary reperfusion therapies were carried out in few cases. In 7 of 8 PYP-positive patients, the diagnosis of right ventricular infarction was made only by D-SPECT. Four of 8 were complicated with shock within three days, and the duration of hospitalization was longer. Coronary angiography demonstrated many proximal lesions (50%) in PYP (+) group but few ones (18%) in PYP (-) group. D-SPECT was very useful for diagnosing acute right ventricular infarction, and it might contribute to the prevention of shock if performed within a few days. PMID:7807721

  4. Structural and Perfusion Abnormalities of Brain on MRI and Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kamer Singh; Narwal, Varun; Chauhan, Lokesh; Singh, Giriraj; Sharma, Monica; Chauhan, Suneel

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral palsy has traditionally been associated with hypoxic ischemic brain damage. This study was undertaken to demonstrate structural and perfusion brain abnormalities. Fifty-six children diagnosed clinically as having cerebral palsy were studied between 1 to 14 years of age and were subjected to 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain and Technetium-99m-ECD brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan. Male to female ratio was 1.8:1 with a mean age of 4.16 ± 2.274 years. Spastic cerebral palsy was the most common type, observed in 91%. Birth asphyxia was the most common etiology (69.6%). White matter changes (73.2%) such as periventricular leukomalacia and corpus callosal thinning were the most common findings on MRI. On SPECT all cases except one revealed perfusion impairments in different regions of brain. MRI is more sensitive in detecting white matter changes, whereas SPECT is better in detecting cortical and subcortical gray matter abnormalities of perfusion. PMID:26353878

  5. Radioguided localisation of impalpable breast lesions using 99m-Technetium macroaggregated albumin: Lessons learnt during introduction of a new technique to guide preoperative localisation

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, Joanne; Kulawansa, Sagarika; McCarthy, Michael; Troedson, Russell; Phillips, Michael; Tinning, Jill; Taylor, Donna

    2015-03-15

    Preoperative wire-guided localisation (WGL) of impalpable breast lesions is widely used but can be technically difficult. Risks include wire migration, inaccurate placement, and inadequate surgical margins. Research shows that radioguided occult lesion localisation (ROLL) is quicker, easier, and can improve surgical and cosmetic outcomes. An audited introduction of ROLL was conducted to validate the technique as a feasible alternative to WGL. Fifty patients with single impalpable lesions and biopsy proven malignancy or indeterminate histology underwent WGL followed by intralesional radiopharmaceutical injection of 99m-Technetium macroaggregated albumin. Postprocedural mammography was performed to demonstrate wire position, and scintigraphy to evaluate radiopharmaceutical migration. Lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative sentinel node biopsy were performed if indicated, followed by lesion localisation and excision using a gamma probe. Specimen imaging was performed, with immediate reexcision for visibly inadequate margins. Accurate localisation was achieved in 86% of patients with ROLL compared to 72% with WGL. All lesions were successfully removed, with clear margins in 71.8% of malignant lesions. Reexcision and intraoperative sentinel node localisation rates were equivalent to preaudit figures for WGL. ROLL was easy to perform and problems were infrequent. Inaccurate radiopharmaceutical placement necessitating WGL occurred in four patients. Minor radiopharmaceutical migration was common, but precluded using ROLL in only two cases. ROLL is effective, simple, inexpensive, and easily learnt; however, preoperative confirmation of correct radiopharmaceutical placement using mammography and the gamma probe is important to help ensure successful lesion removal. Insertion of a backup hookwire is recommended during the initial introduction of ROLL.

  6. Preoperative Diagnostic Strategy for Parotid Gland Tumors Using Diffusion-Weighted MRI and Technetium-99m Pertechnetate Scintigraphy: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Koyasu, Sho; Shinohara, Shogo; Imai, Yukihiro; Hino, Megumu; Naito, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for diagnosis of a parotid gland tumor is widely used but its sensitivity is low and non-diagnostic rate is relatively high. In contrast, core needle biopsy (CNB) has a higher sensitivity and lower rate of sampling errors but has a higher risk of injury to adjacent organs such as facial nerve than FNAC. Screening of patients with parotid gland tumors to identify cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and Warthin tumor (WT) may allow CNB to be confined to patients without PA and WT. We established an algorithm for preoperative diagnosis and management of parotid gland tumor using diffusion-weighted MRI and 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy. This algorithm was developed with the goal of maximal reduction of the number of patients in whom CNB is required. The purpose of the study is to validate our algorithm prospectively. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 71 cases who were newly diagnosed with parotid gland tumor and 53 cases were enrolled in the study. In the algorithm, PA (high apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mean≥1.5×10−3 mm2/s) and non-PA (low ADCmean<1.5×10−3 mm2/s) cases are first distinguished based on the ADCmean on diffusion-weighed MRI. Second, among suspected non-PA cases, WT and non-WT are distinguished using technetium-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy. CNB is then performed only in probable non-PA and non-WT cases. Results Although CNB was only required in 40% (21/53) of all cases, we made a preoperative histopathological diagnosis with an accuracy of 87% (46/53) and we correctly diagnosed whether a tumor was benign or malignant with an accuracy of 96% (51/53). Preoperative surgical planning had to be changed during surgery in only one case (2%) Conclusions Our algorithm is valuable in terms of clinical practice with highly potential for preoperative diagnosis and with less risk of CNB procedure. PMID:26849569

  7. Usefulness of technetium-99m-MIBI and thallium-201 in tomographic imaging combined with high-dose dipyridamole and handgrip exercise for detecting coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kettunen, R; Huikuri, H V; Heikkilä, J; Takkunen, J T

    1991-09-01

    Forty-two patients with known stable coronary artery disease, referred for coronary angiography, were examined with technetium-99m-hexakis-2-methoxy-2-methylpropyl-isonitrile (MIBI) tomography combined with a high-dose dipyridamole infusion (0.7 mg/kg) and handgrip stress. MIBI tomography was unable to show coronary artery disease only in 2 patients, thus yielding a sensitivity figure of 95%. MIBI tomography correctly identified 27 (82%) of 33 stenotic lesions (greater than or equal to 50% diameter stenosis) of the left anterior descending artery, 17 (61%) of 28 of those of the left circumflex artery, and 28 (90%) of 31 of those of the right coronary artery. The overall vessel sensitivity was 78%. The computed lumen diameter stenoses were more advanced in cases detected than in those not detected with MIBI tomography: 87 +/- 14 vs 76 +/- 14% (p less than 0.01). The 50 to 69% stenoses did not show any tendency to produce less positive findings than those with greater than or equal to 70% stenoses. In the subgroup of 21 patients who also presented for thallium scintigraphy, the overall diseased vessel identification rate was 76% for thallium tomography and 83% for MIBI tomography (p = not significant). Minor noncardiac side effects related to the dipyridamole-handgrip test occurred only in 5% of 63 study sessions. A high-dose dipyridamole combined with isometric exercise is a safe stress method, and when used during scintigraphy, MIBI tomography is at least as efficient a tool as thallium tomography in detecting diseased vessel territories in patients in coronary artery disease.

  8. Comparison between thallium-201 and technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile defect size in single-photon emission computed tomography at rest, exercise and redistribution in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Maublant, J C; Marcaggi, X; Lusson, J R; Boire, J Y; Cauvin, J C; Jacob, P; Veyre, A; Cassagnes, J

    1992-01-15

    Defect size on myocardial tomograms was measured in 30 patients who underwent 2 separate studies, 1 with thallium-201 (TI-201), the other with technetium-99m-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI). A group of 15 patients with myocardial infarction was studied at rest and received both tracers on the same day. The other 15 patients had documented coronary artery disease. They were were given injections of TI-201 at peak exercise and underwent imaging immediately after exercise and again 4 hours later. They then received a dose of MIBI for imaging at rest. A week later they underwent a second exercise test with the same work load and received a second dose of MIBI. Defect size on single-photon emission computed tomographic images was measured and repeated twice. Results were expressed in percentage of the volume of the whole myocardium. Reproducibility of the defect size measurement was high for TI-201 (r = 0.978; SEE = 1.59) as well as for MIBI (r = 0.981; SEE = 0.80). In patients with coronary artery disease the mean size of the defects was significantly larger with TI-201 than with MIBI at exercise (6.7 +/- 5.2 vs 4.6 +/- 5.2%, respectively, p less than 0.05) and at redistribution (5.1 +/- 4.4 vs 2.8 +/- 3.2%, respectively, p less than 0.05), where no difference was seen in patients with myocardial infarction studied only at rest (11.2 +/- 10.4 vs 12.0 +/- 11.5%, respectively, p = not significant). Smaller MIBI defect sizes, when compared with TI-201, in the exercise and redistribution studies were not due to technical artefacts since there was no difference when they were compared at rest.

  9. A comparison of the overall first-pass kinetics of thallium-201 and technetium-99m MIBI in normoxic and low-flow ischaemic myocardium.

    PubMed

    Ayalew, A; Marie, P Y; Menu, P; Mertes, P M; Hassan, N; Danchin, N; Olivier, P; Karcher, G; Bertrand, A

    2000-11-01

    The specific impact of ischaemia on the myocardial kinetics of thallium-201 and technetium-99m 2-methoxy-2-isobutylisonitrile (MIBI) remains a matter of debate. Using an isolated heart model perfused with red blood cell-enhanced perfusate, we compared the overall first-pass kinetics of 201Tl and MIBI under haemodynamically stable conditions of low-flow ischaemia (> 50% reduction in normal coronary flow and a > or = 20 mmHg fall in systolic contraction pressure, n = 10) and normoxia (n = 11). For both 201Tl and MIBI, we found that under ischaemic conditions (as compared with normoxia) there was a higher initial net extraction fraction (201Tl: 0.78 +/- 0.03 vs 0.72 +/- 0.06, P = 0.006; MIBI: 0.49 +/- 0.10 vs 0.39 +/- 0.11, P = 0.03), a lower clearance rate in the 30 min following extraction (% decrease in cardiac uptake: 201Tl: 30 +/- 12 vs 47 +/- 14, P = 0.02; MIBI: 5 +/- 5 vs 13 +/- 11, P = 0.02) and a higher retention fraction at 30 min (20lTl: 0.54 +/- 0.10 vs 0.39 +/- 0.12, P = 0.004; MIBI: 0.46 +/- 0.08 vs 0.33 +/- 0.12, P = 0.01). Multivariate analyses, however, revealed that all myocardial kinetic parameters of both tracers were dependent only on coronary flow rates, without any additional significant impact of the presence of ischaemia or states of contractility or oxidative metabolism. We conclude that the myocardial fractional retention of both 201Tl and MIBI is strongly correlated with the decrease in coronary flow during ischaemia. This inverse relationship with coronary flow derives from both the flow-dependent increase in the initial myocardial extraction and the decrease in the subsequent myocardial washout of the tracers.

  10. Technetium-99m nitrido dithiocarbamate complex with lateral ester groups: A potential agent for cerebral perfusion. Direct labeling and kinetic results in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Bottlaender, M.; Bourguignon, M.; Maziere, M.

    1994-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that technetium-99m-nitrido (TcN) complexes of ester derivatives of dithiocarbamate cross the brain-blood barrier and one term of this class, namely the complex formed with sarcosine methyl ester dithiocarbamate (TcN-PR13) is retained in the brain of Cynomolgus monkeys. However these compounds were obtained through an in situ esterification of preformed TcN dicarboxylic derivative. We have been able to synthesize one term of this class of ligands, the sarcosine methylester dithiocarbamate, by reacting sarcosine with thionyl chloride in methanol to give the sarcosine methyl ester, which was reacted with carbon disulfide and NaOH in methanol to give the sodium salt of the dithiocarbamate derivative which was isolated as an oil. The corresponding TcN complex was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 96% by a kit method. The complex was injected in baboons and its radioactive distribution compared to that obtained with Tc-HMPAO. Blood and plasma kinetics were calculated from arterial sampling whereas tissue kinetics (brain, lungs) were obtained by ROI`s analysis. The values of the half-life in the blood were comparable for the two tracers, although the absolute activity was about 20% lower for TcN-PR13. The brain uptake of TcN-PR13 was 10% lower than that observed for Tc-HMPAO, and remained stable during 2 hours. TcN-PR13 displayed lower lung uptake and faster clearance from this organ than Tc-HMPAO. Brain/Lung ratios were 1.11 and 1.65 at 30 and 60 min for TcN-PR13 compared to 0.93 and 0.99 at the same time for Tc-HMPAO.

  11. In vivo technetium-99m S12 antibody imaging of platelet alpha-granules in rabbit endothelial neointimal proliferation after angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.D.; Boulet, A.J.; Tio, F.O.; Garcia, O.J.; Guy, D.M.; McEver, R.P.; Palmaz, J.C.; Pak, K.Y.; Neblock, D.S.; Berger, H.J. )

    1991-01-01

    To examine the specificity of technetium-99m monoclonal antibody (S12) imaging for identifying activated platelets at interventional injury sites in atherosclerotic rabbit arteries, subgroups of unheparinized rabbits (n = 39) underwent serial percutaneous transluminal aortic angioplasty (PTA) procedures (with or without intravascular stent placement) followed by in vivo and then ex vivo gamma camera imaging, scanning, and immunoelectron microscopy to determine the intravascular loci of S12 Fab' antibody binding. Despite angiographic vessel patency, image-derived ratios of in vivo S12 binding in injured versus uninjured vascular segments were significantly increased (p less than 0.05) after one PTA (1.3 +/- 0.17, n = 7), PTA twice at 6-week intervals (1.4 +/- 0.22, n = 7), and PTA plus stent placement (1.6 +/- 0.28, n = 7) compared with control experiments (1.1 +/- 0.13, n = 7). Ex vivo imaging of blood-free excised aortas confirmed S12 localization at PTA (2 +/- 0.4, n = 3) and PTA plus stent placement (5 +/- 3.8, n = 7) sites (both p less than 0.05 versus controls). S12 antibody uptake decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) at 1 week after PTA plus stent placement in vivo (1.1 +/- 0.10, n = 4) and ex vivo (1.6 +/- 0.7, n = 3). Electron microscopic studies confirmed dense platelet, fibrin, and red blood cell deposition in regions of acute injury, with endothelial neointimal proliferation at 1 week after PTA. Immunoelectron microscopic studies confirmed specific in vivo S12 binding (22:1 versus nonrelevant IgG) at sites of alpha-granule GMP-140 expression in activated platelets. Therefore, S12 studies may be useful to localize sites of platelet-derived mitogen release at arterial PTA injury sites.

  12. Usefulness of technetium-99m-MIBI and thallium-201 in tomographic imaging combined with high-dose dipyridamole and handgrip exercise for detecting coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kettunen, R.; Huikuri, H.V.; Heikkilae, J.T.; Takkunen, J.T. )

    1991-09-01

    Forty-two patients with known stable coronary artery disease, referred for coronary angiography, were examined with technetium-99m-hexakis-2-methoxy-2-methylpropyl-isonitrile (MIBI) tomography combined with a high-dose dipyridamole infusion (0.7 mg/kg) and handgrip stress. MIBI tomography was unable to show coronary artery disease only in 2 patients, thus yielding a sensitivity figure of 95%. MIBI tomography correctly identified 27 (82%) of 33 stenotic lesions (greater than or equal to 50% diameter stenosis) of the left anterior descending artery, 17 (61%) of 28 of those of the left circumflex artery, and 28 (90%) of 31 of those of the right coronary artery. The overall vessel sensitivity was 78%. The computed lumen diameter stenoses were more advanced in cases detected than in those not detected with MIBI tomography: 87 {plus minus} 14 vs 76 {plus minus} 14% (p less than 0.01). The 50 to 69% stenoses did not show any tendency to produce less positive findings than those with greater than or equal to 70% stenoses. In the subgroup of 21 patients who also presented for thallium scintigraphy, the overall diseased vessel identification rate was 76% for thallium tomography and 83% for MIBI tomography (p = not significant). Minor noncardiac side effects related to the dipyridamole-handgrip test occurred only in 5% of 63 study sessions. A high-dose dipyridamole combined with isometric exercise is a safe stress method, and when used during scintigraphy, MIBI tomography is at least as efficient a tool as thallium tomography in detecting diseased vessel territories in patients in coronary artery disease.

  13. Myocardial infarction determined by technetium-99m pyrophosphate single-photon tomography complicating elective coronary artery bypass grafting for angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.J.; Gladstone, P.J.; Tremblay, P.C.; Feindel, C.M.; Salter, D.R.; Lipton, I.H.; Ogilvie, R.R.; David, T.E.

    1989-06-15

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicating coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has previously been based on concordance of electrocardiographic, enzymatic and scintigraphic criteria. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PPi) single-photon emission computed tomography now enables detection of AMI with high sensitivity and specificity. Using this technique, perioperative AMI was detected in 12 of 58 patients (21%) undergoing successful elective CABG for stable angina pectoris. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the predictive value of preoperative (New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction and use of beta blockers) and intraoperative (number of grafts constructed, use of internal mammary anastomoses, use of sequential saphenous vein grafts, smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber and aortic cross-clamp time) variables. Preoperative New York Association class (p = 0.04) and smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber (p = 0.03) were significant multivariate predictors of perioperative AMI. Only 1 perioperative patient with AMI (and 1 pyrophosphate-negative patient) developed new Q waves. Serum creatine kinase-MB was higher in patients with AMI by repeated measures analysis of variance (p = 0.0003). Five AMIs occurred in myocardial segments revascularized using sequential saphenous vein grafts, and 7 in segments perfused by significantly stenosed epicardial vessels with distal lumen diameter and perfusion territory considered too small to warrant CABG. At 6-month follow-up, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 0.61 to 0.65 in Tc-PPI-negative patients (p = 0.01), but not in perioperative patients with AMI.

  14. Poor accumulation of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in sarcoidosis and other diffuse infiltrative lung diseases as compared with gallium-67 citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorne, M.; Sahlstroem, K.A.; Alanko, K.

    1988-02-01

    Forty-two patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases were imaged with Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m glucoheptonate (GH). Twenty patients had sarcoidosis, six had fibrosis, six had tuberculosis, nine had lung infiltration, and one had pleural empyema. The main difference between Ga-67 and Tc-99m GH was the much greater uptake of Ga-67 in sarcoidosis than that of Tc-99m GH. Fifteen patients with sarcoidosis had positive Ga-67 scans but only six had positive Tc-99m GH scans. The results in other diffuse infiltrative lung diseases were almost equal with Ga-67 and Tc-99m GH. Although Tc-99m GH is less expensive and simpler to use, it is not an adequate substitute for Ga-67 in diffuse infiltrative lung diseases.

  15. Unusual mediastinal lymph node uptake and peritoneopleural fistula demonstrated on Technetium-99m macro-aggregated human serum albumin (Tc-99m MAA) peritoneal scintigraphy in a patient with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tan, C J; Thang, S P; Lam, W W

    2016-04-01

    Peritoneal radionuclide scan is an established imaging modality for evaluating peritoneopleural communications. In this case report, unusual mediastinal lymph node radiotracer uptake is seen in a patient with portal hypertension on peritoneal scintigraphy. This was suspected to be due to marked lymphatic enlargement from longstanding portal hypertension since childhood, permitting passage of the large Tc-99m MAA particle. The nodes were morphologically benign on CT. Mediastinal lymph node uptake on peritoneal scintigraphy is rare but should not raise undue clinical concern, particularly in a patient with chronic portal hypertension. Anatomic correlation with SPECT-CT can provide reassurance. PMID:27326945

  16. Radiotracers for low density lipoprotein biodistribution studies in vivo: technetium-99m low density lipoprotein versus radioiodinated low density lipoprotein preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Paidi, M.; Badimon, J.J.; Le, N.A.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.; Ginsberg, H.N.

    1988-07-01

    In an attempt to characterize the in vivo behavior of (99mTc) low density lipoprotein (LDL), biodistribution studies were performed in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits. In normal rabbits, 24 hr after the injection of (99mTc)LDL, 99mTc activity accumulated mainly in adrenal glands, spleen, liver, and kidney. In HC rabbits, however, there was a marked reduction of 99mTc activity in these organs. In both normal and HC rabbits, less than 17% of 99mTc activity appeared in the 24-hr urine following injection of (99mTc)LDL, suggesting that in vivo, (99mTc)LDL is trapped and accumulated within the tissues. Direct comparison of (99mTc)LDL, 125I-native-LDL and (131I)tyramine cellobiose-LDL (the previously validated trapped radioligand) in normal rabbits, demonstrated that the biodistribution of (99mTc)LDL was similar to that of (131I)tyramine cellobiose-LDL. The adrenal glands, liver, and spleen accumulated significantly greater quantities of 99mTc and 131I activity per gram of tissue than 125I (from native-LDL). In addition, imaging studies in monkeys, showed that the hepatic uptake and retention of (99mTc) LDL was similar to that of (131I)tyramine cellobiose LDL. In contrast, radioiodine from native-LDL was deiodinated in liver with subsequent excretion into the intestine. These results suggest that (99mTc)LDL acts as a trapped ligand in vivo and should therefore, be a good tracer for noninvasive quantitative biodistribution studies of LDL.

  17. Radiotracers for low density lipoprotein biodistribution studies in vivo: technetium-99m low density lipoprotein versus radioiodinated low density lipoprotein preparations.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, S; Paidi, M; Badimon, J J; Le, N A; Goldsmith, S J; Fuster, V; Ginsberg, H N

    1988-07-01

    In an attempt to characterize the in vivo behavior of [99mTc] low density lipoprotein (LDL), biodistribution studies were performed in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits. In normal rabbits, 24 hr after the injection of [99mTc]LDL, 99mTc activity accumulated mainly in adrenal glands, spleen, liver, and kidney. In HC rabbits, however, there was a marked reduction of 99mTc activity in these organs. In both normal and HC rabbits, less than 17% of 99mTc activity appeared in the 24-hr urine following injection of [99mTc]LDL, suggesting that in vivo, [99mTc]LDL is trapped and accumulated within the tissues. Direct comparison of [99mTc]LDL, 125I-native-LDL and [131I]tyramine cellobiose-LDL (the previously validated trapped radioligand) in normal rabbits, demonstrated that the biodistribution of [99mTc]LDL was similar to that of [131I]tyramine cellobiose-LDL. The adrenal glands, liver, and spleen accumulated significantly greater quantities of 99mTc and 131I activity per gram of tissue than 125I (from native-LDL). In addition, imaging studies in monkeys, showed that the hepatic uptake and retention of [99mTc] LDL was similar to that of [131I]tyramine cellobiose LDL. In contrast, radioiodine from native-LDL was deiodinated in liver with subsequent excretion into the intestine. These results suggest that [99mTc]LDL acts as a trapped ligand in vivo and should therefore, be a good tracer for noninvasive quantitative biodistribution studies of LDL.

  18. Dipyridamole technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial tomography in patients evaluated for elective vascular surgery: prognostic value for perioperative and late cardiac events.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, H G; Younis, L T; Wittry, M D; Amato, M; Miller, D D

    1996-05-01

    Dipyridamole thallium-201 myocardial imaging can provide information regarding risk of perioperative cardiac events in patients being considered for vascular surgery. The value for this purpose of myocardial imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi (MIBI), a radiotracer with biokinetic and imaging properties different from thallium-201, has not been established. To this end the prognostic value of dipyridamole MIBI tomography for perioperative and late cardiac events was evaluated in 229 consecutive patients being considered for elective vascular surgery. Vascular surgery was done < or = 3 months after testing in 197 of these patients. Perioperative cardiac events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or ischemic pulmonary edema) occurred in 9 (5%) patients. The rate of such events was 3% in patients with normal MIBI results, 5% in those with abnormal results, and 6% in patients with a reversible MIBI defect (both p = NS). When patients with abnormal MIBI results who had preoperative cardiac interventions (coronary revascularization or an increase in antiischemic medical therapy) were compared with with those who did not, no significant differences in the occurrence of perioperative cardiac events were found between these two groups either. A group of 172 medically treated patients who survived vascular surgery and did not have a nonfatal perioperative cardiac event was then monitored (mean 21 +/- 14 months) for the occurrence of a serious late cardiac event (nonfatal myocardial infarction or cardiac death). Event-free survival (Mantel-Cox) was significantly less in patients with abnormal studies compared with those with normal scan results. Late cardiac events occurred in 26 (15%) patients, with those having an abnormal MIBI result showing a significantly greater event rate than those with normal results (26% vs 4%, p < 0.0001). The rate of late cardiac events was 33% in patients with a reversible MIBI defect (p < 0.001) and 23% in those

  19. Comparison of technetium 99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile and thallium 201 for evaluation of coronary artery disease by planar and tomographic methods.

    PubMed

    Kiat, H; Maddahi, J; Roy, L T; Van Train, K; Friedman, J; Resser, K; Berman, D S

    1989-01-01

    To compare stress/rest technetium 99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (Tc-MIBI) with stress redistribution thallium 201(T1-201) myocardial perfusion imaging, 36 patients were studied by single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and planar methods. For SPECT, overall sensitivities for identification of patients with coronary artery disease were 93% (14/15) by Tc-MIBI and 80% (12/15) by TI-201 (p = NS). For planar methods, overall sensitivities were 73% (11/15) by both TI-201 and Tc-MIBI. Overall specificity was 75% (3/4 patients with normal coronary arteries) for both tracers with SPECT and Tc-MIBI by planar imaging and was 50% for planar TI-201 (p = NS). The normalcy rates for overall identification of coronary artery disease were determined in 17 patients with a low likelihood of disease. For SPECT, normalcy rates were 100% by Tc-MIBI and 77% by TI-201 (p = NS). For planar, they were 94% by Tc-MIBI and 88% by TI-201 (p = NS). Vessel sensitivities in the 35 stenosed coronary arteries (greater than or equal to 50% stenosis) for SPECT were 87% by Tc-MIBI and 77% by TI-201 (p = NS). For planar, the vessel sensitivities were 60% by Tc-MIBI and 54% by TI-201 (p = NS). For both tracers, the SPECT vessel sensitivities were significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than planar vessel sensitivities. The vessel specificities in 22 coronary vessels with less than 50% stenosis were 86% by SPECT Tc-MIBI and TI-201, 80% by planar Tc-MIBI and 73% by planar TI-201 (p = NS, SPECT vs planar, Tc-MIBI vs TI-201). Regarding myocardial segmental agreement, for the presence of stress defects the agreement was 91% for the 720 SPECT segments and 95% for the 540 planar segments. For severity of stress defects based on semiquantitative visual scoring, the exact agreement was 87% for SPECT and 80% for planar. For the pattern of reversibility in myocardial segments with stress defects, the agreement was 97% for SPECT and 91% for planar. This study demonstrated that Tc-MIBI and TI-201

  20. Comparison of early myocardial technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake to early peaking of creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB as indicators of early reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, M.; Yuzuki, Y.; Arai, H.; Shimizu, K.; Morikawa, M.; Shimono, Y.

    1987-10-01

    The value of technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scintigraphy as an indicator of reperfusion 2.8 to 8 hours after the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction was compared with the value of early peak creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB release within 16 hours after the onset of symptoms. In 29 patients who received thrombolytic therapy, recanalization was seen (group 1) and in 7 it was not (group 2). In 23 patients (79%) in group 1 scintigraphic findings were positive and in all 7 in group 2 they were negative. In 15 patients (52%) in group 1 and 1 patient (14%) in group 2, CK reached its peak level within 16 hours. In 20 patients (69%) in group 1 and 3 (43%) in group 2 the CK-MB level reached a peak within 16 hours. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy of positive results of early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy in predicting the reperfusion were 79%, 100% and 83%. These values are significantly higher than or similar to those of early peaking of CK and CK-MB release. In contrast to measurements of enzyme release, reperfusion data for Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy are available immediately after thrombolytic therapy. Therefore, early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy (3 to 8 hours after onset of symptoms) is valuable as a noninvasive technique for early diagnosis of reperfusion.

  1. Formulation and evaluation of a single vial lyophilized preparation of technetium-99m labeled ethylene dicysteine as a renal scintigraphic agent.

    PubMed

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Afshan, Anjum; Saeed, Shabana; Khalid, Mujahid Ali; Yousuf, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    (99m)Tc labeled N-N-ethylene-L, L-dicysteine (EC) was introduced in form of multiple-step kit as an alternate renal imaging radiopharmaceutical for commonly used (99m)Tc-MAG3. We developed a single component lyophilized kit of EC ready to be labeled with (99m)Tc. We present the optimization of the components of our formulation, its evaluation in animal models, normal human volunteers and patients of various renal diseases, in comparison with (99m)Tc-MAG3. Efficient labeling of EC was achieved with our preparation at pH 7 to 12. The formulation at pH 8 was used further for bio distribution studies in organs of sacrificed Sprague Dawley rats and a live rhesus monkey using scintigraphy. After satisfactory bio-distribution results, the kit was then evaluated in normal human volunteers through renography. But the renogram parameters of (99m)Tc-EC (pH 8) were statistically inferior to (99m)Tc-MAG3. Surrogate kit at pH 10 was therefore developed and re-evaluated in rats for organ bio distribution. After favorable results the kit was then assessed further in normal volunteers and a group of patients with various renal disorders via scintigraphy. The EC kit developed at pH 10 gave images better than and scintigraphic parameters comparable to (99m)Tc-MAG3. It was concluded that single vial kit we formulated easy to prepare than three-vial kit and can be used as an alternate to (99m)Tc-MAG3.

  2. Linker modification reduced the renal uptake of technetium-99m-labeled Arg-Ala-Asp-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianquan; Flook, Adam M; Feng, Changjian; Miao, Yubin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the biodistribution of (99m)Tc-RAD-Arg-(Arg(11))CCMSH in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice to determine whether the replacement of the Lys linker with an Arg linker could decrease the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-RAD-Arg-(Arg(11))CCMSH. (99m)Tc-RAD-Arg-(Arg(11))CCMSH exhibited rapid and high tumor uptake (17.98±4.96% ID/g at 2h post-injection) in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. As compared to (99m)Tc-RAD-Lys-(Arg(11))CCMSH, the replacement of the Lys linker with an Arg linker dramatically decreased the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-RAD-Arg-(Arg(11))CCMSH by 68%, 62%, 73% and 64% at 0.5, 2, 4 and 24h post-injection, respectively. Flank B16/F1 melanoma lesions were clearly imaged at 2h post-injection using (99m)Tc-RAD-Arg-(Arg(11))CCMSH as an imaging probe.

  3. Complete improvement in a patient with multiple irreversible defects of the left ventricle on 99m technetium-sestamibi SPECT after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Javadi, H; Porpiranfar, M A; Semnani, S; Jallalat, S; Yavari, P; Mogharrabi, M; Hooman, A; Amini, A; Barekat, M; Iranpour, D; Assadi, M; Asli, I N

    2012-10-01

    99mTc-sestamibi has been investigated as a potential viability marker; initial studies have shown good concordance between 201Tl and 99mTc-sestamibi activities in both viable and nonviable myocardium. However, assessment of myocardial viability by 99mTc-sestamibi remains controversial for tissue recovery after revascularization. Here, we present a patient with several regions of severely diminished and irreversible (defect persisting in both early and delay images of each set scanning) defects on initial scan which were dissolved completely on the follow up scan after an intervention. In a 75 year-old Asian woman with acute myocardial infarction who received thrombolytic therapy and subjected to percutaneous coronary angiography (PCI) on day 28 after acute myocardial infarction(MI), resting 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT was applied on day 4 (initial scan) and 138 (follow up scan) after acute MI at 30 and 180 min after injection of tracer (740 MBq); Two-dimensional echocardiography was carried out at the same time. On the initial image set, there was irreversible defects in the apex, anteroapical, inferoapical, anteroseptal, septal and also anterior walls, while the follow up image was normal in all regions.The angiography intervention showed just significant stenosis on left anterior descending (LAD) vessel (95%). This may highlight the failure of 99mTc-sestamibi as a marker of myocardial viability and also mandate further validating of the procedure with follow up scan or other modalities for myocardial viability investigation.

  4. Isolation, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of Syn and Anti Diastereomers of [99mTc]Technetium Depreotide: a Somatostatin Receptor Binding Tumor Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Cyr, John E.; Pearson, Daniel A.; Nelson, Carol A.; Lyons, Barbara A.; Zheng, Yongyong; Bartis, Judit; He, Jiafang; Cantorias, Melchor V.; Howell, Robertha C.; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2007-01-01

    The early and later eluting [99mTcO]depreotide products on RP-HPLC were confirmed to be the anti and syn diastereomers, respectively, based on proton NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy. NMR provided evidence of a folded, conformationally constrained structure for the syn diastereomer. The syn diastereomer is predominant (anti/syn ~ 10:90) in the [99mTcO]depreotide preparation and shows a slightly higher affinity (IC50 = 0.15 nM) for the somatostatin receptor than the anti diastereomer (IC50 = 0.89 nM). Both diastereomers showed higher binding affinities than the free peptide (IC50 = 7.4 nM). Biodistribution studies in AR42J tumor xenograft nude mice also showed higher tumor uptake for syn [99mTcO]depreotide (6.58% ID/g) than for the anti [99mTcO]depreotide (3.38% ID/g). Despite the differences in biological efficacy, the favorable binding affinity, tumor uptake, and tumor-to-background ratio results for both diastereomeric species predict that both are effective for imaging somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in vivo. PMID:17691760

  5. Mixed tridentate π -donor and monodentate π -acceptor ligands as chelating systems for rhenium-188 and technetium-99m nitrido radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Alessandra; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micol; Pasqualini, Roberto; Guerrini, Remo; Duatti, Adriano

    2013-09-01

    A new molecular metallic fragment for labeling biologically active molecules with 99mTc and 188Re is described. This system is composed of a combination of tridentate π-donor and monodentate π-acceptor ligands bound to a [M Ξ N]2+ group (M = (99m)Tc, 188Re) in a pseudo square-pyramidal geometry. A simple structural model of the new metallic fragment was obtained by reacting the ligand 2, 2'-iminodiethanethiol [H2NS2 = NH(CH2CH2SH)2] and monodentate tertiary phosphines with the [M Ξ N]2+ group (M = (99m)Tc, (188)Re). In the resulting complexes (dubbed3+1complexes), the tridentate ligand binds the [M Ξ N]2+ core through the two deprotonated, negatively charged, thiol sulfur atoms and the neutral, protonated, amine nitrogen atom. The residual fourth position of the five-coordinated arrangement is occupied by a phosphine ligand. The chemical identity of these model (99m)Tc and (188)Re compounds was established by comparison with the chromatographic properties of the corresponding complexes obtained at the macroscopic level with the long-lived (99)Tc and natural Re isotopes. The investigation was further extended to comprise a series of ligands formed by simple combinations of two basic amino acids or pseudo-amino acids to yield potential tridentate chelating systems having [S, N, S] and [N, N, S] as sets of π-donor atoms. Labeling yields and in vitro stability were investigated using different ancillary ligands. Results showed that SNS-type ligands afforded the highest labeling yields and the most robust 3+1 nitrido complexes with both (99m)Tc and (188)Re. Thus, the new chelating system can be conveniently employed for labeling peptides and other biomolecules with the [M Ξ N]2+ group.

  6. Mixed tridentate π -donor and monodentate π -acceptor ligands as chelating systems for rhenium-188 and technetium-99m nitrido radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Alessandra; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micol; Pasqualini, Roberto; Guerrini, Remo; Duatti, Adriano

    2013-09-01

    A new molecular metallic fragment for labeling biologically active molecules with 99mTc and 188Re is described. This system is composed of a combination of tridentate π-donor and monodentate π-acceptor ligands bound to a [M Ξ N]2+ group (M = (99m)Tc, 188Re) in a pseudo square-pyramidal geometry. A simple structural model of the new metallic fragment was obtained by reacting the ligand 2, 2'-iminodiethanethiol [H2NS2 = NH(CH2CH2SH)2] and monodentate tertiary phosphines with the [M Ξ N]2+ group (M = (99m)Tc, (188)Re). In the resulting complexes (dubbed3+1complexes), the tridentate ligand binds the [M Ξ N]2+ core through the two deprotonated, negatively charged, thiol sulfur atoms and the neutral, protonated, amine nitrogen atom. The residual fourth position of the five-coordinated arrangement is occupied by a phosphine ligand. The chemical identity of these model (99m)Tc and (188)Re compounds was established by comparison with the chromatographic properties of the corresponding complexes obtained at the macroscopic level with the long-lived (99)Tc and natural Re isotopes. The investigation was further extended to comprise a series of ligands formed by simple combinations of two basic amino acids or pseudo-amino acids to yield potential tridentate chelating systems having [S, N, S] and [N, N, S] as sets of π-donor atoms. Labeling yields and in vitro stability were investigated using different ancillary ligands. Results showed that SNS-type ligands afforded the highest labeling yields and the most robust 3+1 nitrido complexes with both (99m)Tc and (188)Re. Thus, the new chelating system can be conveniently employed for labeling peptides and other biomolecules with the [M Ξ N]2+ group. PMID:24106999

  7. Single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging of the early time course of therapy-induced cell death using technetium 99m tricarbonyl His-annexin A5 in a colorectal cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Vangestel, Christel; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Mees, Gilles; Mertens, Koen; Staelens, Steven; Reutelingsperger, Chris; Pauwels, Patrick; Van Damme, Nancy; Peeters, Marc

    2012-04-01

    As apoptosis occurs over an interval of time after administration of apoptosis-inducing therapy in tumors, the changes in technetium 99m ((99m)Tc)-tricarbonyl (CO)₃ His-annexin A5 (His-ann A5) accumulation over time were examined. Colo205-bearing mice were divided into six treatment groups: (1) control, (2) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 250 mg/kg), (3) irinotecan (100 mg/kg), (4) oxaliplatin (30 mg/kg), (5) bevacizumab (5 mg/kg), and (6) panitumumab (6 mg/kg). (99m)Tc-(CO)₃ His-ann A5 was injected 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours posttreatment, and micro-single-photon emission computed tomography was performed. Immunostaining of caspase-3 (apoptosis), survivin (antiapoptosis), and LC3-II (autophagy marker) was also performed. Different dynamics of (99m)Tc-(CO)₃ His-ann A5 uptake were observed in this colorectal cancer xenograft model, in response to a single dose of three different chemotherapeutics (5-FU, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin). Bevacizumab-treated mice showed no increased uptake of the radiotracer, and a peak of (99m)Tc-(CO)₃ His-ann A5 uptake in panitumumab-treated mice was observed 24 hours posttreatment, as confirmed by caspase-3 immunostaining. For irinotecan-, oxaliplatin-, and bevacizumab-treated tumors, a significant correlation was established between the radiotracer uptake and caspase-3 immunostaining (r  =  .8, p < .05; r  =  .9, p < .001; r  =  .9, p < .001, respectively). For 5-FU- and panitumumab-treated mice, the correlation coefficients were r  =  .7 (p  =  .18) and r  =  .7 (p  =  .19), respectively. Optimal timing of annexin A5 imaging after the start of different treatments in the Colo205 model was determined.

  8. [99m-Technetium-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) for the demonstration of the kidney changes following extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. A prospective study of 117 patients].

    PubMed

    Schaub, T; Witsch, U; el-Damanhoury, H; Nägele-Wöhrle, B; Hahn, K

    1992-10-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become the treatment of choice for urinary calculi. 117 patients were studied prospectively with 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) before and after ESWL. 79 (66%) of the 119 kidneys treated had abnormal findings. Of these 63/119 (53%) had abnormal scans. 41 (65%) had focal lesions with a delayed intrarenal transport. The remaining 22 had a diffuse delay of intrarenal transport. A loss of relative renal function of 3% and more compared to the pretreatment values was observed in 50/119 (42%) patients. 99mTc MAG3 should be done routinely together with radiologic tests (CT or MRI) before and after ESWL to select the patients at risk for post ESWL hypertension.

  9. Comparison of 99m technetium hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime labelled leucocyte with 111-indium tropolonate labelled granulocyte scanning and ultrasound in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, M J; Joseph, A E; French, A; Saverymuttu, S H; Maxwell, J D

    1995-01-01

    Fifty patients with suspected intra-abdominal abscess were investigated prospectively with ultrasound and with 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime (HMPAO) isotope labelled mixed leucocytes, using 111-In tropolonate granulocyte scanning as the reference standard. Twenty five patients had inflammatory bowel disease (three were postoperative): 21 of these had Crohn's disease and four had ulcerative colitis. The remainder comprised nine with postoperative fever and 16 with fever and abdominal pain. An abscess was diagnosed when focal activity on serial 111-In tropolonate and 99m-Tc-HMPOA images at one, three, and 24 hours resulted in activity at least equal to liver activity at 24 hours. Thirteen abscesses were diagnosed using each type of white cell scanning, resulting in 100% sensitivity for 99m-Tc-HMPAO compared with 111-In tropolonate. Bowel inflammation was easily distinguished from abscess on serial images. Eight of these 13 abscesses were detected by ultrasound. Altogether 17 abscesses were found. Ultrasound detected 12, including four liver abscesses which were not purulent and had not been detected by white cell scanning. Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 71% (12 of 17) and a specificity of 87% (33 of 38) using all confirmed abscesses as the reference standard. White cell scanning showed a sensitivity of 76% (13 of 17: as a result of the four non-purulent liver abscesses) and a specificity of 100%. 99m-Tc-HMPAO scanning is as accurate as 111-In tropolonate scanning, and has several advantages including simplicity, availability, superior image quality, and reduced radiation dose. Both methods are more sensitive and specific than ultrasound for intra-abdominal abscess detection but ultrasound is advisable if a neutrophil infiltrate is not suspected. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7489945

  10. Evaluation of cerebral collateral circulation by technetium-99m HM-PAO brain SPECT during Matas test: report of three cases

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, H.; Higashi, S.; Asli, I.N.; Eftekhari, M.; Esmaili, J.; Seki, H.; Tsuji, S.; Oba, H.; Imai, K.; Terada, H.

    1988-10-01

    Three cases with cerebral ischemic symptoms and an intracranial aneurysm are presented. Using (/sup 99m/Tc)hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) single photon emission computed tomography imaging before and during the Matas test, a quantitative measurement method was developed for evaluating brain collateral circulation. The evaluation correlated well with findings of contrast carotid angiography. This noninvasive method seems to be useful for selection of patients for appropriate surgical treatment.

  11. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of colorectal carcinoma using technetium-99m-labeled, totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59H21-2.

    PubMed

    Gulec, S A; Serafini, A N; Moffat, F L; Vargas-Cuba, R D; Sfakianakis, G N; Franceschi, D; Crichton, V Z; Subramanian, R; Klein, J L; De Jager, R L

    1995-12-01

    Radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) using human monoclonal antibodies offers the important clinical advantage of repeated imaging over murine monoclonal antibodies by eliminating the cross-species antibody response. This article reports a Phase I-II clinical trial with Tc-99m-labeled, totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59H21-2 in patients with colorectal carcinoma. The study population consisted of 34 patients with colorectal cancer (20 men and 14 women; age range, 44-81 years). Patients were administered 5-10 mg antibody labeled with 21-41 mCi Tc-99m by the i.v. route and imaged at 3-10 and 16-24 h after infusion using planar and single-photon emission computed tomographic (CT) techniques. Pathological confirmation was obtained in 25 patients who underwent surgery. Human antihuman antibody (HAHA) titers were checked prior to and 1 and 3 months after the infusion. RIS with Tc-99m-labeled 88BV59H21-2 revealed a better detection rate in the abdomen-pelvis region compared with axial CT. The combined use of both modalities increased the sensitivity in both the liver and abdomen-pelvis regions. Ten patients developed mild adverse reactions (chills and fever). No HAHA response was detected in this series. Tc-99m-labeled human monoclonal antibody 88BV59H21-2 RIS shows promise as a useful diagnostic modality in patients with colorectal cancer. RIS alone or in combination with CT is more sensitive than CT in detecting tumor within the abdomen and pelvis. Repeated RIS studies may be possible, due to the lack of a HAHA response.

  12. Comparative properties of a technetium-99m-labeled single-stranded natural DNA and a phosphorothioate derivative in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Hnatowich, D J; Mardirossian, G; Fogarasi, M; Sano, T; Smith, C L; Cantor, C R; Rusckowski, M; Winnard, P

    1996-01-01

    Oligonucleotides, particularly single stranded, may ultimately be of considerable use as radiopharmaceuticals. We have compared a synthetic 22-base single-stranded phosphodiester DNA with its phosphorothioate analog after both were radiolabeled with 99mTc via the hydrazino nicotinamide chelator. Whole body clearance of the label in mice was much slower when introduced on the phosphorothioate (30% vs. 75% clearance at 6 hr) because of immediate and persistent accumulation in liver (47% vs. 2% injected dose/g at 4 hr). The label in both cases was present in urine primarily on low molecular weight catabolites. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of 37 degrees C serum incubates showed serum protein binding of 99mTc in both cases (about 100% bound at 24 hr) but to different proteins. Different behavior with respect to protein binding was also observed in the analysis of liver and kidney homogenates: the phosphodiester label was almost quantitatively converted to lower molecular weight catabolites after only 15 min, whereas the phosphorothioate label was primarily on proteins. The rapid digestion of the phosphodiester by nucleases was not observed, probably because protein binding of the labeled oligonucleotides stabilized against degradation. Thus the phosphodiester DNA may be the preferred 99mTc-labeled oligonucleotide in certain circumstances to avoid the high and persistent liver uptake observed with the phosphorothioate DNA. PMID:8558450

  13. Anti-carcinoembryonic antigen immunoscintigraphy (technetium-99m-monoclonal antibody BW 431/26) and serum CEA levels in patients with suspected primary and recurrent colorectal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, P.; Lechner, P.; Arian-Schad, K.; Klimpfinger, M.; Cesnik, H.; Kammerhuber, F.; Eber, O. )

    1991-07-01

    This study comprises a total of 141 patients with suspected primary and recurrent colorectal carcinomas, in whom immunoscintigraphy with 99mTc-Mab BW 431/26 was performed. Whole-body scans were done 5.5 hr and SPECT imaging of the abdominal region was done at 6 and 24 hr postinjection of 1100 MBq 99mTc-labeled Mab (1 mg). In the course of primary tumor identification (n = 65), sensitivity of anti-CEA immunoscintigraphy was 95%, specificity 91%. In the diagnosis of early recurrences (n = 76), immunoscintigraphy was the method of choice to clarify the problem (sensitivity 94%; specificity 86%). Overall sensitivity of immunoscintigraphy in patients with suspected colorectal carcinomas and early recurrences was 95%, specificity 88%. Human anti-mouse antibodies were found in 29% (80% predominantly anti-isotypic, 20% predominantly anti-idiotypic). In contrast to anti-CEA immunoscintigraphy, the results of serum CEA levels were rather disappointing. Only 18 out of the 43 surgically verified primary colorectal carcinomas and 17 out of 32 patients with recurrences showed elevated serum CEA levels. In our clinical experience with this 99mTc-labeled anti-CEA antibody, immunoscintigraphy can play an important role in the identification of early colorectal recurrences and in postoperative colorectal cancer patients it should be performed in cases with unclear transmission computed tomography.

  14. Detection of occult infection following total joint arthroplasty using sequential technetium-99m HDP bone scintigraphy and indium-111 WBC imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.A.; Christie, M.J.; Sandler, M.P.; Parks, P.F. Jr.; Homra, L.; Kaye, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    Preoperative exclusion or confirmation of periprosthetic infection is essential for correct surgical management of patients with suspected infected joint prostheses. The sensitivity and specificity of (/sup 111/In)WBC imaging in the diagnosis of infected total joint prostheses was examined in 28 patients and compared with sequential (/sup 99m/Tc)HDP/(/sup 111/In)WBC scintigraphy and aspiration arthrography. The sensitivity of preoperative aspiration cultures was 12%, with a specificity of 81% and an accuracy of 58%. The sensitivity of (/sup 111/In)WBC imaging alone was 100%, with a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 65%. When correlated with the bone scintigraphy and read as sequential (/sup 99m/Tc)HDP/(/sup 111/In)WBC imaging, the sensitivity was 88%, specificity 95%, and accuracy 93%. This study demonstrates that (/sup 111/In)WBC imaging is an extremely sensitive imaging modality for the detection of occult infection of joint prostheses. It also demonstrates the necessity of correlating (/sup 111/In)WBC images with (/sup 99m/Tc)HDP skeletal scintigraphy in the detection of occult periprosthetic infection.

  15. Radiolabeled, nonspecific, polyclonal human immunoglobulin in the detection of focal inflammation by scintigraphy: Comparison with gallium-67 citrate and technetium-99m-labeled albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, R.H.; Fischman, A.J.; Needleman, M.; Wilkinson, R.; Callahan, R.J.; Khaw, B.A.; Hansen, W.P.; Kramer, P.B.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-03-01

    The accumulation of nonspecific polyclonal human immunoglobulin (IgG) radiolabeled with /sup 125/I or /sup 111/In was compared to that of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate and (/sup 99m/Tc)albumin in rats with deep thigh inflammation due to Escherichia coli infection. Serial scintigrams were acquired at 1, 3, 24, and in some cases, 48 hr after injection. As early as 3 hr postinjection, (/sup 111/In)IgG showed greater accumulation at the lesion than (/sup 99m/Tc)HSA (p less than 0.01). Both (/sup 125/I)IgG and (/sup 111/In)IgG showed greater accumulation than (/sup 67/Ga)citrate (p less than 0.01). At 24 hr, IgG image definition increased, while HSA image definition decreased, and the intensity of accumulation of both IgG preparations was greater than that of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate or (/sup 99m/Tc)HSA (p less than 0.01). At all imaging times, (/sup 67/Ga)citrate accumulation was surprisingly low. In inflammation produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, or turpentine, (/sup 111/In)IgG accumulation was similar to the results obtained with Escherichia coli. These studies suggest that focal sites of inflammation can be detected with radiolabeled nonspecific human polyclonal IgG.

  16. Myocardial distribution of indium-111-antimyosin Fab in acute inferior and right ventricular infarction: comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, T.; Sakakibara, T.; Noto, T.; Shoji, T.; Tsuda, T.; Kubota, M.; Hattori, A.; Iimura, O. )

    1991-05-01

    In a postmortem study of a 69-yr-old female patient who had suffered 2 yr previously a non-Q-wave anterior infarction and who had sustained just seven days earlier a left inferior and right ventricular infarction, the distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab was compared to the results of {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination. Indium-111-antimyosin Fab imaging could not be performed because of cardiogenic shock. However, postmortem gamma scintillation counting revealed increased activities of antimyosin Fab in the inferoapical and right ventricular infarcted regions in which {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate positive imagings were observed; in contrast, a histologically confirmed old subendocardial anterior infarction had no definite activity. Thus, the myocardial distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab corresponded well to the results of {sup 99}mTc scintigrams and histologic examinations in a human heart, suggesting that this technique could be useful in vivo for detecting several-day-old myocardial infarction of the right ventricle as well as the left ventricle. Tissue from the 2-yr-old infarction was not identified by this technique.

  17. Human polyclonal immunoglobulin labelled with technetium-99m via NHS-MAG3: a comparison of radiochemical behavior and biological efficacy with other labelling methods.

    PubMed

    Gano, L; Patrício, L; Marques, E; Cantinho, G; Pena, H; Martins, T; Hnatowich, D J

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiochemical behavior, biological distribution, and localization in infection sites in mice of a human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) labelled with 99mTc by a novel MAG3-labelling method. The resulting [99mTc]MAG3-HIG was compared with [99mTc]HIG preparations radiolabelled directly via 2-mercaptoethanol (2-Me) or stannous ion (Sn) reduction and indirectly via 2-iminothiolane (2-Im) conjugation. All preparations showed similar UV and radioactivity HPLC profile to that of native HIG except for 2-Im-HIG, which showed aggregates. The stabilities of the label to challenge with cysteine were similar for all the preparations. By nondenaturing SDS-PAGE, all preparations other than MAG3-HIG showed evidence of lower molecular weight fragments. The tissue distribution 4 and 24 h after intravenous administration of the four preparations were compared in mice previously administered with an isolate of Staphylococcus aureus in one thigh. The pharmacokinetics varied among the different preparations. When prepared via 2-Me, Sn, and 2-Im, both blood clearance and urinary excretion were faster than that of labelled MAG3-HIG. The absolute uptake in the infected thigh at 24 h was significantly higher for HIG labelled via MAG3 and 2-Me vs. the remaining methods. The infected thigh/normal thigh radioactivity ratios were similar at both time points for labelled HIG prepared via 2-Me, 2-Im, and NHS-MAG, methods but was significantly lower at 24 h for HIG prepared via Sn. The radioactive HPLC profiles of serum at 4 and 24 h were similar to that of the radiolabelled injectates. Based on these data we conclude that each radiolabelled HIG preparation studied showed increased localization in infectious foci although [99Tc]MAG3-HIG showed superior radiochemical and biological characteristics under the conditions of this investigation.

  18. Nearly total absence of pulmonary perfusion with corresponding technetium-99m MDP and gallium-67 uptake in a patient with mediastinal neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.; Moguilner, G.; Dharan, M.; Siplovitch, L.

    1985-08-01

    A case of unilateral nearly total hypoperfusion of the left lung in a 13-month-old girl is presented. The combination of the lung hypoperfusion and accumulation of the Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate in the same area suggested the preoperative diagnosis of mediastinal neuroblastoma. Explorative thoracotomy revealed the presence of a neuroblastoma compressing the left lung pedicle. The described scintigraphic appearance in the pediatric age group is suggested as typical of mediastinal neuroblastoma. This pathology should be included in the following gamuts in nuclear medicine: unilateral decrease or absent lung perfusion, unilateral diffuse chest uptake of Ga-67 citrate, and unilateral pulmonary uptake in bone scintigraphy.

  19. Estimation of 24-hour thyroid uptake of I-131 sodium iodide using a 5-minute uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.J.; Croft, B.Y.; Brookeman, V.A.; Teates, C.D. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors have developed a method to estimate the 24-hour sodium iodide thyroid uptake based on a 5-minute Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake using the equation: Estimated Iodide Uptake = 17.72*In(Pertechnetate Uptake) + 30.40. This estimation has a correlation coefficient of 0.90. It is based on a data pool of 44 patients who underwent I-131 and Tc-99m studies within 2 weeks of each other from 1978-1988, with established diagnoses as follows: 12 euthyroid, 6 hyperthyroid with multinodular goiters, 15 hyperthyroid with diffuse goiters, 4 with subacute thyroiditis, and 7 unknown. The population consisted of 30 women and 14 men with a mean age of 52.0 +/- 17.5 years; this sample was screened for use of thyroid hormone, propylthiouracil, and radiographic contrast. The authors believe this estimation method is of value whenever a 24-hour iodide uptake is desired, and where speed and minimizing radiation dose are factors. This method is strongly recommended for thyroid uptake evaluation before I-131 therapy.

  20. Computer-assisted superimposition of magnetic resonance and high-resolution technetium-99m-HMPAO and thallium-201 SPECT images of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Johnson, K.A.; Carvalho, P.A.; Schwartz, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Chen, G.T. )

    1991-08-01

    A method for registering three-dimensional CT, MR, and PET data sets that require no special patient immobilization or other precise positioning measures was adapted to high-resolution SPECT and MRI and was applied in 14 subjects (five normal volunteers, four patients with dementia (Alzheimer's disease), two patients with recurrent glioblastoma, and three patients with focal lesions (stroke, arachnoid cyst and head trauma)). T2-weighted axial magnetic resonance images and transaxial 99mTc-HMPAO and 201Tl images acquired with an annular gamma camera were merged using an objective registration (translation, rotation and rescaling) program. In the normal subjects and patients with dementia and focal lesions, focal areas of high uptake corresponded to gray matter structures. Focal lesions observed on MRI corresponded to perfusion defects on SPECT. In the patients who had undergone surgical resection of glioblastoma followed by interstitial brachytherapy, increased 201Tl corresponding to recurrent tumor could be localized from the superimposed images. The method was evaluated by measuring the residuals in all subjects and translational errors due to superimposition of deep structures in the 12 subjects with normal thalamic anatomy and 99mTc-HMPAO uptake. This method for superimposing magnetic resonance and high-resolution SPECT images of the brain is a useful technique for correlating regional function with brain anatomy.

  1. Preparation and biokinetic evaluation of various halogenated iminodiacetic acid-type compounds labeled with technetium-99m for hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the baboon (Papio ursinus) model.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, I C; Grobbelaar, C; van Wyk, A; Jacobs, L; Maree, M; Oliver, D

    1990-01-01

    In an evaluation of various 99mTc-labeled halogenated (F, Cl, Br, I) iminodiacetic acid (IDA) derivatives for hepatobiliary scintigraphy, it was found that, in the baboon model, none of these compounds performed as well as did disida. F-IDA was least effective, with the lowest biliary excretion and highest renal participation, but multihalogen substitution as in penta-F-IDA increased the biliary specificity and reduced urinary excretion to the extent that penta-F-IDA scored second to disida and even above I-IDA, with its high molecular weight. Surprising also was the relatively good performance of Cl-IDA compared to Br-IDA and I-IDA.

  2. Use of technetium-99m isonitrile (RP-30A) in assessing left ventricular perfusion and function at rest and during exercise in coronary artery disease, and comparison with coronary arteriography and exercise thallium-201 SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Iskandrian, A S; Heo, J; Kong, B; Lyons, E; Marsch, S

    1989-08-01

    This study compared the results of stress and rest single-photon emission computed tomography imaging of myocardial perfusion using technetium-99m isonitrile (RP-30A) with the results of stress and redistribution tomographic thallium imaging and the results of coronary arteriography in 39 patients, 11 without and 28 with coronary artery disease (CAD). Each patient underwent 2 exercise studies at identical workload, heart rate and double product. In a subset of 13 patients, concomitant evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function using first-pass radionuclide angiography with a multi-crystal camera also was performed with bolus injections of isonitrile. Isonitrile had similar sensitivity (82 vs 82%, difference not significant), a slightly--but not significantly--higher specificity (100 vs 82%) and similar predictive accuracy (87 vs 82%) to thallium-201. The tracer uptake was assessed in 20 segments/study. There was concordance between the isonitrile and thallium-201 images in 723 of the 780 segments (93%) (kappa = 0.83 +/- 0.02). In general, the isonitrile images were considered of better quality than the thallium-201 images. All 10 patients with CAD who underwent concomitant first-pass radionuclide angiography had either perfusion abnormalities or an abnormal ejection fraction response to exercise. Thus, technetium-99m isonitrile provides a reliable method of assessment of CAD with a sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy comparable to that of exercise thallium-201 imaging. Additional advantages include better image quality and the ability to obtain concomitant assessment of LV function with the use of first-pass radionuclide angiography.

  3. Use of technetium-99m isonitrile (RP-30A) in assessing left ventricular perfusion and function at rest and during exercise in coronary artery disease, and comparison with coronary arteriography and exercise thallium-201 SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Kong, B.; Lyons, E.; Marsch, S. )

    1989-08-01

    This study compared the results of stress and rest single-photon emission computed tomography imaging of myocardial perfusion using technetium-99m isonitrile (RP-30A) with the results of stress and redistribution tomographic thallium imaging and the results of coronary arteriography in 39 patients, 11 without and 28 with coronary artery disease (CAD). Each patient underwent 2 exercise studies at identical workload, heart rate and double product. In a subset of 13 patients, concomitant evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function using first-pass radionuclide angiography with a multi-crystal camera also was performed with bolus injections of isonitrile. Isonitrile had similar sensitivity (82 vs 82%, difference not significant), a slightly--but not significantly--higher specificity (100 vs 82%) and similar predictive accuracy (87 vs 82%) to thallium-201. The tracer uptake was assessed in 20 segments/study. There was concordance between the isonitrile and thallium-201 images in 723 of the 780 segments (93%) (kappa = 0.83 +/- 0.02). In general, the isonitrile images were considered of better quality than the thallium-201 images. All 10 patients with CAD who underwent concomitant first-pass radionuclide angiography had either perfusion abnormalities or an abnormal ejection fraction response to exercise. Thus, technetium-99m isonitrile provides a reliable method of assessment of CAD with a sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy comparable to that of exercise thallium-201 imaging. Additional advantages include better image quality and the ability to obtain concomitant assessment of LV function with the use of first-pass radionuclide angiography.

  4. A novel device for automatic withdrawal and accurate calibration of 99m-technetium radiopharmaceuticals to minimise radiation exposure to nuclear medicine staff and patient.

    PubMed

    Nazififard, Mohammad; Mahdizadeh, Simin; Meigooni, A S; Alavi, M; Suh, Kune Y

    2012-09-01

    A Joint Automatic Dispenser Equipment (JADE) has been designed and fabricated for automatic withdrawal and calibration of radiopharmaceutical materials. The thermoluminescent dosemeter procedures have shown a reduction in dose to the technician's hand with this novel dose dispenser system JADE when compared with the manual withdrawal of (99m)Tc. This system helps to increase the precision of calibration and to minimise the radiation dose to the hands and body of the workers. This paper describes the structure of this device, its function and user-friendliness, and its efficacy. The efficacy of this device was determined by measuring the radiation dose delivered to the hands of the nuclear medicine laboratory technician. The user-friendliness of JADE has been examined. The automatic withdrawal and calibration offered by this system reduces the dose to the technician's hand to a level below the maximum permissible dose stipulated by the international protocols. This research will serve as a backbone for future study about the safe use of ionising radiation in medicine.

  5. Regional comparison of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and radioactive gas ventilation (xenon and krypton) studies in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanna, L.; Alderson, P.O.; Waxman, A.D.; Berman, D.S.; Brachman, M.B.; Kroop, S.A.; Goldsmith, M.; Tanasescu, D.E.

    1986-09-01

    The regional distribution of (99mTc)DTPA aerosol was compared with that of /sup 133/Xe (n = 30) and krypton (n = 24) in a group of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. All patients had an aerosol study using a recently available commercial generator system, a ventilation study with one of the gases, and perfusion imaging. Regional information was assessed visually on xenon, krypton, and aerosol studies independently by considering each lung as three equal-sized zones. In addition, gas ventilation findings peripheral to regions of aerosol turbulence (hot spots) were evaluated. Only 64% of the zones were in complete agreement on xenon and aerosol. Most of the discordance between xenon and aerosol was accounted for by minor degrees of /sup 133/Xe washout retention in zones that appeared normal in the aerosol study. An agreement rate of 85% was noted between 81mKr and aerosol regionally. The regions of discordance between aerosol and gas studies, however, usually were associated with unimpressive perfusion defects that did not change the scintigraphic probability for pulmonary embolism in any patient. Regarding zones of aerosol hyperdeposition, 76% had associated washout abnormalities on xenon; however, there was no correlation between the presence of these abnormalities or perfusion abnormalities. The results confirm the high sensitivity of /sup 133/Xe washout imaging, but suggest that radioaerosol imaging will detect most parenchymal abnormalities associated with perfusion defects of significance.

  6. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate by fractured and osteoporotic bone after a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.; Zielezny, M.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/ on uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP by fractured and osteoporotic bone, respectively, was compared with D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by normal bone in rats. At 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively, after femoral fracture, basal uptake was significantly increased at the fracture site by 336.8, 276.1, and 183.5%, respectively, over the contralateral control site. D/sub 3/-treated rats had lower uptakes than untreated controls at all three fracture sites and at 12 of 15 normal bone sites but analysis of variance showed the uptake differences were not significant. Cortisone-induced osteoporosis caused a significant decrease in basal uptake. The decrease occurred in all nine bone areas studied. D/sub 3/ caused a significant increase in uptake by these osteoporotic bones, but a significant decrease in uptake by the same bones in normal controls. Thus, D/sub 3/ had an effect on uptake by the bone lesion, osteoporosis, that differed from D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by fracture or normal bone.

  7. Comparison of hypoxia and ouabain effects on the myocardial uptake kinetics of technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile and thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Meerdink, D.J.; Leppo, J.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Effects of hypoxia and ouabain on transcapillary exchange of (99mTc)hexakis (2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) (SESTAMIBI, also known as MIBI or HEXAMIBI) and 201TI were investigated with indicator-dilution studies using isolated rabbit hearts. Peak myocardial extraction (Emax), permeability-surface area products (PScap), and net myocardial extraction (Enet) were compared among serial injections during constant coronary flows. Overall, measures of transcapillary transport (Emax and PScap) for SESTAMIBI were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than those simultaneously determined for thallium, but estimates of tissue retention (Enet) for SESTAMIBI and thallium were not statistically distinguishable. Hypoxia had no significant effect on mean (+/- s.d.) Emax for SESTAMIBI (0.31 +/- 0.13) or thallium (0.59 +/- 0.11), nor on mean PScap or Enet values. Ouabain (1.5 X 10(-7) M and 1.5 X 10(-6) M) had no effect on SESTAMIBI or thallium Emax (respectively, 0.29 +/- 0.08 and 0.60 +/- 0.05) or on PScap for SESTAMIBI. Thallium PScap was depressed with higher ouabain dose (control, 1.22 +/- 0.40; high ouabain, 1.06 +/- 0.41 ml/min/g; p less than 0.01). Ouabain also caused a significant and progressive increase in average SESTAMIBI Enet (control, 0.23 +/- 0.10 to high ouabain, 0.33 +/- 0.12; p less than 0.05), but depressed thallium Enet (control, 0.38 +/- 0.14 to high ouabain, 0.32 +/- 0.18; p less than 0.01). These results suggest myocardial metabolic and/or functional status have minor influence on transcapillary transport of SESTAMIBI and thallium, but significantly affects cellular retention.

  8. 99mTechnetium HMPAO imaging in children with the Sturge-Weber syndrome: a study of nine cases with CT and MRI correlation.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, P D; Boodram, M B; Blaser, S; Armstrong, D; Gilday, D L; Harwood-Nash, D

    1997-03-01

    Demonstration of the full extent of abnormality in patients with the Struge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is important for prognosis and in planning surgery to remove the seizure focus. We compared single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), MRI and CT in nine children under the age of 4 years with seizures as part of SWS, in an attempt to determine the optimal method of imaging in different clinical settings. Seven unilateral and two bilateral cases were studied by interictal 99mtechnetium hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HMPAO) SPECT, and contrast-enhanced CT and MRI, giving information on 11 abnormal hemispheres. All imaging modalities showed abnormalities in every child. Perfusion imaging showed focal regions of decreased uptake in 9 of 11 (82%) abnormal hemispheres and demonstrated a widespread decrease but no focal defect in 2; it also revealed crossed cerebellar diaschisis in 2 cases. CT demonstrated typical gyriform calcification in 9 of 11 (82%) affected hemispheres. Contrast-enhanced MRI showed more extensive involvement than contrast-enhanced CT in 5 of 11 (45%) cases. The area of hypoperfusion shown by SPECT was smaller than the area of contrast enhancement on MRI in 6 of 11 cases (55%), comparable in 3 (27%) and larger in 2 cases (18%). CT is sufficient to confirm the clinical diagnosis of SWS, but MRI frequently shows more extensive abnormal areas. 99mTc HMPAO imaging is a useful addition when it is important to know the full extent of the disease, for example prior to surgery. It is likely to detect areas of hypoperfusion, representing ischaemic regions, which may act as an epileptogenic focus and may not be shown by CT or MRI.

  9. Validation of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction more than 48 hours old when serum creatine kinase-MB has returned to normal

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.G.; Lyons, K.P.; Butman, S.; Piters, K.M.

    1983-08-01

    Determination of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes is the current method of choice for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) greater than 48 hours old. However, other causes of enzyme elevation make the availability of an alternate method of diagnosis worthwhile. Accordingly, serial technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigrams were obtained in 61 patients with transmural AMI and in 46 patients with subendocardial AMI. Imaging was performed in all 107 patients at the time creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) was present 37 +/- 18 hours (range 12 to 72) after the onset of AMI, and at the time CK-MB was absent 106 +/- 34 hours (range 48 to 168) after the onset of AMI. At the time CK-MB was absent, the sensitivity using either a regional or a diffuse positive scintigram was 95% (58 of 61 patients) for transmural AMI and 65% (30 of 46 patients) for subendocardial AMI. The sensitivity using a regional positive scintigram was 82% (50 of 61 patients) for transmural AMI and 37% (17 of 46 patients) for subendocardial AMI. The sensitivity using a high-grade regional positive scintigram was 36% (22 of 61 patients) for transmural AMI and 11% (5 of 46 patients) for subendocardial AMI. The specificity was 70% (143 of 204 patients) for either a regional or a diffuse abnormality, 92% (187 of 204 patients) for a regional abnormality, and 100% (204 of 204 patients) for a high-grade regional abnormality. Thus, pyrophosphate scintigraphy is useful in confirming the diagnosis of AMI, particularly transmural, greater than 48 hours old and when CK-MB has returned to normal. A positive scintigram with a high-grade regional abnormality is specific for a recent AMI and may be contributory in establishing the diagnoses when LDH isoenzymes are inconclusive.

  10. Congenital renal anomaly: evaluation with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, S.; Kawamura, J.; Tomoyoshi, T.; Yoshida, O.

    1983-05-01

    Technetium 99m-2,3, dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) preferentially accumulates in the renal cortex, demonstrating functioning cortical mass. We used 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in ten patients with horseshoe kidneys and five patients with unilateral fused kidneys. The results show that 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy reliably establishes the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney and clearly shows the isthmus, which is very essential for proper management. The technique also aids in the definitive assessment of separate kidney function and of total radionuclide uptake is possible using 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy.

  11. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: has the bone scan betrayed us. [/sup 99m/Tc-phosphate compounds; /sup 67/Ga-citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Handmaker, H.

    1980-06-01

    Technetium-99m bone scanning reveals a spectrum of findings in the diagnosis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. Both cold and hot abnormalities are found. Gallium-67 citrate imaging is recommended when /sup 99m/Tc phosphate scans are inconclusive.

  12. Pulmonary, hepatic and splenic sequestration of technetium-99m labelled autologous rabbit granulocytes: scintigraphic cell distributions after intravenous and intraarterial injections, exsanguination and intraarterial injection of cells passed through an intermediary host.

    PubMed

    Farstad, B S; Sundrehagen, E; Opdahl, H; Benestad, H B

    1991-10-01

    In man, about half the intravascular granulocytes are not freely circulating, but temporarily sequestered ('marginated'), so that they cannot be retrieved by bleeding. Where and how the sequestration occurs is not settled and is the subject of the present report. Isolated autologous rabbit granulocytes, labelled with two different 99mTc methods, were reinjected and followed with external scintigraphy. Intraarterial as well as intravenous injection led to rapid accumulation of radioactivity over the lungs. This finding was corroborated and extended by similar experiments, where the labelled cells had firstly been passed through an intermediary rabbit host to remove altered cells, i.e. cells damaged, 'primed' (pre-activated), or activated. In the final autologous host about two thirds of the label rapidly localized to the lungs and liver, and a few per cent to the spleen (which is very small in the rabbit). Even though more than half of the intermediary rabbit's calculated blood volume was removed, the blood sample contained only a few per cent of the rabbit's radioactivity; consequently, many of the labelled leucocytes had marginated during the bleeding. The proportional distribution of radioactivity over lungs, spleen, kidneys, and the rest of the intermediary animal was not markedly changed by this exsanguination, but there was a 4-20% decrease over the liver. Taken together, our findings indicate that normal granulocytes marginate in lungs, liver, and spleen--apparently explicable by the effects of cell size, vessel diameter, cell stiffness (visco-elastic properties) and size of the arterio-venous hydrostatic pressure difference. The liver and spleen seemed to play additional roles, since radioactivity over these organs decreased much slower than expected from reported blood half-times of intact and slightly damaged rabbit granulocytes. This led to a suggestion that macrophages exposed to blood normally phagocytose apoptotically dying granulocytes.

  13. Leukocyte labeling with isonitrile complexes of Tc-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Solorzano, C.; Jones, A.G.; Beardsley, D.S.; Treves, S.; Davison, A.

    1985-05-01

    Leukocyte labelling with Tc-99m may result in a useful method for the detection and localization of active inflammatory processes in patients, particularly in the pediatric population. Previous studies qin this laboratory have shown that hexakis(alkylisonitrile)technetium(I) complexes readily label V79 lung fibroblasts in vitro, and this work is now being extended to isolated human white blood cells (WBC). Two lipophilic water-soluble technetium cations, the t-butyl (Tc-99m(TBI)) and cyclohexyl (Tc-99m(CHI)) analogs, were prepared essentially ligand-free at no-carrier-added levels in aqueous media and introduced in 10% propylene glycol/90% normal saline solution to WBC at room temperature. The cells were isolated from whole blood via sedimentation, centrifugation, and hypotonic hemolysis of the red blood cells. The labeling yield was studied as a function of incubation time (10-45 min), amount of activity (0.35-8.0 mCi), and total WBC (2.5 x 10/sup 7/-1.3 x 10/sup 8/). After 10 min incubation using 10/sup 8/ cells, the initial uptake of Tc-99m(TBI) was 40%, of which 50% remained bound after one saline wash. By contrast, the labeling efficiency with Tc-99m(CHI) was 85%, with 90% of the label still bound after washing. The labeling yield was unrelated to activity levels of incubation time, but was proportional to the number of WBC present. The entire process could be complemented in approximately one hour. The labeling yields with Tc-99m-(CHI) are comparable to those now obtained with the clinically available In-111 oxine.

  14. Study on 99mTc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA renal accumulation using in vitro cellular model.

    PubMed

    Nový, Zbynĕk; Mandíková, Jana; Trejtnar, Frantisek

    2011-02-01

    Mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) labelled with technetium-99m belongs to standard renal radiodiagnostics. However, the renal transport mechanisms responsible for their high renal uptake have not been fully explained. In addition, no in vitro experimental study comparing the renal uptake of these radiopharmaceuticals at the cellular level has not been performed. The investigation compared the 99mTc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA renal uptake using primary rat renal cells and evaluated contribution of active and passive transport processes to the renal accumulation. The renal cells were isolated from the rat kidneys by means of the two-phase collagenase perfusion method. The used experimental model showed to be useful tool for such type of investigation. The results documented significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the accumulation of 99mTc-DMSA and 99mTc-MAG3 in the rat isolated cells. The found experimental data indicated several times higher uptake of 99mTc-MAG3 than that found in 99mTc-DMSA. 99mTc-MAG3 cellular uptake was substantially decreased when active, energy-dependent processes were inhibited. However, 99mTc-DMSA accumulation in the renal cells demonstrated only a minor dependency on energy. These findings demonstrate a very different character of the membrane transport determining 99mTc-DMSA and 99mTc-MAG3 renal accumulation.

  15. Comparison of the Relative Renal Function Calculated with 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Tanju; Yalçin, Hülya; Günay, Emel Ceylan; Özen, Aynur; Özer, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the relative renal functions measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) in children with renal diseases. Relative renal function of 128 children who applied to three hospitals from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean value measured with 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA were 51.58 ± 14.95 and 51.96 ± 14.99 for the right kidney, 47.87 ± 15.27 and 47.94 ± 15.17 for the left kidney, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the relative renal functions (r = 0.963, P < 0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, the mean difference between two methods was 0.7 and the correlation limits were between 10.1 and-10.8. As a result, although 99mTc-DMSA is accepted as the most reliable method for the determination of relative renal function, 99mTc-DTPA can be another choice for the calculation of relative renal function without a complementary DMSA scan particularly in pediatric patients who require renogram curve and GFR calculations. PMID:25538484

  16. 99mTc-DMSA scanning to diagnose pyelonephritic scarring in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, B.A.; Kay, R.; Wasnick, R.J.; Carty, H.

    1983-06-01

    99mTechnetium-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) scanning provides superior quality images of renal parenchymal detail, which makes it highly sensitive for the diagnosis of pyelonephritic scarring. Unlike most other imaging techniques, radionuclide scanning is not affected by bowel gas or bony structures overlying the kidneys. This makes it particularly useful in children. Furthermore, renal scarring can be demonstrated by 99mTc-DMSA even before the classic gross anatomic and radiologic changes are present. The use of 99mTc-DMSA scanning in over 300 children has demonstrated its benefits and advantages over standard radiographic techniques.

  17. 99mTc-dextran-antibody conjugates. Labelling procedures.

    PubMed

    Márquez, M; Westlin, J E; Nilsson, S; Holmberg, A R

    1996-01-01

    Dextran forms stable chelates with 99mTc, a radionuclide with ideal properties for planar scintigraphic and tomographic imaging. This study investigates some of the factors of importance to the formation of 99mTc-dextran. The complex was used for the technetium labelling of a monoclonal antibody. Two radiolabelling methods were studied: direct dextran labelling with the reductant dissolved in HCI and labelling via a weak 'transfer' chelator (tartaric acid) with the reductant dissolved in ethanol. Different conditions during the labelling reaction were studied. Finally, dextran was coupled to a monoclonal anticytokeratin antibody and the conjugate was subsequently radiolabelled with 99mTc. Gel filtration (GFR) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were compared as methods for estimation of the labelling efficiency. When using 10-500 microM of ligand, 5-100 microM SnCl2 with 10-500 MBq of technetium at pH 7 incubated for 10-15 min, the radiolabelling seemed optimal (70-75% labelling efficiency). It was found that 100 microM tartaric acid used as a weak intermediate chelator with SnCl2 dissolved in ethanol improved the reproducibility of the labelling. The labelling efficiency was not affected by either the presence of oxygen or the addition of an oxygen scavenger during the labelling incubation. In general, TLC showed higher labelling efficiencies than GFR, indicating inadequate separation of the different moieties.

  18. Accumulation of technetium-99m MDP in an intramuscular hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Mandell, G A; Harcke, H T; Davis, N

    1986-07-01

    The accumulation of a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical on delayed imaging in a hemangioma has not been described previously. The variable scintigraphic findings of hemangiomas are described in detail. PMID:3731647

  19. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  20. Colonic varices demonstrated by technetium-99m red cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1987-03-01

    Colonic varices is a rare condition, generally associated with portal hypertension, which normally presents as acute, severe, gastrointestinal blood loss. A case is presented in which the varicosities were observed serendipitously in a patient with a pancreatic tumor, in whom the bleeding was not variceal but due to two small unrelated gastric hemangiomas. The literature is reviewed and scintigraphic features described.

  1. Technetium-99m bone scintigraphy and mandibular condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Henderson, M J; Wastie, M L; Bromige, M; Selwyn, P; Smith, A

    1990-06-01

    Radionuclide skeletal scintigraphy has been successfully used in the assessment of mandibular condylar hyperplasia (condylar hyperplasia) causing mandibular asymmetry to identify the presence of continued active growth in the condylar region. This study reviews 14 cases of mandibular asymmetry and concludes that symmetrical radionuclide uptake in the condylar regions on the bone scintigram excludes a continuing asymmetrical growth focus. Unilateral increased radionuclide uptake may often indicate an abnormally active condylar growth focus but false positive results may be encountered in patients with associated temporo-mandibular joint disease. PMID:2383957

  2. Gallbladder visualization with technetium-99m glucoheptonate: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, J.L.; Powers, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    Marked gallbladder concentration of glucoheptonate during renal function studies in dogs prompted a prospective study in order to assess the frequency of similar findings in human subjects. Of a total of 62 patients studied, the gallbladder was visualized clearly in 17 of the 18 patients (94%) who had documented normal hepatobiliary and renal function, and who were examined in a fasted state. In 38 nonfasting patients, only eight (22%) had gallbladder visualization. These findings may prove important in the interpretation of glucoheptonate renal studies in order to avoid confusion caused by a glucoheptonate-filled gallbladder lying close to the right kidney.

  3. Incidentally detected diaphragmatic hernia mimicking angina pectoris with Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cınar, Alev; Sadıc, Murat; Demırel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years 99mTechnetium methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc MIBI) is widely used in the evaluation of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). In this imaging protocol besides the cardiac evaluation, numerous other organs are included in the field of view. 99mTechnetium MIBI is taken up in all metabolically active tissue in the body except for the brain. Extracardiac uptake patterns as benign or serious conditions can be revealed during the MPI. In the imaging protocol, we should be aware of distribution of this radiotracer in order to recognize the abnormal uptake. Here in, we present a large diaphragmatic hernia, seemed as a mirror vision of myocardium that was determined incidentally during the MPI with 99mTc MIBI. PMID:24379540

  4. Infected knee prosthesis: diagnosis with In-111 leukocyte, Tc-99m sulfur colloid, and Tc-99m MDP imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Swyer, A.J.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Forty-one possible cases of infected total knee prostheses studied with indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-four of the prostheses were studied with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and 19 with Tc-99m sulfur colloid marrow scintigraphy. Nine prostheses were infected, and 32 were uninfected. The accuracy of combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid marrow imaging (95%) was higher than that of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone (78%), bone scintigraphy alone (74%), or combined labeled leukocyte and bone scintigraphy (75%). The authors conclude that combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid imaging is an accurate method for diagnosis of infected knee prostheses. In this series, this technique was superior to labeled leukocyte and bone imaging, alone or in combination.

  5. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with 99mTc in alcoholic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Sazonova, S. I.; Zelchan, R. V.; Villa, N. E.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with 99mTc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  6. Splenic uptake of both technetium-99m diphosphonate and technetium-99m sulfur colloid in sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, L.L.; Brittin, G.M. )

    1989-08-01

    A 19-year-old black woman with sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia had experienced more than 100 hospital admissions for sickle cell crisis and aseptic necrosis of both femoral heads. Her spleen was enlarged threefold and accumulated both radiocolloid and bone-seeking agent on two occasions, demonstrating an exception to the rule in sickle cell anemia that spleens that take up bone-seeking agents demonstrate functional asplenia. In the context of fever, left upper quadrant pain, and splenomegaly, the pattern of calcification in the patient's spleen as revealed in ultrasound and CT studies suggested possible abscess and led to unnecessary splenectomy. The nuclear medicine studies did not support this diagnosis. Nuclear medicine physicians should not be misled by splenic findings of sickle cell thalassemia (and possibly of other heterozygous sickle cell disorders) that differ from those of the more familiar homozygous sickle cell anemia.

  7. 99mTc-MIBI radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroid surgery planned on the basis of a preoperative combined 99mTc-pertechnetate/99mTc-MIBI and ultrasound imaging protocol.

    PubMed

    Casara, D; Rubello, D; Piotto, A; Pelizzo, M R

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to define the accuracy of a preoperative parathyroid imaging protocol based on the combination of technetium-99m pertechnetate/technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTcO4/ 99mTc-MIBI) scan and neck ultrasound (US) in selecting patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) eligible for a limited neck exploration, and (b) to investigate the potential role of the intraoperative gamma probe (IGP) in radio-guided minimally invasive surgery. 99mTcO4/99mTc-MIBI subtraction scan was performed by means of potassium perchlorate administration with the aim of effecting rapid 99mTcO4 wash-out from the thyroid. Minimally invasive surgery using an IGP was commenced some minutes following the injection of a low, 70 MBq, 99mTc-MIBI dose. Intraoperative PTH (i-PTH) was measured. On the basis of preoperative imaging, 21 pHPT consecutive patients were selected for a limited neck dissection. In 18 of them, a single parathyroid adenoma was found at surgery and IGP allowed performance of parathyroidectomy through a small, 2-2.5 cm, skin incision with a relatively short surgical duration (mean 38 min). i-PTH rapidly normalised in all cases. In two patients, a parathyroid carcinoma was diagnosed at surgery; consequently, a wide neck exploration associated with a near-total thyroidectomy was performed. No loco-regional metastatic lesions were found and i-PTH rapidly normalised after carcinoma excision. In one patient, i-PTH remained elevated after removal of the enlarged parathyroid gland which was localised by 99mTcO4/99mTc-MIBI scan and US. A bilateral exploration was needed to remove a contralateral enlarged parathyroid gland. Combined, 99mTcO4/99mTc-MIBI scan and US imaging correctly localised a single parathyroid gland in 20/21 patients (95.2%); thus, this protocol appears to be accurate enough for the preoperative selection of pHPT patients eligible for limited neck surgery. Moreover, in these selected patients the IGP seems to be helpful in

  8. Preparation and evaluation of (99m)Tc-DMSA lyophilized kit for renal imaging.

    PubMed

    Jan, Syed Umer; Abbass, Hafiz Ghulam

    2013-05-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been evaluated and used with technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) in imaging of kidneys. DMSA lyophilized kits were prepared and radiolabelled with (99m)Tc. Paper and thin-layer chromatography have been employed using various eluent systems for the radiochemical analysis, percentage labeling and binding capacity of (99m)Tc-DMSA. Female albino rabbits were used for this study. Biological data obtained after intravenous injection of radiolabelled DMSA to female albino rabbits revealed 32.42% uptake and long retention time in the kidneys. On the basis of animal biodistribution data, it is suggested that DMSA when labeled with (99m)Tc is useful complex for renal imaging and can be successfully applied as a diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine. Clinical biodistribution and radiation dosimetry studies are planned in future.

  9. New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1984-01-27

    Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  10. Tc-99m Labeled carrier for imaging

    DOEpatents

    Henze, Eberhard

    1984-01-01

    Novel radionuclide imaging agents, having particular application for lymphangiography are provided by non-covalently binding Tc-99m to a pharmaceutically acceptable cross-linked polysaccharide. Upon injection of the Tc-99m labeled polysaccharide into the blood stream, optimum contrast can be obtained within one hour.

  11. TC-99M labeled carrier for imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.

    1984-02-14

    Novel radionuclide imaging agents, having particular application for lymphangiography are provided by noncovalently binding Tc-99m to a pharmaceutically acceptable cross-linked polysaccharide. Upon injection of the Tc-99m labeled polysaccharide into the blood stream, optimum contrast can be obtained within one hour.

  12. Assessment of the direct cyclotron production of (99m)Tc: An approach to crisis management of (99m)Tc shortage.

    PubMed

    Rovais, Mohammad Reza Aboudzadeh; Aardaneh, Khosro; Aslani, Gholamreza; Rahiminejad, Ali; Yousefi, Kamran; Boulouri, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the cyclotron production of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) has been increased, due to the worldwide (99m)Tc generator shortage. In the present work, an improved strategy for the production of (99m)Tc, using the proton irradiation of the enriched (100)Mo was developed. The performance of this method in terms of the production yield, chemical purity, radiochemical purity, as well as radionuclide purity was evaluated. The average production yield was measured to be 356MBqμA(-1)h(-1). A good agreement was found between the calculated production yield and the experimental one. The radiochemical separation and total recovery yields of (99m)Tc were 92% and 69%, respectively. The radiochemical and the radionuclide purities of the (99m)Tc were 99% and >99.99% at the end of purification, respectively. The results of quality control tests (QC) support the concept that cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc is suitable for preparation of USP-compliant.

  13. Development and Pharmacological Evaluation of New Bone-Targeted (99m)Tc-Radiolabeled Bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Makris, George; Tseligka, Eirini D; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas S; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia

    2016-07-01

    A novel bisphosphonate, 1-(3-aminopropylamino)ethane-1,1-diyldiphosphonic acid (3), was coupled to the tridentate chelators di-2-picolylamine, 2-picolylamine-N-acetic acid, iminodiacetic acid, 3-((2-aminoethyl)thio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid, and 2-((2-carboxyethyl)thio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid to form ligands 6, 9, 11, 15, and 19, respectively. Organometallic complexes of the general formula [Re/(99m)Tc(CO)3(κ(3)-L)] were synthesized, where L denotes ligand 6, 9, 11, 15, or 19. The rhenium complexes were prepared at the macroscopic level and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The technetium-99m organometallic complexes were synthesized in high yield and were identified by comparative reversed-phase HPLC with their Re analogues. The (99m)Tc tracers were stable in vitro and exhibited binding to hydroxyapatite. In biodistribution studies, all of the (99m)Tc complexes exhibited high bone uptake superior to that of 25, which is the directly (99m)Tc-labeled bisphosphonate 3, and comparable to that of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP). The tracers [(99m)Tc(CO)3(6)] (26), [(99m)Tc(CO)3(9)] (27), [(99m)Tc(CO)3(11)] (28), and [(99m)Tc(CO)3(15)] (29) exhibited higher bone/blood ratios than (99m)Tc-MDP. 26 had the highest bone uptake at 1 h p.i. The new bisphosphonates showed no substantial growth inhibitory capacity in PC-3, Saos-2, and MCF-7 established cancer cell lines at low concentrations. Incubation of 26 with the same cancer cell lines indicated a rapid and saturated uptake. The promising properties of 26-29 indicate their potential for use as bone-imaging agents. PMID:27170456

  14. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of 99mTc-N-sulfanilamide ferrocene carboxamide as bacterial infections detector.

    PubMed

    Essouissi, Imen; Ghali, Wafa; Saied, Nadia Malek; Saidi, Mouldi

    2010-10-01

    A technetium-99m-labeled derivative from sulfanilamide, further referred to as (99m)Tc-N-SFC, targeting infections in experimental animals, has been synthesized. The biological features of this radioactive agent have also been studied. The N-sulfanilamide ferrocene carboxamide (N-SFC) was chemically synthesized and then labeled with technetium-99m. It has been confirmed through this work that it is stable and obtained with radiolabelling yield (>87%). Radiochemical analyses of (99m)Tc-N-SFC revealed that the molecule was labeled rapidly (within 2 min) and effectively with little free pertechnetate in the preparations containing purified compound. Furthermore, in vitro investigations were conducted and the label's stability in serum was observed up to 24 h of testing. Uptake of the tracer with live and heat/killed bacteria was compared in physiological conditions and was about 69% and 61.9% for the Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains, respectively. We concluded that synthesis and labeling of Sulfanilamide derivative with (99m-)Tc by this method is rapid, efficient and safe. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that our radiolabeled compound is accumulated rapidly and significantly (P<.05) at infection sites. The comparison of the (99m)Tc-N-SFC accumulation at sites of S. aureus-infected animals, which is expressed as target-to-non-target ratio, (2.88 ± 0.10) with other radiotracers was discussed. PMID:20870157

  16. Scintigraphy with 99mTc(V)-DMSA in monitoring patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Amiriani, Taghi; Mirkarimi, HoneySadat; Besharat, Sima; Semnani, Shahriar; Abedi, Jamshid; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Assadi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    The clinical significance of pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA) scintigraphy in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this prospective paper was to study the above. This study included 54 patients, 22 females and 32 males (mean age: 36.68±11.49; range: 18-63 years) with IBD who came to our clinics for follow-up and were examined clinically by colonoscopy and 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy. On the follow-up studies, five patients (9.25%) relapsed, and 49 (90.74%) remained at a steady condition. There was a good correlation between the scintigraphic results and the clinical and colonoscopy data of the patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that 99mTc(V)DMSA scintigraphy can be complementary to colonoscopy for the diagnostic evaluation of IBD.

  17. Splenic scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cells in pediatric patients: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, C.P.; Papanicolaou, N.; Treves, S.; Hurwitz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1982-03-01

    Ten children underwent splenic imaging with heat-denatured red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m DRBC). The presenting problems included the heterotaxia syndrome, recurrent idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following splenectomy, mass in the left posterior hemithorax, and blunt abdominal trauma. In nine patients, the presence or absence of splenic tissue was established. A splenic hematoma was identified in the tenth patient. All patients were initially scanned with Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m SC), and were selected for Tc-99m DRBC scintigraphy only after the results of the SC scans failed to establish the clinical problem beyond doubt. The availability of kits containing stannous ions, essential for efficient and stable labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m and requiring only a small volume of blood, make splenic scintigraphy in children a relatively simple and definitive diagnostic procedure, when identification of splenic tissue is of clinical importance.

  18. Direct 99m Tc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by 99m Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Jou; Yen, Chao-Liang; Lo, Su-Tang; Chen, Kuo-Ting; Lo, Jem-Mau

    2008-03-01

    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [99m Tc(CO)3(OH2)3]+ ion in saline, a significant yield of 99m Tc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which 99m Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical 99m Tc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, alpha-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [99m Tc(CO)3(OH2)3]+. Retention of bioactivity of the 99m Tc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test.

  19. Mechanism of localization of 99mTc-labeled pyrophosphate and tetracycline in infarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Dewanjee, M K; Kahn, P C

    1976-07-01

    The gross and subcellular localizations of 99mTc-labeled pyrophosphate and tetracycline in myocardial infarcts were studied in a rabbit model. Experiments utilizing double-nuclide labeling were carried out using a useful mapping technique. Concentration of the various chelates decreases in an expected manner from the center of the infarcted area toward its periphery, but it is higher near the epicardial surface than toward the endocardium. Technetium-99m-pyrophosphate is concentrated in the same infarcted areas as 45Ca ion or 32P-pyrophosphate, but to a much greater degree. The uptake is dependent on both the degree of necrosis and residual blood flow. Gel filtration experiments with rabbit serum indicate that 99mTc-tagged pyrophosphate, tetracycline, and diphosphonate are mainly protein-bound, whereas 32P-pyrophosphate is not. Subcellular localization studies show that 99mTc-tetracycline and 99mTc-pyrophosphate are bound primarily to soluble protein, and only a small fraction is associated with nuclei, mitochondria, and microsomes. The uptake of technetium chelates in myocardial infarcts may be due to the formation of polynuclear complexes with denatured macromolecules rather than to the deposition of calcium in mitochrondria. PMID:178842

  20. Technetium Behavior and Recovery in Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Meinken,G.E.

    1995-12-01

    Technetium-99 in soils is of great concern because of its long half-life and because it can not be detected readily. This work reviews the behavior of technetium in various types of soils. A method for extracting technetium from soil was developed with the use of technetium-95m and 99m to determine recoveries at each step. Technetium chemistry is very complicated and problem areas in the behavior and recovery have been highlighted. Technetium is widely used in nuclear medicine and a review of its chemistry pertaining to radiopharmaceuticals is relevant and helpful in environmental studies. The technetium behavior in the patented citric acid method for the removal of toxic metals in contaminated soils was studied. An innovative method using solid phase extraction media for the concentration of technetium extracted from soils, with water and hydrogen peroxide, was developed. This technique may have a useful environmental application for this type of remediation of technetium from contaminated soils.

  1. Preparation, biodistribution and scintigraphic evaluation of (99m)Tc-lincomycin.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Rizvi, Faheem Askari; Roohi, Samina; Hina, Saira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khalid, Muhammad; Iqbal, Munawar

    2015-11-01

    A complex of lincomycin was synthesized with technetium-99m. The synthesis was carried out by using SnCl2.2H2O as reducing agent and ascorbic acid as stabilizer. The effect of various parameters such as amount of ligand/reducing agent, pH value and reaction time on radio labeling process was studied. The characterization of the (99m)Tc-Lincomycin was performed by HPLC and electrophoresis Biodistribution studies were carried out by analyzing the model of bacterial infectious rats (Sprague-Dawley). The uptake of infectious lesions at different time interval was also studied by using scintigraphic technique. The complex showed effective target to non-target ratio for various inflammatory or infectious lesions. The (99m)Tc-Lincomycin effective binding to living bacteria and could be used successfully as an infection imaging agent. PMID:26639473

  2. Pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA, (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP--an evaluation of three imaging techniques in patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.E.; Lazarus, C.R.; Wraight, P.; Sampson, C.; Maisey, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Nine patients with histologically proven medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) were imaged using pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercaptosuccinic acid ((V)DMSA), (/sup 131/I) metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and (/sup 99m/Tc)methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Technetium-99m (V)DMSA demonstrated most of the tumor sites in eight patients with proven metastases, with an overall sensitivity of 95% in lesion detection. Iodine-131 MIBG showed definite uptake in some of the tumor sites in three of the nine patients imaged, with equivocal uptake seen in a further one patient, with sensitivity of only 11% for lesion detection. Technetium-99m MDP demonstrated bony metastases only, in four of the patients imaged yielding a sensitivity of 61%. Technetium-99m (V)DMSA has been demonstrated in this study to be a useful imaging agent in patients with MCT, showing uptake in significantly more lesions and with better imaging qualities than (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and with the ability to detect soft tissue as well as bony metastases.

  3. Evaluating {sup 99m}Tc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by computational methods

    SciTech Connect

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S.; Tavares, Joao Manuel R. S.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) has been widely used as an imaging agent but only recently has been considered for therapeutic applications. This study aims to analyze the potential use of {sup 99m}Tc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by evaluating the DNA damage and its probability of correct repair and by studying the cellular kinetics, following {sup 99m}Tc Auger electron irradiation in comparison to iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) beta minus particles and astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) alpha particle irradiation. Methods: Computational models were used to estimate the yield of DNA damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and cell kinetic effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) after irradiation with the selected particles. Results: The results obtained with the algorithms used suggested that {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX (all M-shell Coster-Kroning--CK--and super-CK transitions) electrons and Auger MXY (all M-shell Auger transitions) have a therapeutic potential comparable to high linear energy transfer {sup 211}At alpha particles and higher than {sup 131}I beta minus particles. All the other {sup 99m}Tc electrons had a therapeutic potential similar to {sup 131}I beta minus particles. Conclusions: {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY presented a higher probability to induce apoptosis than {sup 131}I beta minus particles and a probability similar to {sup 211}At alpha particles. Based on the results here, {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY are useful electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy.

  4. Method and kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1988-07-05

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of [sup 99m]Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available for the reduction of technetium. No Drawings

  5. Method and kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with TC-99M

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Babich, John W.; Straub, Rita; Richards, Powell

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of .sup.99m Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  6. Effect of Co-Ligands on Chemical and Biological Properties of 99mTc(III) Complexes [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (L = Cl, F, SCN and N3; CDOH2 = Cyclohexanedione Dioxime)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Tomaselli, Elena; Ernest, Carley; Freiji, Tom; Liu, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction 99mTc-Teboroxime ([99mTcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe]) is a member of the BATO (boronic acid adducts of technetium dioximes) class of 99mTc(III) complexes. This study sought to explore the impact of co-ligands on solution stability, heart uptake and myocardial retention of [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (99mTc-Teboroxime: L = Cl; 99mTc-Teboroxime(F): L = F; 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN): L = SCN; and 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3): L = N3). Methods Radiotracers 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared by reacting 99mTc-Teboroxime with NaF, NaSCN and NaN3, respectively. Biodistribution and imaging studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Image quantification was performed to compare their heart retention and liver clearance kinetics. Results Complexes 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared in high yield with high radiochemical purity. All new radiotracers were stable for >6 h in the kit matrix. In its HPLC chromatogram, 99mTc-Teboroxime showed one peak at ~15.5 min, which was shorter than that of 99mTc-Teboroxime(F) (~16.4 min). There were two peaks for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN) at 16.5 and 18.3 min. 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) appeared as a single peak at 18.4 min. Their heart retention and liver clearance curves were best fitted to the bi-exponential decay function. The half-times of fast/slow components were 1.6 ± 0.4/60.7±8.9 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime, 0.8±0.2/101.7±20.7 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(F), 1.2±0.3/84.8±16.6 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN), and 2.9±0.9/51.6±5.0 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3). The 2-min heart uptake followed the order of 99mTc-Teboroxime (3.00±0.37%ID/g) > 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) (2.66±0.01 %ID/g) ≈ 99mTc-Sestamibi (2.55±0.46 %ID/g) > 99mTcN-MPO (2.38±0.15 %ID/g). 99mTc-Teboroxime remains the best in first-pass extraction. The best image acquisition window is 0 – 5 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine and 0 – 15 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine(N3). Conclusion Co-ligands had significant impact on the heart uptake and myocardial retention

  7. Development of a freeze-dried kit formulation for the preparation of 99mTc-NTP 15-5, a radiotracer for scintigraphic imaging of proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Aurélien; Gaumet, Vincent; Galmier, Marie-Josèphe; Besse, Sophie; Leal, Fernand; Gachon, Françoise; Viot, Gilles; Métin, Jacques; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Auzeloux, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    The cartilage-targeting strategy is based on the strong affinity of quaternary ammonium (QA) functions for cartilage proteoglycans. We use a bifunctional agent containing QA moiety and a polyazamacrocycle structure able to complex technetium-99m. (99m)Tc-NTP 15-5 was selected for its high stability and its high affinity for proteoglycans in vivo. Labeling conditions of NTP 15-5 were optimized, and a lyophilized kit was developed for radiolabeling of (99m)Tc-NTP 15-5 (radiochemical yields 94.6±1.8%). (99m)Tc-NTP 15-5 was stable and resulted in favorable biological evaluations.

  8. Radioactive excretion in human milk following administration of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Pittard, W.B.; Merkatz, R.; Fletcher, B.D.

    1982-08-01

    Albumin-tagged sodium pertechnetate (technetium) is routinely used in nuclear medicine for scanning procedures of the lung. The rate of excretion of this radionuclide into breast milk and the resultant potential radiation hazard to the nursing infant have received little attention. Therefore the milk from a nursing mother who required a lung scan because of suspected pulmonary emboli using an intravenous injection of 4 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated human serum albumin was monitored. Albumin tagging severely limited the entrance of technetium into her milk and the radioactivity of the milk returned to base line by 24 hours. A total of 2.02 muCi of technetium was measured in the 24-hour milk collection after technetium injection and 94% of this amount was excreted by 15.5 hours. This amount of technetium administered orally to a newborn would deliver a total body radiation dose of .3 mrad. Therefore, an infant would receive trivial doses of radiation if breast-feeding were resumed 15.5 hours after administration of the radionuclide to the mother and nursing can clearly be resumed safely 24 hours after injection.

  9. Comparison of Tc-99m MDP, Tc-99m HSA and Tc-99m HIG uptake in rheumatoid arthritis and its variants.

    PubMed

    Sahin, M; Bernay, I; Basoglu, T; Canturk, F

    1999-12-01

    Tc-99m polyclonal immunoglobulin-G has been shown to be a successful agent in the depiction of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to compare the uptake behaviors of Tc-99m HIG and Tc-99m MDP in RA and variants of rheumatoid arthritis (VRA). Seventeen patients with RA and 8 patients with VRA presenting with active inflammation were included in this study. Ten subjects with well-diagnosed degenerative joint disease constituted the control group. All joints in patients were also imaged with Tc-99m HSA to evaluate the vascularization status of the joints. Tc-99m HIG and HSA scans were obtained at 2, 4 and 24 hours after the injection of 555 MBq Tc-99m HIG and 296 MBq Tc-99m HSA. Conventional bone scans were performed 4 hours after the injection of 740 MBq Tc-99m MDP. Target-to-background (T/B) ratios were obtained exclusively over the joint regions. Tc-99m HIG T/B ratios of the active joints in RA were significantly higher than those of the non-active joints and the control group (p < 0.05). Tc-99m HIG T/B ratios in active joints showed a progressive increase between 2 and 24 hour images (p < 0.05). In contrast, Tc-99m HSA T/B ratios decreased in all active joints significantly (p < 0.05) except the ankle joint region (p > 0.05). The T/B ratios in Tc-99m MDP bone scans were higher in all active joints than in non-active RA joints and joints of controls but significantly differences were only detected in wrist and elbow joints. All clinically active joints in VRA patients accumulated Tc-99m HIG and HSA, and showed increased Tc-99m MDP uptake. These joints had a very similar Tc-99m HIG retention pattern to the RA joints. The detection rate of active joint inflammation with Tc-99m HIG was much higher than that with Tc-99m MDP. The increasing Tc-99m HIG uptake ratio between 2 and 24 hours in contrast to Tc-99m HSA indicates the presence of other binding mechanisms besides increased vascularity in RA.

  10. The use of Tc-99m MDP bone scanning in the study of vascularized bone implants: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Dee, P.; Lambruschi, P.G.; Hiebert, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    The extent to which the nutrient artery alone is capable of maintaining bone growth in the immature animal was studied by excision and reimplantation of the upper tibia in two groups of puppies. In one group the reimplant was totally devascularized, and in a second group attempts were made to preserve the nutrient vessels to the reimplant. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) was used to assess the effectiveness with which the nutrient circulation was maintained. With one exception the Tc-99m MDP scans proved to be reliable in indicating the potential for continued growth after reimplantation. It was found that the nutrient artery alone is capable of maintaining longitudinal bone growth in metaphyseal reimplants in immature animals. Complete devascularization results in cessation of growth. The Tc-99m MDP bone scan should prove of critical importance in the assessment of free vascularized transplants of immature bone.

  11. The new 99mTc myocardial perfusion imaging agents: 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-teboroxime

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J. , Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA )

    1991-09-01

    The two new 99m (99mTc) labeled myocardial perfusion agents, 99mTc-Sestamibi and 99mTc-Teboroxime, are now available for routine clinical application. Both agents allow assessment of ejection fraction by the first-pass technique at rest or during exercise, thus providing additional information not available with thallium-201. 99mTc-Sestamibi has long myocardial residence time, as well as adequate myocardial extraction, providing images of higher count density and superior quality compared with thallium-201. 99mTc-Teboroxime has excellent myocardial uptake characteristics but is cleared very rapidly from the myocardium. Both tracers have shown results similar to those obtained with thallium-201 for detection of coronary artery disease and the assessment of defect reversibility. 99mTc-Sestamibi studies using the rest/stress imaging sequence can be accomplished in approximately 5 hours; studies using dual-isotope imaging (rest thallium-201 and stress 99mTc-Sestamibi injection) can be completed in 1 to 2 hours. Gated stress images can be performed with 99mTc-Sestamibi, providing simultaneous information of myocardial perfusion at stress and resting wall motion or thickening and allowing rapid differentiation of ischemic from infarcted tissue. Because of its slow myocardial clearance and absence of redistribution, 99mTc-Sestamibi allows uncoupling of the time of injection from the time of imaging and thus can be valuable in the evaluation of acute myocardial infarction and outcome of thrombolytic therapy. With 99mTc-Teboroxime, rapid serial studies are feasible. Pharmacologic stress and rest studies with 99mTc-Teboroxime single photon emission computed tomography potentially can be completed in under 30 minutes. 73 references.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of 99mTc-cefuroxime, a potential infection specific imaging agent: a reliable thin layer chromatographic system to delineate impurities from the 99mTc-antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Ghosh, Mayuri; Sett, Sucharita; Das, Malay Kanti; Chandra, Susmita; De, Kakali; Mishra, Mridula; Sinha, Samarendu; Ranjan Sarkar, Bharat; Ganguly, Shantanu

    2012-10-01

    Technetium-99m labelled cefuroxime, a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic and potential bacteria specific infection imaging agent was evaluated. A good radiochemical purity (95%) of the labelled product was obtained after filtering the reaction mixture through a 0.22 μm filter. Scintigraphy study of the purified product showed uptake in infectious lesions 45 min after injection and abscess-to-muscle ratios were found to be 1.80, 1.85 and 1.88 at 45 min, 1.5 hr and 3 hr, respectively. A versatile and reliable chromatographic technique to assess the radiochemical purity of (99m)Tc-cefuroxime has also been described.

  13. Muscle necrosis in the extremities: evaluation with Tc-99m pyrophosphate scanning--a retrospective review

    SciTech Connect

    Timmons, J.H.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.J.; Cawthon, M.A.; Bauman, J.M.

    1988-04-01

    A retrospective review was done of 34 extremities studied between 1981 and 1985 with technetium-99m pyrophosphate scanning; 22 were subsequently amputated. Results of detailed pathologic examination or immediate postoperative examination of the resected extremity were available in 16 cases. In these cases, scanning had allowed correct prediction of the level of amputation and of the specific areas of muscle infarction in 13 cases. In the one case in which amputation was performed for infection rather than muscle necrosis, the lack of necrosis was correctly predicted with the scan. The limited results of this study indicate that the Tc-99m pyrophosphate scan allows the location of necrotic muscle to be predicted accurately and may therefore be a useful adjunct in determining the best level for ultimate amputation. Special caution is required in those cases in which muscle necrosis is due to acute causes (e.g., traumatic thrombosis) rather than chronic vascular disease.

  14. Molybdenum target specifications for cyclotron production of 99mTc based on patient dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Hou, X; Tanguay, J; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2016-01-21

    In response to the recognized fragility of reactor-produced (99)Mo supply, direct production of (99m)Tc via (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc reaction using medical cyclotrons has been investigated. However, due to the existence of other Molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in the target, in parallel with (99m)Tc, other technetium (Tc) radioactive isotopes (impurities) will be produced. They will be incorporated into the labeled radiopharmaceuticals and result in increased patient dose. The isotopic composition of the target and beam energy are main factors that determine production of impurities, thus also dose increases. Therefore, they both must be considered when selecting targets for clinical (99m)Tc production. Although for any given Mo target, the patient dose can be predicted based on complicated calculations of production yields for each Tc radioisotope, it would be very difficult to reverse these calculations to specify target composition based on dosimetry considerations. In this article, a relationship between patient dosimetry and Mo target composition is studied. A simple and easy algorithm for dose estimation, based solely on the knowledge of target composition and beam energy, is described. Using this algorithm, the patient dose increase due to every Mo isotope that could be present in the target is estimated. Most importantly, a technique to determine Mo target composition thresholds that would meet any given dosimetry requirement is proposed.

  15. A large renal pelvic diverticulum, presenting incomplete excretion during tc-99m MAG-3 scintigraphy and tracer accumulation on tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy; a case report.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Bulent; Erselcan, Taner; Ozdemir, Semra; Hasbek, Zekiye; Tosun, H Bayram; Topaktas, Seher

    2004-12-01

    This case report illustrates the dynamic and static renal scintigraphic images of a patient with an unusual large diverticulum of the renal pelvis. The initial diagnosis by intravenous pyelography (IVP) and ultrasonographic (US) examination was a renal pelvic diverticulum of the left kidney, and the patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department for exploration of the effect of the pelvic diverticulum on renal functions. We performed dynamic renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) labeled mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG-3) and static renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). In dynamic renal scintigraphy, bilaterally normal concentration function was observed. While right kidney excretion function was normal, an incomplete excretion pattern was seen on the left side. Complete urinary flow obstruction occurred approximately at the 10th minute of the acquisition, which did not seem to respond to the i.v. furosemide application. However, when only the renal cortex was included in the region of interest, the obstructive pattern disappeared. In static renal scintigraphy, a large renal pelvic diverticulum localized antero-medially was clearly visualized in the left-anterior oblique projection, most probably due to accumulation of radiopharmaceutical inside it. This case showed that a renal pelvic diverticulum should be thought of when an incomplete excretion pattern is seen on dynamic renal scintigraphy. Using only a cortical region of interest may also help to distinguish other types of obstructive pattern from diverticulum. Additionally, Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy may show diverticulum localization with antero-oblique projections in addition to routine projections.

  16. Biodistribution of 99mTc Tricarbonyl Glycine Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Beom-Su; Lee, Joo-Sang; Rho, Jong Kook

    2012-01-01

    99mTc tricarbonyl glycine monomers, trimers, and pentamers were synthesized and evaluated for their radiolabeling and in vivo distribution characteristics. We synthesized a 99mTc-tricarbonyl precursor with a low oxidation state (I). 99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3 + was then made to react with monomeric and oligomeric glycine for the development of bifunctional chelating sequences for biomolecules. Labeling yields of 99mTc-tricarbonyl glycine monomers and oligomers were checked by high-performance liquid chromatography. The labeling yields of 99mTc-tricarbonyl glycine and glycine oligomers were more than 95%. We evaluated the characteristics of 99mTc-tricarbonyl glycine oligomers by carrying out a lipophilicity test and an imaging study. The octanol-water partition coefficient of 99mTc tricarbonyl glycine oligomers indicated hydrophilic properties. Single-photon emission computed tomography imaging of 99mTc-tricarbonyl glycine oligomers showed rapid renal excretion through the kidneys with a low uptake in the liver, especially of 99mTc tricarbonyl triglycine. Furthermore, we verified that the addition of triglycine to prototype biomolecules (AGRGDS and RRPYIL) results in the improvement of radiolabeling yield. From these results, we conclude that triglycine has good characteristics for use as a bifunctional chelating sequence for a 99mTc-tricarbonyl- based biomolecular imaging probe. PMID:24278615

  17. Retention of 99mTc-DMSA(III) and 99mTc-nanocolloid in different syringes affects imaging quality.

    PubMed

    Bauwens, Matthias; Pooters, Ivo; van der Pol, Jochen; Mottaghy, Felix M; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus

    2014-04-01

    (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid [DMSA(III)] and colloidal human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-nanocolloid) are widely used radiopharmaceuticals. Recently, in our institution we encountered image quality problems in DMSA scans after changing the brand of syringes we were using, which triggered us to look into the adsorption properties of syringes from different brands for (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid. We also describe a clinical case in which adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) caused inferior imaging quality. DMSA and nanocolloid were labeled with (99m)Tc following manufacturer guidelines. After synthesis, syringes with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid were stored for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. We evaluated Luer Lock syringes manufactured by different brands such as Artsana, Henke-Sass-Wolf, B. Braun Medical N.V., CODAN Medizinische Geräte GmbH & Co KG, Becton Dickinson and Company, and Terumo Europe. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid was acceptably low for all syringes (<13%), except for two brands with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) adsorption rates of 36 and 30%, respectively, and for one brand with a (99m)Tc-nanocolloid adsorption rate of 27%. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid reaches critical levels in syringes produced by two brands, potentially causing poor image quality--for example, in DMSA scans using pediatric radiopharmaceutical doses. It is advised to check the compatibility of any radiopharmaceutical with syringes as an integral part of the quality assurance program.

  18. 99mTc-MAMA-chrysamine G, a probe for beta-amyloid protein of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dezutter, N A; Dom, R J; de Groot, T J; Bormans, G M; Verbruggen, A M

    1999-11-01

    Chrysamine G (CG), an analogue of Congo red, is known to bind in vitro to the beta-amyloid protein (Abeta 10-43) and to homogenates of several regions of the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We synthesised a conjugate of 2-(acetamido)-CG with a bis-S-trityl protected monoamide-monoaminedithiol (MAMA-Tr(2)) tetraligand, which was efficiently deprotected and labelled with a 75% yield with technetium-99m, to obtain (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG. In mice, (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG was cleared mainly by the hepatobiliary system, resulting in a fast blood clearance. Brain uptake of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG was low. Co-injection with the blood pool tracer iodine-125 human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA) demonstrated a brain/blood activity ratio for (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG that was significantly higher than that for (125)I-HSA (t test for dependent samples, P<0.02), indicating the ability of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG to cross the blood-brain barrier. In vitro autoradiography demonstrated pronounced binding of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG to beta-amyloid deposits in autopsy sections of the parietal and occipital cortex of an AD patient as compared with controls. Adding 10 microM Congo red during incubation displaced the binding of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG. Congo red staining and autoradiography identified the same lesions. (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG seems to bind selectively to beta-amyloid deposition in human brain parenchyma and blood vessels in vitro and thus might be a lead compound for further development of a useful tracer agent for the in vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Excretion of iodine-123-hippuran, technetium-99m-red blood cells, and technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin into breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, M.R.; Prescott, M.C.; Herman, K.J. )

    1990-06-01

    The amount of radioactivity excreted in breast milk following three different nuclear medicine procedures on twelve nursing mothers has been measured. Some of this information has already been incorporated into the latest guidelines on suspension of feeding after maternal radiopharmaceutical administration. The overall radiation dose that the patients' babies would have sustained had breast feeding not been interrupted has been estimated as an effective dose equivalent. A model has been developed to describe the relationship between clearance of activity from the milk, time between expressions, and the fraction of milk expressed. Some simple guidance is given on calculation of suitable interruption times for any individual mother from counts on her milk samples.

  20. Use of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for assessment of renal function in dogs with suspected renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, D.R.; Twardock, A.R.; Badertscher, R.R. II; Daniel, G.B.; Dugan, S.J.

    1988-04-15

    The effectiveness of technetium /sup 99m/-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc DTPA) to assess renal function in 13 dogs with suspected renal disease was evaluated. Glomerular filtration rates (actual GFR) were determined on the basis of endogenous creatinine clearance. Predicted GFR were determined by using /sup 99m/Tc DTPA within 72 hours after the determination of creatinine clearance. The percentage of an IV administered dose of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in the kidneys (percentage dose) was determined. Two equations were used to calculate predicted GFR, which were derived from previously reported linear regression analysis of inulin (In) and creatinine (Cr) GFR vs percentage dose /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in dog kidneys. The correlations of actual GFR vs predicted GFR (In) and actual GFR vs predicted GFR (Cr) were both r = 0.92. The dogs' mean actual GFR was 1.73 +/- 1.35 ml/min/kg. Their mean predicted GFR (In) and predicted GFR (Cr) were 1.92 +/- 1.42 ml/min/kg and 1.85 +/- 1.27 ml/min/kg, respectively. Therefore, /sup 99m/Tc DTPA can be used with high accuracy as an agent to predict GFR in dogs with suspected renal disease. The procedure for determining GFR by use of nuclear medicine was rapid and noninvasive and appeared to induce little stress in the animals evaluated.

  1. 99mTc(V)-DMSA SPECT-CT findings in a case of Gorham-Stout disease.

    PubMed

    Alves, Victor M; Vieira, Tiago S; Amorim, Nelson S; Oliveira, Ana; Rodrigues, André; Pereira, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The Gorham-Stout disease is a very rare condition, characterized by lymphovascular proliferation and massive bone resorption. We present a 48-year-old male patient with osteolysis involving the left femoral head and neck, as well as to the ipsilateral acetabulum. Besides the morphological imaging, he underwent bone scintigraphy, technetium-99m-V-dimercaptosuccinic acid [99mTc(V)-DMSA] single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and histological examination. Together these findings gave the definitive diagnosis. This is the first case ever published with 99mTc(V)-DMSA SPECT-CT. Advances on the knowledge of disease suggests that this imaging procedure could have utility in diagnosis and evaluation of the disease activity and therapy response.

  2. Update on radionuclide imaging in hepatobiliary disease. [/sup 99m/Tc-labelled acetanilide iminodracetic acid analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthall, L.

    1981-05-01

    The recent introduction of technetium Tc 99m-labeled acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-IDA) analogues has facilitated the clincal study of the bile flow pathways. A variety of /sup 99m/Tc-IDA derivaties are under investigation. Basically all are metabolized by the hepatocyte and immediately thereafter excreted unconjugated into the biliary tract. Of the various derivatives tested, e.g., dimethyl (lidofenin), diethyl, paraisopropyl (iprofenin), parabutyl (butilfenin), and diisopropyl (disofenin), the last named is the best universal agent at this time. By serial liver imaging the patency of the cystic duct and the integrity of altered cholangiointestinal anatomy can be assessed, leakage of bile and gastric reflux can be disclosed, and medical and surgical jaundice can be distinguished.

  3. Imaging of irradiated liver with Tc-99m-sulfur colloid and Tc-99m-IDA

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, M.J.; Saha, S.; Aron, B.S.

    1981-09-01

    In three cases, irradiated regions of liver failed to concentrate Tc-99m-sulfur colloid. In two of these three, imaging with Tc-99m-acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (IDA) agents within five days showed near normal hepatic uptake of this hepatobiliary imaging agent. The hepatic parenchymal cells may be imaged with Tc-99m-IDA in some irradiated regions of liver, despite loss of reticuloendothelial cell function.

  4. Applicability of radioactive 99mTc-O4- magnetic fluid to nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Keun-Ho; Kim, Chong-Oh

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized with solution of ferrous and ferric chlorides and ammonia water by sonochemical method. The hydrophilically radioactive magnetic fluids were prepared by labeling technetium pertechnetate (99mTc-O4-) and then adsorbing alginic acid on the magnetite particles. In order to measure some properties of the dispersed particles, the magnetic fluids were freezed down to -70 oC, and were dried in vacuum. The total size of the particles was about 15 nm with the core diameter of 12 nm and their superparamagnetic saturation magnetization was 63 emu/g for the core-shell of Fe3O4/Algin and 52 emu/g for that of Fe3O4/99mTc-O4-/Algin. The labeling of radioactive 99mTc-O4- to the magnetite particles was efficient to about 70 %. The fluid of magnetic particles on which the radioisotopic substance is labeled with such an efficiency level may be applied as a tracer for diagnosis in nuclear medicine.

  5. The role of Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging in primary biliary cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Shuke, N.; Kinuya, S.; Takayama, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 patients at various histopathologic stages were studied by Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and/or Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging. In the earlier stages (I and II), seven of eight patients (88%) showed uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA. Of seven patients in the same stage, however, four (57%) showed no abnormality on Tc-99m colliod imaging. In three of these four negative patients (75%), uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA was noted. In the later stages (III and IV), all seven patients showed decreased clearance with or without delayed tracer appearance in the intestine and prominent hepatic retention on Tc-99m IDA imaging; with Tc-99m colloid imaging there was enlargement of the spleen and increased activity in the spleen and bone marrow. Thus, Tc-99m IDA imaging is considered to be more useful in revealing this functional disorder at the earlier stage of primary biliary cirrhosis and in evaluating progression from an earlier to a later stage of disease. Tc-99m colloid imaging also effectively evaluated progression.

  6. A comparison of rat SPECT images obtained using 99mTc derived from 99Mo produced by an electron accelerator with that from a reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galea, R.; Wells, R. G.; Ross, C. K.; Lockwood, J.; Moore, K.; Harvey, J. T.; Isensee, G. H.

    2013-05-01

    Recent shortages of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) have led to an examination of alternate production methods that could contribute to a more robust supply. An electron accelerator and the photoneutron reaction were used to produce 99Mo from which technetium-99m (99mTc) is extracted. SPECT images of rat anatomy obtained using the accelerator-produced 99mTc with those obtained using 99mTc from a commercial generator were compared. Disks of 100Mo were irradiated with x-rays produced by a 35 MeV electron beam to generate about 1110 MBq (30 mCi) of 99Mo per disk. After target dissolution, a NorthStar ARSII unit was used to separate the 99mTc, which was subsequently used to tag pharmaceuticals suitable for cardiac and bone imaging. SPECT images were acquired for three rats and compared to images for the same three rats obtained using 99mTc from a standard reactor 99Mo generator. The efficiency of 99Mo-99mTc separation was typically greater than 90%. This study demonstrated the delivery of 99mTc from the end of beam to the end user of approximately 30 h. Images obtained using the heart and bone scanning agents using reactor and linac-produced 99mTc were comparable. High-power electron accelerators are an attractive option for producing 99Mo on a national scale.

  7. Hemobilia detected by Tc-99m labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.; Wholey, M.H.; Ismail-Beigi, F.

    1982-01-01

    Tc-99m labeled red blood cells were successfully used to determine the site of hemorrhage in a 67-year-old man with hemobilia. A false hepatic artery aneurysm was confirmed at angiography and ultimately successfully embolized. The relative merits of using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells for detecting sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are discussed.

  8. Radioactive equilibrium: 99Mo/99mTc decay characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chechev, Valery P; Bé, Marie-Martine

    2014-05-01

    Within the Decay Data Evaluation Project, as an example of a radioactive equilibrium with isomer, the (99)Mo/(99m)Tc equilibrium mixture decay characteristics are examined. The results of a new decay data evaluation are presented for (99)Mo/(99m)Tc decay to nuclear levels in (99)Tc. These evaluated data have been obtained using information published up to 2013.

  9. Sustained availability of 99mTc: possible paths forward.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F Russ

    2013-02-01

    The availability of (99m)Tc for single-photon imaging in diagnostic nuclear medicine is crucial, and current availability is based on the (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator fabricated from fission-based molybdenum (F (99)Mo) produced using high enriched uranium (HEU) targets. Because of risks related to nuclear material proliferation, the use of HEU targets is being phased out and alternative strategies for production of both (99)Mo and (99m)Tc are being evaluated intensely. There are evidently no plans for replacement of the limited number of reactors that have primarily provided most of the (99)Mo. The uninterrupted, dependable availability of (99m)Tc is a crucial issue. For these reasons, new options being pursued include both reactor- and accelerator-based strategies to sustain the continued availability of (99m)Tc without the use of HEU. In this paper, the scientific and economic issues for transitioning from HEU to non-HEU are also discussed. In addition, the comparative advantages, disadvantages, technical challenges, present status, future prospects, security concerns, economic viability, and regulatory obstacles are reviewed. The international actions in progress toward evolving possible alternative strategies to produce (99)Mo or (99m)Tc are analyzed as well. The breadth of technologies and new strategies under development to provide (99)Mo and (99m)Tc reflects both the broad interest in and the importance of the pivotal role of (99m)Tc in diagnostic nuclear medicine.

  10. A Tc-99m labeled laminin derived peptide, Tc-99m-YIGSR for thrombus specific imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.

    1994-05-01

    Laminin derived adhesive peptides were studied as potential agents for thrombus specific imaging. Using a novel peptide Tc-99m labeling method studies were performed in vitro using human whole blood clots and platelets, and in vivo scintigraphy in animals with experimental thrombi. Aliquots of 0.1 ml human blood were placed in inclined Petri dishes until clot was well formed. Clots were rinsed 3x with phosphate buffer and 10 {mu}Ci Tc-99m YIGSR II was added. After incubation at room temperature for 1 hr, clots were again washed 3x. Residual activity was measured. Platelets were harvested using routine methods and incubated with Tc-99m YIGSR II, washed and assayed. Blocking experiments using cold YIGSR II showed that the Tc-99m labeled peptide preparation YIGSR II binds specifically and selectively to clot and platelets as compared to control experiments using nonspecific human Tc-99m IgG. Tissue distribution studies showed rapid blood clearance, urinary excretion and to a lesser degree GI tract excretion. Tc-99m YIGSR II was lower in all organs except kidneys compared to Tc-99m 50 H.19, Tc-99m IgG and Tc-99m YIGSR I. Tc-99m-YIGSR II consistently visualized thrombi within 30 min p.i. In vivo scintigraphic (thrombus/contralateral side) ratio was 3:1 and ex vivo direct counting (thrombosed to nonthrombosed vessel segment) was 5.4: 1. Compared to monoclonal antibodies peptide preparations are non- or minimally immunogenic, preparation is probably less expensive and there is also less danger of viral DNA contamination. These considerations and our data indicate that the Tc-99m-YIGSR II peptide has significant potential as a thrombus imaging agent.

  11. Discordant hepatic uptake between Tc-99m sulfur colloid and Tc-99m DISIDA in hypervitaminosis A

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.M.; McCartney, W.H.; Mauro, M.A.; Davidson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Scintigraphic findings in a patient with biopsy-proven hypervitaminosis A included markedly impaired hepatic uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid but essentially normal uptake of Tc-99m DISIDA. This case presents a potential cause for image discordance with these two agents.

  12. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc: Antibody Fragmentation for Molecular Imaging Agents.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Victoria; García, María Fernanda; Alonso-Martínez, Luis Michel; Camachoc, Ximena; Goicochea, Enzo; Fernández, Marcelo; Castillo, Abmel Xiques; Díaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando; Montaña, René Leyva; Alonso, Omar; Gambini, Juan Pablo; Cabral, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Finally, fast blood clearance nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognise, with high specific affinity, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) which play an important role in the growth process associated with many solid tumors. In this work, the whole antibody was digested with papain in order to generate a Fab fragment, derivatized with NHS-HYNIC-Tfa and radiolabel with technetium-99m (99mTc) as a potential agent of molecular imaging of cancer. Both, whole and fragment radiolabels were in-vivo and in-vitro characterized. Radiolabeling conditions with Tricine as coligand and quality controls were assessed to confirm the integrity of the labeled fragment. Biodistribution and imaging studies in normal and spontaneous adenocarcinoma mice were performed at different times to determine the in-vivo characteristics of the radiolabel fragment. Tumor localization was visualized by conventional gamma camera imaging studies, and the results were compared with the whole antibody. Also, an immunoreactivity assay was carried out for both. The results showed clearly the integrity of the nimotuzumab fragment and the affinity by the receptor was verified. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC was obtained with high purity and a simple strategy of radiolabeling was performed. Finally, a fast blood clearance was observed in the biodistribution studies increasing the tumor uptake of Fab(nimotuzumab)- HYNIC-99mTc over time, with tumor/muscle ratios of 3.81 ± 0.50, 5.16 ± 1.97 and 6.32 ± 1.98 at 1 h, 4 h and 24 h post injection. Urinary excretion resulted in 32.89 ± 3.91 %ID eliminated at 24 h. Scintigraphy images showed uptake in the tumor and the activity in non-target organs was consistent with the biodistribution data at the same time points. Hence, these preliminary results showed important further characteristic of Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc as a molecular imaging agent of cancer. PMID:26961312

  13. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc: Antibody Fragmentation for Molecular Imaging Agents.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Victoria; García, María Fernanda; Alonso-Martínez, Luis Michel; Camachoc, Ximena; Goicochea, Enzo; Fernández, Marcelo; Castillo, Abmel Xiques; Díaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando; Montaña, René Leyva; Alonso, Omar; Gambini, Juan Pablo; Cabral, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Finally, fast blood clearance nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognise, with high specific affinity, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) which play an important role in the growth process associated with many solid tumors. In this work, the whole antibody was digested with papain in order to generate a Fab fragment, derivatized with NHS-HYNIC-Tfa and radiolabel with technetium-99m (99mTc) as a potential agent of molecular imaging of cancer. Both, whole and fragment radiolabels were in-vivo and in-vitro characterized. Radiolabeling conditions with Tricine as coligand and quality controls were assessed to confirm the integrity of the labeled fragment. Biodistribution and imaging studies in normal and spontaneous adenocarcinoma mice were performed at different times to determine the in-vivo characteristics of the radiolabel fragment. Tumor localization was visualized by conventional gamma camera imaging studies, and the results were compared with the whole antibody. Also, an immunoreactivity assay was carried out for both. The results showed clearly the integrity of the nimotuzumab fragment and the affinity by the receptor was verified. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC was obtained with high purity and a simple strategy of radiolabeling was performed. Finally, a fast blood clearance was observed in the biodistribution studies increasing the tumor uptake of Fab(nimotuzumab)- HYNIC-99mTc over time, with tumor/muscle ratios of 3.81 ± 0.50, 5.16 ± 1.97 and 6.32 ± 1.98 at 1 h, 4 h and 24 h post injection. Urinary excretion resulted in 32.89 ± 3.91 %ID eliminated at 24 h. Scintigraphy images showed uptake in the tumor and the activity in non-target organs was consistent with the biodistribution data at the same time points. Hence, these preliminary results showed important further characteristic of Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc as a molecular imaging agent of cancer.

  14. Tc-99m dextran: a new blood-pool-labeling agent for radionuclide angiocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.; Robinson, G.D.; Kuhl, D.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1982-04-01

    We have explored the possibility of imaging the cadiac blood pool with dextran (Dx) labeled with Tc-99m (Tc) after Sn/sup 2 +/ reduction. Stannous dextrane (SnDx) kits were prepared in advance and labeling was performed by adding Tc-99m. The labeling efficiency was greater than 95%. Technetium-99m dextran (TcDx) was highly stable both in vivo and in vitro. In seven dogs we compared the quality of blood-pool images obtained with TcDx of different molecular weights ( 4 x 10/sup 4/ = Dx-40; 5 x 10/sup 5/ = Dx-500; 1 x 10/sup 6/ = Dx-2000) and with Tc-99m red blood cells (TcRBC) labeled in vitro, and determined the organ distribution of this new agent by whole-body scanning and blood sampling. TcDx provided high-quality cardiac blood-pool images up to 60 min after injection. The heart-to-lung ratios averaged 3.7 for TcDx-40, 3.9 for TcDx-500, and 5.4 for TcRBC at 60 min. Whereas TcDx-40 showed a relatively rapid initial urinary excretion and TcDx-2000 was degraded rapidly, TcDx-500 demonstrated the best kinetics for blood-pool imaging. Thus, TcDx is a new radiopharmaceutical with high labeling efficiency and stability. It overcomes a number of the limitations of currently used blood-labeling agents and may become useful for blood-pool imaging in man.

  15. Effect of inspiratory resistance and PEEP on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brodovich, H.; Coates, G.; Marrin, M.

    1986-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effect of markedly negative pleural pressure (Ppl) or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the pulmonary clearance (k) of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA). A submicronic aerosol containing /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized intubated sheep. In six experiments k was 0.44 +/- 0.46% (SD)/min during the initial 30 min and was unchanged during the subsequent 30-min interval (k = 0.21 +/- 12%/min) when there was markedly increased inspiratory resistance. A 3-mm-diam orifice in the inspiratory tubing created the resistance. It resulted on average in a 13-cmH2O decrease in inspiratory Ppl. In eight additional experiments sheep were exposed to 2, 10, and 15 cmH2O PEEP (20 min at each level). During 2 cmH2O PEEP k = 0.47 +/- 0.15%/min, and clearance increased slightly at 10 cmH2O PEEP (0.76 +/- 0.28%/min, P less than 0.01). When PEEP was increased to 15 cmH2O a marked increase in clearance occurred (k = 1.95 +/- 1.08%/min, P less than 0.001). The experiments demonstrate that markedly negative inspiratory pressures do not accelerate the clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA from normal lungs. The effect of PEEP on k is nonlinear, with large effects being seen only with very large increases in PEEP.

  16. Breast-milk radioactivity after a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol/Tc-99m MAA lung study

    SciTech Connect

    Mountford, P.J.; Hall, F.M.; Wells, C.P.; Coakley, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Measurements were made of the concentration of Tc-99m activity in samples of breast milk following an administration of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol for a lung ventilation image and one of Tc-99m MAA for lung perfusion. The activity was 222 nCi/ml of milk (8.2 kBq/ml) at 2 hr after the MAA injection, and it was found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 4.6 hr. There was a small incorporation of Tc-99m into breast-milk protein. The authors conclude that the combined use of these two Tc-99m agents did not indicate the interruption of breast feeding beyond 24 hr after administration of the MAA, and that for an aerosol ventiliation study alone, breast feeding need not be interrupted for more than 4 hr after the test.

  17. 99mTc-labeled Therapeutic Inhaled Amikacin Loaded Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Cheng, Kenneth T.; Malinin, Vladimir; Li, Zhili; Yao, Zhengsheng; Lee, Sung-Jin; Gould, Christine M.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Chen, Clara; Perkins, Walter R.; Paik, Chang H.

    2014-01-01

    The radiolabeling of the liposome surface can be a useful tool for in vivo tracking of therapeutic drug loaded liposomes. We investigated radiolabeling therapeutic drug (i.e., an antibiotic, amikacin) loaded liposomes with 99mTc, nebulization properties of 99mTc-labeled liposomal amikacin for inhalation (99mTc-LAI), and its stability by size exclusion low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC). LAI was reacted with 99mTc using SnCl2 dissolved in ascorbic acid as a reducing agent for 10 min at room temperature. The labeled products were then purified by anion exchange resin. The purified 99mTc-LAI in 1.5% NaCl solution was incubated at 4oC to assess its stability by LPLC. The purified 99mTc-LAI was subjected to studies with a clinically used nebulizer (PARI eFlow®) and the Anderson Cascade Impactor (ACI). The use of ascorbic acid at 0.91 mM resulted in a quantitative labeling efficiency. The LPLC profile showed that the liposomal peak of LAI detected by a UV monitor at both 200 nm and 254 nm overlapped with the radioactivity peak of 99mTc-LAI, indicating that 99mTc-LAI is suitable for tracing LAI. The ACI study demonstrated that the aerosol droplet size distribution determined gravimetrically was similar to that determined by radioactivity. The liposome surface labeling method using SnCl2 in 0.91mM ascorbic acid produced 99mTc-LAI with a high labeling efficiency and stability that are adequate to evaluate the deposition and clearance of inhaled LAI in the lung by gamma scintigraphy. PMID:23879241

  18. Evaluation of Simultaneous Dual-radioisotope SPECT Imaging Using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 99mTc-tetrofosmin

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Mochiki, Mizuki; Koyama, Keiko; Ino, Toshihiko; Yamaji, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Use of a positron emission tomography (PET)/single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system facilitates the simultaneous acquisition of images with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and technetium (99mTc)-tetrofosmin. However, 18F has a short half-life, and 511 keV Compton-scattered photons are detected in the 99mTc energy window. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the consequences of these facts. Methods: The crosstalk correction for images in the 99mTc energy window involved the dual energy window (DEW) subtraction method. In phantom studies, changes in the count of uniform parts in a phantom (due to attenuation from decay), signal detectability in the hot-rod part of the phantom, and the defect contrast ratio in a cardiac phantom were examined. Results: For 18F-FDG in the step-and-shoot mode, nearly a 9% difference was observed in the count of projection data between the start and end positions of acquisition in the uniform part of the phantom. Based on the findings, the detectability of 12 mm hot rods was relatively poor. In the continuous acquisition mode, the count difference was corrected, and detectability of the hot rods was improved. The crosstalk from 18F to the 99mTc energy window was approximately 13%. In the cardiac phantom, the defect contrast in 99mTc images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisition was improved by approximately 9% after DEW correction; the contrast after correction was similar to acquisition with 99mTc alone. Conclusion: Based on the findings, the continuous mode is useful for 18F-FDG acquisition, and DEW crosstalk correction is necessary for 99mTc-tetrofosmin imaging. PMID:27408894

  19. {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals for brain perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, E.; Volkert, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    It is well established that small, neutral, lipophilic technetium complexes can diffuse into the brain and then be trapped intracellularly by a variety of mechanisms. A more detailed understanding of the structural and chemical parameters which promote efficient diffusion into the brain, and which underlie the trapping mechanisms, will be necessary to delineate the clinical relevance of current agents, and to design improved technetium 99 pharmaceuticals. Current technetium 99 brain-perfusion imaging agents do not show ideal characteristics of brain uptake and retention. Furthermore, significant fractions of the technetium 99 complexes are lost between site of injection and the brain. Thus, it is difficult to use these current agents to quantitate regional cerebral blood flow. Nevertheless, these agents are proving extremely valuable for the SPECT evaluation of abnormalities in brain perfusion patients with neurological disorders.

  20. Separation of molybdenum and technetium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, J. D.; Gagnon, K.; Wilson, J. S.; Romaniuk, J.; Abrams, D. N.; McQuarrie, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    After the production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction, there is a requirement for separating 99mTc from bulk 100Mo. Although a number of separation methods have been demonstrated, the possibility of using a cartridge-based system is particularly attractive for routine use in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulatory environment. This study confirmed that hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) solid phase extraction (SPE) with PEG as stationary phase is an efficient and easily automated method for separating molybdate and pertechnetate, and that PEG degradation in the conditions used does not affect the performance of the resin. In addition, reversed phase SPE using Waters Oasis® HLB shows promise for successful separation of molybdenum and technetium and work continues to extend this technology to readily available commercial SPE cartridges.

  1. (99m)Tc-DMSA absolute and relative renal uptake in cats: procedure and normal values.

    PubMed

    Vandermeulen, Eva; Ham, Hamphrey R; Dobbeleir, André A; De Sadeleer, Carlos; Piepsz, Amy; Waelbers, Tim; Vermeire, Simon T; Slegers, Guido; Peremans, Kathelijne Y

    2011-06-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of technical factors (positioning, background (BG) correction and attenuation correction) on qualitative and quantitative (absolute (AU) and relative (RU) uptake) assessment of feline kidneys with (99m)technetium labelled dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA). Eleven healthy adult cats were included. Influence of BG and depth correction on quantitative assessment was evaluated. Depth correction was based on the geometric mean method (using dorsal and ventral images) and the use of two standards placed over each individual kidney. Visual evaluation showed superiority of dorsal and ventral over lateral positioning due to increased separation of the kidneys permitting region of interest (ROI) placement without overlap. No apparent influence of BG correction was found for RU. However, AU was systematically overestimated without BG correction. Depth correction did not seem to affect RU in most cases, however, in some cats the differences were not negligible. The values for AU without depth correction were lower compared to depth corrected values.

  2. Acute osteomyelitis in children: combined Tc-99m and Ga-67 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, J.S.; Rosenfield, N.S.; Hoffer, P.B.; Downing, D.

    1986-03-01

    This retrospective study was done to determine the value of combined bone (technetium-99m methylene-diphosphonate) and gallium-67 citrate imaging in selected children with complicated clinical situations. Thirty-one children were evaluated for suspected osteomyelitis by bone scan followed within 4 days by a gallium scan. These 31 children represented a subpopulation in whom the Tc-99m scan is known to be potentially unreliable in diagnosing acute osteomyelitis. Eight children had acute osteomyelitis by strict criteria, while 23 did not. The bone scan successfully identified five of the eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in ten of the other 23. The gallium scan correctly identified all eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in seven of the other 23. The gallium scan was significantly less specific when the suspected lesion was in the extremities compared with central locations; causes of false-positive gallium scans included fracture and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Combined gallium and bone scanning increased accuracy of the scintigraphic diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis. Both tests may, however, be abnormal in conditions other than osteomyelitis. These findings emphasize the importance of correlating all imaging studies in detection of osteomyelitis.

  3. Tc-99m polyclonal human immunoglobulin scintigraphy in brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Kadanali, A; Varoglu, E; Kerek, M; Tasyaran, M A

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Tc-99m polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) scintigraphy for the diagnosis of brucellosis, and to compare its effectiveness in the diagnosis of osteoarticular involvement in comparison with bone scanning. Of 30 patients with brucellosis, Tc-99m HIG detected osteoarticular involvement in 18 (60%) patients, in whom the sacroiliac joints were affected most commonly (n = 13; 72.2%), with statistically predominant bilateral involvement (p < 0.05). By bone scanning, the rate of osteoarticular involvement was 70% (21 of 30 patients), and the joints affected most commonly were sacroiliac (15 of 21 patients; 71.4%). Although bilateral involvement was observed mostly by bone scanning, there was no significant difference between the rate of bilateral and unilateral involvement. The anatomical distribution of osteoarticular complications, as detected by Tc-99m HIG and bone scintigraphy, did not differ significantly. With Tc-99m HIG, orchitis was detected in two patients and paravertebral abscess in one patient. Since bone scanning did not detect these soft tissue complications, Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy might be useful for the detection of both osteoarticular and soft tissue complications resulting from brucellosis.

  4. Excision of postesophageal parathyroid adenoma in posterior mediastinum with intraoperative 99mTechnetium sestamibi scanning.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Toshihisa; Tsuji, Ei-ichi; Kanauchi, Hajime; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Mimura, Yoshikazu; Kaminishi, Michio

    2007-11-01

    Although approximately 25% of parathyroid tumors in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism are located in the mediastinum, nearly all these tumors can be removed through cervical exploration. However, 1% to 2% of the mediastinal tumors require a transthoracic approach for removal. The mediastinal tumors are usually located in the inferior parathyroid gland, and the ectopic mediastinal tumors derived from the superior glands are extremely rare. We present a case of retroesophageal mediastinal parathyroid adenoma that developed in the left superior parathyroid gland. A thoracotomy was required to remove this tumor. Radioisotope-guided surgery was effective at identifying the tumor.

  5. Hepatic hemangiomas: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging and technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.K.; Gomes, A.; King, W.; Pusey, E.; Lois, J.; Goldstein, L.; Busuttil, R.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    A study was performed to evaluate and compare the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radionuclide blood-pool scanning in the detection of hepatic hemangiomas. All patients had known hemangiomas which were first detected on either ultrasound or computed tomography. Sixteen patients with a total of 23 lesions were investigated. Eleven patients had both MRI and blood-pool scans performed. In the group studied by both modalities, 18 lesions were detected ranging in size from 1 to 11 cm. All lesions were detected by both techniques. However, two of the 18 lesions had an atypical appearance on MRI. Our experience to date indicates that the anatomic location and specific diagnosis of hemangiomas can be made with a high degree of certainty when both MRI and blood-pool scanning techniques are utilized.

  6. Pattern of brain blood perfusion in tinnitus patients using technetium-99m SPECT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudian, Saeid; Farhadi, Mohammad; Gholami, Saeid; Saddadi, Fariba; Karimian, Ali Reza; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Ghoreyshi, Esmaeel; Ahmadizadeh, Majid; Lenarz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Tinnitus is associated with an increased activity in central auditory system as demonstrated by neuroimaging studies. Brain perfusion scanning using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was done to understand the pattern of brain blood perfusion of tinnitus subjects and find the areas which are mostly abnormal in these patients. Materials and Methods: A number of 122 patients with tinnitus were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. They underwent SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain, and the images were fused to find the regions with abnormal perfusion. Results: SPECT scan results were abnormal in 101 patients (83%). Most patients had bilateral abnormal perfusion (N = 65, 53.3%), and most subjects had abnormality in middle-temporal gyrus (N = 83, 68%) and temporoparietal cortex (N = 46, 37.7%). Patients with multifocal involvement had the least mean age than other 2 groups (patients with no abnormality and unifocal abnormality) (P value = 0.045). Conclusions: Brain blood perfusion pattern differs in patient with tinnitus than others. These patients have brain perfusion abnormality, mostly in auditory gyrus (middle temporal) and associative cortex (temporoparietal cortex). Multifocal abnormalities might be due to more cognitive and emotional brain centers involvement due to tinnitus or more stress and anxiety of tinnitus in the young patients. PMID:23267375

  7. Erythromycin hepatotoxicity. A rare cause of a false-positive technetium-99m DISIDA study

    SciTech Connect

    Swayne, L.C.; Kolc, J.

    1986-01-01

    An unusual cause of a cholescintigraphic, false-positive, erythromycin-induced hepatotoxicity is presented. This occurred in the presence of preservation of hepatic uptake and the normal appearance of gut activity. Serial scintigraphy and serum chemistries documented underlying gallbladder normalcy.

  8. Technetium-99m-HDP uptake characteristics in equine fractures: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, E; Geissbühlerl, U; Doherr, M G; Lang, J

    2006-10-01

    Bone scintigraphy is a very sensitive diagnostic tool to detect elevated bone metabolism. In cases of fractures and fissure fractures, the radiopharmaceutical uptake in the bone is said to be increased within a few hours after the injury. In this retrospective study, the scintigraphic uptake characteristics at the fracture site of 36 horses with radiographically confirmed fractures or fissure fractures were evaluated. Uptake ratios between the fracture region and adjacent normal bone or soft tissue activity respectively were calculated and compared to different anamnestic and radiographic data. The overall sensitivity of bone scintigraphy was 94.4% (34 positive cases out of 36). In the 36 horses, no correlation between the age of the fracture and the radiopharmaceutical uptake was found. However, there seems to be a lack of sensitivity in early detection of equine pelvic fractures when a standing bone scintigraphy examination protocol is used.

  9. Potential Role of Tc-99m DTPA Diuretic Renal Scan in the Diagnosis of Calyceal Diverticulum in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Shih, Shin-Lin; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) diuretic scan to diagnose calyceal diverticulum (CD). From January 2000 to June 2014, children with evidence of renal cystic lesions of undetermined diagnosis on ultrasound were enrolled. Computed tomography urography (CTU) and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic scan were performed to characterize the precise anatomy. The diagnosis of CD depended on visualization of a renal cystic lesion with filling of contrast material or radiotracer from the collecting system on CTU or diuretic renal scan. Children who had positive findings of CD on 1 or both imaging studies were selected and analyzed. Both CTU and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan were performed in 39 children. A total of 9 (23.1 %) children with CD were diagnosed. All 9 children had positive diagnosis of CD on diuretic renal scan. Only 6 (66.7%) children could be diagnosed by CTU, and CD was missed by CTU in 3 subjects. The differential renal functions in patients with CD were 46% to 55%. The time of radiotracer appearance in the CD ranged from the 8th to the 24th minute. Seven patients had persistent accumulation of radiotracer in their CD at the end of the study. Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan seems to be more sensitive than CTU in diagnosing CD. The possible reasons of higher sensitivity are discussed. Additional advantages that Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan provides include the following: continuous monitoring, less radiation doses, and information on renal function, making it an attractive alternative to CTU for diagnosis of CD. PMID:26091475

  10. Potential Role of Tc-99m DTPA Diuretic Renal Scan in the Diagnosis of Calyceal Diverticulum in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Shih, Shin-Lin; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) diuretic scan to diagnose calyceal diverticulum (CD). From January 2000 to June 2014, children with evidence of renal cystic lesions of undetermined diagnosis on ultrasound were enrolled. Computed tomography urography (CTU) and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic scan were performed to characterize the precise anatomy. The diagnosis of CD depended on visualization of a renal cystic lesion with filling of contrast material or radiotracer from the collecting system on CTU or diuretic renal scan. Children who had positive findings of CD on 1 or both imaging studies were selected and analyzed. Both CTU and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan were performed in 39 children. A total of 9 (23.1 %) children with CD were diagnosed. All 9 children had positive diagnosis of CD on diuretic renal scan. Only 6 (66.7%) children could be diagnosed by CTU, and CD was missed by CTU in 3 subjects. The differential renal functions in patients with CD were 46% to 55%. The time of radiotracer appearance in the CD ranged from the 8th to the 24th minute. Seven patients had persistent accumulation of radiotracer in their CD at the end of the study. Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan seems to be more sensitive than CTU in diagnosing CD. The possible reasons of higher sensitivity are discussed. Additional advantages that Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan provides include the following: continuous monitoring, less radiation doses, and information on renal function, making it an attractive alternative to CTU for diagnosis of CD.

  11. The use of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Zeltchan, R.; Slonimskaya, E.; Doroshenko, A.; Varlamova, N.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the feasibility of using the new radiopharmaceutical based on the technetium-99m-labeled gamma-alumina for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. The study included two groups of breast cancer patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperaive gamma probe identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). To identify SLNs, the day before surgery Group I patients (n = 34) were injected with radioactive 99mTc-Al2O3, and Group II patients (n = 30) received 99mTc-labeled phytate colloid. A total of 37 SLNs were detected in Group I patients. The number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 2 (the average number of identified SLNs was 1.08). Axillary lymph nodes were the most common site of SLN localization. 18 hours after 99mTc-Al2O3 injection, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 7-11% (of the counts in the injection site) by SPECT and 17-31% by gamma probe detection. In Group II SLNs were detected in 27 patients. 18 hours after injection of the phytate colloid the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 1.5-2% out of the counts in the injection site by SPECT and 4-7% by gamma probe. The new radiopharmaceutical based on the 99mTc-Al2O3 demonstrates high accumulation in SLNs without redistribution through the entire lymphatic basin. The sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc-Al2O3 were 100% for both SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe identification.

  12. (99m)Tc-DMSA scintigraphy diagnosing crossed renal ectopia with fusion in a three years old boy.

    PubMed

    Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Gardikis, Stefanos; Kambouri, Katerina; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Boussios, Nikos; Deftereos, Savas; Vaos, George; Chatzimichael, Athanassios

    2011-01-01

    A 3 years old boy with a history of surgery for orchidopexy was admitted to our hospital with fever and abdominal pain. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations revealed urinary tract infection with renal involvement. Ultrasonography demonstrated a solitary left kidney and raised the suspicion of a fusion anomaly. Voiding cystography disclosed grade III vesicoureteral reflux and technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy revealed right to left crossed renal ectopia with fusion (L-shaped kidney). The patient is undergoing standard follow-up for the early detection of possible renal complications. In conclusion, L-shaped kidney is a rare entity and the (99m)Tc-DMSA scintigraphy played an important role on timely diagnosis.

  13. Subacute and chronic bone infections: Diagnosis using In-111, Ga-67 and Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy and radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sheikh, W.; Sfakianakis, G.N.; Mnaymneh, W.; Hourani, M.; Heal, A.; Duncan, R.C.; Burnett, A.; Ashkar, F.S.; Serafini, A.N.

    1985-05-01

    The usefulness of indium-111 white blood cell scintigraphy in the diagnosis of subacute or chronic bone infection was examined in 21 orthopedic patients. In-111 WBC imaging was compared with gallium-67 and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate skeletal scintigraphy and bone radiography, all studies being performed within 1 week. In-111 WBC scintigraphy showed no definite advantage over Ga-67 scintigraphy in the identification of chronic bone infection. The two tests had the same sensitivity and similar specificity. Bone radiography had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 67%. A negative Tc-99m MDP bone scintigram ruled out infection, but because of low specific, final evaluation required performance of Ga-67 or In-111 WBC scintigraphy.

  14. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

    1985-05-01

    The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

  15. Hepatic clearance measured with 99mTc-GSA single-photon emission computed tomography to estimate liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Masahiko; Okizaki, Atsutaka; Watanabe, Kenji; Imai, Koji; Uchida, Koichiro; Einama, Takahiro; Shuke, Noriyuki; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical utility of hepatic clearance (HC) measured with technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to estimate the degree of liver fibrosis. METHODS: Seventy-eight consecutive patients who underwent initial hepatectomy due to hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled in this study. Indocyanine green clearance (ICG R15), quantitative indices estimated by 99mTc-GSA [the receptor index (LHL15 and HH15) and HC via SPECT analysis], and conventional liver function tests were performed before hepatectomy. Correlations among the quantitative indices for liver functional reserve, conventional liver function tests, and the degree of liver fibrosis were evaluated. RESULTS: The degree of liver fibrosis was correlated with ICG R15, HH15, LHL15, and HC. HC showed the best correlation with conventional liver function tests. According to multivariate analysis, HC and LHL15 were significant independent predictors of severe fibrosis. HC was the most valuable index for predicting severe fibrosis. CONCLUSION: HC measured with 99mTc-GSA SPECT is a reliable index for assessing liver fibrosis before hepatectomy. PMID:25469042

  16. Effect of a second nitroimidazole redox centre on the accumulation of a hypoxia marker: synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 99mTc-labeled bisnitroimidazole propylene amine oxime complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huafan; Zhou, Hao; Li, Zejun; Wang, Xiangyun; Chu, Taiwei

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, most of the hypoxia markers contain only one nitroimidazole redox centre, such as Oxo[[3,3,9,9-tetramethyl-1-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4,8-diazaundecane-2,10-dione dioximato] (3-)-N,N',N″,N″']-technetium ((99m)Tc-1, BMS181321). Introducing a second nitroimidazole redox centre may enhance the hypoxic accumulation of the markers. In the present work, four (99m)Tc-1 (BMS181321, containing one 2-nitroimidazole) analogues, that is, (99m)Tc-2 (containing two 2-nitroimidazoles), (99m)Tc-3 (containing one 4-nitroimidazole), (99m)Tc-4 (containing two 4-nitroimidazoles) and (99m)Tc-5 (containing both a 2-nitroimidazole and a 4-nitroimidazole) were synthesized, and the hypoxic accumulation was evaluated in vitro using murine sarcoma S180 cells. (99m)Tc-3 and (99m)Tc-4 displayed no significant anoxic/normoxic differentials, whereas (99m)Tc-1 (BMS181321), (99m)Tc-2 and (99m)Tc-5 showed high anoxic cellular uptakes. The anoxic uptake of (99m)Tc-2 reached up to 59.0±0.9% at 4h, which was 2.4 times as that of (99m)Tc-1. (99m)Tc-2 displayed high hypoxic accumulation, indicating that introducing a second nitroimidazole redox centre, that is, 2-nitroimidazole, affected the hypoxic accumulation. Consequently, (99m)Tc-2 may serve as a viable candidate for hypoxia marker. This finding may eventually lead to the development of compounds containing multi-redox centres as hypoxia markers.

  17. Electronic interaction chromatography on porous graphitic carbon. Separation of [99mTc]pertechnetate and perrhenate anions.

    PubMed

    Lim, C K

    1989-03-01

    The oxo anions of technetium-99m and rhenium, pertechnetate (TcO4-) and perrhenate (ReO4-), have been separated by high performance liquid chromatography on porous graphitic carbon with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid or salt solutions as eluent. Chromatographic retention was a result of electronic interaction between the lone pair electrons of the anions and the delocalised pi-electron clouds of the porous graphitic carbon. Retention and resolution can be controlled by the concentration and/or species of eluents which can compete with the solutes for electronic interaction being used for elution.

  18. Results of hepatobiliary imaging using Tc-99m EHIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, S.M.; Ahmed, R.; Rok

    1989-05-01

    Tc-99m labelled 2,6-diethylphenylcarbamoylmethyliminodiacetic acid (EHIDA) is a non-toxic radiopharmaceutical that was found to undergo rapid biliary excretion in a normal human, with accumulation of radioactivity in the gall bladder and intestine. Images in normal subjects and nonjaundiced patients showed rapid concentration of tracer by the liver and the passage of the same into the intestine within 15 to 40 minutes, with or without visualization of the gall bladder. In the jaundiced patient, the tracer blood clearance was delayed and urinary excretion was increased. Tc-99m EHIDA has been extensively investigated in 1634 patients to evaluate its performance in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders.

  19. Effect of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of 99mTc-DMSA on blood constituents: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Freitas, R S; Moreno, S R F; Lima-Filho, G L; Fonseca, A S; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2007-05-01

    We studied the influence of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) on blood constituents. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) from Wistar rats (control and treated) were separated. P and BC were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or ammonium sulphate (AS) and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) isolated. The percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was determined. The treatment influenced the %ATI in IF-P and in IF-BC isolated by TCA precipitation.

  20. Comparison of the tumor-seeking agent Tc-99m(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid and the renal imaging agent Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Ishii, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Sakahara, H.; Nakajima, T.; Yomoda, I.; Masuda, H.; Horiuchi, K.; Hata, N.

    1985-03-01

    Being aware of the ideal nuclear properties of Tc-99m, interest has been focused on the design of the (+5) oxidation state Tc-99m(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc(V)-DMSA) as a tumor-seeking agent. Tc-99m(V) DMSA holds a TcO4(3-) core and, like PO4(3-), has excellent characteristics for tumor uptake, but has a different distribution than the well-known renal scanning agent, Tc-99m DMSA. The differences in chemical behavior of Tc-99m(V) DMSA and Tc-99m DMSA are discussed. Three cases in which neoplasms were studied with Tc-99m(V) DMSA and Tc-99m DMSA are presented. Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m(V) DMSA, having a common ligand and tracer but, with the metal ion core in a different oxidation state, the uptake characteristics are altered markedly.

  1. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting Aβ plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  2. Poor Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake, re-evaluation with Tc-99m MAG3 scintigraphy in Lowe syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Demirel, Koray; Diri, Akif; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2011-01-01

    Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is filtered through the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules as low molecular weight proteins. In Lowe syndrome this mechanism is impaired and so poor DMSA uptake is seen. Poor DMSA uptake was shown in very few studies, but none mentioned normal Tc-99m MAG3 uptake. In this case, the patient had poor DMSA uptake, normal MAG3 uptake and a neurogenic bladder in anterior to the left kidney that attenuates left kidney. PMID:23559713

  3. Evaluation of peritoneovenous shunt patency with Tc-99m labeled microspheres.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, G; D'Ovidio, N G; Casu, A R; Mura, R; Costanza, C; Lai, N; LeVeen, H H

    1983-04-01

    The LeVeen peritoneovenous shunt (PVS) was investigated in 40 cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. Five millicuries of Tc-99m-tagged human albumin microspheres (15-36 microns) were injected into the peritoneal cavity between the umbilicus and the left anterior superior iliac spine. The radiotracer was always detectable by scintigram in the lungs when the shunt was patent. In case of malfunction, by contrast, the radioactivity was either restricted to the venous tube or confined below the diaphragm for at least 4 hr. In the presence of complete obstruction, whereas the tube was not visualized after peritoneal injection, it was outlined by direct injection of 2 mCi of Tc-99m albumin microspheres into its subcutaneous tract, where it crossed the 12th rib, immediately above the valve. This technique sufficed to establish whether the site of obstruction was at the valve or in the tubing itself. In one patient, poor visualization of the tube and a delayed image of the lungs was caused by partial occlusion of the valve with fibrinoid debris. This radiotracer method proved simple, quick, and led to an immediate selective replacement when the shunt was not patent. Therefore, the use of this test is recommended for a definitive diagnosis, since there were neither false negatives nor false positives. No complications such as embolism or bacterial infection were encountered with Tc-99m human albumin microspheres, which are excellent tracers. PMID:6220137

  4. Statistical parametric mapping demonstrates asymmetric uptake with Tc-99m ECD and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in normal brain.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Jones, David T; Stead, Matt; Kazemi, Noojan; O'Brien, Terence J; So, Elson L; Blumenfeld, Hal; Mullan, Brian P; Worrell, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate diethylester (ECD) and Tc-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) are commonly used for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies of a variety of neurologic disorders. Although these tracers have been very helpful in diagnosing and guiding treatment of neurologic disease, data describing the distribution and laterality of these tracers in normal resting brain are limited. Advances in quantitative functional imaging have demonstrated the value of using resting studies from control populations as a baseline to account for physiologic fluctuations in cerebral perfusion. Here, we report results from 30 resting Tc-99m ECD SPECT scans and 14 resting Tc-99m HMPAO scans of normal volunteers with no history of neurologic disease. Scans were analyzed with regions of interest and with statistical parametric mapping, with comparisons performed laterally (left vs. right), as well as for age, gender, and handedness. The results show regions of significant asymmetry in the normal controls affecting widespread areas in the cerebral hemispheres, but most marked in superior parietotemporal region and frontal lobes. The results have important implications for the use of normal control SPECT images in the evaluation of patients with neurologic disease.

  5. Effects of (99m)Tc sestamibi on antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation in the heart of Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Cesur, Gokhan; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Yildiz, Mustafa; Ogut, Serdal; Polat, Mumin; Ongel, Kurtulus

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear medicine has been using radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnostic and therapeutic purposes of many diseases. Technetium-(99m) methoxyisobutylisonitrile ((99m)Tc sestamibi) is a lypophilic complex that has a positive-loaded isonitril group. Aim of the study is to investigate whether (99m)Tc sestamibi, which is one of the mostly used radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine field, causes oxidative damage or not in rats' heart after an injection. A total of 16 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: group I: (99m)Tc sestamibi group, (99m)Tc sestamibi administered intravenously with the dose of 25MBq; group II: control group, one dose of isotonic sodium chloride was administered intravenous with the same volume as (99m)Tc sestamibi group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total oxidant status (TOS) were used as markers of oxidative stress-induced heart impairment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total antioxidant status (TAS) activities were studied to evaluate the changes in the antioxidant status. In the (99m)Tc sestamibi group (group I), animals treated with (99m)Tc sestamibi produced a significant decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT), while MDA level increased when compared with control group (group II) in myocardial tissue (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the GSH-Px activities were significantly increased in the (99m)Tc sestamibi-treated rats compared with the untreated rats (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the TAS and TOS levels of plasma.

  6. [Assessment of 99mTc-DMSA renography and uptake compared with creatinine clearance in rats with drug-induced nephrotoxicity--I. Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Yamada, M

    1991-04-01

    For evaluation of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) renal uptake as an absolute renal function, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was compared with endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg/day) was given subcutaneously to male Wistar rats for periods of 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. On the next day, the renography was performed 2 hours following intravenous injection of 99mTc-DMSA and Ccr was measured. On the 7th day, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was significantly lower in the treated rats than that in control (32.27 +/- 0.92 vs 39.84 +/- 2.24%; p less than 0.01), but Ccr did not change (0.37 +/- 0.02 vs 0.34 +/- 0.05 ml/min/100 g; NS). On the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 8th day after single subcutaneous injection of 80 mg of gentamicin, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was measured and the histological examination was done. On the 4th day, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was significantly lower than that on the 1st day (32.32 +/- 3.00 vs 38.91 +/- 1.95%; p less than 0.01) and microscopic examinations revealed that eosinophilic granular degenerations were evident in the renal cortex. The present study suggests that 99mTc-DMSA uptake reduces earlier than Ccr in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and 99mTc-DMSA uptake is a reliable indicator in the evaluation of a renal function in drug-induced nephrotoxicity.

  7. Imaging of human pancreatic cancer xenografts by single-photon emission computed tomography with 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIN; TIAN, YE; SUN, FANGFANG; FENG, HONGBO; YANG, CHUN; GONG, XIAOYAN; TAN, GUANG

    2015-01-01

    The elevated expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is associated with the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients. Thus, uPAR is a promising candidate as a molecular target for the non-invasive imaging of pancreatic cancer. The present study aimed to develop a technetium-99m (99mTc)-labeled uPAR-binding peptide for non-invasive single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) assessment of uPAR expression in pancreatic cancer xenograft models. A linear high-affinity uPAR peptide antagonist, Hynic-PEG-AE105, was labeled with 99mTc. Human uPAR-positive pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells were inoculated into nude mice. SPECT was performed in the pancreatic cancer xenograft mice models. The results showed that the rate of the 99mTc labeling of Hynic-PEG-AE105 was 97.72±1.73%. The tumor uptake of 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105 was higher than the control inactive peptide 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105mut at 4 h (3.37±0.11 vs. 1.36±0.18; P<0.001) and 6 h (3.64±0.25 vs. 1.28±0.20; P<0.001) (n=10). Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the tumor uptake of 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105 and uPAR expression (r=0.791, P=0.006). In conclusion, in the present study, a peptide-based SPECT tracer, 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105, with a high purity and specific radioactivity was synthesized. 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105 is a promising agent for the non-invasive determination of uPAR expression in pancreatic cancer. PMID:26622829

  8. Biodistribution of 99mTc Labeled Integrin Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Hee; Shin, In Soo; Maeng, Jin-Soo; Paik, Chang H.

    2013-01-01

    The selective targeting of an integrin αvβ3 receptor using radioligands may enable the assessment of angiogenesis and integrin αvβ3 receptor status in tumors. The aim of this research was to label a peptidomimetic integrin αvβ3 antagonist (PIA) with 99mTc(CO)3 and to test its receptor targeting properties in nude mice bearing receptor-positive tumors. PIA was reacted with tris-succinimidyl aminotriacetate (TSAT) (20 mM) as a PIA per TSAT. The product, PIA-aminodiacetic acid (ADA), was radiolabeled with [99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+1, and purified sequentially on a Sep-Pak C-18 cartridge followed by a Sep-Pak QMA anion exchange cartridge. Using gradient C-18 reverse-phase HPLC, the radiochemical purity of 99mTc(CO)3-ADA-PIA (retention time, 10.5 min) was confirmed to be > 95%. Biodistribution analysis was performed in nude mice (n = 5 per time point) bearing receptor-positive M21 human melanoma xenografts. The mice were administered 99mTc(CO)3-ADA-PIA intravenously. The animals were euthanized at 0.33, 1, and 2 hr after injection for the biodistribution study. A separate group of mice were also co-injected with 200 μg of PIA and euthanized at 1 hr to quantify tumor uptake. 99mTc(CO)3-ADA-PIA was stable in phosphate buffer for 21 hr, but at 3 and 6 hr, 7.9 and 11.5% of the radioactivity was lost as histidine, respectively. In tumor bearing mice, 99mTc(CO)3-ADA-PIA accumulated rapidly in a receptor-positive tumor with a peak uptake at 20 min, and rapid clearance from blood occurring primarily through the hepatobiliary system. At 20 min, the tumor-toblood ratio was 1.8. At 1 hr, the tumor uptake was 0.47% injected dose (ID)/g, but decreased to 0.12% ID/g when co-injected with an excess amount of PIA, indicating that accumulation was receptor mediated. These results demonstrate successful 99mTc labeling of a peptidomimetic integrin antagonist that accumulated in a tumor via receptor-specific binding. However, tumor uptake was very low because of low blood concentrations

  9. 99mTc-human immunoglobulin (HIG)--first results of a new agent for the localization of infection and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Buscombe, J R; Lui, D; Ensing, G; de Jong, R; Ell, P J

    1990-01-01

    Technetium (99mTc) labelled, polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) is a new agent that detects focal infection and inflammation. This new agent was compared in 40 patients with the accepted standard, namely 111In-oxine-labelled leucocytes. This comparison resulted in a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 96% for 99mTc-HIG when 111In-oxine leucocytes were defined as giving the true result. The new agent was shown to localize both sepsis and active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There was 100% concordance in the 16 patients with IBD who were imaged with both 99mTc-HIG and 111In-oxine leucocytes. Discordant results were obtained in one case of suspected osteomyelitis, which was false-positive on the 99mTc-HIG scan, and one case of pyrexia of unknown origin when the 99mTc-HIG was false-negative and the 111In-oxine leucocyte scan demonstrated accumulation of tracer in the caecum at 24 h post-injection. Normal distribution for 99mTc-HIG demonstrated activity in the kidneys and bladder and that 50% of the tracer is cleared through the kidneys during the first 24 h post-injection. There were no major or minor side-effects.

  10. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas' disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  11. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas's disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  12. Clinical evaluation of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA renogram

    SciTech Connect

    Van Poppel, H.; Vereecken, R.; Vekemans, K.; Verduyn, H.; Mortelmans, L.; de Roo, M.

    1985-04-01

    Two hundred-two /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA renograms for urologic problems were evaluated. Some technical aspects of the examination and the value of the scintigraphic depth estimation are discussed. Pre- and postoperative uptake values in patients with renal surgery and sequential postoperative examinations are considered. The value of DMSA renograms in predicting recovery in obstructive uropathy and in deciding to opt for conservative therapy or nephrectomy is discussed.

  13. A comparison of bone imaging with Tc-99m DPD and Tc-99m MDP: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, U.; Kleinhans, E.; Zorn-Bopp, E.; Reuschel, W.; Muenzing, W.; Moser, E.A.; Seiderer, M.

    1982-03-01

    Bone to soft tissue (ST) ratios for both high-uptake bone (sacrum) and low-uptake bone (femoral diaphysis) were obtained with a derivative of phosphonic acid, TC-99m 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1, 1-diphosphonate (DPD), in 26 normal subjects and 177 patients with malignant disease but without metastases. Tests were run 2 hr after tracer injection. Similar ratios were obtained with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in 220 normal subjects and 451 patients. With MDP, the influence of incubation time (5-10 min in 416 cases, 45 min in 185 cases) on these ratios was determined. DPD was superior to MDP for both ratios. With MDP, prolonged incubation time yielded significantly enhanced ratios; however, the ratios for the DPD were still higher. With either agent and preparation, sacrum-to-ST ratios decreased with increasing subject age, and in patients with malignant disease the ratios tended to be higher than those obtained from normals.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of a /sup 99m/Tc-SnF2 colloid kit for leukocyte labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, J.I.; Tatum, J.L.; Fratkin, M.J.; Apostolides, D.L.; Quint, R.I.

    1989-07-01

    Stannous fluoride colloid (SFC) kits for instant radiolabeling with 99mTc were prepared and evaluated for suitability as a leukocyte radiolabeling agent. Technetium-99m labeling for kits stored at -15/degree/C for up to 3 mo was greater than 95% as determined by instant thin layer chromatography while colloid particles of 1-3 microns were measured by electron microscope for these preparations. Canine leukocyte preparations labeled with (/sup 99m/Tc)SFC and characterized by triple density gradients of metrizamide in plasma demonstrated an 83% leukocyte association. Analysis of labeled cell preparation for up to 3 hr demonstrated label stability. Labeled leukocytes, when readministered in normal dogs, demonstrated bi-exponential blood clearance with uptake and subsequent clearance from lung. There was increasing uptake of labeled leukocytes by the liver until steady state was achieved. Furthermore, when whole blood samples were analyzed by the triple density gradient method, an increasing monocyte-to-granulocyte ratio was observed to occur with time. By 3 hr 95% of the whole blood activity was associated with the leukocyte fraction. Dogs in which a 24-hr sterile abscess was created demonstrated elevated blood-pool activity as compared to control with localization of the labeled cells at inflammatory sites within 3 hr following cell readministration.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of a 99mTc-SnF2 colloid kit for leukocyte labeling.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, J I; Tatum, J L; Fratkin, M J; Apostolides, D L; Quint, R I

    1989-07-01

    Stannous fluoride colloid (SFC) kits for instant radiolabeling with 99mTc were prepared and evaluated for suitability as a leukocyte radiolabeling agent. Technetium-99m labeling for kits stored at -15 degrees C for up to 3 mo was greater than 95% as determined by instant thin layer chromatography while colloid particles of 1-3 microns were measured by electron microscope for these preparations. Canine leukocyte preparations labeled with [99mTc]SFC and characterized by triple density gradients of metrizamide in plasma demonstrated an 83% leukocyte association. Analysis of labeled cell preparation for up to 3 hr demonstrated label stability. Labeled leukocytes, when readministered in normal dogs, demonstrated bi-exponential blood clearance with uptake and subsequent clearance from lung. There was increasing uptake of labeled leukocytes by the liver until steady state was achieved. Furthermore, when whole blood samples were analyzed by the triple density gradient method, an increasing monocyte-to-granulocyte ratio was observed to occur with time. By 3 hr 95% of the whole blood activity was associated with the leukocyte fraction. Dogs in which a 24-hr sterile abscess was created demonstrated elevated blood-pool activity as compared to control with localization of the labeled cells at inflammatory sites within 3 hr following cell readministration.

  16. Estimation of Organ Absorbed Doses in Patients from 99mTc-diphosphonate Using the Data of MIRDose Software

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Cheki, Mohsen; Moslehi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare estimation of radiation absorbed doses to patients following bone scans with technetium-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) with the estimates given in MIRDose software. In this study, each patient was injected 25 mCi of 99mTc-MDP. Whole-body images from thirty patients were acquired by gamma camera at 10, 60, 90, 180 minutes after 99mTc-MDP injection. To determine the amount of activity in each organ, conjugate view method was applied on images. MIRD equation was then used to estimate absorbed doses in different organs of patients. At the end, absorbed dose values obtained in this study were compared with the data of MIRDose software. The absorbed doses per unit of injected activity (mGy/MBq × 10–4) for liver, kidneys, bladder wall and spleen were 3.86 ± 1.1, 38.73 ± 4.7, 4.16 ± 1.8 and 3.91 ± 1.3, respectively. The results of this study may be useful to estimate the amount of activity that can be administered to the patient and also showed that methods used in the study for absorbed dose calculation is in good agreement with the data of MIRDose software and it is possible to use by a clinician. PMID:23724374

  17. The determination of relative renal function in a pediatric population using Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Kuruc, A.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-05-01

    Three methods for evaluating relative renal function in a pediatric population were compared. The clinical and nuclear medicine data of 73 patients were reviewed. Pertinent data included patient age, serum creatinine and the referral diagnosis (reflux, hypertension, obstructive uropathy). Time activity curves for renal regions of interest (ROI) were obtained by renography with Tc-99m DTPA, and deconvolved by an externally detected blood pool curve Furosemide was then administered to evaluate the renal collecting system (if indicated). This was followed by DMSA administration. Relative function was determined in 3 ways: 1) Accumulated renal DTPA activity 60-120 sec. following injection. 2) Amplitude of the tubular phase of the deconvolved renal curve and, 3) Accumulated Tc-99m DMSA activity in renal ROI 4 or 24 hrs. post-injection. Regression analysis revealed: 1) The basic relationship of relative functional data obtained by all three methods was not affected by creatinine, age or other factors. 2) The relationship between the three methods is linear and highly correlated. 3) The DMSA values may be predicted from either method of analyzing the DTPA study using appropriate predictor equations. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DMSA, due to its higher cost and more radiation exposure should not be used for the routine evaluation of relative renal function.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-labeled SBA-16 mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Barros, André Luís Branco; de Oliveira Ferraz, Karina Silva; Dantas, Thais Cristina Soares; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros de

    2015-11-01

    Along with anti-cancer drug delivery researches, many efforts have been done to develop new tracers for diagnostic applications. Based on advances in molecular imaging, nanoparticles can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological process at molecular and cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to synthesize, characterize and radiolabeled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for in vivo applications. The nanoparticles were synthesized, functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and then, anchored with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Particles were physicochemical characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential, and were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Results indicate that functionalization process was successfully achieved. Next, functionalized silica nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m showing high radiochemical yields and high radiolabeled stability. These findings allow the use of the particles for in vivo applications. Biodistribution and scintigraphic images were carried out in healthy mice in order to determine the fate of the particles. Results from in vivo experiments showed high uptake by liver, as expected due to phagocytosis. However, particles also showed a significant uptake in the lungs, indicated by high lung-to-non-target tissue ratio. In summary, taking into account the great potential of these silica mesoporous structures to carry molecules this platform could be a good strategy for theranostic purposes.

  19. Assessment of soft tissue hemangiomas in children utilizing Tc-99m labelled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Hemangiomas may present in infancy as soft tissue masses. Occasionally these lesions may be extensive or may not be clinically recognized as a hemangioma, often causing concern for the presence of a malignant lesion. In later childhood these lesions, which may be occult, may cause overgrowth of an extremity. Evaluation of soft tissue masses suspected of being a hemangioma utilizing Technetium 99m labelled red blood cells has been very valuable. This method allows a dynamic evaluation of first pass blood flow. Subsequent static scintiphotos allow an assessment of the lesion itself. These scintiphotos may be obtained sequentially to evaluate therapy. Twenty patients were evaluated by this method ranging in age from two months to eleven years. There were 13 females and seven males. Lesions evaluated by this method include six hemangiomas of the head and neck: parotic region (2), facial (3), and tongue (1). Extremity lesions were evaluated in six children including both upper extremity (1) and lower extremity (5). Torso lesions evaluated include chest wall (2), abdominal wall (2), and one hemangioma of the gut. This procedure is quickly performed on an outpatient basis, has high anatomic resolution, provides and assessment of these lesions in a manner not available by any other imaging procedure and usually requires no sedation. The radiation exposure for this procedure is low (approximately, a 400mR total body dose) and has been well tolerated by both patients and their parents. Scintigraphic evaluation should be the first diagnostic method utilized in the evaluation of these lesions.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-labeled SBA-16 mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Barros, André Luís Branco; de Oliveira Ferraz, Karina Silva; Dantas, Thais Cristina Soares; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros de

    2015-11-01

    Along with anti-cancer drug delivery researches, many efforts have been done to develop new tracers for diagnostic applications. Based on advances in molecular imaging, nanoparticles can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological process at molecular and cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to synthesize, characterize and radiolabeled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for in vivo applications. The nanoparticles were synthesized, functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and then, anchored with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Particles were physicochemical characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential, and were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Results indicate that functionalization process was successfully achieved. Next, functionalized silica nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m showing high radiochemical yields and high radiolabeled stability. These findings allow the use of the particles for in vivo applications. Biodistribution and scintigraphic images were carried out in healthy mice in order to determine the fate of the particles. Results from in vivo experiments showed high uptake by liver, as expected due to phagocytosis. However, particles also showed a significant uptake in the lungs, indicated by high lung-to-non-target tissue ratio. In summary, taking into account the great potential of these silica mesoporous structures to carry molecules this platform could be a good strategy for theranostic purposes. PMID:26249579

  1. Diagnostic Performances of 99mTc-Methoxy Isobutyl Isonitrile Scan in Predicting the Malignancy of Lung Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuxin; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the value of technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in differentiating malignant from benign lung lesions. The PubMed and Embase databases were comprehensively searched for relevant articles that evaluated lung lesions suspicious for malignancy. Two reviewers independently extracted the data on study characteristics and examination results, and assessed the quality of each selected study. The data extracted from the eligible studies were assessed by heterogeneity and threshold effect tests. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and areas under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curves (SROC) were also calculated. Fourteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and DOR of 99mTc-MIBI scan in detecting malignant lung lesions were 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81, 0.87), 0.83 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.88), 4.22 (95% CI: 2.53, 7.04), 0.20 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.31), and 25.71 (95% CI: 10.67, 61.96), respectively. The area under the SROC was 0.9062. Meta-regression analysis showed that the accuracy estimates were significantly influenced by ethnic groups (P < 0.01), but not by image analysis methods, mean lesion size, or year of publication. Deek funnel plot asymmetry test for the overall analysis did not raise suspicion of publication bias (P = 0.50). Our results indicated that 99mTc-MIBI scan is a promising diagnostic modality in predicting the malignancy of lung lesions. PMID:27149482

  2. Effectiveness of pinaverium bromide in the treatment of primitive biliary dyskinesia: 99mTc-P-IDA scintigraphic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Scaffidi, A; Costa, R; Frontespezi, S

    1987-09-01

    The 99mTc-P-IDA (technetium-p-iminodiacetic acid) hepatocholangiocholecystoscintigraphy is a diagnostic technique which allows information on the liver biligenetic and excretory capabilities to be obtained. It is, moreover, a test that mirrors closely the anatomic and functional conditions of the cholecyst and choledochus. In this study the authors wanted to verify whether pinaverium bromide, a drug with a documented musculotropic-spasmolytic activity, was able to induce changes in some abnormal instrumental parameters observed in 24 subjects with primitive biliary dyskinesia. The results revealed that the ti values, characteristically longer in those subjects, were significantly reduced in the group of patients treated with pinaverium bromide. On the contrary, in the group of patients treated with placebo, there was no change with respect to this parameter. PMID:3316061

  3. Dose Calibrator Linearity Testing: Radioisotope (99m)Tc or (18)F? An Alternative for Reducing Costs in Nuclear Medicine Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Willegaignon, José; Sapienza, Marcelo T; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre T; Alves, Carlos E; Cardona, Marissa R; Gutterres, Ricardo F; Buchpiguel, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Dose calibrator linearity testing is indispensable for evaluating the capacity of this equipment in measuring radioisotope activities at different magnitudes, a fundamental aspect of the daily routine of a nuclear medicine department, and with an impact on patient exposure. The main aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of substituting the radioisotope Fluorine-18 ((18)F) with Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) in this test, and to indicate it with the lowest operational cost. The test was applied with sources of (99m)Tc (62 GBq) and (18)F (12 GBq), the activities of which were measured at different times, with the equipment preadjusted to measuring sources of (99m)Tc, (18)F, Gallium-67 ((67)Ga), and Iodine-131 ((131)I). Over time, the average deviation between measured and expected activities from (99m)Tc and (18)F were, respectively, 0.56 (±1.79)% and 0.92 (±1.19)%. The average ratios for 99(m)Tc source experimental activity, when measured with the equipment adjusted for measuring (18)F, (67)Ga, and (131)I sources, in real values, were, respectively, 3.42 (±0.06), 1.45 (±0.03), and 1.13 (±0.02), and those for the (18)F source experimental activity, measured through adjustments of (99m)Tc, (67)Ga, and (131)I, were, respectively, 0.295 (±0.004), 0.335 (±0.007), and 0.426 (±0.006). The adjustment of a simple exponential function for describing (99m)Tc and (18)F experimental activities facilitated the calculation of the physical half-lives of the radioisotopes, with a difference of about 1% in relation to the values described in the literature. Linearity test results, when using (99m)Tc, through being compatible with those acquired with (18)F, imply the possibility of using both radioisotopes during linearity testing. Nevertheless, this information, along with the high potential of exposure and the high cost of (18)F, implies that (99m)Tc should preferably be employed for linearity testing in clinics that normally use (18)F, without the risk of

  4. Dose Calibrator Linearity Testing: Radioisotope 99mTc or 18F? An Alternative for Reducing Costs in Nuclear Medicine Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Willegaignon, José; Sapienza, Marcelo T.; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre T.; Alves, Carlos E.; Cardona, Marissa R.; Gutterres, Ricardo F.; Buchpiguel, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Dose calibrator linearity testing is indispensable for evaluating the capacity of this equipment in measuring radioisotope activities at different magnitudes, a fundamental aspect of the daily routine of a nuclear medicine department, and with an impact on patient exposure. The main aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of substituting the radioisotope Fluorine-18 (18F) with Technetium-99m (99mTc) in this test, and to indicate it with the lowest operational cost. The test was applied with sources of 99mTc (62 GBq) and 18F (12 GBq), the activities of which were measured at different times, with the equipment preadjusted to measuring sources of 99mTc, 18F, Gallium-67 (67Ga), and Iodine-131 (131I). Over time, the average deviation between measured and expected activities from 99mTc and 18F were, respectively, 0.56 (±1.79)% and 0.92 (±1.19)%. The average ratios for 99mTc source experimental activity, when measured with the equipment adjusted for measuring 18F, 67Ga, and 131I sources, in real values, were, respectively, 3.42 (±0.06), 1.45 (±0.03), and 1.13 (±0.02), and those for the 18F source experimental activity, measured through adjustments of 99mTc, 67Ga, and 131I, were, respectively, 0.295 (±0.004), 0.335 (±0.007), and 0.426 (±0.006). The adjustment of a simple exponential function for describing 99mTc and 18F experimental activities facilitated the calculation of the physical half-lives of the radioisotopes, with a difference of about 1% in relation to the values described in the literature. Linearity test results, when using 99mTc, through being compatible with those acquired with 18F, imply the possibility of using both radioisotopes during linearity testing. Nevertheless, this information, along with the high potential of exposure and the high cost of 18F, implies that 99mTc should preferably be employed for linearity testing in clinics that normally use 18F, without the risk of prejudicing either the procedure itself or the guarantee of

  5. Reliability of single kidney glomerular filtration rate measured by a 99mTc-DTPA gamma camera technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rehling, M.; Moller, M.L.; Jensen, J.J.; Thamdrup, B.; Lund, J.O.; Trap-Jensen, J.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of a previously published method for determination of single kidney glomerular filtration rate (SKGFR) by means of technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (99mTc-DTPA) gamma camera renography was evaluated. The day-to-day variation in the calculated SKGFR values was earlier found to be 8.8%. The technique was compared to the simultaneously measured renal clearance of inulin in 19 unilaterally nephrectomized patients with GFR varying from 11 to 76 ml/min. The regression line (y = 1.04 X -2.5) did not differ significantly from the line of identity. The standard error of estimate was 4.3 ml/min. In 17 patients the inter- and intraobserver variation of the calculated SKGFR values was 1.2 ml/min and 1.3 ml/min, respectively. In 21 of 25 healthy subjects studied (age range 27-29 years), total GFR calculated from the renograms was within an established age-dependent normal range of GFR.

  6. 99mTc-DTPA aerosol for same-day post-perfusion ventilation imaging: results of a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Köhn, H; Mostbeck, A; Bachmayr, S; Eber, O; Galvan, G; Holm, C; König, B; Lind, P; Markt, B; Ogris, E

    1993-01-01

    A multicentre study was performed in an attempt to evaluate a submicronic technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid aerosol generated by a newly developed delivery system, the aerosol production equipment (APE nebulizer), for same-day post-perfusion ventilation imaging in patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism. Quantitative comparison between the DTPA aerosol and krypton gas demonstrated a close correlation with respect to regional pulmonary distribution of activity and peripheral lung penetration (n = 14, r = 0.94, P < 0.001 and r = 0.75, P < 0.0025, respectively). In 169 consecutive patients, DTPA aerosol images performed immediately following perfusion (inhalation scan I) were compared to those carried out on the next day (inhalation scan II) with respect to image quality and assessment of perfusion-ventilation matches or mismatches. Agreement between inhalation scans I and II with respect to perfusion defects matched or mismatched to ventilation was found in 166/169 (98%) studies. The image quality of inhalation scan I was equal to that of scan II in 72%; inhalation scan I was superior in 11% of cases, while scan II was superior in 17%. This submicronic 99mTc-labelled DTPA aerosol is well suited for fast same-day post-perfusion ventilation imaging in patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism.

  7. Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  8. The first experience of using of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshenko, A.; Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Zeltchan, R.; Slonimskaya, E.; Varlamova, N.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.; Sinilkin, I.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the feasibility of using the new radiopharmaceutical based on the technetium-99m-labeled gamma-alumina for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. Materials and methods. The study included two groups of breast cancer patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperaive gamma probe identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). To identify SLNs, the day before surgery Group I patients (n=34) were injected with radioactive 99mTc-Al203, and Group II patients (n=30) received 99mTc-labeled phytate colloid. Results. A total of 37 SLNs were detected in Group I patients. The number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 2 (the average number of identified SLNs was 1.08). Axillary lymph nodes were the most common site of SLN localization. At 18 hours after 99mTc-Al203 injection, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 7-11% (of the counts in the injection site) by SPECT and 17-31% by gamma probe detection. In Group II patients, SLNs were detected in 27 patients. At 18 hours after injection of the phytate colloid, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 1.5-2% out of the counts in the injection site by SPECT and 4-7% by gamma probe. Conclusion. The new radiopharmaceutical based on the 99mTc - Al203 demonstrates high accumulation in SLNs without redistribution through the entire lymphatic basin. Sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc - Al203 were 100% for both SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe identification.

  9. (99m)Tc-Galacto-RGD2: a novel 99mTc-labeled cyclic RGD peptide dimer useful for tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shundong; Czerwinski, Andrzej; Zhou, Yang; Shao, Guoqiang; Valenzuela, Francisco; Sowiński, Paweł; Chauhan, Satendra; Pennington, Michael; Liu, Shuang

    2013-09-01

    This study sought to evaluate [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-Galacto-RGD2)(tricine)(TPPTS)] ((99m)Tc-Galacto-RGD2: HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; Galacto-RGD2 = Glu[cyclo[Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys(SAA-PEG2-(1,2,3-triazole)-1-yl-4-methylamide)

  10. Human monoclonal antibody 99mTc-88BV59: detection of colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease and immunogenicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Krause, B J; Baum, R P; Staib-Sebler, E; Lorenz, M; Niesen, A; Hör, G

    1997-01-01

    This study presents immunoscintigraphic results in 24 patients suffering from primary colorectal cancer, recurrent or metastatic disease after the injection of 1197-1351 MBq technetium-99m labelled totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59. Labelling efficacy of 99mTc-88BV59 ranged from 97% to 99%. Immunoscintigraphy was performed 18-20 h after injection. Scintigraphic findings were compared with those of computed tomography (CT). Patients underwent surgery in order to evaluate immunoscintigraphic findings histologically. Sera of the patients (before injection and 1 and 3 months post infusion) were analysed for the presence of human anti-human antibodies (HAHA). None of the patients showed a HAHA response as assessed by a solid-phase ELISA assay. The antibody scan detected about 25% more lesions than CT. In the detection of extrahepatic disease, the sensitivity of the antibody scan proved to be 68%, whereas the sensitivity of CT was 41%.

  11. [Assessment of 99mTc-DMSA renography and uptake compared with creatinine clearance in rats with drug-induced nephrotoxicity--II. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Yamada, M

    1991-04-01

    For evaluation of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) renal uptake as an absolute renal function, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was compared with endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. At first, Male Wistar rats were given intraperitoneally 1.8 mg/kg/day of cisplatin for periods of 3, 5, 7 and 9 days. On the next day, 99mTc-DMSA uptake and Ccr were measured. Ccr of 5-day treated group was significantly lower than that of control (0.13 +/- 0.10 vs 0.34 +/- 0.05 ml/min/100 g; p less than 0.01) but 99mTc-DMSA uptake did not change. 99mTc-DMSA uptake of 7-day treated group was significantly lower than that of control (28.57 +/- 7.23 vs 39.84 +/- 2.23%; p less than 0.01). As the second experiment, cisplatin (3.6 mg/kg/day) was given intraperitoneally on the 1st, 2nd, 15th and 16th day. On the 5th, 8th, 11th, 15th, 20th, 23rd, 26th and 30th day, the same measurements were done as the first one. Ccr was lower in cisplatin treated rats on the 5th day than that in control (0.10 +/- 0.03 vs 0.34 +/- 0.05 ml/min/100 g; p less than 0.01), thereafter tended to be recovered to the control level. On the other hand, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was lower than that of control on the 8th, 11th and 15th day (32.40 +/- 3.86, 32.56 +/- 1.19, 35.21 +/- 2.97 vs 39.84 +/- 2.23%, respectively; p less than 0.01). The discrepancy between 99mTc-DMSA uptake and Ccr was observed in the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. 99mTc-DMSA uptake was suggested to be a reliable indicator of a renal function in a different way from Ccr.

  12. Identification of severe and extensive coronary artery disease by postexercise regional wall motion abnormalities in Tc-99m sestamibi gated single-photon emission computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sharir, T; Bacher-Stier, C; Dhar, S; Lewin, H C; Miranda, R; Friedman, J D; Germano, G; Berman, D S

    2000-12-01

    Postexercise wall motion abnormality (WMA) in patients with normal resting myocardial perfusion may represent prolonged postischemic stunning, and may be related to the presence of severe angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD). This study assesses the diagnostic value of postexercise WMA by technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with normal resting perfusion. Ninety-nine patients underwent exercise gated Tc-99m sestamibi/resting thallium-201 SPECT and coronary angiography within 90 days of nuclear testing. All patients had normal perfusion at rest. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated an incremental value of wall motion and perfusion over perfusion data alone in identifying severe and extensive CAD. Sensitivity for identifying any severely stenosed coronary artery by WMA was significantly higher than by severe perfusion defect (78% vs 49%, p <0.0001). Overall specificities of severe perfusion defect and WMA were 91% and 85%, respectively (p = NS). Thus, postexercise WMA detected by gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT in patients with normal resting perfusion is a sensitive marker of severe and extensive CAD.

  13. Use of {sup 99m}Tc 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile in minimally invasive radioguided surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A narrative review of the current literature

    SciTech Connect

    Denmeade, Kristie A; Constable, Chris; Reed, Warren M

    2013-06-15

    The use of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc MIBI) for assistance in minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS) is growing in popularity as a safe, effective, and proficient technique used for parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treatment. Previously, the preferred treatment for PHPT was bilateral neck exploration (BNE), a very invasive, costly, and lengthy procedure. However, as a large majority (80–85% of cases of PHPT) are attributed to a single parathyroid adenoma (PA), a simpler more direct technique such as MIRS is a far better option. The following article is an exploration of the current literature concerning varied protocols utilizing {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS for patients undergoing treatment of PHPT. This technique boasts many advantageous outcomes for patients suffering from PHPT. These include a reduction in cost, operating time, and patient recovery; less evidence of post-surgical hypocalcaemia, less pain, and complications; superior cosmetic results; same-day discharge; and the possibility of local anaesthesia which is particularly beneficial in elderly patients. Better outcomes for patients with deep or ectopic PAs, reduced intra-operative complications, and improved cosmetic outcomes for patients who have previously undergone thyroid and/or parathyroid surgery are also advantageous. Of the literature reviewed it was also found that no patients suffered any major surgical complications such as laryngeal nerve palsy or permanent hypoparathyroidism using {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS.

  14. A review of the cost-effectiveness of Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography in diagnosis of breast cancer in Taiwanese women with indeterminate mammographically dense breast.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Shan; Wang, Wei-Hua; Chan, Tam; Sun, Shung-Shung; Kao, Albert

    2002-11-01

    In general, biopsy is the preferred management method for women with indeterminate mammographically dense breasts. In this review, we describe a decision analysis model comparing technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-99m sestamibi) scintimammography and excisional biopsy as breast cancer evaluation strategies for hypothetical cohorts of estimated 16,000-40,000 women with indeterminate mammographic probability of malignancy because of mammographically dense breasts. In cost-effectiveness analysis, quantitative decision tree sensitivity analysis was used to compare the conventional excision biopsy alone strategy (strategy A) with decision strategy for screening with Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography before excision biopsy (strategy B) after an indeterminate mammogram. Strategy B showed a cost saving of US dollars 649,600-1,624,000 in reducing the cost of unnecessary biopsies. The total cost of strategy B showed a cost saving of US dollars 123,075-307,776 compared to strategy A. The analysis data indicate that Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography can save the cost of unnecessary biopsies in Taiwanese women with non-diagnostic mammogram because of mammographically dense breasts. PMID:12356511

  15. Convenient route leading to neutral fac-M(CO)3(NNO) complexes (M = Re, 99mTc) coupled to amine pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Chiotellis, Aris; Tsoukalas, Charalambos; Pelecanou, Maria; Raptopoulou, Catherine; Terzis, Aris; Papadopoulos, Minas; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zetta; Pirmettis, Ioannis

    2008-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of three neutral tricarbonyl fac-M(CO)3(NNO) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) complexes based on the picolylamine N,N-diacetic acid (PADA) ligand is reported. One of the two carboxylate groups of the PADA ligand is efficiently and conveniently derivatized with an amine nucleophile through the use of the PADA anhydride. In this work, aniline, benzylamine and pyrrolidine were used as model amine nucleophiles. The rhenium complexes were synthesized using the [NEt4]2[Re(CO)3Br3] precursor and fully characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods, and X-ray crystallography. The analogous technetium-99m complexes were also prepared quantitatively using the [(99m)Tc(CO)3(H2O)3](+) precursor. The reaction scheme presented for the synthesis of the fac-M(CO)3(NNO) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) complexes can be applied to the development of target-specific radiopharmaceuticals because, in principle, any bioactive pharmacophore bearing an amine group can be used in the place of the model amine nucleophiles. PMID:18293919

  16. Cyclotron production of NCA 99mTc and 99Mo. An alternative non-reactor supply source of instant 99mTc and 99Mo----99mTc generators.

    PubMed

    Lagunas-Solar, M C; Kiefer, P M; Carvacho, O F; Lagunas, C A; Cha, Y P

    1991-01-01

    The direct production of no-carrier-added (NCA) 6.02 h 99mTc and of 66 h 99mMo using proton beams of natural Mo targets was investigated. The major objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of utilizing high-intensity proton accelerators as a supply source of 99mTc and 99Mo for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The excitation functions for the production of the directly-made 99mTc via the 100Mo(p, 2n)99mTc (Q = -7.85 MeV) reaction, and of its parent 99Mo via the 100Mo(p, pn) 99Mo (Q = -8.30 MeV) and 100Mo(p, 2p)99mNb(15 s)----99Mo (Q = -11.14 MeV) reactions, were measured in the 68-8 MeV energy range. Single and cumulative yields for 99mTc and 99Mo, and for other Tc, Mo, Zr, Nb and Y radiocontaminants were also determined. The prospects of integrating the use of enriched 100Mo targets with high-intensity, dual beam, H- accelerators was analyzed. The potential of this combined method to replace or complement the current reactor-based supply sources of 99Mo----99mTc generators, is also discussed. Finally, a brief analysis is made on the potential use of this combined technology to support the anticipated expansion of nuclear medicine in developing nations.

  17. Decomposition of Tc-99m pyrophosphate by peroxides in pertechnetate used in preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Der, M.; Ballinger, J.R.; Bowen, B.M.

    1981-07-01

    We describe an investigation of the stability of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi). We have shown that addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide to Tc-99m PPi can initiate the oxidation of the complex, giving rise to 95% unbound pertechnetate. The presence of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the sodium pertechnetate used in the preparation of Tc-99m PPi has been thought to influence its stability. We have prepared it using pertechnetate solutions of different specific activities. After preparation, an alumina column was used to detect free /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/. The Tc-99m PPi and Na/sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/ solutions were then assayed by iodometric titration for hydrogen peroxide, which was detected in the pertechnetate solutions. The higher the specific activity of the solution used for the tracer preparation, the faster was the production of free pertechnetate.

  18. Decomposition of Tc-99m pyrophosphate by peroxides in pertechnetate used in preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Der, M.; Ballinger, J.R.; Bowen, B.M.

    1981-07-01

    We describe an investigation of the stability of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi). We hve shown that addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide to Tc-99m PPi can initiate the oxidation of the complex, giving rise to 95% unbound pertechnetate. The presence of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the sodium pertechnetate used in the preparation of Tc-99m PPi has been thought to influence its stability. We have prepared it using pertechnetate solutions of different specific activities. After preparation, an alumina column was used to detect free /sup 99m/Tc/sub 4/-. The Tc-99m PPi and Na/sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/ solutions were then assayed by iodometric titration for hydrogen peroxide, which was detected in the pertechnetate solutions. The higher the specific activity of the solution used for the tracer preparation, the faster was the production of free pertechnetate.

  19. [Quantification of separate renal function using Tc 99m DTPA and Tc 99m DMSA. Correlations between individual isotopic data and creatinine clearance].

    PubMed

    Chevet, D; Moisan, A; Le Pogamp, P; Le Cloirec, J; Wehbe, B; Herry, J Y

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study (30 controls and 100 renal patients) is to compare one to each other the values of renal function measured with: 1--the DTPA 99mTc , 2--the DMSA 99mTc , and 3--the creatinine clearance. After the control values being established, correlations are done for the whole group (n = 130) between the creatinine clearance, the DTPA 99mTc clearance and the fixation rate of the DMSA 99mTc . The correlations obtained are:--Clcr Versus Cldtpa = 0,91.--Clcr Versus % Dmsa = 0,90. - Cldtpa Versus % Dmsa = 0,93. and indicate the two isotopic tests performed give similar quantitative results than creatinine clearance. Camera and computer allow to measure the separate renal function one by one, the two isotopic test giving similar values for each kidney. The results of these studies give a good concordance with the observed diseases, except for partial renal artery stenosis. The pyelic retention of DMSA 99mTc product, in condition of ureteral compression, gives a potential overestimation of this test and is a matter to debate. The extreme simplicity and facility of DMSA 99mTc procedures make this investigation accessible to any patient and give excellent morphological and functional tests. DTPA 99mTc clearances--global and separate kidney--give a more sensitive approach than DMSA 99mTc does because vascular captation , elimination rates could be focused. DTPA 99mTc procedure is to be used in patients with transplanted kidney, silent IVP kidney, contrast media contraindication or for exploring glomerular clearance without urine collection.

  20. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-01-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics. PMID:25210282

  1. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-07-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics.

  2. Does the Clearance of Inhaled (99m)Tc-Sestamibi Correlate with Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 Expression in the Human Lung?

    PubMed

    Mohan, Hosahalli K; Routledge, Thomas; Cane, Paul; Livieratos, Lefteris; Ballinger, James R; Peters, Adrien M

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To examine the relation between the lung elimination rate of inhaled technetium 99m ((99m)Tc)-sestamibi and immunohistochemical expression of bronchopulmonary multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) and permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) and assess the repeatability of the inhaled (99m)Tc-sestamibi clearance technique. Materials and Methods (99m)Tc-sestamibi is a known substrate for P-gp and MRP1, which are established cellular drug efflux transporters. The elimination rate of (99m)Tc-sestamibi from the lungs after inhalation as an aerosol has been hypothesized to be regulated by expression of these transporters. Institutional ethics committee approval was received for this prospective study. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The clearance of inhaled (99m)Tc-sestamibi from the lungs of 13 patients due to undergo surgery for primary lung cancer (five of 13) or spontaneous pneumothorax (eight of 13) was estimated after dynamic imaging of the lungs during a period of 40 minutes. The time taken to clear 50% of inhaled sestamibi (T1/2) was compared with a semiquantitative immunohistochemical assessment (grade 0-3) of MRP1 and P-gp expression in the lung by using parametric and nonparametric tests. The study was repeated in five participants to assess the repeatability of the technique by using a Bland Altman analysis method. Results MRP1 expression was seen in 12 of 13 patients, while P-gp expression was seen in only two. The mean (99m)Tc-sestamibi elimination rate was faster in patients (n = 6) with low levels of MRP1 expression (grade 0-1) and mean T1/2 of 105 minutes ± 20 (standard deviation), compared with those with higher levels of MRP1 expression (grade 2-3, n = 7) and mean T1/2 of 149 minutes ± 28 (P = .008). Bland-Altman analysis revealed excellent agreement between test and retest values. Conclusion Inhaled (99m)Tc-sestamibi clearance study is a repeatable technique demonstrating significant correlation with MRP1 expression in

  3. Tissular distributions and kinetics of two renal 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals in rat.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, F; Petiet, A; Petegnief, Y; Colas-Linhart, N; Bok, B

    2001-05-01

    A digital radioimager (RI), conventional radioautography (RA), and tracks microradioautography (MRA) were used to assess the biodistributions and kinetics of 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic (99mTc-DMSA) and 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) in rat at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Three groups of male Wistar rats were studied. Using gamma-counting, kidney, liver, spleen and blood kinetics of both tracers were assessed in the three groups. Using RA and RI, renal slices were analyzed in group 1 the animals being sacrified from 2 to 60 min after injection of 99mTc-MAG3, and in group 2 the animals being sacrificed from 0.5 to 24 hr after injection of 99mTc-DMSA. Using MRA, renal slices were analyzed for 99mTc-DMSA (group 3). RA films and RI images displayed the variation with time of the cortical and medullary uptakes of the tracers. No regional heterogeneity within the different structures could be seen neither with RA films nor with MRA. The remaining activity in the blood 24 hr after injection of 99mTc-DMSA was evaluated. The tissular distributions of both tracer being homogenous, mean values of cortical uptake seems to be acceptable for dosimetric studies. Our results incite to use of 99mTc-MAG3 instead of 99mTc-DMSA when both tracers may be indicated. PMID:11441950

  4. Plasma protein binding of (99m)Tc-labeled hydrazino nicotinamide derivatized polypeptides and peptides.

    PubMed

    Ono, M; Arano, Y; Mukai, T; Uehara, T; Fujioka, Y; Ogawa, K; Namba, S; Nakayama, M; Saga, T; Konishi, J; Horiuchi, K; Yokoyama, A; Saji, H

    2001-02-01

    6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) constitutes one of the most attractive reagents to prepare (99m)Tc-labeled polypeptides and peptides of various molecular weights in combination with two tricine molecules as coligands. Indeed, (99m)Tc-HYNIC-conjugated IgG showed biodistribution of radioactivity similar to that of (111)In-DTPA-conjugated IgG. However, recent studies indicated significant plasma protein binding when the (99m)Tc labeling procedure was expanded to low molecular weight peptides. In this study, pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-conjugated IgG, Fab and RC160 using tricine were compared with their radioiodinated counterparts to evaluate this (99m)Tc-labeling method. In mice, [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-IgG)(tricine)(2) and [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-Fab)(tricine)(2) showed persistent localization of radioactivity in tissues when compared with their (125)I-labeled counterparts. [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-IgG)(tricine)(2) eliminated from the blood at a rate similar to that of (125)I-labeled IgG, while [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-Fab)(tricine)(2) showed significantly slower clearance of the radioactivity than (125)I-labeled Fab. On size-exclusion HPLC analyses, little changes were observed in radiochromatograms after incubation of [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-IgG)(tricine)(2) in murine plasma. However, [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-Fab)(tricine)(2) and [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-RC160)(tricine)(2) demonstrated significant increases in the radioactivity in higher molecular weight fractions in plasma. Formation of higher molecular weight species was reduced when [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-RC160)(tricine)(2) was stabilized with nicotinic acid (NIC) to generate [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-RC160)(tricine)(NIC). [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-RC160)(tricine)(NIC) also demonstrated significantly faster clearance of the radioactivity from the blood than [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-RC160)(tricine)(2). These findings suggested that one of the tricine coligands in (99m)Tc-HYNIC-labeled (poly)peptides would be replaced with plasma proteins to generate higher molecular weight species that

  5. Regional radioactivity discrepancy between Tc-99m GSA and Tc-99m phytate liver scans in a patient with massive hepatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Akaki, Shiro; Saeki, Mototsugu; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shuhei; Kuroda, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Hiraki, Yoshio; Uraoka, Toshio; Baba, Nobuyuki; Sakaguchi, Kosaku

    2002-08-01

    A 22-year-old woman with severe acute hepatitis underwent a Tc-99m galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) scan. Intense accumulation was observed in the cephalic region of the right hepatic lobe, whereas the accumulation was reduced in the left lobe and the caudal region of the right lobe. A computed tomographic (CT) scan showed that the left lobe and the caudal region of the right posterior segment had atrophied and become hypodense, which were thought to represent postnecrotic scarring after massive hepatic necrosis. The relatively hyperdense region in the right lobe was slightly swollen and was thought to represent regenerating liver tissue or a "potato liver." Compared with the CT, the regions of elevated Tc-99m GSA accumulation correlated well with the areas of regenerating liver tissue, and the regions with reduced accumulation corresponded closely with the areas of postnecrotic scarring. On a Tc-99m phytate scan, unlike the Tc-99m GSA scan, the radiocolloid accumulation was intense in the left lobe and caudal region of the right lobe and reduced in the cephalic region of the right lobe. Together, the Tc-99m GSA scan and the Tc-99m phytate scan formed a set of exact "nega-posi" images. Biopsy specimens obtained during laparoscopy showed a few hepatocyte columns in the postnecrotic scarred left lobe. Severe disruption of the hepatocytes, prominent inflammatory cell infiltration, and obvious Kupffer cell hypertrophy and clustering were also observed.

  6. Synthesis, Radiolabeling and Biological Evaluation of 99mTc-labeled Deoxyglucose Derivatives for Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghzadeh, Masoud; Charkhlooiea, Ghorbanali; Johari Daha, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Two deoxyglucose (DG) derivatives, (α,β)-2-deoxy-2-amino(ethylcarbamate)-D-glucose (ECB-DG) and (α,β)-2-deoxy-2-amino(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-D-glucose (DHP-DG), were synthesized and radiolabeled successfully with [99mTc(H2O)3(CO)3]+ complex. [99mTc]-ECB-DG and [99mTc]-DHP-DG complexes were prepared (96% and 93% radiochemical purities respectively) by using 46 mCi of Na99mTcO4 in 1 mL saline. Radio-HPLC analysis of [99mTc]- ECB-DG at pH = 7.4, revealed that labeling with 99mTc leads to formation of one radiochemical species with tR = 381 second. Three radiochemical species, Na99mTcO4, [99mTc]-DHP-DG and [99mTc(H2O)3(CO)3]+ complexes with tR = 342 sec, tR = 567 sec and tR = 1586 sec respectively, were obtained when [99mTc]-DHP-DG complex evaluated by HPLC. Biodistribution of two complexes were studied on normal mice at 10, 30 and 60 min post-injections. Compared to the 18F-FDG, [99mTc]-ECB-DG displayed a 2.8-fold reduction in brain uptake (1.7 ± 0.2 versus 0.61% ± 0.09) ,whereas [99mTc]-DHP-DG just showed 1.9-fold reduction in heart uptake (2.2 ± 0.05 towards 1.16±0.10) at 1 h post-injection. On the basis of our results, it seems that ECB-DG and DHP-DG analogues could be used as brain and heart imaging agent respectively. PMID:24250633

  7. Development of 99mTc-N4-NIM for Molecular Imaging of Tumor Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad S.; Kong, Fan-Lin; Rollo, Alex; Mendez, Richard; Kohanim, Saady; Smith, Daniel Lee; Yang, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The nitro group of 2-nitroimidazole (NIM) enters the tumor cells and is bioreductively activated and fixed in the hypoxia cells. 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (N4) has shown to be a stable chelator for 99mTc. The present study was aimed to develop 99mTc-cyclam-2-nitroimidazole (99mTc-N4-NIM) for tumor hypoxia imaging. N4-NIM precursor was synthesized by reacting N4-oxalate and 1,3-dibromopropane-NIM, yielded 14% (total synthesis). Cell uptake of 99mTc-N4-NIM and 99mTc-N4 was obtained in 13762 rat mammary tumor cells and mesothelioma cells in 6-well plates. Tissue distribution of 99mTc-N4-NIM was evaluated in breast-tumor-bearing rats at 0.5–4 hrs. Tumor oxygen tension was measured using an oxygen probe. Planar imaging was performed in the tumor-bearing rat and rabbit models. Radiochemical purity of 99mTc-N4-NIM was >96% by HPLC. Cell uptake of 99mTc-N4-NIM was higher than 99mTc-N4 in both cell lines. Biodistribution of 99mTc-N4-NIM showed increased tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle count density ratios as a function of time. Oxygen tension in tumor tissue was 6–10 mmHg compared to 40–50 mmHg in normal muscle tissue. Planar imaging studies confirmed that the tumors could be visualized clearly with 99mTc-N4-NIM in animal models. Efficient synthesis of N4-NIM was achieved. 99mTc-N4-NIM is a novel hypoxic probe and may be useful in evaluating cancer therapy. PMID:22719210

  8. Tc-99m tetrofosmin: A new diagnostic tracer for parathyroid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Kumabe, Tsutomu; Morita, Seiichiro

    1995-10-01

    A 42-year-old woman with hyperparathyroidism had a CT scan that was suggestive of a small nodular lesion in the left lower neck. Tc-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin parathyroid imaging were performed 10 minutes and 2 hours after tracer injection. Early imaging with Tc-99m sestamibi demonstrated thyroid and focal uptake in the left lower neck. On delayed imaging, finding suggested a parathyroid adenoma. Imaging with Tc-99m tetrofosmin demonstrated similar findings. The abnormal parathyroid gland was an adenoma. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Tc-99m hexamethylpropylene-amine oxine (HM-PAO) uptake in a bone metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, H.; Jinnouchi, S.; Sameshima, M.; Uwada, O.; Watanabe, K.

    1988-08-01

    Uptake of Tc-99m Hexamethylpropylene-amine Oxine (HM-PAO) was seen in bone metastases from carcinoma of the lung. The uptake was prominent when compared to Tc-99m MDP, I-123 IMP, and Ga-67 citrate. Brain imaging with Tc-99m HM-PAO and N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP) is now frequently performed. Uptake of these agents has been reported in brain tumors and melanomas. In this report, uptake of Tc-99m HM-PAO in a metastatic lesion in bone is discussed.

  10. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    DOE PAGES

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection.more » Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.« less

  11. High--valent technetium chemistry-new opportunities for radiopharmaceutical developments.

    PubMed

    Braband, Henrik

    2014-04-01

    The rich coordination chemistry of (99m) Tc distinguishes this radiometal from other radiolabels applied for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET). This potential should be used to create novel opportunities for the development of effective imaging probes. In this context, the field of high-valent technetium chemistry has received much interest. It has been shown that fac-{(99m) TcO3 }(+) complexes are potential new synthons for radiopharmaceutical developments, due to their unique physicochemical properties and unprecedented reactivity. In this article, recent developments and the 'state of the art' in this field of technetium chemistry will be reviewed comprehensively.

  12. Simultaneous administration of 111In-human immunoglobulin and 99mTc-HMPAO labelled leucocytes in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Mairal, L; de Lima, P A; Martin-Comin, J; Baliellas, C; Xiol, X; Roca, M; Ricart, Y; Ramos, M

    1995-07-01

    Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled leucocytes and indium-111 polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) were simultaneously injected into a group of 27 patients routinely referred for the investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ten-minute anterior abdomen and tail on detector views were obtained at 30 min, 4 h and 24 h p.i. of both tracers. The diagnosis of IBD was obtained in all cases by endoscopy with biopsy and/or surgery. Images were blindly evaluated by two experienced observers who only knew of the clinical suspicion of IBD. IBD was confirmed in 20 patients (12 with Crohn's disease and eight with ulcerative colitis). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100%, 85% and 96% respectively for labelled leucocytes and 70%, 85% and 74% for IgG. Both IgG and leucocyte scans were normal in six out of seven patients in whom a diagnosis of IBD was excluded; the remaining patient, with ischaemic colitis, was falsely positive with both agents. As far as disease extension is concerned, the IgG study localized 27 diseased segments, whereas 49 were seen with the leucocyte study. Eighty-four segments were normal and 25 showed tracer uptake with both agents. Twenty-four were positive only with the leucocyte study and two were positive only with the IgG study. Agreement between the agents was 80.7%. These results confirm that 111In-human polyclonal scintigraphy is less sensitive than 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy both for the diagnosis of IBD and in the evaluation of disease extension. Nevertheless, if leucocyte labelling is not available, labelled IgG can be used only for diagnostic purposes. PMID:7498228

  13. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in experimental viral perimyocarditis: sequential study of myocardial uptake and pathologic correlates

    SciTech Connect

    Heidt, P.J.; Wagemaker, G.; Knaan-Shanzer, S.; Van Bekkum, D.W.

    1981-09-01

    Lethally irradiated (9 Gy) CBA/RiJ (H-2/sup q/) of 10 to 14 weeks of age were transplanted with 10g C57BL/Rij (H-2/sup b/) bone marrow cells in mice. Other groups of mice ceived the same number of bone marrow cells, to which graded numbers of spleen cells were added to contaminate the graft with post-thymic immunocompetent lymphocytes. The physical parameters of x-radiation were 300 kV, 10 ma, half value layer, 3.0 mm Cu, dose rate 0.35 Gy/min; focus target distance 70 cm, maximum back scatter (Philips-Muller x-ray machine). The recipient mice were either concentional germ free, or harboring a so-called colonization resistant flora (CRF). The CRF is a mouse-derived anaerobic flora that gives a protective effect against colonizations with exogenous microorganism which might play a role in the development of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). The results of the experiments showed that, if the number of spleen cells that are added to the bone marrow is increased, the resulting mortality attributable to GVHD occurs correspondingly earlier. It was concluded from this data that GVHD can be completely prevented by depleting the graft of immunocompetent lymphocytes if bone marrow from a MHC-identical sibling donor is used.

  14. Evaluation of extremity pain in children using technetium-99m MDP bone scan: A general hospital experience

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Rothschild, P.A.; Kernek, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three-phase bone scan in detection of significant pathology i.e., osteomyelitis (OM), septic joint, cellulitis, etc., in children with symptoms of extremity pain. A total of 100 consecutive patients (age 9 days - 16 yrs, 63 boys and 37 girls) were studied. The authors reviewed their scans, x-rays and hospital records. The final diagnoses were based on the findings of needle aspiration, surgical drainage, biopsy, culture, and on the therapeutic response. In 87%, sufficiently long clinical follow-up was available to confirm the final diagnoses. In the remaining 13%, the symptoms resolved quickly and follow-up was not felt necessary. The scan was essential in pinpointing the lesions in pts with referred or nonlocalizing extremity pain. The +ve and -ve predictive values of the scan and OM were 89% and 96% respectively. One spiral fracture was misinterpreted as diffuse OM. One ''Subacute epiphyseal OM'' was not detected. In two cases, cellulitis and septic joint obscured underlying OM. Prior antibotic therapy resulted in one equivocal scan. Although less sensitive (29%) in early OM, radiographs play an important complimentary role. Bone scans detected underlying pathology for extremity pain in 61% of all pts studied.

  15. Sensitivity of /sup 99m/technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid for the diagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis: clinical and theoretical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, M.L.; Kogan, B.A.

    1986-05-01

    Radioisotopic renal imaging proved to be much more sensitive than excretory urography in diagnosing renal parenchymal damage in 6 children with acute febrile urinary tract infections. This increased sensitivity may affect clinical management. More importantly, it may change the interpretation of scientific studies evaluating the natural history and treatment of vesicoureteral reflux.

  16. Quantitative conjugate imaging of iodine-123 and technetium-99m labeled brain agents in the basal ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangha, Desiree N.

    In the research reported in this dissertation, the concept of classic conjugate imaging, a non-tomographic nuclear medicine technique, is modified such that activity of a radiopharmaceutical distribution in the striata can be estimated. A mathematical model is developed that extended the application of classic conjugate imaging to estimation of two distinct and aligned activity distributions. Error analysis of the mathematical model is performed to characterize the accuracy of the model and to benchmark the limitations of the model. Phantom experiments are performed to demonstrate the practical application of the model and to evaluate its' accuracy. A Monte Carlo simulation model of conjugate imaging of activity uptake in the striata of a primate is developed to evaluate the accuracy of the modified conjugate imaging technique as applied in the use of a dedicate conjugate imaging system. In addition, the simulation model is used to determine and characterize the shielding design of the small field of view gamma cameras comprising the dedicated conjugate imaging system. The application of scatter correction is investigated to address the downscatter of high-energy photon emissions into the photopeak window and the inclusion of scattered primary photons in the photopeak window. In this dissertation, it is shown that the modified conjugate imaging technique developed can be used to estimate accurately activity uptake in each of two distinct and aligned activity distributions. The accuracy of the technique was shown to be comparable to that of clinical quantitative SPECT. The modified conjugate imaging technique used with the dedicated conjugate imaging system may, therefore, be a viable quantitative nuclear medicine technique for activity estimation of radiopharmaceutical uptake in the striata of Parkinsonian and schizophrenic patients. The portability and low cost relative to SPECT systems make the dedicated conjugate imaging system advantageous for clinics with Parkinsonian and schizophrenic patients, who are unable to travel due to physical or mental limitation.

  17. 111In-oxine and 99mTc-HMPAO labelling of antigen-loaded dendritic cells: in vivo imaging and influence on motility and actin content.

    PubMed

    Blocklet, Didier; Toungouz, Michel; Kiss, Robert; Lambermont, Micheline; Velu, Thierry; Duriau, Dominique; Goldman, Michel; Goldman, Serge

    2003-03-01

    In cancer vaccination trials, antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) are usually injected intradermally and are expected to rapidly move to a regional lymph node where antigen presentation should occur. In this study we investigated the influence of indium-111 oxine (111In) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labelling on the motility and actin content of antigen-loaded DCs in parallel with in vivo migration in humans. Human autologous monocyte-derived DCs loaded with a tumour antigen were labelled with 111In (0.11, 0.37 or 0.74 MBq/10(7) DCs) or 99mTc-HMPAO (18.5 or 185 MBq/10(7) DCs). 111In labelling was much more stable than 99mTc-HMPAO labelling. Quantitative videomicroscopy showed that the mean distance of displacement of DCs increased in accordance with the 111In activity used for labelling. Monomeric (G) and filamentous (F) actin content of DCs evaluated by quantitative immunofluorescence demonstrated that the ratio of filamentous to globular actin content in labelled DCs increased significantly in accordance with the activity used for labelling with both tracers. Twelve patients enrolled in a phase I/II vaccination trial received injections of 10(7) antigen-loaded DCs labelled with either 0.74 MBq of 111In (group A, n=6/12) or 18.5 MBq of 99mTc-HMPAO (group B, n=6/12) in the proximal part of the legs, one intradermally on one side, one subcutaneously on the opposite side. In three of the six patients of each group, antigen-loaded DCs were incubated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) just before the labelling, in order to initiate the maturation process (subgroup MPL+). Only one MPL+ patient of group A exhibited faint focal uptake in the inguinal region on the late images. Group B presented a more complex pattern of radioactivity distribution (early bladder activity without brain uptake) indicating that 99mTc-HMPAO is not a suitable radiopharmaceutical for labelling of loaded DCs. The activity cleared from DCs as a labelled molecule

  18. Improved detection of upper abdominal abscesses by combination of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and /sup 111/In leukocyte scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.; Luers, P.; Baker, W.J.; Christian, P.E.

    1985-02-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scanning is an excellent technique for detecting abdominal abscesses. However, since labeled leukocytes are normally taken up by the liver and spleen, diagnosing upper abdominal abscesses can be difficult. A prospective study was undertaken to see if having a technetium-99m sulfur colloid liver-spleen scan to compare with the /sup 111/In leukocyte scan would improve the reader's ability to diagnose or exclude upper abdominal abscesses. Ninety patients with suspected upper abdominal abscesses were examined with /sup 111/In leukocyte scans followed immediately by conventional /sup m99/Tc sulfur colloid liver-spleen scans in the same projections. In 57% of patients with upper abdominal abscesses and 25% of all patients studied, the /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scan was essential to diagnose or exclude an upper abdominal abscess. The liver-spleen scan was considered helpful in another 13%. The addition of a /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid liver-spleen scan to the /sup 111/In leukocyte study is useful when evaluating patients with suspected upper abdominal abscesses.

  19. In vivo biodistribution of a radiolabeled blood substitute: sup 99m Tc-labeled liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin in an anesthetized rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, A.S.; Goins, B. ); Klipper, R.W.; Phillips, W.T. )

    1991-12-01

    Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) is an erythrocyte substitute that is a potential resuscitative fluid for the in vivo delivery of oxygen. The authors had noninvasively imaged radiolabeled LEH in vivo with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) to study the biodistribution in an anesthetized rabbit. Rabbits were infused with 30 ml of LEH and imaged with a {gamma} camera continuously for 2 hr. At 20 hr postinfusion, the animals were imaged again and sacrificed; the organs were weighed and their radioactivity was determined for autopsy organ distribution. Organ uptake from the images was corrected for organ-associated blood pool, which was determined by infusion of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled rabbit erythrocytes. Blood pool and decay-corrected biodistribution data reveal the kinetics of LEH distribution. Image biodistribution data was also validated at 20 hr by tissue sampling. At 20 hr postinfusion, autopsy biodistribution data reveals approximately 42.6% of the total counts remaining in the blood, 15.4% in the liver, 18.1% in spleen, 3.2% in the lungs, 2.4% in muscle, 1.6% in urine, and trace levels in the kidney, brain, and heart (<1%). There is no evidence of hemoglobin release from LEH or kidney dysfunction at any time over the course of the study.

  20. Experimental study of 99mTc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, V. I.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 in the lymph node was significantly higher than 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using 99mTc-Al2O3 inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the 99mTc-Al2O3 accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of 99mTc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose. Plateau of 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation in the lymph node (average 2.05%) occurred after 2 hours of the study and remained almost on the same level (in average 2.3%) for 24 hours. Thus, the experimental study of a new domestic

  1. Diversification of 99Mo/99mTc separation: non–fission reactor production of 99Mo as a strategy for enhancing 99mTc availability.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Maroor R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of obtaining (99m)Tc from non-fission reactor-produced low-specific-activity (99)Mo. This scenario is based on establishing a diversified chain of facilities for the distribution of (99m)Tc separated from reactor-produced (99)Mo by (n,γ) activation of natural or enriched Mo. Such facilities have expected lower investments than required for the proposed chain of cyclotrons for the production of (99m)Tc. Facilities can receive and process reactor-irradiated Mo targets then used for extraction of (99m)Tc over a period of 2 wk, with 3 extractions on the same day. Estimates suggest that a center receiving 1.85 TBq (50 Ci) of (99)Mo once every 4 d can provide 1.48-3.33 TBq (40-90 Ci) of (99m)Tc daily. This model can use research reactors operating in the United States to supply current (99)Mo needs by applying natural (nat)Mo targets. (99)Mo production capacity can be enhanced by using (98)Mo-enriched targets. The proposed model reduces the loss of (99)Mo by decay and avoids proliferation as well as waste management issues associated with fission-produced (99)Mo.

  2. Diversification of 99Mo/99mTc separation: non–fission reactor production of 99Mo as a strategy for enhancing 99mTc availability.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Maroor R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of obtaining (99m)Tc from non-fission reactor-produced low-specific-activity (99)Mo. This scenario is based on establishing a diversified chain of facilities for the distribution of (99m)Tc separated from reactor-produced (99)Mo by (n,γ) activation of natural or enriched Mo. Such facilities have expected lower investments than required for the proposed chain of cyclotrons for the production of (99m)Tc. Facilities can receive and process reactor-irradiated Mo targets then used for extraction of (99m)Tc over a period of 2 wk, with 3 extractions on the same day. Estimates suggest that a center receiving 1.85 TBq (50 Ci) of (99)Mo once every 4 d can provide 1.48-3.33 TBq (40-90 Ci) of (99m)Tc daily. This model can use research reactors operating in the United States to supply current (99)Mo needs by applying natural (nat)Mo targets. (99)Mo production capacity can be enhanced by using (98)Mo-enriched targets. The proposed model reduces the loss of (99)Mo by decay and avoids proliferation as well as waste management issues associated with fission-produced (99)Mo. PMID:25537991

  3. Diagnosing protein losing enteropathy: A new approach using Tc-99m human immunoglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, A.; Kashyap, R.; Chopra, M.K.

    1995-11-01

    Tc-99m HIG has recently come into prominence as an inflammation seeking radiotracer. The authors describe a novel use of the agent for imaging protein-losing enteropathy. The agent may have certain advantages over Tc-99m HSA, which is currently being used for imaging protein loss. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Imaging endocarditis with Tc-99m-labeled antibody--an experimental study: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.W.; Dhawan, V.K.; Tanaka, T.; Mishkin, F.S.; Reese, I.C.; Thadepalli, H.

    1982-03-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m-labeled antibacterial antibody (Tc-99m Ab) for detecting bacterial endocarditis were evaluated in an experimental model. Rabbit-produced antistaphylococcal antibody was extracted using Rivanol and chemically labeled with Tc-99m. This Tc-99m Ab was injected intravenously in New Zealand rabbits 24 hr after producing Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis of the aortic valve. Imaging and tissue analyses were performed on the following day. All 11 animals developed S. aureus aortic-valve vegetations and showed increased uptake of Tc-99m Ab at the aortic valve, 118 times higher than at the uninfected tricuspid valve. Although high hepatic radioactivity and anatomic uncertainties interfered with in vivo delineation of these lesions, images of the excised hearts showed all affected valves. Two rabbits inoculated with Escherichia coli did not develop endocarditis and had little uptake of Tc-99m Ab, while six rabbits with enterococcal endocarditis had no uptake of the Tc-99m Ab in their vegetations. The findings suggest potential value of Tc-99m Ab on the rapid diagnosis of endocarditis.

  5. Abnormal focal 99mTc-DMSA uptake in the lung--report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Pirayesh, Elahe; Amoui, Mahasti; Halimi Asl, Ali Asghar; Assadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Extrarenal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA is a rare finding, which has been described in some unusual conditions as bone metastasis, aortic aneurysm and hemangioma. The purpose of this report is to present two cases of abnormal 99mTc-DMSA uptake in the lungs, which remained unexplained even after radiologic assessment.

  6. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent 99mTc-Hydroxamamide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported 99mTc-hydroxamamide (99mTc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1–42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1–40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for 99mTc-Ham complexes, and all 99mTc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1–40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent 99mTc-Ham complexes ([99mTc]SB2A and [99mTc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the 99mTc-Ham complex. PMID:27181612

  7. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent 99mTc-Hydroxamamide Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported 99mTc-hydroxamamide (99mTc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1–42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1–40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for 99mTc-Ham complexes, and all 99mTc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1–40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent 99mTc-Ham complexes ([99mTc]SB2A and [99mTc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the 99mTc-Ham complex.

  8. Gel chromatographic behavior of Tc-99m-labeled compounds in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the interaction of Tc-99m-labeled compounds (Tc-99m 0/sub 4/-bar, Tc-99m glucoheptonate, Tc-99m DTPA, Tc-99m disofenin) with the chromatographic gels, to determine their relative molecular sizes and molecular structures in aqueous solution, which are based on their biomenbrane transport mechanism and quality control analysis. Each Tc-99m-labeled compound was eluted and analyzed by three different gel chromatrography systems varying buffers: Sephadex G-25, Sephadex LH-20 and Bio-Gel P-4. The best separation between the elution peaks of all compounds except Tc-99m glucoheptonate was achieved on Sephadex G-25 in methanol-0.025OM Tris-HCL buffer (pH 7.6) (1:1) which could avoid the aromatic interaction with the gels. Tc-99m glucoheptonate was well eluted only on a Bio-Gel P-4 column but its elution peak was not separated from other compounds' peaks. The elution of Tc-99m disofenin was delayed on Sephadex G-25 gel and Bio-Gel P-4 columns in 0.9% NaCl and Tris-HCl buffer(ph 7.6) and on Sephadex LH-20 column in methanol-Tris-HCl buffer, because of the aromatic ring interaction with the gels. The relative molecular size index ( Kav ) calculated from the elution volume of the gel chromatography. Kav of Tc-99m 0/sub 4/-bar(MW=163), Tc-99m DTPA (MW=492.) and TC-99m disofenin (MW=707) on Sephadex G-25 in methanol-0.025OM Tris-HCl buffer(pH 7.6) (1:1), which was the most suitable combination of the gel and the buffer, were 0.976, 0.477 and 0.200, respectively. They inversely correlated with their estimated molecular weight. The interaction of Tc-99m-labeled compounds with the chromatographic gels should be considered in quality control procedure for Tc-99m radiopharamaceuticals.

  9. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wainer, E.; Boner, G.; Lubin, E.; Rosenfeld, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    The clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was studied in 14 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance during HD was 37.8% +/- 10.1 of creatinine clearance. Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance in PD was 65.1% +/- 10.3 of creatinine clearance. Tc-99m DTPA, with a larger molecular weight than that of creatinine, is cleared relatively better during PD than during HD. Thus Tc-99m DTPA may be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of different dialytic treatments for substances of similar molecular weight. In addition, our study shows that clearance of DTPA both in HD and PD is sufficiently high to allow the removal of this chelating agent in patients with renal failure.

  10. Noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled exosome-mimetic nanovesicle using 99mTc-HMPAO

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Do Won; Choi, Hongyoon; Jang, Su Chul; Yoo, Min Young; Park, Ji Yong; Choi, Na Eun; Oh, Hyun Jeong; Ha, Seunggyun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes known as nano-sized extracellular vesicles attracted recent interests due to their potential usefulness in drug delivery. Amid remarkable advances in biomedical applications of exosomes, it is crucial to understand in vivo distribution and behavior of exosomes. Here, we developed a simple method for radiolabeling of macrophage-derived exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (ENVs) with 99mTc-HMPAO under physiologic conditions and monitored in vivo distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs using SPECT/CT in living mice. ENVs were produced from the mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and labeled with 99mTc-HMPAO for 1 hr incubation, followed by removal of free 99mTc-HMPAO. SPECT/CT images were serially acquired after intravenous injection to BALB/c mouse. When ENVs were labeled with 99mTc-HMPAO, the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs was higher than 90% and the expression of exosome specific protein (CD63) did not change in 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs. 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs showed high serum stability (90%) which was similar to that in phosphate buffered saline until 5 hr. SPECT/CT images of the mice injected with 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs exhibited higher uptake in liver and no uptake in brain, whereas mice injected with 99mTc-HMPAO showed high brain uptake until 5 hr. Our noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled-ENVs promises better understanding of the in vivo behavior of exosomes for upcoming biomedical application. PMID:26497063

  11. Noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled exosome-mimetic nanovesicle using (99m)Tc-HMPAO.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Do Won; Choi, Hongyoon; Jang, Su Chul; Yoo, Min Young; Park, Ji Yong; Choi, Na Eun; Oh, Hyun Jeong; Ha, Seunggyun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes known as nano-sized extracellular vesicles attracted recent interests due to their potential usefulness in drug delivery. Amid remarkable advances in biomedical applications of exosomes, it is crucial to understand in vivo distribution and behavior of exosomes. Here, we developed a simple method for radiolabeling of macrophage-derived exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (ENVs) with (99m)Tc-HMPAO under physiologic conditions and monitored in vivo distribution of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs using SPECT/CT in living mice. ENVs were produced from the mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO for 1 hr incubation, followed by removal of free (99m)Tc-HMPAO. SPECT/CT images were serially acquired after intravenous injection to BALB/c mouse. When ENVs were labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO, the radiochemical purity of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs was higher than 90% and the expression of exosome specific protein (CD63) did not change in (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs showed high serum stability (90%) which was similar to that in phosphate buffered saline until 5 hr. SPECT/CT images of the mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs exhibited higher uptake in liver and no uptake in brain, whereas mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO showed high brain uptake until 5 hr. Our noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled-ENVs promises better understanding of the in vivo behavior of exosomes for upcoming biomedical application.

  12. Noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled exosome-mimetic nanovesicle using (99m)Tc-HMPAO.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Do Won; Choi, Hongyoon; Jang, Su Chul; Yoo, Min Young; Park, Ji Yong; Choi, Na Eun; Oh, Hyun Jeong; Ha, Seunggyun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes known as nano-sized extracellular vesicles attracted recent interests due to their potential usefulness in drug delivery. Amid remarkable advances in biomedical applications of exosomes, it is crucial to understand in vivo distribution and behavior of exosomes. Here, we developed a simple method for radiolabeling of macrophage-derived exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (ENVs) with (99m)Tc-HMPAO under physiologic conditions and monitored in vivo distribution of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs using SPECT/CT in living mice. ENVs were produced from the mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO for 1 hr incubation, followed by removal of free (99m)Tc-HMPAO. SPECT/CT images were serially acquired after intravenous injection to BALB/c mouse. When ENVs were labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO, the radiochemical purity of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs was higher than 90% and the expression of exosome specific protein (CD63) did not change in (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs showed high serum stability (90%) which was similar to that in phosphate buffered saline until 5 hr. SPECT/CT images of the mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs exhibited higher uptake in liver and no uptake in brain, whereas mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO showed high brain uptake until 5 hr. Our noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled-ENVs promises better understanding of the in vivo behavior of exosomes for upcoming biomedical application. PMID:26497063

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of new biotinylated (99m) Tc/Re-tricarbonyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Makris, George; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of three new biotinylated fac-[(99m)Tc/Re(CO)3](+) complexes with the tridentate ligands L1, L2, and L3 are reported. L1-L3 contain the chelators 2-((5-aminopentyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)acetic acid, 2-(2-aminoethylthio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid, and 2-amino-3-(1-carboxy-2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylthio)propanoic acid, respectively, which are conjugated to biotin's carboxylate via their amine group. The fac-[Re(CO)3(L1-L3)] complexes were synthesized and characterized by NMR and IR, where the (N,N,O) coordination for ReL1 and the (N,S,O) coordination for ReL2 and ReL3 were confirmed. The tracer complexes fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)3(L1-L3)] were synthesized in high yield and were found highly stable in 10(-3) M L-histidine and L-cysteine over 24 h. Furthermore, they exhibited high binding affinity (>90%) for avidin. Rat plasma studies showed complete cleavage of biotin from (99m)TcL1 after 1 h and a low percentage of intact (99m)TcL2 and (99m)TcL3 with no biotin cleavage metabolites present, over 24 h. Similarly, rat urine analysis showed the presence of intact (99m)TcL2 and (99m)TcL3, while (99m)TcL1 was cleaved. Biodistribution studies of (99m)TcL2 and (99m)TcL3 revealed fast blood and tissue clearance. PMID:26817576

  14. [Diagnostic possibilities of static gamma-scintigraphy using 99mTc pyrophosphate and Tc 99m phosphate in children with glomerulo nephritis].

    PubMed

    Mil'ko, V I; Bagdasarova, I V; Moskalenko, N I; Ivanov, D D

    1989-01-01

    Children with nephrotic glomerulonephritis were examined for incorporation of 99mTc-pyrophosphate and 99mTc-phosphone. The relationship was discovered between the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical drug and the sensitivity to glucocorticoids used in the pathogenetic treatment. Accumulation of the drug in the course of the treatment documents the presence of complete, partial remission or the disease activity. It is recommended that static gammascintigraphy should be carried out for early assessment of the efficacy of the treatment and its correction.

  15. Definitive diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas: MR imaging versus Tc-99m-labeled red blood cell SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, B.A.; Weinreb, J.C.; Megibow, A.J.; Sanger, J.J.; Lubat, E.; Kanamuller, H.; Noz, M.E.; Bosniak, M.A. )

    1990-07-01

    Thirty-seven patients with 69 suspected hemangiomas found by means of computed tomography (CT) and/or ultrasound were studied with both 0.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and single photon emission CT (SPECT) with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells. Using a criterion of perfusion-blood pool mismatch, SPECT readers diagnosed 50 of 64 hemangiomas and all five nonhemangiomas (sensitivity, 78% (95% confidence interval, 0.664 - 0.864); accuracy, 80% (0.69 - 0.877)). Qualitative analysis of lesion signal intensity on T2-weighted spin-echo MR images allowed readers to diagnose 58 of 64 hemangiomas and four of five nonhemangiomas (sensitivity, 91% (0.814 - 0.96); accuracy, 90% (0.807 - 0.951)). Because of the significantly higher cost of MR imaging and its inability to categorically differentiate hemangiomas from hypervascular metastases, the authors consider SPECT to be the method of choice for diagnosing hepatic hemangiomas. MR imaging should be reserved for the diagnosis of lesions smaller than 2.0 cm and for those 2.5 cm and smaller adjacent to the heart or major hepatic vessels; in such cases MR imaging was found superior to SPECT.

  16. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99mTc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  17. Technegas: A medical application of {sup 99m}Tc for the study of buckyballs, blood clots, lung disease and AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, G.D.; Dance, I.G.; Fisher, K.J.; Burch, W.M.; Dasaklis, C.; Mackey, D.W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Radionuclide studies of lung disease have been greatly enhanced by the introduction of an Australian invention; the Technegas generator. The properties of the {open_quotes}dry radio-aerosols{close_quotes} produced by this device ensure lung images superior to those from true radio-gases such as {sup 133}Xe with the additional advantage of employing {sup 99m}Tc, the most widespread radionuclide agent. A Technegas lung scan can enable identification of pulmonary mebolism (an immediately life threatening condition) emphysema and chronic obstructive lung disease. A simple modification to the generator gas mixture produces Pertechnegas an agent useful in studies of the integrity of the alveolar epithelial membrane in immunosuppressed patients such as transplants and AIDS. Although these agents are now common in Australia and Europe, little has been proven of their chemical composites. Technegas is formed by the initial evaporation of ({sup 99m}Tc) sodium pertechnetate with the subsequent sublimation of carbon from a disposable graphite crucible at {approximately}2500{degrees}C in an atmosphere of 100% argon. {sup 99m}Tc atoms are lifted off with the crystalline layers of graphite during the vaporization. Technegas then possibly consists of {sup 99m}Tc based metallo-fullerenes and fullerenes. Technegas has an effective half life in the lung very similar to the physical half life of Technetium (6 hours) regardless of clinical condition; a result which suggests that Technegas contains endohedral fullerenes. Pertechnegas is created in an atmosphere of 97% Ar 3% O{sub 2} and has an effective half life in the lung of less than 15 minutes.

  18. Utility of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Ajit S; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. (18)F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. (18)F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease.

  19. Imaging of primary and regionally metastatic lung cancer with Tc-99m SESTAMIBI

    SciTech Connect

    Akansel, G.; Liu, Y.; Uygur, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The significance of pulmonary, hilar, and mediastinal uptake of Tc-99m SESTAMIBI in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging was retrospectively investigated. SPECT myocardial perfusion images for 34 adult patients (ages: 52-to-82 years) with known lung cancer undergoing preoperative assessment of cardiac status and 29 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} patients with normal chest radiographs and no history of lung cancer were reviewed. For the 29 patients without lung cancer there was no abnormal pulmonary, hilar, or mediastinal uptake of Tc-99m SESTAMIBI. For the 34 patients with histologically proven lung cancer, Tc-99m SESTAMIBI uptake was detected in 27 of 34 primary pulmonary lesions (79% sensitivity), 2 of 4 surgically proven hilar metastases, and 1 of 4 mediastinal metastases. The smallest lesion detected was 1.0 cm in diameter and the largest lesion not detected was 5.5 cm in diameter. For squamous cell carcinoma, 20 of 22 primary lesions were detected (91% sensitivity). Tc-99m SESTAMIBI detected 5 of 34 primary pulmonary lesions, 2 of 4 hilar metasteses, and 1 of 4 mediastinal metastases not identified by conventional chest radiographs. CT was superior to Tc-99m SESTAMIBI for detection of primary pulmonary lesions and was similar to Tc-99m SESTAMIBI in the limited number of cases with hilar and mediastinal metastatic involvement. We conclude that abnormal pulmonary, hilar, or mediastinal uptake of Tc-99m SESTAMIBI may be a clinically significant finding which should be correlated with chest radiography or CT.

  20. 99mTc-human immunoglobulin (HIG) in AIDS patients: first results.

    PubMed

    Galli, G; Salvatori, M; Antoni, M; Ortona, L; Ventura, G; Maiuro, G; Pirronti, T; Marano, P

    1991-01-01

    Scintigraphy with 99mTc labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulin was performed in 16 patients with ascertained or suspected AIDS-related infections. 99mTc-HIG lung scanning was compared, in 11 patients, with 67Ga scintigraphy, chest X-ray and high resolution lung CT. 67Ga and 99mTc-HIG were concordantly positive in five cases of BAL-ascertained Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), while one of them was Rx and CT negative. X-ray, 67Ga and 99mTc were concordantly negative in 5 cases. 99mTc-HIG yielded negative results in two cases of Mycobacterium infection, both of which were 67Ga and Rx positive: Mycobacterium avium in diffuse lung involvement and Mycobacterium TBC in excavated infiltrate. 99mTc-HIG was also positive in other 3 AIDS patients: 1 case of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, 1 pulmonary abscess (Staphylococcus and Candida), and 1 sacral abscess; it was negative in 1 case of Kaposi sarcoma (also 201Tl negative). In conclusion, 99mTc-HIG scintigraphy in AIDS patients is feasible, and offers some practical advantages (continuous availability, fast response time, etc.). The initial results seem similar to those of 67Ga in lung scanning (and perhaps more specific for PCP).

  1. Demonstrating alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver by Tc-99m BIDA scintigram

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; DeLand, F.H.; Domstad, P.A.

    1984-08-01

    Six patients with decompensated cirrhosis of the liver underwent Tc-99m BIDA studies. All demonstrated 1) persistently high blood pool activity in the heart, lung, and soft tissue, 2) slow hepatic tracer uptake, 3) prolonged liver-to-bowel transit time, and 4) visualization of an enlarged spleen. Four of the six patients demonstrated evidence of ascites and in one patient there were visible collateral veins of the abdomen. These findings are due primarily to hepatic dysfunction and retaining Tc-99m BIDA in blood pool because of Tc-99m BIDA exclusively hepatic excretion and little or no alternative renal excretion. All six Tc-99m sulfur colloid studies were performed concomitantly. Except for bone marrow uptake and reversal of the normal liver-spleen ratio of radioactivity, the imaging abnormalities observed with Tc-99m BIDA were similar to those seen by Tc-99m SC. It is concluded that with Tc-99m BIDA studies, three of six abnormal findings, as described, suggest a decompensated stage of cirrhosis of the liver.

  2. Is Brown Adipose Tissue Visualization Reliable on 99mTc-Methoxyisobutylisonitrile Diagnostic SPECT Scintigraphy?

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Farhoudi, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 99mTc-MIBI has been used with great value as a diagnostic technique in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. False-positive scans may occur due to misinterpretation of the physiologic distribution of the 99mTc-MIBI. Reviewing consecutive SPECT scans, we evaluated this possibility and assessed how frequently brown adipose tissue (BAT) is seen on 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy. Here, we retrospectively reviewed scans of consecutive patients who were evaluated for parathyroid adenomas from March 2015 to June 2015, using dual-phase (early and delayed) planar imaging and SPECT. We identified 60 patients (48 female and 12 male; mean age, 52.25 ± 15.20 years; range, 22–86 years). We detected the presence of 99mTc-MIBI uptake in BAT in 20 of 60 patients (33.33%) in the neck. Although the patients with 99mTc-MIBI uptake in BAT were younger (mean age, 48.85 ± 15.27 years, range, 26–73 years) than the patients with no 99mTc-MIBI uptake (mean age, 53.95 ± 15.07 years, range, 22–86 years), this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.224). The percentage of female patients with BAT detection was higher (17/48 patients; 37.5%) than that of the male population (3/12 patients; 25%), this difference was not also statistically significant (P = 0.85). In patient population referred to 99mTc MIBI scintigraphy of the parathyroid glands, uptake of 99mTc-MIBI in BAT should not be misinterpreted with 99mTc-MIBI-avid-tumors. Fused SPECT/CT images (not SPECT-only) are necessary to distinguish BAT from bone, muscle, thyroid, myocardium, parathyroids, and other structures in the neck and chest. PMID:26765463

  3. Mo-99/Tc-99m Separation: An Assessment of Technical Options

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, A; Pillai, M R A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2013-01-01

    Several strategies for the effective separation of 99mTc from 99Mo have been developed and validated. Due to the success of column chromatographic separation using acidic alumina coupled with high specific activity fission 99Mo (F 99Mo) for production of 99Mo/99mTc generators, however, most technologies until recently have generated little interest. The reduced availability of F 99Mo and consequently the shortage of 99Mo/99mTc column generators in the recent past have resurrected interest in the production of 99Mo as well as 99mTc by alternate routes. Most of these alternative production processes require separation techniques capable of providing clinical grade 99mTc from low specific activity 99Mo or irradiated Mo targets. For this reason there has been renewed interest in alternate separation routes. This paper reviews the reported separation technologies which include column chromatography, solvent extraction, sublimation and gel systems that have been traditionally used for the fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc generator systems. The comparative advantage, disadvantage, and technical challenges toward adapting the emerging requirements are discussed. New developments such as solid-phase column extraction, electrochemical separation, extraction chromatography, supported liquid membrane (SLM) and thermochromatographic techniques are also being evaluated for their potential application in the changed scenario of providing 99mTc from alternate routes. Based on the analysis provided in this review, it appears that some proven separation technologies can be quickly resurrected for the separ