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Sample records for lead exposure affects

  1. Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infertility affects approximately 10–15% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen quality and lead concentration in the semen. Methods This is a prospective and nonrandomized clinical study conducted in University infertility clinic and academic research laboratory. Three hundred and forty-one male partners of infertile couples undergoing infertility evaluation and management were recruited to the study. Semen samples collected for the analyses of semen quality were also used for the measurement of lead concentrations. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO standards. Results All subjects were married and from infertile couples without occupational exposure to lead. There is a significant inverse correlation between the lead concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count. A higher semen lead concentration was correlated with lower sperm count, but not with semen volume, sperm motility or sperm morphology as assessed by simple linear regression. Conclusions We found that semen lead concentration was significantly higher among the patients with lower sperm count. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a high level of lead accumulation in semen may reduce the sperm count contributing to infertility of men without occupational exposure to lead. PMID:23137356

  2. Lead exposure, IQ, and behavior in urban 5-7 year olds: Does lead affect behavior only by lowering IQ?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aimin; Cai, Bo; Dietrich, Kim N.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Lead exposure in childhood lowers IQ scores, but its effect on children's behavior is less clear. Since IQ per se affects behavior, measuring lead's direct effect requires measuring and then adjusting for IQ. In addition, either peak blood lead concentration, usually at age 2 years, or the lower blood lead measured at school age may be the most relevant. Few studies have all this information. Objective To differentiate the direct effect of lead on behavior and the indirect effect through IQ, and to examine the strength of the association for peak and concurrent blood lead concentration. Methods Data come from a clinical trial of the chelating drug succimer to prevent cognitive impairment in 780 urban 12-33 month olds with blood lead concentration of 20-44 μg/dL. The children were followed from ages 2 to 7 years. The trial data were analyzed as a prospective observational study. Results Blood lead concentration at age 2 years was not associated with Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R) scores at age 5 years or Behavioral Assessment Systems for Children (BASC) scores at age 7 years. Blood lead at age 7 years had direct effects on the BASC Behavioral Symptoms Index, Externalizing, and School Problems at age 7. Conclusions Concurrent blood lead concentration was associated with Externalizing and School Problems scales at age 7 years, and the effect was not entirely mediated through lead's effect on IQ. PMID:17332184

  3. Neurodevelopment in Early Childhood Affected by Prenatal Lead Exposure and Iron Intake.

    PubMed

    Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Byung-Mi; Kim, Eunjeong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Chang, Namsoo; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Young Ju; Kimʼs, Young Ju; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    No safe threshold level of lead exposure in children has been recognized. Also, the information on shielding effect of maternal dietary iron intake during pregnancy on the adverse effects of prenatal lead exposure on children's postnatal neurocognitive development is very limited. We examined the association of prenatal lead exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and the protective action of maternal dietary iron intake against the impact of lead exposure. The study participants comprise 965 pregnant women and their subsequent offspring of the total participants enrolled in the Mothers and Children's environmental health study: a prospective birth cohort study. Generalized linear model and linear mixed model analysis were performed to analyze the effect of prenatal lead exposure and mother's dietary iron intake on children's cognitive development at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Maternal late pregnancy lead was marginally associated with deficits in mental development index (MDI) of children at 6 months. Mothers having less than 75th percentile of dietary iron intake during pregnancy showed significant increase in the harmful effect of late pregnancy lead exposure on MDI at 6 months. Linear mixed model analyses showed the significant detrimental effect of prenatal lead exposure in late pregnancy on cognitive development up to 36 months in children of mothers having less dietary iron intake during pregnancy. Thus, our findings imply importance to reduce prenatal lead exposure and have adequate iron intake for better neurodevelopment in children.

  4. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Marchese, Krysten; Romano, Marcelo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana I; Uhart, Marcela

    2015-05-01

    Numerous experiments under controlled conditions and extensive investigation of waterfowl die-offs have demonstrated that exposure to lead from spent gunshot is highly detrimental to the health of waterfowl. However, few studies have focused on examining the more subtle sub-lethal effects of lead toxicity on ducks in non-experimental settings. In our study, the health of ducks exposed to varying amounts of lead under natural conditions was assessed by correlating individual lead exposure with relevant indices of health. Based on hunter-killed wild ducks in Argentina, we measured spleen mass, body condition, examined bone marrow smears, and determined Ca and P in bone tissue. In free-ranging live-trapped ducks we determined basic hematology and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Using multivariate analyses, we found that, when controlling for the potential confounding effect of site type, year, duck species, body mass and age, lead levels in the liver were negatively associated with body condition and spleen mass. Spleen mass was also lower in ducks with higher lead levels in their bones. In live ducks, high blood lead levels were associated with low packed cell volume and red cell morphologic abnormalities. These findings suggest that, despite the lack of recorded lead-induced mortality in the region, lead exposure results in less conspicuous but still significant impacts on the health of ducks, which could have serious implications for their conservation. Moreover, this evidence further supports the need for urgently banning lead shot in the region.

  5. Exposures to lead.

    PubMed

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities. PMID:21714377

  6. Exposures to lead.

    PubMed

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities.

  7. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    PubMed

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. PMID:26629647

  8. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    PubMed

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot.

  9. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL LEAD EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline, and the accompanying decrease in lead emissions, resulted in a dramatic decline in mean blood lead levels from the late 1970s through the early 1990s. Nonetheless, lead exposures remain a public health concern. Long-term exposures to even low...

  10. Withdrawal from chronic exposure to amphetamine, but not nicotine, leads to an immediate and enduring deficit in motivated behavior without affecting social interaction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Der-Avakian, Andre; Markou, Athina

    2014-01-01

    Psychostimulant withdrawal leads to depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia and social dysfunction. We determined the effects of withdrawal from chronic exposure to nicotine (9 mg/kg/day salt, 28 days) or amphetamine (10 mg/kg/day salt, 7 days) on the motivated response for a sucrose reward and on social interaction in rats. Both nicotine and amphetamine exposure increased the motivated response for sucrose. However, only spontaneous amphetamine withdrawal led to an immediate and persistent decrease in motivated behavior, which was not correlated with body weight loss. Social interaction was not affected during withdrawal from either drug. These results indicate that withdrawal from chronic amphetamine exposure leads to an immediate and enduring anhedonic state. PMID:20571366

  11. Lead Exposure and Child Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciarillo, William G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Provides evidence of detrimental effects of lead exposure on child behavior at levels typical of present-day exposure. Behavior and lead-blood level were examined for 201 African-American children aged 2 through 5 years. A standardized parent report measure and consideration of maternal morale are features of study methodology. (SLD)

  12. Neurohumoral blood pressure regulation in lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Boscolo, P.; Carmignani, M.

    1988-06-01

    Previous human studies demonstrated that lead exposure may modify the metabolism of catecholamines and of hormones controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and may affect the kallikrein-kinin system. This paper reports unpublished data on the plasma renin activity of lead-exposed workers; these results are in agreement with those of previous human and experimental studies suggesting that the synthesis or release of renin is increased after short and moderate exposure to inorganic lead and reduced whenever the exposure is prolonged. Previous experimental investigations demonstrated that lead may act on the cardiovascular system, with effects on the renin-angiotensin system, on the reactivity to stimulation of peripheral catecholaminergic receptors, on sympathetic and vagal tone, and on reactivity to the stimulation of baroreceptors. This paper reports the results of a study on male Sprague-Dawley rats that received 0, 15, 30, and 60 ..mu..g/mL of lead in drinking water for 18 months. Blood pressure was increased in the rats receiving 30 and 60 ppm of lead; cardiac inotropism was augmented only in those receiving the higher dose of the metal, and heart rate was not modified. Cardiovascular responses to agonists indicated that lead exposure affects the renin-angiotensin system and induces sympathetic hyperactivity be acting on central and peripheral sympathetic junctions increasing the responsiveness to stimulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoreceptors and by increasing the reactivity to stimulation of cardiac and vascular ..beta..-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors.

  13. Parental environmental exposure leads to glycometabolic disturbances that affect fertilization of eggs in the silkworm Bombyx mori: the parental transcript legacy.

    PubMed

    Tao, H; Liu, H J; Cheng, Y Q; Sima, Y H; Yin, W M; Xu, S Q

    2015-01-01

    Parental transcript legacy plays an important role in fertilization and development of the early embryo. Parental environmental exposure affects the fertilization of eggs, but the underlying biochemical mechanism is largely unresolved. In this study, the parental environmental effects on fertilization of eggs were explored in the silkworm Bombyx mori (B. mori), an ideal lepidopteran animal model. The results showed that the rate of fertilization decreased after the parents were exposed to a poor environment at 32 °C with continuous illumination for 72 h on days 6-9 of the pupal stage, which is a key period for germ cell maturation. This was likely attributable to lower energy charge values, obstructed nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) regeneration and inactive tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), leading to accumulation of large amounts of pyruvic acid and lactic acid. This effect was related to energy metabolism via glycolysis; in particular disruption of pyruvate metabolism. In conclusion, this study showed parental exposure to an abnormal environment during germ cell maturation affected glycolysis and the subsequent fertilization of eggs via the parental transcript legacy in B. mori.

  14. Lead exposure and child behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Sciarillo, W G; Alexander, G; Farrell, K P

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Unlike cognitive impairments associated with lead exposure, lead-associated child behavior problems have been difficult to specify, particularly in young children. METHODS. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used as the outcome and confounding variables, respectively, of major interest. These measures were examined with respect to blood lead levels of 201 African-American children aged 2 through 5 years. RESULTS. In comparison with the low exposed group, the high exposed group (two consecutive blood lead levels greater than or equal to 15 micrograms/dL) had a significantly higher mean CBCL Total Behavior Problem Score (TBPS) and Internalizing and Externalizing scores; when other factors, including maternal depressive symptomatology, were controlled for, regression procedures indicated a .18-point TBPS increase for each unit increase in lead and a 5.1-point higher TBPS in the high exposed group; children in this group were 2.7 times more likely to have a TBPS in the clinical range. CONCLUSIONS. Through its use of a standardized parent-report measure of behavior and its consideration of maternal morale in multiple linear and logistic regression procedures, this study provides further evidence of lead's detrimental effect on child behavior at levels typical of present-day exposure. PMID:1415859

  15. Fetal lead exposure: antenatal factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ernhart, C.B.; Wolf, A.W.; Sokol, R.J.; Brittenham, G.M.; Erhard, P.

    1985-10-01

    It was hypothesized that maternal blood lead level at delivery and cord blood lead level of the neonate would be affected by maternal use of alcohol, history of alcohol abuse, and smoking. The possibility that iron status, as reflected in maternal serum ferritin, would be related to lead level was also explored. The maternal history of alcohol abuse was unrelated to lead level in 208 samples of maternal blood and 178 samples of cord blood. However, alcohol use during pregnancy was related in a dose-response fashion to maternal and to cord blood lead level. This effect was significant with and without control of maternal smoking. The effect of maternal smoking and serum thiocyanate on maternal and cord blood lead level were also highly significant with and without control of the maternal drinking variable. Serum ferritin was marginally related to lead level for white women and for black infants, but tests of the dichotomized maternal ferritin variable did not yield a significant linkage with maternal or cord blood lead level. The results further support recommendations that women abstain from alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in pregnancy.

  16. Potential lead exposures from lead crystal decanters.

    PubMed Central

    Appel, B R; Kahlon, J K; Ferguson, J; Quattrone, A J; Book, S A

    1992-01-01

    We measured the concentrations of lead leached into 4% acetic acid, white port, and a synthetic alcoholic beverage that were stored in lead crystal decanters for 1-, 2-, and 10-day periods at room temperature. In decanters from 14 different manufacturers, measured lead concentrations ranged from 100 to 1800 micrograms/L. The pH of the leaching medium is probably the dominant factor determining the extent of lead leached, with greater leaching occurring at lower pH values. The consumption of alcoholic beverages stored in lead crystal decanters is judged to pose a hazard. PMID:1456345

  17. Human lead exposure: Some recent research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Saryan, L.A.

    1999-09-01

    One of the practical problems facing industrial hygienists and safety managers in the lead industry is finding new ways to limit or reduce lead intake in order to protect workers from the deleterious effects of this metal. Exposure to lead generally takes place by inhalation of airborne particles and by ingestion. Airborne exposure is comparatively well understood and methods for the control of airborne lead have been developed and put into place in industrial facilities. Both for the general public and for workers, however, it is thought that a significant fraction of the total lead intake occurs by ingestion as opposed to inhalation. Furthermore, factors such as personal hygiene, hand washing, diet, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, use of medications, bone injury, existing disease, and others may also have positive or negative effects on lead absorption and blood lead levels. How these variables actually operate in practice for lead-exposed workers is unfortunately not very well understood. As scientific and medical knowledge increases, progress has been made in the understanding of some of the factors affecting blood lead levels. In this article, the author summarizes the findings of a few interesting recent reports that point the way toward future progress in this area.

  18. Effects of occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers. PMID:3832431

  19. Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.L.; Hicks, A.M.; O'Leary, L.M.; London, S. )

    1991-06-01

    Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors.

  20. Current issues in human lead exposure and regulation of lead.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Elias, R W; Grant, L D

    1993-01-01

    Concern about lead as a significant public health problem has increased as epidemiological and experimental evidence has mounted regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels of lead exposure. This concern has led to downward revision of criteria for acceptable blood lead concentrations to the 10 micrograms/dL mark now designated by EPA as a target level for regulatory development and enforcement/clean-up purposes. Much progress has been made in reducing lead exposures during the past 10-15 years, with marked declines evident both in air lead and blood lead concentrations in parallel to the phase-down of lead in gasoline and notable decreases in food lead exposure due to elimination of lead soldered cans by U.S. food processors. With the lessening of exposure from these sources, the importance of other components of multimedia exposure pathways has grown and stimulated increasing regulatory attention and abatement efforts to reduce health risks associated with lead exposure from drinking water, from lead-based paint, and from household dust and soil contaminated by deteriorating paint, smelter emissions, or various other sources. Increasing attention is also being accorded to reduction of occupational lead exposures (including those related to lead abatement activities), with particular concern for protection of men and women during their reproductive years.

  1. Developmental Effects of Lead Exposure in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesman, Johanna Rich; Hills, Amanda

    1994-01-01

    This report presents an overview of research on childhood lead exposure and poisoning, and the related social issues. The report first summarizes the history of lead poisoning and its prevalence in the United States, and discusses the basis for recent changes in guidelines for lead exposure by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The report then…

  2. Early-life lead exposure affects the activity of TNF-alpha and expression of SNARE complex in hippocampus of mouse pups.

    PubMed

    Li, N; Yu, Z L; Wang, L; Zheng, Y T; Jia, J X; Wang, Q; Zhu, M J; Liu, X H; Xia, X; Li, W J

    2009-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on learning and memory ability and the protein expression of TNF-alpha and SNARE complex (SNAP-25, VAMP-2, and Syntaxin 1A) in hippocampus of mice offspring. Pb exposure was initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Pb acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% groups, respectively. On the PND21, the learning and memory ability of mouse pups was tested by water maze test, and the Pb levels in their blood and hippocampus were also determined. The protein expression of TNF-alpha and SNARE complex in hippocampus was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of all exposure groups were significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05). In the water maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% groups were worse than that of control group (P < 0.05). The expression of TNF-alpha, Syntaxin 1A, and VAMP-2 was increased in Pb-exposed groups comparing control group (P < 0.05), but the expression of SNAP-25 was decreased (P < 0.05). Up-regulation of TNF-alpha and disturbance of SNARE expression in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to impairment of learning and memory ability associated with maternal Pb exposure.

  3. International perspectives of lead exposure and lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P

    1993-01-01

    Three approaches have been used to examine how human body burdens of lead depend on different environments: (1) In paleopathologic studies, lead concentrations have been determined in well-preserved human bones or teeth, and pre-pollution samples generally show lead concentrations of about 1% of current levels in industrialized countries. (2) Geographic comparisons of blood-lead concentrations show low levels in, Nepal, Faroe Islands, and Sweden, while high levels occur in Mexico and Malta; average blood-lead levels may vary by a factor of 10 or more. (3) In analytical epidemiology, major exposure sources have been related to lead levels in blood, by either prospective or cross-sectional design. Increased blood-lead concentrations are related to smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, eating vegetables for dinner, urban residence, and exposure from lead-using industries; average blood-lead values of subgroups within well-defined populations may vary by a factor of 3 or more. The dose-relationships for lead-induced neurotoxicity will depend on the sensitivity of the parameters chosen as indicators of lead exposure and of neurotoxicity. The temporal relationship between lead exposures and the development of deficits must be ascertained. Individual susceptibility and interacting factors must also be taken into account. Differences in addressing these issues impede the comparison between studies. Recently neonatal jaundice has been found to be a risk factor for subsequent neurobehavioral dysfunction in children with a birth weight above 2500 g, but only in children with increased lead exposure. Lead exposure may act in combination with several other factors and result in additive, or synergistic effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8247415

  4. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN TO LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because 1) they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities, 2) lead adsorption occurs more readily in a child as compared to an adult, and 3) the child's development is more vulnerable ...

  5. Occupational lead exposure aboard a tall ship

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J.; Straub, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposures to lead in shipfitters cutting and riveting lead-painted iron plates aboard an iron-hulled sailing vessel, the authors conducted an environmental and medical survey. Lead exposures in seven personal (breathing zone) air samples ranged from 108 to 500 micrograms/mT (mean 257 micrograms/mT); all were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of 50 micrograms/mT. In two short-term air samples obtained while exhaust ventilation was temporarily disconnected, mean lead exposure rose to 547 micrograms/mT. Blood lead levels in ten shipfitters ranged from 25 to 53 micrograms/dl. Blood lead levels in shipfitters were significantly higher than in other shipyard workers. Smoking shipfitters had significantly higher lead levels than nonsmokers. Lead levels in shipfitters who wore respirators were not lower than in those who wore no protective gear. Four shipfitters had erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations above the adult upper normal limit of 50 micrograms/dl. A close correlation was found between blood lead and EP levels. Prevalence of lead-related symptoms was no higher in shipfitters than in other workers. These data indicate that serious occupational exposure to lead can occur in a relatively small boatyard.

  6. The management of lead exposure in pediatric populations

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, P.O.; Lewis, D.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Chronically elevated lead levels are a common problem affecting children. Although this problem occurs most frequently in the inner city, no community is safe from excessive pediatric lead exposure. Screening by erythrocyte protoporphyrin is a sensitive early indicator of rising lead levels. A Centers for Disease Control report recommends that all children be screened starting at 9 to 12 months. A classification system of various lead levels helps determine proper treatment. Health care practitioners need to be well-informed about lead exposure and how it occurs in order to educate parents. 10 refs.

  7. Societal benefits of reducing lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J. )

    1994-07-01

    While sophistication in public health research has been increasing substantially in the past few decades, sophistication in decision making about public health and environmental issues has not been increasing in parallel. Measures that are inexpensive tend to be implemented and measures that are expensive tend not to be implemented by makers of public policy. That is often independent of the degree of public health protection afforded by the measures. Understanding and addressing this pattern is crucial to the control of lead exposure of critical populations. People are still exposed to lead in our society not because anyone believes that exposure is good, but because reducing exposure costs money. Maintaining exposure also has its costs, however. It is more difficult to measure them, and they are often ignored in decision making - but they are not small, and attempts to measure them have been made. The high cost of reducing lead exposure of critical populations is the reason that progress in reducing lead-paint exposure has been minimal in the 18 years since the passage of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act and that it took from the time of the initial proposal in 1973 until 1986 before lead was substantially eliminated from gasoline. In its 1986 rule making, the EPA estimated that the elimination of lead from gasoline would cost more than $500 million per year. Removing leaded paint is estimated to cost billions of dollars. The difference is that the EPA promulgated its rule of removing lead from gasoline, whereas HUD has had little success in removing leaded paint from housing. One reason that the EPA was successful in implementing such an expensive regulation was that it provided detailed estimates of the health and welfare benefits that would accrue and the monetary value of some of the benefits. The EPA cost-benefit analysis demonstrated that the monetary benefits of its regulation far exceeded the costs.

  8. Lead exposures from varnished floor refinishing.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Joseph; Havlena, Jeff; Jacobs, David E; Dixon, Sherry; Ikens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the presence of lead in varnish and factors predicting lead exposure from floor refinishing and inexpensive dust suppression control methods. Lead in varnish, settled dust, and air were measured using XRF, laboratory analysis of scrape and wipe samples, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7300, respectively, during refinishing (n = 35 homes). Data were analyzed using step-wise logistic regression. Compared with federal standards, no lead in varnish samples exceeded 1.0 mg/cm(2), but 52% exceeded 5000 ppm and 70% of settled dust samples after refinishing exceeded 40 μg/ft(2). Refinishing pre-1930 dwellings or stairs predicted high lead dust on floors. Laboratory analysis of lead in varnish was significantly correlated with airborne lead (r = 0.23, p = 0.014). Adding dust collection bags into drum sanders and HEPA vacuums to edgers and buffers reduced mean floor lead dust by 8293 μg Pb/ft(2) (p<0.05) on floors and reduced most airborne lead exposures to less than 50 μg/m(3). Refinishing varnished surfaces in older housing produces high but controllable lead exposures. PMID:22494405

  9. Lead exposure in outdoor firearm instructors

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.K.; Sherertz, P.C.; Llewellyn, G.C.; Armstrong, C.W. )

    1991-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine lead exposure of firearm instructors at an outdoor firing range, while cadets were firing nonjacketed and jacketed lead ammunitions. The breathing zone air for lead exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 50 micrograms/m3 for two instructors during firing exercises using nonjacketed bullets. The use of totally copper-jacketed bullets reduced the breathing zone lead levels by 92 percent for instructor {number sign}1 and by 96 percent for instructor {number sign}2; subsequent blood lead levels showed a significant decline in both instructors.

  10. Sources of lead exposure in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Palazuelos, E; Hernandez Avila, M; Rios, C; Muñoz, I; Jimenez, C; Cahero, G

    1994-01-01

    Many countries, including Mexico, are facing a largely unrecognized epidemic of low-level lead poisoning. Mexico is the sixth largest lead-producing country in the world, and 40% of its production is used locally in different industrial processes that cause lead contamination of the environment. The major sources and pathways of lead exposure among the Mexican population are gasoline emissions, lead-glazed ceramics, leaded paint, and lead in canned foods and beverages. In this paper we present evidence for the presence of lead in different environmental media and its impact on blood lead levels of the Mexican population. Although during the last few years important measures have been implemented to decrease lead exposure, our findings suggest that lead poisoning is still an important problem in Mexico. There is an urgent need for regulatory policies that implement stricter control to protect the Mexican population. There is also a need to develop adequate programs to reduce the lead burden and the associated health effects in the population that has been chronically exposed. Images Figure 1. PMID:7523102

  11. Sources of lead exposure in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Romieu, I; Palazuelos, E; Hernandez Avila, M; Rios, C; Muñoz, I; Jimenez, C; Cahero, G

    1994-04-01

    Many countries, including Mexico, are facing a largely unrecognized epidemic of low-level lead poisoning. Mexico is the sixth largest lead-producing country in the world, and 40% of its production is used locally in different industrial processes that cause lead contamination of the environment. The major sources and pathways of lead exposure among the Mexican population are gasoline emissions, lead-glazed ceramics, leaded paint, and lead in canned foods and beverages. In this paper we present evidence for the presence of lead in different environmental media and its impact on blood lead levels of the Mexican population. Although during the last few years important measures have been implemented to decrease lead exposure, our findings suggest that lead poisoning is still an important problem in Mexico. There is an urgent need for regulatory policies that implement stricter control to protect the Mexican population. There is also a need to develop adequate programs to reduce the lead burden and the associated health effects in the population that has been chronically exposed.

  12. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries. PMID:2773946

  13. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries.

  14. Renal insufficiency associated with excessive lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, B C; Beattie, A D; Moore, M R; Goldberg, A; Reid, A G

    1977-01-01

    Water lead concentrations were measured in 970 households throughout Scotland. Blood lead concentrations were measured in 283 people living in houses with water lead levels of over 0-48 mumol/l (100 mug/l). A highly significant correlation was found between lead concentrations in water and blood. Raised blood lead concentrations were associated with renal insufficiency, reflected in raised serum urea concentrations, and with hyperuricaemia, although there was no evidence of clinical disease in any of the affected people. This is further evidence that excessive lead in domestic water supplies has a harmful effect on the community's health. PMID:837171

  15. Lead exposure causes thyroid abnormalities in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zadjali, Salah Al; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Fahim, Mohamed Abdelmonem Ay; Azimullah, Sheikh; Subramanian, Dhanasekaran; Yasin, Javed; Amir, Naheed; Hasan, Mohammed Yousif; Adem, Abdu

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a widely-spread environmental pollutant and a commonly-used industrial chemical that can cause multisystemic adverse health effects. However, the effects of lead exposure on diabetic animals have not been reported so far. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of lead exposure on thyroid, renal and oxidative stress markers in diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced with an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozocin (STZ). Six weeks later, rats were exposed i.p. to either distilled water (control group) or 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of lead acetate (treatment groups). We found a positive relationship between the administered doses of lead acetate and its measured levels in blood samples (P < 0.01). Treatment of diabetic animals with lead acetate resulted in significant weight loss (P < 0.001). It also caused an increase in thyroid stimulating hormone levels (P < 0.05) and reductions in thyroxine (P < 0.05) and triiodothyronine levels (P < 0.01), a clinical picture consistent with hypothyroidism. Lead acetate exposure increased urea levels (P < 0.05) and caused a significant decrease in creatinine (P < 0.05). Besides, while the concentrations of malondialdehyde were not affected, glutathione stores were depleted (P < 0.01); in response to lead exposure. In conclusion, exposure of diabetic rats to lead acetate resulted in weight loss, clinical hypothyroidism, renal damage and oxidative stress. PMID:26221254

  16. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Kobunski, Peter A; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (<1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. PMID:25087065

  17. Lead exposure and radiator repair work.

    PubMed

    Lussenhop, D H; Parker, D L; Barklind, A; McJilton, C

    1989-11-01

    In 1986, the ambient air for lead in radiator repair shops in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level in nine of 12 shops sampled by Minnesota OSHA. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of lead exposure/toxicity in this industry. Thirty-five radiator shops were identified, 30 were visited, and 53 workers were studied. The mean blood lead level was 1.53 (range 0.24-2.80). Seventeen individuals had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 1.93 mumol/L (40 micrograms/dl). The mean zinc protoporphyrin level (ZPP) was 0.55 mumol/L (range 0.16-1.43). No single worksite or personal characteristic was a strong determinant of either blood lead or ZPP level.

  18. Lead exposure, lead poisoning, and lead regulatory standards in China, 1990-2005.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xibiao; Wong, Otto

    2006-11-01

    This article presents a summary of lead exposure levels and lead poisoning at workplaces in China reported in the Chinese medical literature between 1990 and 2005. A comprehensive literature search identified 618 papers reporting lead exposure and lead poisoning data. The data were analyzed in terms of time period, type of industry, size of factory, and task or process. In 2002 the new Occupational Diseases Prevention and Control Act was passed in China, with new provisions specifically for regulatory enforcement. Therefore, a comparison of lead exposure levels and lead poisoning rates before and after the 2002 Act will shed some light on the effectiveness of the new regulation. The reported lead exposure levels covered a wide range; some measurements were in excess of 250 mg/m(3), which was orders-of-magnitude higher than the occupational exposure levels (OELs) for lead in China. The overall arithmetic mean, median, and geometric mean were 0.92, 0.25, and 0.24 mg/m(3), respectively. Approximately 53.7% of the averages reported in the papers were above the national OELs. The data demonstrated that many facilities in the lead industries reported in the literature were not in compliance with the OELs. Similarly, there appeared to be only a minor impact of the 2002 Act on the reduction of occupational lead poisoning in China. The lead poisoning rates reported in the literature were well above 30%. Judging by the lead exposure levels and the lead poisoning rates, the current overall occupational health monitoring system appears inadequate, lacking the necessary enforcement. The 2002 Act, without the necessary enforcement, did not appear to have a major impact on either lead exposures or lead poisoning in China. Much work in enforcing the 2002 Act remains to be done.

  19. Early childhood lead exposure and exceptionality designations for students

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Maxson, Pamela; Kim, Dohyeong

    2009-01-01

    The achievement gap continues to be an important educational issue, with disadvantaged groups exhibiting poorer school performance. Recently, literature has shown that even very low levels of early lead exposure affect cognitive and academic performance. As individuals at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum are more likely to be exposed to lead, this exposure may be an important contributor to the achievement gap. In this paper, we explore whether early childhood blood lead levels are associated with membership in exceptionality designation groups. In addition, we examine the racial and socioeconomic composition of these exceptional groups. Data from the North Carolina Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program surveillance registry were linked at the individual child level to educational outcomes available through the North Carolina Education Research Data Center. Designation into exceptionality groups was obtained from the end-of-grade (EOG) data. Both standard bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed. Bivariate analyses indicate that blood lead levels and reading EOG scores differ by exceptionality, as well as by race and enrollment in free/reduced lunch. Logistic regression confirmed the relationship between blood lead levels and likelihood of exceptionality. Contextual factors – enrollment in the free/reduced lunch program, race, and parental education – are also significant with regard to exceptionality. This study demonstrates that early childhood lead exposure significantly influences the likelihood of being designated exceptional. These results provide additional evidence that early childhood lead exposure is a significant explanator of the achievement gap. PMID:21533004

  20. Neurotoxic Effects and Biomarkers of Lead Exposure: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Talia; Liu, Yiming; Buchner, Virginia; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Biological monitoring techniques are useful for risk assessment of toxic agents in the field of environmental health. Lead, a systemic toxicant affecting virtually every organ system, primarily affects the central nervous system, particularly the developing brain. Consequently, children are at a greater risk than adults of suffering from the neurotoxic effects of lead. The ability of lead to pass through the blood-brain barrier is due in large part to its ability to substitute for calcium ions. Within the brain, lead-induced damage in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum can lead to a variety of neurological disorders, such as brain damage, mental retardation, behavioral problems, nerve damage, and possibly Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia. At the molecular level, lead interferes with the regulatory action of calcium on cell functions and disrupts many intracellular biological activities. Experimental studies have also shown that lead exposure may have genotoxic effects, especially in the brain, bone marrow, liver, and lung cells. This paper presents an overview of biomarkers of lead exposure and discusses the neurotoxic effects of lead with regard to children, adults, and experimental animals, updated to January 2009. PMID:19476290

  1. Repeated in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure affects male gonads in offspring, leading to sex ratio changes in F{sub 2} progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Masahiko . E-mail: ikedam@ys2.u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp; Tamura, Masashi; Yamashita, Junko; Suzuki, Chinatsu; Tomita, Takako

    2005-08-15

    The effects of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the reproductive system of male rat offspring (F{sub 1}) and the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F{sub 2}) were examined. Female Holtzman rats were gavaged with an initial loading dose of 400 ng/kg TCDD prior to mating, followed by weekly maintenance doses of 80 ng/kg during mating, pregnancy, and the lactation period. Maternal exposure to TCDD had no significant effects on fetus/pup (F{sub 1}) mortality, litter size, or sex ratio on gestation day (GD) 20 or postnatal day (PND) 2. The TCDD concentration in maternal livers and adipose tissue on GD20 was 1.21 and 1.81 ng/kg, respectively, and decreased at weaning to 0.72 in the liver and 0.84 in the adipose tissue. In contrast, the TCDD concentration in pup livers was 1.32 ng/kg on PND2 and increased to 1.80 ng/kg at weaning. Ventral prostate weight of male offspring was significantly decreased by TCDD exposure on PND28 and 120 compared with that of controls. Weight of the testes, cauda epididymides, and seminal vesicle, and sperm number in the cauda epididymis were not changed by TCDD exposure at PND120. TCDD- or vehicle-exposed male offspring were mated with unexposed females. The sex ratio (percentage of male pups) of F{sub 2} offspring was significantly reduced in the TCDD-exposed group compared with controls. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposures affect the development of male gonads in offspring (F{sub 1}), leading to changes in the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F{sub 2})

  2. Effects of Developmental Lead Exposure on the Hippocampal Transcriptome: Influences of Sex, Developmental Period, and Lead Exposure Level

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jay S

    2012-01-01

    Developmental lead (Pb) exposure has profound effects on cognition and behavior. Much is known about effects of Pb on hippocampal-mediated behaviors, but little is known about the molecular consequences of Pb exposure and the influences of developmental timing of exposure, level of exposure, and sex as effect modifiers of Pb exposure on the brain. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different levels of Pb exposure (250 and 750 ppm Pb acetate) during perinatal (gestation/lactation) and postnatal (through postnatal day 45) periods on the hippocampal transcriptome in male and female Long Evans rats. Total RNA was extracted from hippocampus from four animals per experimental condition. RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix Rat Gene RNA Arrays using standard methods. Pb exposure per se influenced the expression of 717 transcripts (328 unique annotated genes), with many influenced in a sex-independent manner. Significant differences in gene expression patterns were also influenced by timing and level of exposure, with generally larger effects at the lower level of exposure across all groups. Statistically enriched biological functions included ion binding, regulation of RNA metabolic processes, and positive regulation of macromolecule biosynthetic processes. Processes of regulation of transcription and regulation of gene expression were preferentially enriched in males, regardless of timing or amount of Pb exposure. The effect on transcription factors and the diverse pathways or networks affected by Pb suggest a substantial effect of developmental Pb exposure on plasticity and adaptability, with these effects significantly modified by sex, developmental window of exposure, and level of Pb exposure. PMID:22641619

  3. Chronic lead exposure: a problem for minority workers

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.L.

    1989-03-01

    1. Despite regulatory and case identification efforts, lead exposure continues to pose a major health problem for minority workers. 2. Minority workers are overrepresented in lead industries such as lead smelting, lead storage batteries, lead pigment production and pottery. 3. Preliminary data from recently instituted lead registries in California and Texas suggest that minority workers continue to be overexposed to lead. 4. A federal policy that strengthens enforcement of the OSHA lead standard is needed to reduce lead exposure among minority workers.

  4. Lead Exposure Induces Telomere Instability in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pottier, Géraldine; Viau, Muriel; Ricoul, Michelle; Shim, Grace; Bellamy, Marion; Cuceu, Corina; Hempel, William M.; Sabatier, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is an important environmental contaminant due to its widespread use over many centuries. While it affects primarily every organ system of the body, the most pernicious effects of Pb are on the central nervous system leading to cognitive and behavioral modification. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for Pb toxicity remain poorly understood. Recent work has suggested that Pb exposure may have consequences on chromosomal integrity as it was shown that Pb exposure leads to the generation of γH2Ax foci, a well-established biomarker for DNA double stranded break (DSB formation). As the chromosomal localization of γH2Ax foci plays an important role in determining the molecular mechanism responsible for their formation, we examined the localization of Pb-induced foci with respect to telomeres. Indeed, short or dysfunctional telomeres (uncapped or damaged telomeres) may be recognized as DSB by the DNA repair machinery, leading to “telomere-Induced Foci” (TIFs). In the current study, we show that while Pb exposure did not increase intra-chromosomal foci, it significantly induced TIFs, leading in some cases, to chromosomal abnormalities including telomere loss. The evidence suggests that these chromosomal abnormalities are likely due to perturbation of telomere replication, in particular on the lagging DNA strand. We propose a mechanism by which Pb exposure leads to the loss of telomere maintenance. As numerous studies have demonstrated a role for telomere maintenance in brain development and tissue homeostasis, our results suggest a possible mechanism for lead-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:23840724

  5. SOURCES AND PATHWAYS OF LEAD EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure is defined here as the amount of a substance that comes into contact with an absorbing surface during a specified period of time. The normal units of exposure are expressed as micrograms per day. The two components of exposure are the concentration of the substance in ...

  6. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. Methods We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead exposure measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. Results Measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. Conclusions This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. PMID:25968240

  7. Biological tests of lead absorption following a brief massive exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.K.

    1984-07-01

    A contractor's man suffered a brief, massive exposure to lead fume by contaminating and then smoking hand-rolled cigarettes. His blood lead concentration rose very rapidly to very high levels, but zinc erythrocyte protoporphyrin, urinary lead, and urinary coproporphyrin did not. It is possible that only the blood lead concentration is of value in detecting brief massive exposure.

  8. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  9. Racial differences in Urban children's environmental exposures to lead.

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, B P; Weitzman, M; Eberly, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether differences in environmental lead exposures explain the racial disparity in children's blood lead levels. METHODS: Environmental sources of lead were identified for a random sample of 172 urban children. RESULTS: Blood lead levels were significantly higher among Black children. Lead-contamination of dust was higher in Black children's homes, and the condition of floors and interior paint was generally poorer. White children were more likely to put soil in their mouths and to suck their fingers, whereas Black children were more likely to put their mouths on window sills and to use a bottle. Major contributors to blood lead were interior lead exposures for Black children and exterior lead exposures for White children. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in housing conditions and exposures to lead-contaminated house dust contribute strongly to the racial disparity in urban children's blood lead levels. PMID:8876521

  10. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  11. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 3. Lead exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret D.; Abelsohn, Alan; Campbell, Monica; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    LEAD LEVELS IN NORTH AMERICAN CHILDREN AND ADULTS have declined in the past 3 decades, but lead persists in the environment in lead paint, old plumbing and contaminated soil. There are also a number of occupations and hobbies that carry a high risk of lead exposure. There is no evidence for a threshold below which lead has no adverse health effects. Blood lead levels previously considered safe are now known to cause subtle, chronic health effects. The health effects of lead exposure include developmental neurotoxicity, reproductive dysfunction and toxicity to the kidneys, blood and endocrine systems. Most lead exposures are preventable, and diagnosing lead poisoning is relatively simple compared with diagnosing health effects of exposures to other environmental toxins. Accurate assessment of lead poisoning requires specific knowledge of the sources, high-risk groups and relevant laboratory tests. In this article we review the multiple, systemic toxic effects of lead and provide current information on groups at risk, prevention, diagnosis and clinical treatment. We illustrate how the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) and specific screening questions are useful tools for physicians to quickly obtain an environmental exposure history and identify patients at high risk of lead exposure. By applying effective primary prevention, case-finding and treatment interventions for lead exposure, both the individual patient and the larger community reap the benefits of better health. PMID:12041847

  12. Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Paoliello, M.M.B. . E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M.

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

  13. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, H W; Reagan, P L

    1998-01-01

    This review shows the equal or greater importance of leaded gasoline-contaminated dust compared to lead-based paint to the child lead problem, and that soil lead, resulting from leaded gasoline and pulverized lead-based paint, is at least or more important than lead-based paint (intact and not pulverized) as a pathway of human lead exposure. Because lead-based paint is a high-dose source, the biologically relevant dosage is similar to lead in soil. Both lead-based paint and soil lead are associated with severe lead poisoning. Leaded gasoline and lead in food, but not lead-based paint, are strongly associated with population blood lead levels in both young children and adults. Soil lead and house dust, but not lead-based paint, are associated with population blood lead levels in children. Most soil lead and house dust are associated with leaded gasoline. Lead-based paint dust is associated with cases of renovation of either exterior or interior environments in which the paint was pulverized. Based upon the limited data to date, abatement of soil lead is more effective than abatement of lead-based paint in reducing blood lead levels of young children. About equal numbers of children under 7 years of age are exposed to soil lead and lead-based paint. Seasonality studies point to soil lead as the main source of population blood lead levels. Soil lead is a greater risk factor than lead-based paint to children engaged in hand-to-mouth and pica behavior. In summary, soil lead is important for addressing the population of children at risk of lead poisoning. When soil lead is acknowledged by regulators and the public health community as an important pathway of human lead exposure, then more effective opportunities for improving primary lead prevention can become a reality. Images Figure 1 PMID:9539015

  14. Lead Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective This systematic review evaluates the evidence on the association between lead exposure and cardiovascular end points in human populations. Methods We reviewed all observational studies from database searches and citations regarding lead and cardiovascular end points. Results A positive association of lead exposure with blood pressure has been identified in numerous studies in different settings, including prospective studies and in relatively homogeneous socioeconomic status groups. Several studies have identified a dose–response relationship. Although the magnitude of this association is modest, it may be underestimated by measurement error. The hypertensive effects of lead have been confirmed in experimental models. Beyond hypertension, studies in general populations have identified a positive association of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes (cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality; and peripheral arterial disease), but the number of studies is small. In some studies these associations were observed at blood lead levels < 5 μg/dL. Conclusions We conclude that the evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with hypertension. We conclude that the evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes. There is also suggestive but insufficient evidence to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with heart rate variability. Public Health Implications These findings have immediate public health implications. Current occupational safety standards for blood lead must be lowered and a criterion for screening elevated lead exposure needs to be established in adults. Risk assessment and economic analyses of lead exposure impact must include the cardiovascular effects of lead. Finally, regulatory and public health interventions must be developed and implemented to further prevent and reduce lead exposure. PMID:17431501

  15. Effectiveness of employee training and motivation programs in reducing exposure to inorganic lead and lead alkyls.

    PubMed

    Maples, T W; Jacoby, J A; Johnson, D E; Ter Haar, G L; Buckingham, F M

    1982-09-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has advanced engineering controls over administrative controls and protective equipment to reduce exposures to chemicals in the workplace. The application of employee training and motivation programs (such as job safety analysis) to reduce exposures to chemicals has not been emphasized. To determine the effectiveness of such programs, a pilot project in an alkyl lead production facility was conducted with 35 employees in an effort to reduce exposures to organic and inorganic lead. Results after 12 months show a 40% reduction in lead-in-urine and a 24% reduction in lead-in-blood, both indicators of total exposure to organic inorganic lead.

  16. Health hazards by lead exposure: evaluation using ASV and XRF.

    PubMed

    Herman, D'Souza Sunil; Geraldine, Menezes; Scott, Clark C; Venkatesh, Thuppil

    2006-07-01

    Globally, of many toxic heavy metals, lead is the most widely used for various purposes, resulting in a variety of health hazards due to environmental contamination. Lead in the workplace enters the workers through inhalation of lead-contaminated air, by ingestion, and sometimes through dermal exposure. Furthermore, exposure outside the workplace can occur from inhalation of lead-contaminated air, ingestion of lead-contaminated dust and soil, consumption of lead polluted water, lead adulterated food and lead supplemented medicine. In the present study, an evaluation of blood lead was carried out with the aid of a 3010 B lead analyser, based on the principle of anodic stripping voltametry (ASV), and environmental lead in paint, soil and dust samples by a field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser. This revealed a high incidence of lead toxicity in most of the lead-based industrial workers in the four facilities tested in India and high levels of lead in the environmental samples. Developed countries have complied with the global standards for regulating environmental lead poisoning in the workplace, eliminating to some degree excessive exposure to lead. A developing country, such as India, can tackle this problem by implementing national and international policies. The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, which are of prime importance, or similar regulations, can be adapted for use in India and implemented to minimize lead exposure and to reduce the resultant health hazards.

  17. Lead exposures in the human environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Humans consume lead by inhaling air, drinking beverages, eating food and ingesting dust. The natural source of this lead is primarily soil. Anthropogenic sources are lead in gasoline, fossil fuels and industrial products and processes. Lead is ubiquitous in the human environment, and pinpointing the primary sources of lead in any particular environmental component is difficult. Nevertheless, our purpose is to describe the total exposure of humans to environmental lead and to determine the sources of lead contributing to this exposure. The total exposure is the total amount of lead consumed by ingestion and inhalation. Excluding lead exposure from choice or circumstance, a baseline level of potential human exposure can be defined for a normal individual eating a typical diet and living in a non-urban community remote from industrial sources of lead in a house without lead-based paints. Beyond this level, additive exposure factors can be determined for other environments (e.g. urban, occupational and smelter communities) and for certain habits and activities (e.g. pica, smoking, drinking and hobbies), with variation for age, sex or socioeconomic status.

  18. Renal effects of environmental and occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Loghman-Adham, M

    1997-01-01

    Environmental and industrial lead exposures continue to pose major public health problems in children and in adults. Acute exposure to high concentrations of lead can result in proximal tubular damage with characteristic histologic features and manifested by glycosuria and aminoaciduria. Chronic occupational exposure to lead, or consumption of illicit alcohol adulterated with lead, has also been linked to a high incidence of renal dysfunction, which is characterized by glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes resulting in chronic renal failure, hypertension, hyperuricemia, and gout. A high incidence of nephropathy was reported during the early part of this century from Queensland, Australia, in persons with a history of childhood lead poisoning. No such sequela has been found in studies of three cohorts of lead-poisoned children from the United States. Studies in individuals with low-level lead exposure have shown a correlation between blood lead levels and serum creatinine or creatinine clearance. Chronic low-level exposure to lead is also associated with increased urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins and lysosomal enzymes. The relationship between renal dysfunction detected by these sensitive tests and the future development of chronic renal disease remains uncertain. Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between blood lead levels and blood pressure, and hypertension is a cardinal feature of lead nephropathy. Evidence for increased body lead burden is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of lead nephropathy. Blood lead levels are a poor indicator of body lead burden and reflect recent exposure. The EDTA lead mobilization test has been used extensively in the past to assess body lead burden. It is now replaced by the less invasive in vivo X-ray fluorescence for determination of bone lead content. Images p928-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9300927

  19. Lead exposure from battery recycling in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, more than 200 illegal used lead acid battery (ULAB) smelters are currently operating. Only a few health studies support the finding of lead-related symptoms and diseases among populations living near the smelters. To assess the blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential health impacts among the population surrounding ULAB recycling smelters, we evaluated health effects reported from 2003 to 2013, conducted focus group discussions with lead smelter owner/workers and a group of 35 female partners of smelter owners or workers not actively engaged in smelter work, and retook and measured BLLs. It was found that many children in the areas were having difficulty achieving high grades at school and having stunting or other problems with physical development. The average mean of BLLs increased by almost double in 2015, compared with in 2011. The risk of having hypertension, interference in the ability to make red blood cells in females occurred among 24% of respondents; Elevated blood pressure, hearing loss, and interference in the ability to make red bloods cell occurred in 20% of males; Kidney damage, infertility in male, nerve problems, including decreased sensation and decreased ability to move quickly occurred in 13%; Decreased ability to make red blood cells (20%), and; Frank anemia, decreased life-span, coma/seizures were experienced by 22%. The populations living in areas surrounding ULAB smelters are experiencing severe chronic health problems. It is recommended that the smelters must be moved and placed far away from the municipality.

  20. Neurotoxicity and biomarkers of lead exposure: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang-sheng; Hao, Jia-hu; Zeng, Yu; Dai, Fan-chun; Gu, Ping-qing

    2013-09-01

    Appropriate selection and measurement of lead biomarkers of exposure are critically important for health care management purposes, public health decision making, and primary prevention synthesis. Lead is one of the neurotoxicants that seems to be involved in the etiology of psychologies. Biomarkers are generally classified into three groups: biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility.The main body compartments that store lead are the blood, soft tissues, and bone; the half-life of lead in these tissues is measured in weeks for blood, months for soft tissues, and years for bone. Within the brain, lead-induced damage in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum can lead to a variety of neurological disorders, such as brain damage, mental retardation, behavioral problems, nerve damage, and possibly Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsons disease, and schizophrenia. This paper presents an overview of biomarkers of lead exposure and discusses the neurotoxic effects of lead with regard to children and adults.

  1. Knocking down p53 with siRNA does not affect the overexpression of p21WAF-1 after exposure of IMR-90 hTERT fibroblasts to a sublethal concentration of H2O2 leading to premature senescence.

    PubMed

    Zdanov, Stephanie; Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Toussaint, Olivier

    2007-04-01

    Premature senescence of IMR-90 human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) expressing telomerase was induced by exposure to sublethal concentration of H(2)O(2), with appearance of several biomarkers of cellular senescence like enlarged cell shape, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA ss-gal) activity, and cell cycle arrest. The induction of stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) was associated with a transient increase in DNA-binding activity of p53 and an increased expression of p21(WAF-1). p53 small interferent RNA (siRNA) affected the basal level of p21(WAF-1) mRNA but did not affect the overexpression of p21(WAF-1) after stress. This siRNA approach confirms previous results obtained with other methods. PMID:17460194

  2. Lead exposure increases blood pressure by increasing angiotensinogen expression.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiandong; Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yiqing; Sun, Na; Li, Chunping

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure can induce increased blood pressure. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain lead-induced hypertension. Changes in angiotensinogen (AGT) expression levels or gene variants may also influence blood pressure. In this study, we hypothesized that AGT expression levels or gene variants contribute to lead-induced hypertension. A preliminary HEK293 cell model experiment was performed to analyze the association between AGT expression and lead exposure. In a population-based study, serum AGT level was measured in both lead-exposed and control populations. To further detect the influence of AGT gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lead-induced hypertension, two SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) were genotyped in a case-control study including 219 lead-exposed subjects and 393 controls. Lead exposure caused an increase in AGT expression level in HEK 293 cell models (P < 0.001) compared to lead-free cells, and individuals exposed to lead had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Lead-exposed individuals had higher serum AGT levels compared to controls (P < 0.001). However, no association was found between AGT gene SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) and lead exposure. Nevertheless, the change in AGT expression level may play an important role in the development of lead-induced hypertension.

  3. The effect of prolonged exposure to war-related stress among hospital personnel with different affect types: lessons from the Second Lebanon War and the Gaza "Cast Lead" operation.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Yuval; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shrira, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined peritraumatic symptoms due to war-related stress among hospital personnel with different affect types. In Study 1, we examined 80 Israeli hospital personnel during the period they were exposed to frequent missile attacks in the Second Lebanon War. In Study 2, we examined 67 and 74 Israeli hospital personnel during the time they were exposed and were not exposed, respectively, to missile attacks in the Gaza "Cast Lead" operation. In both studies, hospital personnel completed measures of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as well as of positive- and negative-affect items (PA and NA, respectively). Exposed personnel with a positive congruent (high PA and low NA) or a deflated incongruent (low PA and low NA) affective types had a lower level of peritraumatic symptoms compared to those with a negative congruent (low PA and high NA) or an inflated incongruent (high PA and NA) affective types. Study 2 further showed that among non-exposed personnel, only personnel with a negative congruent affective type had a higher level of peritraumatic symptoms compared to personnel with other affective types. Clinical implications and required future studies are discussed.

  4. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN IN LEAD-LADEN ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because of three interacting factors; they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities, lead absorption occurs more readily in a child compared to an adult, and the child's development i...

  5. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN LIVING IN LEAD-LADEN ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because of three interacting factors: they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities; lead absorption occurs more readily in a child as compared to an adult; and the child's developmen...

  6. Biological monitoring of child lead exposure in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed Central

    Cikrt, M; Smerhovsky, Z; Blaha, K; Nerudova, J; Sediva, V; Fornuskova, H; Knotkova, J; Roth, Z; Kodl, M; Fitzgerald, E

    1997-01-01

    The area around the Pribram lead smelter has been recognized to be heavily contaminated by lead (Pb). In the early 1970s, several episodes of livestock lead intoxication were reported in this area; thereafter, several epidemiological and ecological studies focused on exposure of children. In contrast to earlier studies, the recent investigation (1992-1994) revealed significantly lower exposure to lead. From 1986-1990, recorded average blood lead levels were about 37.2 micrograms lead (Pb)/100 ml in an elementary school population living in a neighborhood close to the smelter (within 3 km of the plant). The present study, however, has found mean blood lead levels of 11.35 micrograms/100 ml (95% CI = 9.32; 13.82) among a comparable group of children. In addition to blood lead, tooth lead was used to assess exposure among children. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the geometric mean tooth lead level of 6.44 micrograms Pb/g (n = 13; 95% CI = 3.95; 10.50) in the most contaminated zone and 1.43 micrograms Pb/g (n = 35; 95% CI = 1.11; 1.84) in zones farther away from the point source. Both biomarkers, blood and tooth lead levels, reflect a similar pattern of lead exposure in children. This study has attempted a quantitative assessment of risk factors associated with elevated lead exposure in the Czech Republic. Content of lead in soil, residential distance from the smelter, consumption of locally grown vegetables or fruits, drinking water from local wells, the mother's educational level, cigarette consumption among family members, and the number of children in the family were factors positively related (p < 0.05) to blood lead levels. The resulting blood lead level was found to be inversely proportional to the child's age. Images Figure 1. PMID:9189705

  7. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  8. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, William E.; Van Tung, Lo; Wallace, Ryan M.; Havens, Deborah J.; Karr, Catherine J.; Bich Diep, Nguyen; Croteau, Gerry A.; Beaudet, Nancy J.; Duy Bao, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL) measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs (≥45 μg/dL) were retested by laboratory analysis. Surface and soil lead were measured at 11 households and a school with X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results. All children had high BLLs; 28% had BLL ≥45 μg/dL. Younger age, family recycling, and outside brick surfaces were associated with higher BLL. Surface and soil lead levels were high at all tested homes, even with no recycling history. Laboratory BLLs were lower than LeadCare BLLs, in 24 retested children. Discussion. In spite of improvements, lead exposure was still substantial and probably associated with continued home-based recycling, legacy contamination, and workplace take-home exposure pathways. There is a need for effective strategies to manage lead exposure from battery recycling in craft villages. These reported BLL values should be interpreted cautiously, although the observed field-laboratory discordance may reflect bias in laboratory results. PMID:26587532

  9. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 μg/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 μg/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 μg/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 μg/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons. PMID:24411572

  10. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 μg/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 μg/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 μg/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 μg/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons.

  11. The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, P; Wasserman, G; Kline, J K; Graziano, J

    1999-01-01

    The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure has studied the associations between exposure to lead and pregnancy outcomes; childhood neuropsychological, behavioral, and physical development; and hematologic, renal, and cardiovascular function. The cohort comprises 577 children born to women recruited at midpregnancy in two towns in Kosovo, Yugoslavia; one town is the site of a lead smelter, refinery, and battery plant and the other is 25 miles away and relatively unexposed. A sample of these children has been followed at 6-month intervals through 7.5 years of age. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 70 microg/dl. Exposure to lead was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure was associated with modest decrements in intelligence, small increases in blood pressure, higher risks of proteinuria, small increases in behavior problems, and perturbed hematopoiesis. Only at low level exposures (i.e., <16 microg/dl) were small associations with decreased height found. We discuss methodological problems that may hinder causal interpretation of these data, namely, use of blood lead concentration as an exposure measure, confounding, and town-specific associations. We conclude that while reported associations are small, collectively they lend support to the notion that lead is a toxicant with numerous adverse health effects. Images Figure 1 PMID:9872712

  12. Chinese talismans as a source of lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Chan, C K; Ching, C K; Lau, F L; Lee, H K

    2014-08-01

    We describe a case of lead exposure after prolonged intake of ashes from burnt Chinese talismans. A 41-year-old woman presented with elevated blood lead level during screening for treatable causes of progressive weakness in her four limbs, clinically compatible with motor neuron disease. The source of lead exposure was confirmed to be Chinese talismans obtained from a religious practitioner in China. The patient was instructed to burn the Chinese talismans to ashes, and ingest the ashes dissolved in water, daily for about 1 month. Analysis of the Chinese talismans revealed a lead concentration of 17 342 µg/g (ppm). PMID:25104009

  13. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: the use of lead isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-04-15

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p<0.05) positive correlations for (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb, and a significant negative correlation for (208)Pb/(206)Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  14. Control of excessive lead exposure in radiator repair workers.

    PubMed

    1991-03-01

    In 1988, 83 automotive repair workers with blood lead levels (BLLs) greater than 25 micrograms/dL were reported to state health departments in the seven states that collaborated with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in maintaining registries of elevated BLLs in adults. In 18 (22%) of these 83 persons, BLLs were greater than 50 micrograms/dL. Among automotive repair workers for whom a job category was specified, radiator repair work was the principal source of lead exposure. The major sources of exposure for radiator repair workers are lead fumes generated during soldering and lead dust produced during radiator cleaning. This report summarizes current BLL surveillance data for radiator repair workers and describes three control technologies that are effective in reducing lead exposures in radiator repair shops.

  15. Study and models of total lead exposures of battery workers.

    PubMed

    Chavalitnitikul, C; Levin, L; Chen, L C

    1984-12-01

    In an attempt to establish a more realistic and reliable model for relating environmental exposure measurements to the biological indices of exposure, a study was undertaken to quantify the total sources of lead exposure among lead storage battery workers. In addition to the usual personal and area lead air sampling, quantitative and repeatable measurements of removable lead from work surfaces and the workers' hands and faces were obtained daily for ten consecutive work days in the pasting and battery assembly departments. Mathematical correlations of blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels as the dependent variable with the lead exposure sources were derived and demonstrated most strongly as log-log relationships. Statistical analyses by computer programming indicated that the airborne, hand, facial and work surface levels have a high degree of inter-correlation with a very significant positive individual correlation with blood lead levels and a somewhat lower correlation with ZPP. The results suggest that contaminated personal and work surfaces may play a more significant role in toxic occupational and environmental exposures, generally, than had heretofore been demonstrated or suspected. PMID:6517025

  16. Artificial Christmas trees: how real are the lead exposure risks?

    PubMed

    Maas, Richard P; Patch, Steven C; Pandolfo, Tamara J

    2004-12-01

    Exposure to lead has long been recognized as a major public health issue in the United States and other industrialized nations. The health risks associated with low lead levels mean that consumer products (such as those made from polyvinyl chloride [PVC] plastic, which often incorporates lead as a stabilizer) with even moderate lead exposure risks could be dangerous. The purpose of the experiments reported in this article was to test for lead exposure from artificial Christmas trees made of PVC, which are now present in an estimated 50 million U.S. households. The first phase of experimentation tested artificial Christmas trees in the laboratory for lead content in branches, lead transfer from hand contact, and lead dust levels under the tree. The second phase was based on a field-testing survey of households with artificial Christmas trees. Results from these experiments show that, while the average artificial Christmas tree does not present a significant exposure risk, in the worst-case scenarios a substantial health risk to young children is quite possible.

  17. Site-specific lead exposure from lead pellet ingestion in sentinel mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Mensik, John G.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead pellets in sentinel mallards (Anas platyhrynchos) at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Willows, California for 4 years (1986-89) after the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting on refuges in 1986. Sentinel mallards were held in 1.6-ha enclosures in 1 hunted (P8) and 2 non-hunted (T19 and TF) wetlands. We compared site-specific rates of lead exposure, as determined by periodic measurement of blood lead concentrations, and lead poisoning mortality between wetlands with different lead pellet densities, between seasons, and between male and female sentinels. In 1986, the estimated 2-week rate of lead exposure was significantly higher (P < 0.005) in P8 (43.8%), the wetland with the highest density of spent lead pellets (>2,000,000 pellets/ha), than in those with lower densities of lead pellets, T19 (18.1%; 173,200 pellets/ha) and TF (0.9%; 15,750 pellets/ha). The probability of mortality from lead poisoning was also significantly higher (P < 0.01) in sentinel mallards enclosed in P8 (0.25) than T19 (0) and TF (0) in 1986 and remained significantly higher (P < 0.001) during the 4-year study. Both lead exposure and the probability of lead poisoning mortality in P8 were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the fall of 1986 (43.8%; 0.25), before hunting season, than in the spring of 1987 (21.6%; 0.04), after hunting season. We found no significant differences in the rates of lead exposure or lead poisoning mortality between male and female sentinel mallards. The results of this study demonstrate that in some locations, lead exposure and lead poisoning in waterfowl will continue to occur despite the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting.

  18. Lead exposure in Nunavik: from research to action

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Ariane; Levesque, Benoît; Dewailly, Éric; Muckle, Gina; Déry, Serge; Proulx, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background In 1999, the Government of Canada regulated the use of lead shot for hunting. Concurrently, the Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services (NRBHSS) was informed of the results of an isotope study that pointed to lead ammunition as a likely source of lead exposure in Nunavik. Rapidly thereafter, a coalition for the banning of lead shot was implemented by the NRBHSS as well as by regional/local partners and by Inuit hunters in order to disseminate this information to the public. Objectives The purpose of this article is to describe the intervention conducted in the winter of 1999 by the NRBHSS and to assess the combined impact of national legislation and an awareness campaign on blood lead levels in Nunavik. Study design Impact assessment of the intervention for the banning of lead shot conducted in 1999 in Nunavik using blood lead levels data before and after the intervention. Methods Data on blood lead levels in Nunavik describing foetal exposure as well as during childhood and in adults published between 1992 and 2009 were compiled. Blood lead levels in Nunavik prior to and after the interventions were compared. To assess the current situation, the most recent blood lead levels were compared with those from surveys conducted during the same period in North America. Results Analysis of blood samples collected from umbilical cord and from adults show that blood lead levels in Nunavik significantly declined between 1992 and 2004. Nevertheless, lead exposure in Nunavik still remains higher in comparison to that observed in other North American surveys. Conclusions The current situation regarding lead exposure in Nunavik has significantly improved as a result of the implemented intervention. However, according to recent data, a gap still subsists relative to other North American populations. PMID:22818717

  19. Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

  20. Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, S.; von Schirnding, Y. E.; Prapamontol, T.

    2000-01-01

    Lead is the most abundant of the heavy metals in the Earth's crust. It has been used since prehistoric times, and has become widely distributed and mobilized in the environment. Exposure to and uptake of this non-essential element have consequently increased. Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries, as well as in some developed countries. In most developed countries, however, introduction of lead into the human environment has decreased in recent years, largely due to public health campaigns and a decline in its commercial usage, particularly in petrol. Acute lead poisoning has become rare in such countries, but chronic exposure to low levels of the metal is still a public health issue, especially among some minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. In developing countries, awareness of the public health impact of exposure to lead is growing but relatively few of these countries have introduced policies and regulations for significantly combating the problem. This article reviews the nature and importance of environmental exposure to lead in developing and developed countries, outlining past actions, and indicating requirements for future policy responses and interventions. PMID:11019456

  1. Environmental lead exposure to toll booth workers in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, T.C.; Wong, L.T.L.; Lam, C.W.K.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of workers in the Lion Rock Tunnel toll booths was conducted, as they were regarded as a high risk group in lead exposure due to high density of vehicular traffic. The exposure of the workers to lead was determined by continuous sapling of air around the breathing zone of workers inside the booths. Blood lead concentration of 50 workers showed a mean of 0.65 {mu}mol/L and the mean urine lead concentration was 0.14 {mu}mol/L. Other tests, such as urinary amino-levulinic acid (ALA), erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb), were also preformed. The blood lead concentrations and other biological parameters of the toll-booth workers were acceptable and may be attributed to the recent legislation to lower the lead content in petrol and to the good preventive measures taken by the management.

  2. The association between caries and childhood lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J R; Moss, M E; Raubertas, R F

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest an association between lead exposure and caries. Our objective was to establish whether children with a higher lead exposure as toddlers had more caries at school age than children with a lower lead exposure. We used a retrospective cohort design. A sample of children who attended second and fifth grades in the Rochester, New York, public schools during the 1995-1996 and 1996-1997 school years were examined for caries through a dental screening program. For each child we assessed the number of decayed, missing, or filled surfaces on permanent teeth (DMFS), and the number of decayed or filled surfaces on deciduous teeth (dfs); the number of surfaces at risk (SAR) was also recorded. Lead exposure was defined as the mean of all blood lead levels collected between 18 and 37 months of age by fingerstick [provided the blood lead level was [less than/equal to] 10 microg/dL)] or venipuncture. A total of 248 children (197 second graders and 51 fifth graders) were examined for caries and had a record of blood lead levels to define lead exposure. The mean dfs was 3.4 (range 0-29); the mean DMFS was 0.5 (range 0-8). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the proportion of children with DMFS [Greater/equal to] 1, and the proportion with dfs [Greater/equal to] 1, and lead exposure [< 0.48 micromol/L vs. [Greater/equal to] 0.48 micromol/L (< 10 microg/dL vs. [Greater/equal to] 10 microg/dL)] while controlling for SAR, age at examination, and grade in school. For DMFS, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-2.09; p = 0.89); for dfs, the odds ratio was 1.77 (95% CI, 0.97-3.24; p = 0.07). This study did not demonstrate that lead exposure > 10 microg/dL as a toddler was a strong predictor of caries among school-age children. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because of limitations in the assessment of lead exposure and limited statistical power. PMID:11102303

  3. Exposure of migrant bald eagles to lead in prairie Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of elevated exposure to lead was assessed in a migrant population of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at a waterfowl staging area in the southern portion of the Canadian prairies, from September to November, 1992-1995. Of 103 eagles, 8% exhibited blood lead (PbB) concentrations suggestive of elevated exposure to lead (> or = 0.200 microgram ml-1 wet wt.). PbB concentrations in eagles from the study area ranged from < 0.01 to 0.585 microgram ml-1, while those of nestling eagles from a reference site indicated normal or background exposure (< 0.01 microgram ml-1). No differences in the prevalence of elevated exposure were detected among genders or age classes (0.5- and > or = 1.5-year-old birds) (P > 0.05). The prevalence of elevated exposure was significantly greater in November than in October (21.7 vs. 3.8%) (all years: chi 2Y = 5.75, P = 0.017). Eagles with shotshell pellets in the digestive tract did not have accompanying high PbB concentrations. The prevalence of elevated lead exposure in this study was low in comparison to other areas in North America. Potential biases in the trapping technique as they relate to interpreting the results are addressed.

  4. Mapping the spatio-temporal risk of lead exposure in apex species for more effective mitigation.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P; Jiménez-Moreno, María; Camarero, Pablo R; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-07-27

    Effective mitigation of the risks posed by environmental contaminants for ecosystem integrity and human health requires knowing their sources and spatio-temporal distribution. We analysed the exposure to lead (Pb) in griffon vulture Gyps fulvus-an apex species valuable as biomonitoring sentinel. We determined vultures' lead exposure and its main sources by combining isotope signatures and modelling analyses of 691 bird blood samples collected over 5 years. We made yearlong spatially explicit predictions of the species risk of lead exposure. Our results highlight elevated lead exposure of griffon vultures (i.e. 44.9% of the studied population, approximately 15% of the European, showed lead blood levels more than 200 ng ml(-1)) partly owing to environmental lead (e.g. geological sources). These exposures to environmental lead of geological sources increased in those vultures exposed to point sources (e.g. lead-based ammunition). These spatial models and pollutant risk maps are powerful tools that identify areas of wildlife exposure to potentially harmful sources of lead that could affect ecosystem and human health.

  5. Mapping the spatio-temporal risk of lead exposure in apex species for more effective mitigation.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P; Jiménez-Moreno, María; Camarero, Pablo R; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-07-27

    Effective mitigation of the risks posed by environmental contaminants for ecosystem integrity and human health requires knowing their sources and spatio-temporal distribution. We analysed the exposure to lead (Pb) in griffon vulture Gyps fulvus-an apex species valuable as biomonitoring sentinel. We determined vultures' lead exposure and its main sources by combining isotope signatures and modelling analyses of 691 bird blood samples collected over 5 years. We made yearlong spatially explicit predictions of the species risk of lead exposure. Our results highlight elevated lead exposure of griffon vultures (i.e. 44.9% of the studied population, approximately 15% of the European, showed lead blood levels more than 200 ng ml(-1)) partly owing to environmental lead (e.g. geological sources). These exposures to environmental lead of geological sources increased in those vultures exposed to point sources (e.g. lead-based ammunition). These spatial models and pollutant risk maps are powerful tools that identify areas of wildlife exposure to potentially harmful sources of lead that could affect ecosystem and human health. PMID:27466455

  6. Decrements in neurobehavioral performance associated with mixed exposure to organic and inorganic lead.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, B S; Bolla, K I; Stewart, W; Ford, D P; Agnew, J; Frumkin, H

    1993-05-01

    In 1990, 222 current employees of a chemical facility in the eastern United States that manufactured tetraethyl lead were administered a neurobehavioral test battery, tests of olfactory function and peripheral vibration threshold, and questionnaires that assessed neuropsychiatric symptoms. A cumulative variable of exposure to inorganic and organic lead was derived from 12 years of personal industrial hygiene sampling data and an occupational history interview that assessed work in each of 29 exposure zones in the lead area. The range of assigned exposure intensities in these 29 zones was 4-119 micrograms/m3 for organic lead and 1-56 micrograms/m3 for inorganic lead. Cumulative lead exposure and exposure duration were defined as categorical variables (four groups) in multiple linear regression models. The adjusted mean differences in neurobehavioral test scores were estimated by comparing the average scores of the moderate, high, and highest exposure groups with the low exposure (reference) group. After adjustment for premorbid intellectual ability, age, race, and alcohol consumption, neurobehavioral test scores were poorer as measures of both cumulative lead exposure and exposure duration increased; many of the associations evidenced dose-response relations. Associations were observed in most cognitive and functional domains tested, but were most common in two domains: manual dexterity and verbal memory/learning. On the affected neuropsychologic measures, the groups with the highest exposure averaged scores 5-22% lower than those of the reference groups. Overall, the data revealed generally consistent and coherent associations between two measures of lead exposure and poorer neurobehavioral test performance. PMID:8317446

  7. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood lead levels in children of Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Carreon, T; Lopez, L; Palazuelos, E; Rios, C; Manuel, Y; Hernandez-Avila, M

    1995-01-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil, water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants' households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 micrograms/dl with a mean of 9.9 micrograms/dl (SD 5.8 micrograms/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 micrograms/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used to prepare children's food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children's hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics. PMID:8605853

  8. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood lead levels in children of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Romieu, I; Carreon, T; Lopez, L; Palazuelos, E; Rios, C; Manuel, Y; Hernandez-Avila, M

    1995-11-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil, water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants' households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 micrograms/dl with a mean of 9.9 micrograms/dl (SD 5.8 micrograms/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 micrograms/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used to prepare children's food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children's hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics.

  9. Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Lead on Estrogen Action in the Prepubertal Rat Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Tchernitchin, Andrei N.; Gaete, Leonardo; Bustamante, Rodrigo; Báez, Aracelly

    2011-01-01

    Lead is a widely spread environmental pollutant known to affect both male and female reproductive systems in humans and experimental animals and causes infertility and other adverse effects. The present paper investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to lead on different parameters of estrogen stimulation in the uterus of the prepubertal rat. In prenatally and perinatally exposed rats, estrogen-induced endometrial eosinophilia, endometrial stroma edema, and eosinophil migration towards the endometrium, and uterine luminal epithelial hypertrophy are enhanced while several other responses to estrogen appear unchanged. These effects may contribute to decrease in fertility following prenatal exposure to lead. The striking difference between most of these effects of prenatal exposure and the previously reported effects of chronic exposure to lead suggests that prenatal exposure to lead may neutralize the effects of chronic exposure to lead, providing partial protection of cell function against the adverse effects of chronic exposure to lead. We propose that the mechanism involved, named imprinting or cell programming, persisted through evolution as a nongenetic adaptive mechanism to provide protection against long-term environmental variations that otherwise may cause the extinction of species not displaying this kind of adaptation. PMID:22263113

  10. Early behavioral effects of lead perinatal exposure in rat pups.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Marion; Halpern, Ricardo; Barros, Helena M T

    2005-07-01

    Acoustic analysis of infants crying, a sensitive and selective index for measuring the effect of pre and perinatal lead exposure, may provide an early marker for central nervous system damage produced by the toxic. The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to low lead levels during perinatal and early postnatal periods on ultrasonic vocalization (USV), an early behavior of rat pups essential to their development. Non-sexually experienced females were gavaged daily with 8, 16 or 24 mg/kg of lead acetate or the control solution (1 ml/kg) for 30 days prior to breeding and until their pups were weaned. After crossover of dams, pups had been exposed to lead during pregnancy+lactation, pregnancy or lactation. The physiological variables measured on postnatal days 7 or 14 were USV, locomotion, rectal temperature, body weight and blood lead levels. Lead exposition during pregnancy+lactation, pregnancy or lactation induced a significant dose-dependent decrease of USV of 7-day-old pups. On the contrary, lead exposition during the different phases of pregnancy induced a significant dose-dependent increase of USV in 14-day-old rat pups. Blood lead levels varied from 5.7 to 36.5 microg/dl in pups. Body weight and temperature were not influenced by lead exposition. Lead-exposed 14-day-old pups were significantly more active. This study provides evidence of developmental changes in USV emission in rat pups exposed with low lead levels.

  11. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    PubMed

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens. PMID:24943230

  12. Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries.

    PubMed

    Ho, S F; Sam, C T; Embi, G B

    1998-09-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects were interviewed about their occupational and smoking histories, the use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. The contribution of a dietary source of lead intake from specified foods known to contain lead locally and personal air sampling for lead were assessed. A total of 61 workers from two PVC compounding and 50 workers from two lead acid battery manufacturing plants were studied together with 111 matched controls. In the PVC compounding plants the mean lead-in-air level was 0.0357 mg/m3, with the highest levels occurring during the pouring and mixing operations. This was lower than the mean lead-in-air level of 0.0886 mg/m3 in the lead battery manufacturing plants where the highest exposure was in the loading of lead ingots into milling machines. Workers in lead battery manufacturing had significantly higher mean blood lead than the PVC workers (means, 32.51 and 23.91 mcg/100 ml respectively), but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Among the lead workers, the Malays had significantly higher blood lead levels than the Chinese (mean blood levels were 33.03 and 25.35 mcg/100 ml respectively) although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups in the control group. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control group in terms of dietary intake of specified local foods known to contain lead. However, Malays consumed significantly more fish than the Chinese did. There were no ethnic differences in the hours of overtime work, number of years of exposure, usage of gloves and respirators and smoking habits. Among the Malays, 94.3% eat with

  13. Effects of exposure to lead among lead-acid battery factory workers in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Awad el Karim, M A; Hamed, A S; Elhaimi, Y A; Osman, Y; el Karim, M A

    1986-01-01

    Health effects of occupational exposure to lead were investigated among 92 exposed workers in lead-acid battery factory and 40 nonexposed workers serving as a control group from an oil mill in Khartoum North industrial area. The two groups were closely similar in age, stature, body weight, and socioeconomic conditions. A highly significant increase (P less than .01) was recorded in blood lead, urinary coproporphyrin, and basophilic stippled red blood cells of the exposed group in comparison to the control group. Central nervous system symptoms (insomnia, fatigue, weakness, and drowsiness) were reported by 50% and other symptoms such as abdominal colic and constipation were reported by 41% of the exposed group. Blue line on the gum was detected only on 2% of the exposed group. Strong associations between exposure to lead and the prevalence of central nervous system symptoms, abdominal colic, and constipation were recorded. Exposure to exceedingly high levels of lead in the working environment causes adverse health effects.

  14. Tremor secondary to neurotoxic exposure: mercury, lead, solvents, pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Roberto G; Hashim, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Lead, mercury, solvents, and pesticide exposures are common in certain occupations and may cause nervous system dysfunction. Tremors may be the herald manifestation among a constellation of acute toxicity signs and symptoms. However, since tremors may also be the only sign on clinical presentation and since tremors also occur in other diseases, relating tremors to a specific occupational exposure can be challenging. Diagnosis of tremor etiology must be based on other findings on physical exam, laboratory results, and/or imaging. Discerning whether the tremor resulted from the occupational environment versus other etiologies requires knowledge of potential exposure sources, additional detail in history taking, and support of other health and industrial professionals. Reduction or removal from the exposure source remains the key first step in treating patients suffering from tremor that had resulted from occupational exposure toxicity. PMID:26563793

  15. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: A medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Trotter, R.T. II )

    1990-11-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources; food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models.

  16. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, H M; Wang, J D; Zhang, X L

    2006-11-01

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mgkg(-1)). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure.

  17. Lead exposure assessment from study near a lead-acid battery factory in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; Liu, Ming; Huang, Yumei; Fan, Ruifang; Su, Yanhua; Hu, Guocheng; Peng, Xiaowu; Peng, Xiaochun

    2012-07-01

    The production of lead-acid battery in China covered about one-third of the world total output and there are more than 2000 lead-acid battery factories. They may cause the major environment lead pollution. Blood lead levels of several hundreds of residents were over 100 μg/L due to the waste discharges from a lead-acid battery factory in Heyuan, Guangdong province. This study aimed to find out the environmental lead sources, the human lead exposure pathways, and the amplitudes from a lead-acid battery factory. The study results showed that lead levels in soil, dust, tree leaves and human blood declined with the distances increased from the production site. Twenty nine of 32 participants had blood lead levels of over 100 μg/L with an exceptional high value of 639 μg/L for one child. This result suggested that the lead-acid battery production from this factory has caused the elevated lead levels in its neighboring environment and residents. Dust intake was the dominant exposure pathway for humans (over 90%). The lead levels found in adult and toddler (6.19 and 50.1 μg/kg/d, respectively) in the polluted area were far higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 25 μg/kg body weight (translated into 3.5 μg/kg/d), which was established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. Blood lead levels within the family members were strongly correlated with the house dust lead levels. Our results in this study suggested that further studies in this area should be performed to assess human exposure and relevant human health risks from living close to lead-acid battery factories.

  18. Hypertension`s lead connection: Does low-level exposure to lead cause high blood pressure?

    SciTech Connect

    Fackelmann, K.

    1996-06-15

    {open_quotes}Paying for the sins of the past.{close_quotes} is how researcher Howard Hu describes a proposed disease process in which lead stored for decades in the skeleton puts people at risk of high blood pressure. Previous research has linked this silvery white, poisonous metal to a host of ill effects in children, including learning disabilities, behavior problems, and brain damage. Now, Hu`s study indicates that past exposure may be causing today`s high blood pressure. If he`s right, the public health impact would be significant. {open_quotes}Tens of millions of Americans have been exposed over the years to lead,{close_quotes} says Philip J. Landrigan of Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. {open_quotes}Adults today grew up at a time when we were still putting several hundred thousand tons of lead into gasoline each year.{close_quotes} Indeed, the men who developed high blood pressure during the recent study had in their bones lead concentrations, or lead burdens, that came from decades of everyday exposure. Such exposures resulted principally from breathing in fumes from leaded gasoline, drinking tap water from lead pipes or pipes soldered with lead, and inhaling or ingesting lead-laced paint dust or chips. This article goes on to discuss other studies and questions which still need to be answered.

  19. CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS. ME Gilbert1, ME Kelly2, S. Salant3, T Shafer1, J Goodman3 1Neurotoxicology Div, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711, 2Children's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, 3Helen Hayes Hospital, Haverstraw, NY, 10993.
    ...

  20. Census tract analysis of lead exposure in Rhode Island children.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J D; Bailey, A; Simon, P; Blake, M; Dalton, M A

    1997-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in a targeted approach to the screening and prevention of lead exposure in children. Targeted screening requires an understanding of variation in lead exposure in individual children or by region. In order to better understand variation by region, we studied Rhode Island lead poisoning screening data, examining average lead exposure to children living in 136 Providence County census tracts (CTs). The study population included 17,956 children aged 59 months and under, who were screened between May 1, 1992, and April 30, 1993. We evaluated the relationship between the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 10 micrograms/dL (pe10) and sociodemographic and housing characteristics, derived from United States 1990 Census data, of these CTs. CT descriptors included population density, percentage of households receiving public assistance income, median per capita income, percentage of households female headed, percentage of houses owner occupied, percentage of houses built before 1950, percentage of houses vacant, percentage of population Black, percentage of recent immigrants, and intraurban mobility. On average, 109 children were screened in each census tract; mean screening rate was 44%. There was wide variation in average lead exposure among census tracts, with pe10 ranging from 3 to 60% of screened children (mean 27%). Individual census variables explained between 24 and 67% of the variance in pe10 among CTs. A multiple regression model including percentage screened, percentage of households receiving public assistance, percentage of houses built before 1950, In (percentage of houses vacant), and percentage of recent immigrants explained 83% of variance in pe10. The percentage of houses built before 1950, a variable which models the presence of lead paint in old houses, displayed the largest adjusted effect on pe10 over the range observed for that variable in RI CTs. The percentage of houses vacant was also a highly

  1. Leaded crystal as a source of dietary lead: An exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Shorten, C.V.; Glowacki, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    Lead is a potent systemic toxic with many environmental sources. It can enter the body through a number of pathways, the most significant is ingestion. While many investigators of lead ingestion have focused on paint and dust sources, the authors examined food contaminated with lead from crystal ware. The rates and amounts of lead leached into vinegar stored in leaded crystal cruets were measured over the course of a 42-day laboratory study. Replicate lead oxide (PbO, 24%) crystal cruets (N = 13) were filled with vinegar, and sample aliquots were periodically removed for analysis. Lead leaching rates were determined by fitting a two-stage, non-linear model to the data, and observed rate coefficients were 0.066 hr{sup {minus}1} and 0.0019{sup {minus}1} for the first and second stages of leaching, respectively (R{sup 2} = 0.9680). Average lead concentrations in the stored vinegar range from 118 {micro}g/L at 8 parameters (ingestion rate, exposure frequency and duration, body weight, and averaging time) was generated to characterize the realm of potential intake estimates. Lead concentrations were input using the fitted model. Results indicated that a worst case lead intake estimate from this source could be as high as 420 {micro}g/kg/yr for a child. Crystal ware can be considered to be a potentially significant dietary source of lead, and risk characterizations cannot ignore this potential avenue when combining risks across all exposure pathways.

  2. Australia's leading public health body delays action on the revision of the public health goal for blood lead exposures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Winder, Chris; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2014-09-01

    Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level lead exposures (e.g. by WHO, USA health and environmental agencies, German and Canadian health bodies) has resulted in recommendations to reduce and eliminate lead exposures. By contrast, Australian policy responses to the incontrovertible evidence that adverse neurocognitive and behavioural effects that occur at levels well below the current national goal of 10μg/dL have stalled. The delayed response by Australia occurs at a time when blood lead levels in two of Australia's three primary lead mining and smelting cities: Port Pirie, South Australia and Broken Hill, New South Wales, are rising. In the third city, Mount Isa, Queensland, there is still no systematic, annual testing of childhood blood lead values. This is despite the fact that Mount Isa has the highest lead (and other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic) emissions to the environment (120tonnes of lead in 2011/12) from any single point source in Australia. It is clear that both state and national policy approaches to the ongoing risks of lead exposure need to be revised urgently and in line with contemporary international standards. Recommended changes should include a new lower blood lead intervention level of no more than 5μg/dL, with a national goal for all children under 5years of age to have a blood lead level of below 1μg/dL by 2020. In order to

  3. Australia's leading public health body delays action on the revision of the public health goal for blood lead exposures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Winder, Chris; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2014-09-01

    Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level lead exposures (e.g. by WHO, USA health and environmental agencies, German and Canadian health bodies) has resulted in recommendations to reduce and eliminate lead exposures. By contrast, Australian policy responses to the incontrovertible evidence that adverse neurocognitive and behavioural effects that occur at levels well below the current national goal of 10μg/dL have stalled. The delayed response by Australia occurs at a time when blood lead levels in two of Australia's three primary lead mining and smelting cities: Port Pirie, South Australia and Broken Hill, New South Wales, are rising. In the third city, Mount Isa, Queensland, there is still no systematic, annual testing of childhood blood lead values. This is despite the fact that Mount Isa has the highest lead (and other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic) emissions to the environment (120tonnes of lead in 2011/12) from any single point source in Australia. It is clear that both state and national policy approaches to the ongoing risks of lead exposure need to be revised urgently and in line with contemporary international standards. Recommended changes should include a new lower blood lead intervention level of no more than 5μg/dL, with a national goal for all children under 5years of age to have a blood lead level of below 1μg/dL by 2020. In order to

  4. Paternal occupational lead exposure and offspring risks for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sallmén, Markku; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    This register-based cohort study investigated whether paternal occupational exposure to inorganic lead was related to offspring risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). Exposed men (n=11,863) were identified from blood lead measurements taken at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 1973-1983. Data on mothers and their offspring born from 1972-1984 were obtained from the national Population Information System. Two population comparison offspring for each exposed offspring were matched on date of birth, sex and area (n=23,720). SSD cases were identified from The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Hazard ratios of SSD between exposed groups were analyzed using conditional proportional hazards regression, adjusted for parental history of psychoses, parental ages, language of offspring, father's employment, and father's self-employment. After 26-38years of follow up, there were no significant differences in the incidence of schizophrenia, either between the offspring of exposed (188/11,863; 1.6%) and unexposed fathers (347/23,720; 1.5%) or based on blood lead levels (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 0.97, CI 0.52-1.83, 1.25, CI 0.85-1.82, 0.90, CI 0.54-1.49, and 1.38, CI 0.65-2.92 for lead categories <0.5, 0.5-0.9, 1.0-1.4, and ≥1.5μmol/L, respectively, as compared to population comparison). Parental psychosis, paternal age and offspring language were associated with offspring risk. The findings suggest that paternal exposure to lead is not a risk factor for schizophrenia in offspring. However, the majority of exposed fathers had low-level exposure, and we cannot exclude the possibility of an effect for higher exposures to lead. PMID:27318522

  5. Environmental and Occupational Lead Exposure Among Children in Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Badawy, Nashwa Mostafa; Manawill, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess childhood lead exposure in a representative sample of Cairo, and to investigate the possible risk factors and sources of exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 through April 2015. The target population was children aged 6 to 18 years, recruited into 4 groups, garbage city, moderate-living standard area, urban and suburban schools, and workshops in the city of Cairo. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured. Also, potential local environmental sources were assessed for hazardous lead contamination. Analysis on 400 participants has been carried out. A total of 113 children had BLLs in the range 10 to 20 μg/dL. Smoking fathers, housing conditions, playing outdoors, and exposure to lead in residential areas were significantly correlated with high BLLs. The mean values of hemoglobin were inversely correlated with BLLs. Children involved in pottery workshops had the highest BLLs and the lowest Hb values with a mean of (43.3 μg/dL and 8.6 g/dL, respectively). The mean value of environmental lead in workshop areas exceeded the recommended levels. Also, those values measured in dust and paint samples of garbage city were significantly high. Moreover, the mean lead levels in the soil samples were significantly higher in urban schools (P = 0.03) than the suburban ones. Childhood lead poisoning accounts for a substantial burden in Egypt, which could be preventable. Development of national prevention programs including universal screening program should be designed to reduce incidence of lead toxicity among children. PMID:26945415

  6. Occupational lead exposure in Denmark: screening with the haematofluorometer.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P

    1979-02-01

    The zinc protoporphyrin/haemoglobin (ZPP/Hb) ratio was measured in the field with a haematofluorometer. A significant increase in ZPP/Hb ratio with advancing age was found in 1295 men who denied any excess exposure to lead. Ninety-seven per cent of the results were below 110 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (4.4 microgram ZPP/g Hb). The ZPP/Hb ratio was determined in a lead-exposed population of 2275 men, and in 305 a blood lead analysis was also performed. A blood lead limit of 2.9 mumol/l (60 microgram/100 ml) corresponds to about 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (20 microgram/g). This limit was exceeded in workers engaged in secondary lead smelting, storage battery manufacture, car radiator repair, crystal glass manufacture, storage battery repair, ship breaking, metal foundries, the ceramic industry, scrap metal handling, and PVC plastic manufacture. Other occupations caused lower lead exposures with ZPP/Hb ratios between 110 and 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe): such ratios were found in men from shooting ranges, in leaded pane manufacturers, gunsmiths, car paint sprayers, type setters, steel rolling mill workers, shipbuilders and welders, car mechanics, lead pigment handlers, and solderers. Increased ZPP/Hb ratios and blood lead levels in 210 workers were associated with a decrease in haemoglobin concentration in the blood. Thus, the haematofluorometer has proved to be very useful for screening purposes. A blood lead determination should be performed if the ZPP/Hb ratio exceeds 300 microgram ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (12 microgram/g).

  7. Environmental Lead Exposure in Polish Children: Blood Lead Levels, Major Sources and Principles of the Lead Poisoning Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Muszyńska-Graca, Maja; Dąbkowska, Beata; Kasznia-Kocot, Joanna; Sakowska-Maliszewska, lwona; Woźniakowa, Yvonna

    2003-01-01

    In Poland, children are exposed to lead from the combustion of leaded gasoline and industrial processes. Since the early 1990s, emission levels have declined, and a ban on leaded petrol is anticipated in 2005. Major industrial sources are located in Silesia Province and the copper mining centre (Legnica region). Concerns about, lead exposure in children date back to the 1980s; mean blood lead levels (BILL)reported in children living near lead smelters in Silesia exceeded 20ug/dl. in the 1990s, mean BLLs were decreasing, both in urban children and those living near lead industry. Lower than the CDC action level of 101ug/dl, they were however higher than mean values in children from the other countries, where leaded gasoline had already been banned. Childhood lead poisoning prevention requires a comprehensive approach, involving different sectors. Medical prevention focuses on the early detection of exposed child by the blood lead testing and individual case management. An increasing body of evidence, indicating adverse effects even below the current “safe” level of 101ug/dl, argues for intensification of the primary prevention, which requires legal, economic and technical measures. Public health efforts should contribute to the reduction and elimination of sources of exposure in child’s environment and public education campaigns. PMID:18365064

  8. Reproductive toxicity of chronic lead exposure in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Pinon-Lataillade, G; Thoreux-Manlay, A; Coffigny, H; Masse, R; Soufir, J C

    1995-11-01

    The reproductive toxicity of lead was investigated in NMRI mice exposed to 0.5% lead acetate in drinking water from day 1 of intra-uterine life until 60 days after birth. Compared with control mice, the weights of lead-exposed fetuses and subsequently of the lead-exposed weaned pups, male and female, diminished by 11 and 13% respectively. The lead-exposed male and female offspring of lead-exposed dams were mated with unexposed females and males, to examine the effect of lead exposure on reproductive function. Male fertility was not affected but reduced female fertility was observed: litters were smaller and a smaller number of implantation sites was found in lead-exposed females. In lead-exposed males, the weights of the body, testes and epididymes diminished by about 13%, and seminal vesicle and ventral prostate weights, by about 29%. Testicular histology and the number and morphology of epididymal spermatozoa were normal. The levels of plasma FSH, LH and testosterone, and of testicular testosterone, were not modified. These results suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis is not adversely affected by the above lead exposure, and that therefore the decreased seminal vesicle and ventral prostate weights might not be the consequence of reduced testosterone levels. The hypothesis that lead has a direct effect on these organs as well as a secondary effect resulting from possibly reduced food consumption by lead-exposed mice cannot be excluded. Consequently, in male NMRI mice, exposure to lead might affect reproductive function by acting directly and/or indirectly on accessory sex organs.

  9. Influence of the degree of exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and the biological indices of lead exposure: epidemiological study in a lead acid battery factory.

    PubMed Central

    Cezard, C; Demarquilly, C; Boniface, M; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol has been shown to interact with lead to influence haem biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to define the dependence of this interaction on the degree of exposure to lead. Exposure to alcohol was estimated by measurement of alcohol concentrations in a sample of urine collected during the morning (AlcUM) (0.82 (SD 4.36) mmol/l) and in a sample collected during the afternoon (AlcUA) (1.15 (SD 3.49) mmol/l). The biological monitoring of exposure to lead included measurements of blood lead (Pb-B) (1.82 (SD 0.72) mumol/l), urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALAU) (35.33 (SD 28.00) mumol/l; d = 1.015), and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP) (112.90 (SD 83.71) nmol/mmol Hb) concentrations. The study of the influence of the degree of occupational exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and effects of the exposure to lead led to the consideration of two different groups--namely, mildly and strongly exposed subjects. In the first group, individual biological susceptibility seemed to play a preponderant part. In the second, the pool of lead present in the body seemed to be sufficiently important to mask the effects of individual susceptibility. PMID:1390270

  10. Influence of the degree of exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and the biological indices of lead exposure: epidemiological study in a lead acid battery factory.

    PubMed

    Cezard, C; Demarquilly, C; Boniface, M; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-09-01

    Alcohol has been shown to interact with lead to influence haem biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to define the dependence of this interaction on the degree of exposure to lead. Exposure to alcohol was estimated by measurement of alcohol concentrations in a sample of urine collected during the morning (AlcUM) (0.82 (SD 4.36) mmol/l) and in a sample collected during the afternoon (AlcUA) (1.15 (SD 3.49) mmol/l). The biological monitoring of exposure to lead included measurements of blood lead (Pb-B) (1.82 (SD 0.72) mumol/l), urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALAU) (35.33 (SD 28.00) mumol/l; d = 1.015), and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP) (112.90 (SD 83.71) nmol/mmol Hb) concentrations. The study of the influence of the degree of occupational exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and effects of the exposure to lead led to the consideration of two different groups--namely, mildly and strongly exposed subjects. In the first group, individual biological susceptibility seemed to play a preponderant part. In the second, the pool of lead present in the body seemed to be sufficiently important to mask the effects of individual susceptibility.

  11. Environmental lead exposure risks associated with children's outdoor playgrounds.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Camenzuli, Danielle; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Forbes, Miriam; Zahran, Sammy

    2013-07-01

    This study examines exposure risks associated with lead smelter emissions at children's public playgrounds in Port Pirie, South Australia. Lead and other metal values were measured in air, soil, surface dust and on pre- and post-play hand wipes. Playgrounds closest to the smelter were significantly more lead contaminated compared to those further away (t(27.545) = 3.76; p = .001). Port Pirie post-play hand wipes contained significantly higher lead loadings (maximum hand lead value of 49,432 μg/m(2)) than pre-play hand wipes (t(27) = 3.57, p = .001). A 1% increase in air lead (μg/m(3)) was related to a 0.713% increase in lead dust on play surfaces (95% CI, 0.253-1.174), and a 0.612% increase in post-play wipe lead (95% CI, 0.257-0.970). Contaminated dust from smelter emissions is determined as the source and cause of childhood lead poisoning at a rate of approximately one child every third day.

  12. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

  13. Lead exposure and eclampsia in Britain, 1883-1934.

    PubMed

    Troesken, Werner

    2006-07-01

    Eclampsia refers to a coma or seizure activity in a pregnant woman with no prior history of such activity. This paper presents a mix of historical and epidemiological evidence consistent with the hypothesis that chronic lead exposure is a predisposing factor for eclampsia. The historical evidence is based on research conducted by British physicians around 1900 showing that the geographic variation in eclampsia across England and Wales was correlated with lead levels in local drinking water supplies. A formal epidemiological analysis based on a data set of English and Welsh counties observed in 1883 corroborates the evidence presented by historical observers. In particular, the statistical results show that the death rate from eclampsia in counties with high-water-lead levels exceeded the death rate in counties with low-water-lead levels by a factor of 2.34 (95% CI: 1.54-3.14).

  14. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop.

    PubMed

    Treble, R G; Thompson, T S; Morton, D N

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 mumol/L (41.7 and 10.4 micrograms/dL), respectively. The father's blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level (2.5 mumol/L or 52.1 micrograms/dL). The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 mumol/L (20.8 and 16.7 micrograms/dL), both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children (0.5 mumol/L or 10.4 micrograms/dL). The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  15. Sex-based differences in gene expression in hippocampus following postnatal lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.S. Anderson, D.W.; Sonnenahalli, H.; Vadigepalli, R.

    2011-10-15

    The influence of sex as an effect modifier of childhood lead poisoning has received little systematic attention. Considering the paucity of information available concerning the interactive effects of lead and sex on the brain, the current study examined the interactive effects of lead and sex on gene expression patterns in the hippocampus, a structure involved in learning and memory. Male or female rats were fed either 1500 ppm lead-containing chow or control chow for 30 days beginning at weaning.Blood lead levels were 26.7 {+-} 2.1 {mu}g/dl and 27.1 {+-} 1.7 {mu}g/dl for females and males, respectively. The expression of 175 unique genes was differentially regulated between control male and female rats. A total of 167 unique genes were differentially expressed in response to lead in either males or females. Lead exposure had a significant effect without a significant difference between male and female responses in 77 of these genes. In another set of 71 genes, there were significant differences in male vs. female response. A third set of 30 genes was differentially expressed in opposite directions in males vs. females, with the majority of genes expressed at a lower level in females than in males. Highly differentially expressed genes in males and females following lead exposure were associated with diverse biological pathways and functions. These results show that a brief exposure to lead produced significant changes in expression of a variety of genes in the hippocampus and that the response of the brain to a given lead exposure may vary depending on sex. - Highlights: > Postnatal lead exposure has a significant effect on hippocampal gene expression patterns. > At least one set of genes was affected in opposite directions in males and females. > Differentially expressed genes were associated with diverse biological pathways.

  16. Lead exposure from tourist earthenware: a pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Seldén, Anders I; Bergström, Bernt E O; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar

    2008-10-01

    Lead from glazed earthenware used for food storage is a well-known health hazard sporadically causing lead intoxication and may be a source of disseminating lead exposure in specific population groups. To obtain a contemporary scope of the problem a pilot survey was conducted in a random sample of 2000 households with Swedish charter tourists to Greece in 2003. Response was obtained from 214 (10.7%). From these households blood samples were obtained from 33 potentially lead exposed subjects and 33 controls (participation rate among selected participants of each category was 66% and 33%, respectively). No statistically significant difference in mean blood lead was found between groups (arithmetic mean 0.13 and 0.10micromol/l for exposed and controls, respectively; p>0.05), but increased lead levels for two exposed subjects (1.0 and 0.77micromol/l) were associated with their Hellenic earthenware (tea mugs). This pilot survey, probably the first epidemiological study of the current problem, did not indicate that earthenware purchased in Greece by Swedish tourists and used for food storage is a widespread source of lead, but limitations with regard to statistical power preclude definite conclusions.

  17. Reproductive toxicity of low-level lead exposure in men

    SciTech Connect

    Telisman, Spomenka Colak, Bozo; Pizent, Alica; Jurasovic, Jasna; Cvitkovic, Petar

    2007-10-15

    Parameters of semen quality, seminal plasma indicators of secretory function of the prostate and seminal vesicles, sex hormones in serum, and biomarkers of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and selenium body burden were measured in 240 Croatian men 19-52 years of age. The subjects had no occupational exposure to metals and no known other reasons suspected of influencing male reproductive function or metal metabolism. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, blood cadmium, and serum copper, zinc, and selenium by multiple regression, significant (P<0.05) associations of blood lead (BPb), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and/or erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) with reproductive parameters indicated a lead-related increase in immature sperm concentration, in percentages of pathologic sperm, wide sperm, round sperm, and short sperm, in serum levels of testosterone and estradiol, and a decrease in seminal plasma zinc and in serum prolactin. These reproductive effects were observed at low-level lead exposure (BPb median 49 {mu}g/L, range 11-149 {mu}g/L in the 240 subjects) common for general populations worldwide. The observed significant synergistic effect of BPb and blood cadmium on increasing serum testosterone, and additive effect of a decrease in serum selenium on increasing serum testosterone, may have implications on the initiation and development of prostate cancer because testosterone augments the progress of prostate cancer in its early stages.

  18. An empirical comparison of lead exposure pathway models.

    PubMed Central

    Succop, P; Bornschein, R; Brown, K; Tseng, C Y

    1998-01-01

    Structural equation modeling is a statistical method for partitioning the variance in a set of interrelated multivariate outcomes into that which is due to direct, indirect, and covariate (exogenous) effects. Despite this model's flexibility to handle different experimental designs, postulation of a causal chain among the endogenous variables and the points of influence of the covariates is required. This has motivated the researchers at the University of Cincinnati Department of Environmental Health to be guided by a theoretical model for movement of lead from distal sources (exterior soil or dust and paint lead) to proximal sources (interior dust lead) and then finally to biologic outcomes (handwipe and blood lead). The question of whether a single structural equation model built from proximity arguments can be applied to diverse populations observed in different communities with varying lead amounts, sources, and bioavailabilities is addressed in this article. This reanalysis involved data from 1855 children less than 72 months of age enrolled in 11 studies performed over approximately 15 years. Data from children residing near former ore-processing sites were included in this reanalysis. A single model adequately fit the data from these 11 studies; however, the model needs to be flexible to include pathways that are not frequently observed. As expected, the more proximal sources of interior dust lead and handwipe lead were the most important predictors of blood lead; soil lead often had a number of indirect influences. A limited number of covariates were also isolated as usually affecting the endogenous lead variables. The blood lead levels surveyed at the ore-processing sites were comparable to and actually somewhat lower than those reported in the the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Lessened bioavailability of the lead at certain of these sites is a probable reason for this finding. PMID:9860917

  19. Can a father's exposure lead to illness in his children

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.

    1992-10-02

    There is an urgent need for studies to elucidate mechanisms underlying evidence mechanisms underlying evidence that many different types of paternal exposure induce changes in sperm or semen that could affect children's health. Epidemiology, of course, is only half of the equation that describes male-mediated toxicity. The other half is the biological examination of mechanisms whereby damage to sperm might affect the next generation. In this area, geneticists and toxicologists have had a firm starting point: It's been known for decades that certain toxins and radiation can damage sperm. Research suggests that different chemicals exert their maximum damage on sperm at three stages of sperm production, with most chemicals tested affecting the stage during which early spermatozoa and late spermatids are formed. The problem, however, is that none of these defects has been linked specifically to certain types of birth defects or diseases.

  20. Lead Exposure in Bald Eagles from Big Game Hunting, the Continental Implications and Successful Mitigation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005–2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009–2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles. PMID:23284837

  1. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  2. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles. PMID:23284837

  3. Identifying sources of lead exposure for children, with lead concentrations and isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Glorennec, P; Peyr, C; Poupon, J; Oulhote, Y; Le Bot, B

    2010-05-01

    Despite a dramatic decrease in children's blood lead levels (BLL), lead exposure remains a public health concern because increasing evidence shows effects at very low doses. Lowering BLL still further requires the identification of lead sources and, therefore, new tools to investigate and thus prevent exposure. We describe a procedure that uses both lead concentrations and isotope ratios (IRs) to identify sources of overexposure in homes. Water, dust, and paint chips were sampled from the homes of 21 children with elevated BLL from Aubervilliers (Paris metropolitan area). Lead concentrations of concern were calculated from reverse physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling for water and dust. Isotope ratio matching of blood and environmental samples (with a lead content above the concentration of concern) was performed by computation of the distance between their IRs. When the IR of the source did not match that of the blood, the source was eliminated as a source of lead intoxication. The number of sources eliminated (per child) due to lead concentration ranged from 14% to 86% (mean 66%) for dust, and 100% for water samples. The number of remaining potential sources eliminated by IR interpretation varied from 0% to 100% for both dust and paint chips (mean 63% and 58%, respectively). IRs made it possible to eliminate at least one source in 20 of 21 cases and identified a single source in 11 of 21. The number of dust and paint sources not eliminated by concentration or IR varied from 8% to 45% (median 18%). The pilot study supports the usefulness of these procedures and the added value of IRs for identifying sources of lead poisoning. However, systematic use should be supported by cost-effectiveness analysis on a larger and more representative population of elevated BLL.

  4. MATERNAL SELF-ESTEEM, EXPOSURE TO LEAD, AND CHILD NEURODEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Surkan, Pamela J.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Rosalind J.; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, E. Mauricio; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel; Perroni, Estela; Wright, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We examined whether mothers’ self-esteem had a direct or main effect on their children's cognitive outcomes. We also explored the modifying effects of maternal self-esteem on the association between exposure to lead and neurodevelopment in these children. Study participants included 379 mother-child pairs from Mexico City. Data included the Coopersmith self-esteem scale in mothers, children's Bayley's Scale of Infant Development (BSID) scores, and sociodemographic information. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between maternal self-esteem and the Bayley's Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at age 24 months using regression models stratified by levels of maternal self-esteem. In adjusted models, each point increase in maternal self-esteem was associated with children having 0.2 higher score on the Bayley's MDI (p=0.04). Similar results were observed using the PDI outcome. Moreover, there was evidence that maternal self-esteem attenuated the negative effects of lead exposure, although the interaction fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance. PMID:18261800

  5. Transcriptome Changes in Hirschfeldia incana in Response to Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Smouni, Abdelaziz; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Béna, Gilles; Doumas, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Hirschfeldia incana, a pseudometallophyte belonging to the Brassicaceae family and widespread in the Mediterranean region, was selected for its ability to grow on soils contaminated by lead (Pb). The global comparison of gene expression using microarrays between a plant susceptible to Pb (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a Pb tolerant plant (H. incana) enabled the identification of a set of specific genes expressed in response to lead exposure. Three groups of genes were particularly over-represented by the Pb exposure in the biological processes categorized as photosynthesis, cell wall, and metal handling. Each of these gene groups was shown to be directly involved in tolerance or in protection mechanisms to the phytotoxicity associated with Pb. Among these genes, we demonstrated that MT2b, a metallothionein gene, was involved in lead accumulation, confirming the important role of metallothioneins in the accumulation and the distribution of Pb in leaves. On the other hand, several genes involved in biosynthesis of ABA were shown to be up-regulated in the roots and shoots of H. incana treated with Pb, suggesting that ABA-mediated signaling is a possible mechanism in response to Pb treatment in H. incana. This latest finding is an important research direction for future studies. PMID:26793211

  6. Transcriptome Changes in Hirschfeldia incana in Response to Lead Exposure.

    PubMed

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Smouni, Abdelaziz; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Béna, Gilles; Doumas, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Hirschfeldia incana, a pseudometallophyte belonging to the Brassicaceae family and widespread in the Mediterranean region, was selected for its ability to grow on soils contaminated by lead (Pb). The global comparison of gene expression using microarrays between a plant susceptible to Pb (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a Pb tolerant plant (H. incana) enabled the identification of a set of specific genes expressed in response to lead exposure. Three groups of genes were particularly over-represented by the Pb exposure in the biological processes categorized as photosynthesis, cell wall, and metal handling. Each of these gene groups was shown to be directly involved in tolerance or in protection mechanisms to the phytotoxicity associated with Pb. Among these genes, we demonstrated that MT2b, a metallothionein gene, was involved in lead accumulation, confirming the important role of metallothioneins in the accumulation and the distribution of Pb in leaves. On the other hand, several genes involved in biosynthesis of ABA were shown to be up-regulated in the roots and shoots of H. incana treated with Pb, suggesting that ABA-mediated signaling is a possible mechanism in response to Pb treatment in H. incana. This latest finding is an important research direction for future studies.

  7. Longitudinal analyses of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development

    SciTech Connect

    Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A.; Waternaux, C.; Needleman, H.; Rabinowitz, M.

    1987-04-23

    In a prospective cohort study of 249 children from birth to two years of age, we assessed the relation between prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development. On the basis of lead levels in umbilical-cord blood, children were assigned to one of three prenatal-exposure groups: low (less than 3 micrograms per deciliter), medium (6 to 7 micrograms per deciliter), or high (greater than or equal to 10 micrograms per deciliter). Development was assessed semiannually, beginning at the age of six months, with use of the Mental Development Index of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (mean +/- SD, 100 +/- 16). Capillary-blood samples obtained at the same times provided measures of postnatal lead exposure. Regression methods for longitudinal data were used to evaluate the association between infants' lead levels and their development scores after adjustment for potential confounders. At all ages, infants in the high-prenatal-exposure group scored lower than infants in the other two groups. The estimated difference between the overall performance of the low-exposure and high-exposure groups was 4.8 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.3 to 7.3). Between the medium- and high-exposure groups, the estimated difference was 3.8 points (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 6.3). Scores were not related to infants' postnatal blood lead levels. It appears that the fetus may be adversely affected at blood lead concentrations well below 25 micrograms per deciliter, the level currently defined by the Centers for Disease Control as the highest acceptable level for young children.

  8. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea’s Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0–64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. PMID:27051231

  9. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea's Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0-64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. PMID:27051231

  10. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea's Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0-64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations.

  11. Effects of chronic lead exposure on functions of nervous system in Chinese children and developmental rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenjing; Ruan, Diyun; Yan, Chonghuai; Yin, Shuting; Chen, Jingyuan

    2012-08-01

    Lead pollution is a very serious problem in China with the rapid economic development. A large amount of lead has been released into the environment due to mineral processing activities and has impacted water resources, soils, vegetables, and crops. The gasoline with lead has been banned in China since July 1, 2000. Though a noticeable decrease of lead poisoning rates has been evidenced, the children's blood lead levels are still significantly higher than those in developed countries. Therefore, lowering the lead exposure in childhood continues to be an important public health objective in China. There is also a lot that remains to be done to reduce children's exposure to lead. In this section, five scientists from China presented latest research results regarding the current situation of lead poisoning in China, the mechanisms involved in lead-induced neurotoxicity, and the new advances related to the potential therapy methods. Their researches may pave new way not only for the prevention of lead poisoning but also for the treatment of affected children in China and other countries.

  12. Potential Mechanism Leading to Impaired Thermoregulation Following Microgravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Etzel, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity or its analogues impairs thermoregulation in humans evidenced by higher internal temperatures following the exposure during a thermal challenge. Although the mechanism leading to this response has not been clearly delineated, we identified that prolonged head-down tilt (HDT) markedly impairs thermoregulatory reflex control of skin blood flow, as demonstrated by an increased internal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation, and by a reduced slope of the relationship between the elevation in skin blood flow relative to the elevation in internal temperature. Recently, Fortney et al. identified similar responses in two individuals following 115 days of microgravity exposure. One possible mechanism leading to altered cutaneous vasodilation during a thermal challenge following actual or simulated microgravity exposure may be associated with baroreflex-mediated attenuation in the elevation of skin blood flow. During a heat stress the elevation in skin blood flow is accomplished through a combination of increased cutaneous vascular conductance and cardiac output, both of which result in central venous pressure (CVP) decreasing 2-6 mmHg. Reductions in CVP of this magnitude in normothermia decrease muscle blood flow and skin blood flow presumably through unloading the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. It is unclear whether the reduction in CVP, and accompanying cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading, during passive heating buffers the elevation in skin blood flow. That is, would the elevation in skin blood flow be greater if CVP did not decrease, or decreased to a lesser extent during the heat stress? Conversely, if CVP decreased to a greater extend during a thermal challenge following a perturbation such as prolonged HDT, would the elevation in skin blood flow be attenuated during that thermal challenge? Given that prolonged HDT decreases plasma volume and central venous pressure, such a finding would provide a plausible hypothesis

  13. Lead exposure in indigenous communities of the Amazon basin, Peru.

    PubMed

    Anticona, Cynthia; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Lundh, Thomas; Alegre, Yuri; Sebastian, Miguel San

    2011-12-01

    Since 2006, three studies have reported elevated levels of lead (Pb) among the indigenous population of the Corrientes river, in the Amazon basin of Peru. Due to the large evidence of environmental pollution related to oil exploitation in the area, this activity has been suggested as the source of exposure. This study aimed to evaluate Pb levels in the population and environment of two communities exposed and one community non-exposed to the oil exploitation activity. Blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by the instrument Leadcare. A comparison with the graphite furnace atomic absorption technique was performed in order to validate the Leadcare results. Environmental samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Among 361 capillary samples, the mean BLL was 9.4 μg/dl. Mean BLL of the communities exposed (n=171, x¯=9.5 μg/dl) and non-exposed (n=190, x¯=9.2 μg/dl) to the oil activity were not significantly different. Pb levels in environmental samples were below the maximum permissible levels. The sources of exposure could not be identified. Elevated levels of Pb in the oil-non-exposed community pointed out at other sources not yet clarified.

  14. Early life triclocarban exposure during lactation affects neonate rat survival.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure.

  15. Early Life Triclocarban Exposure During Lactation Affects Neonate Rat Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Rebekah C. M.; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A.; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A.; Lasley, Bill L.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  16. Developmental lead exposure causes startle response deficits in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Rice, Clinton; Ghorai, Jugal K; Zalewski, Kathryn; Weber, Daniel N

    2011-10-01

    Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure continues to be an important concern for fish populations. Research is required to assess the long-term behavioral effects of low-level concentrations of Pb(2+) and the physiological mechanisms that control those behaviors. Newly fertilized zebrafish embryos (<2h post fertilization; hpf) were exposed to one of three concentrations of lead (as PbCl(2)): 0, 10, or 30 nM until 24 hpf. (1) Response to a mechanosensory stimulus: Individual larvae (168 hpf) were tested for response to a directional, mechanical stimulus. The tap frequency was adjusted to either 1 or 4 taps/s. Startle response was recorded at 1000 fps. Larvae responded in a concentration-dependent pattern for latency to reaction, maximum turn velocity, time to reach V(max) and escape time. With increasing exposure concentrations, a larger number of larvae failed to respond to even the initial tap and, for those that did respond, ceased responding earlier than control larvae. These differences were more pronounced at a frequency of 4 taps/s. (2) Response to a visual stimulus: Fish, exposed as embryos (2-24 hpf) to Pb(2+) (0-10 μM) were tested as adults under low light conditions (≈ 60 μW/m(2)) for visual responses to a rotating black bar. Visual responses were significantly degraded at Pb(2+) concentrations of 30 nM. These data suggest that zebrafish are viable models for short- and long-term sensorimotor deficits induced by acute, low-level developmental Pb(2+) exposures.

  17. Effect of the exposure to metal lead on the regenerative ability of Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta).

    PubMed

    Sardo, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Lourdes; Gerhardt, Almut; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2011-01-01

    Lumbriculus variegatus is a recommended species for use in sediment toxicity tests and is known to have a remarkable power of segmental regeneration. Here, we tested the effects of a chemical stressor on the regenerative ability of L. variegatus and investigated the potential of regenerative ability as an additional new parameter in standard toxicity tests. The worms were cut into two equal segments, and exposed to various concentrations of lead. Two assays were performed: one with sediment spiked with lead and the other with water spiked with lead. The endpoints were segmental regeneration, survival and behaviour. Regenerative ability was clearly affected by exposure to lead-contaminated sediment and lead-contaminated water. Organisms exposed to lead grew more slowly than those not exposed; worms exposed to contaminated water showed higher mortalities than those exposed to contaminated sediment. Results showed that L. variegatus' regenerative ability, as a developmental test parameter, is more sensitive than mortality. PMID:21787687

  18. Ultrasonographic Measurement of the Achilles and Supraspinatus Tendon Thicknesses in Patients with Chronic Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Baki, AE; Yıldızgören, MT; Kara, M; Ekiz, T; Tutkun, E; Özçakar, L

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The study aimed to assess tendon thickness in patients with chronic occupational lead exposure by using ultrasonography. Methods: Twenty-seven male workers (mean age 32.9 ± 6.2 years, range 25–44 years) with occupational lead exposure and 27 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy male subjects (mean age 33.1 ± 5.6 years, range 25–44 years) were enrolled. Ultrasonographic measurements were obtained from the supraspinatus and Achilles tendons by using a linear probe (5–10 MHz). Results: Mean Achilles tendon values at long axis (p = 0.034) and tendon cross-sectional area (p = 0.013) were significantly smaller in the lead-exposed group than the control group. On the other hand, no significant difference was found regarding the thickness of the supraspinatus tendon (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our preliminary results imply that subjects with occupational lead exposure have smaller Achilles tendons than healthy subjects. Chronic lead exposure may affect the tendons due to reduction of collagen synthesis. Further studies are definitely needed to confirm our initial findings. PMID:26624578

  19. Residential and commercial painters' exposure to lead during surface preparation.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Peter F; Materna, Barbara L; Harrington, David; Uratsu, Connie

    2002-01-01

    The California Painters Project was a 2-year intervention research project aimed at preventing lead poisoning among a group of residential and commercial painters in San Francisco, Calif. As part of this project 12 contractors invited project staff to conduct employee exposure monitoring. Twenty-five full-shift samples were collected, with 8-hr TWA results ranging from 0.8 to 550 microg/m3 (arithmetic mean: 57 microg/m3). Six of the 25 samples (24%) were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit; all of these involved dry manual sanding or uncontrolled power sanding. Fifty-eight 30-minute task-specific samples also were collected. The arithmetic mean concentration results for heat gun use, wet sanding, and open flame burning were all under 10 microg/m3; the mean concentration for HEPA-exhausted power sanding was 33 microg/m3; dry manual scraping, 71 microg/m3; dry manual sanding, 420 microg/m3; and uncontrolled power sanding, 580 microg/m3. Analysis and modeling based on the 30-min results for dry manual sanding and uncontrolled power sanding indicate that painters' full-shift exposures often exceed 500 microg/m3 and the OSHA assigned level of protection for a half-mask air-purifying respirator. These results are cause for concern because both of these surface preparation methods are widely performed wearing half-mask respirators. The data show that HEPA-exhausted power sanding reduces paint dust exposure levels by approximately 80 to 90%. These tools should be more widely promoted as a safer alternative work method. PMID:11843421

  20. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A). Additionally, the resistance depends on the type of conductor. Resistance R can be thus be expressed as R = ρL/A, where ρ is the resistivity of the conductor.

  1. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  2. Relative contribution of lead from anthropogenic sources to the total human lead exposure in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, R.W.

    1986-08-01

    The paper evaluates human exposure to lead at a baseline level for persons living in non-urban communities away from stationary or mobile sources of lead, eating typical diets, and engaging in no lead-related occupational or avocational activities. Relative contributions of atmospheric and metallic lead are evaluated for each exposure pathway. For this baseline situation, perhaps 40 to 55% of the total human exposure to lead is of atmospheric origin. Beyond the baseline level, additional exposure factors can be determined for other environments (e.g. urban, occupational, smelter communities) and for certain habits and activities (e.g., pica, smoking, drinking, and various hobbies), with variations for age, sex, or socioeconomic status. Although quantification of these factors is uncertain, they provide guidelines in determining relative exposures under differing environmental conditions. The added exposure factors can also be partitioned into atmospheric, metallic, and pigment lead.

  3. Changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in pesticide toxicity to earthworms: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    The occurring climate changes will have direct consequences to all ecosystems, including the soil ecosystems. The effects of climate change include, among other, the changes in temperature and greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions. Temperature is an important factor in ecotoxicological investigations since it can act as a stressor and influence the physiological status of organisms, as well as affect the fate and transport of pollutants present in the environment. However, most of so far conducted (eco)toxicological investigations neglected the possible effects of temperature and focused solely on the effects of toxicants on organisms. Considering that temperature can contribute to the toxicity of pollutants, it is of immense importance to investigate whether the change in the exposure temperature will impact the strength of the toxic effects of pollutants present in soil ecosystems. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of several commonly used pesticides to earthworms was assessed under different exposure temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C). The results showed that changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in susceptibility of earthworms to particular pesticides. Namely, exposures to the same pesticide concentration at different temperatures lead to different toxicity responses. Increase in exposure temperature in most cases caused increase in toxicity, whereas decrease in temperature mostly caused decrease in toxicity. This preliminary study points to need for an in-depth investigation of mechanisms by which temperature affects the toxicity of pesticides and also provides important data for future research on the effects of temperature change on the soil ecosystems.

  4. Feather lead concentrations and (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus).

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, M E; George, D; Scherbinski, S; Gwiazda, R; Johnson, M; Burnett, J; Brandt, J; Lawrey, S; Pessier, A P; Clark, M; Wynne, J; Grantham, J; Smith, D R

    2010-04-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only approximately 10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant of population health, our findings should increase the understanding of population-level effects from lead poisoning in condors; this information may also be helpful for other avian species potentially impacted by lead poisoning. PMID:20199067

  5. The Influence of Lead Exposure and Toxicity to Children's Neurological Development and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Sarah L.

    This report discusses the effects of lead exposure and toxicity on children's cognitive development and school performance and addresses the role of schools in prevention of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure include mining, smelting and refining activities, lead paint, leaded gasoline, and industrial emissions. The results of lead poisoning…

  6. Human health risk assessment of lead from mining activities at semi-arid locations in the context of total lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiajia; Huynh, Trang; Gasparon, Massimo; Ng, Jack; Noller, Barry

    2013-12-01

    Lead from historical mining and mineral processing activities may pose potential human health risks if materials with high concentrations of bioavailable lead minerals are released to the environment. Since the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization withdrew the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of lead in 2011, an alternative method was required for lead exposure assessment. This study evaluated the potential lead hazard to young children (0-7 years) from a historical mining location at a semi-arid area using the U.S. EPA Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model, with selected site-specific input data. This study assessed lead exposure via the inhalation pathway for children living in a location affected by lead mining activities and with specific reference to semi-arid conditions and made comparison with the ingestion pathway by using the physiologically based extraction test for gastro-intestinal simulation. Sensitivity analysis for major IEUBK input parameters was conducted. Three groups of input parameters were classified according to the results of predicted blood concentrations. The modelled lead absorption attributed to the inhalation route was lower than 2 % (mean ± SE, 0.9 % ± 0.1 %) of all lead intake routes and was demonstrated as a less significant exposure pathway to children's blood, compared with ingestion. Whilst dermal exposure was negligible, diet and ingestion of soil and dust were the dominant parameters in terms of children's blood lead prediction. The exposure assessment identified the changing role of dietary intake when house lead loadings varied. Recommendations were also made to conduct comprehensive site-specific human health risk assessment in future studies of lead exposure under a semi-arid climate.

  7. Influence of high past lead-in-air exposures on the lead-in-blood levels of lead-acid battery workers with continuing exposure.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, D G; Hinkamp, D L; Robins, T G; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1991-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between air lead levels and blood lead levels in 132 lead-acid battery workers in two plants who were followed for 30 months between 1983 and 1985 with frequent air lead and blood lead determinations. Both plants converted to more modern, expanded-metal battery manufacturing technologies around 1978 with associated reductions in mean air lead exposures from greater than 100 to less than 30 micrograms/m3. In multiple regression analyses including consideration of job category, seniority, age, ethnicity, gender, and smoking habit as covariates, there was a highly significant association of blood lead in micrograms/dL with air lead in micrograms/m3 (partial R2 = .20, P less than .0001) among the 68 workers in plant B but no association (P = .91) in plant A. Restriction of the regression analysis to those 44 workers in plant B with less than or equal to 22 years of seniority yielded the most significant air lead-blood lead association (partial R2 = .36, P less than .0001). Among the remaining 24 plant B workers, seniority, but not air lead, had a significant positive association with blood lead. Despite very stable air lead levels over the 30-month study, the 51 workers in plant A with more than 20 years' seniority had a mean decline of 0.04 microgram/dL in mean blood lead over the study period, whereas the 13 workers in plant A with less than or equal to 20 years' seniority had a mean increase of 7.6 microgram/dL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Omaha childhood blood lead and environmental lead: a linear total exposure model

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.; Marcus, A.; Cheng, I.H.; McIntire, M.S.

    1984-10-01

    The majority of experimental and population studies of blood lead (PbB) and environmental lead, including the Omaha study, have utilized the Goldsmith-Hexter log-log or power function model. Comparison was made of the log-log model and a linear model of total exposure as they described the Omaha Study of 1074 PbBs from children ages 1-18 years as related to air (PbA), soil (PbS), and housedust (PbHD) lead. The data fit of the linear model was statistically equivalent to the power model and the predicted curves were biologically more plausible. The linear model avoids the mathematical limitations of the power model which predicts PbB zero at PbA zero. From the Omaha data, this model, ln PbB = ln (..beta../sub 0/ + B/sub 1/ PbA + B/sub 2/ PbS + ..beta../sub 3/ PbHD) predicts that PbB increases 1.92 ..mu..g/dl as PbA increases 1.0 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. Since PbS and PbHD increase with PbA, however, the increases in total exposure predict a PbB increase of 4-5 ..mu..g/dl as PbA increases 1.0 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/.

  9. Omaha childhood blood lead and environmental lead: a linear total exposure model

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.; Marcus, A.; Cheng, I.H.; McIntire, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The majority of experimental and population studies of blood lead (PbB) and environmental lead, including the Omaha study, have utilized the Goldsmith-Hexter log-log or power function model. Comparison was made of the log-log model and a linear model of total exposure to describe the Omaha Study of 1074 PbBs from children ages 1-18 years as related to air (PbA), soil (PbS), and housedust (PbHD) lead. The data fit of the linear model was statistically equivalent to the power model and the predicted curves were biologically more plausible. The linear model avoids the mathematical limitations of the power model which predicts PbB zero at PbA zero. From the Omaha data, the model, ln PbB = ln (Bo + B1 PbA + B2 PbS + B3 PbHD) predicts that PbB increases 1.92 micrograms/dl as PbA increases 1.0 micrograms/cu. m. Since PbS and PbHD increase with PbA, however, the increases in total exposure predict a PbB increase of 4-5 micrograms/dl as PbA increases 1.0 micrograms/cu. m.

  10. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals. PMID:27625628

  11. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M.

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals. PMID:27625628

  12. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M.

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals.

  13. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),<1 h/week (2 h men, 0 h women) at work, 4 h/week (5 h men, 4 h women) during leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  14. Feather lead concentrations and207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gwiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, Allan P.; Clark, M.; Wynne, J.; Grantham, And J.; Smith, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ???10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Influence of abatement of lead exposure in Croatia on blood lead and ALAD activity.

    PubMed

    Zorana, Kljaković-Gašpić; Alica, Pizent; Jasna, Jurasović

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) abatement measures in Croatia on blood lead (BPb) concentrations, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood, as a sensitive indicator of early Pb effect. Data on BPb and ALAD activity were obtained from 829 Croatian men (19-64 years of age), with no known occupational exposure to metals. Data obtained in 2008-2009, after the ban of leaded gasoline in Croatia in 2006, were compared with similar data collected in 1981 and 1989, when the concentration of Pb in gasoline was 0.6 g/L. Our results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in median BPb from 114.5 (range, 46.0-275.0) μg/L in 1981/1989 to 30.3 (range, 3.2-140.8) μg/L in 2008-2009 and an increase in median ALAD activity from 49.8 (range, 24.9-79.4) EU in 1981/1989 to 60.9 (range, 35.8-84.0) EU in 2008-2009. Individual factors influencing BPb values were, in the order of decreasing importance, Pb in ambient air (APb), alcohol consumption, age, and smoking. Increased ALAD activity was significantly associated with the decrease of APb, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These results show that lead abatement measures had a positive impact on both BPb concentrations (73.5% decrease) and the activity of ALAD (22.1% increase) in general population. Our results contribute to growing evidence that ALAD activity may be used as one of the earliest and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of low-level Pb exposure.

  16. Childhood lead exposure and uptake in teeth in the Cleveland area during the era of leaded gasoline.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Norman; Zhang, Zhong-Fa; Sun, Jiayang; Ketterer, Michael E; Lalumandier, James A; Shulze, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    Childhood uptake of lead from exposure to atmospheric leaded gasoline in the United States has been studied using mainly blood lead levels. Since reliable blood lead techniques were used only after the peak use of leaded gasoline, the prior exposure history is unclear. The well-documented decline in blood lead levels after the mid-1970s could represent the continuation of a historic steady decline in exposure from many sources. Alternatively, the post-1970s decline might represent the declining phase of a unimodal rise and fall corresponding closely to usage of leaded gasoline. To assess these possibilities, lead concentration and 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios were measured in the enamel of permanent molar teeth formed between 1936 and 1993 in mainly African-American donors who grew up in the Cleveland area. Tooth enamel preserves the lead concentration and isotope ratio that prevails during tooth formation. Historical trends in enamel lead concentration were significantly correlated with surrogates of atmospheric lead exposure: lead in sediments of two dated Lake Erie cores, and lead consumed in gasoline. About two-thirds of the total lead uptake into enamel in this period was attributable to leaded gasoline, and the remainder to other sources (e.g. paint). Enamel 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios were similar to those of one lake sediment. Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlation in neighborhoods with higher levels of traffic, and including lake sediment data, accounted for 53% of the variation in enamel lead levels. Enamel lead concentration was highly correlated with reported African-American childhood blood levels. The extrapolated peak level of 48microg/dL (range 40 to 63) is associated with clinical and behavioral impairments, which may have implications for adults who were children during the peak gasoline lead exposure. In sum, leaded gasoline emission was the predominant source of lead exposure of African-American Cleveland children during the latter

  17. Maternal exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury and neural tube defects in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Brender, Jean D. . E-mail: jdbrender@aol.com; Suarez, Lucina; Felkner, Marilyn; Gilani, Zunera; Stinchcomb, David; Moody, Karen; Henry, Judy; Hendricks, Katherine

    2006-05-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are neurotoxins, and some studies suggest that these elements might also be teratogens. Using a case-control study design, we investigated the relation between exposure to these heavy metals and neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring of Mexican-American women living in 1 of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico. A total of 184 case-women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 225 control-women with normal live births were interviewed about their environmental and occupational exposures during the periconceptional period. Biologic samples for blood lead and urinary arsenic, cadmium, and mercury were also obtained for a subset of these women. Overall, the median levels of these biomarkers for heavy metal exposure did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between case- and control-women. However, among women in the highest income group, case-women were nine times more likely (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-57) than control-women to have a urinary mercury >=5.62{mu}g/L. Case-women were 4.2 times more likely (95% CI 1.1-16) to report burning treated wood during the periconceptional period than control-women. Elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for maternal and paternal occupational exposures to arsenic and mercury, but the 95% CIs were consistent with unity. The 95% CIs of the ORs were also consistent with unity for higher levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in drinking water and among women who lived within 2 miles at the time of conception to industrial facilities with reported emissions of any of these heavy metals. Our findings suggest that maternal exposures to arsenic, cadmium, or lead are probably not significant risk factors for NTDs in offspring. However, the elevated urinary mercury levels found in this population and exposures to the combustion of treated wood may warrant further investigation.

  18. Adverse health effects of lead exposure on children and exploration to internal lead indicator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Zhao, H H; Chen, J W; Gu, K D; Zhang, Y Z; Zhu, Y X; Zhou, Y K; Ye, L X

    2009-11-15

    Our research on adverse effects of lead exposures on physical and neurobehavioral health of children aged 6-12years in 4 villages, labeled as K, M, L, and X, in rural China, was reported in this article. Lead in blood (PbB), urine (PbU), hairs (PbH), and nails (PbN) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire of Conner's instruments and Revised Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were applied to evaluate childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and intelligences. Geometric means (SD) of PbB, PbU, PbH and PbN concentrations were 71.2 microg/L (1.56), 11.7 microg/g (1.75), 12.5 microg/g (2.82), and 25.3 microg/g (2.79), respectively. 54 (17.0%) children had PbB levels of > or =100 microg/L. Boys, 6-10 years old, and living in village K were 2.11, 2.48, and 9.16 times, respectively, more likely to be poisoned by lead than girls, aged 11-12 years, and residing in X. 18 (5.7%) and 37 (11.7%) subjects had ADHD and mental retardations, respectively. Inverse relationships between intelligences and natural log transformed PbU and PbH levels were observed with respective odds ratios (95%CI) of 1.79 (1.00-3.22) and 1.46 (1.06-2.03) or 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 1.73 (1.18-2.52) by binary or ordinal logistic regression modeling. ADHD prevalence was different by gender and age of subjects. PbU, PbH, and PbN related to PbB positively with respective correlation coefficients of 0.530, 0.477, and 0.181. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the three measurements revealed areas under curves (AUCs) being 0.829, 0.758, and 0.687, respectively. In conclusion, children had moderate levels of lead exposures in this rural area. Intelligence declines were associated with internal lead levels among children. ROC analysis suggests PbU an internal lead indicator close to PbB.

  19. Effect of subacute exposure to lead and estrogen on immature pre-weaning rat leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Villagra, R.; Tchernitchin, N.N.; Tchernitchin, A.N.

    1997-02-01

    Lead is an environmental pollutant known to cause damage to human health, affecting specially the central nervous system, reproductive organs, the immune system and kidney. From the perspective or reproduction, lead affects both men and women. Reported effects in women include infertility, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy hypertension and premature delivery. In experimental animals, lead affects female reproductive organs through different mechanisms. The heavy metal may interact at the enzyme level. It may interfere with the action of reproductive hormones at the target organ, modifying the activity of estrogen receptors in the pregnant uterus and inhibiting responses where estrogens play a role. Lead may induce imprinting mechanism, causing persistent changes in uterine estrogen receptors and ovary LH receptors following perinatal exposure. Finally, it may interfere at the level of hypothalamus-pituitary, decreasing pituitary response to growth hormone releasing factor, affecting levels of FSH and LH and increasing blood levels of glucocorticoids, which modify the action of estrogens in the uterus. This study examines the mechanisms of lead-induced interference with female reproductive and immune functions. 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Factors affecting lead release in sodium silicate-treated partial lead service line replacements.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Emily; Payne, Sarah Jane O; Hofmann, Ron; Andrews, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Water quality parameters affecting sodium silicate performance in partial lead service line replacements were examined using a fractional factorial experimental design and static pipe systems. An external copper wire was used to create a galvanic connection between a former lead service line and a new copper pipe. The pipe systems were filled with lab prepared water made to mimic real water quality. Water was changed on a three times per week basis. A 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the impact of alkalinity (15 mg L(-1) or 250 mg L(-1) as CaCO3), nitrate (1 mg L(-1) or 7 mg L(-1) as N), natural organic matter (1 mg L(-1) or 7 mg L(-1) as dissolved organic carbon), and disinfectant type (1 mg L(-1) chlorine or 3 mg L(-1) monochloramine), resulting in eight treatment conditions. Fractional factorial analysis revealed that alkalinity, natural organic matter and monochloramine had a significant positive effect on galvanic current. Natural organic matter and monochloramine also had a significant positive effect with respect to both total and dissolved lead release. For the treatment conditions examined, 67-98% of the lead released through galvanic currents was stored as corrosion scales and predominantly comprised of particulate lead (96.1-99.9%) for all eight treatments. The use of monochloramine and the presence of natural organic matter (7 mg L(-1)) were not favourable for corrosion control in sodium silicate-treated partial lead service line replacements, although further studies would be required to characterize optimal water quality parameters for specific water quality types. For utilities operating with sodium silicate as a corrosion inhibitor, this work offers further evidence regarding the consideration of chlorine as a secondary disinfectant instead of monochloramine, as well as the value of controlling natural organic matter in distributed water.

  1. Investigation of Childhood Lead Poisoning from Parental Take-Home Exposure from an Electronic Scrap Recycling Facility — Ohio, 2012.

    PubMed

    Newman, Nick; Jones, Camille; Page, Elena; Ceballos, Diana; Oza, Aalok

    2015-07-17

    Lead affects the developing nervous system of children, and no safe blood lead level (BLL) in children has been identified. Elevated BLLs in childhood are associated with hyperactivity, attention problems, conduct problems, and impairment in cognition. Young children are at higher risk for environmental lead exposure from putting their hands or contaminated objects in their mouth. Although deteriorating lead paint in pre-1979 housing is the most common source of lead exposure in children, data indicate that ≥30% of children with elevated BLLs were exposed through a source other than paint. Take-home contamination occurs when lead dust is transferred from the workplace on employees' skin, clothing, shoes, and other personal items to their car and home. Recycling of used electronics (e-scrap) is a relatively recent source of exposure to developmental neurotoxicants, including lead. In 2010, the Cincinnati Health Department and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU) investigated two cases of childhood lead poisoning in a single family. In 2012, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) learned about the lead poisonings during an evaluation of the e-scrap recycling facility where the father of the two children with lead poisoning worked. This report summarizes the case investigation. Pediatricians should ask about parents' occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating elevated BLLs in children, in routine lead screening questionnaires, and in evaluating children with signs or symptoms of lead exposure.

  2. Trauma exposure and cigarette smoking: the impact of negative affect and affect-regulatory smoking motives.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Beckham, Jean C; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive-affective mechanisms related to the maintenance of smoking among trauma-exposed individuals are largely unknown. Cross-sectional data from trauma-exposed treatment-seeking smokers (n = 283) were utilized to test a series of multiple mediator models of trauma exposure and smoking, as mediated by the sequential effects of negative affect and affect-modulation smoking motives. The sequential effects of both mediators indirectly predicted the effect of greater trauma exposure types on nicotine dependence, a biochemical index of smoking, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and greater withdrawal-related problems during past quit attempts. Negative affect and affect-modulation motives for smoking may contribute to the trauma-smoking association.

  3. Reducing lead in air and preventing childhood exposure near lead smelters: learning from the U.S. experience.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Marianne

    2015-05-01

    Childhood lead exposure and poisoning near primary lead smelters continues in developed and developing countries. In the United States, the problem of lead poisoning in children caused by smelter emissions was first documented in the early 1970s. In 1978, Environmental Protection Agency set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for lead. Attainment of this lead standard in areas near operating lead smelters took twenty to thirty years. Childhood lead exposure and poisoning continued to occur after the lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards were set and before compliance was achieved. This article analyzes and discusses the factors that led to the eventual achievement of the 1978 lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards near primary smelters and the reduction of children's blood lead levels in surrounding communities. Factors such as federal and state regulation, monitoring of emissions, public health activities such as blood lead surveillance and health education, relocation of children, environmental group and community advocacy, and litigation all played a role.

  4. Inorganic lead exposure in battery and paint factory: effect on human sperm structure and functional activity.

    PubMed

    Naha, N; Chowdhury, A Roy

    2006-06-01

    Lead is one of the industrially important heavy metals that causes male reproductive impairment among battery and paint factory workers, but information on the structure-function integrity of human spermatozoa is still limited. Therefore, it was necessary to investigate the effect of lead on sperm structure and functional activity in these workers. Oligozoospermia with concomitant lowering of sperm protein and nucleic acid content and the percentage of sperm DNA hyploidy (P <0.001) suggested the diminution of sperm cell production after occupational lead exposure. Low sperm vitality and hypoosmotic swelling percentage along with high malondialdehyde content and altered seminal plasma ascorbate level (P<0.001) indicating damage of sperm cell surface, might be due to high membrane lipid peroxidation and failure of non-enzymatic antioxidant protection after lead exposure. Alteration of sperm membrane surface was also evidenced from scanning electron microscopy and further authenticated by atomic and lateral force microscopy. Lowering of sperm velocity, gross and forward progressive motility with high stationary motile spermatozoa (P<0.001) suggested retarded sperm activity among the exposed workers, which was supported by high seminal plasma fructose level and reduced activity of sperm ATPase (P < 0.001). Increased incidence of teratozoospermia was also associated with high blood and semen lead level (PbB, PbS) (P<0.001). Therefore, the results suggested that lead not only affects the sperm count, but also damages the sperm structure and membrane integrity, motility and functional activity among the battery and paint factory workers.

  5. Childhood lead exposure in an industrial town in China: coupling stable isotope ratios with bioaccessible lead.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Bo; Chen, Kai; Juhasz, Albert L; Huang, Lei; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-04-21

    Fingerprinting based on stable isotopes of lead (Pb) in blood and environmental media helps to identify Pb exposure pathways in children. However, previous studies used stable isotopes of total Pb in media. In this study, a wire rope production town in China (Zhuhang) was selected for investigating the effectiveness of using isotope ratios in bioaccessible Pb to identify childhood Pb exposure pathways. Blood Pb levels of 115 children in Zhuhang were 1.7-20.4 μg dL(-1), averaging 6.1 ± 3.2 μg dL(-1) (mean ± standard deviation), and were ∼1.6 times the national average in China (3.9 ± 1.8 μg dL(-1)). Among different environmental media (housedust, soil, PM10, vegetables, rice, and drinking water), housedust (695 ± 495 mg kg(-1)) and vegetables [0.36 ± 0.40 mg (kg of fresh weight)(-1)] contained elevated Pb concentrations. The isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) of total Pb were the highest in housedust (0.8587 ± 0.0039 and 2.1049 ± 0.0087) but lower than blood Pb ratios (0.8634 ± 0.0027 and 2.1244 ± 0.0061). When using bioaccessible Pb in housedust (0.8639 ± 0.0018 and 2.1171 ± 0.0036), the isotope ratios overlapped with blood Pb ratios, suggesting that incidental ingestion of housedust was the predominant contributor to children's blood Pb. Coupling the stable isotope technique with bioaccessible Pb is more reliable for identifying Pb exposure pathways than total Pb determinations.

  6. Childhood lead exposure in an industrial town in China: coupling stable isotope ratios with bioaccessible lead.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Bo; Chen, Kai; Juhasz, Albert L; Huang, Lei; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-04-21

    Fingerprinting based on stable isotopes of lead (Pb) in blood and environmental media helps to identify Pb exposure pathways in children. However, previous studies used stable isotopes of total Pb in media. In this study, a wire rope production town in China (Zhuhang) was selected for investigating the effectiveness of using isotope ratios in bioaccessible Pb to identify childhood Pb exposure pathways. Blood Pb levels of 115 children in Zhuhang were 1.7-20.4 μg dL(-1), averaging 6.1 ± 3.2 μg dL(-1) (mean ± standard deviation), and were ∼1.6 times the national average in China (3.9 ± 1.8 μg dL(-1)). Among different environmental media (housedust, soil, PM10, vegetables, rice, and drinking water), housedust (695 ± 495 mg kg(-1)) and vegetables [0.36 ± 0.40 mg (kg of fresh weight)(-1)] contained elevated Pb concentrations. The isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) of total Pb were the highest in housedust (0.8587 ± 0.0039 and 2.1049 ± 0.0087) but lower than blood Pb ratios (0.8634 ± 0.0027 and 2.1244 ± 0.0061). When using bioaccessible Pb in housedust (0.8639 ± 0.0018 and 2.1171 ± 0.0036), the isotope ratios overlapped with blood Pb ratios, suggesting that incidental ingestion of housedust was the predominant contributor to children's blood Pb. Coupling the stable isotope technique with bioaccessible Pb is more reliable for identifying Pb exposure pathways than total Pb determinations. PMID:25803404

  7. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis.

  8. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. PMID:25617855

  9. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  10. Impact of the California Lead Ammunition Ban on Reducing Lead Exposure in Golden Eagles and Turkey Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Bloom, Peter H.; Torres, Steve G.; Hernandez, Yvette Z.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Boyce, Walter M.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites. PMID:21494329

  11. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites. PMID:21494329

  12. Structural equation modeling and nested ANOVA: Effects of lead exposure on maternal and fetal growth in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.D. ); O'Flaherty, E.J.; Shukla, R.; Gartside, P.S. ); Ross, R. )

    1994-01-01

    This study provided an assessment of the effects of lead on early growth in rats based on structural equation modeling and nested analysis of variance (ANOVA). Structural equation modeling showed that lead in drinking water (250, 500, or 1000 ppm) had a direct negative effect on body weight and tail length (i.e., growth) in female rats during the first week of exposure. During the following 2 weeks of exposure, high correlation between growth measurements taken over time resulted in reduced early postnatal growth. By the fourth week of exposure, reduced growth was not evident. Mating began after 8 weeks of exposure, and exposure continued during gestation. Decreased fetal body weight was detected when the effects of litter size, intrauterine position, and sex were controlled in a nested ANOVA. Lead exposure did not appear to affect fetal skeletal development, possibly because lead did not alter maternal serum calcium and phosphorus levels. The effect of lead on individual fetal body weight suggests that additional studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal lead exposure on fetal development and early postnatal growth. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Short-term exposure to engineered nanomaterials affects cellular epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Pirela, Sandra V.; Melnyk, Stepan; Koturbash, Igor; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Extensive incorporation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into industrial and biomedical applications increases the risks of exposure to these potentially hazardous materials. While the geno- and cytotoxic effects of ENMs have been investigated, the potential of ENMs to target the cellular epigenome remains largely unknown. Our goal was to determine whether or not industry relevant ENMs can affect the epigenome at low cytotoxic doses. A panel of cells relevant to inhalation exposures such as human and murine macrophages (THP-1 and RAW264.7, respectively) and human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were exposed to printer-emitted engineered nanoparticles (PEPs), mild steel welding fumes (MS-WF), copper oxide (CuO), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. Toxicological effects, including cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses were assessed, taking into consideration in-vitro dosimetry. The effects of ENMs on cellular epigenome were determined by addressing the global and transposable elements (TEs)-associated DNA methylation and expression of DNA methylation machinery and TEs. The percentage of ENMs-induced cytotoxicity for all cell lines was in the range of 0-15%. Oxidative stress was evident in SAEC after exposure to PEPs and in THP-1 when exposed to CuO. Additionally, exposure to ENMs resulted in modest alterations in DNA methylation of two most abundant TEs in mammalian genomes, LINE-1 and Alu/SINE, their transcriptional reactivation, and decreased expression of DNA methylation machinery in a cell-, dose-, and ENM-dependent manner. These results indicate that exposure to ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations, aside from the geno- and cytotoxic effects, can also affect the epigenome of target cells. PMID:25938281

  14. Behavioral factors affecting exposure potential for household cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, D C; Small, M J; Davidson, C I; Fischhoff, B

    1997-01-01

    Behavioral experiments were performed on 342 subjects to determine whether behavior, which could affect the level of personal exposure, is exhibited in response to odors and labels which are commonly used for household chemicals. Potential for exposure was assessed by having subjects perform cleaning tasks presented as a product preference test, and noting the amount of cleaning product used, the time taken to complete the cleaning task, the product preference, and the exhibition of avoidance behavior. Product odor was found to affect product preference in the study with the pleasant odored product being preferred to the neutral and unpleasant products. Product odor was also found to influence the amount of product used; less of the odored products was used compared to the neutral product. The experiment also found that very few of the subjects in the study read the product labels, precluding analysis of the effect of such labels on product use. A postexperiment questionnaire on household cleaning product purchasing and use was administered to participants. The results indicate that significant gender differences exist. Women in the sample reported more frequent purchase and use of cleaning products resulting in an estimated potential exposure 40% greater than for the men in the sample. This finding is somewhat countered by the fact that women more frequently reported exposure avoidance behavior, such as using gloves. Additional significant gender differences were found in the stated importance of product qualities, such as odor and environmental quality. This study suggests the need for further research, in a more realistic use setting, on the impact of public education, labels, and product odor on preference, use, and exposure for different types of consumer products. PMID:9306234

  15. Lifetime exposure to low doses of lead in rats: effect on selected parameters of carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Jaroslava; Lukačínová, Agnesa; Lovásová, Eva; Cimboláková, Iveta; Rácz, Oliver; Ništiar, František

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of exposure to low doses of lead dissolved in drinking water (average daily dose of 2.2 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) on selected carbohydrate metabolism parameters in 20 wistar rats. Animals were divided into two groups - control (C) (group drinking clear water) and experimental group (Pb; group exposed to low doses of lead acetate in a concentration of 100 μmol l(-1) of drinking water). In this study, we studied the biochemical parameters (glucose, haemoglobin (Hb), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and amylase (AMS)) in rat blood. Glucose and Hb concentration and AMS activity decreased, LDH activity increased but HbA1c concentration levels did not change in rats exposed to lead. Our results well documented that lifetime exposure to lead affected carbohydrate metabolism of rats. Some parameters like concentration of Hb as well as activities of AMS and LDH are useful markers of intoxication of rats with lead. For the evaluation of results (e.g. AMS), not only the data at the end of the experiment should be taken into account but also the entire duration of trials (i.e. more time steps) that makes results more objective should be considered.

  16. Effects of lead exposure on D-serine metabolism in the hippocampus of mice at the early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiyang; Li, Tingting; Cui, Yan; Liao, Yingjun; Wang, Gaoyang; Gao, Lanyue; Zhao, Fenghong; Jin, Yaping

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity by focusing on the alteration of D-serine metabolism in the hippocampus of mice at the early life. Mother mice and their offspring were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/L lead in lead acetate via drinking water from the first day of gestation until the postnatal day (PND) 40. Morris water maze was used to measure the spatial learning and memory ability of PND 40 mice. Expressions of serine racemase (SR), D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), alanine-serine- cysteine transporter-1 (asc-1) and subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the hippocampus of PND 10, 20 and 40 mice were examined by western blot and real time RT-PCR. Findings from this study disclosed that the spatial learning ability of mice tested by place trial could be significantly impaired by 0.5 g/L lead exposure, and the spatial memory ability tested by probe trail could be impaired by 1.0 g/L lead exposure. Exposure to 2.0 g/L lead in the water could significantly inhibit the protein and mRNA expression of SR; conversely enhance the expression of DAAO protein and mRNA in the hippocampus during the early developmental stages. However, the protein expressions of DAAO and asc-1 in the hippocampus were significantly enhanced by 0.5 g/L lead exposure at different developmental stages. On the other hand, the protein and mRNA expressions of both NR1 and NR2A were inhibited significantly by 1.0 g/L lead exposure since PND 10, and by 0.5 g/L lead exposure since PND 20. Noteworthy, the protein expression of NR2B was inhibited significantly by 0.5 g/L lead exposure in PND 10 mice, and by 1.0 g/L lead exposure in PND 20 mice, but there was no significant group difference in PND 40 mice. Meanwhile, expressions of asc-1 and NR2B mRNA were not affected obviously by lead exposure. In conclusion, chronic lead exposure during brain development might affect D-serine metabolism by enhancing its degradation, which might be related to the

  17. Effects of lead exposure on D-serine metabolism in the hippocampus of mice at the early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiyang; Li, Tingting; Cui, Yan; Liao, Yingjun; Wang, Gaoyang; Gao, Lanyue; Zhao, Fenghong; Jin, Yaping

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity by focusing on the alteration of D-serine metabolism in the hippocampus of mice at the early life. Mother mice and their offspring were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/L lead in lead acetate via drinking water from the first day of gestation until the postnatal day (PND) 40. Morris water maze was used to measure the spatial learning and memory ability of PND 40 mice. Expressions of serine racemase (SR), D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), alanine-serine- cysteine transporter-1 (asc-1) and subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the hippocampus of PND 10, 20 and 40 mice were examined by western blot and real time RT-PCR. Findings from this study disclosed that the spatial learning ability of mice tested by place trial could be significantly impaired by 0.5 g/L lead exposure, and the spatial memory ability tested by probe trail could be impaired by 1.0 g/L lead exposure. Exposure to 2.0 g/L lead in the water could significantly inhibit the protein and mRNA expression of SR; conversely enhance the expression of DAAO protein and mRNA in the hippocampus during the early developmental stages. However, the protein expressions of DAAO and asc-1 in the hippocampus were significantly enhanced by 0.5 g/L lead exposure at different developmental stages. On the other hand, the protein and mRNA expressions of both NR1 and NR2A were inhibited significantly by 1.0 g/L lead exposure since PND 10, and by 0.5 g/L lead exposure since PND 20. Noteworthy, the protein expression of NR2B was inhibited significantly by 0.5 g/L lead exposure in PND 10 mice, and by 1.0 g/L lead exposure in PND 20 mice, but there was no significant group difference in PND 40 mice. Meanwhile, expressions of asc-1 and NR2B mRNA were not affected obviously by lead exposure. In conclusion, chronic lead exposure during brain development might affect D-serine metabolism by enhancing its degradation, which might be related to the

  18. Interpreting and managing blood lead levels of less than 10 microg/dL in children and reducing childhood exposure to lead: recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    PubMed

    Binns, Helen J; Campbell, Carla; Brown, Mary Jean

    2007-11-01

    Lead is a common environmental contaminant. Lead exposure is a preventable risk that exists in all areas of the United States. In children, lead is associated with impaired cognitive, motor, behavioral, and physical abilities. In 1991, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defined the blood lead level that should prompt public health actions as 10 microg/dL. Concurrently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also recognized that a blood lead level of 10 microg/dL did not define a threshold for the harmful effects of lead. Research conducted since 1991 has strengthened the evidence that children's physical and mental development can be affected at blood lead levels of < 10 microg/dL. In this report we provide information to help clinicians understand blood lead levels < 10 microg/dL, identify gaps in knowledge concerning lead levels in this range, and outline strategies to reduce childhood exposures to lead. We also summarize scientific data relevant to counseling, blood lead screening, and lead-exposure risk assessment. To aid in the interpretation of blood lead levels, clinicians should understand the laboratory error range for blood lead values and, if possible, select a laboratory that achieves routine performance within +/-2 microg/dL. Clinicians should obtain an environmental history on all children they examine, provide families with lead-prevention counseling, and follow blood lead screening recommendations established for their areas. As circumstances permit, clinicians should consider referral to developmental programs for children at high risk for exposure to lead and more frequent rescreening of children with blood lead levels approaching 10 microg/dL. In addition, clinicians should direct parents to agencies and sources of information that will help them establish a lead-safe environment for their children. For these preventive strategies to succeed, partnerships between health care providers, families, and local public health and

  19. Impact of developmental lead exposure on splenic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Heo, Yong; Lawrence, David A.

    2010-09-01

    Lead (Pb) is known to alter the functions of numerous organ systems, including the hematopoietic and immune systems. Pb can induce anemia and can lower host resistance to bacterial and viral infections. The anemia is due to Pb's inhibition of hemoglobin synthesis and Pb's induction of membrane changes, leading to early erythrocyte senescence. Pb also increases B-cell activation/proliferation and skews T-cell help (Th) toward Th2 subset generation. The specific mechanisms for many of the Pb effects are, as yet, not completely understood. Therefore, we performed gene expression analysis, via microarray, on RNA from the spleens of developmentally Pb-exposed mice, in order to gain further insight into these Pb effects. Splenic RNA microarray analysis indicated strong up-regulation of genes coding for proteolytic enzymes, lipases, amylase, and RNaseA. The data also showed that Pb affected the expression of many genes associated with innate immunity. Analysis of the microarray results via GeneSifter software indicated that Pb increased apoptosis, B-cell differentiation, and Th2 development. Direct up-regulation by Pb of expression of the gene encoding the heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI) suggested that Pb can decrease erythropoiesis by blocking globin mRNA translation. Pb's high elevation of digestive/catabolizing enzymes could generate immunogenic self peptides. With Pb's potential to induce new self-peptides and to enhance the expression of caspases, cytokines, and other immunomodulators, further evaluation of Pb's involvement in autoimmune phenomena, especially Th2-mediated autoantibody production, and alteration of organ system activities is warranted.

  20. Combined exposure to lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury shows deviation from additivity for cardiovascular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Weber, Lynn P; Siciliano, Steven D

    2015-08-01

    Environmental exposure to metal mixtures in the human population is common. Mixture risk assessments are often challenging because of a lack of suitable data on the relevant mixture. A growing number of studies show an association between lead or mercury exposure and cardiovascular effects. We investigated the cardiovascular effects of single metal exposure or co-exposure to methylmercury [MeHg(I)], inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and lead [Pb(II)]. Male Wistar rats received four different metal mixtures for 28 days through the drinking water. The ratios of the metals were based on reference and environmental exposure values. Blood and pulse pressure, cardiac output and electrical activity of the heart were selected as end-points. While exposure to only MeHg(I) increased the systolic blood pressure and decreased cardiac output, the effects were reversed with combined exposures (antagonism). In contrast to these effects, combined exposures negatively affected the electrical activity of the heart (synergism). Thus, it appears that estimates of blood total Hg levels need to be paired with estimates of what species of mercury dominate exposure as well as whether lead co-exposure is present to link total blood Hg levels to cardiovascular effects. Based on current human exposure data and our results, there may be an increased risk of cardiac events as a result of combined exposures to Hg(II), MeHg(I) and Pb(II). This increased risk needs to be clarified by analyzing lead and Hg exposure data in relation to cardiac electrical activity in epidemiological studies.

  1. Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: a survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Stephen G

    2003-07-01

    Radiator repair workers in Washington State have the greatest number of very elevated (> or =60 microg/dL) blood lead levels of any other worker population. The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead; estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting to the Occupational Lead Exposure Registry; describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops; and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington State's radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing Registry data and conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that a total of 226 workers in Washington State (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Approximately 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (> or =25 microg/dL) were determined to report to Washington State's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of lead's health effects, appropriate industrial hygiene controls, and the requirements of the Lead Standard. Survey respondents requested information on a variety of workplace health and safety issues and waste management; 80% requested a confidential, free-of-charge consultation. Combining data derived from an occupational health surveillance system and a statewide mail survey proved effective at characterizing lead exposures and directing public health intervention in Washington State.

  2. Childhood Exposure to Lead: A Common Cause of School Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needleman, Herbert L.

    1992-01-01

    According to the U.S. Public Health Service, lead poisoning remains the most common and societally devastating environmental disease of young children. About 16 percent all American children have blood lead levels in the neurotoxic range. Being poor dramatically increases this risk. The lead industry has long camouflaged lead's toxicity.…

  3. Does chronic exposure to mobile phones affect cognition?

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Mamta; Khaliq, Farah; Panwar, Aprajita; Vaney, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mobile phones form an integral part of our modern lifestyle. Following the drastic rise in mobile phone use in recent years, it has become important to study its potential public health impact. Amongst the various mobile phone health hazards, the most alarming is the possible effect on the brain. The aim of the present study was to explore whether chronic exposure to mobile phones affects cognition. Ninety subjects aged 17–25 years with normal hearing were recruited for the study and divided into three groups according to their duration of mobile phone use. No significant differences in N100, P200, N200, P300 latencies or N2-P300 amplitude were observed. Our results suggest that chronic mobile phone exposure does not have detrimental effects on cognition. PMID:27027894

  4. Toxic exposure of songbirds to lead in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Franson, J. Christian; French, John B.; May, Thomas; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Warner, Sarah E.; Weber, John; Mosby, David

    2013-01-01

    Mining and smelting in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District has caused widespread contamination of soils with lead (Pb) and other metals. Soils from three study sites sampled in the district contained from approximately 1,000–3,200 mg Pb/kg. Analyses of earthworms [33–4,600 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw)] collected in the district showed likely high Pb exposure of songbirds preying on soil organisms. Mean tissue Pb concentrations in songbirds collected from the contaminated sites were greater (p < 0.05) than those in songbirds from reference sites by factors of 8 in blood, 13 in liver, and 23 in kidney. Ranges of Pb concentrations in livers (mg Pb/kg dw) were as follows: northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) = 0.11–3.0 (reference) and 1.3–30 (contaminated) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) = 0.43–8.5 (reference) and 7.6–72 (contaminated). Of 34 adult and juvenile songbirds collected from contaminated sites, 11 (32 %) had hepatic Pb concentrations that were consistent with adverse physiological effects, 3 (9 %) with systemic toxic effects, and 4 (12 %) with life-threatening toxic effects. Acid-fast renal intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are indicative of Pb poisoning, were detected in kidneys of two robins that had the greatest renal Pb concentrations (952 and 1,030 mg/kg dw). Mean activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells, a well-established bioindicator of Pb poisoning in birds, was decreased by 58–82 % in songbirds from the mining sites. We conclude that habitats within the mining district with soil Pb concentrations of ≥1,000 mg Pb/kg are contaminated to the extent that they are exposing ground-feeding songbirds to toxic concentrations of Pb.

  5. Exposure of unwounded plants to chemical cues associated with herbivores leads to exposure-dependent changes in subsequent herbivore attack.

    PubMed

    Orrock, John L

    2013-01-01

    Although chemical predator cues often lead to changes in the anti-predator behavior of animal prey, it is not clear whether non-volatile herbivore kairomones (i.e. incidental chemical cues produced by herbivore movement or metabolism but not produced by an attack) trigger the induction of defense in plants prior to attack. I found that unwounded plants (Brassica nigra) that were regularly exposed to kairomones from snails (mucus and feces produced during movement of Helix aspersa) subsequently experienced reduced rates of attack by snails, unlike unwounded plants that received only one initial early exposure to snail kairomones. A follow-up experiment found that mucus alone did not affect snail feeding on previously harvested B. oleracea leaves, suggesting that changes in herbivory on B. nigra were due to changes in plant quality. The finding that chemicals associated with herbivores leads to changes in palatability of unwounded plants suggests that plants eavesdrop on components of non-volatile kairomones of their snail herbivores. Moreover, this work shows that the nature of plant exposure matters, supporting the conclusion that plants that have not been attacked or wounded nonetheless tailor their use of defenses based on incidental chemical information associated with herbivores and the timing with which cues of potential attack are encountered. PMID:24278210

  6. Early postnatal lead exposure: behavioral effects in common tern chicks (Sterna Hirundo)

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure to lead early in life is known to affect behavioral and intellectual development. To develop an animal model the authors chose the common tern, Sterna hirundo, a species whose early developmental landmarks are well known. One potential for avian models lies in the reliance of birds on visual and acoustic rather than olfactory (and ultrasonic) modes of communication. One randomly chosen member from each of 8 pairs of young common tern chicks was injected with lead nitrate solution at a concentration of 0.2 mg/g. The pairs were not siblings but were matched for age (+/-1 d) and weight (+/-3 g). The second member of each pair was injected with an equal volume of sterile saline. Behavioral tests performed examined locomotion, balance and righting response, feeding tasks and begging, depth perception and response on a visual cliff, and behavioral thermoregulation. In each pair the control chick was heavier at 4 wk of age. For most behavioral measures, except begging and movement on a stationary incline, the lead-injected chicks performed less well than the control chicks. When presented with a novel feeding situation (reversal of fish position), the lead-injected chicks required significantly more time to eat the same number of fish. The single injection of lead, thus, affected a variety of behavioral patterns, with effects apparent within 5 d after injection.

  7. Experimental model of lead nephropathy. II. Effect of removal from lead exposure and chelation treatment with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA).

    PubMed

    Khalil-Manesh, F; Gonick, H C; Cohen, A; Bergamaschi, E; Mutti, A

    1992-06-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to high-dose (0.5%) lead acetate for periods ranging from 1 to 9 months; then lead exposure was discontinued, and animals were sacrificed after 12 months. Controls were pair-fed. Two additional groups of low-dose (0.01%) and high-dose (0.5%) rats were exposed to lead for 6 months, then lead was discontinued and the rats were treated with three 5-day courses of 0.5% DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) over the next 6 months. Controls were rats exposed to lead for 6 months, then removed from exposure for 6 months without receiving DMSA. Low-dose lead-treated rats showed no significant pathological changes with or without DMSA treatment, but exhibited a significant increase in GFR after DMSA. High-dose lead-treated animals showed no functional or pathological changes when lead exposure was discontinued after 1 month. However, when duration of exposure was 6 or 9 months, GFR was decreased and serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were increased as compared to controls. Tubulointerstitial disease was severe. Administration of DMSA resulted in an improvement in GFR and a decrease in albuminuria, together with a reduction in size and number of nuclear inclusion bodies in proximal tubules. However, tubulointerstitial scarring was only minimally reduced. It may be concluded that, except for brief initial exposure, discontinuation of high-dose lead exposure fails to reverse lead-induced renal damage. Treatment with the chelator, DMSA, improves renal function but has less effect on pathological alterations. As GFR improved after DMSA treatment in both low-dose and high-dose lead-treated rats, irrespective of the degree of pathological alterations, it may be concluded that the DMSA effect is most likely mediated by hemodynamic changes.

  8. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  9. Interrelations of lead levels in bone, venous blood, and umbilical cord blood with exogenous lead exposure through maternal plasma lead in peripartum women.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, H Y; Schwartz, J; Gonzales-Cossio, T; Lugo, M C; Palazuelos, E; Aro, A; Hu, H; Hernandez-Avila, M

    2001-01-01

    Recent research has raised the possibility that fetal lead exposure is not estimated adequately by measuring lead content in maternal whole blood lead because of the variable partitioning of lead in whole blood between plasma and red blood cells. Lead in maternal plasma may derive in large part from maternal bone lead stores. In this study we aimed to estimate the contribution of maternal whole blood lead, maternal bone lead levels, and environmental lead to umbilical cord blood lead levels (as a measure of fetal lead exposure). In the model, we assumed that lead from all of these sources reaches the fetus through the maternal plasma lead pathway. In 1994-1995, we recruited 615 pregnant women for a study of lead exposure and reproductive outcomes in Mexico City. We gathered maternal and umbilical cord blood samples within 12 hr of each infant's delivery and measured maternal lead levels in cortical bone and trabecular bone by a K-X-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) instrument within 1 month after delivery. We administered a questionnaire to assess use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to cook food and we obtained data on regional air lead levels during the 2 months before delivery. We used structural equation models (SEMs) to estimate plasma lead as the unmeasured (latent) variable and to quantify the interrelations of plasma lead, the other lead biomarkers, and environmental lead exposure. In the SEM analysis, a model that allowed plasma lead to vary freely from whole blood lead explained the variance of cord blood lead (as reflected by a total model R(2); R(2) = 0.79) better than did a model without plasma lead (r(2) = 0.67). Cortical bone lead, trabecular bone lead, use of LGC, and mean air lead level contributed significantly to plasma lead. The exchange of lead between plasma and red blood cells was mostly in the direction of plasma to cells. According to the final model, an increase in trabecular bone lead and cortical bone lead was associated with increases in cord blood

  10. Interrelations of lead levels in bone, venous blood, and umbilical cord blood with exogenous lead exposure through maternal plasma lead in peripartum women.

    PubMed

    Chuang, H Y; Schwartz, J; Gonzales-Cossio, T; Lugo, M C; Palazuelos, E; Aro, A; Hu, H; Hernandez-Avila, M

    2001-05-01

    Recent research has raised the possibility that fetal lead exposure is not estimated adequately by measuring lead content in maternal whole blood lead because of the variable partitioning of lead in whole blood between plasma and red blood cells. Lead in maternal plasma may derive in large part from maternal bone lead stores. In this study we aimed to estimate the contribution of maternal whole blood lead, maternal bone lead levels, and environmental lead to umbilical cord blood lead levels (as a measure of fetal lead exposure). In the model, we assumed that lead from all of these sources reaches the fetus through the maternal plasma lead pathway. In 1994-1995, we recruited 615 pregnant women for a study of lead exposure and reproductive outcomes in Mexico City. We gathered maternal and umbilical cord blood samples within 12 hr of each infant's delivery and measured maternal lead levels in cortical bone and trabecular bone by a K-X-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) instrument within 1 month after delivery. We administered a questionnaire to assess use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to cook food and we obtained data on regional air lead levels during the 2 months before delivery. We used structural equation models (SEMs) to estimate plasma lead as the unmeasured (latent) variable and to quantify the interrelations of plasma lead, the other lead biomarkers, and environmental lead exposure. In the SEM analysis, a model that allowed plasma lead to vary freely from whole blood lead explained the variance of cord blood lead (as reflected by a total model R(2); R(2) = 0.79) better than did a model without plasma lead (r(2) = 0.67). Cortical bone lead, trabecular bone lead, use of LGC, and mean air lead level contributed significantly to plasma lead. The exchange of lead between plasma and red blood cells was mostly in the direction of plasma to cells. According to the final model, an increase in trabecular bone lead and cortical bone lead was associated with increases in cord blood

  11. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Donald A.; Hamilton, W. Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E.; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1, {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  12. Low-level lead exposure, blood pressure, and calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.; McCarron, D.A.; Bennett, W.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Previous research has shown an association of both blood lead and dietary calcium with blood pressure (BP) in populations. We examined the relationship between blood levels and BP, the effect of calcium supplementation on blood lead, and whether the reported antihypertensive effect of calcium supplementation was related to any observed change in blood lead. BP was measured on four occasions, 1 week apart in 251 subjects. During this period, blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EPP) levels were measured, as well as markers of calcium metabolism. In an intervention period, 142 patients were assigned to receive 1 g of calcium per day as calcium carbonate for 12 weeks; at the end of this period, blood lead and EPP were remeasured. In males, blood lead levels were significantly, directly related to BP; a 0.48 mumol/dL (10 micrograms/dL) increase in blood lead concentration was associated with a 5 mm Hg increase in systolic pressure. There was no relationship of blood lead levels to BP in females. EPP was unrelated to BP. Similarly, there was no relationship of blood lead levels to markers of calcium metabolism. With calcium supplementation, blood lead and EPP levels did not change significantly. We conclude that it is unlikely that modification of lead status explains any effects of calcium supplementation on BP.

  13. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  14. Effects of lead exposure before pregnancy and dietary calcium during pregnancy on fetal development and lead accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Han, S; Pfizenmaier, D H; Garcia, E; Eguez, M L; Ling, M; Kemp, F W; Bogden, J D

    2000-01-01

    Millions of women of child-bearing age have substantial bone lead stores due to lead exposure as children. Dietary calcium ingested simultaneously with lead exposure can reduce lead absorption and accumulation. However, the effects of dietary calcium on previously accumulated maternal lead stores and transfer to the fetus have not been investigated. We studied the effects of lead exposure of female rats at an early age on fetal development during a subsequent pregnancy. We gave 5-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats lead as the acetate in their drinking water for 5 weeks; controls received equimolar sodium acetate. This was followed by a 1-month period without lead exposure before mating. We randomly assigned pregnant rats (n = 39) to diets with a deficient (0.1%) or normal (0.5%) calcium content during pregnancy. A total of 345 pups were delivered alive. Lead-exposed dams and their pups had significantly higher blood lead concentrations than controls, but the concentrations were in the range of those found in many pregnant women. Pups born to dams fed the calcium-deficient diet during pregnancy had higher blood and organ lead concentrations than pups born to dams fed the 0. 5% calcium diet. Pups born to lead-exposed dams had significantly (p<0.0001) lower mean birth weights and birth lengths than controls. There were significant inverse univariate associations between dam or pup organ lead concentrations and birth weight or length. The 0.5% calcium diet did not increase in utero growth. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that greater litter size and female sex were significantly associated with reduced pup birth weight and length. However, lead exposure that ended well before pregnancy was significantly (p<0.0001) associated with reduced birth weight and length, even after litter size, pup sex, and dam weight gain during pregnancy were included in the regression analysis. The data demonstrate that an increase in dietary calcium during pregnancy can reduce

  15. Lead exposure in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lead Research Group of the Pan-American Health Organization.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Lacasana, M; McConnell, R

    1997-01-01

    As a result of the rapid industrialization of Latin America and the Caribbean during the second half of this century, exposure to lead has become an increasingly important problem. To obtain an estimate of the magnitude of lead exposure in the region, we carried out a survey and a literature search on potential sources of lead exposure and on blood lead concentrations. Sixteen out of 18 Latin American and 2 out of 10 Caribbean countries responded to the survey. Lead in gasoline remains a major problem, although the lead content has decreased in many countries in the last few years. The impact of leaded fuel is more important in urban settings, given their high vehicular density. Seventy-five percent of the population of the region lives in urban areas, and children younger than 15 years of age, the most susceptible group, comprise 30% of the population. Other sources of lead exposure identified in the region included industrial emissions, battery recycling, paint and varnishes, and contaminated food and water. Lead is recognized as a priority problem by national authorities in 72% of the countries that responded to the survey, and in 50% of the countries some legislation exists to regulate the lead content in certain products. However, compliance is low. There is an urgent need for a broad-based coalition between policy makers, industry, workers, unions, health care providers, and the community to take actions to reduce environmental and occupational lead exposures in all the Latin American and Caribbean countries. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9189704

  16. Root-Zone Glyphosate Exposure Adversely Affects Two Ditch Species

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Lyndsay E.; Koontz, Melissa B.; Pezeshki, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species within the ditches may have a differential sensitivity to exposure of the root zone to glyphosate, contributing to patterns of abundance of ruderal species. The present laboratory experiment investigated whether two species commonly found in agricultural ditches in southcentral United States were affected by root zone glyphosate in a dose-dependent manner, with the objective of identifying a sublethal concentration threshold. The root zone of individuals of Polygonum hydropiperoides and Panicum hemitomon were exposed to four concentrations of glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured, and the ratio of aboveground biomass to belowground biomass and survival were quantified. The findings from this study showed that root zone glyphosate exposure negatively affected both species including dose-dependent reductions in chlorophyll content. P. hydropiperdoides showed the greatest negative response, with decreased belowground biomass allocation and total mortality at the highest concentrations tested. PMID:24833234

  17. Effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined exposure on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amita; Dumka, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Nittin Dev

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined oral administration on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves. Exposure to flubendiamide alone resulted in non-significant decreases in Hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Lead acetate exposure resulted in significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. Combined exposure to flubendiamide and lead resulted in declines in Hb, TEC and PCV, but values did not differ significantly from corresponding values in the group treated with lead alone. Changes in MCV, MCHC and MCH were inconsistent. Plasma calcium concentration declined on day 90 in lead-exposed animals, but increased again on day 30 post-treatment. Results of the present study indicated that flubendiamide exposure results in marginal alterations in erythrocytic indices, but lead exposure caused significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. No interactive effects were observed for flubendiamide and lead on changes in erythrocytic indices.

  18. MAPK pathway activation by chronic lead-exposure increases vascular reactivity through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Aguado, Andrea; Fiorim, Jonaína; Silveira, Edna Aparecida; Azevedo, Bruna Fernandes; Toscano, Cindy Medice; Zhenyukh, Olha; Briones, Ana María; Alonso, María Jesús; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Salaices, Mercedes

    2015-03-01

    Chronic exposure to low lead concentration produces hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the role of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways and MAPK in the vascular alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Aortas from lead-treated Wistar rats (1st dose: 10 μg/100 g; subsequent doses: 0.125 μg/100 g, intramuscular, 30 days) and cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague Dawley rats stimulated with lead (20 μg/dL) were used. Lead blood levels of treated rats attained 21.7 ± 2.38 μg/dL. Lead exposure increased systolic blood pressure and aortic ring contractile response to phenylephrine, reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and did not affect sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Endothelium removal and L-NAME left-shifted the response to phenylephrine more in untreated than in lead-treated rats. Apocynin and indomethacin decreased more the response to phenylephrine in treated than in untreated rats. Aortic protein expression of gp91(phox), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and COX-2 increased after lead exposure. In cultured VSMCs lead 1) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and gene and/or protein levels of NOX-1, NOX-4, Mn-SOD, EC-SOD and COX-2 and 2) activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and mRNA levels of NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2. Blockade of the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished lead-induced NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2 expression. Results show that lead activation of the MAPK signaling pathways activates inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2, suggesting a reciprocal interplay and contribution to vascular dysfunction as an underlying mechanisms for lead-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Lead-exposure increases oxidative stress, COX-2 expression and vascular reactivity. • Lead exposure activates MAPK signaling pathway. • ROS and COX-2 activation by

  19. [Lead exposure in the ceramic tile industry: time trends and current exposure levels].

    PubMed

    Candela, S; Ferri, F; Olmi, M

    1998-01-01

    There is a high density of industries for the production of ceramic tiles in the District of Scandiano (province of Reggio Emilia, Emilia Romagna region). In this area, since the beginning of 1970s, the time trend of Pb exposure in ceramic tile plants has been evaluated by means of biological monitoring (BM) data collected at the Service of Prevention and Safety in the Work Environment and its associated Toxicology Laboratory. From these data, a clear decreasing time trend of exposure levels is documented, the reduction being more evident during the seventies and in 1985-88. During the seventies BM was introduced systematically in all ceramic tile plants with the determination of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA-U). As a consequence of the BM programme, hygienic measures for the abatement of pollution inside the plants were implemented, and a reduction, from 20.6% to 2%, of ALA-U values exceeding 10 mg/l, was observed. In 1985, the determination of lead in blood (PbB) replaced that of ALA-U in the BM programmes and highlighted the persistence of high level of exposure to Pb, which could not be outlined by means of ALA-U because of its lower sensitivity. PbB levels were 36.1 micrograms/100 ml and 25.7 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. These results required the implementation, within the plants, of additional hygienic measures and a significant reduction of PbB was obtained in the following three years. In 1988 PbB levels were 26.0 +/- 10.7 and 21.6 +/- 10.3 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. In 1993-95 Pb levels were obtained from 1328 male and 771 female workers of 56 plants, accounting for about 40% of the total number of workers in the ceramic industry, in the zones of Sassuolo and Scandiano. Exposure levels are not different from those observed in the preceding years, with PbB levels of 25.3 +/- 11.1 and 19.1 +/- 9.2 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively.

  20. Toxic lead exposure in the urban rock dove

    SciTech Connect

    DeMent, S.H.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr.; Eckhaus, M.A.; Strandberg, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    Thirteen adult urban rock doves (Columba livia), 12 captured alive and one found dead, were studied from the Baltimore zoo. The mean concentration of lead in the blood for the 12 live birds was 184.5 +/- 531.2 (range 10.5-1,870 micrograms/dl). Three of the 13 birds with high measured blood and tissue lead concentrations were found at necropsy with lead shot pellets in their gizzards. Correlations were not found between concentrations of lead in the blood and body weight or hematocrit. Conversely, high correlations were noted between concentrations of lead in the blood and measured liver and kidney concentrations (r = 0.946, P less than 0.01; r = 0.993, P less than 0.01, respectively). Numbers of intranuclear acid-fast inclusions per 10 consecutive fields (100x oil immersion lens) correlated well with measured kidney lead concentrations (r = 0.990, P less than 0.001).

  1. Repeated exposures to chlorpyrifos lead to spatial memory retrieval impairment and motor activity alteration.

    PubMed

    Yan, Changhui; Jiao, Lifei; Zhao, Jun; Yang, Haiying; Peng, Shuangqing

    2012-07-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most commonly used insecticides throughout the world and has become one of the major pesticides detected in farm products. Chronic exposures to CPF, especially at the dosages without eliciting any systemic toxicity, require greater attention. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the behavioral effects of repeated low doses (doses that do not produce overt signs of cholinergic toxicity) of CPF in adult rats. Male rats were given 0, 1.0, 5.0 or 10.0mg/kg of CPF through intragastric administration daily for 4 consecutive weeks. The behavioral functions were assessed in a series of behavioral tests, including water maze task, open-field test, grip strength and rotarod test. Furthermore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of repeated exposures to CPF on water maze recall and not acquisition. The results showed that the selected doses only had mild inhibition effects on cholinesterase activity, and have no effects on weight gain and daily food consumption. Performances in the spatial retention task (Morris water maze) were impaired after the 4-week exposure to CPF, but the performances of grip strength and rotarod test were not affected. Motor activities in the open field were changed, especially the time spent in the central zone increased. The results indicated that repeated exposures to low doses of CPF may lead to spatial recall impairments, behavioral abnormalities. However, the underlying mechanism needs further investigations.

  2. Lead in housing paints: an exposure source still not taken seriously for children lead poisoning in China.

    PubMed

    Lin, G Z; Peng, R F; Chen, Q; Wu, Z G; Du, L

    2009-01-01

    After prohibitions on lead gasoline additives, which have proved to be a public health accomplishment world wide, many countries focus on other exposure source of children lead poisoning. Removing lead from paints is one of the important measures. Although there have been regulatory limits on lead in paints in China, evidence reported in this article indicates that lead-based paints were very common in new paints available for housing and in existing residential paints. Twenty-nine of 58 new paint samples (50%) had lead content equal to or exceeding 600 ppm, including 14 (24%) equal to or exceeding 5000 ppm. The highest sample contained 153,000 ppm lead, about 15% of the paint weight. Thirty-two new paints (55%) contained "soluble" lead exceeding 90 ppm, the current lead limit on paints in China. Of the existing paints, 16 of 28 samples of existing paint (57%) collected from 24 kindergartens and primary schools had lead concentrations equal to or exceeding 600 ppm, including six samples (21%) equal to or exceeding 5000 ppm. The highest concentration sample contained 51,800 ppm lead, accounting for 5.2% of the paint weight. It has been shown in many areas that paint lead is a major exposure source for lead poisoning in children. This is particularly true after the phasing out of lead from gasoline. Effective limitation on lead content in new paint, and lead hazard control measures directed towards existing paint, could reduce children blood lead levels (BLLs). There has been a lead standard for paints in China since 1986 and a stricter limit was introduced in recent years. Governments should take it seriously and enforce regulations, commit a long-term challenge to eliminate paint lead as it is the threat to current and the next generation.

  3. Childhood Lead Exposure After the Phaseout of Leaded Gasoline: An Ecological Study of School-Age Children in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Lauren K.; Asher, Daniel; Anandaraja, Natasha; Bopp, Richard F.; Merrill, Karen; Cullen, Mark R.; Luboga, Samuel; Trasande, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Background Tetraethyl lead was phased out of gasoline in Uganda in 2005. Recent mitigation of an important source of lead exposure suggests examination and re-evaluation of the prevalence of childhood lead poisoning in this country. Ongoing concerns persist about exposure from the Kiteezi landfill in Kampala, the country’s capital. Objectives We determined blood lead distributions among Kampala schoolchildren and identified risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs; ≥ 10 μg/dL). Analytical approach Using a stratified, cross-sectional design, we obtained blood samples, questionnaire data, and soil and dust samples from the homes and schools of 163 4- to 8-year-old children representing communities with different risks of exposure. Results The mean blood lead level (BLL) was 7.15 μg/dL; 20.5% of the children were found to have EBLL. Multivariable analysis found participants whose families owned fewer household items, ate canned food, or used the community water supply as their primary water source to have higher BLLs and likelihood of EBLLs. Distance < 0.5 mi from the landfill was the factor most strongly associated with increments in BLL (5.51 μg/dL, p < 0.0001) and likelihood of EBLL (OR = 4.71, p = 0.0093). Dust/soil lead was not significantly predictive of BLL/EBLL. Conclusions Lead poisoning remains highly prevalent among school-age children in Kampala. Confirmatory studies are needed, but further efforts are indicated to limit lead exposure from the landfill, whether through water contamination or through another mechanism. Although African nations are to be lauded for the removal of lead from gasoline, this study serves as a reminder that other sources of exposure to this potent neurotoxicant merit ongoing attention. PMID:20194080

  4. The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children: independent validation and verification.

    PubMed Central

    Zaragoza, L; Hogan, K

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency employs a model, the integrated exposure biokinetic (IEUBK) model for lead in children, for the assessment of risks to children posed by environmental lead at hazardous waste sites. This paper describes results of an effort to verify the consistency of the documentation with the computer model and to test the computer code using a group that is independent from those involved in the model development. This review concluded that the IEUBK model correctly calculates the equations specified in the IEUBK model theory documentation. However, several issues were identified on model documentation, model performance, and the C++ programming language code (i.e., IEUBK model source code) documentation. These issues affect the ability of an independent reviewer to understand the workings of the IEUBK model but not the model's reliability. As a result of these findings, recommendations have been provided for updating documentation to the model as well as associated adjustments to the model documentation. PMID:9860914

  5. Lead accumulation reduces photosynthesis in the lead hyper-accumulator Salvinia minima Baker by affecting the cell membrane and inducing stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Leal-Alvarado, Daniel A; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Sáenz-Carbonell, Luis; Talavera-May, Carlos; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2016-02-01

    Salvinia minima Baker accumulates a fair amount of lead in its tissues; however, no studies have investigated the effect of lead on the physiological processes that affect photosynthesis in this species. The objective of the present study was to assess whether the high amounts of lead accumulated by S. minima can affect its photosynthetic apparatus. The physiological changes in the roots and leaves in response to lead accumulation were analyzed. An exposure to 40 μM Pb(NO3)2 for 24 h (first stage) was sufficient to reduce the photosynthetic rate (Pn) by 44%. This reduction in Pn was apparently the result of processes at various levels, including damage to the cell membranes (mainly in roots). Interestingly, although the plants were transferred to fresh medium without lead for an additional 24 h (second stage), Pn not only remained low, but was reduced even further, which was apparently related to stomatal closure, and may have led to reduced CO2 availability. Therefore, it can be concluded that lead exposure first decreases the photosynthetic rate by damaging the root membrane and then induces stomatal closure, resulting in decreased CO2 availability.

  6. Lead accumulation reduces photosynthesis in the lead hyper-accumulator Salvinia minima Baker by affecting the cell membrane and inducing stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Leal-Alvarado, Daniel A; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Sáenz-Carbonell, Luis; Talavera-May, Carlos; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2016-02-01

    Salvinia minima Baker accumulates a fair amount of lead in its tissues; however, no studies have investigated the effect of lead on the physiological processes that affect photosynthesis in this species. The objective of the present study was to assess whether the high amounts of lead accumulated by S. minima can affect its photosynthetic apparatus. The physiological changes in the roots and leaves in response to lead accumulation were analyzed. An exposure to 40 μM Pb(NO3)2 for 24 h (first stage) was sufficient to reduce the photosynthetic rate (Pn) by 44%. This reduction in Pn was apparently the result of processes at various levels, including damage to the cell membranes (mainly in roots). Interestingly, although the plants were transferred to fresh medium without lead for an additional 24 h (second stage), Pn not only remained low, but was reduced even further, which was apparently related to stomatal closure, and may have led to reduced CO2 availability. Therefore, it can be concluded that lead exposure first decreases the photosynthetic rate by damaging the root membrane and then induces stomatal closure, resulting in decreased CO2 availability. PMID:26742090

  7. Current issues in the epidemiology and toxicology of occupational exposure to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is widespread in the US. Clinically evident lead poisoning as well as subclinical toxicity occur in populations with occupational lead exposure. The focus of current research on lead toxicity in industrial populations is in the definition of dose-response relationships, particularly at low levels of exposure. Major interest surrounds the development of biochemical and physiologic markers of subclinical toxicity. Need exists to better delineate the toxicity of lead on the peripheral and central nervous system, the kidneys, the cardiovascular system, and the reproductive organs using newly developed markers. To obtain more accurate information on cumulative individual exposure to lead, future research on lead toxicity will increasingly use x-ray fluorescence analysis for determination of the lead content in bone.

  8. Lead exposure: Occupational health hazards. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning occupational exposure to lead and its health consequences. Foundry workers, orchard workers, mechanics, industrial workers, and lumbermen are among the workers studied. The citations explore chronic effects of lead exposure on adults and present assay methods for determining blood lead levels. Mortality studies of workers exposed to lead and other synergistic toxins such as cadmium and nickel are also cited. Lead exposure in infants and children is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 199 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Uses and limits of empirical data in measuring and modeling human lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Mushak, P

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the uses and limits of empirical data in evaluating measurement and modeling approaches to human lead exposure. Empirical data from experiment or observation or both have been used in studies of lead exposure. For example, experimental studies have elucidated and quantified physiologic or biokinetic parameters of lead exposure under controlled conditions. Observation, i.e., epidemiology, has been widely applied to study population exposures to lead. There is growing interest in the use of lead exposure prediction models and their evaluation before use in risk assessment. Empirical studies of lead exposure must be fully understood, especially their limits, before they are applied as "standards" or reference information for evaluation of exposure models, especially the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's lead biokinetic model that is a focus of this article. Empirical and modeled datasets for lead exposure may not agree due to a) problems with the observational data or b) problems with the model; caution should be exercised before either a model or observational data are rejected. There are at least three sources of discordance in cases where there is lack of agreement: a) empirical data are accurate but the model is flawed; b) the model is valid but reference empirical data are inaccurate; or c) neither empirical data nor model is accurate, and each is inaccurate in different ways. This paper evaluates some of the critical empirical input to biokinetic models, especially lead bioavailability. Images Figure 3 PMID:9860906

  10. Lead exposure and recovery rates of black ducks banded in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Bowers, E. Frank; Franson, J. Christian

    1992-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering in Tennessee during 1986 to 1988 were tested for exposure to lead. Twelve percent of the birds had blood lead concentrations exceeding 0.2 ppm. Significant differences in the prevalence of lead exposure were found for adults (14.4%) and juveniles (8.2%). Exposed birds had higher blood lead concentrations at one study site, corresponding with a lower survival index.

  11. Childhood lead exposure in France: benefit estimation and partial cost-benefit analysis of lead hazard control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lead exposure remains a public health concern due to its serious adverse effects, such as cognitive and behavioral impairment: children younger than six years of age being the most vulnerable population. In Europe, the lead-related economic impacts have not been examined in detail. We estimate the annual costs in France due to childhood exposure and, through a cost benefit analysis (CBA), aim to assess the expected social and economic benefits of exposure abatement. Methods Monetary benefits were assessed in terms of avoided national costs. We used results from a 2008 survey on blood-lead (B-Pb) concentrations in French children aged one to six years old. Given the absence of a threshold concentration being established, we performed a sensitivity analysis assuming different hypothetical threshold values for toxicity above 15 μg/L, 24 μg/L and 100 μg/L. Adverse health outcomes of lead exposure were translated into social burden and economic costs based on literature data from literature. Direct health benefits, social benefits and intangible avoided costs were included. Costs of pollutant exposure control were partially estimated in regard to homes lead-based paint decontamination, investments aiming at reducing industrial lead emissions and removal of all lead drinking water pipes. Results The following overall annual benefits for the three hypothetical thresholds values in 2008 are: €22.72 billion, €10.72 billion and €0.44 billion, respectively. Costs from abatement ranged from €0.9 billion to 2.95 billion/year. Finally, from a partial CBA of lead control in soils and dust the estimates of total net benefits were € 3.78 billion, € 1.88 billion and €0.25 billion respectively for the three hypothesized B-Pb effect values. Conclusions Prevention of childhood lead exposure has a high social benefit, due to reduction of B-Pb concentrations to levels below 15 μg/L or 24 μg/L, respectively. Reducing only exposures above 100 μg/L B-Pb has

  12. Can realtor education reduce lead exposures for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Janet A; Green, Rodney D; Thompson, Aisha M

    2013-01-01

    Lead is known for its devastating effects on people, particularly children under the age of six. Disturbed lead paint in homes is the most common source of lead poisoning of children. Preventive approaches including consumer education on the demand side of the housing market (purchasers and renters of housing units) and disclosure regulations on supply side of the housing market (landlords, homeowners, developers, and licensed realtors) have had mixed outcomes. The study described in this article considered whether a novel supply-side intervention that educates licensed real estate agents about the specific dangers of lead poisoning would result in better knowledge of lead hazards and improved behavior with respect to the information they convey to potential home buyers. Ninety-one licensed realtors were trained for four hours on lead hazards and their health impacts. Pre- and postsurveys and a six-month follow-up interview were conducted to assess the impact of the intervention on their knowledge and self-reported behaviors with clients. The findings suggest that supply-side education could have a salutary impact on realtor knowledge and behavior. PMID:23947286

  13. Can realtor education reduce lead exposures for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Janet A; Green, Rodney D; Thompson, Aisha M

    2013-01-01

    Lead is known for its devastating effects on people, particularly children under the age of six. Disturbed lead paint in homes is the most common source of lead poisoning of children. Preventive approaches including consumer education on the demand side of the housing market (purchasers and renters of housing units) and disclosure regulations on supply side of the housing market (landlords, homeowners, developers, and licensed realtors) have had mixed outcomes. The study described in this article considered whether a novel supply-side intervention that educates licensed real estate agents about the specific dangers of lead poisoning would result in better knowledge of lead hazards and improved behavior with respect to the information they convey to potential home buyers. Ninety-one licensed realtors were trained for four hours on lead hazards and their health impacts. Pre- and postsurveys and a six-month follow-up interview were conducted to assess the impact of the intervention on their knowledge and self-reported behaviors with clients. The findings suggest that supply-side education could have a salutary impact on realtor knowledge and behavior.

  14. Correlation between biochemical indicators of lead exposure and semen quality in a lead-poisoned firearms instructor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Fischbein, J.; Fischbein, A.; Melnick, H.D.; Bardin, C.W.

    1987-02-13

    Lead poisoning is a disease of great public health concern, particularly because of the hazards that lead can pose to children as a result of ingestion of lead-based paint and perhaps as a consequence of the effects of lead pollution of the ambient air. However, lead poisoning is also a common occupational disease among adults. Persons who work as instructors at indoor firing ranges are likewise at high risk for occupational lead poisoning. The typical biochemical features of lead poisoning include inhibition of heme synthesis manifested by elevated levels of erythrocyte protoporphyrin and decreased activity of sigma-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Reproductive effects of lead have been reported in both men and women, but these effects rarely present themselves as practical clinical problems in occupational medicine practice. The current Department of Labor standard for occupational exposure to inorganic lead has been promulgated with special emphasis on the protection of the worker from damage to the reproductive system. The authors had the opportunity of measuring biologic indicators of lead exposure and of assessing semen quality in a firearms instructor with lead poisoning and infertility, who was treated and who fathered a child. They report herein the results of these longitudinal observations.

  15. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    General activity and swimming performance (i.e., sprint speed and distance) of plains leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) were examined after acute exposure to three sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (3.5, 5.0, and 7.2 mg/L). Both swimming performance and spontaneous swimming activity are important for carrying out life history functions (e.g., growth and development) and for escaping from predators. Measured tadpole activity diminished by nearly 90% at 3.5 mg/L carbaryl and completely ceased at 7.2 mg/L. Sprint speed and sprint distance also decreased significantly following exposure. Carbaryl affected both swimming performance and activity after just 24 h, suggesting that 24 h may be an adequate length of exposure to determine behavioral effects on tadpoles. Slight recovery of activity levels was noted at 24 and 48 h post-exposure; no recovery of swimming performance was observed. Reduction in activity and swimming performance may result in increased predation rates and, because activity is closely associated with feeding, may result in slowed growth leading to a failure to emerge before pond drying or an indirect reduction in adult fitness. Acute exposure to sublethal toxicants such as carbaryl may not only affect immediate survival of tadpoles but also impact critical life history functions and generate changes at the local population level.

  16. Implications of new data on lead toxicity for managing and preventing exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Silbergeld, E.K. )

    1990-11-01

    Recent advances in research on low-level lead poisoning point to the need to increase efforts to prevent exposure. Current biomedical consensus accepts that blood lead levels as low as 5 to 15 mcg/dL are risky to fetuses, young children, and adults. Lead at low dose is associated with increased blood pressure in adults, and chronic exposure has been associated in cohort studies with kidney disease and cancer. Data on lead toxicokinetics also points to the hazards of low-level, chronic exposure, since the lead that is accumulated over time in bone can be released at a relatively rapid rate during pregnancy and menopause. Sources that contribute to current lead exposure of the general population include unabated lead-based paint and contaminated soils, as well as lower level but pervasive sources in drinking water, food, and consumer products.

  17. Effect of environmental exposures to lead and cadmium on human lymphocytic detoxifying enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    D'Souza, S.J.; Narurkar, L.M.; Narurkar, M.V. )

    1994-09-01

    Lead (Pb) is among the most toxic heavy elements in the atmosphere. Aerosol lead enters the human blood stream by way of the respiratory tract and indirectly, by surface disposition in the alimentary tract followed by adsorption. Lead pollution is also known to occur through its presence in petrol, pain, glazed vessels and solder. Atmospheric lead pollution may be predominantly high around factories manufacturing Pb alloys. Lead toxicity is associated with inhibition of [alpha]-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD) activity, rise in the blood porphyrin, inhibition of ATPase in erthrocytes, decreased blood haemoglobin and anemia. Elevated lead concentrations in pregnant women have been shown to cause hypertension and birth defects. Lead is also known to interact with other elements such as Fe, Zn, Ca and Cu in biological systems. Cadmium (Cd) is not essential for human body. It enters the human environment as a contaminant. Human intake of Cd is chiefly through the food chain (about 400-500 [mu]g/wk). Analysis of neuropsy material shows that smokers accumulate much more Cd than nonsmokers. Chronic Cd poisoning produces proteinuere and affects the proximal tubules of kidney, causing the formation of kidney stones. The reported hypertensive effect of Cd in man has been associated with high Cd/Zn ratio in kidney. Studies on air pollution have shown that Cd concentration in air could be positively correlated with heart disease, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. The present investigation was aimed at assessing the usefulness of human lymphocytic detoxicating enzyme activities and their ratios in an assessment of human health-risks during environmental exposures to Pb and Cd. The human subjects investigated comprised those exposed to highly contaminated lead and cadmium areas in the state of Maharashtra, India. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Evaluation of preventive and control measures for lead exposure in a South African lead-acid battery recycling smelter.

    PubMed

    Dyosi, Sindiswa

    2007-10-01

    In South Africa, new lead regulations released in February 2002 served as motivation for a cross-sectional study investigating the effectiveness of preventive and control measures implemented in a lead smelter that recycles lead-acid batteries. Twenty-two workers were observed and interviewed. Structured questionnaires were used to gather workers' personal information, perception about their work environment, health risks, and work practices. Retrospective data from air monitoring and medical surveillance programs were obtained from the plant's records. The smelter implemented a number of control measures for lead exposure, including engineering controls, administrative controls, and, as a last resort, personal protective equipment. Engineering controls were rated the best control measure and included local exhaust ventilation systems and wet methods. Positive pressure systems were used in the offices and laboratory. The local exhaust ventilation system was rated the best engineering control measure. Although control measures were used, areas such as smelting and refinery had average lead in air levels above 0.15 mg/m(3), the occupational exposure limit for lead. This was a concern especially with regard to the smelting area because those workers had the second highest mean blood lead levels; workers in the battery breaking area had the highest. Regular use of personal protective equipment by some workers in the "lead exposure zones" was not observed. Although the mean blood lead levels had been below 40 micro g/dL for more than 90% of the workers since 2001, more than 70% of workers reported concerns about their health while working in the smelter. Even though control measures were implemented, they were not adequate because in some areas lead in air exceeded the occupational exposure limit. Therefore, improvement of existing measures and regular monitoring of personal protective equipment use were included in the recommendations given to the smelter.

  19. Influence of developmental lead exposure on expression of DNA methyltransferases and methyl cytosine-binding proteins in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J S; Kidd, S K; Anderson, D W

    2013-02-13

    Developmental exposure to lead (Pb) has adverse effects on cognitive functioning and behavior that can persist into adulthood. Exposures that occur during fetal or early life periods may produce changes in brain related to physiological re-programming from an epigenetic influence such as altered DNA methylation status. Since DNA methylation is regulated by DNA methyltransferases and methyl cytosine-binding proteins, this study assessed the extent to which developmental Pb exposure might affect expression of these proteins in the hippocampus. Long Evans dams were fed chow with or without added Pb acetate (0, 150, 375, 750 ppm) prior to breeding and remained on the same diet through weaning (perinatal exposure group). Other animals were exposed to the same doses of Pb but exposure started on postnatal day 1 and continued through weaning (early postnatal exposure group). All animals were euthanized on day 55 and hippocampi were removed. Western blot analyses showed significant effects of Pb exposure on DNMT1, DNMT3a, and MeCP2 expression, with effects often seen at the lowest level of exposure and modified by sex and developmental window of Pb exposure. These data suggest potential epigenetic effects of developmental Pb exposure on DNA methylation mediated at least in part through dysregulation of methyltransferases. PMID:23246732

  20. Lead exposure among workers renovating a previously deleaded bridge: comparison of trades, work tasks.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J C; Reynolds, S J; Fuortes, L J; Clarke, W R

    2000-01-01

    Airborne and surface lead exposures were evaluated for construction trade groups at a previously deleaded bridge renovation site in the midwestern United States. Although all lead-based paint should have been removed, old layers of leaded paint were still present on some sections of the bridge. Ironworkers performing metal torch cutting had the highest exposures (188 microg/m3), followed by workers engaged in clean-up operations and paint removal (p < 0.001). Respirators were most frequently worn by workers with the greatest lead exposures; however, laborers performing clean-up operations had exposures to lead dust of 43 microg/m3 and often wore no respiratory protection. Wipe samples revealed that almost all contractor vehicles were contaminated with lead. Heavy equipment operators with low airborne lead exposure had the highest levels of surface contamination in personal vehicles (3,600 microg/m2). Laborers cleaning structural steel with compressed air and ironworkers exposed to lead fumes from cutting had the highest concentrations of lead dust on clothing (mean 4,766 microg/m2). Handwashing facilities were provided, but were infrequently used. No separate clothes changing facility was available at the site. The potential for "take-home" contamination was high, even though this site was thought to be relatively free of lead. Construction contractors and their workers need to be aware that previous deleading of a site may not preclude exposure to significant amounts of lead.

  1. Lead exposure in American black ducks after implementation of non-toxic shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Bowers, E. Frank

    2000-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent shotgun pellets has been recognized as an important disease of North American waterfowl since Bellrose's (1959) research >40 years ago. Nation-wide regulations banning the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting were established in 1991. We compared the prevalence of lead exposure in American black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering on 2 areas in Tennessee before (1986-88) and after the ban (1997-99) to assess the effect of the ban on lead shot on this species. Prevalence of elevated blood lead in black ducks declined by 44% from before (11.7% prevalence) to after (6.5% prevalence) the implementation of non-toxic shot. The reduction in lead exposure was pronounced in adult black ducks (from 14.3% to 5.3%). However, prevalence in lead exposure remained similar in juvenile black ducks (from 8.2% to 8.3%). Additional evidence from lead ingestion and lead poisoning mortality events also indicates that lead exposure has declined in waterfowl in the Mississippi flyway. We believe that lead ingestion will continue to decline, despite the persistence of lead shot in some wetlands. The impact of reduced lead exposure on waterfowl populations needs to be assessed.

  2. Multicompartment kinetic models for lead. II. Linear kinetics and variable absorption in humans without excessive lead exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.H.

    1985-04-01

    Multicompartment models with constant fractional transfer rates have been fitted to experimental data on lead metabolism in four subjects studied by M.B. Rabinowitz, G.W. Wetherill, and J.D. Kopple. Long-term retention is estimated for blood, soft tissue, cortical and trabecular bone pools, and for facial hair. The absorption of lead from diet is shown to change with time, but no evidence was found for other variable or nonlinear kinetic mechanisms of lead metabolism in humans without excessive lead exposure.

  3. Abiotic factors affecting the toxicity of lead to fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Babich, H; Stotzky, G

    1979-01-01

    The toxicity of lead (Pb) to fungi in pure culture was influenced by several abiotic factors: pH, inorganic anions, clay minerals, and particulate (humic acid) and soluble organic matter. The toxicity of Pb was potentiated under acidic conditions (pH 5 and 6), and phosphate or carbonate anions reduced the toxicity, apparently as a result of the formation of sparingly soluble Pb salts. Clay minerals (montmorillonite greater than attapulgite greater than kaolinite) and particulate humic acid protected against the toxicity of Pb, presumably as the result of sorption, by cation exchange of the Pb to the exchange complexes, which reduced its availability for uptake by the fungi. Soluble organics, such as tryptone, yeast extract, cysteine, succinic acid, and increasing concentrations of neopeptone, also reduced the toxicity of Pb. PMID:43707

  4. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p<0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in (208)Pb/(206)Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  5. Towards the prevention of lead exposure in South Africa: contemporary and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela

    2014-12-01

    The prevention of lead exposure continues to constitute a major public health challenge in developed countries. In well-resourced countries major lead exposure reduction interventions have resulted in significant improvements in childhood blood lead distributions. In developing countries on the other hand, while lead exposure and poisoning remain serious public health concerns, a range of prevailing factors and circumstances, such as poverty, a large informal sector, competing public health challenges, low levels of awareness of lead hazards and weak capacity to enforce legislation, contribute to an increase in the scale and intensity of the challenge, and limit the prospects of comparable success in the foreseeable future. This paper collates available information to illustrate that despite some progress, a wide range of sources of lead exist in South Africa, and that certain settings and groups continue to be at high risk of lead exposure. Lead exposure in relation to paint, mining, lead melting in subsistence fishing communities, the consumption of Ayurvedic medicines and food production is described, and discussed with regard to the key factors hindering efforts to prevent lead poisoning and exposure in South Africa and many other developing countries.

  6. Towards the prevention of lead exposure in South Africa: contemporary and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela

    2014-12-01

    The prevention of lead exposure continues to constitute a major public health challenge in developed countries. In well-resourced countries major lead exposure reduction interventions have resulted in significant improvements in childhood blood lead distributions. In developing countries on the other hand, while lead exposure and poisoning remain serious public health concerns, a range of prevailing factors and circumstances, such as poverty, a large informal sector, competing public health challenges, low levels of awareness of lead hazards and weak capacity to enforce legislation, contribute to an increase in the scale and intensity of the challenge, and limit the prospects of comparable success in the foreseeable future. This paper collates available information to illustrate that despite some progress, a wide range of sources of lead exist in South Africa, and that certain settings and groups continue to be at high risk of lead exposure. Lead exposure in relation to paint, mining, lead melting in subsistence fishing communities, the consumption of Ayurvedic medicines and food production is described, and discussed with regard to the key factors hindering efforts to prevent lead poisoning and exposure in South Africa and many other developing countries. PMID:25086205

  7. Lead concentration in meat from lead-killed moose and predicted human exposure using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Lindboe, M; Henrichsen, E N; Høgåsen, H R; Bernhoft, A

    2012-01-01

    Lead-based hunting ammunitions are still common in most countries. On impact such ammunition releases fragments which are widely distributed within the carcass. In Norway, wild game is an important meat source for segments of the population and 95% of hunters use lead-based bullets. In this paper, we have investigated the lead content of ground meat from moose (Alces alces) intended for human consumption in Norway, and have predicted human exposure through this source. Fifty-two samples from different batches of ground meat from moose killed with lead-based bullets were randomly collected. The lead content was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The lead intake from exposure to moose meat over time, depending on the frequency of intake and portion size, was predicted using Monte Carlo simulation. In 81% of the batches, lead levels were above the limit of quantification of 0.03 mg kg(-1), ranging up to 110 mg kg(-1). The mean lead concentration was 5.6 mg kg(-1), i.e. 56 times the European Commission limit for lead in meat. For consumers eating a moderate meat serving (2 g kg(-1) bw), a single serving would give a lead intake of 11 µg kg(-1) bw on average, with maximum of 220 µg kg(-1) bw. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the median (and 97.5th percentile) predicted weekly intake of lead from moose meat was 12 µg kg(-1) bw (27 µg kg(-1) bw) for one serving per week and 25 µg kg(-1) bw (45 µg kg(-1) bw) for two servings per week. The results indicate that the intake of meat from big game shot with lead-based bullets imposes a significant contribution to the total human lead exposure. The provisional tolerable weekly intake set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 25 µg kg(-1) bw is likely to be exceeded in people eating moose meat on a regular basis. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has recently concluded that adverse effects may be present at even lower exposure doses. Hence, even occasional consumption of big game meat with lead levels as

  8. Glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and oxidative stress in individuals with subacute occupational exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Hudziec, Edyta; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of subacute exposure to lead on the glutathione-related antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in 36 males occupationally exposed to lead for 40±3.2days. Blood lead level in the examined population increased significantly by 359% due to lead exposure. Simultaneously, erythrocyte glutathione level decreased by 16%, whereas the activity of glutathione-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and leukocytes decreased by 28% and 10%, respectively. Similarly, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase in erythrocytes decreased by 45%. However, the activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes and leukocytes increased by 26% and 6%, respectively, whereas the total oxidant status value in leukocytes increased by 37%. Subacute exposure to lead results in glutathione pool depletion and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products; however, it does not cause DNA damage. Besides, subacute exposure to lead modifies the activity of glutathione-related enzymes. PMID:27331344

  9. Developmental alcohol exposure leads to a persistent change on astrocyte secretome.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Pablo; Hampton, Brian; Manhães, Alex C; Medina, Alexandre E

    2016-06-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is the most common cause of mental disabilities in the western world. It has been quite established that acute alcohol exposure can dramatically affect astrocyte function. Because the effects of early alcohol exposure on cell physiology can persist into adulthood, we tested the hypothesis that ethanol exposure in ferrets during a period equivalent to the last months of human gestation leads to persistent changes in astrocyte secretome in vitro. Animals were treated with ethanol (3.5 g/kg) or saline between postnatal day (P)10-30. At P31, astrocyte cultures were made and cells were submitted to stable isotope labeling by amino acids. Twenty-four hour conditioned media of cells obtained from ethanol- or saline-treated animals (ET-CM or SAL-CM) were collected and analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry in tandem with liquid chromatography. Here, we show that 65 out of 280 quantifiable proteins displayed significant differences comparing ET-CM to SAL-CM. Among the 59 proteins that were found to be reduced in ET-CM we observed components of the extracellular matrix such as laminin subunits α2, α4, β1, β2, and γ1 and the proteoglycans biglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2, and lumican. Proteins with trophic function such as insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, pigment epithelium-derived factor, and clusterin as well as proteins involved on modulation of proteolysis such as metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were also reduced. In contrast, pro-synaptogeneic proteins like thrombospondin-1, hevin as well as the modulator of extracelular matrix expression, angiotensinogen, were found increased in ET-CM. The analysis of interactome maps through ingenuity pathway analysis demonstrated that the amyloid beta A4 protein precursor, which was found reduced in ET-CM, was previously shown to interact with ten other proteins that exhibited significant changes in the ET-CM. Taken together our results

  10. Early Postnatal Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Leads to Enhanced Neurogenesis and Impaired Communicative Functions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xuemei; Roller, Anna; Carter, Kathleen; Paul, Ian; Bhatt, Abhay J.; Lin, Rick C. S.; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal infection is a well-identified risk factor for a number of neurodevelopmental disorders, including brain white matter injury (WMI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The underlying mechanisms by which early life inflammatory events cause aberrant neural, cytoarchitectural, and network organization, remain elusive. This study is aimed to investigate how systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation affects microglia phenotypes and early neural developmental events in rats. We show here that LPS exposure at early postnatal day 3 leads to a robust microglia activation which is characterized with mixed microglial proinflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes. More specifically, we found that microglial M1 markers iNOS and MHC-II were induced at relatively low levels in a regionally restricted manner, whereas M2 markers CD206 and TGFβ were strongly upregulated in a sub-set of activated microglia in multiple white and gray matter structures. This unique microglial response was associated with a marked decrease in naturally occurring apoptosis, but an increase in cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus. LPS exposure also leads to a significant increase in oligodendrocyte lineage population without causing discernible hypermyelination. Moreover, LPS-exposed rats exhibited significant impairments in communicative and cognitive functions. These findings suggest a possible role of M2-like microglial activation in abnormal neural development that may underlie ASD-like behavioral impairments. PMID:27723799

  11. Childhood lead poisoning near abandoned lead mining and smelting areas: A case study of two affected households

    SciTech Connect

    Moehr, A.D. ); Roberts, D.W.; Phillips, P.E.; Evans, R.G.

    1993-10-01

    In October, 1990 the Missouri Dept. of Health entered a contract with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) to conduct an exposure study at the Jasper County, Missouri Superfund Site. The primary concern was exposure to elevated levels of lead and cadmium resulting from previous mining of lead and zinc in the area. Several individuals were found to have elevated lead levels and this article is a case study of two households where children with elevated levels resided. Due to the lowering of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standard for a level of concern in childhood lead poisoning from 25 [mu]g/dl to 10 [mu]g/dl, many environmental heath personnel may be requested to evaluate exposure routes and give advice regarding risk reduction to families who reside in areas not previously thought to be problematic. Accomplishing this risk reduction may require passage of local ordinances requiring lead abatement, additional training of field personnel, and cooperative work with other public and governmental entities.

  12. Determinants of bone and blood lead levels among teenagers living in urban areas with high lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Farias, P

    1998-01-01

    Although lead has been extensively studied in children, its sources and effects remain unclear in adolescents. This study examined the relation of blood and tibia bone lead levels to lead determinants. One hundred adolescents living in Mexico City and surrounding suburbs were studied. Blood lead was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and tibia lead was measured by a K X-ray Fluorescence (KXRF) instrument. Blood lead ranged from 1.8 to 29.2 microgram/dl, with a mean of 7.4 microgram/dl. Bone lead ranged from <1 to 44.82 microgram Pb/g bone mineral, with a mean of 4.8 microgram Pb/g. Predictors of bone lead included higher traffic density near the home, mother's smoking history, and time spent outdoors. Predictors of log-transformed blood lead included bone lead levels, male sex, use of lead-glazed ceramics, and living in Mexico City. Bone lead remained a significant predictor of blood lead after adjusting for covariates in a final multivariate regression model. In our final model, a rise in bone lead from the middle of the lowest quintile to the middle of the highest quintile (a difference of 21.6 microgram Pb/g) was associated with an increase in blood lead of 1.2 microgram/dl. Our data suggest that in addition to current sources of environmental lead exposure, bone lead accumulated over time constitutes a moderate source of circulating lead during adolescence and may account for some of the adverse health effects documented in recent studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9799189

  13. Urban gardens: Lead exposure, recontamination mechanisms, and implications for remediation design

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Heather F. Hausladen, Debra M.; Brabander, Daniel J.

    2008-07-15

    Environmental lead contamination is prevalent in urban areas where soil represents a significant sink and pathway of exposure. This study characterizes the speciation of lead that is relevant to local recontamination and to human exposure in the backyard gardens of Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, USA. One hundred forty-one backyard gardens were tested by X-ray fluorescence, and 81% of gardens have lead levels above the US EPA action limit of 400 {mu}g/g. Raised gardening beds are the in situ exposure reduction method used in the communities to promote urban gardening. Raised beds were tested for lead and the results showed that the lead concentration increased from an initial range of 150{+-}40 {mu}g/g to an average of 336 {mu}g/g over 4 years. The percent distribution of lead in the fine grain soil (<100 {mu}m) and the trace metal signature of the raised beds support the conclusion that the mechanism of recontamination is wind-transported particles. Scanning electron microscopy and sequential extraction were used to characterize the speciation of lead, and the trace metal signature of the fine grain soil in both gardens and raised gardening beds is characteristic of lead-based paint. This study demonstrates that raised beds are a limited exposure reduction method and require maintenance to achieve exposure reduction goals. An exposure model was developed based on a suite of parameters that combine relevant values from the literature with site-specific quantification of exposure pathways. This model suggests that consumption of homegrown produce accounts for only 3% of children's daily exposure of lead while ingestion of fine grained soil (<100 {mu}m) accounts for 82% of the daily exposure. This study indicates that urban lead remediation on a yard-by-yard scale requires constant maintenance and that remediation may need to occur on a neighborhood-wide scale.

  14. Urban gardens: lead exposure, recontamination mechanisms, and implications for remediation design.

    PubMed

    Clark, Heather F; Hausladen, Debra M; Brabander, Daniel J

    2008-07-01

    Environmental lead contamination is prevalent in urban areas where soil represents a significant sink and pathway of exposure. This study characterizes the speciation of lead that is relevant to local recontamination and to human exposure in the backyard gardens of Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, USA. One hundred forty-one backyard gardens were tested by X-ray fluorescence, and 81% of gardens have lead levels above the US EPA action limit of 400 microg/g. Raised gardening beds are the in situ exposure reduction method used in the communities to promote urban gardening. Raised beds were tested for lead and the results showed that the lead concentration increased from an initial range of 150+/-40 microg/g to an average of 336 microg/g over 4 years. The percent distribution of lead in the fine grain soil (<100 microm) and the trace metal signature of the raised beds support the conclusion that the mechanism of recontamination is wind-transported particles. Scanning electron microscopy and sequential extraction were used to characterize the speciation of lead, and the trace metal signature of the fine grain soil in both gardens and raised gardening beds is characteristic of lead-based paint. This study demonstrates that raised beds are a limited exposure reduction method and require maintenance to achieve exposure reduction goals. An exposure model was developed based on a suite of parameters that combine relevant values from the literature with site-specific quantification of exposure pathways. This model suggests that consumption of homegrown produce accounts for only 3% of children's daily exposure of lead while ingestion of fine grained soil (<100 microm) accounts for 82% of the daily exposure. This study indicates that urban lead remediation on a yard-by-yard scale requires constant maintenance and that remediation may need to occur on a neighborhood-wide scale.

  15. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    PubMed

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  16. Lead Exposure in Adult Males in Urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the Apartheid Era

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Catherine A.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Smith, Martin J.; Trueman, Clive N.; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country’s late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g−1), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g−1) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead. PMID:23505462

  17. Screening for lead exposure using a geographic information system

    SciTech Connect

    Wartenberg, D. )

    1992-12-01

    Screening programs for lead overexposure typically target high-risk populations by identifying regions with common risk markers (older housing, poverty, etc.). While more useful than untargeted screening programs, targeted programs are limited by the geographic resolution of the risk-factor information. A geographic information system can make screening programs more effective and more cost-efficient by mapping cases of overexposure, identifying high-incidence neighborhoods warranting screening, and validating risk-factor-based prediction rules. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Expression of immunoregulatory genes and its relationship to lead exposure and lead-mediated oxidative stress in wild ungulates from an abandoned mining area.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Vidal, Dolors; Mateo, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic metal that can induce oxidative stress and affect the immune system by modifying the expression of immunomodulator-related genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between Pb exposure and the transcriptional profiles of some cytokines, as well as the relationship between Pb exposure and changes in oxidative stress biomarkers observed in the spleen of wild ungulates exposed to mining pollution. Red deer and wild boar from the mining area studied had higher spleen, liver, and bone Pb levels than controls, indicating a chronic exposure to Pb pollution. Such exposure caused a depletion of spleen glutathione levels in both species and disrupted the activity of antioxidant enzymes, suggesting the generation of oxidative stress conditions. Deer from the mining area also showed an induced T-helper (Th )-dependent immune response toward the Th 2 pathway, whereas boar from the mining area showed a cytokine profile suggesting an inclination of the immune response toward the Th 1 pathway. These results indicate that environmental exposure to Pb may alter immune responses in wild ungulates exposed to mining pollution. However, evidence of direct relationships between Pb-mediated oxidative stress and the changes detected in immune responses were not found. Further research is needed to evaluate the immunotoxic potential of Pb pollution, also considering the prevalence of chronic infectious diseases in wildlife in environments affected by mining activities.

  19. ANALYSIS OF DISCRIMINATING FACTORS IN HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT AFFECT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurately modeling exposure to particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants ultimately involves the utilization of human location-activity databases to assist in understanding the potential variability of microenvironmental exposures. This paper critically considers and stati...

  20. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD (II) LEVELS AND LEAD (II) NEUROTOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of hexafl...

  1. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  2. Lead exposure among automobile radiator repair workers and their children in New York City.

    PubMed

    Nunez, C M; Klitzman, S; Goodman, A

    1993-05-01

    Despite a comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Administration lead standard, exposure to lead continues in many industries. This paper describes a blood lead screening and education program for automobile radiator repair workers and their families in New York City. Results showed that 67% of automobile radiator repair workers (n = 62) in 89% of the shops tested (n = 24) had blood lead levels in excess of 25 micrograms/dl. The vast majority of workers had never been tested previously, and none had received health and safety training regarding occupational lead exposure. Although none of the workers' children's blood lead levels were in excess of then-current guidelines, several had levels which may be associated with subclinical toxicity and in excess of the revised Centers for Disease Control guidelines of 10 micrograms/dl. This project demonstrates that lead exposure in the automotive radiator repair industry continues to be widespread and that local health departments can assist in hazard identification and remediation.

  3. Chemical form of selenium differentially influences DNA repair pathways following exposure to lead nitrate.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Shauna M; Horgan, Karina A; Murphy, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Lead, an environmental toxin is known to induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions in humans through a number of mechanisms including the deactivation of antioxidants thus leading to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent DNA damage. Selenium on the other hand has been proven to play an important role in the protection of cells from free radical damage and oxidative stress, though its effects are thought to be form and dose dependent. As the liver is the primary organ required for metabolite detoxification, HepG2 cells were chosen to assess the protective effects of various selenium compounds following exposure to the genotoxic agent lead nitrate. Initially DNA damage was quantified using a comet assay, gene expression patterns associated with DNA damage and signalling were also examined using PCR arrays and the biological pathways which were most significantly affected by selenium were identified. Interestingly, the organic type selenium compounds (selenium yeast and selenomethionine) conferred protection against lead induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells; this is evident by reduction in the quantity of DNA present in the comet tail of cells cultured in their presence with lead. This trend also followed through the gene expression changes noted in DNA damage pathways analysed. These results were in contrast with those of inorganic sodium selenite which promoted lead induced DNA damage evident in both the comet assay results and the gene expression analysis. Over all this study provided valuable insights into the effects which various selenium compounds had on the DNA damage and signalling pathway indicating the potential for using organic forms of selenium such as selenium enriched yeast to protect against DNA damaging agents.

  4. Biomarkers of metals exposure in fish from lead-zinc mining areas of Southeastern Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Whyte, J.J.; Roberts, A.P.; Annis, M.L.; May, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    The potential effects of proposed lead-zinc mining in an ecologically sensitive area were assessed by studying a nearby mining district that has been exploited for about 30 y under contemporary environmental regulations and with modern technology. Blood and liver samples representing fish of three species (largescale stoneroller, Campostoma oligolepis, n=91; longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, n=105; and northern hog sucker, Hypentelium nigricans, n=20) from 16 sites representing a range of conditions relative to mining activities were collected. Samples were analyzed for metals (also reported in a companion paper) and for biomarkers of metals exposure [erythrocyte ??-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity; concentrations of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), iron, and hemoglobin (Hb) in blood; and hepatic metallothionein (MT) gene expression and lipid peroxidation]. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher and ALA-D activity significantly lower in all species at sites nearest to active lead-zinc mines and in a stream contaminated by historical mining than at reference or downstream sites. ALA-D activity was also negatively correlated with blood lead concentrations in all three species but not with other metals. Iron and Hb concentrations were positively correlated in all three species, but were not correlated with any other metals in blood or liver in any species. MT gene expression was positively correlated with liver zinc concentrations, but neither MT nor lipid peroxidase differences among fish grouped according to lead concentrations were statistically significant. ZPP was not detected by hematofluorometry in most fish, but fish with detectable ZPP were from sites affected by mining. Collectively, these results confirm that metals are released to streams from active lead-zinc mining sites and are accumulated by fish. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical form of selenium differentially influences DNA repair pathways following exposure to lead nitrate.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Shauna M; Horgan, Karina A; Murphy, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Lead, an environmental toxin is known to induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions in humans through a number of mechanisms including the deactivation of antioxidants thus leading to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent DNA damage. Selenium on the other hand has been proven to play an important role in the protection of cells from free radical damage and oxidative stress, though its effects are thought to be form and dose dependent. As the liver is the primary organ required for metabolite detoxification, HepG2 cells were chosen to assess the protective effects of various selenium compounds following exposure to the genotoxic agent lead nitrate. Initially DNA damage was quantified using a comet assay, gene expression patterns associated with DNA damage and signalling were also examined using PCR arrays and the biological pathways which were most significantly affected by selenium were identified. Interestingly, the organic type selenium compounds (selenium yeast and selenomethionine) conferred protection against lead induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells; this is evident by reduction in the quantity of DNA present in the comet tail of cells cultured in their presence with lead. This trend also followed through the gene expression changes noted in DNA damage pathways analysed. These results were in contrast with those of inorganic sodium selenite which promoted lead induced DNA damage evident in both the comet assay results and the gene expression analysis. Over all this study provided valuable insights into the effects which various selenium compounds had on the DNA damage and signalling pathway indicating the potential for using organic forms of selenium such as selenium enriched yeast to protect against DNA damaging agents. PMID:25023848

  6. Essential trace metal excretion from rats with lead exposure and during chelation therapy.

    PubMed

    Victery, W; Miller, C R; Goyer, R A

    1986-02-01

    Urinary excretion of lead, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium, and potassium was measured in rats daily for 1 week after a 6-week exposure to 10,000 micrograms/ml lead in drinking water. Beginning on the third day, half of the lead-exposed and control rats were injected intraperitoneally with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) daily for 3 days. Whole blood, plasma, and kidney metal concentrations were determined from samples obtained at the end of the experiment. Exposure to lead increased urinary excretion, not only of lead, but also of calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, and iron. Excretion of sodium and potassium was not altered. Chelation therapy further increased excretion of lead, zinc, copper, and iron, but not magnesium. The increase in calcium excretion during chelation treatment (beyond that resulting from lead exposure per se) was accounted for by the Ca content of CaNa2-EDTA. EDTA treatment increased renal concentration of zinc but lowered renal concentration of lead, copper, and iron. These multimetal alterations may have implications for essential metal supplementation, particularly zinc, in persons being given chelation agents for excess lead exposure and in infants and children with low-level lead exposure not necessarily requiring chelation therapy.

  7. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: A Source of Lead Exposure in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Apostolou, Andria; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; McLain, RN, Pat; Weaver, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the relationship between secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and blood lead levels in US children and adolescents. Methods. We analyzed data from 6830 participants aged 3–19 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004) who were not active smokers and for whom SHS exposure information and blood lead measurements were available. Results. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of serum cotinine (≥ 0.44 μg/L) had 28% (95% confidence interval = 21%, 36%) higher blood lead levels than had those in the lowest quartile (< 0.03 μg/L). Similarly, blood lead levels were 14% and 24% higher in children who lived with 1 or with 2 or more smokers, respectively, than they were in children living with no smokers. Among participants for whom lead dust information was available, the associations between SHS and blood lead levels were similar before and after adjustment for lead dust concentrations. Conclusions. SHS may contribute to increased blood lead levels in US children. Lead dust does not appear to mediate this association, suggesting inhalation as a major pathway of exposure. Eliminating SHS exposure could reduce lead exposure in children. PMID:21852639

  8. Reducing lead exposure from drinking water: recent history and current status.

    PubMed

    Maas, Richard P; Patch, Steven C; Morgan, Diane M; Pandolfo, Tamara J

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of lead contamination of drinking water, noting the various regulatory-driven measures that have been adopted in the U.S. since 1986 to address this public health issue. The article summarizes the literature on the dynamics of tap water lead contamination and discusses this widespread source of lead exposure in the context of the latest research evidence.

  9. A task-based approach to assessing lead exposure among iron workers engaged in bridge rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M; Levin, S M; Doucette, J T; Griffin, G

    1997-03-01

    The assessment of worker exposures to airborne contaminants in the dynamic environment present at most construction sites poses considerable challenges to the industrial hygienist. In this study, we applied a task-based approach to the assessment of lead exposure among structural steel iron workers engaged in a large, complex bridge rehabilitation project. We evaluated the usefulness of task-based exposure data for the development of worker protection programs. Task-specific and multitask samples were collected, and operation-specific and 8-hr time-weighted averages were calculated. The task-specific data showed significant differences in exposure levels among different tasks. Arithmetic mean exposures varied from 1,357 micrograms/m3 lead for torch cutting and 989 micrograms/m3 for scaling to 31 micrograms/m3 for reaming and 4 micrograms/m3 for drilling. Our task-specific data were compared with the task-based exposure levels presented by OSHA in its Lead Exposure in Construction-Interim Final Rule (29 CFR 1926). There was good general agreement between our results and OSHA's reported data. Task-based data were very useful in exposure assessment and much more precise than full-shift and operation-based measurements in guiding strategies for worker protection. These findings suggest that task-based data should routinely be collected in evaluating exposure to lead and perhaps other toxic substances in construction work.

  10. Interpreting and managing blood lead levels < 10 microg/dL in children and reducing childhood exposures to lead: recommendations of CDC's Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    PubMed

    2007-11-01

    Lead is a common environmental contaminant, and exposure to lead is a preventable risk that exists in all areas of the United States. Lead is associated with negative outcomes in children, including impaired cognitive, motor, behavioral, and physical abilities. In 1991, CDC defined the blood lead level (BLL) that should prompt public health actions as 10 microg/dL. Concurrently, CDC also recognized that a BLL of 10 microg/dL did not define a threshold for the harmful effects of lead. Research conducted since 1991 has strengthened the evidence that children's physical and mental development can be affected at BLLs < or =10 microg/dL. This report summarizes the findings of a review of clinical interpretation and management of BLLs < or =10 microg/dL conducted by CDC's Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. This report provides information to help clinicians understand BLLs < or =10 microg/dL, identifies gaps in knowledge concerning lead levels in this range, and outlines strategies to reduce childhood exposures to lead. In addition, this report summarizes scientific data relevant to counseling, blood lead screening, and lead exposure risk assessment. To aid in the interpretation of BLLs, clinicians should understand the laboratory error range for blood lead values and, if possible, select a laboratory that achieves routine performance within +/-2 microg/dL. Clinicians should obtain an environmental history on all children they examine, provide families with lead prevention counseling, and follow blood lead screening recommendations established for their areas. As local and patient circumstances permit, clinicians should consider early referral to developmental programs for children at high risk for exposure to lead and consider more frequent rescreening of children with BLLs approaching 10 microg/dL, depending on the potential for exposure to lead, child age, and season of testing. In addition, clinicians should direct parents to agencies and

  11. The Association between Environmental Lead Exposure and Bone Density in Children

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, James R.; Rosier, Randy N.; Novotny, Leonore; Puzas, J. Edward

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) that predisposes individuals to fractures. Although an elderly affliction, a predisposition may develop during adolescence if a sufficient peak BMD is not achieved. Rat studies have found that lead exposure is associated with decreased BMD. However, human studies are limited. We hypothesized that the BMD of children with high lead exposure would be lower than the BMD of children with low lead exposure. We collected data on 35 subjects; 16 had low cumulative lead exposure (mean, 6.5 μg/dL), and 19 had high exposure (mean, 23.6 μg/dL). All were African American; there was no difference between the groups by sex, age, body mass index, socioeconomic status, physical activity, or calcium intake. Significant differences in BMD between low and high cumulative lead exposure were noted in the head (1.589 vs. 1.721 g/cm2), third lumbar vertebra (0.761 vs. 0.819 g/cm2), and fourth lumbar vertebra (0.712 vs. 0.789 g/cm2). Contrary to our hypothesis, subjects with high lead exposure had a significantly higher BMD than did subjects with low lead exposure. This may reflect a true phenomenon because lead exposure has been reported to accelerate bony maturation by inhibiting the effects of parathyroid hormone–related peptide. Accelerated maturation of bone may ultimately result in a lower peak BMD being achieved in young adulthood, thus predisposing to osteoporosis in later life. Future studies need to investigate this proposed model. PMID:15289167

  12. Prenatal lead exposure modifies the impact of maternal self-esteem on children's inattention behavior

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C.; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. Study design We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994 to 2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith-Self-esteem-Inventory. When children were 7-to-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners’ Parental-Rating-Scales-Revised (CPRS-R) and Behavior-Rating-Inventory-of-Executive-Function-Parent Form (BRIEF-P) were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Results Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, p-values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels < 0.10). Each 1-point increase in maternal self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6-to-1.3-point decrease in CPRS-R and BRIEF-P T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Conclusions Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school-age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. PMID:26047683

  13. Exploring Childhood Lead Exposure through GIS: A Review of the Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Akkus, Cem; Ozdenerol, Esra

    2014-01-01

    Childhood exposure to lead remains a critical health control problem in the US. Integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into childhood lead exposure studies significantly enhanced identifying lead hazards in the environment and determining at risk children. Research indicates that the toxic threshold for lead exposure was updated three times in the last four decades: 60 to 30 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL) in 1975, 25 µg/dL in 1985, and 10 µb/dL in 1991. These changes revealed the extent of lead poisoning. By 2012 it was evident that no safe blood lead threshold for the adverse effects of lead on children had been identified and the Center for Disease Control (CDC) currently uses a reference value of 5 µg/dL. Review of the recent literature on GIS-based studies suggests that numerous environmental risk factors might be critical for lead exposure. New GIS-based studies are used in surveillance data management, risk analysis, lead exposure visualization, and community intervention strategies where geographically-targeted, specific intervention measures are taken. PMID:24945189

  14. Exploring childhood lead exposure through GIS: a review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Akkus, Cem; Ozdenerol, Esra

    2014-06-18

    Childhood exposure to lead remains a critical health control problem in the US. Integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into childhood lead exposure studies significantly enhanced identifying lead hazards in the environment and determining at risk children. Research indicates that the toxic threshold for lead exposure was updated three times in the last four decades: 60 to 30 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL) in 1975, 25 µg/dL in 1985, and 10 µb/dL in 1991. These changes revealed the extent of lead poisoning. By 2012 it was evident that no safe blood lead threshold for the adverse effects of lead on children had been identified and the Center for Disease Control (CDC) currently uses a reference value of 5 µg/dL. Review of the recent literature on GIS-based studies suggests that numerous environmental risk factors might be critical for lead exposure. New GIS-based studies are used in surveillance data management, risk analysis, lead exposure visualization, and community intervention strategies where geographically-targeted, specific intervention measures are taken.

  15. The conceptual structure of the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children.

    PubMed Central

    White, P D; Van Leeuwen, P; Davis, B D; Maddaloni, M; Hogan, K A; Marcus, A H; Elias, R W

    1998-01-01

    The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children was developed to provide plausible blood lead distributions corresponding to particular combinations of multimedia lead exposure. The model is based on a set of equations that convert lead exposure (expressed as micrograms per day) to blood lead concentration (expressed as micrograms per deciliter) by quantitatively mimicking the physiologic processes that determine blood lead concentration. The exposures from air, food, water, soil, and dust are modeled independently by several routes. Amounts of lead absorbed are modeled independently for air, food, water, and soil/dust, then combined as a single input to the blood plasma reservoir of the body. Lead in the blood plasma reservoir, which includes extracellular fluids, is mathematically allocated to all tissues of the body using age-specific biokinetic parameters. The model calculation provides the estimate for blood lead concentration for that age. This value is treated as the geometric mean of possible values for a single child, or the geometric mean of expected values for a population of children exposed to the same lead concentrations. The distribution of blood lead concentrations about this geometric mean is estimated using a geometric standard deviation, typically 1.6, derived from the analysis of well-conducted community blood studies. PMID:9860910

  16. Lead exposure in free-flying turkey vultures is associated with big game hunting in California.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers.

  17. Lead exposure is associated with decreased serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wan-Fen; Pan, Mei-Hung; Chung, Meng-Chu; Ho, Chi-Kung; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2006-08-01

    Lead exposure causes cardiac and vascular damage in experimental animals. However, there is considerable debate regarding the causal relationship between lead exposure and cardiovascular dysfunction in humans. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, is capable of hydrolyzing oxidized lipids and thus protects against atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown that lead and several other metal ions are able to inhibit PON1 activity in vitro. To investigate whether lead exposure has influence on serum PON1 activity, we conducted a cross-sectional study of workers from a lead battery manufactory and lead recycling plant. Blood samples were analyzed for whole-blood lead levels, serum PON1 activity, and three common PON1 polymorphisms (Q192R, L55M, -108C/T). The mean blood lead level (+/-SD) of this cohort was 27.1+/-15 microg/dL. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that blood lead levels were significantly associated with decreased serum PON1 activity (p<0.001) in lead workers. This negative correlation was more evident for workers who carry the R192 allele, which has been suggested to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Taken together, our results suggest that the decrease in serum PON1 activity due to lead exposure may render individuals more susceptible to atherosclerosis, particularly subjects who are homozygous for the R192 allele.

  18. Lead Exposure in Free-Flying Turkey Vultures Is Associated with Big Game Hunting in California

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers. PMID:21494326

  19. Lead in school drinking water: Canada can and should address this important ongoing exposure source.

    PubMed

    Barn, Prabjit; Kosatsky, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Reducing all preventable lead exposures in children should be a public health priority given that blood lead levels in children that were once considered "safe" have since been associated with important neuro-developmental deficits. Limited Canadian data indicate that school drinking water can be an important component of children's overall exposure to lead. Outside of Ontario, however, Canadian schools are not required to test for lead in water; in most of Canada, school testing is case by case, typically initiated by parental concerns. Provinces and territories are encouraged to follow Ontario's example by instituting a routine school water lead testing program in order to identify facilities where action can result in a decrease in students' exposure to lead. Testing and remediation frameworks developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Health Canada, and the province of Ontario provide direction to school boards and local and provincial/territorial health authorities.

  20. Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2014-12-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals.

  1. Lead Exposures in U.S. Children, 2008: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ronnie; Brown, Mary Jean; Kashtock, Michael E.; Jacobs, David E.; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Rodman, Joanne; Schock, Michael R.; Padilla, Alma; Sinks, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective We reviewed the sources of lead in the environments of U.S. children, contributions to children’s blood lead levels, source elimination and control efforts, and existing federal authorities. Our context is the U.S. public health goal to eliminate pediatric elevated blood lead levels (EBLs) by 2010. Data sources National, state, and local exposure assessments over the past half century have identified risk factors for EBLs among U.S. children, including age, race, income, age and location of housing, parental occupation, and season. Data extraction and synthesis Recent national policies have greatly reduced lead exposure among U.S. children, but even very low exposure levels compromise children’s later intellectual development and lifetime achievement. No threshold for these effects has been demonstrated. Although lead paint and dust may still account for up to 70% of EBLs in U.S. children, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that ≥30% of current EBLs do not have an immediate lead paint source, and numerous studies indicate that lead exposures result from multiple sources. EBLs and even deaths have been associated with inadequately controlled sources including ethnic remedies and goods, consumer products, and food-related items such as ceramics. Lead in public drinking water and in older urban centers remain exposure sources in many areas. Conclusions Achieving the 2010 goal requires maintaining current efforts, especially programs addressing lead paint, while developing interventions that prevent exposure before children are poisoned. It also requires active collaboration across all levels of government to identify and control all potential sources of lead exposure, as well as primary prevention. PMID:18941567

  2. White lead exposure among Danish police officers employed in fingerprint detection.

    PubMed

    Rabjerg, L; Jennum, P J; Mørck, H I

    1983-12-01

    White lead exposure among Danish police officers employed in fingerprint detection. Scand j work environ health 9 (1983) 511-513. White lead is often used by police officers employed in fingerprint detection (dactylography). On the basis of a case of mild lead intoxication in a police officer all 22 exposed police officers at the Bureau of Dactylographic Identification in Copenhagen were examined. All went through a clinical examination and blood lead determination. None of the participants showed any sign of lead intoxication. The median blood lead concentration was 0.97 mumol/l (10th-90th percentiles 0.72-1.44 mumol/l), a value definitely higher than the average of the general population matched for age and sex. A correlation between the weekly white lead exposure and blood lead concentration (r = 0.87, p less than 0.0001) was found among the participants. PMID:6673108

  3. Thirdhand cigarette smoke: factors affecting exposure and remediation.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Vasundhra; Jacob, Peyton; Havel, Christopher; Schick, Suzaynn F; Talbot, Prue

    2014-01-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) refers to components of secondhand smoke that stick to indoor surfaces and persist in the environment. Little is known about exposure levels and possible remediation measures to reduce potential exposure in contaminated areas. This study deals with the effect of aging on THS components and evaluates possible exposure levels and remediation measures. We investigated the concentration of nicotine, five nicotine related alkaloids, and three tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in smoke exposed fabrics. Two different extraction methods were used. Cotton terry cloth and polyester fleece were exposed to smoke in controlled laboratory conditions and aged before extraction. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for chemical analysis. Fabrics aged for 19 months after smoke exposure retained significant amounts of THS chemicals. During aqueous extraction, cotton cloth released about 41 times as much nicotine and about 78 times the amount of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) as polyester after one hour of aqueous extraction. Concentrations of nicotine and TSNAs in extracts of terry cloth exposed to smoke were used to estimate infant/toddler oral exposure and adult dermal exposure to THS. Nicotine exposure from THS residue can be 6.8 times higher in toddlers and 24 times higher in adults and TSNA exposure can be 16 times higher in toddlers and 56 times higher in adults than what would be inhaled by a passive smoker. In addition to providing exposure estimates, our data could be useful in developing remediation strategies and in framing public health policies for indoor environments with THS.

  4. Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke: Factors Affecting Exposure and Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Vasundhra; Jacob, Peyton; Havel, Christopher; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Talbot, Prue

    2014-01-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) refers to components of secondhand smoke that stick to indoor surfaces and persist in the environment. Little is known about exposure levels and possible remediation measures to reduce potential exposure in contaminated areas. This study deals with the effect of aging on THS components and evaluates possible exposure levels and remediation measures. We investigated the concentration of nicotine, five nicotine related alkaloids, and three tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in smoke exposed fabrics. Two different extraction methods were used. Cotton terry cloth and polyester fleece were exposed to smoke in controlled laboratory conditions and aged before extraction. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for chemical analysis. Fabrics aged for 19 months after smoke exposure retained significant amounts of THS chemicals. During aqueous extraction, cotton cloth released about 41 times as much nicotine and about 78 times the amount of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) as polyester after one hour of aqueous extraction. Concentrations of nicotine and TSNAs in extracts of terry cloth exposed to smoke were used to estimate infant/toddler oral exposure and adult dermal exposure to THS. Nicotine exposure from THS residue can be 6.8 times higher in toddlers and 24 times higher in adults and TSNA exposure can be 16 times higher in toddlers and 56 times higher in adults than what would be inhaled by a passive smoker. In addition to providing exposure estimates, our data could be useful in developing remediation strategies and in framing public health policies for indoor environments with THS. PMID:25286392

  5. Lead and cadmium at very low doses affect in vitro immune response of human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Borella, P.; Giardino, A. )

    1991-08-01

    The effect of lead chloride and cadmium chloride on in vitro immunoglobulin (Ig) production by human lymphocytes was investigated. After 7 days in culture, lead added in the range of human exposure (207-1035 {mu}g/liter) significantly enhanced Ig production either when cells were activated by pokeweed mitogen (PWM) or not. The effect was dose-dependent and was related to the Pb were measured in the extracellular medium and in the cells. Independently of the mitogen addition, about 2% of the Pb added was accumulated in the cells, most being associated with the nuclear fraction. Those findings suggest that the Pb effects could depend on its uptake and distribution in the cells. Cadmium added in the 50-500 nM range exhibited a dose-independent mitogenic activity in unstimulated cells, whereas the Ig secretion was not significantly affected by Cd when cells were PWM-activated. A considerable intraindividual variability, however, was observed when blood donors were separately examined, with both an increase, a decrease, or no variation on Ig production. Furthermore, higher percentages of Cd were accumulated in the nuclear fraction, and lower in the cytosol and precipitate, in PWM-activated compared to resting lymphocytes. Genetic factors could be of importance for the observed variability of the immune response to cadmium, and the authors support the hypothesis that differences in the metallothionein (MT) inducibility could play a role.

  6. Acute high-dose lead exposure from beverage contaminated by traditional Mexican pottery.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Proops, D; Palazuelos, E; Graef, J; Hernandez Avila, M

    1994-10-15

    Screening and follow-up blood lead measurements in a 7-year-old child of a US Embassy official in Mexico City revealed an increase in blood lead concentration from 1.10 to 4.60 mumol/L in less than 4 weeks. The cause was traced to fruit punch contaminated with lead leached from traditional ceramic pottery urns. Consumption of the contaminated punch at a picnic was associated with a 20% increase in blood lead concentrations among embassy staff and dependants who were tested 6 weeks after the exposure. This episode highlights the continued health risk, even from brief exposure, posed by traditional pottery in Mexico.

  7. Calculating the interindividual geometric standard deviation for use in the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children.

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, S; Marcus, A; Schulz, T; Walker, S

    1999-01-01

    The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model, recommended for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at residential Superfund sites to predict potential risks to children from lead exposure and to establish lead remediation levels, requires an interindividual geometric standard deviation (GSDi) as an essential input parameter. The GSDi quantifies the variability of blood lead concentrations for children exposed to similar environmental concentrations of lead. Estimates of potential risks are directly related to the GSDi, and therefore the GSDi directly impacts the scope of remediation at Superfund sites. Site-specific GSDi can be calculated for sites where blood lead and environmental lead have been measured. This paper uses data from blood and environmental lead studies conducted at the Bingham Creek and Sandy, Utah, Superfund sites to calculate GSDi using regression modeling, box modeling, and structural equation modeling. GSDis were calculated using various methods for treating values below the analytical method detection and quantitation limits. Treatment of nonquantifiable blood lead concentrations affected the GSDi more than the statistical method used to calculate the GSDi. For any given treatment, the different statistical methods produced similar GSDis. Because of the uncertainties associated with data in the blood lead studies, we recommend that a range of GSDis be used when analyzing site-specific risks associated with exposure to environmental lead instead of a single estimate. Because the different statistical methods produce similar GSDis, we recommend a simple procedure to calculate site-specific GSDi from a scientifically sound blood and environmental lead study. Images Figure 1 PMID:10339449

  8. Prenatal or lactational exposure of male rats to lead acetate. Effect on reproductive function

    SciTech Connect

    Thoreux-Manlay, A.; Pinon-Lataillade, G.; Coffigny, H.; Masse, R.; Soufir, J.C.

    1995-02-01

    Lead is an environmental pollutant which has received much attention, partly because of the particular sensitivity of children to this element. As regards the consequences of exposure to lead during fetal life or childhood, epidemiological studies have so far focused on its neuropsychological effects and little is known about the consequences of fetal or childhood exposure for reproduction. With respect to animals, the reproductive toxicity of lead in males exposed during prenatal life or the suckling period has only been considered in a few studies. Four such studies concerned the rat, the most current model of lead toxicity for male reproduction; two of studies considered the long term effects (i.e. during adulthood) of moderate in utero lead exposure, another covered the prenatal and neonatal periods and focused on the possible impact of lead intoxication on steriodogenesis before weaning, while the remaining study dealt with pituitary hormone level at the end of lead gavage in newborns. None of these investigations compared the effects of exposure during prenatal life to those of exposure via lactation, or the early effects (at about weaning time) to the long-term consequences during adulthood. Because of the paucity of data on these points, we conducted two experiments: in one, rats were exposed to lead prenatally, and in the other via maternal milk. In both cases male reproductive function at weaning and adulthood was examined. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Determination of exposure to lead of subjects from southwestern Poland by human hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Izabela; Wołowiec, Paulina; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to lead from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from 267 young adults living in Wrocław (southwest Poland). The effect of the place of residence, diet, and lifestyle on lead content in hair was examined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Lead was determined at the wavelength 220.353 nm. These outcomes were reached by linking the results of lead level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. The mean lead level in hair of the whole examined population was 2.01 ± 2.10 mg kg(-1). Lead can enter the human body mainly by inhalation and gastrointestinal absorption. It was found that consuming cheese, fish, and lettuce caused increased level of lead in hair. On the other hand, drinking of milk, tea, coffee, or lemon resulted in decreased content of lead in hair. Additional source of exposure to lead could be cigarette smoking, distance to the traffic road, painting the walls, amalgam filling. Based on the results, it can be concluded that exposure to lead can occur mainly from eating habits and environmental exposure. PMID:24346348

  10. Lessons from a Danish study on neuropsychological impairment related to lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P.; Lyngbye, T. ); Hansen, O.N. )

    1991-08-01

    Serious problems emerge when evaluating evidence on lead neurotoxicity in children. The extent of these problems and ways to control them were explored in a study of 1291 children from the first class in the schools of Aarhus municipality, Denmark. The lead retention in circumpulpal dentin in shed deciduous teeth was used as an indicator of cumulated lead exposure; it correlated most strongly with traffic density at the residence of each family and at the day-care institutions. In a nested case-control group selected on the basis of dentin lead concentrations, 29 of 200 children had encountered obstetrical complications and other medical risks for neurobehavioral dysfunction; these children primarily belonged to the low-lead group. As lead-related neurobehavioral effects are nonspecific, inclusion of these children in the data analysis would therefore have distorted the results toward the null hypothesis. Children from the high-lead group who had experienced neonatal jaundice showed impaired performance when compared to other high-lead children; this finding may suggest a synergistic effect. The Bender gestalt test scored by the Goettingen system was the test that was most sensitive to lead exposure. The conclusion that neurobehavioral effects can be caused by the relatively low lead exposures in Denmark may not be surprising, as current exposures to this toxic metal greatly exceed the prepollution levels to which the human body originally adapted.

  11. Multigenerational epigenetic inheritance in humans: DNA methylation changes associated with maternal exposure to lead can be transmitted to the grandchildren

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Arko; Heredia, Nicole; Senut, Marie-Claude; Land, Susan; Hollocher, Kurt; Lu, Xiangyi; Dereski, Mary O.; Ruden, Douglas M.

    2015-01-01

    We report that the DNA methylation profile of a child’s neonatal whole blood can be significantly influenced by his or her mother’s neonatal blood lead levels (BLL). We recruited 35 mother-infant pairs in Detroit and measured the whole blood lead (Pb) levels and DNA methylation levels at over 450,000 loci from current blood and neonatal blood from both the mother and the child. We found that mothers with high neonatal BLL correlate with altered DNA methylation at 564 loci in their children’s neonatal blood. Our results suggest that Pb exposure during pregnancy affects the DNA methylation status of the fetal germ cells, which leads to altered DNA methylation in grandchildren’s neonatal dried blood spots. This is the first demonstration that an environmental exposure in pregnant mothers can have an epigenetic effect on the DNA methylation pattern in the grandchildren. PMID:26417717

  12. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to lead on the behavior of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, V.T.; Copeland, J.

    1997-09-01

    The behavior of aquatic invertebrates may be useful as an indicator for the presence of toxicants in both freshwater and marine environments. The pond snail Helisoma trivolvis, the red ram`s horn, was exposed to low levels of lead (0.05 ppm). Chronic exposure significantly reduced the number of head movements but had no affect on radula movement or antenna twitches. Acute exposure resulted in curling of the foot that lasted 0.5 to 14.0 minutes. Electrochemical analysis of lead levels within treated snails indicated a higher concentration of lead in the tissue than that in the treated environment. Organ analysis of the digestive gland, 1 salivary gland, reproductive organs and the cerebral ganglion is currently being studied.

  13. Lead Exposure Risk from Trash Ingestion by the Endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus).

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Myra E; Brandt, Joseph; Sandhaus, Estelle; Grantham, Jesse; Mee, Allan; Schuppert, Patricia Jill; Smith, Donald R

    2015-10-01

    Lead poisoning from ingestion of spent lead ammunition is one of the greatest threats to the recovery of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) in the wild. Trash ingestion by condors is well documented, yet the extent that trash presents a lead exposure risk is unknown. We evaluated 1,413 trash items collected from condor nest areas and nestlings in the Transverse Range of Ventura County, California, US, from 2002 to 2008, for their potential as a lead exposure risk to condors. We visually identified 71 items suspected to contain sufficient lead to be of toxicologic concern. These items were leached with weak acid and analyzed for lead. Twenty-seven of the 71 leached items (~2% of the 1,413 items) were "lead containing" based on criteria of a leachate lead concentration >1 μg/mL, with the majority of these items (22; 81% of the 27 lead items) being ammunition related (e.g., spent bullet casings and jacketed bullets). Only three of the 1,413 items collected were lead containing but were clearly not ammunition related; the other two lead-containing items were unidentified. Our results suggest that trash ingestion of nonammunition items does not pose a significant lead exposure risk to the California Condor population in California.

  14. Lead Exposure Risk from Trash Ingestion by the Endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus).

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Myra E; Brandt, Joseph; Sandhaus, Estelle; Grantham, Jesse; Mee, Allan; Schuppert, Patricia Jill; Smith, Donald R

    2015-10-01

    Lead poisoning from ingestion of spent lead ammunition is one of the greatest threats to the recovery of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) in the wild. Trash ingestion by condors is well documented, yet the extent that trash presents a lead exposure risk is unknown. We evaluated 1,413 trash items collected from condor nest areas and nestlings in the Transverse Range of Ventura County, California, US, from 2002 to 2008, for their potential as a lead exposure risk to condors. We visually identified 71 items suspected to contain sufficient lead to be of toxicologic concern. These items were leached with weak acid and analyzed for lead. Twenty-seven of the 71 leached items (~2% of the 1,413 items) were "lead containing" based on criteria of a leachate lead concentration >1 μg/mL, with the majority of these items (22; 81% of the 27 lead items) being ammunition related (e.g., spent bullet casings and jacketed bullets). Only three of the 1,413 items collected were lead containing but were clearly not ammunition related; the other two lead-containing items were unidentified. Our results suggest that trash ingestion of nonammunition items does not pose a significant lead exposure risk to the California Condor population in California. PMID:26251991

  15. Multicompartment kinetic models for lead. 2. Linear kinetics and variable absorption in humans without excessive lead exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    Multicompartment models with constant fractional transfer rates were fitted to experimental data on lead metabolism in four subjects studied by M. B. Rabinowitz, G. W. Wetherill, and J. D. Kopple (Science 182, 725-727, 1973; Environ. Health Perspect. 7, 145-153, 1974; Arch. Environ. Health 31, 220-223, 1976; J. Clin. Invest. 58, 260-270, 1976; J. Lab Clin. Med. 90, 238-248, 1977). Long-term retention is estimated for blood, soft tissue, cortical and trabecular bone pools, and for facial hair. The absorption of lead from diet is shown to change with time, but no evidence was found for other variable or nonlinear kinetic mechanisms of lead metabolism in humans without excessive lead exposure.

  16. Integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children: empirical comparisons with epidemiologic data.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, K; Marcus, A; Smith, R; White, P

    1998-01-01

    The concept of model validation is evolving in the scientific community. This paper addresses the comparison of observed and predicted estimates as one component of model validation as applied to the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model for lead in children. The IEUBK model is an exposure (dose)-response model that uses children's environmental lead exposures to estimate risk of elevated blood lead (typically > 10 micrograms/dl) through estimation of lead body burdens in a mass balance framework. We used residence-specific environmental lead measurements from three epidemiologic datasets as inputs for the IEUBK model to predict blood lead levels, and compared these predictions with blood lead levels of children living at these residences. When the IEUBK modeling focused on children with representative exposure measurements, that is, children who spent the bulk of their time near the locations sampled, there was reasonably close agreement between observed and predicted blood lead distributions in the three studies considered. Geometric mean observed and predicted blood lead levels were within 0.7 microgram/dl, and proportions of study populations expected to be above 10 micrograms/dl were within 4% of those observed. PMID:9860915

  17. Olfactory recognition memory is disrupted in young mice with chronic low-level lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Alvarez, Juan Manuel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Chronic developmental lead exposure yielding very low blood lead burden is an unresolved child public health problem. Few studies have attempted to model neurobehavioral changes in young animals following very low level exposure, and studies are needed to identify tests that are sensitive to the neurobehavioral changes that may occur. Mechanisms of action are not yet known however results have suggested that hippocampus/dentate gyrus may be uniquely vulnerable to early chronic low-level lead exposure. This study examined the sensitivity of a novel odor recognition task to differences in pre-adolescent C57BL/6J mice chronically exposed from birth to PND 28, to 0 ppm (control), 30 ppm (low-dose), or 330 ppm (higher-dose) lead acetate (N=33). Blood lead levels (BLLs) determined by ICP-MS ranged from 0.02 to 20.31 μg/dL. Generalized linear mixed model analyses with litter as a random effect showed a significant interaction of BLL×sex. As BLLs increased olfactory recognition memory decreased in males. Among females, non-linear effects were observed at lower but not higher levels of lead exposure. The novel odor detection task is sensitive to effects associated with early chronic low-level lead exposure in young C57BL/6J mice.

  18. Olfactory recognition memory is disrupted in young mice with chronic low-level lead exposure

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Alvarez, Juan Manuel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Chronic developmental lead exposure yielding very low blood lead burden is an unresolved child public health problem. Few studies have attempted to model neurobehavioral changes in young animals following very low level exposure, and studies are needed to identify tests that are sensitive to the neurobehavioral changes that may occur. Mechanisms of action are not yet known however results have suggested that hippocampus/dentate gyrus may be uniquely vulnerable to early chronic low-level lead exposure. This study examined the sensitivity of a novel odor recognition task to differences in pre-adolescent C57BL/6J mice chronically exposed from birth to PND 28, to 0 ppm (control), 30 ppm (low-dose), or 330 ppm (higher-dose) lead acetate (N = 33). Blood lead levels (BLLs) determined by ICP-MS ranged from 0.02 to 20.31 µg/dL. Generalized linear mixed model analyses with litter as a random effect showed a significant interaction of BLL × sex. As BLLs increased olfactory recognition memory decreased in males. Among females, non-linear effects were observed at lower but not higher levels of lead exposure. The novel odor detection task is sensitive to effects associated with early chronic low-level lead exposure in young C57BL/6J mice. PMID:25936521

  19. The effect of age of exposure on lead-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sokol, R Z; Berman, N

    1991-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the significance of age of exposure on the expression of lead toxicity on the male gonad. Male Wistar rats, age 42 days, 52 days and 70 days were treated with lead acetate in their water for 30 days prior to sacrifice. The lead treated groups in all cases had blood lead values significantly greater than control animals. Blood lead levels in control animal groups were less than 7 micrograms/dl. Serum testosterone and sperm concentration and production rate were significantly suppressed in those animals that were exposed to lead acetate starting at age 52 days and 70 days, but not 42 days. These data indicate that prepubertal rats may be less sensitive to the toxic effects of lead than are rats whose exposure begins after puberty has been initiated. PMID:1949051

  20. Exposure of C. elegans eggs to a glyphosate-containing herbicide leads to abnormal neuronal morphology.

    PubMed

    McVey, Kenneth A; Snapp, Isaac B; Johnson, Megan B; Negga, Rekek; Pressley, Aireal S; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A

    2016-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that chronic exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to a high-use glyphosate-containing herbicide, Touchdown (TD), potentially damages the adult nervous system. It is unknown, however, whether unhatched worms exposed to TD during the egg stage show abnormal neurodevelopment post-hatching. Therefore, we investigated whether early treatment with TD leads to aberrant neuronal or neurite development in C. elegans. Studies were completed in three different worm strains with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged neurons to facilitate visual neuronal assessment. Initially, eggs from C. elegans with all neurons tagged with GFP were chronically exposed to TD. Visual inspection suggested decreased neurite projections associated with ventral nerve cord neurons. Data analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in overall green pixel numbers at the fourth larval (L4) stage (*p<0.05). We further investigated whether specific neuronal populations were preferentially vulnerable to TD by treating eggs from worms that had all dopaminergic (DAergic) or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons tagged with GFP. As before, green pixel number associated with these discrete neuronal populations was analyzed at multiple larval stages. Data analysis indicated statistically significant decreases in pixel number associated with DAergic, but not GABAergic, neurons (***p<0.001) at all larval stages. Finally, statistically significant decreases (at the first larval stage, L1) or increases (at the fourth larval stage, L4) in superoxide levels, a developmental signaling molecule, were detected (*p<0.05). These data suggest that early exposure to TD may impair neuronal development, perhaps through superoxide perturbation. Since toxic insults during development may late render individuals more vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases in adulthood, these studies provide some of the first evidence in this model organism that early exposure to TD may adversely

  1. Exposure of C. elegans eggs to a glyphosate-containing herbicide leads to abnormal neuronal morphology.

    PubMed

    McVey, Kenneth A; Snapp, Isaac B; Johnson, Megan B; Negga, Rekek; Pressley, Aireal S; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A

    2016-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that chronic exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to a high-use glyphosate-containing herbicide, Touchdown (TD), potentially damages the adult nervous system. It is unknown, however, whether unhatched worms exposed to TD during the egg stage show abnormal neurodevelopment post-hatching. Therefore, we investigated whether early treatment with TD leads to aberrant neuronal or neurite development in C. elegans. Studies were completed in three different worm strains with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged neurons to facilitate visual neuronal assessment. Initially, eggs from C. elegans with all neurons tagged with GFP were chronically exposed to TD. Visual inspection suggested decreased neurite projections associated with ventral nerve cord neurons. Data analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in overall green pixel numbers at the fourth larval (L4) stage (*p<0.05). We further investigated whether specific neuronal populations were preferentially vulnerable to TD by treating eggs from worms that had all dopaminergic (DAergic) or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons tagged with GFP. As before, green pixel number associated with these discrete neuronal populations was analyzed at multiple larval stages. Data analysis indicated statistically significant decreases in pixel number associated with DAergic, but not GABAergic, neurons (***p<0.001) at all larval stages. Finally, statistically significant decreases (at the first larval stage, L1) or increases (at the fourth larval stage, L4) in superoxide levels, a developmental signaling molecule, were detected (*p<0.05). These data suggest that early exposure to TD may impair neuronal development, perhaps through superoxide perturbation. Since toxic insults during development may late render individuals more vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases in adulthood, these studies provide some of the first evidence in this model organism that early exposure to TD may adversely

  2. Obstacle crossing following stroke improves over one month when the unaffected limb leads, but not when the affected limb leads.

    PubMed

    Said, Catherine M; Galea, Mary; Lythgo, Noel

    2014-01-01

    While it is well established that obstacle crossing is impaired following stroke, it is not known whether obstacle crossing improves as gait improves following stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine whether obstacle crossing changed over a one month time period in people with a recent stroke. Twenty participants receiving rehabilitation following a recent stroke were tested on two occasions one month apart. Participants received usual care rehabilitation, including physiotherapy, between the tests. The main outcome measure was obstacle crossing speed as participants stepped over a 4-cm high obstacle. Secondary measures were spatiotemporal variables. Data were collected via a three dimensional motion analysis system. When leading with the affected limb no changes in obstacle crossing speed or spatiotemporal variables were observed over the one month period. When leading with the unaffected limb, crossing speed significantly increased (p=.002), and affected trail limb swing time (p=.03) and crossing step double support time reduced (p=.016). While not significant, the lead and trail limb pre-obstacle distance increased (p=.08), and lead swing time (p=.052) reduced. Change in obstacle crossing speed did not correlate with change in level gait speed. Obstacle crossing does not necessarily improve over a one month time period in people receiving rehabilitation following stroke. These findings suggest that there may be a need for more targeted training of obstacle crossing, particularly when leading with the affected limb.

  3. An ecological risk assessment of lead shot exposure in upland game birds and raptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.I.; Lacher, T.E. Jr.; Bunck, C.

    1995-12-31

    There is concern about exposure of birds in terrestrial ecosystems to spent lead shot. Upland birds, particularly mourning doves, ingest spent lead shot; raptors ingest lead shot by consuming wounded game. Mortality, neurological dysfunction, immune suppression and reproductive impairment are effects of exposure to lead. The authors conducted an ecological risk assessment (using the new USEPA Ecological Risk Assessment Paradigm) on the impact of lead shot exposure in upland birds. Large amounts of lead shot are released into the environment each year from shooting and hunting. Doves collected from fields cultivated to attract mourning doves for hunting contain ingested spent lead shot. This might underestimate risk because doves ingesting shot may experience lead toxicosis and not be collected by hunters. Because lead can cause both acute and chronic toxicity if ingested and there is evidence of widespread liberation of lead shot in terrestrial ecosystems, concern for impacts on upland game birds and raptors is warranted. Although this ecological risk assessment does not clearly define a significant risk of upland game birds to lead shot, there is little evidence to rebut the presumption of risk. This issue merits continued scrutiny to protect upland game bird and raptor resources.

  4. Lead poisoning among young children in Russia: concurrent evaluation of childhood lead exposure in Ekaterinburg, Krasnouralsk, and Volgograd.

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Carol H; Esteban, Emilio; Reissman, Dori B; Daley, W Randolph; Noonan, Gary P; Karpati, Adam; Gurvitch, Elena; Kuzmin, Sergio V; Privalova, Larissa I; Zukov, Alexander; Zlepko, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    exposure of those evaluated in this study. Elevated lead levels found in paint samples from Volgograd may indicate old undercoats of lead-based paint that could represent a regionally rather than nationally important source of exposure. PMID:12055045

  5. Inhaled lead affects lung pathology and inflammation in sensitized and control guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Tabatabai, Sayed Abas; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-04-01

    The association between lead exposure and respiratory diseases including asthma is controversial. Some studies indicate that exposure to environmental lead pollution may cause asthma; however, there is not sufficient data in this regard. The effect of lead on lung pathological findings and serum inflammatory mediators in sensitized and non-sensitized guinea pigs exposed to inhaled lead was examined. Eleven animal groups including control, sensitized, three groups of non sensitized animals, three groups during sensitization, and three groups after sensitization exposed to aerosol of three lead concentrations (n = 6 for each group) were studied. Serum inflammatory mediators levels and lung pathological changes were evaluated. All pathological changes and serum ET-1, EPO, NO levels were significantly higher in the sensitized and non sensitized animals exposed to lead than control group (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between non sensitized groups exposed to high lead concentration and sensitized group. Serum inflammatory mediators levels and pathological findings in sensitized groups exposed to lead both during and after sensitization were significantly higher than sensitized non exposed group (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The data of exposed animals to high lead concentration were significantly higher than those of medium and low concentrations; those of medium concentration were also higher than low concentration (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). In summary, the present study indicates that exposure to inhaled lead is able to induce respiratory changes similar to asthma. In addition, the results indicated that exposure to environmental lead is able to aggravate asthma severity both during development of asthma or after its manifestation.

  6. Environmental exposure to lead in a population of adults living in northern France: lead burden levels and their determinants.

    PubMed

    Leroyer, A; Hemon, D; Nisse, C; Bazerques, J; Salomez, J L; Haguenoer, J M

    2001-02-21

    As part of the assessment of a site in northern France polluted by metals from two smelters (in particular, lead, cadmium and mercury), a cross-sectional study was carried out which intended to estimate the levels of the lead burden of the adult population living on the site and the factors associated with these levels. The exposed zone included 10 municipalities in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, located in the vicinity of two non-ferrous metal smelters. The soils in these municipalities contained between 100 and 1700 ppm of lead. The non-polluted zone contained 20 municipalities from the same region, drawn randomly from those in the region of comparable size but free from any industrial lead exposure. The adult study population (301 men and 300 women) was stratified according to age, sex, employment status and exposure level. The inclusion criteria required subjects who were aged between 20 and 50 years and had been living in the exposed zone for at least 8 years; the exclusion criteria were pregnancy, cancer, kidney disease and diabetes. No more than 10% of the subjects participating could work at one of the two smelters. Data collection took place at home; visiting nurses interviewed subjects to complete a questionnaire and also took blood samples. The lead assay was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The geometric mean of the blood-lead levels was 74 microg/l, 95% CI = 69-80 among men and 49 microg/l, 95% CI = 46-53 among women. Blood-lead levels exceeding 100 microg/l were found among 30% of men and 12% of women. Several factors were associated with variation of the mean blood-lead level: the blood-lead level was significantly higher among the men for subjects living less than 1 km from the smelters (geometric mean x 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), for those who drink alcoholic beverages (x 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2 for consumption of 30 g/day), those who smoke (x 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3 for 20 cigarettes/day), and for subjects with occupational exposure; among

  7. Environmental exposure to lead in a population of adults living in northern France: lead burden levels and their determinants.

    PubMed

    Leroyer, A; Hemon, D; Nisse, C; Bazerques, J; Salomez, J L; Haguenoer, J M

    2001-02-21

    As part of the assessment of a site in northern France polluted by metals from two smelters (in particular, lead, cadmium and mercury), a cross-sectional study was carried out which intended to estimate the levels of the lead burden of the adult population living on the site and the factors associated with these levels. The exposed zone included 10 municipalities in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, located in the vicinity of two non-ferrous metal smelters. The soils in these municipalities contained between 100 and 1700 ppm of lead. The non-polluted zone contained 20 municipalities from the same region, drawn randomly from those in the region of comparable size but free from any industrial lead exposure. The adult study population (301 men and 300 women) was stratified according to age, sex, employment status and exposure level. The inclusion criteria required subjects who were aged between 20 and 50 years and had been living in the exposed zone for at least 8 years; the exclusion criteria were pregnancy, cancer, kidney disease and diabetes. No more than 10% of the subjects participating could work at one of the two smelters. Data collection took place at home; visiting nurses interviewed subjects to complete a questionnaire and also took blood samples. The lead assay was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The geometric mean of the blood-lead levels was 74 microg/l, 95% CI = 69-80 among men and 49 microg/l, 95% CI = 46-53 among women. Blood-lead levels exceeding 100 microg/l were found among 30% of men and 12% of women. Several factors were associated with variation of the mean blood-lead level: the blood-lead level was significantly higher among the men for subjects living less than 1 km from the smelters (geometric mean x 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), for those who drink alcoholic beverages (x 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2 for consumption of 30 g/day), those who smoke (x 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3 for 20 cigarettes/day), and for subjects with occupational exposure; among

  8. Simultaneous exposure to lead, arsenic and mercury from Indian ethnic remedies.

    PubMed

    Sheerin, N S; Monk, P N; Aslam, M; Thurston, H

    1994-01-01

    We report the case of an Asian woman who was exposed to toxic levels of lead, arsenic and mercury through the use of Indian ethnic remedies, and who suffered symptomatic lead poisoning. We know of no other case of exposure to such a combination of heavy metals from this source. We believe that control of the dispensing of these compounds is essential.

  9. Cognition in Children Does Not Suffer from Very Low Lead Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minder, Barbara; Das-Smaal, Edith A.; Orlebeke, Jacob F.

    1998-01-01

    A study that investigated the relationships between exposure to lead and memory and attention in 313 boys (ages 9-12) in special-education schools in the Netherlands found blood-lead levels were higher in children with lower socioeconomic status and those with more hand-to-mouth behavior but did not influence cognitive factors. (Author/CR)

  10. Early chronic lead exposure reduces exploratory activity in young C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Research has suggested that chronic low-level lead exposure diminishes neurocognitive function in children. Tests that are sensitive to behavioral effects at lowest levels of lead exposure are needed for the development of animal models. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic low-level lead exposure on exploratory activity (unbaited nose poke task), exploratory ambulation (open field task) and motor coordination (Rotarod task) in pre-adolescent mice. C57BL/6J pups were exposed to 0 ppm (controls), 30 ppm (low-dose) or 230 ppm (high-dose) lead acetate via dams' drinking water administered from birth to postnatal day 28, to achieve a range of blood lead levels (BLLs) from not detectable to 14.84 µg dl(-1) ). At postnatal day 28, mice completed behavioral testing and were killed (n = 61). BLLs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effects of lead exposure on behavior were tested using generalized linear mixed model analyses with BLL, sex and the interaction as fixed effects, and litter as the random effect. BLL predicted decreased exploratory activity and no threshold of effect was apparent. As BLL increased, nose pokes decreased. The C57BL/6J mouse is a useful model for examining effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure on behavior. In the C57BL/6J mouse, the unbaited nose poke task is sensitive to the effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure. This is the first animal study to show behavioral effects in pre-adolescent lead-exposed mice with BLL below 5 µg dl(-1).

  11. Early chronic lead exposure reduces exploratory activity in young C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Research has suggested that chronic low-level lead exposure diminishes neurocognitive function in children. Tests that are sensitive to behavioral effects at lowest levels of lead exposure are needed for the development of animal models. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic low-level lead exposure on exploratory activity (unbaited nose poke task), exploratory ambulation (open field task) and motor coordination (Rotarod task) in pre-adolescent mice. C57BL/6J pups were exposed to 0 ppm (controls), 30 ppm (low-dose) or 230 ppm (high-dose) lead acetate via dams' drinking water administered from birth to postnatal day 28, to achieve a range of blood lead levels (BLLs) from not detectable to 14.84 µg dl(-1) ). At postnatal day 28, mice completed behavioral testing and were killed (n = 61). BLLs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effects of lead exposure on behavior were tested using generalized linear mixed model analyses with BLL, sex and the interaction as fixed effects, and litter as the random effect. BLL predicted decreased exploratory activity and no threshold of effect was apparent. As BLL increased, nose pokes decreased. The C57BL/6J mouse is a useful model for examining effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure on behavior. In the C57BL/6J mouse, the unbaited nose poke task is sensitive to the effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure. This is the first animal study to show behavioral effects in pre-adolescent lead-exposed mice with BLL below 5 µg dl(-1). PMID:25219894

  12. Effects of chronic exposure to lead, copper, zinc, and cadmium on biomarkers of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Bruno; Capela, Ricardo Campinho; Sérgio, Tânia; Caldeira, Carina; Gonçalves, Fernando; Correia, Alberto Teodorico

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to specific metallic compounds can cause severe deleterious modifications in organisms. Fishes are particularly prone to toxic effects from exposure to metallic compounds via their environment. Species that inhabit estuaries or freshwater environments can be chronically affected by persistent exposure to a large number of metallic compounds, particularly those released by industrial activities. In this study, we exposed yellow eels (European eel, Anguilla anguilla) for 28 days to environmentally relevant concentrations of four specific metals; lead (300, 600, and 1,200 μg/l), copper (40, 120, and 360 μg/l), zinc (30, 60, and 120 μg/l) and cadmium (50, 150, and 450 μg/l). The selected endpoints to assess the toxicological effects were neurotransmission (cholinesterasic activity in nervous tissue), antioxidant defense, and phase II metabolism (glutathione-S-transferase [GST] activity, in both gills and liver tissues), and peroxidative damage. The results showed an overall lack of effects on acetylcholinesterase for all tested metals. Lead, copper, and cadmium exposure caused a significant, dose-dependent, increase in GST activity in gill tissue. However, liver GST only significantly increased following zinc exposure. No statistically significant effects were observed for the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, indicating the absence of peroxidative damage. These findings suggest that, despite the occurrence of an oxidative-based response after exposure to lead, copper, and cadmium, this had no consequence in terms of peroxidative membrane damage; furthermore, cholinergic neurotoxicity caused by lead, copper, and cadmium did not occur. The implications of these results are further discussed.

  13. Early lead exposure (<3 years old) prospectively predicts fourth grade school suspension in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (USA).

    PubMed

    Amato, Michael S; Magzamen, Sheryl; Imm, Pamela; Havlena, Jeffrey A; Anderson, Henry A; Kanarek, Marty S; Moore, Colleen F

    2013-10-01

    School suspensions are associated with negative student outcomes. Environmental lead exposure increases hyperactivity and sensory defensiveness, two traits likely to increase classroom misbehavior and subsequent discipline. Childhood Blood Lead Level (BLL) test results categorized urban fourth graders as exposed (2687; lifetime max BLL 10-20 µg/dL) or unexposed (1076; no lifetime BLL ≥5 µg/dL). Exposed children were over twice as likely as unexposed children to be suspended (OR=2.66, 95% CI=[2.12, 3.32]), controlling for covariates. African American children were more likely to be suspended than white children, but lead exposure explained 23% of the racial discipline gap. These results suggest that different rates of environmental lead exposure may contribute to the racial discipline gap.

  14. Lead Exposure in Different Organs of Mammals and Prevention by Curcumin-Nanocurcumin: a Review.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mili; Sachdeva, Meenu; Gupta, Niharika; Mishra, Priyanka; Yadav, Mahavir; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-12-01

    Chronic lead exposure is related to many health diseases in mammals. Exposure to lead forms reactive oxygen species reducing body antioxidant enzymes inflicting injury to numerous macromolecules or cell necrosis. Recent studies have revealed oxidative stress as the vital mechanism for lead toxicity. Lead is found to be toxic to several organ systems such as hematopoietic, skeletal, renal, cardiac, hepatic, and reproductive systems and extremely toxic to the central nervous system (CNS). Curcumin, an active ingredient of the dietary spice, and nanocurcumin, a nanoform of curcumin, are found to decrease toxicity due to lead in various organ systems in mouse models. Higher bioavailability, chelating property, and retention time of nanocurcumin over bulk curcumin may pave the way to expand the utility of nanocurcumin to remove lead toxicity from various organ systems within humans.

  15. Exposure-dose-response of Tellina deltoidalis to metal contaminated estuarine sediments 2. Lead spiked sediments.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anne M; Maher, William A

    2014-01-01

    Lead accumulation in estuarine sediments, as a result of activities such as mining and ore smelting, and through urban runoff is a continuing problem in the increasingly developed world. Marine organisms accumulate lead, which is known to be highly toxic to biological processes and to degrade organism and ecosystem health. Here the relationship between lead exposure, dose and response was investigated in the sediment dwelling, deposit feeding, marine bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. Bivalves were exposed in the laboratory to individual lead spiked sediments at < 0.01, 100 and 300 μg/g dry mass, for 28 days and accumulated total tissue lead concentrations of 4, 96 and 430 μg/g, respectively. Subcellular fractionation indicated that around 70% of the total accumulated tissue lead was detoxified, three quarters of the detoxified lead fraction was converted into metal rich granules, with the remainder in the metallothionein like protein fraction. The majority of biologically active lead was associated with the mitochondrial fraction with up to a 128 fold increase in lead burden in exposed organisms compared to controls. This indicates lead detoxification was occurring but the organism was unable to prevent lead interacting with sensitive organelles. With increased lead exposure T. deltoidalis showed a suppression in glutathione peroxidase activity, total glutathione concentration and reduced GSH:GSSG ratios, however, these differences were not significant. Lead exposed T. deltoidalis had a significantly reduced total antioxidant capacity which corresponded with increased lipid peroxidation, lysosomal destabilisation and micronuclei frequency. The exposure-dose-response relationships demonstrated for lead exposed T. deltoidalis supports its potential for the development of sublethal endpoints in lead toxicity assessment. PMID:24100051

  16. Effect of Lead Exposure on the Status of Reticulocyte Count Indices among Workers from Lead Battery Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Barman, Tapu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The RC (%) was estimated by using the supravital staining method. The parameters, such as ARC, RI, and RPI, were calculated by using the RC (%) with the red cell indices (RBC count and hematocrit). The levels of RBC count and hematocrit were determined by using an ABX Micros ES-60 hematology analyzer. The levels of reticulocyte count indices - RC (%), ARC, RI, and RPI significantly increased with elevated BLL. The association between BLL and reticulocyte count indices was positive and significant. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the reticulocyte count (β = 0.212, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.217, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.194, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.208, P < 0.001) were positively associated with BLL. The variable, smoking habits, showed a significant positive association with reticulocyte count indices: RC (%) (β = 0.188, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.174, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.200, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.151, P < 0.005). The study results revealed that lead exposure may cause reticulocytosis with an increase of reticulocyte count indices.

  17. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with low level cumulative lead exposure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, Kátia F.; Morata, Thais C.; Lopes, Andréa Cintra; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Corteletti, Lilian Cássia Bórnia Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children,but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. Objective To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in childrenwith a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Methods Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months). Results The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 g/dL (SD ± 5.7, range:2.433). All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I---III, III---V, and I---V, and the cumulative lead values. Conclusion No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area. PMID:25458254

  18. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention.

  19. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  20. Lead exposure in passerines inhabiting lead-contaminated floodplains in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.; Kern, J.W.; Strickland, M.D.; McDonald, L.L. ); Audet, D.J.; LeCaptain, L.J. ); Hoffman, D.J. )

    1999-06-01

    Blood collected from song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) and American robins (Turdus migratorius) captured with mist nets in a lead-contaminated (assessment) area and nearby uncontaminated (reference) areas within the Coeur d'Alene Basin in northern Idaho was analyzed for [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALAD) and hematocrit levels, and livers were analyzed for lead. Mean ALAD inhibition in the assessment area was 51% in song sparrows and 75% in American robins. The proportion of the sampled population with ALAD inhibition > 50% was calculated to be 43% for song sparrows and 83% for American robins. Assessment area hematocrit values for song sparrows and American robins were lower than in reference areas; however, differences were not statistically significant. Significantly higher levels of lead (wet weight) were found in livers from song sparrows captured on the assessment area ([bar x] = 1.93 ppm) than on reference areas. Study results indicate that 43% of the song sparrows and 83% of the American robins inhabiting the floodplain along the Coeur d'Alene River in the assessment area are being exposed to lead at levels sufficient to inhibit ALAD by > 50%. Variability in lead exposure indicators was attributed to high variability in environmental lead concentrations in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  1. Relationship between increased blood lead and pregnancy hypertension in women without occupational lead exposure in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Vigeh, Mohsen; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Mazaheri, Maria; Beheshti, Sasan; Ghazizadeh, Shirin; Sakai, Tadashi; Morita, Yoko; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Araki, Shunichi

    2004-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between blood lead levels and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Participants were 110 pregnant women, of whom 55 were hypertensive, 27 +/- 5.6 yr of age (mean +/- standard deviation) (range = 17-40 yr); the other 55 women were age- and gravidity-matched normotensive controls. Participants were selected on the basis of their medical history and the results of a questionnaire-based interview. Subjects were at gestational ages 37 +/- 2.5 wk (range = 30-41 wk) and were not occupationally exposed to lead. Blood samples were collected within 24 hr after delivery, and blood lead levels were measured. For the hypertensive cases, blood lead levels were 5.7 +/- 2 microg/dl (range = 2.2-12.6 microg/dl [0.27 +/- 0.10 micromol/l; range = 0.11-0.60 micromol/l]), which were significantly higher than those of the control group (i.e., 4.8 +/- 1.9 microg/dl; range = 1.9-10.6 microg/dl [0.23 +/- 0.09 micromol/l; range = 0.09-0.51 micromol/l]). There were no significant differences in blood lead concentrations among hypertensive subjects with proteinuria (n = 30) and those without proteinuria (n = 25). Results of this study indicated that low-level lead exposure may be a risk factor for pregnancy hypertension. PMID:16075900

  2. Profiling Private Water Systems to Identify Patterns of Waterborne Lead Exposure.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Kelsey J; Krometis, Leigh-Anne; Gallagher, Daniel; Benham, Brian; Edwards, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Although extensive literature documents corrosion in municipal water systems, only minimal data is available describing corrosion in private water systems (e.g., wells), which serve as a primary source of drinking water for approximately 47 million Americans. This study developed a profiling technique specifically tailored to evaluate lead release in these systems. When applied in an intensive field study of 15 private systems, three patterns of lead release were documented: no elevated lead or lead elevated in the first draw only (Type I), erratic spikes of particulate lead (Type II), and sustained detectable lead concentrations (Type III). While flushing protocols as short as 15-30 s may be sufficient to reduce lead concentrations below 15 μg/L for Types I and III exposure, flushing may not be an appropriate remediation strategy for Type II exposure. In addition, the sustained detectable lead concentrations observed with Type III exposure likely result from corrosion of components within the well and therefore cannot be reduced with increased flushing. As profiling techniques are labor- and sample-intensive, we discuss recommendations for simpler sampling schemes for initial private system surveys aimed at quantifying lead and protecting public health.

  3. How lead exposure relates to temporal changes in IQ, violent crime, and unwed pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nevin, R

    2000-05-01

    This study compares changes in children's blood lead levels in the United States with subsequent changes in IQ, based on norm comparisons for the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) given to representative national samples of children in 1984 and 1992. The CogAT norm comparisons indicate shifts in IQ levels consistent with the blood lead to IQ relationship reported by an earlier study and population shifts in average blood lead for children under age 6 between 1976 and 1991. The CogAT norm comparisons also support studies indicating that the IQ to blood lead slope may increase at lower blood lead levels. Furthermore, long-term trends in population exposure to gasoline lead were found to be remarkably consistent with subsequent changes in violent crime and unwed pregnancy. Long-term trends in paint and gasoline lead exposure are also strongly associated with subsequent trends in murder rates going back to 1900. The findings on violent crime and unwed pregnancy are consistent with published data describing the relationship between IQ and social behavior. The findings with respect to violent crime are also consistent with studies indicating that children with higher bone lead tend to display more aggressive and delinquent behavior. This analysis demonstrates that widespread exposure to lead is likely to have profound implications for a wide array of socially undesirable outcomes.

  4. Chronic lead exposure effects in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) testis.

    PubMed

    Foster, W G; Singh, A; McMahon, A; Rice, D C

    1998-01-01

    Although reproductive consequences of high circulating blood lead levels (> or = 60 micrograms/dL) have been reported, potential adverse effects of chronic lead exposure in males that result in low to moderate blood lead levels (10-25 and 26-60 micrograms/dL, respectively) are unknown. Effects of chronic lead exposure to testis ultrastructure were determined in the cynomolgus monkey after oral administration of lead acetate (1500 micrograms/kg BW/day) in a vehicle in the following groups: from birth to 10 years (lifetime), postnatal day 300 to 10 years (postinfancy), and postnatal day 0-400 (infancy); monkeys in the control group received only the vehicle (95% glycerol and 5% distilled water). At age 10 years, circulating lead concentrations in lifetime and postinfancy-dosed monkeys were approximately 35 micrograms/dL, and in control and infancy animals the concentrations were < 1.0 microgram/dL. Sertoli and spermatogenic cells of dosed monkeys from the infancy and lifetime groups revealed injuries. Chronic exposure to lead that results in moderate blood lead concentrations induced persistent ultrastructural alterations in the cynomolgus monkey testis. Results of this study on the primate, following extrapolation to humans, could influence further refining of the impact of environmental lead contamination concentrations vis-à-vis the health of children, adults, and aged human beings.

  5. Oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles affects iron absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Gretchen J.; Esch, Mandy B.; Tako, Elad; Southard, Teresa L.; Archer, Shivaun D.; Glahn, Raymond P.; Shuler, Michael L.

    2012-04-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles in food and pharmaceuticals is expected to increase, but the impact of chronic oral exposure to nanoparticles on human health remains unknown. Here, we show that chronic and acute oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles can influence iron uptake and iron transport in an in vitro model of the intestinal epithelium and an in vivo chicken intestinal loop model. Intestinal cells that are exposed to high doses of nanoparticles showed increased iron transport due to nanoparticle disruption of the cell membrane. Chickens acutely exposed to carboxylated particles (50 nm in diameter) had a lower iron absorption than unexposed or chronically exposed birds. Chronic exposure caused remodelling of the intestinal villi, which increased the surface area available for iron absorption. The agreement between the in vitro and in vivo results suggests that our in vitro intestinal epithelium model is potentially useful for toxicology studies.

  6. Benzene and lead exposure assessment among occupational bus drivers in Bangkok traffic.

    PubMed

    Muttamara, S; Leong, Shing Tet; Arayasiri, M

    2004-01-01

    Four environmental and biological monitoring sites were strategically established to evaluate benzene and lead exposure assessment at various traffic zones of Bangkok Metropolitan Region(BMR). Biological measurement of 48 non air-conditioned, male bus drivers was carried to study the relationship between individual exposure levels and exposure biomarkers. The study group was further subdivided into four age groups(16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 years old) to monitor the age-related exposure effects. A total of 12 unexposed persons were deliberately chosen as the control group. Measurement of unmetobolized benzene in blood and analysis of urinary tt-Muconic acid urine and urinary creatinine are recommended as biomarkers of benzene exposure. Measurement of lead in blood and urine is also recommended for the biological monitoring of lead exposure. During the monitoring period, benzene and lead levels at Yaowarat Road was C6H6: 42.46 +/- 3.88 microg/m3 , Pb: 0.29 +/- 0.03 microg/m3 and decreased to C6H6: 33.5 +/- 1.35 microg/m3, Pb: 0.13 +/- 0.01 microg/m3 at Phahonyothin Road. Significant difference was established between the nonsmoking exposed group and nonsmoking control group for blood benzene concentrations (P < 0.001, two-tailed, Mann-Whiteney U test). Strong correlations were also found between trans-trans-Muconic acid concentrations in post shift samples and atmospheric benzene concentrations. Similarly, good correlation between all of biomarkers and lead level in air is established from automobile emissions. The analysis revealed that among the occupational population in the urban sites, the driver groups were found to have the highest risk of benzene and lead exposures derived from automobile emission. PMID:14971454

  7. The burden of disease from pediatric lead exposure at hazardous waste sites in 7 Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Caravanos, Jack; Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; Ericson, Bret; Landrigan, Philip J; Fuller, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Identification and systematic assessment of hazardous wastes sites in low and middle-income countries has lagged. Hazardous waste problems are especially severe in lower income Asian countries where environmental regulations are non-existent, nonspecific or poorly enforced. In these countries extensive unregulated industrial development has created waste sites in densely populated urban areas. These sites appear to pose significant risks to public health, and especially to the health of children. To assess potential health risks from chemical contamination at hazardous waste sites in Asia, we assessed 679 sites. A total of 169 sites in 7 countries were classified as contaminated by lead. Eighty-two of these sites contained lead at levels high enough to produce elevated blood lead levels in surrounding populations. To estimate the burden of pediatric lead poisoning associated with exposure to lead in soil and water at these 82 lead-contaminated sites, we used standard toxicokinetic models that relate levels of lead in soil and water to blood lead levels in children. We calculated blood lead levels, and we quantified losses of intelligence (reductions in IQ scores) that were attributable to lead exposure at these sites. We found that 189,725 children in the 7 countries are at risk of diminished intelligence as a consequence of exposure to elevated levels of lead in water and soil at hazardous waste sites. Depending on choice of model, these decrements ranged from 4.94 to 14.96 IQ points. Given the restricted scope of this survey and the conservative estimation procedures employed, this number is almost certainly an underestimate of the full burden of disease. Exposure to toxic chemicals from hazardous waste sites is an important and heretofore insufficiently examined contributor to the Global Burden of Disease. PMID:22999658

  8. Exposure to heavy charged particles affects thermoregulation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Joseph, J.A.; Harris, A.H.; Rabin, B.M. |

    1994-09-01

    Rats exposed to 0.1-5 Gy of heavy particles ({sup 56}Fe, {sup 40}Ar, {sup 20}Ne or {sup 4}He) showed dose-dependent changes in body temperature. Lower doses of all particles produced hyperthermia, and higher doses of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 56}Fe produced hypothermia. Of the four HZE particles, {sup 56}Fe particles were the most potent and {sup 4}He particles were the least potent in producing changes in thermoregulation. The {sup 20}Ne and {sup 40}Ar particles produced an intermediate level of change in body temperature. Significantly greater hyperthermia was produced by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 20}Ne, {sup 40}Ar and {sup 56}Fe particles than by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays. Pretreating rats with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin attenuated the hyperthermia produced by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles, indicating that prostaglandins mediate {sup 56}Fe-particle-induced hyperthermia. The hypothermia produced by exposure to 5 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles is mediated by histamine and can be attenuated by treatment with the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population.

    PubMed

    Bower, Nathan W; McCants, Sarah A; Custodio, Joseph M; Ketterer, Michael E; Getty, Stephen R; Hoffman, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  10. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood levels in children of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Romieu, I.; Carreon, T.; Lopez, L.

    1995-11-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants` households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 {mu}g/dl with a mean of 9.9 {mu}g/dl (SD 5.8 {mu}/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 {mu}g/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used or prepare children`s food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children`s hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Ultrastructural effects on gill tissues induced in red tilapia Oreochromis sp. by a waterborne lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Aldoghachi, Mohammed A; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Yusoff, Ismail; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-09-01

    Experiments on hybrid red tilapia Oreochromis sp. were conducted to assess histopathological effects induced in gill tissues of 96 h exposure to waterborne lead (5.5 mg/L). These tissues were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that structural design of gill tissues was noticeably disrupted. Major symptoms were changes of epithelial cells, fusion in adjacent secondary lamellae, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of chloride cells and coagulate necrosis in pavement cells with disappearance of its microridges. Electron microscopic X-ray microanalysis of fish gills exposed to sublethal lead revealed that lead accumulated on the surface of the gill lamella. This study confirmed that lead exposure incited a difference of histological impairment in fish, supporting environmental watch over aquatic systems when polluted by lead. PMID:27579014

  12. Economic Costs of Childhood Lead Exposure in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Trasande, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children’s blood lead levels have declined worldwide, especially after the removal of lead in gasoline. However, significant exposure remains, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To date, there have been no global estimates of the costs related to lead exposure in children in developing countries. Objective: Our main aim was to estimate the economic costs attributable to childhood lead exposure in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We developed a regression model to estimate mean blood lead levels in our population of interest, represented by each 1-year cohort of children < 5 years of age. We used an environmentally attributable fraction model to estimate lead-attributable economic costs and limited our analysis to the neurodevelopmental impacts of lead, assessed as decrements in IQ points. Our main outcome was lost lifetime economic productivity due to early childhood exposure. Results: We estimated a total cost of $977 billions of international dollars in low- and middle-income countries, with economic losses equal to $134.7 billion in Africa [4.03% of gross domestic product (GDP)], $142.3 billion in Latin America and the Caribbean (2.04% of GDP), and $699.9 billion in Asia (1.88% of GDP). Our sensitivity analysis indicates a total economic loss in the range of $728.6–1162.5 billion. Conclusions: We estimated that, in low- and middle-income countries, the burden associated with childhood lead exposure amounts to 1.20% of world GDP in 2011. For comparison, in the United States and Europe lead-attributable economic costs have been estimated at $50.9 and $55 billion, respectively, suggesting that the largest burden of lead exposure is now borne by low- and middle-income countries. Citation: Attina TM, Trasande L. 2013. Economic costs of childhood lead exposure in low- and middle-income countries. Environ Health Perspect 121:1097–1102; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206424 PMID:23797342

  13. Chronic lead exposure is epidemic in obligate scavenger populations in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Behmke, Shannon; Fallon, Jesse; Duerr, Adam E; Lehner, Andreas; Buchweitz, John; Katzner, Todd

    2015-06-01

    Lead is a prominent and highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to wildlife. To understand the degree to which wildlife populations are chronically exposed, we quantified lead levels within American black vultures (Coragyps atratus; BLVU) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura; TUVU), two species that are useful as environmental sentinels in eastern North America. Every individual sampled (n=108) had bone lead levels indicative of chronic exposure to anthropogenic lead (BLVU: x¯=36.99 ± 55.21 mg Pb/kg tissue (±SD); TUVU: x¯=23.02 ± 18.77 mg/kg). Only a few showed evidence of recent lead exposure (BLVU liver: x¯=0.78 ± 0.93 mg/kg; TUVU liver: x¯=0.55 ± 0.34 mg/kg). Isotopic ratios suggested multiple potential sources of lead including ammunition, gasoline, coal-fired power plants, and zinc smelting. Black and turkey vultures range across eastern North America, from Quebec to Florida and individuals may traverse thousands of kilometers annually. The extent to which vultures are exposed suggests that anthropogenic lead permeates eastern North American ecosystems to a previously unrecognized degree. Discovery of an epidemic of chronic lead exposure in such widespread and common species and the failure of soft-tissue sampling to diagnose this pattern has dramatic implications for understanding modern wildlife and human health concerns.

  14. Contaminated Turmeric Is a Potential Source of Lead Exposure for Children in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Kelsey; Shine, James P.; Shobnam, Nadia; Rokoff, Lisa B.; Suchanda, Hafiza Sultana; Ibne Hasan, Md Omar Sharif; Mostofa, Golam; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Kile, Molly L.; Bellinger, David C.; Christiani, David C.; Wright, Robert O.; Mazumdar, Maitreyi

    2014-01-01

    Background. During the conduct of a cohort study intended to study the associations between mixed metal exposures and child health outcomes, we found that 78% of 309 children aged 20–40 months evaluated in the Munshiganj District of Bangladesh had blood lead concentrations ≥5 µg/dL and 27% had concentrations ≥10 µg/dL. Hypothesis. Environmental sources such as spices (e.g., turmeric, which has already faced recalls in Bangladesh due to high lead levels) may be a potential route of lead exposure. Methods. We conducted visits to the homes of 28 children randomly selected from among high and low blood lead concentration groups. During the visits, we administered a structured questionnaire and obtained soil, dust, rice, and spice samples. We obtained water samples from community water sources, as well as environmental samples from neighborhood businesses. Results. Lead concentrations in many turmeric samples were elevated, with lead concentrations as high as 483 ppm. Analyses showed high bioaccessibility of lead. Conclusions. Contamination of turmeric powder is a potentially important source of lead exposure in this population. PMID:25214856

  15. Lead poisoning from art restoration and pottery work: unusual exposure source and household risk.

    PubMed

    Fischbein, A; Wallace, J; Sassa, S; Kappas, A; Butts, G; Rohl, A; Kaul, B

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of lead poisoning following exposures in the arts and crafts environment are presented. The first illustrates the impact of an unusual exposure source experienced by a female art conservator while restoring an antique Peruvian tapestry from the Chancay Period (A.D. 1000-1500). The second demonstrates the extension to the artist's family members of a lead hazard associated with pottery work. Noted were a wide spectrum of clinical and biochemical abnormalities, ranging from severe neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms to subtle alterations in the biosynthetic pathway of heme. Marked elevation of the blood lead level (up to 130 mcg/100 mL) was found in the most severe case of lead poisoning. The cases illustrate the need for industrial hygiene measures in this type of work in order to prevent lead intoxication, both in the adult artist and children in the household. However, in some instances of increased lead absorption in persons with lead-related hobbies, sources other than those associated with arts and crafts should be investigated. This alternative is illustrated by a third case, in which firearms training was the more likely source of excessive exposure. Multiple occupational factors must occasionally be considered in evaluating increased lead absorption. PMID:1740771

  16. Chronic lead exposure is epidemic in obligate scavenger populations in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Behmke, Shannon; Fallon, Jesse; Duerr, Adam E; Lehner, Andreas; Buchweitz, John; Katzner, Todd

    2015-06-01

    Lead is a prominent and highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to wildlife. To understand the degree to which wildlife populations are chronically exposed, we quantified lead levels within American black vultures (Coragyps atratus; BLVU) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura; TUVU), two species that are useful as environmental sentinels in eastern North America. Every individual sampled (n=108) had bone lead levels indicative of chronic exposure to anthropogenic lead (BLVU: x¯=36.99 ± 55.21 mg Pb/kg tissue (±SD); TUVU: x¯=23.02 ± 18.77 mg/kg). Only a few showed evidence of recent lead exposure (BLVU liver: x¯=0.78 ± 0.93 mg/kg; TUVU liver: x¯=0.55 ± 0.34 mg/kg). Isotopic ratios suggested multiple potential sources of lead including ammunition, gasoline, coal-fired power plants, and zinc smelting. Black and turkey vultures range across eastern North America, from Quebec to Florida and individuals may traverse thousands of kilometers annually. The extent to which vultures are exposed suggests that anthropogenic lead permeates eastern North American ecosystems to a previously unrecognized degree. Discovery of an epidemic of chronic lead exposure in such widespread and common species and the failure of soft-tissue sampling to diagnose this pattern has dramatic implications for understanding modern wildlife and human health concerns. PMID:25795925

  17. E-Waste Informal Recycling: An Emerging Source of Lead Exposure in South America

    PubMed Central

    Pascale, Antonio; Sosa, Adriana; Bares, Cristina; Battocletti, Alejandra; Moll, María José; Pose, Darío; Laborde, Amalia; González, Hugo; Feola, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling creates exposures to several hazardous substances including lead. In Uruguay, primitive recycling procedures are a significant source of lead exposure. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine lead exposure in blood lead levels (BLLs) in low-income children exposed to lead through burning cables. METHODS A sample of children and adolescents exposed to lead through burning cable activities were assessed at the Department of Toxicology in Montevideo, Uruguay, between 2010 and 2014. Soil lead levels of residences were taken shortly after their assessment. FINDINGS The final sample included 69 children and adolescents (mean age 7.89 years). More than 66% of participants had an additional source of lead exposure—manual gathering of metals—and <5% were exposed to lead through landfills or paint. Average BLLs at first consultation were 9.19 ug/dL and lower at the second measurement (5.86 μg/dL). Data from soil lead levels ranged from 650 to 19,000 mg of lead/kg of soil. The interventions conducted after the assessment included family education in the clinic and at home, indoor and outdoor remediation. We found a decrease in BLLs of 6.96 μg/dL. Older children had lower BLLs (r = −0.24; P =0.05). Statistical analyses also showed that children living in areas with higher soil lead levels had significantly higher BLLs (r = 0.50; P < 0.01). Additionally, we found greater BLLs from burning cable activities when children had been exposed to lead-based paint (r = 0.23; P < 0.1). CONCLUSION Among children exposed to e-waste recycling, the most common additional source of lead exposure was the manual gathering of metals. The average BLL among children and adolescents in this study is higher than the BLLs currently suggested in medical intervention. Future research should focus on exploring effective interventions to reduce lead exposure among this vulnerable group. PMID:27325077

  18. Blood Lead Concentration and Thyroid Function during Pregnancy: Results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Linda G.; Liu, Xinhua; Rajovic, Biljana; Popovac, Dusan; Oberfield, Sharon; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk of adverse neonatal and obstetric outcomes as well as lower IQ in children, the environmental determinants of maternal thyroid dysfunction have yet to be fully explored. Objectives: We aimed to examine associations between mid-pregnancy blood lead (BPb) and concomitant measures of thyroid function among participants in the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Methods: As part of a population-based prospective study of two towns in Kosovo—one with high levels of environmental lead and one with low—women were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy, at which time blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. We measured concentrations of BPb, free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in archived serum samples. Results: Compared with women from the unexposed town, women from the exposed town had lower mean FT4 (0.91 ± 0.17 vs. 1.03 ± 0.16 ng/dL), higher mean TPOAb (15.45 ± 33.08 vs. 5.12 ± 6.38 IU/mL), and higher mean BPb (20.00 ± 6.99 vs. 5.57 ± 2.01 μg/dL). No differences in TSH levels were found. After adjustment for potential confounders, for each natural log unit increase in BPb, FT4 decreased by 0.074 ng/dL (95% CI: –0.10, –0.046 ng/dL), and the odds ratio for testing positive to TPOAb was 2.41 (95% CI: 1.53, 3.82). We found no association between BPb and TSH. Conclusions: Prolonged lead exposure may contribute to maternal thyroid dysfunction by stimulating autoimmunity to the thyroid gland. Citation: Kahn LG, Liu X, Rajovic B, Popovac D, Oberfield S, Graziano JH, Factor-Litvak P. 2014. Blood lead concentration and thyroid function during pregnancy: results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:1134–1140; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307669 PMID:24866691

  19. Affecting Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Korea: Focused on Different Exposure Locations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) not only can cause serious illness, but is also an economic and social burden. Contextual and individual factors of non-smoker exposure to SHS depend on location. However, studies focusing on this subject are lacking. In this study, we described and compared the factors related to SHS exposure according to location in Korea. Regarding individual factors related to SHS exposure, a common individual variable model and location-specific variable model was used to evaluate SHS exposure at home/work/public locations based on sex. In common individual variables, such as age, and smoking status showed different relationships with SHS exposure in different locations. Among home-related variables, housing type and family with a single father and unmarried children showed the strongest positive relationships with SHS exposure in both males and females. In the workplace, service and sales workers, blue-collar workers, and manual laborers showed the strongest positive association with SHS exposure in males and females. For multilevel analysis in public places, only SHS exposure in females was positively related with cancer screening rate. Exposure to SHS in public places showed a positive relationship with drinking rate and single-parent family in males and females. The problem of SHS embodies social policies and interactions between individuals and social contextual factors. Policy makers should consider the contextual factors of specific locations and regional and individual context, along with differences between males and females, to develop effective strategies for reducing SHS exposure. PMID:27510378

  20. Affecting Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Korea: Focused on Different Exposure Locations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li Yuan; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Lee, Eun Whan; Kang, Kyeong Jin; Park, Jae Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) not only can cause serious illness, but is also an economic and social burden. Contextual and individual factors of non-smoker exposure to SHS depend on location. However, studies focusing on this subject are lacking. In this study, we described and compared the factors related to SHS exposure according to location in Korea. Regarding individual factors related to SHS exposure, a common individual variable model and location-specific variable model was used to evaluate SHS exposure at home/work/public locations based on sex. In common individual variables, such as age, and smoking status showed different relationships with SHS exposure in different locations. Among home-related variables, housing type and family with a single father and unmarried children showed the strongest positive relationships with SHS exposure in both males and females. In the workplace, service and sales workers, blue-collar workers, and manual laborers showed the strongest positive association with SHS exposure in males and females. For multilevel analysis in public places, only SHS exposure in females was positively related with cancer screening rate. Exposure to SHS in public places showed a positive relationship with drinking rate and single-parent family in males and females. The problem of SHS embodies social policies and interactions between individuals and social contextual factors. Policy makers should consider the contextual factors of specific locations and regional and individual context, along with differences between males and females, to develop effective strategies for reducing SHS exposure. PMID:27510378

  1. Environmental exposure to lead and mercury in Mexican children: a real health problem.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Moreno, Ma Elena; Rodríguez-Kessler, Theresia; Luna, Ana; Arias-Salvatierra, Daniela; Gómez, Rocío; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S

    2011-11-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) remains a world public health problem, particularly for young children in developing countries. In Mexico, the main sources of exposure to Pb and Hg are wastes from human activities that increase the natural sources of these metals. Pb and Hg are highly toxic during development and maturation periods of the central nervous system (CNS); these effects are associated with the risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Mexico has numerous exposure sources to Pb and Hg; nevertheless, information on exposure in children is limited, particularly for Hg. Therefore, we conducted a review of the studies performed in children exposed to Pb and Hg. Data presented support that an important proportion of Mexican children have Pb levels above values associated with dangerous effects. On the other hand, studies on Hg-exposure are scarce, so we need more studies to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to determine exposure levels in Mexican children. Available data support the urgent need for coordinated actions among researchers, and health and environmental government authorities to implement education and nutritional campaigns, as well as to decrease exposure and effects of Pb and Hg. In addition, there must be a priority for the implementation of educational campaigns directed to the general population, but with emphasis in parents, education staff and health care providers to decrease both the risk of exposure of children to Pb and Hg and the effects of the exposure to these metals.

  2. Sex-Based Differences in Gene Expression in Hippocampus Following Postnatal Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, J.S.; Anderson, D.W.; Sonnenahalli, H.; Vadigepalli, R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of sex as an effect modifier of childhood lead poisoning has received little systematic attention. Considering the paucity of information available concerning the interactive effects of lead and sex on the brain, the current study examined the interactive effects of lead and sex on gene expression patterns in the hippocampus, a structure involved in learning and memory. Male or female rats were fed either 1500 ppm lead-containing chow or control chow for 30 days beginning at weaning. Blood lead levels were 26.7 ± 2.1 μg/dl and 27.1 ± 1.7 μg/dl for females and males, respectively. The expression of 175 unique genes was differentially regulated between control male and female rats. A total of 167 unique genes were differentially expressed in response to lead in either males or females. Lead exposure had a significant effect without a significant difference between male and female responses in 77 of these genes. In another set of 71 genes, there were significant differences in male vs. female response. A third set of 30 genes was differentially expressed in opposite directions in males vs. females, with the majority of genes expressed at a lower level in females than in males. Highly differentially expressed genes in males and females following lead exposure were associated with diverse biological pathways and functions. These results show that a brief exposure to lead produced significant changes in expression a variety of genes in the hippocampus and that the response of the brain to a given lead exposure may vary depending on sex. PMID:21864555

  3. Lead exposure of waterfowl ingesting Coeur d?Alene River Basin sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Audet, D.J.; Morton, Alexandra; Campbell, J.K.; LeCaptain, L.

    1998-01-01

    Feces from tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus [Ord]), Canada geese (Branta canadensis [L.]) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos [L.]) were collected from the Coeur d?Alene River Basin and two reference areas to estimate exposure to lead from mining activities and to relate that exposure to the ingestion of contaminated sediments. The average acid-insoluble ash content of the feces, a measure of sediment, was 18% for Canada geese and tundra swans, and 12% for ducks. The 18% value corresponded to an estimated 9% sediment ingestion rate (dry weight). The 90th percentile for acid-insoluble ash in feces of tundra swans corresponds to an estimated 22% sediment in the diet. The average lead concentration (dry weight) of tundra swan feces from all Coeur d?Alene River Basin wetlands sampled was 880 mg/kg, compared to 2.1 mg kg1 from reference wetlands. The 90th percentile of lead in tundra swan feces from the Coeur d?Alene River Basin sites was 2700 mg kg1. Fecal lead concentrations of tundra swans from Harrison Slough, the wetland studied in most detail, were correlated (Spearman?s rho = 0.74, p < 0.05) with the acid-insoluble ash content of the feces. The very low lead concentrations in feces having low acid-insoluble ash contents established that the sediment was the primary source of the lead ingested by waterfowl. Sediment lead concentrations at 11 wetland sites were closely correlated (r = 0.91, p < 0.05) with average fecal lead concentrations for all waterfowl, corrected for the average percent acid-insoluble ash in the feces. The regression equation describing this relation, along with estimates of sediment ingestion, provides a straight-forward means of estimating the current exposure of waterfowl to lead and of predicting the potential exposure of waterfowl to lead under plans to clean up the contaminated sites.

  4. Lead, arsenic and manganese metal mixture exposures: focus on biomarkers of effect

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, VL; Mateus, ML; Batoréu, MC; Aschner, M; Marreilha dos Santos, AP

    2015-01-01

    Summary The increasing exposure of human populations to excessive levels of metals continues to represent a matter of public health concern. Several biomarkers have been studied and proposed for the detection of adverse health effects induced by lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn); however, these studies have relied on exposures to each single metal, which fails to replicate real-life exposure scenarios. These 3 metals are commonly detected in different environmental, occupational and food contexts and they share common neurotoxic effects, which are progressive and once clinically apparent may be irreversible. Thus, chronic exposure to low levels of a mixture of these metals represents an additive risk of toxicity. Building upon their shared mechanisms of toxicity, such as oxidative stress, interference with neurotransmitters and effects on hematopoietic system, we address putative biomarkers, which may be assist in assessing onset of neurological diseases associated with exposure to this metal mixture. PMID:25693681

  5. Shaped, lead-loaded acrylic filters for patient exposure reduction and image-quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.E.; Stears, J.G.; Frank, E.D.

    1983-03-01

    Shaped filters that are constructed of lead-loaded acrylic material for use in patient radiography are discussed. Use of the filters will result in improved overall image quality with significant exposure reduction to the patient (approximately a 2X reduction in breast exposure and a 3X reduction in thyroid gland exposure). Detailed drawings of the shaped filters for scoliosis radiography, cervical spine radiography, and for long film changers in special procedures are provided. The use of the scoliosis filters is detailed and includes phantom and patient radiographs and dose reduction information.

  6. Preimplantation Exposure to Bisphenol A and Triclosan May Lead to Implantation Failure in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Mu; Bai, Ming-Zhu; Huang, Xu-Feng; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Jing; Hu, Min-Hao; Zheng, Wei-Qian; Jin, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are chemicals that have the capacity to interfere with normal endocrine systems. Two EDCs, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), are mass-produced and widespread. They both have estrogenic properties and similar chemical structures and pharmacokinetic features and have been detected in human fluids and tissues. Clinical evidence has suggested a positive association between BPA exposure and implantation failure in IVF patients. Studies in mouse models have suggested that preimplantation exposure to BPA and TCS can lead to implantation failure. This paper reviews the relationship between preimplantation exposure to BPA and TCS and implantation failure and discusses the remaining problems and possible solutions. PMID:26357649

  7. Cadmium exposure affects iron acquisition in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Astolfi, Stefania; Ortolani, Maria R; Catarcione, Giulio; Paolacci, Anna R; Cesco, Stefano; Pinton, Roberto; Ciaffi, Mario

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses the question of the interference between iron (Fe) nutrition and cadmium (Cd) toxicity at the level of growth performance, phytosiderophores (PS) release, micronutrient accumulation and expression of genes involved in Fe homeostasis in barley seedlings, a plant with strategy II-based response to Fe shortage. Cd exposure induced responses similar to those of genuine Fe deficiency also in Fe-sufficient plants. Most genes involved in PS biosynthesis and secretion (HvNAS3, HvNAS4, HvNAS6, HvNAS7, HvNAAT-A, HvDMAS1 and HvTOM1) induced by Fe deprivation were also significantly upregulated in the presence of Cd under Fe sufficient conditions. Accordingly, the enhanced expression of these genes in roots under Cd exposure was accompanied by an increase of PS release. However, induced expression of HvIRO2 and the downregulation of HvIDEF1 and HvIRT1, after Cd exposure, suggested the presence of a pathway that induces HvIRO2-mediated PS biosynthesis under Cd stress, which probably is not simply caused by Fe deficiency. The downregulation of HvIRT1 and HvNramp5 may represent a protective mechanism at transcriptional level against further Cd uptake by these transporters. These results likely indicate that Cd itself may be able to activate Fe acquisition mechanism in an Fe-independent manner.

  8. Short-term exposure to aqueous endosulfan affects macroinvertebrate assemblages.

    PubMed

    Hose, Grant C; Lim, Richard P; Hyne, Ross V; Pablo, Fleur

    2003-10-01

    The toxicity of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan to macroinvertebrate assemblages was tested using a system of 24 artificial streams. In separate experiments, the effects of 12- and 48-h exposure to aqueous endosulfan were assessed. No-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC) for endosulfan on macroinvertebrate assemblages were 8.69 and 1.00 microg/L for the 12- and 48-h exposure studies, respectively. In both studies, changes were driven by reduced abundances of the mayfly, Jappa kutera. Algal blooms occurred in the 48-h exposure experiment in streams that received the 6.87 or 30.70 microg/L treatments. These effects occurred at concentrations that might occur as a result of episodic events such as accidental overspray or rainstorms. By establishing a causal link between endosulfan and changes to macroinvertebrate assemblages, this study adds further weight to the hypothesis that endosulfan is a major contributor to changes observed in rivers of the cotton-growing region of New South Wales, Australia during the pesticide spray season.

  9. National Human Exposure Assessment Survey: analysis of exposure pathways and routes for arsenic and lead in EPA Region 5.

    PubMed

    Clayton, C A; Pellizzari, E D; Quackenboss, J J

    2002-01-01

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I field study conducted in EPA Region 5 (Great Lakes Area) provides extensive exposure data on a representative sample of approximately 250 residents of the region. Associated environmental media and biomarker (blood, urine) concentration data were also obtained for the study participants to aid in understanding of the relationships of exposures to both contaminant pathways and doses. Besides fulfilling the primary NHEXAS objectives, the NHEXAS data provided an opportunity to explore secondary usages, such as examining pathway to route of exposure relationships. A generic type of structural equation model was used to define the anticipated relationships among the various data types for both arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Since, by design, only a few participants provided data for all sample types, implementing this model required that some media concentrations (outdoor air and soil) be imputed for subjects with missing information by using measurements collected in the same geographic area and time period. The model, and associated pairwise correlations, generally revealed significant but weak associations among the concentrations, exposures, and doses; the strongest associations occurred for the various air measurements (indoor versus outdoor and personal). The generally weak associations were thought to be partly due to the absence of complete coverage of nonresidential environmental media and to nonsynchronization of relevant measurement times and integration periods of collection across the various sample types. In general, relationships between the NHEXAS questionnaire data and the various concentration, exposure, and body-burden measures were also weak. The model results and the modeling exercise suggest several ways for optimizing the design of future exposure assessment studies that are aimed at supporting structural modeling activities. PMID:11859431

  10. Sociopsychological factors affecting the human response to noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Borsky, P N

    1979-08-01

    Community noise is reported to be the most often mentioned undesirable neighborhood condition in a recent U.S. Census survey. Understanding community response to noise involves the measurement of a number of complex acoustic and nonacoustic variables and establishing the chain of relationships between physical exposure, perception, annoyance, and acceptability responses and finally complaint behavior. The perceived loudness of a noise is the most important acoustic parameter influencing annoyance and complaints, and the simple dBA unit can be used to integrate spectral characteristics of complex sounds in community studies. Although energy averaging such as Leq or Ldn can be used to describe multiple noise exposures over time, the variable trade-off relationships between number and level of exposures are somewhat obscured by such summary measures. However, they are still the best available descriptors and, until more accurate ones are developed, can be used to measure community noise environments. Perception of an identical noise exposure can vary according to the physiological noise sensitivity of a person and the activity context in which the noise is heard. Although the acoustic quality of the noise itself usually explains about 10 to 25 per cent of the variability in annoyance responses, sociopsychological variables measured in field studies account for 35 to 50 per cent of the variations in human annoyance responses. Three of the most important nonacoustic factors are the connotative fear effects of the noise signal, the feeling that those responsible for the noise are misfeasant in not reducing the noise, and the feeling that harmful health effects are produced by the noise. When residents report great fear, a high misfeasance, and marked health effects, about 90 per cent report a high annoyance level whether their noise exposure level is above 90 Ldn or 65 to 70 Ldn. In contrast, if the feelings are a low fear level, a low degree of misfeasance, and minimal

  11. Effects of lead exposure on dendrite and spine development in hippocampal dentate gyrus areas of rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fan; Ge, Meng-Meng; Chen, Wei-Heng

    2016-03-01

    Lead exposure has been implicated in the impairment of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) areas of rats. However, whether the degradation of physiological properties is based on the morphological alteration of granule neurons in DG areas remains elusive. Here, we examined the dendritic branch extension and spine formation of granule neurons after lead exposure during development in rats. Dendritic morphology was studied using Golgi-Cox stain method, which was followed by Sholl analysis at postnatal days 14 and 21. Our results indicated that, for both ages, lead exposure significantly decreased the total dendritic length and spine density of granule neurons in the DG of the rat hippocampus. Further branch order analysis revealed that the decrease of dendritic length was observed only at the second branch order. Moreover, there were obvious deficits in the proportion and size of mushroom-type spines. These deficits in spine formation and maturity were accompanied by a decrease in Arc/Arg3.1 expression. Our present findings are the first to show that developmental lead exposure disturbs branch and spine formation in hippocampal DG areas. Arc/Arg3.1 may have a critical role in the disruption of neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity in lead-exposed rats.

  12. Exposure to serotonin adversely affects oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Bhatt, Abhay; Tien, Lu-Tai; Zheng, Baoying; Simpson, Kimberly L; Lin, Rick C S; Cai, Zhengwei; Kumar, Praveen; Pang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been implicated to play critical roles in early neural development. Recent reports have suggested that perinatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) resulted in cortical network miswiring, abnormal social behavior, callosal myelin malformation, as well as oligodendrocyte (OL) pathology in rats. To gain further insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying SSRIs-induced OL and myelin abnormalities, we investigated the effect of 5-HT exposure on OL development, cell death, and myelination in cell culture models. First, we showed that 5-HT receptor 1A and 2A subtypes were expressed in OL lineages, using immunocytochemistry, Western blot, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) measurement. We then assessed the effect of serotonin exposure on the lineage development, expression of myelin proteins, cell death, and myelination, in purified OL and neuron-OL myelination cultures. For pure OL cultures, our results showed that 5-HT exposure led to disturbance of OL development, as indicated by aberrant process outgrowth and reduced myelin proteins expression. At higher doses, such exposure triggered a development-dependent cell death, as immature OLs exhibited increasing susceptibility to 5-HT treatment compared to OL progenitor cells (OPC). We showed further that 5-HT-induced immature OL death was mediated at least partially via 5-HT2A receptor, since cell death could be mimicked by 5-HT2A receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride, (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride, but atten-uated by pre-treatment with 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ritanserin. Utilizing a neuron-OL myelination co-culture model, our data showed that 5-HT exposure significantly reduced the number of myelinated internodes. In contrast to cell injury observed in pure OL cultures, 5-HT exposure did not lead to OL death or reduced OL density in neuron-OL co-cultures. However, abnormal

  13. Hemograms for and nutritional condition of migrant bald eagles tested for exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-07-01

    Plasma proteins, hematocrit, differential blood counts were examined and nutritional condition was estimated for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) trapped (n = 66) during antumn migration, 1994-95 at Galloway Bay (Saskatchewan, Canada), for the purposes of estimating prevalence of exposure to lead. Sex and age differences in hematocrit and plasma proteins were not observed; however, female eagles exhibited larger median absolute heterophil counts than males. Hematologic values were similar to those previously reported from eagles in captivity. Departures from expected hematological values from a healthy population of eagles were not observed in birds with elevated levels of blood lead (> or =0.200 microg/ml). Similarly, nutritional condition was not related to blood-lead concentrations. Therefore, it appears that lead exposure in this population was below a threshold required to indicate toxicological alteration in the hematological values and index of nutritional condition that we measured.

  14. Lead Paint Exposure Assessment in High Bays of Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanch, Penney; Plaza, Angel; Keprta, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the program to assess the possibility of lead paint exposure in the high bays of some of the Johnson Space Center buildings. Some of the buildings in the Manned Space Flight Center (MSC) were built in 1962 and predate any considerations to reduce lead in paints and coatings. There are many of these older buildings that contain open shops and work areas that have open ceilings, These shops include those that had operations that use leaded gasoline, batteries, and lead based paints. Test were planned to be conducted in three phases: (1) Surface Dust sampling, (2) personal exposure montioring, and (3) Ceiling paint Sampling. The results of the first two phases were reviewed. After considering the results of the first two phases, and the problems associated with the retrieval of samples from high ceilings, it was determined that the evaluation of ceiling coatings would be done on a project by project and in response to a complaint.

  15. Can household pets be used as reliable monitors of lead exposure to humans?

    PubMed

    Berny, P J; Côté, L M; Buck, W B

    1995-11-30

    We investigated the validity of dogs and cats as sentinels of environmental lead exposure to humans. This paper reports findings from a study conducted in Granite City, IL, during the summer of 1991. At this site, a former secondary lead smelter had been in activity for more than 80 years. The smelter was shut down in 1982. The surrounding area was found to be contaminated with lead, with soil lead concentrations above 5000 ppm in some places. The Illinois Department of Public Health conducted a survey in the community to determine the effects of lead on the local population. We sampled dogs and cats owned by these people. Our results suggest that living near a closed lead smelter, with heavy soil contamination, was not associated with high blood lead concentrations in pets, or their owners. There was a significant relationship between BLC (blood lead concentrations), in indoor pets and younger children, which was consistent with our hypothesis that pets could be used to monitor childhood lead exposure. We also found that, when there was one pet with a high BLC in a house, the likelihood of finding one person with a BLC above 10 micrograms/dl was significantly increased.

  16. Evaluation of the hepatotoxic risk caused by lead acetate via skin exposure using a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jia-You; Wang, Pei-Wen; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Hung, Yi-Yun; Pan, Tai-Long

    2014-11-01

    Lead compounds exhibit a high degree of cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity. We evaluated the impact of lead acetate on the liver by skin exposure as well as the changes in protein profiles reflecting pathogenic processes. Functional proteomic tools showed that the most meaningful protein changes were involved in protein folding, ER stress, and apoptosis in the presence of an organic lead compound. Treatment with lead acetate also elicits intracellular ROS levels as well as carbonyl modification of chaperone proteins, suggesting that lead might trigger the unfolded protein response due to oxidative stress. Lead application induced ER stress, as indicated by the promotion of GRP78 and by increased expression of the transcription factors ATF6, IRE1α, and PERK. Moreover, upregulation of GRP75 may participate in lead-caused hepatic cytotoxicity while abrogation of GRP75 appears to attenuate the inhibition of cell growth. Our findings demonstrate that accumulation of organic lead in the liver can induce oxidative imbalance and protein impairment that may result in ER stress followed by liver injuries. Hepatic proteome profiles delineate a finer picture of protein networks and metabolic pathways primarily involved in lead-initiated hepatic toxicity via skin exposure. PMID:25210813

  17. Evaluation of the hepatotoxic risk caused by lead acetate via skin exposure using a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jia-You; Wang, Pei-Wen; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Hung, Yi-Yun; Pan, Tai-Long

    2014-11-01

    Lead compounds exhibit a high degree of cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity. We evaluated the impact of lead acetate on the liver by skin exposure as well as the changes in protein profiles reflecting pathogenic processes. Functional proteomic tools showed that the most meaningful protein changes were involved in protein folding, ER stress, and apoptosis in the presence of an organic lead compound. Treatment with lead acetate also elicits intracellular ROS levels as well as carbonyl modification of chaperone proteins, suggesting that lead might trigger the unfolded protein response due to oxidative stress. Lead application induced ER stress, as indicated by the promotion of GRP78 and by increased expression of the transcription factors ATF6, IRE1α, and PERK. Moreover, upregulation of GRP75 may participate in lead-caused hepatic cytotoxicity while abrogation of GRP75 appears to attenuate the inhibition of cell growth. Our findings demonstrate that accumulation of organic lead in the liver can induce oxidative imbalance and protein impairment that may result in ER stress followed by liver injuries. Hepatic proteome profiles delineate a finer picture of protein networks and metabolic pathways primarily involved in lead-initiated hepatic toxicity via skin exposure.

  18. Effects of Lead Exposure and Genetic Polymorphisms on ALAD and GPx Activities in Brazilian Battery Workers.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Martins, Airton; Mazzaron Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael; Jacob Ferreira, Anna Laura Bechara; de Souza, Marilesia Ferreira; de Syllos Cólus, Ilce Mara; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Bastos Paoliello, Monica Maria; Adeyemi, Joseph A; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic metal that is widely used by metallurgical industries such as car battery recycling. Exposure to the metal may modify the redox status of the cells and consequently result in changes in activities of important enzymes such as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Similarly, genetic polymorphisms may modulate the activities of enzymes related to detoxification processes of the metal and may modify Pb body burden. Therefore, the aims of the present study were (i) to evaluate the correlation between blood lead levels (BLL) and activities of the enzymes ALAD and GPx, and (ii) to determine whether activities of these enzymes may be influenced by polymorphisms in ALAD and GPx genes in Brazilian automotive battery workers chronically exposed to Pb, as well as the effects of these polymorphisms on BLL. Our study included 257 participants; BLL were determined by inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the activities of the enzymes ALAD and GPx were quantified spectrophotometrically; and genotyping of ALAD (rs1800435) and GPx-1 (rs1800668) polymorphisms was performed by TaqMan assays (real-time polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR). Significant negative correlations were found between BLL and ALAD activity. Subjects who carried at least one polymorphic allele for ALAD gene displayed markedly lower ALAD activities, while no significant effect was observed regarding GPx-1 polymorphism and activity of the same enzyme. Further, ALAD and GPx-1 polymorphisms exerted no marked influence on BLL. Taken together, our results showed that BLL affected ALAD but not GPx activities, and these were not modulated by polymorphisms in ALAD and GPx gene. Further, the rs1800435 SNP showed a tendency to modulate ALAD activity, while the rs1800668 SNP did not modulate GPx activity in Brazilian automotive battery workers exposed to Pb.

  19. Effects of Lead Exposure and Genetic Polymorphisms on ALAD and GPx Activities in Brazilian Battery Workers.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Martins, Airton; Mazzaron Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael; Jacob Ferreira, Anna Laura Bechara; de Souza, Marilesia Ferreira; de Syllos Cólus, Ilce Mara; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Bastos Paoliello, Monica Maria; Adeyemi, Joseph A; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic metal that is widely used by metallurgical industries such as car battery recycling. Exposure to the metal may modify the redox status of the cells and consequently result in changes in activities of important enzymes such as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Similarly, genetic polymorphisms may modulate the activities of enzymes related to detoxification processes of the metal and may modify Pb body burden. Therefore, the aims of the present study were (i) to evaluate the correlation between blood lead levels (BLL) and activities of the enzymes ALAD and GPx, and (ii) to determine whether activities of these enzymes may be influenced by polymorphisms in ALAD and GPx genes in Brazilian automotive battery workers chronically exposed to Pb, as well as the effects of these polymorphisms on BLL. Our study included 257 participants; BLL were determined by inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the activities of the enzymes ALAD and GPx were quantified spectrophotometrically; and genotyping of ALAD (rs1800435) and GPx-1 (rs1800668) polymorphisms was performed by TaqMan assays (real-time polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR). Significant negative correlations were found between BLL and ALAD activity. Subjects who carried at least one polymorphic allele for ALAD gene displayed markedly lower ALAD activities, while no significant effect was observed regarding GPx-1 polymorphism and activity of the same enzyme. Further, ALAD and GPx-1 polymorphisms exerted no marked influence on BLL. Taken together, our results showed that BLL affected ALAD but not GPx activities, and these were not modulated by polymorphisms in ALAD and GPx gene. Further, the rs1800435 SNP showed a tendency to modulate ALAD activity, while the rs1800668 SNP did not modulate GPx activity in Brazilian automotive battery workers exposed to Pb. PMID:26275098

  20. Lead exposure in passerines inhabiting lead-contaminated floodplains in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.D.; Audet, D.J.; Kern, J.W.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Strickland, M.D.; Hoffman, D.J.; McDonald, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    Blood collected from song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) and American robins (Turdus migratorius) captured with mist nets in a lead-contaminated (assessment) area and nearby uncontaminated (reference) areas within the Coeur d'Alene Basin in northern Idaho was analyzed for d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALAD) and hematocrit levels, and livers were analyzed for lead. Mean ALAD inhibition in the assessment area was 51% in song sparrows and 75% in American robins. The proportion of the sampled population with ALAD inhibition >50% was calculated to be 43% for song sparrows and 83% for American robins. Assessment area hematocrit values for song sparrows (0 = 39.9) and American robins (0 = 39.5) were lower than in reference areas (0 = 42.4 for song sparrows and 40.2 for American robins); however, differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Significantly higher levels of lead (wet weight) were found in livers from song sparrows captured on the assessment area (0 = 1.93 ppm) than on reference areas (0 = 0.10 ppm) (p = 0.0079). Study results indicate that 43% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 12.9-77.5%) of the song sparrows and 83% (95% CI = 41.8-99.2%) of the American robins inhabiting the floodplain along the Coeur d'Alene River in the assessment area are being exposed to lead at levels sufficient to inhibit ALAD by > 50%. Variability in lead exposure indicators was attributed to high variability in environmental lead concentrations in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  1. Neurotoxicity in young adults 20 years after childhood exposure to lead: the Bunker Hill experience

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, L.; Letz, R.; Gerr, F.; Kolczak, M.; McNeill, F. E.; Chettle, D. R.; Kaye, W. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An epidemiological study of young adults was conducted to determine whether environmental exposure to lead during childhood was associated with current adverse neurobehavioural effects. METHODS: The exposed group consisted of 281 young adults who had been exposed environmentally to lead as children and the unexposed referent group consisted of 287 age and sex frequency matched subjects. Information on demographics, past and current health, and past exposures to neurotoxicants, and responses to the Swedish Q16 questionnaire were collected by interview. Standard neurobehavioural and neurophysiological tests were administered by computer or trained technicians. K x ray fluorescence was used to estimate tibial bone lead concentrations among the exposed and unexposed groups. Associations were examined between the exposed group and referents and tibial bone lead concentration and the neurobehavioural and neurophysiological outcomes of interest. RESULTS: Among the measures of peripheral nerve function, after controlling for confounders, sural sensory nerve evoked response amplitude, peroneal motor nerve compound motor action potential amplitude, vibrotactile thresholds of fingers and toes, and standing steadiness were significantly associated with exposure group. Among the neurobehavioural tests, hand-eye coordination, simple reaction time latency, trails B latency, symbol digit latency, serial digit, and learning error score were also significantly associated with exposure group after controlling for confounders. Exposed subjects had significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms than the referents. Associations between tibial bone lead concentration and scores for vocabulary, vibrotactile thresholds of the fingers, and vibrotactile thresholds of the toes approached significance. CONCLUSIONS: Significant adverse central and peripheral neurological effects were found in a group of young adults 20 years after childhood environmental exposure to lead when compared

  2. Prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure affects Sertoli cell and gonadotropin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Paccola, C C; Miraglia, S M

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine is largely consumed in the world as a component of cigarettes. It can cross the placenta and reach the milk of smoking mothers. This drug induces apoptosis, affects sex hormone secretion, and leads to male infertility. To investigate the exposure to nicotine during the whole intrauterine and lactation phases in Sertoli cells, pregnant rats received nicotine (2 mg/kg per day) through osmotic minipumps. Male offsprings (30, 60, and 90 days old) had blood collected for hormonal analysis (FSH and LH) and their testes submitted for histophatological study, analysis of the frequency of the stages of seminiferous epithelium cycle, immunolabeling of apoptotic epithelial cells (TUNEL and Fas/FasL), analysis of the function and structure of Sertoli cells (respectively using transferrin and vimentin immunolabeling), and analysis of Sertoli-germ cell junctional molecule (β-catenin immunolabeling). The exposure to nicotine increased the FSH and LH plasmatic levels in adult rats. Although nicotine had not changed the number of apoptotic cells, neither in Fas nor FasL expression, it provoked an intense sloughing of epithelial cells and also altered the frequency of some stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle. Transferrin and β-catenin expressions were not changed, but vimentin was significantly reduced in the early stages of the seminiferous cycle of the nicotine-exposed adult rats. Thus, we concluded that nicotine exposure during all gestational and lactation periods affects the structure of Sertoli cells by events causing intense germ cell sloughing observed in the tubular lumen and can compromise the fertility of the offspring.

  3. Exposure to scientific theories affects women's math performance.

    PubMed

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J

    2006-10-20

    Stereotype threat occurs when stereotyped groups perform worse as their group membership is highlighted. We investigated whether stereotype threat is affected by accounts for the origins of stereotypes. In two studies, women who read of genetic causes of sex differences performed worse on math tests than those who read of experiential causes.

  4. Extensive lead exposure in children living in an area with production of lead-glazed tiles in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    PubMed

    Vahter, M; Counter, S A; Laurell, G; Buchanan, L H; Ortega, F; Schütz, A; Skerfving, S

    1997-01-01

    We have determined the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) in the blood of children living in two Andean villages in Ecuador with many family-owned cottage-type industries using Pb from discarded car batteries and occasionally, utility batteries containing Cd and Hg for the production of glazed tiles. The battery metals are ground together with water to a suspension, which is applied manually onto the tiles and then fused at about 1,200 degrees C in sawdust-fired kilns. Children aged 4-15 years were recruited from the schools with the assistance of the school-teachers. Children from homes with and without tile-glazing activities were to be included. Blood metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The children had extremely high blood lead concentrations (B-Pb), which ranged between 100 and 1,100 micrograms/l (median 510 micrograms/l, n = 82). Children from families engaged in tile-glazing production had significantly higher B-Pb (median 600 micrograms/l) than those living in homes with no such activity (median 210 micrograms/l), although the B-Pb of the latter were nonetheless clearly elevated. B-Cd and B-Hg were low (medians 0.25 microgram Cd/l and 1.6 micrograms Hg/l, respectively), indicating that the exposure from utility batteries containing Cd and Hg was low. The blood hemoglobin concentrations decreased significantly with rising B-Pb, indicating an effect on the heme synthesis. This was supported by a marked increase in the blood concentration of protoporphyrins with increasing B-Pb. It can be concluded that children from families with cottage industries producing glazed tiles are at risk for severe health effects due to high lead exposure.

  5. Gender-dependent behavioural impairment and brain metabolites in young adult rats after short term exposure to lead acetate.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, M T; Naghizadeh, B; López-Larrubia, P; Cauli, O

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the behavioural effects of short-term lead (Pb) exposure in adult rats producing blood Pb concentration (<10 μg/dL) below those associated with neurological impairment in occupationally exposed individuals. In order to assess gender differences, we performed parallel behavioural experiments in male and female rats. Exposure to Pb acetate (50 mg/L in drinking water) for 30-45 days induced behavioural alterations consisting in hyperactivity in a novel environment and impairment of spatial memory. These effects were observed only in male rats. Object recognition, motor coordination were unaffected by Pb exposure. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows in vivo assessment of main brain metabolites (glutamate/glutamine, creatine, myoinositol, N-acetylaspartate and choline) whose changes have been demonstrated in several central nervous system pathologies. Exposure to Pb did not affect metabolite profile in the striatum and increase myoinositol signal in the hippocampus of male rats. The increase in myoinositol in hippocampus suggests early Pb-induced alteration in glial metabolism in this brain region and may represent a potential marker of early brain dysfunction during Pb exposure. PMID:22285975

  6. Multimedia exposures to arsenic and lead for children near an inactive mine tailings and smelter site.

    PubMed

    Loh, Miranda M; Sugeng, Anastasia; Lothrop, Nathan; Klimecki, Walter; Cox, Melissa; Wilkinson, Sarah T; Lu, Zhenqiang; Beamer, Paloma I

    2016-04-01

    Children living near contaminated mining waste areas may have high exposures to metals from the environment. This study investigates whether exposure to arsenic and lead is higher in children in a community near a legacy mine and smelter site in Arizona compared to children in other parts of the United States and the relationship of that exposure to the site. Arsenic and lead were measured in residential soil, house dust, tap water, urine, and toenail samples from 70 children in 34 households up to 7 miles from the site. Soil and house dust were sieved, digested, and analyzed via ICP-MS. Tap water and urine were analyzed without digestion, while toenails were washed, digested and analyzed. Blood lead was analyzed by an independent, certified laboratory. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between each environmental media and urine and toenails for arsenic and lead. Geometric mean arsenic (standard deviation) concentrations for each matrix were: 22.1 (2.59) ppm and 12.4 (2.27)ppm for soil and house dust (<63μm), 5.71 (6.55)ppb for tap water, 14.0 (2.01)μg/L for specific gravity-corrected total urinary arsenic, 0.543 (3.22)ppm for toenails. Soil and vacuumed dust lead concentrations were 16.9 (2.03)ppm and 21.6 (1.90) ppm. The majority of blood lead levels were below the limit of quantification. Arsenic and lead concentrations in soil and house dust decreased with distance from the site. Concentrations in soil, house dust, tap water, along with floor dust loading were significantly associated with toenail and urinary arsenic but not lead. Mixed models showed that soil and tap water best predicted urinary arsenic. In our study, despite being present in mine tailings at similar levels, internal lead exposure was not high, but arsenic exposure was of concern, particularly from soil and tap water. Naturally occurring sources may be an additional important contributor to exposures in certain legacy mining areas.

  7. Multimedia exposures to arsenic and lead for children near an inactive mine tailings and smelter site.

    PubMed

    Loh, Miranda M; Sugeng, Anastasia; Lothrop, Nathan; Klimecki, Walter; Cox, Melissa; Wilkinson, Sarah T; Lu, Zhenqiang; Beamer, Paloma I

    2016-04-01

    Children living near contaminated mining waste areas may have high exposures to metals from the environment. This study investigates whether exposure to arsenic and lead is higher in children in a community near a legacy mine and smelter site in Arizona compared to children in other parts of the United States and the relationship of that exposure to the site. Arsenic and lead were measured in residential soil, house dust, tap water, urine, and toenail samples from 70 children in 34 households up to 7 miles from the site. Soil and house dust were sieved, digested, and analyzed via ICP-MS. Tap water and urine were analyzed without digestion, while toenails were washed, digested and analyzed. Blood lead was analyzed by an independent, certified laboratory. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between each environmental media and urine and toenails for arsenic and lead. Geometric mean arsenic (standard deviation) concentrations for each matrix were: 22.1 (2.59) ppm and 12.4 (2.27)ppm for soil and house dust (<63μm), 5.71 (6.55)ppb for tap water, 14.0 (2.01)μg/L for specific gravity-corrected total urinary arsenic, 0.543 (3.22)ppm for toenails. Soil and vacuumed dust lead concentrations were 16.9 (2.03)ppm and 21.6 (1.90) ppm. The majority of blood lead levels were below the limit of quantification. Arsenic and lead concentrations in soil and house dust decreased with distance from the site. Concentrations in soil, house dust, tap water, along with floor dust loading were significantly associated with toenail and urinary arsenic but not lead. Mixed models showed that soil and tap water best predicted urinary arsenic. In our study, despite being present in mine tailings at similar levels, internal lead exposure was not high, but arsenic exposure was of concern, particularly from soil and tap water. Naturally occurring sources may be an additional important contributor to exposures in certain legacy mining areas. PMID:26803211

  8. Does a concomitant exposure to lead influence unfavorably the naphthalene subchronic toxicity and toxicokinetics?

    PubMed

    Katsnelson, Boris A; Minigaliyeva, Ilzira A; Degtyareva, Tamara D; Privalova, Larisa I; Beresneva, Tatyana A

    2014-01-01

    Rats were given 20 times during 40 d either naphthalene per gavage or the same and lead acetate intraperitoneally in single doses corresponding to 5% of the respective 50% lethal doses. The concomitant exposure to lead not only added some typical indicators of lead toxicity to the moderate naphthalene intoxication picture but also exaggerated some less specific indices for intoxication. However, a number of such indices testified to attenuation of naphthalene's adverse effects under the impact of lead. Lead also lowered urinary excretion of both total and conjugated naphthalene, while the free- to total naphthalene ratio in urine sharply increased. These results corroborate implicitly the initial hypothesis that lead, being an inhibitor of cytochrome P450, hinders phase I of the naphthalene biotransformation and, thus, the formation of derivates which can be more toxic but are capable of entering into reactions of conjugation with resulting detoxication and elimination of naphthalene from the body.

  9. Exposure sources and reasons for testing among women with low blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Motao; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gelberg, Kitty H

    2011-08-01

    Previous research has focused on highly elevated blood lead (PbB). This study examined reasons for testing and potential sources of exposure among women with PbBs less than 0.72 μmol/l (15 μg/dl). A questionnaire was mailed to 18- to 49-year-old women in upstate New York, USA, who were PbB tested in 2007. The most common testing reason was pregnancy among 125 women who returned the questionnaire. Among women tested for PbB during pregnancy, doctors ordered approximately 80% of tests regardless of lead level. Few women with PbBs less than 0.24 μmol/l (5 μg/dl) reported a potential source of lead exposure. However, among women with PbBs of 0.24-0.71 μmol/L (5-14.9 μg/dl), 29.2% had a job and 21.2% had a hobby with potential lead exposure. There are systematic differences in reasons for testing and exposure sources among women with PbBs less than 0.72 μmol/l and these differences have implications for screening. PMID:21547811

  10. Using Behavior Change to Reduce Child Lead Exposure in Resource-Poor Settings: A Formative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feit, M. N.; Mathee, A.; Harpham, T.; Barnes, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this formative research was to explore the acceptability and feasibility of changing housekeeping behaviors as a low-cost approach that may reduce childhood lead exposure in Johannesburg, South Africa. Using the Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) methodology, modified housekeeping behaviors were negotiated with participants who…

  11. Ultrasonographic measurement of the femoral cartilage thickness in patients with occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Yıldızgören, Mustafa T; Baki, Ali E; Kara, Murat; Ekiz, Timur; Tiftik, Tülay; Tutkun, Engin; Yılmaz, Hınç; Özçakar, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to compare distal femoral cartilage thicknesses of patients with occupational lead exposure with those of healthy subjects by using ultrasonography. A total of 48 male workers (a mean age of 34.8±6.8 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 25.8±3.1 kg/m(2)) with a likely history of occupational lead exposure and age- and BMI-matched healthy male subjects were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, that is, age, weight, height, occupation, estimated duration of lead exposure, and smoking habits were recorded. Femoral cartilage thickness was assessed from the midpoints of right medial condyle (RMC), right lateral condyle (RLC), right intercondylar area (RIA), left medial condyle (LMC), left lateral condyle (LLC), and left intercondylar area (LIA) by using ultrasonography. Although the workers had higher femoral cartilage thickness values at all measurement sites when compared with those of the control subjects, the difference reached statistical significance at RLC (P=0.010), LMC (P=0.001), and LIA (P=0.039). There were no correlations between clinical parameters and cartilage-thickness values of the workers. Subjects with a history of lead exposure had higher femoral cartilage thickness as compared with the healthy subjects. Further studies, including histological evaluations, are awaited to clarify the clinical relevance of this increase in cartilage thickness and to explore the long-term follow-up especially with respect to osteoarthritis development.

  12. Evaluation of exposure to lead from drinking water in large buildings.

    PubMed

    Deshommes, Elise; Andrews, Robert C; Gagnon, Graham; McCluskey, Tim; McIlwain, Brad; Doré, Evelyne; Nour, Shokoufeh; Prévost, Michèle

    2016-08-01

    Lead results from 78,971 water samples collected in four Canadian provinces from elementary schools, daycares, and other large buildings using regulatory and investigative sampling protocols were analyzed to provide lead concentration distributions. Maximum concentrations reached 13,200 and 3890 μg/L following long and short stagnation periods respectively. High lead levels were persistent in some large buildings, reflected by high median values considering all taps, or specific to a few taps in the building. Simulations using the Integrated Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model and lead concentrations after 30 min of stagnation in the dataset showed that, for most buildings, exposure to lead at the tap does not increase children's blood lead levels (BLLs). However, buildings or taps with extreme concentrations represent a significant health risk to young children attending school or daycare, as the estimated BLL far exceeded the 5 μg/dL threshold. Ingestion of water from specific taps could lead to acute exposure. Finally, for a few taps, the total daily lead intake reached the former World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable level for adults, suggesting potential health risks.

  13. Developmental ethanol exposure leads to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Logan-Garbisch, Theresa; Bortolazzo, Anthony; Luu, Peter; Ford, Audrey; Do, David; Khodabakhshi, Payam; French, Rachael L

    2014-11-11

    Ethanol exposure during development causes an array of developmental abnormalities, both physiological and behavioral. In mammals, these abnormalities are collectively known as fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). We have established a Drosophila melanogaster model of FASD and have previously shown that developmental ethanol exposure in flies leads to reduced expression of insulin-like peptides (dILPs) and their receptor. In this work, we link that observation to dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism and lipid accumulation. Further, we show that developmental ethanol exposure in Drosophila causes oxidative stress, that this stress is a primary cause of the developmental lethality and delay associated with ethanol exposure, and, finally, that one of the mechanisms by which ethanol increases oxidative stress is through abnormal fatty acid metabolism. These data suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ethanol causes the symptoms associated with FASD.

  14. Developmental Ethanol Exposure Leads to Dysregulation of Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Logan-Garbisch, Theresa; Bortolazzo, Anthony; Luu, Peter; Ford, Audrey; Do, David; Khodabakhshi, Payam; French, Rachael L.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during development causes an array of developmental abnormalities, both physiological and behavioral. In mammals, these abnormalities are collectively known as fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). We have established a Drosophila melanogaster model of FASD and have previously shown that developmental ethanol exposure in flies leads to reduced expression of insulin-like peptides (dILPs) and their receptor. In this work, we link that observation to dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism and lipid accumulation. Further, we show that developmental ethanol exposure in Drosophila causes oxidative stress, that this stress is a primary cause of the developmental lethality and delay associated with ethanol exposure, and, finally, that one of the mechanisms by which ethanol increases oxidative stress is through abnormal fatty acid metabolism. These data suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ethanol causes the symptoms associated with FASD. PMID:25387828

  15. Developmental ethanol exposure leads to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Logan-Garbisch, Theresa; Bortolazzo, Anthony; Luu, Peter; Ford, Audrey; Do, David; Khodabakhshi, Payam; French, Rachael L

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during development causes an array of developmental abnormalities, both physiological and behavioral. In mammals, these abnormalities are collectively known as fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). We have established a Drosophila melanogaster model of FASD and have previously shown that developmental ethanol exposure in flies leads to reduced expression of insulin-like peptides (dILPs) and their receptor. In this work, we link that observation to dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism and lipid accumulation. Further, we show that developmental ethanol exposure in Drosophila causes oxidative stress, that this stress is a primary cause of the developmental lethality and delay associated with ethanol exposure, and, finally, that one of the mechanisms by which ethanol increases oxidative stress is through abnormal fatty acid metabolism. These data suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ethanol causes the symptoms associated with FASD. PMID:25387828

  16. Cumulative lead exposure is associated with reduced olfactory recognition performance in elderly men: the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Grashow, Rachel; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    significantly change results. Of all the genes explored, only the presence of one or more HFE variant alleles was significantly associated with olfaction recognition (HFE β = 2.26; 95% CI: 0.09, 4.43; p = 0.04). In a model containing the HFE term and a lead term, the tibia lead parameter estimate dropped by 21% (per 15 μg/g tibia lead: β = −1.25; 95% CI: −2.64, 0.14; p = 0.08) while the HFE term dropped 15% (β = 1.91; 95% CI: −0.28, 4.10; p=0.09). None of the other gene terms were associated with olfactory recognition in this cohort, nor were any gene-lead interaction terms significant. Additional sensitivity analysis in men with MMSE scores of 25 or higher (n = 149) showed a similar but slightly attenuated association between lead and olfactory recognition (per 15 μg/g tibia lead β = −1.39; 95% CI: −3.00, 0.22; p = 0.09) Conclusion Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with reduced olfactory recognition in a cohort of elderly men. The association was similar but not significant in men with better cognitive function as measured by the MMSE. Iron metabolism gene status may also affect olfactory function. PMID:26121922

  17. Formaldehyde exposure affects growth and metabolism of common bean

    SciTech Connect

    Mutters, R.G.; Madore, M. ); Bytnerowicz, A. )

    1993-01-01

    Recent state and federal directives have slated a substantial increase in the use of methanol as an alternative to gasoline in both fleet and private vehicles in the coming decade. The incomplete combustion of methanol produces formaldehyde vapor, and catalytic converter technology that completely oxidizes formaldehyde has yet to be developed. The approach of this study was to use a range of methanol concentrations encompassing levels currently found or that may occur in the future in the ambient air of some heavily polluted areas to test the potential phytotoxicity of formaldehyde. The study had the following objectives: (1) design and build a formaldehyde vapor generator with sufficient capacity for long-term plant fumigations; (2) determine growth response of common bean to formaldehyde; (3) evaluate physiological and biochemical changes of bean plants associated with formaldehyde exposures. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure.

    PubMed

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30tha(-1). We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρs) and envelope (ρe) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0-5nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~years) timescales. PMID

  19. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure.

    PubMed

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30tha(-1). We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρs) and envelope (ρe) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0-5nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~years) timescales.

  20. Subchronic lead exposure, immunotoxicology and increased disease resistance in Japanese quail (Corturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Nain, S; Smits, J E G

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of lead (Pb) on immune responses in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and the pathological impact of exposure to an infectious agent (E. coli O2). Fifty-four, 4-week-old quail were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water at 5 or 50 ppm. All birds were vaccinated with Newcastle Vaccine (NDV) during the third week of contaminant (Pb) exposure. In the fourth week, several arms of the immune response were tested using the T cell based phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test, the B cell mediated antibody response to NVD, and the chemiluminescence assay measuring innate immunity. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to determine the expression of toll like receptor-3 (TLR-3) in the bursa of Fabricius. In the fifth week, quail were challenged with 200 μL of E. coli O2 (1×10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/mL). No clinical signs of Pb toxicity were observed. Morbidity/mortality subsequent to E. coli exposure was lowest in the high exposure group (27.8%) compared to low exposure (44.4%) and control (55.5%) groups. There was no difference in the T-cell-mediated PHA response, primary or secondary immune response or the innate response in Pb exposed groups; however, bursal TLR-3 increased (p<0.05) with higher Pb exposure. No evidence supported that subchronic Pb exposure was immunotoxic to quail at 5 or 50 ppm in drinking water. In contrast, our results provide evidence of a hormetic effect, with Pb exposed birds having lower morbidity and better survival than controls. Subchronic Pb exposure may be immunostimulatory rather than suppressive as predicted in earlier studies based on testing individual immune parameters.

  1. Zearalenone exposure affects epigenetic modifications of mouse eggs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Hou, Yan-Jun; Han, Jun; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-11-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by various Fusarium fungi, which has been shown to cause several cases of mycotoxicosis in farm animals and humans. However, there is no evidence regarding the effect of ZEA on mouse egg developmental competence. In this study, we found that the activation rate of maturated oocytes was affected in mice by ZEA treatment, indicating that ZEA affects egg developmental competence. And we explored possible mechanisms of low mouse maturated oocyte developmental competence after ZEA treatment from an epigenetic modification perspective. The fluorescence intensity analysis showed that 5-methyl cytosine level increased after ZEA treatment, indicating that the general DNA methylation level increased in the treated eggs. Moreover, histone methylations were also altered: H3K4me2 as well as H3K9me3 and H4K20me1, me2, me3 levels decreased in eggs that were cultured in high-dose ZEA medium. Thus, our results indicated that ZEA decreased egg developmental competence by affecting the epigenetic modifications. PMID:25155023

  2. The role of occupational lead exposure in the genesis of psychiatric and behavioral disturbances.

    PubMed

    Baker, E L; Feldman, R G; White, R F; Harley, J P

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study of lead neurotoxicity, exposed foundry workers and referents were evaluated using a comprehensive set of neurobehavioral tests. Other performance indexes were used including a questionnaire, physical examination, and nerve conduction testing. Results show increased rates of depression, confusion, anger, fatigue and tension among workers with blood levels over 40 mcg/dl. Other aspects of neurobehavioral function, including verbal concept formation, memory, and visual/motor performance were also impaired. In view of the large number of individuals exposed to lead in their work, specific inquiries should be made of individuals with affectual complaints to clarify the nature of their work and workplace exposure to lead.

  3. The effects of chronic lead exposure on reactivity to frustrative nonreward in rats.

    PubMed

    Davis, S F; Nation, J R; Mayleben, M A

    1993-03-01

    Prior to straight runway training two groups of rats received lead exposure (500 ppm via the drinking water) for 106 days. Two additional groups of animals received access to plain tap water. An 80-trial runway acquisition phase followed an initial 60-day fluid exposure phase. During acquisition one lead-exposed group and one water-exposed group received 50% partial reinforcement training, while the remaining animals received continuous reinforcement training. An 80-trial extinction phase immediately followed acquisition. Acquisition results were characterized by superior performance by the continuous reinforcement animals. The partial reinforcement animals took significantly longer to extinguish the alleyway response than did the continuous reinforcement animals. Moreover, the lead-exposed, partial reinforcement animals took longer to extinguish in the goal section of the runway than did the water-exposed, partial reinforcement animals. Conversely, the lead-exposed, continuously reinforced animals displayed significantly more rapid goal-measure extinction than did the water-exposed, continuously reinforced animals. When interpreted by the classic frustration theory [1,2], these latter two findings are supportive of a heightened emotional reaction being promulgated by lead exposure.

  4. Lead exposure from indoor firing ranges among students on shooting teams--Alaska, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    2005-06-17

    CDC recognizes blood lead levels (BLLs) of >/=25 microg/dL in adults and >/=10 microg/dL in children aged lead-exposure assessments of school-based indoor shooting teams in the state, after a BLL of 44 microg/dL was reported in a man aged 62 years who coached a high school shooting team in central Alaska. This report summarizes the results of the EPHP investigation of potential lead exposure in 66 members of shooting teams, aged 7-19 years, who used five indoor firing ranges. The findings suggest that improper design, operation, and maintenance of ranges were the likely cause of elevated BLLs among team members at four of the five firing ranges. Public health officials should identify indoor firing ranges that have not implemented lead-safety measures and offer consultation to reduce the risk for lead exposure among shooters, coaches, and employees.

  5. Exposure to lead induces hypoxia-like responses in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana)

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, T.M.; Blackstone, B.J.; Nixdorf, W.L.; Taylor, D.H.

    1999-10-01

    Amphibians collected around mining sites, areas with extensive automobile traffic, and shooting ranges have been documented to contain high levels of lead. Lead-exposed amphibians might respond as if in hypoxic conditions because exposure is known to decrease hemoglobin levels, damage erythrocytes, and alter respiratory surfaces. Therefore, the authors exposed bullfrog larvae to either 0 or 780 {micro}g/L Pb and either 3.50 or 7.85 mg/L oxygen for 7 d and monitored activity, trips to the surface, and buccal ventilation rates. Activity was significantly decreased in larvae exposed to low oxygen, Pb, or both compared to activity of larvae in high oxygen with no Pb. Larvae exposed to both Pb and low oxygen displayed higher buccal ventilation rates than larvae exposed to either treatment separately. Lead-exposed larvae surfaced significantly more often than unexposed larvae even under high-oxygen conditions. Lead-exposed larvae decreased in mass during the exposure period, whereas unexposed larvae increased in mass. Lead exposure could decrease survival of larvae in the field not only because of physiological problems due to decreased oxygen uptake but also because of greater predation pressure due to increased presence at the surface and reduced growth rates.

  6. Hazards to health from environmental lead exposure: a review of recent literature

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, P.J.; Jaeger, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    There are adequate demonstrations of the adult and pediatric health risks associated with lead exposure. This document presents the scientific facts surrounding human health effects as well as providing an interpretation of some of the animal toxicology studies. There are numerous circumstances where economic and societal pressures have resulted in the continued use of materials that are potentially toxic, hazardous and injurious to the public health and welfare. While declining, the present use of lead in gasoline and its airborne release from smelting and metal refining industries located near metropolitan centers is no exception. The demonstration that continued lead exposure from airborne sources results in intellectual deficiency should be sufficient to result in the mobilization of public health resources and the minimization or elimination, if necessary, of such hazards to the public welfare. Based on this review, this is the position that is suggested by the authors of this document. 71 references.

  7. In vivo tibia lead measurements as an index of cumulative exposure in occupationally exposed subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Somervaille, L J; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Tennant, D R; McKiernan, M J; Skilbeck, A; Trethowan, W N

    1988-01-01

    In vivo tibia lead measurements of 20 non-occupationally exposed and 190 occupationally exposed people drawn from three factories were made using a non-invasive x ray fluorescence technique in which characteristic x rays from lead are excited by gamma rays from a cadmium-109 source. The maximum skin dose to a small region of the shin was 0.45 mSv. The relation between tibia lead and blood lead was weak in workers from one factory (r = 0.11, p greater than 0.6) and among the non-occupationally exposed subjects (r = 0.07, p greater than 0.7); however, a stronger relation was observed in the other two factories (r = 0.45, p less than 0.0001 and r = 0.53, p less than 0.0001). Correlation coefficients between tibia lead and duration of employment were consistently higher at all three factories respectively (r = 0.86, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.61, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.80, p less than 0.0001). A strong relation was observed between tibia lead and a simple, time integrated, blood lead index among workers from the two factories from which blood lead histories were available. The regression equation from two groups of workers (n = 88, 79) did not significantly differ despite different exposure conditions. The correlation coefficient for the combined data set (n = 167) was 0.84 (p less than 0.0001). This shows clearly that tibia lead, measured in vivo by x-ray fluorescence, provides a good indicator of long term exposure to lead as assessed by a cumulative blood lead index. Images PMID:3348993

  8. Abnormal lead exposure in globally threatened Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) wintering in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Lee, Doo-Pyo

    2009-02-01

    Globally threatened Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) regularly over-winter in South Korea, and they have frequently been found dead in their natural habitats. As one possible factor for their mortality, we investigated tissues for heavy metal contaminants along with necropsies on 20 dead Cinereous vultures. Severe emaciation was found in the survey, being associated with 19 of the deaths. Two of the 19 showed lesions suggestive of lead poisoning in the tissues; there was no indication of trauma, embedded shot, lead bullets in the stomach, or signs of electrocution in the specimens. Of 20 vultures, two showed lesions compatible with death from lead poisoning with 19.7 ppm dry weight (6.9 ppm wet weight) and 34.1 ppm dry weight (11.1 ppm wet weight), and 14 individuals had a potentially toxic level of lead with >6 ppm dry weight (about 2 ppm wet weight) in liver or kidney. The ingestion of lead-contaminated carcasses probably occurs along their migratory route. The possibility of lead exposure from the breeding site (Mongolia) or stopover area (China) should also be considered because some individuals are likely to die at or upon arrival. Our results suggest that most of the dead Cinereous vultures may be suffering from abnormally high lead exposure, indicating a potentially important cause of mortality in this endangered species.

  9. Evaluation of four sampling methods for determining exposure of children to lead-contaminated household dust

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, D.A.; Roegner, K.C.; Lewis, R.D.; Luke, D.A. . Div. of Environmental and Occupational Health); Wilder, L.C. . Div. of Health Assessment and Consultation); Burchette, S.M. )

    1999-08-01

    Childhood exposure to lead has been demonstrated to result in health effects and lead-contaminated household dust is a primary exposure source. There is a need to establish reliable methods for sampling surfaces to determine levels of lead contamination. Three vacuums (HVS3, GS80, and MVM) and one wipe method were evaluated for the collection of household floor dust under field sampling conditions within a Superfund site and demographically similar control area. Side-by-side floor samples were taken from three locations within 41 randomly selected households between August and September 1995: a child's bedroom, primary play area, and primary entrance. Analysis was performed to assess the relative collection performance of each sampler, spatial distribution of lead within a household, and correlation of lead loading with observed blood lead level, and to determine if discrete or composites samples were more predictive of blood lead levels. Approximately 90% of the floor surfaces were carpeted. The rank order of sampling methods from greatest to lowest collection efficiency was HVS3 > G80 > wipe > MVM. The HVS3 had the highest level of precision (CV = 0.05), with the GS80 and wipe precisions 0.48 and 0.053, respectively.

  10. Current sources of lead exposure and their relative contributions to the blood lead levels in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE Study, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Leroyer, Ariane; Howsam, Mike; Dehon, Betty; Richeval, Camille; Nisse, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    There is justification for limiting lead (Pb) exposure as much as possible, given its impact on health at low concentrations. Consequently, the aim of this study was to measure blood lead levels (BLL) and examine exposure factors related to BLL variations in the general adult population of northern France, a current and past industrial area. Two thousand inhabitants of northern France, aged between 20 and 59 years, were recruited using the quota method with caution. Blood lead levels were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and variation factors were studied separately in men and women using multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regression models. The geometric mean of the BLL was 18.8 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.3-19.3). Occupational factors affected BLL only in men and represented 14% of total explained variance of BLL. External occupational factors significantly increasing mean levels of BLL were tobacco, consumption of some beverages (wine, coffee, tea, and/or tap water), raw vegetables, housing characteristics (built prior to 1948, Pb piping in the home) and do-it-yourself or leisure activities (paint stripping or rifle shooting). Consumption habits accounted together for 25% and 18% of the total explained variance, respectively, in men and women. Industrial environment did not significantly contribute to BLL variations. Blood lead levels observed in the general population of this industrial part of France did not appear to be excessively elevated compared to values found internationally. Nonetheless, these BLL remain a public health issue in regard to nonthreshold toxicity attributed to Pb. PMID:27074096

  11. Current sources of lead exposure and their relative contributions to the blood lead levels in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE Study, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Leroyer, Ariane; Howsam, Mike; Dehon, Betty; Richeval, Camille; Nisse, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    There is justification for limiting lead (Pb) exposure as much as possible, given its impact on health at low concentrations. Consequently, the aim of this study was to measure blood lead levels (BLL) and examine exposure factors related to BLL variations in the general adult population of northern France, a current and past industrial area. Two thousand inhabitants of northern France, aged between 20 and 59 years, were recruited using the quota method with caution. Blood lead levels were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and variation factors were studied separately in men and women using multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regression models. The geometric mean of the BLL was 18.8 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.3-19.3). Occupational factors affected BLL only in men and represented 14% of total explained variance of BLL. External occupational factors significantly increasing mean levels of BLL were tobacco, consumption of some beverages (wine, coffee, tea, and/or tap water), raw vegetables, housing characteristics (built prior to 1948, Pb piping in the home) and do-it-yourself or leisure activities (paint stripping or rifle shooting). Consumption habits accounted together for 25% and 18% of the total explained variance, respectively, in men and women. Industrial environment did not significantly contribute to BLL variations. Blood lead levels observed in the general population of this industrial part of France did not appear to be excessively elevated compared to values found internationally. Nonetheless, these BLL remain a public health issue in regard to nonthreshold toxicity attributed to Pb.

  12. Long-Term Exposure of Lead Acetate on Rabbit Renal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Karimfar, Mohammad Hassan; Bargahi, Afshar; Moshtaghi, Darab; Farzadinia, Parviz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lead has been widely used in different industries for ages. It is one of the heavy metals, highly poisonous even at low doses, and has biochemical, physiological and behavioral side effects on human and animals. It has been shown that lead has toxic effects on different tissues such as neural and genitourinary tissues, cardiovascular systems and blood. Therefore, high attention has been paid to its environmental pollutions. Objectives: Although many histological and biochemical studies have reported about the effects of lead on the renal tissue, there are a few studies about the ultrastructure and morphometric effects of lead on the kidney. Hence, the aim of this study was the evaluation of morphology and morphometrics of rabbit renal urinary barrier ultrastructure following long-term exposure to lead acetate. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 20 male New Zealand rabbits were divided into control and test groups (10 in each). The test group was injected intraperitoneally with chronic dose (8.5 mg/kg of body weight) of lead acetate and for the control group the same volume of normal saline was used, every other day for 10 weeks. After anesthetizing, the biopsies of renal tissues were taken for light and electron microscopic morphometric and morphologic analyses. Results: Long-term exposure to lead acetate caused histopathology effects including dilatation, congestion, nuclei heterochromatic effects, increase in diameter of renal tubules and urinary barrier thickness in rabbit renal tissue. Conclusions: Quantitative and qualitative results of long-term lead acetate exposure showed many histopathology side-effects, especially in the urinary barrier. PMID:27195142

  13. Short exposure to telestereoscope affects the oculomotor system.

    PubMed

    Neveu, Pascaline; Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Plantier, Justin; Roumes, Corinne

    2010-11-01

    Under natural viewing conditions, the accommodation and vergence systems adjust the focus and the binocular alignment of the eyes in response to changes in viewing distance. The two responses are linked via cross-coupling and proceed almost simultaneously. Some optical devices, such as virtual reality or helmet mounted displays, create an oculomotor conflict by modifying demands on both vergence and accommodation. Previous studies extensively investigated the effect of such a conflict on the cross-coupling between vergence and accommodation, but little is known about the plasticity of the whole oculomotor system. In the present study, an oculomotor conflict was induced by a telestereoscope which magnified the standard inter-pupillary separation threefold and thus increased the convergence demand while accommodation remained almost unchanged. The effect of a 10 min exposure was assessed via a series of optometric parameters selected on the basis of existing oculomotor models. Associated with subject's visual complaints, most of the oculomotor parameters tested were modified: there was (1) deterioration of stereoscopic threshold; (2) increase in AC/A ratio; (3) increase in near and far phorias; and (4) shift of the zone of clear and single binocular vision towards convergence. These results showed a change in gain of accommodative vergence and a shift of vergence reserves towards convergence in response to telestereoscopic viewing. The subject's binocular behaviour tended towards esophoria with convergence excess as confirmed by Sheard's and Percival's criteria. Such changes in oculomotor parameters support adaptive behaviour linked with telestereoscopic viewing.

  14. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: the New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Howard W; Covington, Tina P; Mielke, Paul W; Wolman, Fredericka J; Powell, Eric T; Gonzales, Chris R

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 μg/m(2) (454 μg/ft(2)) range 603-56650 μg/m(2) (56-5263 μg/ft(2)) to a median of 398 μg/m(2) (37 μg/ft(2)) range 86-980 μg/m(2) (8-91 μg/ft(2)). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At ∼$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention.

  15. The Relationship of Liver Function Tests to Mixed Exposure to Lead and Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to compare liver function indices (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and gamma glutamyl transferase [GGT]) among males who work with lead, organic solvents, or both lead and organic solvents, under the permissible exposure limit (PEL). Methods A total of 593 (out of 2,218) male workers who agreed to share their personal health information for medical research were selected for this study. Those excluded were hepatitis B carriers, individuals exposed to occupational risk factors other than lead and organic solvents, and individuals without liver function results. The 593 were divided into five groups: a lead-exposed group, an organic solvent-exposed group exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE co-exposed solvent group), an organic solvent-exposed group not exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE non-exposed solvent group), a lead and organic solvent-exposed group (mixed exposure group), and a non-exposed group (control group). We performed a one way-analysis of variance (one way-ANOVA) test to compare the geometric means of liver function indices among the groups, using a general linear model (GLM) to adjust for age, work duration, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake. In addition, we performed a binary logistic regression analysis to compare the odds ratios among groups with an abnormal liver function index, according to a cut-off value. Results The ALT and AST of the mixed exposure group were higher than those of the other groups. The GGT of the mixed exposure group was higher than the TCE co-exposed solvent group, but there was no difference among the control group, TCE non-exposed solvent group, lead-exposed group, and mixed exposure group. The same result was evident after adjusting by GLM for age, work duration, BMI, smoking, and alcohol intake, except that ALT from the mixed exposure group showed no difference from the TCE co-exposed solvent group. When the cut-off values of the AST, ALT, and GGT

  16. Lead concentration in the blood of the general population living near a lead-zinc mine site, Nigeria: Exposure pathways.

    PubMed

    Bello, Olanrewaju; Naidu, Ravi; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Liu, Yanju; Dong, Zhaomin

    2016-01-15

    Lead (Pb) poisoning in children is a major public health catastrophe worldwide. This report summarises both exposure pathways and blood Pb levels in children below 7 years of age and adults (above 18 years) from the Adudu community living near a lead-zinc mine in Nasawara, Nigeria. The average and median blood Pb levels in children and adults were 2.1 and 1.3 μg/dL, 3.1 and 1.8 μg/dL, respectively. However, Pb in 14% of adults' blood exceeded 5 μg/dL, which is the recommended threshold blood Pb concentration in adults as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore 68% of adults' blood exceeded blood Pb action level of 2 μg/dL. For children, 11.4% and 31% of the blood samples exceeded 5 μg/dL and 2 μg/dL, respectively, while no safe blood Pb level in children has been recommended. In Nasawara, a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the various age groups in children with 2-4 years old having the highest levels and 6 year old children having the lowest Pb levels. Although this study did not detect elevated levels of Pb in children's blood in regions such as Zamfara, Nigeria and Kabwe, Zambia, a high percentage of samples exceeded 2 μg/dL. Soils, floor dusts, water and crops also reveal that Pb contamination in the study area could potentially be the major cause of blood Pb in the community exposed to mining. This study also observed a significant correlation between water Pb levels of adults and blood Pb levels, suggesting that water is the major exposure pathway. This analysis highlights the need to properly manage mining activities so that the health of communities living in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine is not compromised. PMID:26556755

  17. Lead concentration in the blood of the general population living near a lead-zinc mine site, Nigeria: Exposure pathways.

    PubMed

    Bello, Olanrewaju; Naidu, Ravi; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Liu, Yanju; Dong, Zhaomin

    2016-01-15

    Lead (Pb) poisoning in children is a major public health catastrophe worldwide. This report summarises both exposure pathways and blood Pb levels in children below 7 years of age and adults (above 18 years) from the Adudu community living near a lead-zinc mine in Nasawara, Nigeria. The average and median blood Pb levels in children and adults were 2.1 and 1.3 μg/dL, 3.1 and 1.8 μg/dL, respectively. However, Pb in 14% of adults' blood exceeded 5 μg/dL, which is the recommended threshold blood Pb concentration in adults as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore 68% of adults' blood exceeded blood Pb action level of 2 μg/dL. For children, 11.4% and 31% of the blood samples exceeded 5 μg/dL and 2 μg/dL, respectively, while no safe blood Pb level in children has been recommended. In Nasawara, a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the various age groups in children with 2-4 years old having the highest levels and 6 year old children having the lowest Pb levels. Although this study did not detect elevated levels of Pb in children's blood in regions such as Zamfara, Nigeria and Kabwe, Zambia, a high percentage of samples exceeded 2 μg/dL. Soils, floor dusts, water and crops also reveal that Pb contamination in the study area could potentially be the major cause of blood Pb in the community exposed to mining. This study also observed a significant correlation between water Pb levels of adults and blood Pb levels, suggesting that water is the major exposure pathway. This analysis highlights the need to properly manage mining activities so that the health of communities living in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine is not compromised.

  18. Methods for reducing lead exposure in young children and other risk groups: an integrated summary of a report to the U.S. Congress on childhood lead poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Mushak, P; Crocetti, A F

    1990-01-01

    As part of a Congressionally mandated report on U.S. childhood lead poisoning prepared by the Federal government (U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry [ATSDR]), the authors have analyzed the relative effectiveness of measures to reduce source-specific lead exposure of U.S. children. An integrated overview of this analysis is presented in this article. Two national actions, the Federally mandated phasedown of lead in gasoline by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the voluntary phasedown of lead use in domestic food can production, are examples of centrally directed initiatives that have been relatively successful in limiting childhood lead exposure in the U.S. Efforts to abate lead-based paint exposure of children have largely failed. This is especially true for the nation's 21 million residential units with the highest lead content paint. Similarly, abatement of lead exposure from contaminated dusts and soils has generally been unsuccessful. Comprehensive measures to reduce lead exposure from drinking water in residences and public facilities, e.g., elementary schools, are only now being promulgated or implemented. The full extent of their effectiveness remains to be demonstrated. There are many miscellaneous but potentially severe exposure sources that are difficult to control but require attention, such as poorly glazed foodware and ethno-specific preparations. PMID:2088738

  19. Factors affecting lead and cadmium levels in house dust in industrial areas of eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-08-30

    The indoor exposure of 381 women (52-59 years old) to lead and cadmium was assessed by measuring the levels of the contaminants in sedimented house dust. The study was conducted in the areas surrounding the towns of Hettstedt, a region of mining and smelting of non-ferrous ores, of Bitterfeld, a centre of chemical production and coal mining, and of Zerbst, a primarily agricultural area. Factors that were significantly associated with lead and cadmium surface loading rates included the city area of residence, urban environment of dwelling, ventilation behaviour, type of heating, year of construction of building and crowding in the sampling room. In metal-contaminated areas, the transport of heavy metals into the home from external sources and their subsequent resuspension into the air due to normal household activities are significant factors in the exposure to heavy metals, whereas in unpolluted areas indoor sources play the major role.

  20. Altered miRNA expression in the cervix during pregnancy associated with lead and mercury exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Alison P; Burris, Heather H; Just, Allan C; Motta, Valeria; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Svensson, Katherine; Oken, Emily; Solano-Gonzalez, Maritsa; Mercado-Garcia, Adriana; Pantic, Ivan; Schwartz, Joel; Tellez-Rojo, Martha M; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Toxic metals including lead and mercury are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the association between miRNA expression in the cervix during pregnancy with lead and mercury levels. Materials & methods: We obtained cervical swabs from pregnant women (n = 60) and quantified cervical miRNA expression. Women's blood lead, bone lead and toenail mercury levels were analyzed. We performed linear regression to examine the association between metal levels and expression of 74 miRNAs adjusting for covariates. Results: Seventeen miRNAs were negatively associated with toenail mercury levels, and tibial bone lead levels were associated with decreased expression of miR-575 and miR-4286. Conclusion: The findings highlight miRNAs in the human cervix as novel responders to maternal chemical exposure during pregnancy. PMID:26418635

  1. An exposure and health risk assessment of lead (Pb) in lipstick.

    PubMed

    Monnot, Andrew D; Christian, Whitney V; Abramson, Matthew M; Follansbee, Mark H

    2015-06-01

    Lead (Pb) content in lipstick and other consumer products has become an increasing concern. In 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration tested 400 lipstick samples and found a maximum Pb concentration of 7.19 ppm. To assess the safety of lipstick in adults that chronically apply lipstick as well as instances where children might incidentally ingest lipstick products, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Adult Lead Model and Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children were used to determine the blood Pb concentrations of adults and children ingesting varying amounts of lipstick of different Pb concentrations. Modeled blood Pb concentrations were compared with oral ingestion guidelines and to the Centers for Disease Control and the US EPA's actionable blood Pb levels of 5 and 10 µg/dL. Background Pb exposure was the primary contributor to estimated blood Pb levels (BLLs) in children and adults, and Pb exposure from lipstick did not significantly increase estimated BLLs. These results suggest that the safety of consumer products and cosmetics should be assessed not only by the presence and amounts of hazardous contents, but also in conjunction with an assessment of estimated background exposures and comparison to health-based standards. PMID:25839902

  2. An exposure and health risk assessment of lead (Pb) in lipstick.

    PubMed

    Monnot, Andrew D; Christian, Whitney V; Abramson, Matthew M; Follansbee, Mark H

    2015-06-01

    Lead (Pb) content in lipstick and other consumer products has become an increasing concern. In 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration tested 400 lipstick samples and found a maximum Pb concentration of 7.19 ppm. To assess the safety of lipstick in adults that chronically apply lipstick as well as instances where children might incidentally ingest lipstick products, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Adult Lead Model and Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children were used to determine the blood Pb concentrations of adults and children ingesting varying amounts of lipstick of different Pb concentrations. Modeled blood Pb concentrations were compared with oral ingestion guidelines and to the Centers for Disease Control and the US EPA's actionable blood Pb levels of 5 and 10 µg/dL. Background Pb exposure was the primary contributor to estimated blood Pb levels (BLLs) in children and adults, and Pb exposure from lipstick did not significantly increase estimated BLLs. These results suggest that the safety of consumer products and cosmetics should be assessed not only by the presence and amounts of hazardous contents, but also in conjunction with an assessment of estimated background exposures and comparison to health-based standards.

  3. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Stephani; Arora, Monica; Fernandez, Cristina; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph; Chen, Aimin

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives: To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods: We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. -- Highlights: • Blood Pb levels are associated with ADHD diagnosis in children. • No association was found between blood Cd or Hg levels and ADHD. • Children living close to hazardous waste site need to reduce metal exposure.

  4. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    SciTech Connect

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  5. Exposure to PCB 77 affects partner preference but not sexual behavior in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J A; Clemens, L G; Nunez, A A

    2008-10-20

    In rats, exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl congener 3, 4, 3', 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) affects the brain and behavior of the offspring as well as the maternal behavior of the dams. In the present study, a cross-fostering design was used to examine the effects of pre- and/or postnatal exposure to PCB 77 on sexual behavior and partner preference in female rats, and to determine the role of altered maternal behavior in the mediation of these effects. Pregnant rats were treated with oil or PCB dissolved in oil (2 mg/kg b.w.) on gestation days 6-18 and then given pups that had been exposed to either the oil vehicle or PCB during gestation. As adults, the female offspring were tested for partner preference (that is, whether they preferred to spend time with a sexually receptive female or a sexually active male) and sexual behavior. None of the treatments affected female sexual behavior. However, both double exposure and postnatal exposure diminished the animals' preference for a male over a female stimulus, but partner preference was not affected by prenatal exposure alone. There were no significant correlations between the changes in partner preferences due to PCB exposure and the amount of maternal grooming and licking received by the treated litters. Thus, female partner preference is affected by early PCB exposure, and the effects depend upon whether the exposure is in utero or via lactation and may be independent of any effects of the PCB on maternal care.

  6. Task-based lead exposures and work site characteristics of bridge surface preparation and painting contractors.

    PubMed

    Virji, M Abbas; Woskie, Susan R; Pepper, Lewis D

    2009-02-01

    This study of bridge painters working for small contractors in Massachusetts investigated the causes of elevated blood lead levels and assessed their exposure to lead. Bridge work sites were evaluated for a 2-week period during which personal and area air samples and information on work site characteristics and lead abatement methods were gathered. Short-duration personal inhalable samples collected from 18 tasks had geometric means (GM) of 3 microg/m(3) to 7286 microg/m(3). Full-shift, time-weighted average (TWA) inhalable samples (>or=6 hours) collected from selected workers and work sites had GMs of 2 microg/m(3) to 15,704 microg/m(3); 80% of samples exceeded the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 microg/m(3), on average by a factor of 30. Area inhalable samples collected from three locations ranged from 2 microg/m(3) to 40,866 microg/m(3) from inside the containment, 2 microg/m(3) to 471 microug/m(3) from a distance of <6 meters, and 2 microg/m(3) to 121 microg/m(3) from >6 meters from the containment. Seventy nine percent of the area samples from inside the containment exceeded the PEL on average by a factor of 140. Through observations of work site characteristics, opportunities for improving work methods were identified, particularly the institution of engineering controls (which were only occasionally present) and improvement in the design and construction of the containment structure. The high levels of airborne lead exposures indicate a potential for serious exposure hazard for workers and environmental contamination, which can be mitigated through administrative and engineering controls. Although these data were collected over 10 years ago, a 2005 regulatory review by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of its lead in construction standard reported that elevated lead exposures and blood lead levels, high occurrence of noncompliance with the lead standard, and nonimplementation of newer technology especially among small painting

  7. Endocrine mechanisms underlying the growth effects of developmental lead exposure in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ronis, M J; Badger, T M; Shema, S J; Roberson, P K; Templer, L; Ringer, D; Thomas, P E

    1998-05-22

    A dose-response study was conducted to examine the growth suppression associated with developmental lead exposure in a rat model and to determine the endocrine mechanisms underlying these effects. Ad libitum intake of lead acetate (0.05% to 0.45% w/v) was initiated in time-impregnated female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10-15/group) at gestational day 5. At birth, pups were culled to four male and four females per litter. Lead exposure of dams continued until weaning, following which lead exposure of pups was continued until sacrifice at age 2 , 35, 55, and 85 days. Birth weight and prepubertal and pubertal growth rates were significantly suppressed. Growth rates were suppressed to a much greater degree in male as compared to female pups. Decreased growth rates were accompanied by a significant decrease in plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) concentrations and (1) a significant increase in pituitary growth hormone (GH) content during puberty in pups of both sexes, (2) a delay in the developmental profiles of the GH-dependent male-specific liver enzymes cytochrome P-450 CYP2C11 and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene sulfotransferase, and (3) continued suppression of these enzymes in lead-exposed adult male pups. In addition, significant decreases in plasma sex steroids, testosterone (male) and 17beta-estradiol (female), were observed during puberty. Postpuberty, at age 85 d, both IGF1 and sex steroid levels were indistinguishable from control pups despite continued lead exposure. Growth rates were also similar in control and lead-exposed pups between age 57 and 85 d. Data suggest that the mechanism underlying lead-induced sex-independent suppression of growth observed in these studies involves disruption of GH secretion during puberty. It is possible that the mechanisms underlying the greater suppression of somatic growth observed at puberty in lead-exposed male offspring may be due to the additional hypoandrogenization produced by the action of lead on the

  8. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    PubMed Central

    Bouman, Daniëlle; Stins, John F.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward) pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may have modulated whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated to date. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to seven different durations, varying from 100 to 4000 ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli. The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a) diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b) increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c) decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. Instead the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high) explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach motivation

  9. The effect of exposure to employees from mining and milling operations in a uranium mine on lead isotopes--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian L; Mizon, Karen J; Dickson, Bruce L; Korsch, Michael J

    2005-03-01

    Potential exposure during mining and milling of uranium ore has resulted in the industry being highly regulated. Exposure can arise from inhalation of the daughter product radioactive gas radon (222Rn), inhalation of radioactive dust particles from mining and milling, direct irradiation from outside the body, and ingestion of radionuclides (e.g. uranium or radium) in food or water. Making use of the highly unusual lead isotopic signature for uranium ores (high 206Pb/204Pb from the high uranium content, low 208Pb/204Pb from the low Th/U ratio), we undertook a pilot study of nine male mine employees and three controls from the Ranger uranium mine in the Northern Territory Australia to determine if it was feasible to use lead isotopes in blood to identify exposure to uranium-derived materials. The lead isotopic data for the mine employees and controls plot in two distinct fields which are consistent with predicted isotopic patterns. Assuming retention of 10% of the ingested lead, then the increases seen in 206Pb represent intakes of between 0.9 and 15 mg, integrated over the years of exposure. The small amount of lead does not affect blood lead concentrations, but appears to be sufficient to be detectable with sensitive isotopic methods. Further studies, including those on urine, should be undertaken to confirm the veracity of the lead isotope method in monitoring exposure of uranium industry employees.

  10. The suitability of EBC-Pb as a new biomarker to assess occupational exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Félix, Pedro M; Almeida, Susana Marta; Franco, Cristiana; Almeida, António Bugalho; Lopes, Carlos; Claro, Maria Inês; Fragoso, Elsa; Teles, Catarina; Wolterbeek, Hubert Th; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead (Pb) requires continuous surveillance to assure, as much as possible, safe and healthful working conditions. This study addresses the suitability of assessing Pb exposure in relevant workers using their exhaled breath condensate (EBC). This study enrolled workers of two different Pb processing industries characterized by moderate and high Pb exposure levels in the work environment, and a group of non-exposed individuals working in offices who served as baseline for Pb exposure. The EBC-Pb of workers reflected the Pb levels in the work environment of all three settings, although the relationship with B-Pb was not clear. The lack of correlation between EBC-Pb and B-Pb most probably indicates the time lag for Pb to enter in the two body pools. The EBC-Pb seems to reflect immediate exposure, providing a prompt signature of Pb in the environmental that may interact directly with the organ. By delivering short-term evaluation of exposure, EBC-Pb represents a clear advantage in biomonitoring and may become an interesting tool for estimating organ burden.

  11. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-03-11

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  12. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  13. Cognitive disparities, lead plumbing, and water chemistry: prior exposure to water-borne lead and intelligence test scores among World War Two U.S. Army enlistees.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Joseph P; Rolf, Karen; Troesken, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Higher prior exposure to water-borne lead among male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees was associated with lower intelligence test scores. Exposure was proxied by urban residence and the water pH levels of the cities where enlistees lived in 1930. Army General Classification Test scores were six points lower (nearly 1/3 standard deviation) where pH was 6 (so the water lead concentration for a given amount of lead piping was higher) than where pH was 7 (so the concentration was lower). This difference rose with time exposed. At this time, the dangers of exposure to lead in water were not widely known and lead was ubiquitous in water systems, so these results are not likely the effect of individuals selecting into locations with different levels of exposure.

  14. Neonatal Nicotine Exposure Leads to Hypothalamic Gliosis in Adult Overweight Rats.

    PubMed

    Younes-Rapozo, V; Moura, E G; Manhães, A C; Pinheiro, C R; Carvalho, J C; Barradas, P C; de Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytes and microglia, the immune competent cells of central nercous system, can be activated in response to metabolic signals such as obesity and hyperleptinaemia. In rats, maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation leads to central obesity, hyperleptinaemia, leptin resistance and alterations in hypothalamic neuropeptides in the offspring during adulthood. In the present study, we studied the activation of astrocytes and microglia, as well as the pattern of inflammatory mediators, in adult offspring of this experimental model. On postnatal day 2 (P2), osmotic minipumps releasing nicotine (NIC) (-6 mg/kg/day) or saline for 14 days were s.c. implanted in dams. Male offspring were killed on P180 and hypothalamic immunohistochemistry, retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT) polymerase chain reaction analysis and multiplex analysis for plasma inflammatory mediators were carried out. At P180, NIC astrocyte cell number was higher in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) (medial: +82%; lateral: +110%), in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (+144%) and in the lateral hypothalamus (+121%). NIC glial fibrillary acidic protein fibre density was higher in the lateral ARC (+178%) and in the PVN (+183%). Interleukin-6 was not affected in the hypothalamus. NIC monocyte chemotactic protein 1 was only higher in the periventricular nucleus (+287%). NIC microglia (iba-1-positive) cell number was higher (+68%) only in the PVN, as was the chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 density (+93%). NIC interleukin-10 was lower in the WAT (-58%) and plasma (-50%). Thus, offspring of mothers exposed to nicotine during lactation present hypothalamic astrogliosis at adulthood and microgliosis in the PVN.

  15. The effect of the OSHA lead exposure in construction standard on blood lead levels among iron workers employed in bridge rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Levin, S M; Goldberg, M; Doucette, J T

    1997-03-01

    Over 50,000 workers are at risk of occupational exposure to lead in the course of renovating the nation's deteriorating infrastructure. In mid-1993, to control exposure to lead in the construction setting OSHA promulgated a Lead in Construction Standard. In this study, we assessed the effect of the mandated changes in exposure conditions which followed the introduction of this new standard. We analyzed changes in baseline and maximum blood lead concentrations and in maximum increments in blood lead levels before and after introduction of the standard among iron workers employed in the renovation of a large, lead-painted, steel bridge in New York City. Results indicated that baseline and maximum blood lead levels fell significantly after the implementation of the provisions of the standard, as did maximum increments in blood lead concentrations. Seventy-six percent of the workers maintained blood lead concentrations below 20 micrograms/dl after the OSHA standard, as compared with 66% prior to its implementation. Increments of 20 micrograms/dl or more occurred considerably more frequently before introduction of the standard (13% before vs. 4% after; p = 0.01). Evidence of decreased exposure to lead was observed among iron workers who were present both before and after the introduction of the OSHA standard, as well as among iron workers newly hired after the OSHA provisions were put in place. These findings document the effectiveness of the OSHA construction lead standard in controlling exposure to lead in this complex and variable environment. The data indicate the utility of blood lead determinations in assessing the outcome of industrial hygiene interventions to reduce exposures to lead in the construction setting.

  16. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  17. Poisoning of wild birds from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and lead: diagnostic methods and selected cases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate compounds have largely replaced chlorinated hydrocarbons for pesticidal use in the United States, and many cases of poisoning resulting from exposure to these anticholinesterase agents have occurred in free-living birds. Although lead shot has been prohibited for waterfowl hunting throughout the United States since 1991, lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is still occasionally seen in wild birds, and lead poisoning from the ingestion of fishing sinkers is an emerging issue of concern. A thorough history, a complete necropsy evaluation, and appropriate laboratory analysis of tissues are required to diagnose toxicoses in wild birds, including those caused by anticholinesterase compounds and lead. The interpretation of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity results depends on the methods of analysis and comparison with expected normal enzyme activities in brain tissue from the same species. Although lead residues in tissues vary among species, many lead poisoned birds have tissue residues that are much higher than the lower threshold commonly accepted for a diagnosis of lead poisoning. We review histories, necropsy findings, and analytical methodologies and results for selected anticholinesterase and lead poisoning cases diagnosed in wild raptors, waterfowl, and loons.

  18. Identification of patterns in diffraction intensities affected by radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Borek, Dominika; Dauter, Zbigniew; Otwinowski, Zbyszek

    2013-01-01

    In an X-ray diffraction experiment, the structure of molecules and the crystal lattice changes owing to chemical reactions and physical processes induced by the absorption of X-ray photons. These structural changes alter structure factors, affecting the scaling and merging of data collected at different absorbed doses. Many crystallographic procedures rely on the analysis of consistency between symmetry-equivalent reflections, so failure to account for the drift of their intensities hinders the structure solution and the interpretation of structural results. The building of a conceptual model of radiation-induced changes in macromolecular crystals is the first step in the process of correcting for radiation-induced inconsistencies in diffraction data. Here the complexity of radiation-induced changes in real and reciprocal space is analysed using matrix singular value decomposition applied to multiple complete datasets obtained from single crystals. The model consists of a resolution-dependent decay correction and a uniform-per-unique-reflection term modelling specific radiation-induced changes. This model is typically sufficient to explain radiation-induced effects observed in diffraction intensities. This analysis will guide the parameterization of the model, enabling its use in subsequent crystallographic calculations.

  19. Evaluation of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Hematological Changes Affected with Hazards of Electromagnetic Field Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Baieth, H. E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study if the GBE 761 (Ginkgo biloba leaves extract) which is beneficial in arterial disease owing to its vasodilator and blood flow acts against the hazards of exposure to electromagnetic field. Here, the GBE was used in two ways either as a protector or for treating the hazards due to exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF). For this purpose, albino rats were grouped into six groups and blood samples were collected from eye vein of the animals from all groups at the end of the experiment. This study concentrates on the cellular membrane and function of the RBCs and focuses on the rheological and physical measurements for blood and hemoglobin molecule because the RBCs membranes play an essential role in the blood flow rate. The changes in its biophysical properties of RBCs membrane will affect its capability for carrying on its metabolic functions. Furthermore, the molecular diameter of hemoglobin, its relaxation time and conductivity were calculated from the dielectric relaxation data. The results indicate that the administration of GBE led to the decrease of RBCs membrane elasticity will lead to the increase of the blood viscosity. Results suggest that GBE may be not of clinical value as anti-oxidant drug for such diseases occurred due to to EMF exposure for long time. It may be conclude that through treatment with those extract some physical measurements like “viscosity of blood, Osmotic fragility to measure the hemolysis rat of RBCs, the radius and the conductivity of hemoglobin molecule” should be considered during the time of treatment. Overall, these leaves (GBE) need more study and there is a recommendation to put the physical parameters parallel to the clinical study. PMID:23675142

  20. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices

    SciTech Connect

    Umoren, J.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-01

    Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Lead and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.

  1. Lead, Mercury, and Cadmium Exposure and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Stephani; Arora, Monica; Fernandez, Cristina; Caruso, Joseph; Landero, Julio; Chen, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and Others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Results Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb Geometric Mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. PMID:24034783

  2. Cancer and occupational exposure to inorganic lead compounds: a meta-analysis of published data.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, H; Boffetta, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To review and summarise the epidemiological evidence on the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure to inorganic lead. METHODS--Case-control and cohort studies were reviewed and combined for meta-analysis. Fixed and random effect methods were used to estimate the summary effects. RESULTS--The combined results show a significant excess risk of overall cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, and bladder cancer, with relative risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in the meta-analysis of 1.11 (1.05-1.17), 1.33 (1.18-1.49), 1.29 (1.10-1.50), and 1.41 (1.16-1.71) respectively. The RR (95% CI) for kidney cancer was also high, but did not reach significance (1.19 (0.96-1.48)). A separate analysis of studies of heavily exposed workers provided slightly increased RRs for cancers of the stomach (1.50) and lung (1.42). CONCLUSIONS--The findings from the workers with heavy exposure to lead provided some evidence to support the hypothesis of an association between stomach and lung cancer and exposure to lead. The main limitation of the present analysis is that the excess risks do not take account of potential confounders, because little information was available for other occupational exposures, smoking, and dietary habits. To some extent, the risk of lung cancer might be explained by confounders such as tobacco smoking and exposure to other occupational carcinogens. The excess risk of stomach cancer may also be explained, at least in part, by non-occupational factors. For bladder and kidney cancers, the excess risks are only suggestive of a true effect because of possible publication bias. PMID:7757170

  3. High-order aberration control during exposure for leading-edge lithography projection optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmura, Yasuhiro; Tsuge, Yosuke; Hirayama, Toru; Ikezawa, Hironori; Inoue, Daisuke; Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Koizumi, Yukio; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Nakashima, Toshiharu; Kikuchi, Takahisa; Onda, Minoru; Takase, Yohei; Nagahiro, Akimasa; Isago, Susumu; Kawahara, Hidetaka

    2016-03-01

    High throughput with high resolution imaging has been key to the development of leading-edge microlithography. However, management of thermal aberrations due to lens heating during exposure has become critical for simultaneous achievement of high throughput and high resolution. Thermal aberrations cause CD drift and overlay error, and these errors lead directly to edge placement errors (EPE). Management and control of high order thermal aberrations is a critical requirement. In this paper, we will show practical performance of the lens heating with dipole and other typical illumination conditions for finer patterning. We confirm that our new control system can reduce the high-order aberrations and enable critical-dimension uniformity CDU during the exposure.

  4. The effect of occupational lead exposure on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and plasma viscosity.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Słowińska-Łożyńska, Ludmiła; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Birkner, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of occupational lead (Pb) exposure on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and plasma viscosity in workers. The examined group included 283 healthy male employees of manufacturing facilities using zinc and Pb. The mean blood concentrations of Pb and zinc protoporphyrin as well as the mean urine δ-aminolevulinic acid levels were used as markers of exposure for the examined group. Taking into account the obtained mean values of blood lead level, the examined group was divided into three subgroups. When comparing the control group with the subgroups, Pb exposure markers were significantly elevated in all the three subgroups. Concentrations of conjugated dienes (CD), lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl groups were also significantly increased. Conversely, the levels of total protein and protein sulfhydryls were significantly decreased in the subgroups compared with the controls. The plasma viscosity was significantly elevated in the subgroups. A dose-response between Pb levels and plasma viscosity was not observed. Pb supposedly elevates MDA and CD in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, occupational Pb exposure induces oxidative stress that results in lipid and protein damage. Moreover, Pb-induced oxidative stress is likely the primary factor that elevates plasma viscosity, despite decreased protein levels.

  5. Duration of Exposure to Elevated Temperature Affects Competitive Interactions in Juvenile Reef Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Donald T.; Donelson, Jennifer M.; McCormick, Mark I.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Munday, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will affect key ecological processes that structure natural communities, but the outcome of interactions between individuals and species will depend on their thermal plasticity. We tested how short- and long-term exposure to projected future temperatures affects intraspecific and interspecific competitive interactions in two species of coral reef damselfishes. In conspecific contests, juvenile Ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, exhibited no change in aggressive interactions after 4d exposure to higher temperatures. However, after 90d of exposure, fish showed a nonadaptive reduction in aggression at elevated temperatures. Conversely, 4d exposure to higher temperature increased aggression towards conspecifics in the lemon damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis. 90d exposure began to reduce this pattern, but overall there was little effect of temperature. Aggression in interspecific contests increased with short-term exposure, but was significantly lower after long-term exposure indicative of acclimation. Our results show how the length of exposure to elevated temperature can affect the outcome of competitive interactions. Furthermore, we illustrate that results from intraspecific contests may not accurately predict interspecific interactions, which will challenge our ability to generalise the effects of warming on competitive interactions. PMID:27736924

  6. Lead Exposure during Early Human Development and DNA Methylation of Imprinted Gene Regulatory Elements in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Xie, Changchun; Murphy, Susan K.; Skaar, David; Nye, Monica; Vidal, Adriana C.; Cecil, Kim M.; Dietrich, Kim N.; Puga, Alvaro; Jirtle, Randy L.; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lead exposure during early development causes neurodevelopmental disorders by unknown mechanisms. Epidemiologic studies have focused recently on determining associations between lead exposure and global DNA methylation; however, such approaches preclude the identification of loci that may alter human disease risk. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal, postnatal, and early childhood lead exposure can alter the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that control the monoallelic expression of imprinted genes involved in metabolism, growth, and development. Methods: Questionnaire data and serial blood lead levels were obtained from 105 participants (64 females, 41 males) of the Cincinnati Lead Study from birth to 78 months. When participants were adults, we used Sequenom EpiTYPER assays to test peripheral blood DNA to quantify CpG methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes at DMRs of 22 human imprinted genes. Statistical analyses were conducted using linear regression. Results: Mean blood lead concentration from birth to 78 months was associated with a significant decrease in PEG3 DMR methylation (β = –0.0014; 95% CI: –0.0023, –0.0005, p = 0.002), stronger in males (β = –0.0024; 95% CI: –0.0038, –0.0009, p = 0.003) than in females (β = –0.0009; 95% CI: –0.0020, 0.0003, p = 0.1). Elevated mean childhood blood lead concentration was also associated with a significant decrease in IGF2/H19 (β = –0.0013; 95% CI: –0.0023, –0.0003, p = 0.01) DMR methylation, but primarily in females, (β = –0.0017; 95% CI: –0.0029, –0.0006, p = 0.005) rather than in males, (β = –0.0004; 95% CI: –0.0023, 0.0015, p = 0.7). Elevated blood lead concentration during the neonatal period was associated with higher PLAGL1/HYMAI DMR methylation regardless of sex (β = 0.0075; 95% CI: 0.0018, 0.0132, p = 0.01). The magnitude of associations between cumulative lead exposure and CpG methylation remained unaltered from

  7. Incidence of nephrolithiasis in relation to environmental exposure to lead and cadmium in a population study.

    PubMed

    Hara, Azusa; Yang, Wen-Yi; Petit, Thibault; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Gu, Yu-Mei; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte; Odili, Augustine N; Thijs, Lutgarde; Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A

    2016-02-01

    Whether environmental exposure to nephrotoxic agents that potentially interfere with calcium homeostasis, such as lead and cadmium, contribute to the incidence of nephrolithiasis needs further clarification. We investigated the relation between nephrolithiasis incidence and environmental lead and cadmium exposure in a general population. In 1302 participants randomly recruited from a Flemish population (50.9% women; mean age, 47.9 years), we obtained baseline measurements (1985-2005) of blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) and covariables. We monitored the incidence of kidney stones until October 6, 2014. We used Cox regression to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for nephrolithiasis. At baseline, geometric mean BPb, BCd and UCd was 0.29µmol/L, 9.0nmol/L, and 8.5nmol per 24h, respectively. Over 11.5 years (median), nephrolithiasis occurred in 40 people. Contrasting the low and top tertiles of the distributions, the sex- and age-standardized rates of nephrolithiasis expressed as events per 1000 person-years were 0.68 vs. 3.36 (p=0.0016) for BPb, 1.80 vs. 3.28 (p=0.11) for BCd, and 1.65 vs. 2.95 (p=0.28) for UCd. In continuous analysis, with adjustments applied for sex, age, serum magnesium, and 24-h urinary volume and calcium, the hazard ratios expressing the risk associated with a doubling of the exposure biomarkers were 1.35 (p=0.015) for BPb, 1.13 (p=0.22) for BCd, and 1.23 (p=0.070) for UCd. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental lead exposure is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis in the general population. PMID:26613344

  8. [The role of toxininduced autoimmune activity in formation of the endotoxemia during the lead exposure].

    PubMed

    Karlova, E A; Sheĭman, B S; Iavorovskiĭ, O P

    2014-01-01

    Here presented the features of formation of endotoxemia at microsaturnism. Here are the results of the retrospective study of toxininduced autoimmune activity and their role in toxemia depending on the degree of exposure of lead. Investigated the mechanisms of production of toxins and damaging potentials activity, molecular size toxins and parameters of their distribution and accumulation in the blood stream, due to the strength of toxinbearing fractions depending on the degree of microsaturnism.

  9. Biologic indicators of exposure to cadmium and lead palmerton, Pennsylvania. Part 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sarasua, S.M.; McGeehin, M.A.; Stallings, F.L.; Terracciano, G.L.; Amler, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    In Part 2 of this study, no difference was reported in the results of medical tests of the blood, liver, kidney, and immune systems of participants living in the two study areas. No relationships was found between exposure to cadmium and lead and the immune, liver, and blood system tests. No community wide medical action is needed in Palmerton based on the results of this study. No further site-specific health studies are recommended.

  10. Incidence of nephrolithiasis in relation to environmental exposure to lead and cadmium in a population study.

    PubMed

    Hara, Azusa; Yang, Wen-Yi; Petit, Thibault; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Gu, Yu-Mei; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte; Odili, Augustine N; Thijs, Lutgarde; Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A

    2016-02-01

    Whether environmental exposure to nephrotoxic agents that potentially interfere with calcium homeostasis, such as lead and cadmium, contribute to the incidence of nephrolithiasis needs further clarification. We investigated the relation between nephrolithiasis incidence and environmental lead and cadmium exposure in a general population. In 1302 participants randomly recruited from a Flemish population (50.9% women; mean age, 47.9 years), we obtained baseline measurements (1985-2005) of blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) and covariables. We monitored the incidence of kidney stones until October 6, 2014. We used Cox regression to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for nephrolithiasis. At baseline, geometric mean BPb, BCd and UCd was 0.29µmol/L, 9.0nmol/L, and 8.5nmol per 24h, respectively. Over 11.5 years (median), nephrolithiasis occurred in 40 people. Contrasting the low and top tertiles of the distributions, the sex- and age-standardized rates of nephrolithiasis expressed as events per 1000 person-years were 0.68 vs. 3.36 (p=0.0016) for BPb, 1.80 vs. 3.28 (p=0.11) for BCd, and 1.65 vs. 2.95 (p=0.28) for UCd. In continuous analysis, with adjustments applied for sex, age, serum magnesium, and 24-h urinary volume and calcium, the hazard ratios expressing the risk associated with a doubling of the exposure biomarkers were 1.35 (p=0.015) for BPb, 1.13 (p=0.22) for BCd, and 1.23 (p=0.070) for UCd. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental lead exposure is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis in the general population.

  11. Lead exposure of waterfowl ingesting Coeur d`Alene River Basin sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A.; Audet, D.J.; Campbell, J.K.; LeCaptain, L.

    1998-11-01

    Feces from tundra swans [Bygnus columbianus (Ord)], Canada geese [Branta canadensis (L.)], and mallards [Anas platrhynchos (L.)] were collected from the Coeur d`Alene River Basin and two reference areas in Idaho to estimate exposure to lead from mining activities and relate that exposure to the ingestion of contaminated sediments. The average acid-insoluble ash content of the feces, a measure of sediment ingestion, was 18% for Canada geese and tundra swans, and 12% for ducks. The 18% value corresponded to an estimated 9% sediment ingestion rate (dry weight). The 90th percentile for acid-insoluble ash in feces of tundra swans-corresponded to an estimated 22% sediment in the diet. The average lead concentration (dry weight) of tundra swan feces from all Coeur d`Alene River Basin wetlands sampled was 880 mg/kg, compared to 2.1 mg kg{sup {minus}1} from reference areas. the 90th percentile of lead in tundra swan feces from the Coeur d`Alene River Basin sites was 2700 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. Fecal lead concentrations of tundra swans were correlated with the acid-insoluble ash content of the feces. The very low lead concentrations in feces having low acid-insoluble ash contents established that the sediment was the primary source of the lead ingested by waterfowl. Sediment lead concentrations at 11 wetland sites were closely correlated with average fecal lead concentrations for all waterfowl, corrected for the average percent acid-insoluble ash in the feces.

  12. The role of violence exposure and negative affect in understanding child and adolescent aggression.

    PubMed

    Ebesutani, Chad; Kim, Eunha; Young, John

    2014-12-01

    Aggressive behaviors in youth tend to be relatively stable across the lifespan and are associated with maladaptive functioning later in life. Researchers have recently identified that both violence exposure and negative affective experiences are related to the development of aggressive behaviors. Children exposed to violence also often experience negative affect (NA) in the form of anxiety and depression. Bringing these findings together, the current study used a clinical sample of youth (N = 199; ages 7-17 years) referred to a psychiatric residential treatment facility to examine the specific contributions of NA and exposure to violence on the development of aggressive behaviors in youth. Using structural equation modeling, both NA and recent exposure to violence significantly predicted aggressive behaviors. More importantly, negative affect partially mediated the relationship between exposure to violence and aggression. Implications of these findings from a clinical perspective and future directions for research on aggression are discussed.

  13. Determining the relative importance of soil sample locations to predict risk of child lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Mielke, Howard W; McElmurry, Shawn P; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Laidlaw, Mark A S; Taylor, Mark P

    2013-10-01

    Soil lead in urban neighborhoods is a known predictor of child blood lead levels. In this paper, we address the question where one ought to concentrate soil sample collection efforts to efficiently predict children at-risk for soil Pb exposure. Two extensive data sets are combined, including 5467 surface soil samples collected from 286 census tracts, and geo-referenced blood Pb data for 55,551 children in metropolitan New Orleans, USA. Random intercept least squares, random intercept logistic, and quantile regression results indicate that soils collected within 1m adjacent to residential streets most reliably predict child blood Pb outcomes in child blood Pb levels. Regression decomposition results show that residential street soils account for 39.7% of between-neighborhood explained variation, followed by busy street soils (21.97%), open space soils (20.25%), and home foundation soils (18.71%). Just as the age of housing stock is used as a statistical shortcut for child risk of exposure to lead-based paint, our results indicate that one can shortcut the characterization of child risk of exposure to neighborhood soil Pb by concentrating sampling efforts within 1m and adjacent to residential and busy streets, while significantly reducing the total costs of collection and analysis. This efficiency gain can help advance proactive upstream, preventive methods of environmental Pb discovery.

  14. Human Exposure Pathways of Heavy Metals in a Lead-Zinc Mining Area, Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Chang-Sheng; Ma, Zong-Wei; Yang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is becoming a serious issue in developing countries such as China, and the public is increasingly aware of its adverse health impacts in recent years. We assessed the potential health risks in a lead-zinc mining area and attempted to identify the key exposure pathways. We evaluated the spatial distributions of personal exposure using indigenous exposure factors and field monitoring results of water, soil, food, and indoor and outdoor air samples. The risks posed by 10 metals and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact pathways to these risks were estimated. Human hair samples were also analyzed to indicate the exposure level in the human body. Our results show that heavy metal pollution may pose high potential health risks to local residents, especially in the village closest to the mine (V1), mainly due to Pb, Cd and Hg. Correspondingly, the residents in V1 had higher Pb (8.14 mg/kg) levels in hair than those in the other two villages. Most of the estimated risks came from soil, the intake of self-produced vegetables and indoor air inhalation. This study highlights the importance of site-specific multipathway health risk assessments in studying heavy-metal exposures in China. PMID:23152752

  15. Waterborne lead affects circadian variations of brain neurotransmitters in fathead minnows

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, R.E.; Russo, A.C.; Weber, D.N.

    1995-09-01

    Lead is a potent neurotoxin affecting brain levels of a number of vertebrate neurotransmitters. Reports on these effects are, however, not consistent either among or within species. For example, with lead-intoxicated rats there are reports of decreased acetylcholine (ACh) release and decreased ACh brain levels as well as reports of increased levels or no change in levels. Also, with rats there are reports of increased levels, decreased levels, or no change in brain catecholamines, with lead producing similar changes in both norephinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in some cases and differences in response between the two in others. Although most early reports dealt with whole brain levels, reports on neurotransmitter levels in specific brain regions can be equally conflicting. Similar sorts of discrepancies exist among studies with fishes. Much of the variation among studies on lead effects on neurotransmitters is, no doubt, due to differences among the studies in variables such as: species, age, dosage and duration, route of administration. However, lead can apparently affect circadian locomotor rhythms of both rats and fishes. Therefore, another possible cause for the variation among studies is that there is an interaction among dosage, sampling time and endogenous rhythms. A lead-produced phase shift or disruption in endogenous neurotransmitter rhythms could in turn elicit a host of varying results and interpretations depending on the circadian time of sampling. We elected to examine this possibility in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, a freshwater species widely used for toxicity studies. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Tracing fetal and childhood exposure to lead using isotope analysis of deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Thomas J; Dirks, Wendy; Roberts, Nick M W; Patel, Jaiminkumar G; Hodgson, Susan; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Walton, Pamela; Parrish, Randall R

    2016-04-01

    We report progress in using the isotopic composition and concentration of Pb in the dentine and enamel of deciduous teeth to provide a high resolution time frame of exposure to Pb during fetal development and early childhood. Isotope measurements (total Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb, (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios) were acquired by laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry at contiguous 100 micron intervals across thin sections of the teeth; from the outer enamel surface to the pulp cavity. Teeth samples (n=10) were selected from two cohorts of children, aged 5-8 years, living in NE England. By integrating the isotope data with histological analysis of the teeth, using the daily incremental lines in dentine, we were able to assign true estimated ages to each ablation point (first 2-3 years for molars, first 1-2 years for incisors+pre-natal growth). Significant differences were observed in the isotope composition and concentration of Pb between children, reflecting differences in the timing and sources of exposure during early childhood. Those born in 2000, after the withdrawal of leaded petrol in 1999, have the lowest dentine Pb levels (<0.2µgPb/g) with (208)Pb/(206)Pb (mean ±2σ: 2.126-2.079) (208)Pb/(206)Pb (mean ±2σ: 0.879-0.856) ratios that correlate very closely with modern day Western European industrial aerosols (PM10, PM2.5) suggesting that diffuse airborne pollution was probably the primary source and exposure pathway. Legacy lead, if present, is insignificant. For those born in 1997, dentine lead levels are typically higher (>0.4µgPb/g) with (208)Pb/(206)Pb (mean ±2σ: 2.145-2.117) (208)Pb/(206)Pb (mean ±2σ: 0.898-0.882) ratios that can be modelled as a binary mix between industrial aerosols and leaded petrol emissions. Short duration, high intensity exposure events (1-2 months) were readily identified, together with evidence that dentine provides a good proxy for childhood changes in the isotope composition of blood Pb. Our pilot study confirms that

  17. Tracing fetal and childhood exposure to lead using isotope analysis of deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Thomas J; Dirks, Wendy; Roberts, Nick M W; Patel, Jaiminkumar G; Hodgson, Susan; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Walton, Pamela; Parrish, Randall R

    2016-04-01

    We report progress in using the isotopic composition and concentration of Pb in the dentine and enamel of deciduous teeth to provide a high resolution time frame of exposure to Pb during fetal development and early childhood. Isotope measurements (total Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb, (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios) were acquired by laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry at contiguous 100 micron intervals across thin sections of the teeth; from the outer enamel surface to the pulp cavity. Teeth samples (n=10) were selected from two cohorts of children, aged 5-8 years, living in NE England. By integrating the isotope data with histological analysis of the teeth, using the daily incremental lines in dentine, we were able to assign true estimated ages to each ablation point (first 2-3 years for molars, first 1-2 years for incisors+pre-natal growth). Significant differences were observed in the isotope composition and concentration of Pb between children, reflecting differences in the timing and sources of exposure during early childhood. Those born in 2000, after the withdrawal of leaded petrol in 1999, have the lowest dentine Pb levels (<0.2µgPb/g) with (208)Pb/(206)Pb (mean ±2σ: 2.126-2.079) (208)Pb/(206)Pb (mean ±2σ: 0.879-0.856) ratios that correlate very closely with modern day Western European industrial aerosols (PM10, PM2.5) suggesting that diffuse airborne pollution was probably the primary source and exposure pathway. Legacy lead, if present, is insignificant. For those born in 1997, dentine lead levels are typically higher (>0.4µgPb/g) with (208)Pb/(206)Pb (mean ±2σ: 2.145-2.117) (208)Pb/(206)Pb (mean ±2σ: 0.898-0.882) ratios that can be modelled as a binary mix between industrial aerosols and leaded petrol emissions. Short duration, high intensity exposure events (1-2 months) were readily identified, together with evidence that dentine provides a good proxy for childhood changes in the isotope composition of blood Pb. Our pilot study confirms that

  18. Neonatal lead exposure changes quality of sperm and number of macrophages in testes of BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Pace, Beata M; Lawrence, David A; Behr, Melissa J; Parsons, Patrick J; Dias, James A

    2005-06-01

    BALB/c mice were exposed to 0.1 ppm lead acetate in the drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 1 for 6 weeks. Until PND21, lead exposure was from mother's milk; thereafter, it was directly from the drinking water. The blood lead levels were the highest in pups before weaning (59.5+/-0.9 microg/dL) and significantly lower between PND21 and PND42 (20.3+/-4.7 microg/dL). At PND42, lead-exposed male mice were tested for fertility, sperm DNA, and macrophage number. Mating of lead-treated males with non-treated females confirmed the reduction of fertility in the exposed males. Flow cytometric studies of testicular preparations indicated that the sperm count was not different between lead-exposed and control males; however, the lead-treated mice had a significant increase in the number of testicular cells having a < 1n amount of DNA, which coincided with a decrease in the number of testicular cells with a 2n and 4n amount of DNA. The number of testicular macrophages also was decreased in lead-exposed males, which could reflect altered levels of CSF-1 or response to CSF-1, as previously reported [Kowolenko, M., Tracy, L., Lawrence, D.A., 1989. Lead-induced alterations of in vitro bone marrow cell responses to colony stimulating factor-1. J. Leukoc. Biol. 45, 198-206]. Our study showed that exposure to 0.1 ppm of lead during the neonatal and adolescent period is sufficient to reduce fertility in adult male mice; however, it did not affect sperm count on PND42. The presence of an increased number of apoptotic (< 1n amount of DNA) testicular cells may be diagnostic of defective sperm function. Thus, an administered dose of 0.1 ppm via drinking water ingestion by neonatal male BALB/c mice sufficient to produce PbB of 20-60 mg/dL compromised reproductive function in these mice as adults. PMID:15840438

  19. Neonatal lead exposure changes quality of sperm and number of macrophages in testes of BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Pace, Beata M; Lawrence, David A; Behr, Melissa J; Parsons, Patrick J; Dias, James A

    2005-06-01

    BALB/c mice were exposed to 0.1 ppm lead acetate in the drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 1 for 6 weeks. Until PND21, lead exposure was from mother's milk; thereafter, it was directly from the drinking water. The blood lead levels were the highest in pups before weaning (59.5+/-0.9 microg/dL) and significantly lower between PND21 and PND42 (20.3+/-4.7 microg/dL). At PND42, lead-exposed male mice were tested for fertility, sperm DNA, and macrophage number. Mating of lead-treated males with non-treated females confirmed the reduction of fertility in the exposed males. Flow cytometric studies of testicular preparations indicated that the sperm count was not different between lead-exposed and control males; however, the lead-treated mice had a significant increase in the number of testicular cells having a < 1n amount of DNA, which coincided with a decrease in the number of testicular cells with a 2n and 4n amount of DNA. The number of testicular macrophages also was decreased in lead-exposed males, which could reflect altered levels of CSF-1 or response to CSF-1, as previously reported [Kowolenko, M., Tracy, L., Lawrence, D.A., 1989. Lead-induced alterations of in vitro bone marrow cell responses to colony stimulating factor-1. J. Leukoc. Biol. 45, 198-206]. Our study showed that exposure to 0.1 ppm of lead during the neonatal and adolescent period is sufficient to reduce fertility in adult male mice; however, it did not affect sperm count on PND42. The presence of an increased number of apoptotic (< 1n amount of DNA) testicular cells may be diagnostic of defective sperm function. Thus, an administered dose of 0.1 ppm via drinking water ingestion by neonatal male BALB/c mice sufficient to produce PbB of 20-60 mg/dL compromised reproductive function in these mice as adults.

  20. Light exposure leads to reorganization of microglomeruli in the mushroom bodies and influences juvenile hormone levels in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Christina; Wang, Ying; Krischke, Markus; Mueller, Martin J; Amdam, Gro V; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees show a remarkable behavioral plasticity at the transition from nursing inside the hive to foraging for nectar and/or pollen outside. This plasticity is important for age-related division of labor in honeybee colonies. The behavioral transition is associated with significant volume and synaptic changes in the mushroom bodies (MBs), brain centers for sensory integration, learning, and memory. We tested whether precocious sensory exposure to light leads to changes in the density of synaptic complexes [microglomeruli (MG)] in the MBs. The results show that exposure to light pulses over 3 days induces a significant decrease in the MG density in visual subregions (collar) of the MB. Earlier studies had shown that foragers have increased levels of juvenile hormone (JH) co-occurring with a decrease of vitellogenin (Vg). Previous work further established that RNAi-mediated knockdown of vg and ultraspiracle (usp) induced an upregulation of JH levels, which can lead to precocious foraging. By disturbing both Vg and JH pathways using gene knockdown of vg and usp, we tested whether the changes in the hormonal system directly affect MG densities. Our study shows that MG numbers remained unchanged when Vg and JH pathways were perturbed, suggesting no direct hormonal influences on MG densities. However, mass spectrometry detection of JH revealed that precocious light exposure triggered an increase in JH levels in the hemolymph (HL) of young bees. This suggests a dual effect following light exposure via direct effects on MG reorganization in the MB calyx and a possible positive feedback on HL JH levels.

  1. Cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure assessment among croatian consumers of free-living game.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Maja; Prevendar Crnić, Andreja; Bilandžić, Nina; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven

    2014-09-01

    Free-living game can be an important source of dietary cadmium and lead; the question is whether exposure to these two elements is such that it might cause adverse health effects in the consumers. The aim of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury from free-living big game (fallow deer, roe deer, red deer, wild boar, and brown bear), and to mercury from small game (pheasant and hare), hunted in Croatia from 1990 to 2012. The exposure assessment was based on available literature data and our own measurements of metal levels in the tissues of the game, by taking into account different consumption frequencies (four times a year, once a month and once a week). Exposure was expressed as percentage of (provisional) tolerable weekly intake [(P)TWI] values set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Consumption of game meat (0.002-0.5 % PTWI) and liver (0.005-6 % PTWI) assumed for the general population (four times a year) does not pose a health risk to consumers from the general population, nor does monthly (0.02-6 % PTWI) and weekly (0.1-24 % PTWI) consumption of game meat. However, because of the high percentage of free-living game liver and kidney samples exceeding the legislative limits for cadmium (2-99 %) and lead (1-82 %), people should keep the consumption of certain game species' offal as low as possible. Children and pregnant and lactating women should avoid eating game offal altogether. Free-living game liver could be an important source of cadmium if consumed on a monthly basis (3-74 % TWI), and if consumed weekly (11-297 % TWI), it could even give rise to toxicological concern. PMID:25205692

  2. Lead exposure and the 2010 achievement test scores of children in New York counties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lead is toxic to cognitive and behavioral functioning in children even at levels well below those producing physical symptoms. Continuing efforts in the U.S. since about the 1970s to reduce lead exposure in children have dramatically reduced the incidence of elevated blood lead levels (with elevated levels defined by the current U.S. Centers for Disease Control threshold of 10 μg/dl). The current study examines how much lead toxicity continues to impair the academic achievement of children of New York State, using 2010 test data. Methods This study relies on three sets of data published for the 57 New York counties outside New York City: school achievement data from the New York State Department of Education, data on incidence of elevated blood lead levels from the New York State Department of Health, and data on income from the U.S. Census Bureau. We studied third grade and eighth grade test scores in English Language Arts and mathematics. Using the county as the unit of analysis, we computed bivariate correlations and regression coefficients, with percent of children achieving at the lowest reported level as the dependent variable and the percent of preschoolers in the county with elevated blood lead levels as the independent variable. Then we repeated those analyses using partial correlations to control for possible confounding effects of family income, and using multiple regressions with income included. Results The bivariate correlations between incidence of elevated lead and number of children in the lowest achievement group ranged between 0.38 and 0.47. The partial correlations ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. The regression coefficients, both bivariate and partial (both estimating the increase in percent of children in the lowest achievement group for every percent increase in the children with elevated blood lead levels), ranged from 0.52 to 1.31. All regression coefficients, when rounded to the nearest integer, were approximately 1. Thus, when the

  3. Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

  4. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  5. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-15

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  6. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  7. Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs affects global motion perception in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S; Jacobs, Robert J; LaGasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M; Wouldes, Trecia A; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs impairs motor and cognitive development; however it is currently unknown whether visual brain areas are affected. To address this question, we investigated the effect of prenatal drug exposure on global motion perception, a behavioural measure of processing within the dorsal extrastriate visual cortex that is thought to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal neurodevelopment. Global motion perception was measured in one hundred and forty-five 4.5-year-old children who had been exposed to different combinations of methamphetamine, alcohol, nicotine and marijuana prior to birth and 25 unexposed children. Self-reported drug use by the mothers was verified by meconium analysis. We found that global motion perception was impaired by prenatal exposure to alcohol and improved significantly by exposure to marijuana. Exposure to both drugs prenatally had no effect. Other visual functions such as habitual visual acuity and stereoacuity were not affected by drug exposure. Prenatal exposure to methamphetamine did not influence visual function. Our results demonstrate that prenatal drug exposure can influence a behavioural measure of visual development, but that the effects are dependent on the specific drugs used during pregnancy. PMID:26581958

  8. Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs affects global motion perception in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S.; Jacobs, Robert J.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs impairs motor and cognitive development; however it is currently unknown whether visual brain areas are affected. To address this question, we investigated the effect of prenatal drug exposure on global motion perception, a behavioural measure of processing within the dorsal extrastriate visual cortex that is thought to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal neurodevelopment. Global motion perception was measured in one hundred and forty-five 4.5-year-old children who had been exposed to different combinations of methamphetamine, alcohol, nicotine and marijuana prior to birth and 25 unexposed children. Self-reported drug use by the mothers was verified by meconium analysis. We found that global motion perception was impaired by prenatal exposure to alcohol and improved significantly by exposure to marijuana. Exposure to both drugs prenatally had no effect. Other visual functions such as habitual visual acuity and stereoacuity were not affected by drug exposure. Prenatal exposure to methamphetamine did not influence visual function. Our results demonstrate that prenatal drug exposure can influence a behavioural measure of visual development, but that the effects are dependent on the specific drugs used during pregnancy. PMID:26581958

  9. Early life lead exposure causes gender-specific changes in the DNA methylation profile of DNA extracted from dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Arko; Heredia, Nicole; Senut, Marie-Claude; Hess, Matthew; Land, Susan; Qu, Wen; Hollacher, Kurt; Dereski, Mary O; Ruden, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Aims In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that early life lead (Pb) exposure associated DNA methylation (5mC) changes are dependent on the sex of the child and can serve as biomarkers for Pb exposure. Methods In this pilot study, we measured the 5mC profiles of DNA extracted from dried blood spots (DBS) in a cohort of 43 children (25 males and 18 females; ages from 3 months to 5 years) from Detroit. Result & Discussion We found that the effect of Pb-exposure on the 5-mC profiles can be separated into three subtypes: affected methylation loci which are conserved irrespective of the sex of the child (conserved); affected methylation loci unique to males (male-specific); and affected methylation loci unique to females (female-specific). PMID:26077427

  10. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built before ... of the RRP rule. Read more . Learn about Lead Poisoning Prevention Week . Report Uncertified Contractors and Environmental Violations ...

  11. Cigarette smoke exposure induces CFTR internalization and insolubility, leading to airway surface liquid dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Clunes, Lucy A.; Davies, Catrin M.; Coakley, Raymond D.; Aleksandrov, Andrei A.; Henderson, Ashley G.; Zeman, Kirby L.; Worthington, Erin N.; Gentzsch, Martina; Kreda, Silvia M.; Cholon, Deborah; Bennett, William D.; Riordan, John R.; Boucher, Richard C.; Tarran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure induces mucus obstruction and the development of chronic bronchitis (CB). While many of these responses are determined genetically, little is known about the effects CS can exert on pulmonary epithelia at the protein level. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that CS exerts direct effects on the CFTR protein, which could impair airway hydration, leading to the mucus stasis characteristic of both cystic fibrosis and CB. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that CS rapidly decreased CFTR activity, leading to airway surface liquid (ASL) volume depletion (i.e., dehydration). Further studies revealed that CS induced internalization of CFTR. Surprisingly, CS-internalized CFTR did not colocalize with lysosomal proteins. Instead, the bulk of CFTR shifted to a detergent-resistant fraction within the cell and colocalized with the intermediate filament vimentin, suggesting that CS induced CFTR movement into an aggresome-like, perinuclear compartment. To test whether airway dehydration could be reversed, we used hypertonic saline (HS) as an osmolyte to rehydrate ASL. HS restored ASL height in CS-exposed, dehydrated airway cultures. Similarly, inhaled HS restored mucus transport and increased clearance in patients with CB. Thus, we propose that CS exposure rapidly impairs CFTR function by internalizing CFTR, leading to ASL dehydration, which promotes mucus stasis and a failure of mucus clearance, leaving smokers at risk for developing CB. Furthermore, our data suggest that strategies to rehydrate airway surfaces may provide a novel form of therapy for patients with CB.—Clunes, L. A., Davies, C. M., Coakley, R. D., Aleksandrov, A. A., Henderson, A. G., Zeman, K. L., Worthington, E. N., Gentzsch, M., Kreda, S. M., Cholon, D., Bennett, W. D., Riordan, J. R., Boucher, R. C., Tarran, R. Cigarette smoke exposure induces CFTR internalization and insolubility, leading to airway surface liquid dehydration. PMID:21990373

  12. Arsenic exposure causes epigenetic dysregulation of IL-8 expression leading to proneoplastic changes in kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Radha Dutt; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Khan, Hafizurrahman; Kumar, Anoop; Srivastava, Vikas

    2015-08-19

    Prolonged arsenic exposure has been shown to cause several detrimental effects in adults. However its effects following prenatal exposure are not well defined at the epigenetic level, particularly in terms of changes which may predispose an individual to adult malignancies. In this work, we have studied the effect of arsenic exposure on renal system using human embryonic kidney cells and prenatally exposed animals and identified Interleukin-8(IL-8) and its homologue (CINC-1) as mediators of arsenic induced renal toxicity. We further show that embryonic kidney cells are more responsive to arsenic leading to higher induction of IL-8 as compared to adult cells due to DNA methylation and histone acetylation (H3 acetylation) changes in the IL-8 promoter. Through bisulfite analysis of the IL-8 promoter, we have also identified an arsenic modulated CpG site at -168 bases upstream of transcription start site. This CpG is associated with C/EBP and CREB binding sites in the IL-8 promoter and its demethylation by arsenic coupled with increased H3 histone acetylation and CBP/P300 recruitment could lead to induction of IL-8. Our study shows how epigenetic modulation of IL-8 by arsenic could contribute to increased cell migratory and proliferative capabilities, cell cycle dysregulation and renal toxicity.

  13. Blood pressure and occupational exposure to noise and lead (Pb): A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Ferrante, Margherita; Fiore, Maria; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have explored the hypothesis that low blood lead (PbB) and high noise levels may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. To assess the possible relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and noise and elevated blood pressure, we studied 105 workers (age: 41.27 ± 6.25 years and length of employment: 4.12 ± 5.33 years) employed in a Pb battery recycling plant by measuring A-weighted equivalent sound level, PbB, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). Results showed that occupational exposure to higher ambient Pb and noise levels was related to slightly increased SBP and DBP. PbB values correlated significantly with SBP and DBP, whereas noise levels correlated neither with SBP nor with DBP. Furthermore, workers exposed to higher ambient Pb had higher PbB and ZPP and showed more decreased ALAD activity. Blood pressure does not correlate with noise exposure but only with PbB concentration.

  14. Arsenic exposure causes epigenetic dysregulation of IL-8 expression leading to proneoplastic changes in kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Radha Dutt; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Khan, Hafizurrahman; Kumar, Anoop; Srivastava, Vikas

    2015-08-19

    Prolonged arsenic exposure has been shown to cause several detrimental effects in adults. However its effects following prenatal exposure are not well defined at the epigenetic level, particularly in terms of changes which may predispose an individual to adult malignancies. In this work, we have studied the effect of arsenic exposure on renal system using human embryonic kidney cells and prenatally exposed animals and identified Interleukin-8(IL-8) and its homologue (CINC-1) as mediators of arsenic induced renal toxicity. We further show that embryonic kidney cells are more responsive to arsenic leading to higher induction of IL-8 as compared to adult cells due to DNA methylation and histone acetylation (H3 acetylation) changes in the IL-8 promoter. Through bisulfite analysis of the IL-8 promoter, we have also identified an arsenic modulated CpG site at -168 bases upstream of transcription start site. This CpG is associated with C/EBP and CREB binding sites in the IL-8 promoter and its demethylation by arsenic coupled with increased H3 histone acetylation and CBP/P300 recruitment could lead to induction of IL-8. Our study shows how epigenetic modulation of IL-8 by arsenic could contribute to increased cell migratory and proliferative capabilities, cell cycle dysregulation and renal toxicity. PMID:26008221

  15. Maternal lead exposure during lactation persistently impairs testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Ning, Huan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Xu, De-Xiang

    2013-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a testicular toxicant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maternal Pb exposure during lactation on testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. Maternal mice were exposed to different concentration of lead acetate (200 or 2000 ppm) through drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 0 to PND21. As expected, a high concentration of Pb was measured in the kidneys and liver of pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. In addition, maternal Pb exposure during lactation elevated, to a less extent, Pb content in testes of weaning pups. Testis weight in weaning pups was significantly decreased when maternal mice were exposed to Pb during lactation. The level of serum and testicular T was reduced in Pb-exposed pups. The expression of P450scc, P450(17α) and 17β-HSD, key enzymes for T synthesis, was down-regulated in testes of weaning pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Interestingly, the level of serum and testicular T remained decreased in adult offspring whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Importantly, the number of spermatozoa was significantly reduced in Pb-exposed male offspring. Taken together, these results suggest that Pb could be transported from dams to pups through milk. Maternal Pb exposure during lactation persistently disrupts testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring.

  16. Fetal death and reduced birth rates associated with exposure to lead-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This ecologic study notes that fetal death rates (FDR) during the Washington DC drinking water "lead crisis" (2000-2004) peaked in 2001 when water lead levels (WLLs) were highest, and were minimized in 2004 after public health interventions were implemented to protect pregnant women. Changes in the DC FDR vs neighboring Baltimore City were correlated to DC WLL (R(2) = 0.72). Birth rates in DC also increased versus Baltimore City and versus the United States in 2004-2006, when consumers were protected from high WLLs. The increased births in DC neighborhoods comparing 2004 versus 2001 was correlated to the incidence of lead pipes (R(2) = 0.60). DC birth rates from 1999 to 2007 correlated with proxies for maternal blood lead including the geometric mean blood lead in DC children (R(2) = 0.68) and the incidence of lead poisoning in children under age 1.3 years (R(2) = 0.64). After public health protections were removed in 2006, DC FDR spiked in 2007-2009 versus 2004-2006 (p < 0.05), in a manner consistent with high WLL health risks to consumers arising from partial lead service line replacements, and DC FDR dropped to historically low levels in 2010-2011 after consumers were protected and the PSLR program was terminated. Re-evaluation of a historic construction-related miscarriage cluster in the USA Today Building (1987-1988), demonstrates that high WLLs from disturbed plumbing were a possible cause. Overall results are consistent with prior research linking increased lead exposure to higher incidence of miscarriages and fetal death, even at blood lead elevations (≈5 μg/dL) once considered relatively low.

  17. Effects of sublethal exposure to lead on levels of energetic compounds in Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852)

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.; Torreblanca, A.; Del Ramo, J.; Diaz-Mayans, J. )

    1994-05-01

    Lead is neither essential nor beneficial to living organisms; all existing data show that its metabolic effects are adverse. Lead is toxic to all phyla of aquatic biota. Most of the lead discharged into surface water is rapidly incorporated into suspended and bottom sediments. The American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, lives in a wide range of environmental conditions that include highly polluted waters. Lead present in take sediments can be available to aquatic animals such as P. clarkii because it is a detritivor and burrow into the sediment. In fact, we found remarkable levels of lead in tissues of P. clarkii caught in Albufera Lake and kept 15 days in clean water (e. g. 223 [mu]g/g dry weight in gills). Furthermore, P. clarkii has a high capacity for lead accumulation from water, and gills were the most important tissue of lead accumulation. Among effects that contaminants have on the physiology of the organisms, energetic state variables are important, since they will alter both survival and reproduction. Hepatopancreas is a major site for the energetic reserve in crayfish and is a site of lead accumulation, although metal concentration in this organ is not as high as gills. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in energy reserves in hepatopancreas and gills of the crayfish P. clarkii, in response to sublethal exposure to lead. Gills are directly exposed to contaminants in the environment, and they are the first organ showing alterations by the action of the contaminants. Hepatopancreas was also chosen due to both, its relevance in the energetic metabolism and its role in heavy metal detoxification mechanisms.

  18. Evaluation of the potential role of chelation therapy in treatment of low to moderate lead exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Chisolm, J.J. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    In the overall long-term management of lead poisoning, chelation therapy can have short-term benefits; however, these benefits must be accompanied by drastic reduction in environmental exposure to lead if therapy is to have any long-term benefit. This discussion is limited to calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaNa{sub 2}EDTA), the chelating agent that has been the mainstay of treatment of lead poisoning for the past 38 years, and to meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a new and promising oral chelating agent, which is an orphan drug and is currently classified as an investigational new drug by the US Food and Drug Administration. With both drugs, multiple courses of treatment will be needed if any substantial reduction in body lead burden is to be achieved. A major limitation of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA is the enormous diuresis of zinc that it produces. DMSA produces a comparable diuresis of lead, a greater decrease in blood lead, and has negligible influence on the urinary losses of zinc, copper, iron, and calcium. Limited experience to date in man has revealed no significant adverse side effects of DMSA. In animals, DMSA will promptly reduce the concentration of lead in brain and kidney, in particular. By contrast, similar 5-day courses of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA do not produce any net reduction in brain lead. This is important, as the brain is the critical organ of the adverse effects of lead in children. If the efficacy of DMSA is to be comprehensively evaluated ethically in children, new and more sensitive neurochemical, electrophysiologic, or other markers must be developed.

  19. Fetal death and reduced birth rates associated with exposure to lead-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This ecologic study notes that fetal death rates (FDR) during the Washington DC drinking water "lead crisis" (2000-2004) peaked in 2001 when water lead levels (WLLs) were highest, and were minimized in 2004 after public health interventions were implemented to protect pregnant women. Changes in the DC FDR vs neighboring Baltimore City were correlated to DC WLL (R(2) = 0.72). Birth rates in DC also increased versus Baltimore City and versus the United States in 2004-2006, when consumers were protected from high WLLs. The increased births in DC neighborhoods comparing 2004 versus 2001 was correlated to the incidence of lead pipes (R(2) = 0.60). DC birth rates from 1999 to 2007 correlated with proxies for maternal blood lead including the geometric mean blood lead in DC children (R(2) = 0.68) and the incidence of lead poisoning in children under age 1.3 years (R(2) = 0.64). After public health protections were removed in 2006, DC FDR spiked in 2007-2009 versus 2004-2006 (p < 0.05), in a manner consistent with high WLL health risks to consumers arising from partial lead service line replacements, and DC FDR dropped to historically low levels in 2010-2011 after consumers were protected and the PSLR program was terminated. Re-evaluation of a historic construction-related miscarriage cluster in the USA Today Building (1987-1988), demonstrates that high WLLs from disturbed plumbing were a possible cause. Overall results are consistent with prior research linking increased lead exposure to higher incidence of miscarriages and fetal death, even at blood lead elevations (≈5 μg/dL) once considered relatively low. PMID:24321041

  20. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  1. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb