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Sample records for lead-scintillating fiber calorimeters

  1. Results from a prototype Lead-Scintillating Fiber Calorimeter for use as a STAR Forward Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmuganathan, Prashanth; STAR Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Forward instrumentation consisting of hadronic as well as electromagnetic calorimeters will achieve several physics goals at RHIC. Examples include studying the internal structure of nucleons and properties of nuclear matter through measurement of forward jets and long-range correlations. Earlier studies that pixelized AGS E864 lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter cells (10 cm2x117 cm) into a three by three array of 3.3 cm2 pixels showed that neutral pions can be reconstructed to E >15 GeV and hadronic shower shapes can be distinguished from EM shower shapes with 90% confidence. In this contribution, we compare the light collection efficiency from total internal reflective light guides with that of a Fresnel lens system; light signals for both guide types are recorded using photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The Fresnel lens system allows better magnetic shielding of PMTs from the STAR magnet fringe field and focuses light into the small sensitive area of the SiPM. A prototype of these designs consisting of a two by three array of cells (54 pixels) was mounted on the east side of the STAR detector during Run16 and 80 million events from Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} =200 GeV were recorded. In this talk, we will present comparisons

  2. R&D Studies of a Lead-Scintillating Fiber Calorimeter as a STAR Forward Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmuganathan, Prashanth; STAR Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    A forward upgrade of the STAR detector will achieve several physics goals. Examples are studying the internal structure of nucleons and nuclei through measurement of di-jets and Drell-Yan and improvements in the resolution of energy weighted event plane determination for study of more central and more peripheral events in heavy-ion collisions. The AGS E864 lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter cells ((10 cm) 2 × 117 cm) were repurposed by pixelizing their readout into a three by three array of (3 . 3 cm) 2 pixels. A prototype six by six array of these cells (324 pixels) was mounted on the west side of the STAR detector during Run14 and events from 3He+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV were recorded. The detector response was simulated by a GEANT model using HIJING particle production. Further tests of the pixelized cells were conducted at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. In this talk, we will present the calorimeter response in 3He+Au collisions using reconstructed π0 from clusters formed from energy deposition by π0 decay gammas. Energy resolution and shower shapes from pixelization are also discussed using test beam data and simulations.

  3. Dead cell and side leakage correction for a lead-scintillating fiber electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Zu-Hao; Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Basegmez du Pree, Suzan; Zhang, Shao-Wen; Wang, Xue-Qiang; Yang, Min; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is one of the key detectors for dark matter searches. It measures the energies of electrons, positrons and photons and seperates them from hadrons. Currently, there are 5 dead cells in the ECAL, which affect the reconstructed energy of 4.2% of total events in the ECAL acceptance. When an electromagnetic shower axis is close to the ECAL border, due to the side leakage, the reconstructed energy is affected as well. In this paper, methods for dead cells and side leakage corrections for the ECAL energy reconstruction are presented. For events with the shower axis crossing dead cells, applying dead cell correction improves the difference in the reconstructed energy from 12% to 1%, while for events near the ECAL border, with side leakage correction it is improved from 4% to 1%. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China(11220101004)

  4. The AMS-02 lead-scintillating fibres Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Basara, L.; Bigongiari, G.; Bosi, F.; Brun, P.; Cadoux, F.; Cervelli, F.; Chambert, V.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Coignet, G.; Cougoulat, G.; Di Falco, S.; Dubois, J. M.; Elles, S.; Falchini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Fougeron, D.; Fouque, N.; Galeotti, S.; Gallucci, G.; Gherarducci, F.; Girard, L.; Giuseppe, F.; Goy, C.; Hermel, R.; Incagli, M.; Jacquemier, J.; Journet, L.; Kossakowski, R.; Lepareur, V.; Li, Z. H.; Lieunard, B.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, Y. S.; Maestro, P.; Magazzù, C.; Maire, M.; Orsini, A.; Paniccia, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Peltier, F.; Piendibene, M.; Pilo, F.; Pochon, J.; Rambure, T.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Spinella, F.; Tang, X. W.; Tassan-Viol, J.; Tazzioli, A.; Vannini, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Zhuang, H. L.

    2013-06-01

    The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the AMS-02 experiment is a fine grained lead-scintillating fibres sampling calorimeter that allows for a precise three-dimensional imaging of the longitudinal and lateral shower development. It provides a high (≥106) electron/hadron discrimination with the other AMS-02 detectors [1] and good energy resolution. The calorimeter also provides a standalone photon trigger capability to AMS-02. The mechanical assembly was realized to ensure minimum weight, still supporting the intrinsically heavy calorimeter during launch. ECAL light collection system and electronics are designed to measure electromagnetic particles over a wide energy range, from GeV up to TeV. A full-scale flight-like model was tested using electrons and proton beams with energies ranging from 6 to 250 GeV.

  5. The calibration and monitoring system for the PHENIX lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    David, G.; Kistenev, E.; Stoll, S.

    1997-11-01

    A system for calibrating the PHENIX lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter modules with cosmic rays and monitoring the stability during operation is described. The system is based on a UV laser which delivers light to each module through a network of optical fibers and splutters and is monitored at various points with silicon and vacuum photodiodes. Results are given from a prototype system which used a nitrogen laser to set the initial phototube gains and to establish the energy calibration of calorimeter modules and monitor their stability. A description of the final system to be used in PHENIX based on a high power YAG laser, is also given.

  6. Influence of radiation damage on the performance of a lead/scintillator calorimeter investigated with 1-6 GeV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnet, I.; Kummerow, D.; Wick, K.

    2002-09-01

    The influence of radiation damage on energy resolution, linearity and uniformity of an electromagnetic lead/scintillator calorimeter was studied experimentally with 1-6 GeV electrons. Plastic scintillators and wavelength shifter bars were irradiated uniformly with γ rays. Both were identical with those of the ZEUS uranium calorimeter. The attenuation length of the scintillators was determined from bench tests of single scintillator tiles and from beam tests of the whole calorimeter. After exposure to a dose of 10 kGy the attenuation length of the scintillators decreased by a factor of 2. The experimental results show that the irradiation of the nearly 2 m long wavelength shifter bars affects the calorimeter much more than the damage of the scintillators which were only 19 cm long. Damaged and undamaged sections of the calorimeter were scanned with a moving radioactive γ source ( 60Co). The results demonstrate that the 60Co monitor system is a very precise tool to detect radiation damage in a sampling calorimeter.

  7. Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Arrington, K.; Kefford, D.; Kennedy, J.; Pisani, R.; Sanzeni, C.; Segall, K.; Wall, D.; Winn, D.R. ); Carey, R.; Dye, S.; Miller, J.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W. ); Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Savin, A.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E. )

    1994-08-01

    Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1[degree]--7[degree]). The 7 [lambda] deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented.

  8. Fiber and Crystals Dual Readout Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascella, Michele; Franchino, Silvia; Lee, Sehwook

    The RD52 (DREAM) collaboration is performing R&D on dual readout calorimetry techniques with the aim of improving hadronic energy resolution for future high energy physics experiments. The simultaneous detection of Cherenkov and scintillation light enables us to measure the electromagnetic fraction of hadron shower event-by-event. As a result, we could eliminate the main uctuation which prevented from achieving precision energy measurement for hadrons. We have tested the performance of the lead and copper fiber prototypes calorimeters with various energies of electromagnetic particles and hadrons. During the beam test, we investigated the energy resolutions for electrons and pions as well as the identification of those particles in a longitudinally unsegmented calorimeter. Measurements were also performed on pure and doped PbWO4 crystals, as well as BGO and BSO, with the aim of realizing a crystal based dual readout detector. We will describe our results, focusing on the more promising properties of homogeneous media for the technique. Guidelines for additional developments on crystals will be also given. Finally we discuss the construction techniques that we have used to assemble our prototypes and give an overview of the ones that could be industrialized for the construction of a full hermetic calorimeter.

  9. Fiber and crystals dual readout calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascella, Michele; Franchino, Silvia; Lee, Sehwook

    2016-11-01

    The RD52 (DREAM) collaboration is performing R&D on dual readout calorimetry techniques with the aim of improving hadronic energy resolution for future high energy physics experiments. The simultaneous detection of Cherenkov and scintillation light enables us to measure the electromagnetic fraction of hadron shower event-by-event. As a result, we could eliminate the main fluctuation which prevented from achieving precision energy measurement for hadrons. We have tested the performance of the lead and copper fiber prototypes calorimeters with various energies of electromagnetic particles and hadrons. During the beam test, we investigated the energy resolutions for electrons and pions as well as the identification of those particles in a longitudinally unsegmented calorimeter. Measurements were also performed on pure and doped PbWO4 crystals, as well as BGO and BSO, with the aim of realizing a crystal based dual readout detector. We will describe our results, focusing on the more promising properties of homogeneous media for the technique. Guidelines for additional developments on crystals will be also given. Finally we discuss the construction techniques that we have used to assemble our prototypes and give an overview of the ones that could be industrialized for the construction of a full hermetic calorimeter.

  10. Data Analysis for the Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark J.

    1997-01-01

    The scintillating optical fiber calorimeter is a hybrid instrument with both active and passive components for measuring the proton and helium cosmic ray spectra from 0.2 to IO TeV kinetic energy. A thin emulsion/x-ray film chamber is situated between a cerenkov counter and an imaging calorimeter. Scintillating optical fibers sample the electromagnetic showers that develop in the calorimeter and identify the trajectory of cosmic rays that interact in SOFCAL. The emulsion/x-ray film data provide an in flight calibration for SOFCAL. The data reduction techniques used will be discussed and interim results of the analysis from a 20 hour balloon flight will be presented.

  11. Energy Calibration of the Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter Chamber (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M. C.; Fountain, W. F.; Parnell, T.; Roberts, F. E.; Gregory, J. C.; Johnson, J.; Takahashi, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter (SOFCAL) detector is designed to make direct measures of the primary cosmic ray spectrum from -200 GeV/amu - 20 TeV/amu. The primary particles are resolved into groups according to their charge (p, He, CNO, Medium Z, Heavy Z) using both active and passive components integrated into the detector. The principal part of SOFCAL is a thin ionization calorimeter that measures the electromagnetic cascades that result from these energetic particles interacting in the detector. The calorimeter is divided into two sections: a thin passive emulsion/x-ray film calorimeter, and a fiber calorimeter that uses crossing layers of small scintillating optical fibers to sample the energy deposition of the cascades. The energy determination is made by fitting the fiber data to transition curves generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The fiber data must first be calibrated using the electron counts from the emulsion plates in the calorimeter for a small number of events. The technique and results of this calibration will be presented together with samples of the data from a balloon flight.

  12. Optical System of the STAR Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grachov, O. A.

    2000-04-01

    The STAR Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter(BEMC) is a sampling calorimeter and the core of structure consist of a lead-scintillator plate stack. The plastic scintillator in the form of Mega-tile with 40 optically isolated tiles in each layer. The tile/fiber system uses a wavelength shifting fiber to read out the signal of a tile and a optical clear fiber carry the light through the magnet structure to the electronic-PMT box. A discription of the Optical system of BEMC is presented along with a current status of the quality control program of the calorimeter production.

  13. The Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter Instrument Performance (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M. J.; Benson, C. M.; Berry, F. A.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Johnson, J. S.; Munroe, R. B.; Parnell, T. A.; Takahashi, Y.; Watts, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    SOFCAL is a balloon-borne instrument designed to measure the P-He cosmic ray spectra from about 200 GeV/amu - 20 TeV/amu. SOFCAL uses a thin lead and scintillating-fiber ionization calorimeter to measure the cascades produced by cosmic rays interacting in the hybrid detector system. Above the fiber calorimeter is an emulsion chamber that provides the interaction target, primary particle identification and in-flight energy calibration for the scintillating fiber data. The energy measurement technique and its calibration are described, and the present results from the analysis of a 1 day balloon flight will be presented.

  14. Hadron detection with a dual-readout fiber calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Choi, S.; Ciapetti, G.; Ferrari, R.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Ha, S.; Hauptman, J.; Kim, H.; Lanza, A.; Li, F.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Park, J.; Scuri, F.; Sill, A.; Wigmans, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we describe measurements of the response functions of a fiber-based dual-readout calorimeter for pions, protons and multiparticle ;jets; with energies in the range from 20 to 180 GeV. The calorimeter uses lead as absorber material and has a total mass of 1350 kg. It is complemented by leakage counters made of scintillating plastic, with a total mass of 500 kg. The effects of these leakage counters on the calorimeter performance are studied as well. In a separate section, we investigate and compare different methods to measure the energy resolution of a calorimeter. Using only the signals provided by the calorimeter, we demonstrate that our dual-readout calorimeter, calibrated with electrons, is able to reconstruct the energy of proton and pion beam particles to within a few percent at all energies. The fractional widths of the signal distributions for these particles (σ / E) scale with the beam energy as 30% /√{ E }, without any additional contributing terms.

  15. Development of fiber-to-fiber connectors for scintillating tile/fiber calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aota, S.; Bossert, R. C.; Fukuda, S.; Hara, K.; Kawamoto, H.; Kim, S.; Kondo, K.; Mishina, M.; Nakada, H.; Sato, H.; Seiya, Y.; Takikawa, K.

    1995-02-01

    We have developed fiber-to-fiber connectors for plastic fibers of 0.83, 0.90, and 1.00 mm in diameter. Such a connector is essential for detectors that use a large number of optical fibers, scintillating or clear. Typical applicators are unscintillating tile/fiber calorimetry and scintillating fiber tracking. We describe the design and performance of two types of small 10-fiber connectors which were developed for the CDF endplug tile/fiber calorimeter. The connectors showed a light transmission of 85-90% with a uniformity of 2.5-3.1%, and a reproducibility of 1%. Use of optical matching material at the joints could further improve the transmission and uniformity but showed instability after heat cycles.

  16. Radiation hardness of 3HF-tile/O2-WLS-fiber calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.W.; Hu, L.D.; Liu, N.Z.

    1993-11-01

    The radiation hardness of a 3HF-tile/O2-WLS-fiber calorimeter with two different tile/fiber patterns has been studied. Two calorimeter modules were irradiated up to 10 Mrad with the BEPC 1.3 GeV electron beam. The radiation damage of these modules is compared with our previous measurements from SCSN81-tile/BCF91A-WLS-fiber modules. The longitudinal damage profiles are fitted as a function of depth.

  17. Beam test results of a high-granularity tile/fiber electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, H.; Miyata, H.; Iba, S.; Nakajima, N.; Sanchez, A. L. C.; Fujii, Y.; Itoh, S.; Kajino, F.; Kanzaki, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kim, S.; Kishimoto, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsunaga, H.; Nagano, A.; Nakamura, R.; Takeshita, T.; Tamura, Y.; Yamauchi, S.

    2009-03-01

    A prototype sampling electromagnetic calorimeter (17.1 radiation lengths) for future linear collider experiments was built, using 4 cm×4 cm×1 mm plastic scintillator tiles and 4 mm-thick lead absorber. Wavelength-shifting fibers were used to guide the scintillation light into multi-anode photo-multiplier tubes. The calorimeter was tested at the beam test facility of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in 2004. In this article we present our beam test results for the tile/fiber calorimeter focusing on the linearity in energy response, the energy resolution, position resolution and uniformity across the tile front face.

  18. Performance of a 3d Imaging Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the AMS02 Space Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Coignet, G.; Girard, L.; Goy, C.; Kossakowski, R.; Lees-Rosier, S.; Pochon, J.; Vialle, J. P.; Cervelli, F.; di Falco, S.; Galeotti, S.; Incagli, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Spinella, F.; Venanzoni, G.; Falchini, E.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Paoletti, R.; Pilo, F.; Turini, N.; Valle, G.; Bolmont, J.; Jacholkowska, A.; Piron, F.; Sapinski, M.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Lu, Y.; Yang, C.

    2005-02-01

    A 3D imaging electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) based on a lead/scintillating-fiber sandwich has been developed for the AMS-02 experiment on the International Space Station. This calorimeter should fulfill the constraints due to the launch and to the operation conditions in space. The engineering model of the ECAL was put through space qualification tests. Results of the vibration and thermal-vacuum tests are presented. To satisfy the physics aims, precise energy measurement and high discrimination between hadronic and electromagnetic cascades are required on a large dynamic range. The ECAL performances were checked by exposing the engineering model to a test beam at CERN in July 2002.

  19. Performance of the DELPHI small angle tile calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1996-06-01

    The DELPHI STIC detector is a lead-scintillator sampling calorimeter with wave length shifting optical fibers used for light collection. The main goal of the calorimeter at LEP100 is to measure the luminosity with an accuracy better than 0.1%. The detector has been in operation since the 1994 LEP run. Presented here is the performance measured during the 1994--1995 LEP runs, with the emphasis on the achieved energy and space resolution, the long-term stability and the efficiency of the detector. The new bunchtrains mode of LEP requires a rather sophisticated trigger and timing scheme which is also presented. To control the trigger efficiency and stability of the calorimeter channels, a LED-based monitoring system has been developed.

  20. GLD Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Tohru

    2006-10-01

    The GLD calorimeter, which is under study to aim as the calorimeter of ILC detector with an idea of Particle Flow, is described and discussed. The calorimeter consists of ECAL and HCAL. Both calorimeters are composed of plastic scintillator as the active medium. Fine granularity is required to achieve Particle Flow, so a small scintillator tile technique is developed with wavelength shifting fiber of MPPC read out. The requirements and our solutions for them are discussed and presented.

  1. A Scintillator tile-fiber preshower detector for the CDF Central Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    S. Lami

    2004-08-12

    The front face of the CDF central calorimeter is being equipped with a new Preshower detector, based on scintillator tiles read out by WLS fibers. A light yield of about 40 pe/MIP at the tile exit was obtained, exceeding the design requirements.

  2. R&D Studies on Radiation Hard Wavelength Shifting Fiber for CMS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaus, John

    2009-11-01

    The Hadronic Endcap (HE) calorimeters of the CMS experiment cover the pseudorapidity range of 1.4 to 3 on both sides of the CMS detector, contributing to superior jet and missing transverse energy resolutions. As the integrated luminosity of the LHC increases, the scintillator tiles used in the CMS Hadronic Endcap calorimeter will lose their efficiency. Here, we propose to replace the scintillator tiles in high radiation area with ``radiation hard'' quartz plates. To increase the light collection efficiency, the generated Cerenkov photons are collected by UV absorbing wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers. Our previous study has shown that quartz plates and plastic wavelength shifting fibers can be used as an effective calorimeter. However there is no radiation hard WLS fiber commercially available. Here we summarize the R&D studies on constructing a radiation hard WLS fiber prototype in University of Iowa CMS Laboratories. The results from the tests performed on quartz fibers treated with p-Terphenyl, as well as the Geant4 simulations of this prototype are presented.

  3. High energy γ-ray detection with the AMS-02 electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigongiari, G.; Cervelli, F.; Coignet, G.; Goy, C.; Di Falco, S.; Guerri, I.; Incagli, M.; Morescalchi, L.; Pilo, F.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitillo, S.

    2017-04-01

    The electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the AMS-02 experiment is a fine grained lead-scintillating fibers sampling calorimeter that allows for a precise 3-dimensional imaging of the longitudinal and lateral developement of electromagnetic showers. With a total thickness of 17X0 , electromagnetic showers are well contained and the energy resolution is 2% up to 1 TeV. ECAL provides a high discrimination between electromagnetic and hadronic showers; furthermore, together with the rest of the AMS-02 detector, it is able to identify the subdominant (≃10-6) photon flux from GeV up to TeV energies. Thanks to its high granularity ECAL has an excellent pointing capability (0 .5o at high energies) that offers an unusual possibility of drawing sky maps with the calorimeter standalone.

  4. Effects of radiation on scintillating fiber performance. [SSC hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, M.L.; Cohn, H.; Efremenko, Yu.; Gordeev, A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Onopienko, D.; Savin, S.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E.; Young, K.G. ); Carey, R.; Rothman, M.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W. ); Parr, H. )

    1992-01-01

    Continued rapid improvements in formulations for scintillating fibers require the ability to parameterize and predict effects of radiation on detector performance. Experimental techniques necessary to obtain needed information and calculational procedures used in performing predications for hadron scintillating fiber calorimetry in the Superconducting Supercollider environment are described. The experimental techniques involve control of the testing environment, consideration of dose rate effects, and other factors. These calculations involve the behavior of particle showers in the detector, expected levels of radiation, and parameterization of the radiation effects. A summary of significant work is also presented.

  5. Light yield of Kuraray SCSF-78MJ scintillating fibers for the Gluex barrel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, T D; Fischer, A P; Krueger, S T; Lolos, G J; Papandreou, Z; Plummer, E L; Semenov, A Yu; Semenova, I A; Sichello, L M; Teigro, L A; Smith, E S

    2014-09-01

    Over three quarters of a million 1-mm-diameter 4-m-long Kuraray double-clad SCSF-78MJ (blue-green) scintillating fibers have been used in the construction of the GlueX electromagnetic barrel calorimeter for the Hall D experimental program at Jefferson Lab. The quality of a random sample of 4,750 of these fibers was evaluated by exciting the fibers at their mid point using a 90Sr source in order to determine the light yield using a calibrated vacuum photomultiplier as the photosensor. A novel methodology was developed to extract the number of photoelectrons detected for measurements where individual photoelectron peaks are not discernible. The average number of photoelectrons from this sample of fibers was 9.17±0.6 at a source distance of 200 cm from the PMT.

  6. Tungsten and Scintillating Fiber Electromagnetic Calorimeter for sPHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Utilizing the products of relativistic heavy ion collisions, one can shed light on the physics behind the earliest stages of the universe. Consisted of unbounded quarks and gluons, the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) results from the collisions of heavy ions. The use of electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry is an option for studying the strong interactions which govern the QGP. The sPHENIX detector is planned for use at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) which detects jets from the collisions of large nuclei. The sPHENIX EMCal will consist of a tungsten absorber and scintillating fibers and will be read out with silicon photomultipliers. Made up of many individual towers, the EMCal covers full ϕ and large η. We will discuss the production process of these towers as well as the projectivity of the towers. Towers projective in one dimension (ϕ) have been produced and tested in beam at Fermilab. We will present recent developments in the first two dimensionally projective towers and future plans.

  7. A New scintillator tile / fiber preshower detector for the CDF central calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinaro, Michele; Artikov, A.; Bromberg, C.; Budagov, J.; Byrum, K.; Chang, S.; Chlachidze, G.; Goulianos, K.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, M.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lami, S.; Lindgren, M.; Lytken, E.; Miller, R.; Nodulman, L.; Pauletta, G.; Penzo, A.; Proudfoot, J.; Roser, R.; /Argonne /Dubna, JINR /Fermilab /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Michigan State U. /INFN, Siena /Rockefeller U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Udine /Tsukuba U.

    2004-11-01

    A detector designed to measure early particle showers has been installed in front of the central CDF calorimeter at the Tevatron. This new preshower detector is based on scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength-shifting fibers read out by multianode photomultipliers and has a total of 3,072 readout channels. The replacement of the old gas detector was required due to an expected increase in instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron collider in the next few years. Calorimeter coverage, jet energy resolution, and electron and photon identification are among the expected improvements. The final detector design, together with the R&D studies that led to the choice of scintillator and fiber, mechanical assembly, and quality control are presented. The detector was installed in the fall 2004 Tevatron shutdown and is expected to start collecting colliding beam data by the end of 2004. First measurements indicate a light yield of 12 photoelectrons/MIP, a more than two-fold increase over the design goals.

  8. Fast simulation of electromagnetic and hadronic showers in SpaCal calorimeter at the H1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Raičević, Nataša; Glazov, Alexandre

    2016-03-25

    The fast simulation of showers induced by electrons (positrons) in the H1 lead/scintillating-fiber calorimeter, SpaCal, based on shower library technique has been presented previously. In this paper we show the results on linearity and uniformity of the reconstructed electron/positron cluster energy in electromagnetic section of Spacal for the simulations based on shower library and GFLASH shower parametrisation. The shapes of the clusters originating from photon and hadron candidates in SpaCal are analysed and experimental distributions compared with the two simulations.

  9. Report on radiation exposure of lead-scintillator stack

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.G.

    1990-11-08

    A stack of lead and scintillator was placed in a neutral beam obtained from targeting 800 GeV protons. Small pieces of film containing radiochromic dye were placed adjacent to the layers of scintillator for the purpose of measuring the radiation dose to the scintillator. Our motivation was to calibrate the radiation dose obtainable in this manner for future tests of scintillator for SSC experiments and to relate dose to flux to check absolute normalization for calculations. We also observed several other radiation effects which should be considered for both damage and compensation in a calorimeter.

  10. A study of liquid scintillator and fiber materials for use in a fiber calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Altice, P.P. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    This reports an investigation into the performance of selected scintillation oils and fiber materials to test their applicability in high energy, liquid scintillator calorimetry. Two scintillating oils, Bicron BC-517 and an oil mixed for the MACRO experiment, and two fiber materials, Teflon and GlassClad PS-252, were tested for the following properties: light yield, attenuation length and internal reflection angle. The results of these tests indicated that the scintillation oils and the fiber materials had an overall good performance with lower energies and would meet the requirements of liquid scintillator detection at SSC energies. 6 refs.

  11. CDF calorimeter and its upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Seiya, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The CDF calorimeter systems are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on the calibration and the performance of the central electromagnetic calorimeter. Several physics analyses where the calorimetry plays an important role are discussed. The present gas calorimeter will be upgraded in accord with the collider upgrade. The new system is a scintillator-based calorimeter with optical fiber readout. A status of the CDF calorimeter upgrade project is also described.

  12. Calibration of the CDF tile-fiber endplug calorimeters using moving radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, V.; Laasanen, A.; Pompos, A.; Wilson, M.

    1998-11-01

    The use of moving radioactive gamma sources to assess, calibrate and monitor scintillating tile calorimeters is discussed, and the techniques and equipment are described. The capabilities of the technique are illustrated using Cs{sup 137} sources with the CDF Endplug Upgrade EM and Hadron calorimeters at testbeams and at a cosmic ray test stand. Source measurements of all the tiles in testbeam modules which are exact replicas of the calorimeters, predict the relative responses of EM towers to 50 GeV positrons and muons, and of Hadron towers to 50 GeV pions, with RMS accuracies of 1.3{percent}, 1.8{percent} and 2.0{percent}, respectively. Source measurements will be used in lieu of testbeam measurements for the initial calibration of all towers in the final calorimeters. Source measurements of single tiles are reproducible to 0.4{percent} and will be used to monitor gain changes of the photomultiplier tubes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. The PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kistenev, E.; White, S.; Belikov, S.; Kochetkov, V.

    1993-12-31

    The main features of the Phenix EM calorimeter are presented. This a Pb/scintillator calorimeter with ``shish-kebab`` fiber readout, designed for low energy electron and photon measurements. Prototype calorimeters have been built with longitudinal segmentation, {approximately} 100 psec time of flight resolution and 8% energy resolution at 1GeV/c. The laser based monitoring system which has been incorporated into large scale prototypes is described. The dependence of light yield on fiber choice and scintillator surface preparation has been studied.

  14. The CLAS Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    M. Amarian; Geram Asryan; Kevin Beard; Will Brooks; Volker Burkert; Tom Carstens; Alan Coleman; Raphael Demirchyan; Yuri Efremenko; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Herb Funsten; Vladimir Gavrilov; Kevin L. Giovanetti; R.M. Marshall; Berhard Mecking; R.C. Minehart; H. Mkrtchan; Mavrik Ohandjanyan; Youri Sharabian; L.C. Smith; Stepan Stepanyan; W.A. Stephens; T.Y. Tung; Carl Zorn

    2001-05-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab utilizes six iron-free superconducting coils to provide an approximately toroidal magnetic field. The six sectors are instrumented individually to form six independent spectrometers. The forward region (8deg < (theta) < 45deg) of each sector is equipped with a lead-scintillator electromagnetic sampling calorimeter (EC), 16 radiation lengths thick, using a novel triangular geometry with stereo readout. With its good energy and position resolution, the EC is used to provide the primary electron trigger for CLAS. It is also used to reject pions, reconstruct pi-0 and eta decays and detect neutrons, This paper treats the design, construction and performance of the calorimeter.

  15. A hadronic tile calorimeter report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, Gianluigi; Gourlay, S.; Chung, Yeon Sei; Lee, Kyoung-Beom; Malvezzi, S.; Sala, A.; Arena, V.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Merlo, M.; Ratti, S.; Riccardi, C.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.

    1998-02-01

    The design and first performances of a new hadronic calorimeter for the experiment Focus (E831) at Fermilab are presented. It is a sampling calorimeter, with 28 iron (passive) and scintillator (active) planes. The active planes are composed of tiles read out by WaveLength Shifter fibers spliced to clear fibers. This is the first tile calorimeter actually used (1997)in a running experiment.

  16. Performance of a compensating lead/plastic scintillator tile/fiber calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uozumi, S.; Asakawa, T.; Done, J. P.; Fujii, Y.; Furukawa, K.; Hara, K.; Ishizaki, T.; Kaga, S.; Kajino, F.; Kamon, T.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kim, S.; Miyajima, A.; Nakagawa, A.; Nozaki, M.; Oishi, R.; Ota, T.; Sendai, K.; Sugimoto, Y.; Sugimoto, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takeuchi, A.; Toeda, T.; Yamada, Y.

    2002-07-01

    We have measured performance of a lead/plastic scintillator sampling calorimeter in two separate beam tests at low (1- 4 GeV) and high (10- 200 GeV) energies. The calorimeter is composed of 8-mm-thick lead plates and 2-mm-thick plastic scintillator plates for hardware compensation, where responses to electromagnetic and hadronic showers of the same energy are identical. We find the linearity to be better than 1% in the energy range between 2 and 150 GeV for both pions and electrons. The energy resolutions are obtained to be (46.7±0.6)%/ E⊕(0.9±0.9)% for pions, where the energy E is given in GeV. The response ratio of electromagnetic showers to hadronic showers is measured to be 1.04±0.01 at low energies, and 0.99±0.01 at high energies.

  17. Lessons from Monte Carlo simulations of the performance of a dual-readout fiber calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchurin, N.; Bedeschi, F.; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; De Pedis, D.; Ferrari, R.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Genova, P.; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Pinci, D.; Policicchio, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Scuri, F.; Sill, A.; Venturelli, T.; Wigmans, R.

    2014-10-01

    The RD52 calorimeter uses the dual-readout principle to detect both electromagnetic and hadronic showers, as well as muons. Scintillation and Cherenkov light provide the two signals which, in combination, allow for superior hadronic performance. In this paper, we report on detailed, GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulations of the performance of this instrument. The results of these simulations are compared in great detail to measurements that have been carried out and published by the DREAM Collaboration. This comparison makes it possible to understand subtle details of the shower development in this unusual particle detector. It also allows for predictions of the improvement in the performance that may be expected for larger detectors of this type. These studies also revealed some inadequacies in the GEANT4 simulation packages, especially for hadronic showers, but also for the Cherenkov signals from electromagnetic showers.

  18. Result of Monte-Carlo simulation of electron-photon cascades in lead and layers of lead-scintillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, A.; Krys, E.

    1985-01-01

    Results of Monte-Carlo simulation of electromagnetic cascade development in lead and lead-scintillator sandwiches are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the structure function for core approximation is not applicable in the case in which the primary energy is higher than 100 GeV. The simulation data has shown that introducing an inhomogeneous chamber structure results in subsequent reduction of secondary particles.

  19. Photon calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1988-04-22

    A photon calorimeter is provided that comprises a laminar substrate that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating, that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions, are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly. 4 figs.

  20. Photon Calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1989-01-01

    A photon calorimeter (20, 40) is provided that comprises a laminar substrate (10, 22, 42) that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating (28, 48, 52), that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions (30, 50, 54) are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly.

  1. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for Hades Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugler, A.; Blume, C.; Czyžycki, W.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Lapidus, K.; Lisowski, E.; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Svoboda, O.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.

    2014-06-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is being developed to complement the dilepton spectrometer HADES currently operating at GSI Darmstadt, Germany. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 A GeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. The calorimeter will also improve the electron-hadron separation and will as well be used for the detection of photons from strange resonances in elementary and heavy ion reactions. Calorimeter modules constructed of lead glass Cherenkov counter, photomultiplier, HV divider and optical fiber are described in the detail. Two prototypes of novel front-end electronics based on TRB3 are presented. A dedicated LED based system being developed to monitor the stability of the calorimeter during beamtime is introduced as well.

  2. Accelerator Test of an Imaging Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark J.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Binns, R. W.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Howell, L. W.; Gregory, J. C.; Hink, P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Kippen, R. M.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) utilizes a thin sampling calorimeter concept for direct measurements of high-energy cosmic rays. The ICA design uses arrays of small scintillating fibers to measure the energy and trajectory of the produced cascades. A test instrument has been developed to study the performance of this concept at accelerator energies and for comparison with simulations. Two test exposures have been completed using a CERN test beam. Some results from the accelerator tests are presented.

  3. The CDF miniplug calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Lami, Stefano

    2002-06-28

    Two MiniPlug calorimeters, designed to measure the energy and lateral position of particles in the (forward) pseudorapidity region of 3.6 < |{nu}| < 5.2 of the CDF detector, have been recently installed as part of the Run II CDF upgrade at the Tevatron {bar p}p collider. They consist of lead/liquid scintillator read out by wavelength shifting fibers arranged in a pixel-type towerless geometry suitable for ''calorimetric tracking''. The design concept, the prototype performance and the final design of the MiniPlugs are here described. A recent cosmic ray test resulted in a light yield of approximately 100 pe/MIP, which exceeds our design requirements.

  4. Test beam performance of the CDF plug upgrade hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    de Barbaro, P.; CDF Plug Upgrade Group

    1998-01-13

    We report on the performance of the CDF End Plug Hadron Calorimeter in a test beam. The sampling calorimeter is constructed using 2 inch iron absorber plates and scintillator planes with wavelength shifting fibers for readout. The linearity and energy resolution of the calorimeter response to pions, and the transverse uniformity of the response to muons and pions are presented. The parameter e/h, representing the ratio of the electromagnetic to hadronic response, is extracted from the data.

  5. Photodetectors for the CMS hadron calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, J. E.; CMS Hadron Calorimeter Readout Group

    1997-02-01

    Hadronic energy measurements in the central and end cap regions of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector will be made using sampling calorimeter techniques with plastic scintillator tiles as the sensitive layers. Plastic fibers doped with wavelength shifting fluors embedded in each tile are used to extract the scintillation light. Clear plastic wave guide fibers carry the shifted light to photodetectors located on the outer surface of the calorimeter structure. Environmental constraints and physics performance requirements for these photodetectors are presented. Candidate photodetector technologies are discussed, and the hybrid photomultiplier tube technology is identified as most promising.

  6. CDF End Plug calorimeter Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, G.; de Barbaro, P.; Mishina, M.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the status of the CDF End Plug Upgrade Project. In this project, the CDF calorimeters in the end plug and the forward regions will be replaced by a single scintillator based calorimeter. After an extensive R&D effort on the tile/fiber calorimetry, we have now advanced to a construction phase. We review the results of the R&D leading to the final design of the calorimeters and the development of tooling devised for this project. The quality control program of the production of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is described. A shower maximum detector for the measurement of the shower centroid and the shower profile of electrons, {gamma} and {pi}{sup 0} has been designed. Its performance requirements, R&D results and mechanical design are discussed.

  7. sPHENIX Calorimeter Design and Jet Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, John S.

    2016-12-01

    The PHENIX collaboration is planning a detector upgrade, sPHENIX, which consists of large acceptance calorimetry and tracking detectors built around the superconducting solenoid recently shipped to Brookhaven from the decommissioned BaBar experiment at SLAC. The sPHENIX calorimeter system includes three radial layers of sampling calorimeters, a tungsten-scintillating fiber electromagnetic calorimeter, and two longitudinally segmented sampling hadron calorimeters that are made of scintillator tiles and steel plates. Together, they provide hermetic coverage in | η | < 1 for calorimetry based jet measurements as well as minimal bias jet trigger capability, which coupled with high resolution tracking, enable an extremely rich jet physics program at RHIC.

  8. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrynevich, A.

    2017-06-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC . Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV . Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response and its modelling by the Monte Carlo simulations. The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  9. Stability of the Gains of the STAR Endcap Calorimeter from 2006 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutz, Kayla

    2012-10-01

    The Solenoid Tracker at RHIC (STAR) experiment, based at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), uses polarized-proton collisions to investigate sea quark and gluon contributions to the known proton spin. The STAR detector's Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EEMC) measures the energy of particles produced by those collisions using a lead-scintillator sampling calorimeter, consisting of several layers that include pre-shower, shower maximum, tower, and post-shower detectors. In these detectors, the energy gains, which convert a measured pulse into an energy deposition, have been determined using data taken from the years, 2006, 2009 and 2011. Changes in the gains over time may result from known high voltage changes or deterioration of the detector, such as from radiation damage. A comparison of the gains from the three years will be presented.

  10. Results on the spaghetti calorimeter projective prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencheikh, B.; Contin, A.; DeSalvo, R.; Hao, W.; Wang, Y. Y.; Lundin, M.; Mondardini, R.; Xu, C.; You, K.

    1992-12-01

    The performances of a projective lead/scintillating fibres ("spaghetti") calorimeter made out of rectangular cross-section (32 × 32 mm 2) straight modules alternated with tapering modules at 2.5° are described. Beam test results on energy resolution, constant term suppression, lineshape, uniformity of response, shower position resolution, and electron-pion discrimination are presented. The readout of the fibres in the straight modules, which are sensitive to most of the electromagnetic showers and to part of the hadronic showers, is kept separate from the readout of the fibres of the wedged sections, which are sensitive only to hadronic showers. The lead-to-fibre volume ratio is kept at about 4 to 1 in order to obtain an equal-amplitude response from electrons and hadrons (usually called "compensation"). The origin of the energy resolution constant term has been better understood. This allowed the reduction of the constant term to 0.5%, down from 1.2% measured in older prototypes. The probability of faking abnormally large signals because of channelling effects is also discussed. The position resolution has been measured to range from 0.5 to 1 mm depending on the hit position of the particle. A comparison with the larger hexagonal module design is also made. The efficiency of a hardware thresholding of the wedges' signal as a level one trigger pion veto is discussed along with off-line electron/pion discrimination performances. Since the wedges start at 26 X0 from the calorimeter front face they should show no signal for electromagnetic showers. It was found that electromagnetic showers of 50 GeV generate wedge signals of a maximum of a few tens of MeV. It was also found that the discriminating power is angle dependent, mainly because at small particle-to-fibre angles (≤ 1°) some electrons can penetrate the calorimeter through channeling, thus exciting a signal in the wedges. At slightly higher tilt angle it is possible to use a lower wedge threshold without

  11. X-ray calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    X-ray calorimeter instruments for astrophysics have seen rapid development since they were invented in 1984. The prime instrument on all currently planned X-ray spectroscopic observatories is based on calorimeter technology. This relatively simple detection concept that senses the energy of an incident photon by measuring the temperature rise of an absorber material at very low temperatures can form the basis of a very high-performance, non-dispersive spectrometer. State-of-theart calorimeter instruments have resolving powers of over 3000, large simultaneous bandpasses, and near unit efficiency. This coupled with the intrinsic imaging capability of a pixilated X-ray calorimeter array, allows true spectral-spatial instruments to be constructed. This chapter briefly reviews the detection scheme, the state of the art in X-ray calorimeter instruments and the future outlook for this technology.

  12. CCP. Calorimeter Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, J.; Levi, G.

    1998-10-01

    The Calorimeter Control Software provides PID (Proportional, Integral, and Derivative) Control for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters and five Calorimeter Waterbaths. The software accepts a Voltage input, compares it to a user defined setpoint, calculates a new voltage output designed to bring the input closer to the setpoint using a PID control algorithm, then sets the analog voltage output to the calculated value. The software is designed to interface with HP 3852A Data Acquisition Unit via an HP-1B PC board. All field inputs are wired into Digital Input cards and field outputs are wired from Analog Output cards.

  13. Calorimeter Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, Jean R.; Levi, Gerald

    1998-11-03

    The Calorimeter Control Software provides PID (Proportional, Integral, and Derivative) Control for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters and five Calorimeter Waterbaths. The software accepts a Voltage input, compares it to a user defined setpoint, calculates a new voltage output designed to bring the input closer to the setpoint using a PID control algorithm, then sets the analog voltage output to the calculated value. The software is designed to interface with HP 3852A Data Acquisition Unit via an HP-1B PC board. All field inputs are wired into Digital Input cards and field outputs are wired from Analog Output cards.

  14. sPHENIX Calorimeter Design and Jet Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Haggerty J. S.

    2016-09-27

    The PHENIX collaboration is planning a detector upgrade, sPHENIX, which consists of large acceptance calorimetry and tracking detectors built around the superconducting solenoid recently shipped to Brookhaven from the decommissioned BaBar experiment at SLAC. The sPHENIX calorimeter system includes three radial layers of samplingcalorimeters, a tungsten-scintillating fiber electromagnetic calorimeter, and two longitudinally segmented samplinghadron calorimeters that are made of scintillator tiles and steel plates. Together, they provide hermetic coverage in n < 1 for calorimetry based jet measurements as well as minimal bias jet trigger capability, which coupled with high resolution tracking, enable an extremely rich jet physics program at RHIC.

  15. ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter prototype test

    SciTech Connect

    Awes, Terry; /Oak Ridge

    2005-09-01

    This Memorandum of Understanding between the Test Beam collaborators and Fermilab is for the use of beam time at Fermilab during the Fall, 2005 Meson Test Beam Run. The experimenters plan to measure the energy, position, and time resolution of prototype modules of a large electromagnetic calorimeter proposed to be installed in the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The ALICE experiment is one of the three large approved LHC experiments, with ALICE placing special emphasis on the LHC heavy-ion program. The large electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) is a US initiative that is endorsed by the ALICE collaboration and is currently in the early stages of review by the Nuclear Physics Division of the DOE. The installation in the test beam at FNAL and test beam measurements will be carried out by the US members of the ALICE collaboration (ALICE-USA). The overall design of the ALICE EMCal is heavily influenced by its location within the ALICE L3 magnet. The EMCal is to be located inside the large room temperature magnet within a cylindrical integration volume approximately l12cm deep, by 5.6m in length, sandwiched between the ALICE TPC space frame and the L3 magnet coils. The chosen technology is a layered Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter with a longitudinal pitch of 1.6mm Pb and 1.6mm scintillator. The full detector spans {eta} = -0.7 to {eta} = 0.7 with an azimuthal acceptance of {Delta}{phi} = 120{sup o}. The EMCal readout is of a ''Shish-Kabob'' type similar to the PHENIX Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter in which the scintillation light is collected via wavelength shifting fibers running through the Pb-scintillator tiles perpendicular to the front surface. The detector is segmented into {approx}14000 towers. The basic structural units of the calorimeter are supermodules, each subtending approximately {approx}20{sup o} in {Delta}{phi} and 0.7 units in {Delta}{eta}. Supermodules are assembled from individual modules. The modules are further segmented into 2 x 2

  16. Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandler, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Calorimeters that utilize the temperature sensitivity of magnetism have been under development for over 20 years. They have targeted a variety of different applications that require very high resolution spectroscopy. I will describe the properties of this sensor technology that distinguish it from other low temperature detectors and emphasize the types of application to which they appear best suited. I will review what has been learned so far about the best materials, geometries, and read-out amplifiers and our understanding of the measured performance and theoretical limits. I will introduce some of the applications where magnetic calorimeters are being used and also where they are in development for future experiments. So far, most magnetic calorimeter research has concentrated on the use of paramagnets to provide temperature sensitivity; recent studies have also focused on magnetically coupled calorimeters that utilize the diamagnetic response of superconductors. I will present some of the highlights of this research, and contrast the properties of the two magnetically coupled calorimeter types.

  17. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Henriques, A.

    2015-07-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics. (authors)

  18. Radiation damage studies for the SDC electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazely, A. R.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R. L.; Khosravi, E. S.; Lim, Jit-Ning; Lyndon, C.; McMills, G.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W. J.; Courtney, J. C.; Tashakkori, R.; Vegara, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    We report the results from a year long study aimed at radiation resistance and optical performance of scintillator tile with green wave shifter fiber readout. A careful investigation of several rad-hard plastic scintillators from Bicron and Kuraray, studies indicate that for a specific rad-hard Bicron scintillator, it is possible to build a tile/fiber EM calorimeter that can operate in the design luminosity of SSC. This calorimeter with excellent optical response would only have a light loss of about 5% after being exposed to 1 Mrad.

  19. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm3 sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  20. An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…

  1. MAC calorimeters and applications

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-03-01

    The MAC detector at PEP features a large solid-angle electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter system, augmented by magnetic charged-particle tracking, muon analysis and scintillator triggering. Its implementation in the context of electron-positron annihilation physics is described, with emphasis on the utilization of calorimetry.

  2. An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…

  3. Stability of the Tower Gains of the STAR Endcap Calorimeter in 2012 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarasinghe, Chamindu; STAR Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Solenoid Tracker at RHIC (STAR) experiment, based at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), uses polarized-proton collisions to investigate sea quark and gluon contributions to the proton spin. The STAR detector's Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EEMC) is of particular interest in this experiment because it covers a kinematic region that is sensitive to gluons carrying a low fraction of the proton momentum, where the gluon's contribution to the spin of the proton is poorly constrained. The EEMC is located in the intermediate pseudorapidity range, 1 < η <2, and as a lead-scintillator sampling calorimeter, measures the electromagnetic energy of particles produced in the polarized-proton collisions. The calorimeter consists of several layers that include pre-shower, shower maximum, tower, and post-shower detectors. In these detectors, the energy gains, which convert a measured signal into an energy deposition, have been determined using data taken from the year 2012. The sensitivities of the tower energy gains to beam intensity and running time were studied. The results from these sensitivity studies will be reported. Funded by the US Department of Energy.

  4. Performance of the prototype module of the GlueX electromagnetic barrel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Leverington, Blake; Lolos, George; Papandreou, Zisis; Hakobyan, Rafael; Huber, Garth; Janzen, Kathryn; Semenov, Andrei; Scott, Eric; Shepherd, Matthew; Carman, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Smith, Elton; Taylor, Simon; Wolin, Elliott; Klein, Franz; Santoro, Joseph; Sober, Daniel; Kourkoumeli, Christina

    2008-11-01

    A photon beam test of the 4 m long prototype lead/scintillating-fibre module for the GlueX electromagnetic barrel calorimeter was carried out in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility with the objective of measuring the energy and timing resolutions of the module as well as the number of photoelectrons generated. Data were collected over an energy range of 150 - â 650 MeV at multiple positions and angles along the module. Details of the analysis at the centre of and perpendicular to the module are shown herein; the results are View the MathML source, View the MathML source ps, and 660 photoelectrons for 1 GeV at each end of the module.

  5. The ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchetti, F.; ALICE Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    The ALICE Experiment (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) aims to study the properties of quark-gluon matter using Pb-Pb collisions at a center of mass energy (per nucleon pair) of squaresNN = 5.5 TeV with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The EMCal consists in a large area electromagnetic calorimeter able to extend the measured momentum range of photons and electrons by over an order of magnitude. In addition, the EMCal will enhance the capability of the overall ALICE setup to perform better jet reconstruction by measurement of the neutral energy component of jets, photons and neutral pions. The EMCal will also produce a fast high-pT trigger: the anticipated minimum bias average Pb-Pb interaction rate is very high (around 8 kHz), thus a fast high-pT trigger will provide an enhancement in high pT events in central collisions. The EMCal covers a geometrical region from -0.7<=η<=0.7 (in pseudo-rapidity η) and 120° in the azimuthal angle phi. In particular, the phi-coverage has been chosen to allow the detection of γ-jet events in coincidence with the other ALICE complementary calorimeter, the PHOS. The EMCal is a modular sampling calorimeter: it can measure showers up to 20 radiation lengths. Each module is composed by 4 towers of a Pb-scintllator sandwich (shashlik). The shape of the basic module is tapered to allow a projective geometry of the final assembly with respect to the interaction point. An assembly of 12×24 modules is called a super-module. The complete EMCal is a high granularity detector containing 11 super modules for a total of 12.672 towers. An independent optical readout of each tower is provided using wavelength shifting fibers coupled to an APD (Avalanche Photo Diod). The APD readout was chosen to allow the operation in the high B-field environment created by the ALICE solenoidal magnet. The gain of the APD is monitored using a LED activated scintillator installed on into each module.

  6. A compact light readout system for longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Brizzolari, C.; Cecchini, S.; Cindolo, F.; Jollet, C.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Meregaglia, A.; Paoloni, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Prest, M.; Sirri, G.; Terranova, F.; Vallazza, E.; Votano, L.

    2016-09-01

    The longitudinal segmentation of shashlik calorimeters is challenged by dead zones and non-uniformities introduced by the light collection and readout system. This limitation can be overcome by direct fiber-photosensor coupling, avoiding routing and bundling of the wavelength shifter fibers and embedding ultra-compact photosensors (SiPMs) in the bulk of the calorimeter. We present the first experimental test of this readout scheme performed at the CERN PS-T9 beamline in 2015 with negative particles in the 1-5 GeV energy range. In this paper, we demonstrate that the scheme does not compromise the energy resolution and linearity compared with standard light collection and readout systems. In addition, we study the performance of the calorimeter for partially contained charged hadrons to assess the e / π separation capability and the response of the photosensors to direct ionization.

  7. An Imaging Calorimeter for Access-Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Adams, James H.; Binns, R. W.; Christl, M. J.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Howell, L. W.; Gregory, J. C.; Hink, P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A mission concept study to define the "Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS)" was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The ACCESS instrument complement contains a transition radiation detector and an ionization calorimeter to measure tile spectrum of protons, helium, and heavier nuclei up to approximately 10(exp 15) eV to search for the limit of S/N shock wave acceleration, or evidence for other explanations of the spectra. Several calorimeter configurations have been studied, including the "baseline" totally active bismuth germanate instrument and sampling calorimeters utilizing various detectors. The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) concept comprises a carbon target and a calorimeter using a high atomic number absorber sampled approximately each radiation length (rl) by thin scintillating fiber (SCIFI) detectors. The main features and options of the ICA instrument configuration are described in this paper. Since direct calibration is not possible over most of the energy range, the best approach must be decided from simulations of calorimeter performance extrapolated from CERN calibrations at 0.375 TeV. This paper presents results from the ICA simulations study.

  8. Radionuclide calorimeter system

    DOEpatents

    Donohoue, Thomas P.; Oertel, Christopher P.; Tyree, William H.; Valdez, Joe L.

    1991-11-26

    A circuit for measuring temperature differentials in a calorimeter is disclosed. The temperature differential between the reference element and sample element containing a radioactive material is measured via a wheatstone bridge arrangement of thermistors. The bridge is driven with an alternating current on a pulsed basis to maintain the thermal floor of the calorimeter at a low reference value. A lock-in amplifier connected to the bridge phase locks a signal from the bridge to the input pulsed AC signal to provide a DC voltage. The DC voltage is sampled over time and provided to a digital computer. The digital computer, using curve fitting algorithms, will derive a function for the sample data. From the function, an equilibrium value for the temperature may be calculated.

  9. Radionuclide calorimeter system

    DOEpatents

    Donohoue, T.P.; Oertel, C.P.; Tyree, W.H.; Valdez, J.L.

    1991-11-26

    A circuit for measuring temperature differentials in a calorimeter is disclosed. The temperature differential between the reference element and sample element containing a radioactive material is measured via a Wheatstone bridge arrangement of thermistors. The bridge is driven with an alternating current on a pulsed basis to maintain the thermal floor of the calorimeter at a low reference value. A lock-in amplifier connected to the bridge phase locks a signal from the bridge to the input pulsed AC signal to provide a DC voltage. The DC voltage is sampled over time and provided to a digital computer. The digital computer, using curve fitting algorithms, will derive a function for the sample data. From the function, an equilibrium value for the temperature may be calculated. 7 figures.

  10. Secondary Emission Calorimeter (SEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. J.; Northrop, Richard; Frisch, Henry; Elagin, Andrey; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Ramberg, Erik; Spiropulu, Maria; Apresyan, Artur; Xie, Si

    2014-06-25

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) the experimenters of University of Chicago and California Institute of Technology, who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2014-2015 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The TSW is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations. The experimenters propose using large-area micro-channel plates assembled without the usual bialkali photocathodes as the active element in sampling calorimeters, Modules without photocathodes can be economically assembled in a glove box and then pumped and sealed using the process to construct photomultipliers, This electromagnetic calorimeter is based on W and Pb absorber plates sandwiched with detectors. Measurements can be made with bare plates and absorber inside the vacuum vessel.

  11. The HPS electromagnetic calorimeter

    DOE PAGES

    Balossino, I.; Baltzell, N.; Battaglieri, M.; ...

    2017-02-22

    The Heavy Photon Search experiment (HPS) is searching for a new gauge boson, the so-called "heavy photon". Through its kinetic mixing with the Standard Model photon, this particle could decay into an electron-positron pair. It would then be detectable as a narrow peak in the invariant mass spectrum of such pairs, or, depending on its lifetime, by a decay downstream of the production target. The HPS experiment is installed in Hall-B of Jefferson Lab. This article presents the design and performance of one of the two detectors of the experiment, the electromagnetic calorimeter, during the runs performed in 2015-2016. The calorimeter's main purpose is to provide a fast trigger and reduce the copious background from electromagnetic processes through matching with a tracking detector. Finally, the detector is a homogeneous calorimeter, made of 442 lead-tungsten (PbWOmore » $$_4$$) scintillating crystals, each read-out by an avalanche photodiode coupled to a custom trans-impedance amplifier.« less

  12. DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, B

    1998-10-01

    Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

  13. The HPS electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balossino, I.; Baltzell, N.; Battaglieri, M.; Bondì, M.; Buchanan, E.; Calvo, D.; Celentano, A.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; D'Angelo, A.; Napoli, M. De; Vita, R. De; Dupré, R.; Egiyan, H.; Ehrhart, M.; Filippi, A.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Girod, F.-X.; Guidal, M.; Holtrop, M.; Iurasov, V.; Kubarovsky, V.; Livingston, K.; McCarty, K.; McCormick, J.; McKinnon, B.; Osipenko, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Randazzo, N.; Rauly, E.; Raydo, B.; Rindel, E.; Rizzo, A.; Rosier, P.; Sipala, V.; Stepanyan, S.; Szumila-Vance, H.; Weinstein, L. B.

    2017-05-01

    The Heavy Photon Search experiment (HPS) is searching for a new gauge boson, the so-called ;heavy photon.; Through its kinetic mixing with the Standard Model photon, this particle could decay into an electron-positron pair. It would then be detectable as a narrow peak in the invariant mass spectrum of such pairs, or, depending on its lifetime, by a decay downstream of the production target. The HPS experiment is installed in Hall-B of Jefferson Lab. This article presents the design and performance of one of the two detectors of the experiment, the electromagnetic calorimeter, during the runs performed in 2015-2016. The calorimeter's main purpose is to provide a fast trigger and reduce the copious background from electromagnetic processes through matching with a tracking detector. The detector is a homogeneous calorimeter, made of 442 lead-tungstate (PbWO4) scintillating crystals, each read out by an avalanche photodiode coupled to a custom trans-impedance amplifier.

  14. Performances of the AMS-02 Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Coignet, G.; Girard, L.; Goy, C.; Kossakowski, R.; Lees-Rosier, S.; Pochon, J.; Vialle, J. P.; Cervelli, F.; di Falco, S.; Galeotti, S.; Incagli, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Spinella, F.; Venanzoni, G.; Falchini, E.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Paoletti, R.; Pilo, F.; Turini, N.; Valle, G.; Bolmont, J.; Jacholkowska, A.; Piron, F.; Sapinski, M.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Lu, Y.; Yang, C.

    2004-07-01

    A 3D imaging electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) made of scintillating fibers embedded in lead has been developed for the AMS-02 experiment to be installed on the International Space Station. A full scale ECAL prototype, partially instrumented, was tested in July 2002 in a beam at CERN. Several million events were recorded using muon, electron, proton, and antiproton beams, from which the ECAL behavior was determined. Results on the measurement of the ECAL parameters and performances are presented : radiation length, linearity, energy and angular resolutions, e/p separation.

  15. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA grant NAGW-4577, "Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)". This grant covered a joint project between LSU and the University of Maryland for a Concept Study of a new type of fully active calorimeter to be used to measure the energy spectra of very high energy cosmic rays, particularly Hydrogen and Helium, to beyond 1014 eV. This very high energy region has been studied with emulsion chamber techniques, but never investigated with electronic calorimeters. Technology had advanced to the point that a fully active calorimeter based upon Bismuth Germanate (BGO) scintillating crystals appeared feasible for balloon flight (and eventually space) experiments.

  16. T-1018 UCLA Spacordion Tungsten Powder Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Trentalange, Stephen; Tsai, Oleg; Igo, George; Huang, Huan; Pan, Yu Xi; Dunkelberger, Jay; Xu, Wen Qin; Soha, Aria; Heppelmann, Steven; Gagliardi, Carl; /Texas A-M

    2011-11-16

    The present experiments at the BNL-RHIC facility are evolving towards physics goals which require the detection of medium energy electromagnetic particles (photons, electrons, neutral pions, eta mesons, etc.), especially at forward angles. New detectors will place increasing demands on energy resolution, hadron rejection and two-photon resolution and will require large area, high performance electromagnetic calorimeters in a variety of geometries. In the immediate future, either RHIC or JLAB will propose a facility upgrade (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with physics goals such as electron-heavy ion collisions (or p-A collisions) with a wide range of calorimeter requirements. An R and D program based at Brookhaven National Laboratory has awarded the group funding of approximately $110,000 to develop new types of calorimeters for EIC experiments. The UCLA group is developing a method to manufacture very flexible and cost-effective, yet high quality calorimeters based on scintillating fibers and tungsten powder. The design and features of the calorimeter can be briefly stated as follows: an arbitrarily large number of small diameter fibers (< 0.5 mm) are assembled as a matrix and held rigidly in place by a set of precision screens inside an empty container. The container is then back-filled with tungsten powder, compacted on a vibrating table and infused with epoxy under vacuum. The container is then removed. The resulting sub-modules are extremely uniform and achieve roughly the density of pure Lead. The sub-modules are stacked together to achieve a final detector of the desired shape. There is no dead space between sub-modules and the fibers can be in an accordion geometry bent to prevent 'channeling' of the particles due to accidental alignment of their track with the module axis. This technology has the advantage of being modular and inexpensive to the point where the construction work may be divided among groups the size of typical university physics departments

  17. Electromagnetic calorimeter for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle-ECL; Aulchenko, V.; Bobrov, A.; Bondar, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Garmash, Yu; Goh, Y. M.; Kim, S. H.; Krokovny, P.; Kuzmin, A.; Lee, I. S.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Nakamura, I.; Shebalin, V.; Shwartz, B.; Unno, Y.; Usov, Yu; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobjev, V.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.

    2015-02-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of the BELLE II detector for experiments at Super B-factory SuperKEKB is briefly described. The project of the calorimeter upgrade to meet severe background conditions expected at the upgraded KEK B factory is presented.

  18. Calibration and monitoring systems of the ATLAS tile hadron calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumediene, D.

    2013-08-01

    The TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter with iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. The scintillation light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to about 10,000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Integrated to the calorimeter, there is a composite device that allows to monitor and/or equalize the signals at various stages of their formation. This device is based on signal generation from different sources: radioactive, LASER, charge injection and minimum bias events produced in proton-proton collisions. Recent performances of these systems are presented.

  19. Double beta decay: Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brofferio, Chiara

    2008-11-01

    Calorimeters or, with a more specific definition, low temperature detectors, have been used by now for more than 15 years in Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, with excellent results: they compete with Ge diodes for the rank of detectors with the highest sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass, which is defined as a linear combination of the neutrino mass eigenvalues. After a brief introduction to the argument, with some notes on DBD and on bolometers, an update on the now closed experiment CUORICINO and on its successor, CUORE, is given. The fundamental role of background is then revealed and commented, introducing in this way the importance of the specific experiment now under construction, CUORE-0, that will precede CUORE to help optimizing the struggle against surface background. The possible future of this technique is then commented, quoting important R&D studies that are going on, for active shielding bolometers and for scintillating bolometers coupled with light detecting bolometers.

  20. The SuperNEMO calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquet, Christine; SuperNEMO collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The SuperNEMO double beta decay project is a modular tracker-calorimeter experiment that will reach a sensitivity to the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life of ∼ 1026 years, corresponding to a Majorana neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. The main calorimeter is based on 440 Optical Modules made of large volume plastic scintillators (10L) coupled with large area photomultipliers (Hamamatsu R5912-Mod). They are assembled in walls surrounding the isotope foil and the tracking volume. One of the main challenges of the SuperNEMO detector development programme was to reach an energy resolution, better than 8%(FWHM) at 1 MeV. The other challenge was to satisfy the radiopurity requirements for all the calorimeter materials. The calorimeter design of the first SuperNEMO module is presented as well as its performances and the status of its construction under way in the Modane underground laboratory.

  1. High density fluoride glass calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Q.; Scheltzbaum, J.; Akgun, U.

    2014-04-01

    The unprecedented radiation levels in current Large Hadron Collider runs, and plans to even increase the luminosity creates a need for new detector technologies to be investigated. Quartz plates to replace the plastic scintillators in current LHC calorimeters have been proposed in recent reports. Quartz based Cherenkov calorimeters can solve the radiation damage problem, however light production and transfer have proven to be challenging. This report summarizes the results from a computational study on the performance of a high-density glass calorimeter. High-density, scintillating, fluoride glass, CHG3, was used as the active material. This glass has been developed specifically for hadron collider experiments, and is known for fast response time, in addition to high light yield. Here, the details of a Geant4 model for a sampling calorimeter prototype with 20 layers, and its hadronic as well as electromagnetic performances are reported.

  2. Calorimeter Process Variable Archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, David; /Fermilab

    2002-01-14

    These steps were taken to maintain weekly archives: (1) Friday morning you stop the archiver and wait for it to finish writing data (the lock file will be removed from the directory); (2) move the current archive information to a PC via FTP; (3) remove all previous archive information in the previous directory; (4) move the current archive into the previous directory; (5) start a new archive; (6) burn a CDROM of the archive; and (7) copy the current archive to a specific directory. There are 2 ways to check if the Calorimeter Archiver is running, either through the WEB based front end or directly from a command line. Once the archiver is running it can be monitored from a WEB page. This only works with a browser launched from the online machine running the archiver. Each time the browser is reloaded there should be an update reported in the last write check field. You might have to wait a few minutes to see the update. Calorimetry currently takes readings every (300 sec.) 5 minutes. The second method to verify the archiver is running is to issue a command from a Linux cluster machine.

  3. Tests of gas sampling electromagnetic shower calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Carithers, W.; Day, C.; Johnson, K. J.; Wenzel, W. A.; Videau, H.

    1983-08-01

    An electromagnetic shower gas-sampling calorimeter has been tested in both Geiger and proportional discharge modes for incident electron energies in the range 0.125-16 GeV. The 0.2 radiation length-thick layers were lead-fiberglass laminates with cathode strips normal to the sense wires. The 5×10 mm 2 Geiger cells were formed with uniformly spaced nylon fibers perpendicular to the wires. Proportional mode measurements were carried out in the pressure range 1-10 atm. A Monte Carlo simulation is in good agreement with measured shower characteristics and has been used to predict the behavior for oblique angles of incidence and for various Geiger cell dimensions.

  4. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  5. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Richard E.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  6. Electromagnetic calorimeter for the HADES@FAIR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, O.; Blume, C.; Czyžycki, W.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Kugler, A.; Lapidus, K.; Lisowski, E.; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.

    2014-05-01

    An electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is being developed to complement the dilepton spectrometer HADES currently operating on the beam of the SIS18 heavy-ion synchrotron at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany. The ECAL will allow the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions in the energy range of 2-10 AGeV with the beam of the future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. The calorimeter will also improve the electron-hadron separation of the spectrometer, and will be used for the detection of photons from strange resonances in elementary and heavy ion reactions as well. The calorimeter will consist of 978 modules divided into 6 sectors, and it will cover forward angles of 16° < Θ < 45° and almost full azimuthal angle. Each module consists of a lead glass Cherenkov counter, photomultiplier, HV divider and an optical fiber. A dedicated LED based system being developed to monitor the stability of the calorimeter is discussed. Various prototypes of front-end electronics are presented and the achieved energy and time resolution determined using pulses from a pulse generator and a real detector signal induced by LED pulses and cosmic muons is shown as well.

  7. Development of shashlik electromagnetic calorimeter prototype for SoLID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, D.; Han, D.; Zou, Z.; Li, Y.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.

    2017-03-01

    A shashlik electromagnetic calorimeter will be produced in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory for Solenoidal large Intensity Device (SoLID) to measure the energy deposition of electrons and hadrons, and to provide particle identification after the energy of the accelerator was upgraded to 12 GeV. Tsinghua University is the member of Hall A collaboration in charge of development and production of the large shashlik electromagnetic calorimeter of SoLID. One module of that calorimeter is composed by 194 layers. Each layer consists of a 1.5 mm thick plastic scintillator put on top of a 0.5 mm thick lead plate. Scintillation light is read out by wave-length shifter fibers penetrating through the calorimeter modules longitudinally along the direction of flight of the impact particle. This paper describes the design and construction of that module, as well as a few optimization studies meant to improve its performance. A detailed Geant4 simulation also shows that an energy resolution of 5%/√ E (GeV) and a good containment for electromagnetic showers can be achieved, as well as some basic electron identification. A prototype of that module will be tested soon with an electron beam at JLab.

  8. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 213. National Research Council. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). The National Academies Press. ...

  9. The segmentation of hadron calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He Sheng

    1987-05-01

    Optimization of the segmentation of large hadron calorimeters is important in order to obtain good resolution for jet physics at minimum construction cost for the next generation of high energy experiments. The principles of the segmentation of hadron calorimeters are discussed. As an example, the Monte Carlo optimization of the segmentation of the L3 hadron calorimeter barrel at CERN is described. Comparisons of results for the reconstructed jet shapes show that the optimum number ADC channels is about 20K for the readout of 450K wires of the proportional chambers. The matching between the sandwiched φ towers and Z towers is the dominant factor for angular resolution. Based on these Monte Carlo simulations, an optimized tower structure is obtained.

  10. Precision Timing Calorimeter for High Energy Physics

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; ...

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present studies on the performance and characterization of the time resolution of LYSO-based calorimeters. Results for an LYSO sampling calorimeter and an LYSO-tungsten Shashlik calorimeter are presented. We also demonstrate that a time resolution of 30 ps is achievable for the LYSO sampling calorimeter. Timing calorimetry is described as a tool for mitigating the effects due to the large number of simultaneous interactions in the high luminosity environment foreseen for the Large Hadron Collider.

  11. LHCb calorimeters high voltage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilitsky, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Perret, P.; Schopper, A.; Soldatov, M.; Yakimchuk, V.

    2007-02-01

    The calorimeter system in LHCb aims to identify electrons, photons and hadrons. All calorimeters are equipped with Hamamatsu photo tubes as devices for light to signal conversion. Eight thousand R7899-20 tubes are used for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and two hundred 64 channels multi-anode R7600-00-M64 for Scintillator-Pad/Preshower detectors. The calorimeter high voltage (HV) system is based on a Cockroft Walton (CW) voltage converter and a control board connected to the Experiment Control System (ECS) by serial bus. The base of each photomultiplier tube (PMT) is built with a high voltage converter and constructed on an individual printed circuit board, using compact surface mount components. The base is attached directly to the PMT. There are no HV cables in the system. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used on the control board as an interface between the ECS and the 200 control channels. The FPGA includes also additional functionalities allowing automated monitoring and ramp up of the high voltage values. This paper describes the HV system architecture, some technical details of the electronics implementation and summarizes the system performance. This safe and low power consumption HV electronic system for the photomultiplier tubes can be used for various biomedical apparatus too.

  12. The CMS central hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.; E892 Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a copper absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe design choices that led us to this concept, details of the mechanical and optical structure, and test beam results. We discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  13. COE1 Calorimeter Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter Angelo

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the operations of the COE1 calorimeter which is used to measure the thermal power generated by the radioactive decay of plutonium-bearing materials for the purposes of assaying the amount of plutonium within the material.

  14. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthymiopoulos, Ilias

    2001-04-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs.

  15. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter system for the SLC Large Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.M.; Fox, J.D.; Smith, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the physical packaging and the logical organization of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) electronics system for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC are described. This system processes signals from approximately 44,000 calorimeter towers and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged within the detector itself as opposed to an external electronics support rack. The signal path from the towers in the liquid argon through the vacuum to the outside of the detector is explained. The organization of the control logic, analog electronics, power regulation, analog-to-digital conversion circuits, and fiber optic drivers mounted directly on the detector are described. Redundancy considerations for the electronics and cooling issues are discussed. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Shebalin, V. E. Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2015-12-15

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  17. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, P.; Chlad, L.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Korcyl, G.; Kugler, A.; Lapidus, K.; Linev, S.; Lisowski, E.; Neiser, A.; Ott, O.; Otte, O.; Pethukov, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Svoboda, O.; Thomas, A.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  18. Compensation effects in hadron calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.; Brau, J.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Goodman, M.; Wilson, R.

    1984-01-01

    The pros and cons of utilizing a fissionable material such as /sup 238/U to compensate for the nuclear binding energy losses in a hadron calorimeter are discussed. Fissionable material can return some lost energy to the particle cascade in terms of low-energy neutrons and gamma rays, but electromagnetic sampling inefficiencies (often called transition effects) and the detection medium which tries to convert this energy to a useable signal are just as important. 12 references.

  19. An elevated temperature titration calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Zanonato, P.L.; Choppin, G.R. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-06-01

    A variable-temperature (313 K to 353 K) titration calorimeter of high sensitivity has been constructed. The purpose of the calorimeter is to study temperature effects on the enthalpies of complex formation and of other reactions of metal cations such as hydrolysis and precipitation. Operation of the calorimetric system, including that final calculation of the heat released during titration, is automatic via computer control. Calibration tests of the calorimeter using 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol gave -(46.0 {plus minus} 0.3) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} and -(46.2 {plus minus} 0.2) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} for the enthalpy of protonation, at 318 K and at 343 K, respectively. For titrations of 2-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol, enthalpy of protonation values of -(28.4 {plus minus} 0.3) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} and -(29.3 {plus minus} 0.2) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} were obtained at 318 K and at 343 K, respectively. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Calibration of the Tile Hadronic Calorimeter of ATLAS at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumediene, Djamel; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. The TileCal provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses iron plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by means of wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The TileCal readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read by two PMTs. A brief description of the individual calibration systems (Cs radioactive source, laser, charge injection, minimum bias) is provided. Their combination allows to calibrate each part of the data acquisition chain (optical part, photomultiplier, readout electronics) and to monitor its stability to better than 1%. The procedure for setting and preserving the electromagnetic energy scale during Run 1 data taking is discussed. The issues of linearity and stability of the response, as well as the timing adjustment are also shown.

  1. Secondary Emission Calorimeter Sensor Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, David R.; Onel, Yasar

    2012-12-01

    In a Secondary Emission electron(SEe) detector module, Secondary Emission electrons (SEe) are generated from an SE surface/cathode, when charged hadronic or electromagnetic particles, particularly shower particles, penetrate an SE sampling module placed between absorber materials (Fe, Cu, Pb, W etc) in calorimeters. The SE cathode is a thin (10-50 nm thick) film (simple metal-oxides, or other higher yield materials) on the surface of a metal plate, which serves as the entrance “window” to a compact vacuum vessel (metal or metal-ceramic); this SE film cathode is analogous to a photocathode, and the SEe are similar to p.e., which are then amplified by dynodes, also is in a PMT. SE sensor modules can make use of electrochemically etched/machined or laser-cut metal mesh dynode sheets, as large as ~30 cm square, to amplify the Secondary Emission Electrons (SEe), much like those that compact metal mesh or mesh dynode PMT's use to amplify p.e.'s. The construction requirements easier than a PMT, since the entire final assembly can be done in air; there are no critical controlled thin film depositions, cesiation or other oxygen-excluded processes or other required vacuum activation, and consequently bake-out can be a refractory temperatures; the module is sealed by normal vacuum techniques (welding or brazing or other high temperature joinings), with a simple final heated vacuum pump-out and tip-off. The modules envisioned are compact, high gain, high speed, exceptionally radiation damage resistant, rugged, and cost effective, and can be fabricated in arbitrary tileable shapes. The SE sensor module anodes can be segmented transversely to sizes appropriate to reconstruct electromagnetic cores with high precision. The GEANT4 and existing calorimeter data estimated calorimeter response performance is between 35-50 Secondary Emission electrons per GeV, in a 1 cm thick Cu absorber calorimeter, with a gain per SEe > 105 per SEe, and an e/pi<1.2. The calorimeter pulse width is

  2. Mechanical Design of the DAMPE BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yiming; Wu, Jian; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Yunlong; Chen, Dengyi; Chang, Jin

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer, DAMPE, is a new designed satellite developed for the CASs new Innovation 2020 program. As the main component of DAMPE, the new designed BGO calorimeter consists of 308 BGO Crystals coupled with photomultiplier tube.The reliability and safety of the BGO Calorimeter structure play a very important role in the operation of whole detector. During the rocket launch, the calorimeter structure should be stable against vibration and environmental factors to ensure detector works in good conditions. In this article, we make the BGO calorimeter structure design, and then prove that it will work in the environments of rocket launch and flight.

  3. Characterization of 1800 Hamamatsu R7600-M4 PMTs for CMS HF Calorimeter upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgun, U.; Funk, G.; Corso, J.; Jia, Z.; Southwick, D.; Adams, L.; Kingyon, J.; Tiras, E.; Munhollon, T.; Troendle, E.; Bruecken, P.; Khristenko, V.; Onel, Y.

    2014-06-01

    The Hadronic Forward calorimeters of the CMS experiment are Cherenkov calorimeters that use quartz fibers and 1728 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for readout. The CMS detector upgrade project requires the current Hamamatsu R7525 PMTs to be replaced with 4-anode, high quantum efficiency R7600-M4 PMTs. The new PMTs will improve the detector resolution, as well as the capability of removing fake events due to signal created in the glass window of the PMT. Here, we report the dark current, anode gain, transit time, transit time spread, pulse width, rise time, and linearity measurements performed on 1800 Hamamatsu R7600-200-M4 PMTs.

  4. Expected performance of the CDF plug upgrade calorimeter at TeV33

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, K.; Kim, S.; Takikawa, K.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-11-01

    We have evaluated the performance of the CDF plug tile/fiber calorimeter under the radiation environment at a luminosity of 1 x 10{sup 33}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at TeV33. The issues covered are the radiation damage, the anode current of photomultipliers, and the energy miss-measurement due to the minimum bias event pile-ups. The plug calorimeter is expected to perform as precision calorimetry in the pseudorapidity range up to {approximately}2.3.

  5. Cone calorimeter evaluation of wood products

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2004-01-01

    The Forest Products Laboratory uses the cone calorimeter for the initial evaluation of the flammability of untreated and fire retardant treated wood products. The results of various studies are reviewed using a model presented at the 12th Annual BBC Conference on Flame Retardancy. The model uses data from the cone calorimeter to provide measures of fire growth...

  6. ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter front end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, N. J.; Chen, L.; Gingrich, D. M.; Liu, S.; Chen, H.; Damazio, D.; Densing, F.; Duffin, S.; Farrell, J.; Kandasamy, S.; Kierstead, J.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; Ma, H.; Makowiecki, D.; Muller, T.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Ruggiero, R.; Takai, H.; Wolniewicz, K.; Ghazlane, H.; Hoummada, A.; Hervas, L.; Hott, T.; Wilkens, H. G.; Ban, J.; Boettcher, S.; Brooijmans, G.; Chi, C.-Y.; Caughron, S.; Cooke, M.; Copic, K.; Dannheim, D.; Gara, A.; Haas, A.; Katsanos, I.; Parsons, J. A.; Simion, S.; Sippach, W.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, N.; Eckstein, P.; Kobel, M.; Ladygin, E.; Auge, E.; Bernier, R.; Bouchel, M.; Bozzone, A.; Breton, D.; de la Taille, C.; Falleau, I.; Fournier, D.; Imbert, P.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Perus, A.; Richer, J. P.; Seguin Moreau, N.; Serin, L.; Tocut, V.; Veillet, J.-J.; Zerwas, D.; Colas, J.; Dumont-Dayot, N.; Massol, N.; Perrodo, P.; Perrot, G.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Escalier, M.; Hubaut, F.; Laforge, B.; LeDortz, O.; Schwemling, Ph; Collot, J.; Dzahini, D.; Gallin-Martel, M.-L.; Martin, P.; Cwienk, W. D.; Fent, J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Citterio, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Tartarelli, F.; Bansal, V.; Boulahouache, C.; Cleland, W.; Liu, B.; McDonald, J.; Paolone, V.; Rabel, J.; Savinov, V.; Zuk, G.; Benslama, K.; Borgeaud, P.; de la Broïse, X.; Delagnes, E.; LeCoguie, A.; Mansoulié, B.; Pascual, J.; Teiger, J.; Dinkespiler, B.; Liu, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Ye, J.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Hansson, P.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Chu, M. L.; Lee, S.-C.; Su, D. S.; Teng, P. K.; Braun, H. M.

    2008-09-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. ATLAS includes a complex system of liquid argon calorimeters. This paper describes the architecture and implementation of the system of custom front end electronics developed for the readout of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters.

  7. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  8. 5.8 X-ray Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2008-01-01

    X-ray calorimeter instruments for astrophysics have seen rapid development since they were invented in 1984. The prime instrument on all currently planned X-ray spectroscopic observatories is based on calorimeter technology. This relatively simple detection concept that senses the energy of an incident photon by measuring the temperature rise of an absorber material at very low temperatures, can form the basis of a very high performance, non-dispersive spectrometer. State-of-the-art calorimeter instruments have resolving powers of over 3000, large simultaneous band-passes, and near unit efficiency. This coupled with the intrinsic imaging capability of a pixilated x-ray calorimeter array, allows true spectral-spatial instruments to be constructed. In this chapter I briefly review the detection scheme, the state-of-the-art in X-ray calorimeter instruments and the future outlook for this technology.

  9. A Laser-Based Calibration System, for the CDF Plug Upgrade Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauz, Diego

    A laser-based calibration and monitoring system for the plug upgrade calorimeter is described. A pulsed nitrogen ultraviolet laser excites all of the about 1000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in each plug calorimeter. The light is focused into a quartz fiber and routed first to a primary distributor (PD) and from there to 12 secondary distributors (COWs), which feed the individual PMTs. The system will be used as a debugging tool during calorimeter rigging and will help the wire source calibration system in initially equalizing the PMT gains. In addition, an LED imbedded in each COW can set a continuous DC level on each PMT, allowing for PMT burn-in and gain conditioning.

  10. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    SciTech Connect

    Sewall, N.R.; Meassick, S. )

    1989-09-13

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    SciTech Connect

    Sewall, N.R.

    1989-09-13

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 Series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Design and Performance Tests of Ultra-Compact Calorimeters for High Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salgado, Carlos W.

    2003-01-01

    This R&D project had two goals: a) the study of general-application ultra-compact calorimetry technologies for use in High Energy Astrophysics and, b) contribute to the design of an efficient calorimeter for the ACCESS mission. The direct measurement of galactic cosmic ray fluxes is performed from space or from balloon-borne detectors. Detectors used in those studies are limited in size and, specially, in weight. Since galactic cosmic ray fluxes are very small, detectors with high geometrical acceptances and long exposures are usually required for collecting enough statistics. We have studied calorimeter techniques that could produce large geometrical acceptance per unit of mass (G/w) and that may be used to study galactic cosmic rays at intermediate energies (knee energies).-The most important asset for detection of primary cosmic rays at and about the knee is large acceptance. To construct a large acceptance calorimeter (this term is used here in its most general accepted meaning of calorimeter as a device to measure particle energies ) the detector needs to be verv liaht or verv shallow . We studied two possible technologies to built compact calorimeters: the use of lead-tungstate crystals (PWO) and the use of sampling calorimetry using scintillating fibers embedded in a matrix of powder tungsten. For a very light detector, we considered the possibility of using Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) to measure the energy (and perhaps also direction and identity) of VHE cosmic rays.

  13. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephe

    2013-04-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the central section (0 < |η| < 1.7) of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons decaying hadronically, and missing transverse energy. Because of its very good signal to noise ratio it is also useful for the identification and reconstruction of muons. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 4900 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser, and electronic charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of pp collisions acquired during 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance will be presented, including the absolute energy scale, time resolution, and associated stabilities. These results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter is performing well within the design requirements and is giving essential input to the physics results.

  14. Comparison testing of a mound calorimeter and a Savannah River Site calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    ReFalo, L.A.; Foster, L.A.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the paired comparison testing of a Savannah River Site (SRS) calorimeter and a Mound calorimeter. Prior to this test, no offsite testing had been performed on an SRS calorimeter. The testing was performed at the Plutonium Facility of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The SRS calorimeter was designed, fabricated and delivered to LANL. The Mound calorimeter chosen for comparison was similar in well dimensions and located in the same room as the SRS calorimeter. There were three series of tests performed. First, twenty radiometric standard measurements were completed using two different standards. The second series of tests were dedicated to heat distribution measurements and the third series focused on measuring typical process samples.

  15. CMS Calorimeter Trigger Phase I upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klabbers, P.; Gorski, T.; Bachtis, M.; Compton, K.; Dasu, S.; Farmahini-Farahani, A.; Fobes, R.; Gregerson, A.; Grothe, M.; Ross, I.; Seemuth, D.; Schulte, M.; Smith, W. H.

    2012-01-01

    We present a design for the Phase-1 upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) calorimeter trigger system composed of FPGAs and Multi-GBit/sec links that adhere to the μTCA crate Telecom standard. The upgrade calorimeter trigger will implement algorithms that create collections of isolated and non-isolated electromagnetic objects, isolated and non-isolated tau objects and jet objects. The algorithms are organized in several steps with progressive data reduction. These include a particle cluster finder that reconstructs overlapping clusters of 2x2 calorimeter towers and applies electron identification, a cluster overlap filter, particle isolation determination, jet reconstruction, particle separation and sorting.

  16. First results from the SLD silicon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berridge, S. C.; Bugg, W. M.; Kroeger, R. S.; Weidemann, A. W.; White, S. L.; Brau, J. E.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Huber, J.; Hwang, H.

    1992-07-01

    The small-angle calorimeters of the SLD were successfully operated during the recent SLC engineering run. The Luminosity Monitor and Small-Angle Tagger (LMSAT) covers the angular region between 28 and 68 milliradians from the beam axis, while the Medium-Angle Silicon Calorimeter (MASC) covers the 68-190 milliradian region. Both are silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeters; the LMSAT employs 23 layers of 0.86 X(sub 0) sampling, while the MASC has 10 layers of 1.74 X(sub 0) sampling. We present results from the first run of the SLC with the SLD on beamline.

  17. MARK II end cap calorimeter electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Jared, R.C.; Haggerty, J.S.; Herrup, D.A.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wood, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An end cap calorimeter system has been added to the MARK II detector in preparation for its use at the SLAC Linear Collider. The calorimeter uses 8744 rectangular proportional counter tubes. This paper describes the design features of the data acquisition electronics that has been installed on the calorimeter. The design and use of computer-based test stands for the amplification and signal-shaping components is also covered. A portion of the complete system has been tested in a beam at SLAC. In these initial tests, using only the calibration provided by the test stands, a resolution of 18%/..sqrt..E was achieved.

  18. First results from the SLD silicon calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Berridge, S.C.; Bugg, W.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Weidemann, A.W.; White, S.L.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Huber, J.; Hwang, H.; Park, H.; Pitts, K.T.; Zeitlin, C.J.; Gioumousis, A.; Haller, G.; Seward, P.

    1992-07-01

    The small-angle calorimeters of the SLD were successfully operated during the recent SLC engineering run. The Luminosity Monitor and Small-Angle Tagger (LMSAT) covers the angular region between 28 and 68 milliradians from the beam axis, while the Medium-Angle Silicon Calorimeter (MASC) covers the 68--190 milliradian region. Both are silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeters; the LMSAT employs 23 layers of 0.86 X{sub 0} sampling, while the MASC has 10 layers of 1.74 X{sub 0} sampling. We present results from the first run of the SLC with the SLD on beamline.

  19. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  20. The Soudan 2 honeycomb calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Garcia, C.

    1990-12-01

    Soudan 2 is an 1100-ton honeycomb tracking calorimeter which is being constructed to search for nucleon decay. The detector consists of finely segmented iron instrumented with long drift tubes, and records three spatial coordinates and dE/dx for every gas crossing. Excellent event reconstruction capability, particle identification and muon sign and direction determination give superior rejection of the neutrino background to nucleon decay in many modes. The first 620 tons of Soudan 2 are now in steady operation, with completion planned for 1992. Detector performance has been studied using cosmic ray tracks and a charged test beam calibration. Results on detector performance and detector response are described in this paper. 2 refs. , 11 figs.

  1. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, A.

    1997-07-01

    The progress on the design and construction of the BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter including its mechanical structure, the readout system, the mechanical and optical properties of the crystals, and the schedule for the final assembly and testing is summarized.

  2. Upgrading the ATLAS fast calorimeter simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubacek, Z.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full Geant4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time. In ATLAS, a fast simulation of the calorimeter systems was developed, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim). It provides a parametrized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software and can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. An improved parametrization is being developed, to eventually address shortcomings of the original version. It makes use of statistical techniques such as principal component analysis and a neural network parametrization to optimise the amount of information to store in the ATLAS simulation infrastructure.

  3. The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1998-06-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  4. The performance of a gas electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezzubov, V.; Denisov, S.; Erin, S.; Ferapontov, A.; Gilitsky, Yu.; Korablev, V.; Lobanov, M.; Rybin, A.; Solin, A.; Suzdalev, V.

    2004-06-01

    Characteristics of the gas ionisation electromagnetic (EM) calorimeters with 1.5 and 3 mm lead absorbers has been studied using 6- 30 GeV electron beams of the IHEP accelerator. The calorimeters were filled with heavy freon C 3F 8. The results of the electronics noise measurements are presented. The dependencies of the average signal and the energy resolution on the beam energy, gas pressure and high voltage are discussed.

  5. Inner Calorimeter in Clas/dvcs Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyazov, Rustam

    2008-03-01

    The new Inner Calorimeter (IC) was developed specifically for dedicated CLAS/DVCS experiment.1 IC consists of 424 PbWO4 tapered crystals readout by avalanche photodiodes (APD) followed by low-noise preamplifiers. It is a high precision calorimeter with energy resolution better than 3% at 2-5 GeV and has an angle resolution of 3 to 4 mrad.

  6. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heelan, Louise; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design requirements and it has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results. In addition, the data quality procedures used during the LHC data-taking are described and the outcome of the detector consolidation in the maintenance period is also presented.

  7. Transportable high sensitivity small sample radiometric calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, J.R.; Biddle, R.S.; Cordova, B.S.; Sampson, T.E.; Dye, H.R.; McDow, J.G.

    1998-12-31

    A new small-sample, high-sensitivity transportable radiometric calorimeter, which can be operated in different modes, contains an electrical calibration method, and can be used to develop secondary standards, will be described in this presentation. The data taken from preliminary tests will be presented to indicate the precision and accuracy of the instrument. The calorimeter and temperature-controlled bath, at present, require only a 30-in. by 20-in. tabletop area. The calorimeter is operated from a laptop computer system using unique measurement module capable of monitoring all necessary calorimeter signals. The calorimeter can be operated in the normal calorimeter equilibration mode, as a comparison instrument, using twin chambers and an external electrical calibration method. The sample chamber is 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in diameter by 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) long. This size will accommodate most {sup 238}Pu heat standards manufactured in the past. The power range runs from 0.001 W to <20 W. The high end is only limited by sample size.

  8. Performance of the GlueX Barrel Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Elton; Dalton, Mark; McGinley, William; Papandreou, Zisis; GlueX Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The GlueX experiment at Jefferson Lab will search for exotic hybrid mesons, a new form of hadronic matter that exhibits gluonic degrees of freedom. We have taken data to commission the experiment and report here on the construction and performance of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter (BCAL). The BCAL is a ``spaghetti calorimeter,'' consisting of layers of corrugated lead sheets, interleaved with planes of 1-mm-diameter, double-clad, scintillating fibers, bonded in the lead grooves using optical epoxy. This detector consists of 48 modules that are readout using 3,840 large-area Multi-Photon Pixel counter (MPPC) arrays. The measured width of the π0 mass peak is approximately 10 MeV, only slightly higher than projections based on prototypes. Systematic studies are underway to understand the contributions to the resolution and improve its performance. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of an actual segmented calorimeter: a study of calorimeter performance at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.; Goodman, M.S.; Sessoms, A.L.; Eisenstein, B.; Wright, S.C.; Kephart, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The calculated responses including energy resolution, angular resolution, and spatial energy deposition of a segmented iron and liquid-argon calorimeter to incident pions in the energy range of 10- to 250-GeV are presented. Experimental data for this calorimeter have been obtained in the 10- to 40- GeV energy range and these results compare favorably with the calculated data.

  10. The CREAM Calorimeter: Performance In Tests And Flights

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Ganel, O.; Han, J. H.; Kim, K. C.; Lutz, L.; Malinine, A.; Sina, R.; Walpole, P.; Wu, J.; Zinn, S. Y.; Allison, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Brandt, T. J.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Zei, R.; Barbier, L.

    2006-10-27

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) balloon-borne experiment, designed to directly measure cosmic-ray particle energies from {approx}1011 to {approx}1015 eV, had two successful flights since December 2004, with a total duration of 70 days. The CREAM calorimeter is comprised of 20 layers of 1 radiation length (X0) tungsten interleaved with 20 active layers each made up of fifty 1 cm wide scintillating fiber ribbons. The scintillation signals are read out with multi pixel Hybrid Photo Diodes (HPDs), VA32-HDR2/TA32C ASICs and LTC1400 ADCs. During detector construction, various tests were carried out using radioactive sources, UV-LEDs, and particle beams. We will present results from these tests and show preliminary results from the two flights.

  11. Can a PB / SCIFI Calorimeter Survive the SSC?

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Hertzog; S. A. Hughes; P. E. Reimer; R. L. Tayloe; K. F. Johnson; S. Majewski; C. Zorn; M. Zorn

    1990-03-01

    A scintillating fiber based electromagnetic calorimeter module built from radiation-hard materials has been tested in a beam capable of delivering both low and high currents of monoenergetic electrons. Energy resolution and light output measurements were made following high-dose exposures. The procedure was repeated until the resolution of the detector decreased from an initial value of 6.9%/sqrt E to 14.0%/sqrt E and the pulse height dropped by a factor of 11. After four weeks, the detector was retested. Partial recovery was observed in the light output which returned to approximately 52% of its original value. The resolution recovered to a value of 8.8%/sqrt E. The tests are described.

  12. Can a Pb/SCIFI calorimeter survive the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzog, D.W.; Hughes, S.A.; Reimer, P.E.; Tayloe, R.L. ); Johnson, K.F. ); Majewski, S.; Zorn, C.; Zorn, M. )

    1990-01-01

    A scintillating fiber based electromagnetic calorimeter module built from radiation-hard materials has been tested in a beam capable of delivering both low and high currents of monoenergetic electrons. Energy resolution and light output measurements were made following high-dose exposures. The procedure was repeated until the resolution of the detector decreased from an initial value of 6.9%{radical}E to 14.0%{radical}E and the pulse height dropped by a factor of 11. After four weeks, the detector was retested. Partial recovery was observed in the light output which returned to approximately 52% of its original value. The resolution recovered to a value of 8.8%{radical}E. The tests are described. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  13. The Electron Calorimeter (ECAL) Long Duration Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, T. G.; Adams, J. H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Binns, W. R.; Chang, J.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M.; Dowkontt, P.; Ellison, B.; Isbert, J. B.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the cosmic ray electron energy spectrum in the energy region 50 GeV to greater than 1 TeV may reveal structure caused by the annihilation of exotic dark matter particles and/or individual cosmic ray sources. Here we describe a new long duration balloon (LDB) experiment, ECAL, optimized to directly measure cosmic ray electrons up to several TeV. ECAL includes a double layer silicon matrix, a scintillating optical fiber track imager, a neutron detector and a fully active calorimeter to identify more than 90% of the incident electrons with an energy resolution of about 1.7% while misidentifying only 1 in 200,000 protons and 0.8% of secondary gamma rays as electrons. Two ECAL flights in Antarctica are planned for a total exposure of 50 days with the first flight anticipate for December 2009.

  14. Temperature Effects in the ATIC BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isbert, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K.; Chang, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fazely, A.; Ganel, O.; Gunasigha, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment contains a segmented calorimeter composed of 320 individual BGO crystals (18 radiation lengths deep) to determine the particle energy. Like all inorganic scintillation crystals the light output of BGO depends not only on the energy deposited by particles but also on the temperature of the crystal. ATIC had successful flights in 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 from McMurdo, Antarctica. The temperature of balloon instruments varies during their flights at altitude due to sun angle variations and differences in albedo from the ground and is monitored and recorded. In order to determine the temperature sensitivity of the ATIC calorimeter it was temperature cycled in the thermal vacuum chamber at the CSBF in Palestine, TX. The temperature dependence is derived from the pulse height response to cosmic ray muons at various temperatures.

  15. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  16. Temperature Effects in the ATIC BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isbert, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K.; Chang, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fazely, A.; Ganel, O.; Gunasigha, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment contains a segmented calorimeter composed of 320 individual BGO crystals (18 radiation lengths deep) to determine the particle energy. Like all inorganic scintillation crystals the light output of BGO depends not only on the energy deposited by particles but also on the temperature of the crystal. ATIC had successful flights in 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 from McMurdo, Antarctica. The temperature of balloon instruments varies during their flights at altitude due to sun angle variations and differences in albedo from the ground and is monitored and recorded. In order to determine the temperature sensitivity of the ATIC calorimeter it was temperature cycled in the thermal vacuum chamber at the CSBF in Palestine, TX. The temperature dependence is derived from the pulse height response to cosmic ray muons at various temperatures.

  17. Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2016-07-12

    Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal’s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

  18. Central Calorimeter Thermal Gradient Module Connection Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-07

    Two 20 kW condensing and one 10 kW steady state cooling coils will be used to cool and condense gaseous argon in the Central Calorimeter (CC) Cryostat. Since this cool down (300K to 90K) will inevitably cause shrinkage in the modules contained inside the cryostat, the connections between the modules have to be designed to withstand the increase in forces and moments induced by this contraction. This paper presents finite element analysis (ANSYS{reg_sign}) results to aid in the design or modification of the Central Calorimeter module connections.

  19. The electronics for the AMS-02 calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervelli, F.; Di Falco, S.; Incagli, M.; Vannini, C.; Magazzù, C.; Pedreschi, E.; Piendibene, M.; Pilo, F.; Spinella, F.

    2007-03-01

    AMS-02 is an astroparticle experiment that will operate on board of the ISS for a period of about three years. The main scientific goals of the experiment are the search for antimatter and dark matter and the study of gamma rays. In AMS-02 the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) plays a key role for its high capability to measure e+, e- and gamma spectra and to discriminate electromagnetic showers from hadronic cascades [C. Adloff, et al., Performance of a 3D imaging electromagnetic calorimeter for the AMS02 space experiment, Proceedings of Calor 2004, Perugia, Italy. [1

  20. Comparison of the Heat Release Rate from the Mass Loss Calorimeter to the Cone Calorimeter for Wood-based Materials

    Treesearch

    Laura E. Hasburgh; Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for material properties to be used as inputs in fi re behavior models designed to address building fire safety. This comparative study evaluates using the mass loss calorimeter as an alternative to the cone calorimeter for obtaining heat release rates of wood-based materials. For this study, a modified mass loss calorimeter utilized an...

  1. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molander, Simon

    2014-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Detector performances with respect to electronic noise and cell response are presented. In addition, an overview of the partially overlapping calibration systems is given.

  2. Steel specification for the Atlas calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.

    1998-02-10

    As part of a collaborative experimental High Energy Physics experiment at the LHC Facility, CERN Laboratory, Geneva Switzerland, a group of US institutions has accepted the responsibility for constructing a large portion of the calorimeter for this experiment. This device is referred to as the Tile Calorimeter. The Tile Calorimeter has three major elements, a large center section (Barrel), and two end sections (Extended Barrel). The US group will be responsible for the construction of one of these extended barrel sections. All of the components that are required to construct this device will be fabricated in the US over a period of three years commencing in 1998. Another similar element and the barrel element will be constructed in both eastern and western Europe by parallel groups. The extended barrel is a cylindrical device approximately 8.5 meters (28 ft.) OD x 4.5 meters (14 ft.) ID, made up of 64 wedges. Each of these wedges (see Attachment 1) is constructed by bolting submodules to a strongback girder. Each submodule is constructed of a series of sheets that are welded and glued together. This document summarizes the characteristics and specifications of these steel sheets. The Tile Calorimeter is the return path for the magnet flux of the ATLAS internal superconducting 2T solenoid, therefore its steel magnetic properties are important.

  3. SLD liquid argon calorimeter prototype test results

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, R.; Eigen, G.; Au, Y.; Sleeman, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Brau, J.; Ludgate, G.A.; Oram, C.J.; Cook, V.; Johnson, J.

    1985-10-01

    The results of the SLD test beam program for the selection of a calorimeter radiator composition within a liquid argon system are described, with emphasis on the study of the use of uranium to obtain equalization of pion and electron responses.

  4. Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Mark S.

    2009-12-17

    A selection of ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter commissioning studies is presented. It includes a coherent noise study, a measurement of the quality of the ionization pulse shape prediction, and energy and time reconstruction analyses with cosmic and single beam signals.

  5. Performance of the GEM electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Ma

    1993-06-25

    The GEM EM calorimeter is optimized for the best energy, position, angular resolution and jet rejection. The detailed simulation results are presented. In the barrel with LKr, an energy resolution of about 6%/{radical}{direct_sum}0.4%, pointing resolution of 40mrad/{radical}E + 0.5mrad, and jet rejection of a factor of 5 are expected.

  6. X-Ray Calorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites started a new era in x-ray astronomy, but there remains a need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band (around 6 keV) and can enable imaging spectroscopy of extended sources, such as supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. The instrumentation needed is a broad-band imaging spectrometer - basically an x-ray camera that can distinguish tens of thousands of x-ray colors. The potential benefits to astrophysics of using a low-temperature calorimeter to determine the energy of an incident x-ray photon via measurement of a small change in temperature was first articulated by S. H. Moseley over two decades ago. In the time since, technological progress has been steady, though full realization in an orbiting x-ray telescope is still awaited. A low-temperature calorimeter can be characterized by the type of thermometer it uses, and three types presently dominate the field. The first two types are temperature-sensitive resistors - semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a paramagnetic thermometer. These types can be considered the three generations of x-ray calorimeters; by now each has demonstrated a resolving power of 2000 at 6 keV, but only a semiconductor calorimeter system has been developed to spaceflight readiness. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2013, will use an array of silicon thermistors with I-IgTe x-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays, kilo-pixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are just now being produced, and it is anticipated that much larger arrays will require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetic thermometers.

  7. Production summary for extended barrel module fabrication at Argonne for the ATLAS tile calorimeter.

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.; Hill, N.; Petereit, E.; Skrzecz, F.; Wood, K.; Proudfoot, J.; Anderson, S.; Caird, A.; Keyser, C.; Kocenko, L.; Matijas, Z.; Nephew, T.; Stanek, R.; Franchini, F.; High Energy Physics

    2007-11-14

    The Tile Calorimeter is one of the main hadronic calorimeters to be used in the ATLAS experiment at CERN [1,2]. It is a steel/scintillator sampling calorimeter which is built by stacking 64 segments in azimuth and 3 separate cylinders to provide a total structure whose length is approximately 12m and whose diameter is a little over 8.4m. It has a total weight of about 2630 metric tons. Important features of this calorimeter are: A minimum gap (1.5mm) between modules in azimuth; Pockets in the structure to hold the scintillator tiles; Recessed channels at the edges of the module into which the readout fibers will sit; and Holes in the structure through which a radioactive source will pass. The mechanical structure for one of the 3 calorimeter sections, the Extended Barrel (EBA) was constructed at Argonne. A schematic of the calorimeter sampling structure and the layout of one of the 64 segments, termed a module, are shown in figure 1. Each module comprises mechanically of a precision machined, structural girder to which 10 submodules are bolted. One of these submodules, the ITC, has a customized shape to accommodate services for other detector elements. Each submodule weighs 850Kg and the assembled mechanical structure of the module weighs approximately 9000Kg (a fully instrumented Extended Barrel modules weighs {approx}9600Kg). A crucial issue for the tile calorimeter assembly is the minimization of the un-instrumented gap between modules when they are stacked on top of each other during final assembly. The design goal was originally 1mm gap which was eventually relaxed to 1.5mm following a careful evaluation of all tolerances in the construction and assembly process as shown in figure 2 [3]. Submodules for this assembly were produced at 4 locations [4] using tooling and procedures which were largely identical [5]. An important issue was the height of each submodule on the stacking fixture on which they were fabricated as this defines the length along the girder

  8. The CMS forward calorimeter prototype design studies and Ω$0\\atop{C}$ search at E781 experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Ayan, Ahmet Sedat

    2004-05-01

    In the fit part, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) forward calorimeter design studies are presented. The forward calorimeter consists of quartz fibers embedded in a steel absorber. Radiation damage studies of the quartz fiber and the absorber as well as the results of the first pre-production prototype PPP-I are presented. In the second part, the Ω$0\\atop{C}$ search studies at the SELEX (E781) experiment at FermiLab are presented. 107 ± 22 Ω$0\\atop{C}$ events are observed in three decay modes. The relative branching ratio (Ω$0\\atop{C}$ → Ω-π-π+π+)/β(Ω$0\\atop{C}$ {yields} Ω-π+) is measured as 2.00 ± 0.45(stat) ± 0.32(sys).

  9. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, H. S.; Ganel, O.; Kim, K. C.; Seo, E. S.; Sina, R.; Wang, J. Z.; Wu, J.; Case, G.; Ellison, S. B.; Gould, R.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment is designed to measure the composition and energy spectra of Z = 1 to 28 cosmic rays over the energy range of approximately 10 GeV - 100 TeV. ATIC is comprised of an eight-layer, 18 radiation length deep Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter, downstream of a 0.75 nuclear interaction length graphite target and an approximately 1 sq m finely segmented silicon charge detector. Interleaved with the graphite layers are three scintillator strip hodoscopes for pre-triggering and tracking. ATIC flew for the first time on a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) launched from McMurdo, Antarctica in January 2001. During its 16-day flight ATIC collected more than 30 million science events, along with housekeeping, calibration, and rate data. This presentation will describe the ATIC data processing, including calibration and efficiency corrections, and show results from analysis of this dataset. The next launch is planned for December 2002.

  10. Effect of dead material in a calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1995-10-01

    The existence of dead material in any practical calorimeter system is simply a fact of life. The task for the designer, then, is to understand the impact on the Physics in question, and strive to minimize it. The aim of this note is to use the ``Hanging File`` test data, which has fined grained individual readout of about 100 depth segments, to explore impact of dead material on the mean and r.m.s. of the hadronic distribution. The amount and location of the dead material is varied. It important to remember that the Hanging File data was calibrated, EM to HCAL compartment, so as to minimize the electron to pion energy dependence. In practical terms e/pie was made = 1.0 at an incident energy of about 100 GeV. Note that the PB(EM) + FE(HCAL) calorimeter was not a compensating device.

  11. Improving calorimeter resolution using temperature compensation calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiga, Joseph; Purschke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The sPHENIX experiment is an upgrade of the existing PHENIX apparatus at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The new detector improves upon measurements of various physical processes, such as jets of particles created during heavy-ion collisions. Prototypes of various calorimeter components were tested at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF). This analysis tries to compensate the effects of temperature drifts in the silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Temperature data were used to calculate an appropriate compensation factor. This analysis will improve the achievable resolution and will also determine how accurately the temperature must be controlled in the final experiment. This will improve the performance of the calorimeters in the sPHENIX experiment. This project was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  12. Sources of compensation in hadronic calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.S.; Gabriel, T.A.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Wilson, R.

    1988-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are presented using the CALOR code system to study the design of a large hybrid hadron calorimeter system employing a warm liquid active medium (tetramethylsilane, Si(CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/) and uranium plates in addition to a conventional Fe/plastic system. In the system described here, the uranium provides partial compensation by suppressing the electromagnetic cascade produced by incident electrons due to sampling inefficiencies. The results of the simulations also indicate that significant compensation is achieved (given small enough saturation) due to low energy recoil protons produced in collisions with low energy (1--20 MeV) cascade and fission neutrons in the active medium. Both compensation mechanisms are important to help balance the response of a calorimeter to incident electrons and hadrons, that is, to achieve a ratio of pulse heights (e/h approx. 1) which will lead to the best energy resolution. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  14. Performance of the CDF miniplug calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gallinaro

    2003-04-09

    Two Miniplug calorimeters, designed to measure the energy and lateral position of particles in the forward pseudorapidity region of 3.6 < |{eta}| < 5.1, have been installed as part of the CDF upgraded detector for Run II at the Tevatron. Proton-antiproton beams are colliding at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. One year after installation, Miniplug detector performance and first results are presented.

  15. A no-load RF calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The described device can be used to measure the output of any dc powered RF source. No dummy load is required for the measurements. The device is, therefore, called the 'no-load calorimeter' (NLC). The NLC measures the power actually fed to the antenna or another useful load. It is believed that the NLC can compete successfully with directional coupler type systems in measuring the output of high-power RF sources.

  16. Troubleshooting guide for Mound calorimeter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Breakall, K.L.; Duff, M.F.; Rodenburg, W.W.

    1988-06-29

    This report is to be used as a tool for troubleshooting Mound calorimeter systems. It describes in simple language the equilibration, prediction, and servo-control modes of operation. A problem-cause-action table provides suggestions and, in some cases, directs personnel to one of six troubleshooting flow charts included in the report. Using the flow charts, laboratory personnel should be able to rcognize and troubleshoot most problems that occur. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Carminati, L.

    2005-10-12

    The construction of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed and commissioning is in progress. After a brief description of the detector layout, readout electronics and calibration, a review of the present status of the integration and the detector qualification is reported. Finally a selection of performance results obtained during several test beams will be presented with particular attention to linearity, uniformity, position reconstruction and {gamma}/{pi}0 separation.

  18. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrió, F.; Tile Calorimeter System, ATLAS

    2015-02-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase-II) where the peak luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (1034 cm-2s-1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2024. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, configuration and detector control. For the off-detector electronics a pre-processor (sROD) is being developed, which takes care of the initial trigger processing while temporarily storing the main data flow in pipeline and derandomizer memories. One demonstrator prototype module with the new calorimeter module electronics, but still compatible with the present system, is planned to be inserted in ATLAS this year.

  19. Calibrating the Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolnik, Marianne

    2012-10-01

    The Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC) is a subsystem of the PHENIX detector. The MPC, an electromagnetic calorimeter, is effective at measuring the energy of photons and electrons produced from collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The MPC outputs a voltage signal that we then convert into an energy reading. One common way to calibrate electromagnetic calorimeters is to use photons from π^0 decays. Since many of the photons that enter the detector are the result of natural pion decay, we can pair up the photons and create π^0 candidates. We then plot their masses tower by tower and with the correct cuts a mass peak will appear close to the position predicted by the simulation PISA of the PHENIX detector. Then, we relate the mass peaks from the measured data to mass peaks from simulated data to adjust the gains. Once the MPC is calibrated we can use it to study Au+Au collisions. Previously, the detector has been used to study spin physics using data collected from p+p collisions, and cold nuclear matter effects using d+Au collisions. These new calibrations will allow us to measure new global variables such as transverse energy in both the forward and backward kinematic regions, 3.1< |η| < 3.9.

  20. Preliminary conceptual design about the CEPC calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haijun

    2016-11-01

    The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) as a Higgs factory was proposed in September 2013. The preliminary conceptual design report was completed in 2015.1 The CEPC detector design was using International Linear Collider Detector — ILD2 as an initial baseline. The CEPC calorimeters, including the high granularity electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) and the hadron calorimeter (HCAL), are designed for precise energy measurements of electrons, photons, taus and hadronic jets. The basic resolution requirements for the ECAL and HCAL are about 16%E (GeV) and 50%E (GeV), respectively. To fully exploit the physics potential of the Higgs, W, Z and related Standard Model processes, the jet energy resolution is required to reach 3%-4%, or 30%/E (GeV) at energies below about 100 GeV. To achieve the required performance, a Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) — oriented calorimetry system is being considered as the baseline design. The CEPC ECAL detector options include silicon-tungsten or scintillator-tungsten structures with analog readout, while the HCAL detector options have scintillator or gaseous detector as the active sensor and iron as the absorber. Some latest R&D studies about ECAL and HCAL within the CEPC working group is also presented.

  1. Fast Shower Simulation in the ATLAS Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Barberio, E.; Boudreau, J.; Butler, B.; Cheung, S.L.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Di Simone, A.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Gallas, M.V.; Glazov, A.; Marshall, Z.; Mueller, J.; Placakyte, R.; Rimoldi, A.; Savard, P.; Tsulaia, V.; Waugh, A.; Young, C.C.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime. In the fast shower parameterisation technique, a parameterization is tuned to single electrons and used later by simulation. In the frozen shower technique, actual showers from low-energy particles are used in the simulation. Full Geant 4 simulation is used to develop showers down to {approx} 1 GeV, at which point the shower is terminated by substituting a frozen shower. Judicious use of both techniques over the entire electromagnetic portion of the ATLAS calorimeter produces an important improvement of CPU time. We discuss the algorithms and their performance in this paper.

  2. Preliminary Conceptual Design About the CEPC Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haijun

    The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) as a Higgs factory was proposed in September 2013. The preliminary conceptual design report was completed in 2015. The CEPC detector design was using International Linear Collider Detector — ILD as an initial baseline. The CEPC calorimeters, including the high granularity electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) and the hadron calorimeter (HCAL), are designed for precise energy measurements of electrons, photons, taus and hadronic jets. The basic resolution requirements for the ECAL and HCAL are about 16%[√ E ] (GeV) and 50% [√ E] (GeV), respectively. To fully exploit the physics potential of the Higgs, W, Z and related Standard Model processes, the jet energy resolution is required to reach 3%-4%, or 30%/[√ E] (GeV) at energies below about 100 GeV. To achieve the required performance, a Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) — oriented calorimetry system is being considered as the baseline design. The CEPC ECAL detector options include silicon-tungsten or scintillator-tungsten structures with analog readout, while the HCAL detector options have scintillator or gaseous detector as the active sensor and iron as the absorber. Some latest R&D studies about ECAL and HCAL within the CEPC working group is also presented.

  3. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  4. Heat flow calorimeter. [measures output of Ni-Cd batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, J. C.; Johnston, W. V. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Heat flow calorimeter devices are used to measure heat liberated from or absorbed by an object. This device is capable of measuring the thermal output of sealed nickel-cadmium batteries or cells during charge-discharge cycles. An elongated metal heat conducting rod is coupled between the calorimeter vessel and a heat sink, thus providing the only heat exchange path from the calorimeter vessel itself.

  5. A hadron calorimeter with scintillators parallel to the beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Gorin, A.; Gurzhiev, A.; Dyshkant, A.; Evdokimov, V.; Kolosov, V.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Yu.; Kostritskii, A.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Podstavkov, V.; Polyakov, V.; Shtannikov, A.; Tereschenko, S.; Turchanovich, L.; Zaichenko, A.

    1997-02-01

    A hadron calorimeter in which scintillators are arranged nearly parallel to the incident particle direction and light is collected by optical fibres with WLS, has been built. The iron absorber plates are of the tapered shape to fit a barrel structure of the collider geometry. The performance of the calorimeter studied with hadron beam is presented as a function of tilt angle without and with electromagnetic calorimeter in front of the hadron one.

  6. Description and performance of the FOCUS (E831) hadron calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Bonomi, G.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chung, Y. S.; Gianini, G.; Gourlay, S. A.; Gray, K.; Hansen, S.; Lee, K. B.; Liguori, G.; Malvezzi, S.; Marchesotti, M.; Merlo, M.; Pantea, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Sala, A.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.

    1999-02-01

    An iron-scintillator tile calorimeter with tower readout geometry was constructed for the photoproduction experiment FOCUS (E831) at Fermilab. This experiment ran in the 1996-1997 Fermilab-fixed target program using a wide band photon beam with an average energy of 170 GeV. The hadron calorimeter was used in an online trigger. A description of this tile sampling calorimeter is given and its performance described.

  7. Performance of CDF calorimeter simulation for Tevatron Run II

    SciTech Connect

    C. Currat

    2002-09-19

    The upgraded CDF II detector has collected first data during the initial operation of the Tevatron accelerator in Run II. The simulation of the CDF electromagnetic and hadronic central and upgraded plug (forward) calorimeter is based on the Gflash calorimeter parameterization package used within the GEANT based detector simulation of the Run II CDF detector. We present the results of tuning the central and plug calorimeter response to test beam data.

  8. Performances of the signal reconstruction in the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meoni, E.

    2013-08-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS. It is a key detector for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter using steel as an absorber and plastic scintillators as an active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The read-out system is designed to reconstruct the data in real time fulfilling the tight time constraint imposed by the ATLAS first level trigger rate (100 kHz). The signal amplitude and phases for each channel are measured using Optimal Filtering algorithms both at online and offline level. We present the performances of these techniques on the data collected in the proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. We show in particular the measurements of low amplitudes, close to the pedestal value, using as probe high transverse momenta muons produced in the proton-proton collisions.

  9. Mechanical and thermal design of the CEBAF Hall a beam calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    M. Bevins; A. Day; P. Degtiarenko; L.A. Dillon-Townes; A. Freyberger; R. Gilman; A. Saha; S. Slachtouski

    2005-05-16

    A calorimeter is being fabricated to provide 0.5% - 1.0% absolute measurement of the beam current in the Hall A end station of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab (JLAB). Modern powder metallurgy processes have produced high density, high thermal conductivity tungsten-copper composite materials that minimize electromagnetic and hadronic energy loss while maintaining a rapid thermal response time. Heat leaks are minimized by mounting the mass in vacuum on glass ceramic mounts. A conduction cooling scheme utilizes an advanced carbon fiber compliant thermal interface material. Transient finite difference and finite element models were developed to estimate heat leaks and thermal response times.

  10. A calorimeter for neutron flux measurement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chupp, T.E.

    1993-04-01

    A calorimeter for absolute neutron flux measurement has been built and tested. The calorimeter measures the heat produced in a 10{degrees}K thick LiPb target when neutrons are captured via the {sup 6}Li(n,{sup 3}H){sup 4}He reaction. The sensitivity achieved was 1.3x10{sup 6} n/s for a 1 hour measurement. Separate flux measurements with the calorimeter and a {sup 238}U fission chamber are in agreement and show that systematic errors are less than 3%. An improved calorimeter has been built which is sensitive to 10{sup 5} n/s for a 1 hour measurement.

  11. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodkov, A.

    2017-08-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5 × 1034 cm-2s-1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC . TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes to the electronics will also contribute to the reliability and redundancy of the system. Three different front-end options are presently being investigated for the upgrade and a final solution will be chosen after extensive laboratory and test beam studies that are in progress. A hybrid demonstrator module was developed using the new electronics while conserving compatibility with the current system. The demonstrator undergoes extensive testing and will be installed in ATLAS during one of the next winter maintenance periods.

  12. High frequency alternating current chip nano calorimeter with laser heating

    SciTech Connect

    Shoifet, E.; Schick, C.; Chua, Y. Z.; Huth, H.

    2013-07-15

    Heat capacity spectroscopy at frequencies up to 100 kHz is commonly performed by thermal effusivity measurements applying the 3ω-technique. Here we show that AC-calorimetry using a thin film chip sensor allows for the measurement of frequency dependent heat capacity in the thin film limit up to about 1 MHz. Using films thinner than the thermal length of the thermal wave (∼1 μm) at such frequencies is advantageous because it provides heat capacity alone and not in combination with other quantities like thermal conductivity, at least on a qualitative basis. The used calorimetric sensor and the sample are each less than 1 μm thick. For high frequency AC-calorimetry, high cooling rates at very small temperature differences are required. This is realized by minimizing the heated spot to the size of the on chip thermocouple (3 × 6 μm{sup 2}). A modulated laser beam shaped and positioned by a glass fiber is used as the heat source. The device was used to measure the complex heat capacity in the vicinity of the dynamic glass transition (structural relaxation) of poly(methyl methacrylate). Combining different calorimeters finally provides data between 10{sup −3} Hz and 10{sup 6} Hz. In this frequency range the dynamic glass transition shifts about 120 K.

  13. High frequency alternating current chip nano calorimeter with laser heating.

    PubMed

    Shoifet, E; Chua, Y Z; Huth, H; Schick, C

    2013-07-01

    Heat capacity spectroscopy at frequencies up to 100 kHz is commonly performed by thermal effusivity measurements applying the 3ω-technique. Here we show that AC-calorimetry using a thin film chip sensor allows for the measurement of frequency dependent heat capacity in the thin film limit up to about 1 MHz. Using films thinner than the thermal length of the thermal wave (~1 μm) at such frequencies is advantageous because it provides heat capacity alone and not in combination with other quantities like thermal conductivity, at least on a qualitative basis. The used calorimetric sensor and the sample are each less than 1 μm thick. For high frequency AC-calorimetry, high cooling rates at very small temperature differences are required. This is realized by minimizing the heated spot to the size of the on chip thermocouple (3 × 6 μm(2)). A modulated laser beam shaped and positioned by a glass fiber is used as the heat source. The device was used to measure the complex heat capacity in the vicinity of the dynamic glass transition (structural relaxation) of poly(methyl methacrylate). Combining different calorimeters finally provides data between 10(-3) Hz and 10(6) Hz. In this frequency range the dynamic glass transition shifts about 120 K.

  14. High frequency alternating current chip nano calorimeter with laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoifet, E.; Chua, Y. Z.; Huth, H.; Schick, C.

    2013-07-01

    Heat capacity spectroscopy at frequencies up to 100 kHz is commonly performed by thermal effusivity measurements applying the 3ω-technique. Here we show that AC-calorimetry using a thin film chip sensor allows for the measurement of frequency dependent heat capacity in the thin film limit up to about 1 MHz. Using films thinner than the thermal length of the thermal wave (˜1 μm) at such frequencies is advantageous because it provides heat capacity alone and not in combination with other quantities like thermal conductivity, at least on a qualitative basis. The used calorimetric sensor and the sample are each less than 1 μm thick. For high frequency AC-calorimetry, high cooling rates at very small temperature differences are required. This is realized by minimizing the heated spot to the size of the on chip thermocouple (3 × 6 μm2). A modulated laser beam shaped and positioned by a glass fiber is used as the heat source. The device was used to measure the complex heat capacity in the vicinity of the dynamic glass transition (structural relaxation) of poly(methyl methacrylate). Combining different calorimeters finally provides data between 10-3 Hz and 106 Hz. In this frequency range the dynamic glass transition shifts about 120 K.

  15. Proportional wire calorimeter for magnet pole tips

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, D; Ludlam, T; Renardy, J; Willis, W; Zurfluh, E

    1980-01-01

    A total absorption calorimeter is designed to have magnetic properties comparable to those of ordinary steel, and thus can be incorporated into the poles of a spectrometer magnet without compromising the field quality. A test device has been built which consists of an iron structure penetrated by a finegrain pattern of holes, each acting as a proportional tube such that 90% of the volume is occupied by iron. Measurements of the energy and space resolution of this device in a high energy beam will be presented.

  16. The simulation of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossutti, F.

    2008-07-01

    The CMS Collaboration has developed a detailed simulation of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), which has been fully integrated in the collaboration software framework CMSSW. The simulation is based on the Geant4 detector simulation toolkit for the modelling of the passage of particles through matter and magnetic field. The geometrical description of the detector is being re-implemented using the DetectorDescription language, combining an XML based description with the algorithmic definition of the position of the elements. The ECAL simulation software is fully operational and has been validated using real data from the ECAL test beam experiment that took place in summer 2006.

  17. Calorimeter measurements of low wattage items

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, T.L.; Camp, K.L.; Hildner, S.S.; Sedlacek, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    The transition of DOE facilities from production to decontamination and decommissioning has led to more measurements of waste, scrap, and other less attractive materials. The difficulty that these materials pose for segmented gamma scanning and neutron counting has increased the use of calorimetric assay for very low wattage items (< 250 millwatts). We have measured well characterized {sup 238}Pu oxide ranging in wattage from 25 to 500 milliwatts in the calorimeters at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility and report the error and the precision of the measurements.

  18. Beam test of the SDC barrel EM calorimeter test module

    SciTech Connect

    Balka, L.; Guarino, V.; Hill, N.

    1994-05-01

    The SDC barrel electromagnetic calorimeter test module was exposed to beams of high energy pions and electrons in the MP9 test beam at Fermilab in the fall of 1991. Data were collected on resolution, light yield, signal timing and hermiticity. These data demonstrated that the design met the specifications for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter of the Solenoidal Detector collaboration (SDC).

  19. Ac loss calorimeter for three-phase cable

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Boenig, H.J.; Maley, M.P.; McMurry, D.E.; DeBlanc, B.G.

    1996-10-01

    A calorimeter for measuring ac losses in meter-long lengths of HTS superconducting power transmission line cables is described. The calorimeter, which is based on a temperature difference technique, has a precision of 1 mW and measures single, two-phase (coupling), and three-phase losses. The measurements show significant coupling losses between phases.

  20. Isothermal drop calorimeter provides measurements for alpha active, pyrophoric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, H.

    1969-01-01

    Isothermal drop calorimeter measures the heat content of intensely alpha active and pyrophoric materials in inert atmospheres. It consists of a furnace, calorimeter, and aluminum isothermal jacket contained within an inert-atmosphere glove box, which permits the use of unencapsulated materials without exposing personnel to alpha contamination.

  1. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-10-27

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors.

  2. Closed Gap Slug Calorimeter for Plasma Stream Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Gorbunov, Sergey; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda; Jones, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Slug calorimeters are used in sheer and stagnation mode to characterize heat flux levels for high enthalpy streams. The traditional design features a gap between slug and holder, which can be of concern in these convective heat flux environments. The challenge is to develop a calorimeter that closes the gap to gas flow, but largely maintains thermal insulation of the slug. The work presented herein introduces two new slug calorimeter designs featuring a closed gap. This is done using either aerogel as a filler or press fitting the slug with a disk. The designs were verified and compared to the baseline calorimeter design under radiative heat flux. Building on this, the calorimeters were exposed to convective heat flux in the arc-jet facilities. Results from the new designs and conclusions on the impact of the gap in convective heat flux will be shown.

  3. The ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter high level triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchetti, F.; Blanco, F.; Figueredo, M.; Knospe, A. G.; Xaplanteris, L.

    2012-12-01

    The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector yields a huge sample of data from different sub-detectors. On-line data processing is applied to select and reduce the volume of the stored data. ALICE applies a multi-level hardware trigger scheme where fast detectors are used to feed a three-level (L0, L1, and L2) deep chain. The High-Level Trigger (HLT) is a fourth filtering stage sitting logically between the L2 trigger and the data acquisition event building. The EMCal detector comprises a large area electromagnetic calorimeter that extends the momentum measurement of photons and neutral mesons up to pT = 250 GeV/c, which improves the ALICE capability to perform jet reconstruction with measurement of the neutral energy component of jets. An online reconstruction and trigger chain has been developed within the HLT framework to sharpen the EMCal hardware triggers, by combining the central barrel tracking information with the shower reconstruction (clusters) in the calorimeter. In the present report the status and the functionality of the software components developed for the EMCal HLT online reconstruction and trigger chain will be discussed, as well as preliminary results from their commissioning performed during the 2011 LHC running period.

  4. A Merged Quadrupole-Calorimeter for CEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talman, Richard; Hauptman, John

    The luminosity 𝓛 of colliding beams in a storage ring such as CEPC depends strongly on l*, the half-length of the free space centered on the intersection point (IP). l* is also the length from the IP to the front edges of the two near-in quadrupoles that are focusing the counter-circulating beams to the IP spot. The detector length cannot, therefore, exceed 2l*. Since 𝓛 increases strongly with decreasing l*, there is incentive for reducing l*; but this requires the detector to be shorter than desirable. This paper proposes a method for integrating these adjacent quadrupoles into the particle detector to retain (admittedly degraded) active particle detection of those forward going particles that would otherwise be obscured by the quadrupole. A gently conical quadrupole shape is more natural for merging the quadrupole into the particle detector than is the analytically exact cylindrical shape. This is true whether or not the calorimeter is integrated. It will be the task of accelerator physicists to determine the extent to which deviation from the pure quadrupole field compromises (or improves) accelerator performance. Superficially, both the presence of strongest gradient close to the IP and largest aperture farther from the IP seem to be advantageous. A tentative design for this merged, quadrupole-calorimeter is given.

  5. A merged quadrupole-calorimeter for CEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talman, Richard; Hauptman, John

    2016-11-01

    The luminosity ℒ of colliding beams in a storage ring such as CEPC depends strongly on l∗, the half-length of the free space centered on the intersection point (IP). l∗ is also the length from the IP to the front edges of the two near-in quadrupoles that are focusing the counter-circulating beams to the IP spot. The detector length cannot, therefore, exceed 2l∗. Since ℒ increases strongly with decreasing l∗, there is incentive for reducing l∗; but this requires the detector to be shorter than desirable. This paper proposes a method for integrating these adjacent quadrupoles into the particle detector to retain (admittedly degraded) active particle detection of those forward going particles that would otherwise be obscured by the quadrupole. A gently conical quadrupole shape is more natural for merging the quadrupole into the particle detector than is the analytically exact cylindrical shape. This is true whether or not the calorimeter is integrated. It will be the task of accelerator physicists to determine the extent to which deviation from the pure quadrupole field compromises (or improves) accelerator performance. Superficially, both the presence of strongest gradient close to the IP and largest aperture farther from the IP seem to be advantageous. A tentative design for this merged, quadrupole-calorimeter is given.

  6. High-sensitivity microfluidic calorimeters for biological and chemical applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonhee; Fon, Warren; Axelrod, Blake W.; Roukes, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    High-sensitivity microfluidic calorimeters raise the prospect of achieving high-throughput biochemical measurements with minimal sample consumption. However, it has been challenging to realize microchip-based calorimeters possessing both high sensitivity and precise sample-manipulation capabilities. Here, we report chip-based microfluidic calorimeters capable of characterizing the heat of reaction of 3.5-nL samples with 4.2-nW resolution. Our approach, based on a combination of hard- and soft-polymer microfluidics, provides both exceptional thermal response and the physical strength necessary to construct high-sensitivity calorimeters that can be scaled to automated, highly multiplexed array architectures. Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic valves and pumps are interfaced to parylene channels and reaction chambers to automate the injection of analyte at 1 nL and below. We attained excellent thermal resolution via on-chip vacuum encapsulation, which provides unprecedented thermal isolation of the minute microfluidic reaction chambers. We demonstrate performance of these calorimeters by resolving measurements of the heat of reaction of urea hydrolysis and the enthalpy of mixing of water with methanol. The device structure can be adapted easily to enable a wide variety of other standard calorimeter operations; one example, a flow calorimeter, is described. PMID:19706406

  7. Method and system for improved resolution of a compensated calorimeter detector

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    An improved method and system for a depleted uranium calorimeter detector used in high energy physics experiments. In a depleted uranium calorimeter detector, the energy of a particle entering the calorimeter detector is determined and the output response of the calorimeter detector is compensated so that the ratio of the integrated response of the calorimeter detector from a lepton to the integrated response of the calorimeter detector from a hadron of the same energy as the lepton is approximately equal to 1. In the present invention, the energy of a particle entering the calorimeter detector is determined as a function of time and the hadron content of the response of the calorimeter detector is inferred based upon the time structure of the energy pulse measured by the calorimeter detector. The energy measurement can be corrected based on the inference of the hadron content whereby the resolution of the calorimeter can be improved.

  8. New tools for the simulation and design of calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Womersley, W.J.

    1989-07-10

    Two new approaches to the simulation and design of large hermetic calorimeters are presented. Firstly, the Shower Library scheme used in the fast generation of showers in the Monte Carlo of the calorimeter for the D-Zero experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is described. Secondly, a tool for the design future calorimeters is described, which can be integrated with a computer aided design system to give engineering designers an immediate idea of the relative physics capabilities of different geometries. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. D0 Silicon Upgrade: End Calorimeter Transfer Bridge Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Stredde, H.J.; /Fermilab

    1996-07-10

    During the assembly of major components into the D0 Detector, a transfer bridge was required to move the North-End Calorimeter from the clean room,over the cable bridge and onto the north sidewalk of the assembly hall. This experiment is now at the beginning stages of the next phase, namely the upgrade of this Detector for future physics research. A major piece of this upgrade is the installation of a solenoid magnet into the Central Calorimeter. In order to accomplish this, the South End Calorimeter has to be removed from the detector and the North End Calorimeter must be moved an additional 20-inch from its nominal open position (total 60-inch movement). The South End Calorimeter will be removed from the detector using the equipment designed for its installation. The calorimeter will be staged on the south sidewalk during the installation of the solenoid magnet and the central tracking systems. The North End Calorimeter is moved 60-inch to give more space between calorimeters during magnet, tracker and cable installation work. This movement will allow the calorimeter to remain coupled to the cryo system. However, this movement requires an extension be added to the center beam. This extension will support the rear wheels of the calorimeter and in the case of the end calorimeters, carry the majority of the weight. The extension is to be a modification of the transfer bridge. This modification, basically has T1 steel blocks added to one end and legs to the sidewalk supports at the other. The T1 steel blocks are notched to fit into the center beam porches and are welded to bridge rails. This design is the same as that for the installation bridge (3740.312-ME-273456), including the welds and weld procedures which are identical in both cases. Since load testing is impractical, the critical welds will be non-destructive tested by ultrasonic means. The laboratory, through the FESS Department, has a contract with M.Q.S. Inspection Inc. The results of this testing will be

  10. Calorimeter Simulation with Hadrons in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Piperov, Stefan; /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Fermilab

    2008-11-01

    CMS is using Geant4 to simulate the detector setup for the forthcoming data from the LHC. Validation of physics processes inside Geant4 is a major concern in view of getting a proper description of jets and missing energy for signal and background events. This is done by carrying out an extensive studies with test beam using the prototypes or real detector modules of the CMS calorimeter. These data are matched with Geant4 predictions using the same framework that is used for the entire CMS detector. Tuning of the Geant4 models is carried out and steps to be used in reproducing detector signals are defined in view of measurements of energy response, energy resolution, transverse and longitudinal shower profiles for a variety of hadron beams over a broad energy spectrum between 2 to 300 GeV/c. The tuned Monte Carlo predictions match many of these measurements within systematic uncertainties.

  11. The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bains, N.; Baird, S. A.; Biddulph, P.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Charlton, D.; Coughlan, J.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N.; Fensome, I. F.; Flynn, P.; Galagedera, S.; Garvey, J.; Grayer, G.; Gregory, J.; Halsall, R.; Jimack, M. P.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I. R.; Landon, M.; Oliver, J.; Robinson, D.; Shah, T. P.; Stephens, R.; Sumorok, K.

    1990-07-01

    The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-levl trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 μs, thus introducing no dead time. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic shower, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecess or, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider.

  12. SCA controller for the ATLAS calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Gingrich, D.M.; Hewlett, J.C.; Holm, L.

    1997-12-31

    The front-end readout of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter will store data locally in analog pipeline memories at the LHC beam crossing frequency of 40 MHz. Switched capacitor array chips meeting the ATLAS readout requirements will be used. These new chips axe capable of simultaneous read and write operations, and allow random access to storage locations. To utilize these essential design features requires a substantial amount of fast control and address bookkeeping logic. We have designed a controller capable of operating the pipelines as analog random access memories and that satisfies the ATLAS readout requirements. The pipeline controller manages the data of 144 time samples and can operate at a mean trigger rate of about 75 kHz, when reading out five time samples per event. We are currently prototyping an integrated version of the controller implemented in a FPGA from Xilinx.

  13. Agile Mcal, the Mini-Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastia, Paolo; Poulsen, Jens Michael; Monzani, Franco; Radaelli, Paolo; Marchesi, Paolo; Labanti, Claudio; Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Bulgarelli, Andrea

    2006-04-01

    AGILE is a scientific mission dedicated to gamma-ray astrophysics in space, and the mini-calorimeter MCAL is one of four detector systems on the satellite. The MCAL instrument is sensitive in the energy range: 300 keV - 100 MeV. It has two main functions: one autonomous mode for detection of impulsive cosmic events and the other as “a slave” supporting the energy measurements of the pair-conversion tracker. The AGILE Small Mission is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and the INAF-IASF section at Bologna has the scientific responsibility for MCAL. LABEN develops the MCAL instrument with its detectors and electronics. This paper gives an overview of the detectors on AGILE, and then it gives details on the design of MCAL, and finally we report on the tests at instrument level.

  14. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system.

  15. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory

    2001-01-01

    During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

  16. The Forward Calorimeter of the GlueX Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Daniel; GlueX Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Forward Calorimeter (FCAL) of the GlueX experiment is a lead glass electromagnetic calorimeter currently being built in Hall D of Jefferson Lab. The GlueX experiment is a photoproduction experiment that will utilize coherent bremsstrahlung radiation to map out the light meson spectrum, including a search for hybrid mesons with exotic quantum numbers (JPC). The FCAL will detect photons between 1° and 10 .8° downstream from the target. The calorimeter is built out of 2800 elements, each of which consists of a lead glass block, an FEU 84-3 PMT, and a custom Cockcroft-Walton electronic base. In the Fall of 2011, a 25 element prototype detector was installed in Hall B of Jefferson Lab to measure the energy and timing resolution of the calorimeter using electrons between 100 and 250 MeV. The design and construction of FCAL and the results from the prototype test will be discussed.

  17. The BaBar cesium iodide electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.

    1994-12-01

    The BABAR Cesium Iodide Electromagnetic Calorimeter is currently in the technical design stage. The calorimeter consists of approximately 10,000 individual thallium-doped cesium iodide crystals arranged in a near-hermetic barrel and endcap structure. Taking previous cesium iodide calorimeters as a benchmark, we hope to build a system with roughly two times better energy resolution. This will be achieved by a combination of high quality crystal growing, precision mechanical processing of crystals and support structure, highly efficient light collection and low noise readout electronics. The calorimeter described here represents the current state of the design and we are undertaking an active period of optimization before this design is finalized. We discuss here the physics motivation, the current design and options for optimization.

  18. Calibration of a digital hadron calorimeter with muons

    SciTech Connect

    Bilki, Burak; Butler, John; Cundiff, Tim; Drake, Gary; Haberichter, William; Hazen, Eric; Hoff, Jim; Holm, Scott; Kreps, Andrew; May, Ed; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; /Fermilab /Iowa U. /Argonne /Boston U. /Argonne, PHY

    2008-02-01

    The calibration procedure of a finely granulated digital hadron calorimeter with Resistive Plate Chambers as the active elements is described. Results obtained with a stack of nine layers exposed to muons from the Fermilab test beam are presented.

  19. Implementation and Performance of the Signal Reconstruction in the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, Alberto; ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Group

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) for the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently taking data with proton-proton collisions. The Tile Calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front-end electronics allows to read-out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ∼30 MeV to ∼2 TeV. The read-out system is designed to reconstruct the data in real-time fulfilling the tight time constraint imposed by the ATLAS first level trigger rate (100 kHz). The main component of the read-out system is the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) which, using the Optimal Filtering technique, allows to compute for each channel the signal amplitude, phase and quality factor at the required high rate. A solid knowledge of the signal pulse-shapes and of the timing is fundamental to reach the required accuracy in energy reconstruction. Systematic studies to understand the pulse-shape have been carried out using both electronic calibration signals and data collected in the proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV. After a short overview of the TileCal system we will discuss the implementation of Optimal Filtering signal reconstruction highlighting the constraints imposed by the use of the DSP fixed point arithmetic. We will report also results on the validation of the implementation of the DSP signal reconstruction and on the overall signal reconstruction performance measured in calibration, single beam and collision events.

  20. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance with Run 1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdá Alberich, L.

    2016-07-01

    The performance of the central hadronic calorimeter, TileCal, in the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is studied using cosmic-ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the Run 1 of LHC (2010-2012). Results are presented for the precision of the absolute energy scale and timing, noise characterization, and time-stability of the detector. The results show that the Tile Calorimeter performance is within the design requirements of the detector.

  1. The electromagnetic calorimeter in JLab Real Compton Scattering Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Shahinyan; Eugene Chudakov; A. Danagoulian; P. Degtyarenko; K. Egiyan; V. Gorbenko; J. Hines; E. Hovhannisyan; Ch. Hyde; C.W. de Jager; A. Ketikyan; V. Mamyan; R. Michaels; A.M. Nathan; V. Nelyubin; I. Rachek; M. Roedelbrom; A. Petrosyan; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. Popov; J. Segal; Yu. Shestakov; J. Templon; H. Voskanyan; B. Wojtsekhowski

    2007-04-16

    A hodoscope calorimeter comprising of 704 lead-glass blocks is described. The calorimeter was constructed for use in the JLab Real Compton Scattering experiment. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6\\%/$\\sqrt{E_\\gamma \\, [GeV]}$, respectively. Design features and performance parameters during the experiment are presented.

  2. Vibration isolation system for cryogenic phonon-scintillation calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Jo, H. S.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, G. B.; Kim, I.; Kim, S. R.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, H. J.; So, J. H.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2017-02-01

    Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators are getting popular for rare event searches underground due to their advantages. However, the application of a pulse tube refrigerator introduces mechanical vibration that can translate into temperature fluctuation for calorimeters. The effect is significant in particular when the sensor is attached to a large absorber. A mechanical filter is installed to isolate the calorimeters from the vibration inside a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator while meeting thermal requirements.

  3. Building and testing a high school calorimeter at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesot, L.; Crane, R.; Engelen, M. A. G.; van Haren, A. M. A.; van Kleef, R. H. B.; Leenders, O. R.; Timmermans, C.

    2016-11-01

    We have designed, built and tested a crystal calorimeter in the context of CERN’s first beam line for schools competition. The results of the tests at CERN show that the light output of our calorimeter depends on the energy deposited by particles (electrons and muons) hitting the crystals. Our design can be reproduced by high schools around the world, as we have avoided the use of toxic chemicals.

  4. Current Status and Performance of the BESIII Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldbauer, Florian; BESIII Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The BESIII experiment is located at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) in China. Its electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) consists of 6240 CsI(TI) crystals, each read out by two Photodiodes (PD) at the end of the crystal. Changes in the response of the calorimeter due to radiation damage in the crystals or changes in the photo detector output are monitored with a light pulser system.

  5. The Mu2e crystal calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanov, N.; Budagov, J.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Danè, E.; Davidov, Y.; Di Falco, S.; Diociaiuti, E.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pedreschi, E.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Mu2e collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab will search for coherent, neutrino-less conversion of negative muons into electrons in the field of an Aluminum nucleus, μ‑ + Al → e‑ +Al. Data collection start is planned for the end of 2021. The dynamics of such charged lepton flavour violating (CLFV) process is well modelled by a two-body decay, resulting in a mono-energetic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass. If no events are observed in three years of running, Mu2e will set an upper limit on the ratio between the conversion and the capture rates Rμe = μ‑ + A(Z,N) → e‑ + A(Z,N)/μ‑ + A(Z,N) → νμ‑ + A(Z‑1,N) of <= 6 × 10‑17 (@ 90% C.L.). This will improve the current limit of four order of magnitudes with respect to the previous best experiment. Mu2e complements and extends the current search for μ → e γ decay at MEG as well as the direct searches for new physics at the LHC . The observation of such CLFV process could be clear evidence for New Physics beyond the Standard Model. Given its sensitivity, Mu2e will be able to probe New Physics at a scale inaccessible to direct searches at either present or planned high energy colliders. To search for the muon conversion process, a very intense pulsed beam of negative muons (~ 1010 μ/sec) is stopped on an Aluminum target inside a very long solenoid where the detector is also located. The Mu2e detector is composed of a straw tube tracker and a CsI crystals electromagnetic calorimeter. An external veto for cosmic rays surrounds the detector solenoid. In 2016, Mu2e has passed the final approval stage from DOE and has started its construction phase. An overview of the physics motivations for Mu2e, the current status of the experiment and the required performances and design details of the calorimeter are presented.

  6. The Mu2e crystal calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Happacher, F.

    2017-09-01

    The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab will search for coherent, neutrino-less conversion of negative muons into electrons in the field of an Aluminum nucleus, μ‑ + Al → e‑ +Al. Data collection start is planned for the end of 2021. The dynamics of such charged lepton flavour violating (CLFV) process is well modelled by a two-body decay, resulting in a mono-energetic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass. If no events are observed in three years of running, Mu2e will set an upper limit on the ratio between the conversion and the capture rates Rμ e = μ‑ + A(Z,N) → e‑ +A(Z,N)/μ‑ + A(Z,N) → νμ ‑ +A(Z‑1,N) of <= 6 × 10‑17 (@ 90% C.L.). This will improve the current limit of four order of magnitudes with respect to the previous best experiment. Mu2e complements and extends the current search for μ → e γ decay at MEG as well as the direct searches for new physics at the LHC . The observation of such CLFV process could be clear evidence for New Physics beyond the Standard Model. Given its sensitivity, Mu2e will be able to probe New Physics at a scale inaccessible to direct searches at either present or planned high energy colliders. To search for the muon conversion process, a very intense pulsed beam of negative muons (~ 1010 μ/ sec) is stopped on an Aluminum target inside a very long solenoid where the detector is also located. The Mu2e detector is composed of a straw tube tracker and a CsI crystals electromagnetic calorimeter. An external veto for cosmic rays surrounds the detector solenoid. In 2016, Mu2e has passed the final approval stage from DOE and has started its construction phase. An overview of the physics motivations for Mu2e, the current status of the experiment and the required performances and design details of the calorimeter are presented.

  7. Hadron calorimeter performance with a PbWO4 EM compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1996-01-01

    The CMS detector[1] at the LHC has chosen PbWO4 in order to achieve the superior photon energy resolution which is crucial in searching for the 2 photon decay of low mass Higgs bosons. The hadronic compartment is thought to be Cu absorber, since one is immersed in a 4 T magnetic field, read out by scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength shifter (WLS) fibers. The combined performance of this calorimeter is of interest in the study of jets and missing transverse energy (neutrino, SUSY signatures). For this reason, a test was made of the electromagnetic (EM) compartment combined with a reasonable approximation to the baseline HCAL ``barrel`` calorimeter. Data was taken in the H4 CERN beamline. The EM compartment was a 7 {times} 7 square array of PbWO4 crystals, which for the purposes of this study are considered as a single readout in depth (or ``compartment``) [2]. The HCAL module consisted of large scintillator plates with 24 individual longitudinal readout channels. The EM compartment was followed by 10 Cu plates each 3 cm thick, followed by 9 Cu plates each 6 cm thick. This set of absorber plates represented the HCAL compartments inside the coil. The coil itself [1] was approximated as Al and Fe plates, of a total thickness of about 1.4 absorption lengths. The coil mockup was sampled and then followed by 4 plates of 8 cm thick Cu, each with an individual readout which represented a test of the ``Tailcatcher`` concept.

  8. GEANT SIMULATIONS OF PRESHOWER CALORIMETER FOR CLAS12 UPGRADE OF THE FORWARD ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlow, K.; Stepanyan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility uses the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) to study the structure of the nucleon. An upgrade from a 6 GeV beam to a 12GeV beam is currently planned. With the beam energy upgrade, more high-energy pions will be created from the interaction of the beam and the target. Above 6GeV, the angle between the two-decay photons of high-energy pions becomes too small for the current electromagnetic calorimeter (EC) of CLAS to differentiate between two photon clusters and single photon events. Thus, a preshower calorimeter will be added in front of the EC to enable fi ner granularity and ensure better cluster separation for all CLAS experiments at higher energies. In order to optimize cost without compromising the calorimeter’s performance, three versions of the preshower, varying in number of scintillator and lead layers, were compared by their resolution and effi ciency. Using GSIM, a GEANT detector simulation program for CLAS, the passage of neutral pions and single photons through CLAS and the new preshower calorimeter (CLAS12 EC) was studied. The resolution of the CLAS12 EC was calculated from the Gaussian fi t of the sampling fraction, the energy CLAS12 EC detected over the Monte Carlo simulated energy. The single photon detection effi ciency was determined from the energy and position of the photon hits. The fractional energy resolution measured was ΔE/E = 0.0972 in the fi ve-module version, 0.111 in the four-module version, and 0.149 in the three-module version. Both the fi ve- and four-module versions had 99% single photon detection effi ciency above 0.5GeV while the 3 module version had 99% effi ciency above 1.5GeV. Based on these results, the suggested preshower confi guration is the four-module version containing twelve layers of scintillator and fi fteen layers of lead. This version provides a reasonable balance of resolution, effi ciency, and

  9. Castellated tiles as the beam-facing components for the diagnostic calorimeter of the negative ion source SPIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Peruzzo, S. Cervaro, V.; Dalla Palma, M.; Delogu, R.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Rizzolo, A.; Tollin, M.; Serianni, G.; De Muri, M.; Pimazzoni, A.; Zampieri, L.

    2016-02-15

    This paper presents the results of numerical simulations and experimental tests carried out to assess the feasibility and suitability of graphite castellated tiles as beam-facing component in the diagnostic calorimeter of the negative ion source SPIDER (Source for Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from Radio frequency plasma). The results indicate that this concept could be a reliable, although less performing, alternative for the present design based on carbon fiber composite tiles, as it provides thermal measurements on the required spatial scale.

  10. A high-granularity plastic scintillator tile hadronic calorimeter with APD readout for a linear collider detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, V.; Cvach, J.; Danilov, M.; Devitsin, E.; Dodonov, V.; Eigen, G.; Garutti, E.; Gilitzky, Yu.; Groll, M.; Heuer, R.-D.; Janata, M.; Kacl, I.; Korbel, V.; Kozlov, V.; Meyer, H.; Morgunov, V.; Němeček, S.; Pöschl, R.; Polák, I.; Raspereza, A.; Reiche, S.; Rusinov, V.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terkulov, A.; Valkár, Š.; Weichert, J.; Zálešák, J.

    2006-08-01

    We report upon the performance of an analog hadron calorimeter prototype, where plastic scintillator tiles are read out with wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to avalanche photodiodes. This prototype configuration has been tested using a positron beam at DESY with energies between 1 and 6 GeV. We present different detector calibration methods, show measurements for noise, linearity, and energy resolution and discuss gain monitoring with an LED system. The results are in good agreement with our simulation studies and previous measurements using silicon photomultiplier readout.

  11. Hadronic vector boson decay and the art of calorimeter calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Lobban, Olga Barbara

    2002-12-01

    Presented here are several studies involving the energy measurement of particles using calorimeters. The first study involves the effects of radiation damage on the response of a prototype calorimeter for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. We found that the effects of radiation damage on the calorimeter·s response arc dose dependent and that most of the damage will occur in the first year of running at the Large Hadron Collider. Another study involved the assessment of the Energy Flow Method an algorithm which combines the information from the calorimeter system is combined with that from the tracking system in an attmpt to improve the energy resolution for jet measurements. Using the Energy Flow method an improvement of $\\sim30\\%$ is found but this impovement decreases at high energies when the hadronic calorimeter resolution dominates the quality of the jet energy measurements. Finally, we developed a new method to calibrate a longitudinally segnmented calorimeter. This method eliminates problems with the traditional method used for the calorimeters at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We applied this new method in the search for hadrunic decays of the $W$ and $Z$ bosons in a sample of dijet data taken during Tevatron Run IC. A signal of 9873±3950(sys) ±1130 events was found when the new calibration method was used. This corresponds to a cross section $\\sigma(p\\bar{p} \\to W,Z) \\cdot B(W,Z \\to jets) = 35.6 \\pm 14.2 ({\\rm sys}) \\pm 4.1 (\\rm{stat})$ nb.

  12. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    DOE PAGES

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; ...

    2015-10-02

    Here, the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5×10–17 after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to matchmore » these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorimeter design, the R&D; studies carried out so far and the status of engineering are described. A backup alternative setup consisting of a pure CsI crystal matrix read by UV extended Hamamatsu MPPC's is also presented.« less

  13. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dane, E.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Di Falco, S.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, Stefano; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pasciuto, D.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S. R.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.

    2015-10-02

    Here, the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5×10–17 after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to match these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorimeter design, the R&D; studies carried out so far and the status of engineering are described. A backup alternative setup consisting of a pure CsI crystal matrix read by UV extended Hamamatsu MPPC's is also presented.

  14. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dané, E.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Di Falco, S.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pasciuto, D.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S. R.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5 ×10-17 after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to match these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorimeter design, the R&D studies carried out so far and the status of engineering are described. A backup alternative setup consisting of a pure CsI crystal matrix read by UV extended Hamamatsu MPPC's is also presented.

  15. Characterization of Novel Calorimeters in the Annular Core Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehr, Brian D.; Parma, Edward J.; Peters, Curtis D.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, S. Michael

    2016-02-01

    A series of pulsed irradiation experiments have been performed in the central cavity of Sandia National Laboratories' Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) to characterize the responses of a set of elemental calorimeter materials including Si, Zr, Sn, Ta, W, and Bi. Of particular interest was the perturbing effect of the calorimeter itself on the ambient radiation field - a potential concern in dosimetry applications. By placing the calorimeter package into a neutron-thermalizing lead/polyethylene (LP) bucket and irradiating both with and without a cadmium wrapper, it was demonstrated that prompt capture gammas generated inside the calorimeters can be a significant contributor to the measured dose in the active disc region. An MCNP model of the experimental setup was shown to replicate measured dose responses to within 10%. The internal (n,γ) contribution was found to constitute as much as 50% of the response inside the LP bucket and up to 20% inside the nominal (unmodified) cavity environment, with Ta and W exhibiting the largest enhancement due to their sizable (n,γ) cross sections. Capture reactions in non-disc components of the calorimeter were estimated to be responsible for up to a few percent of the measured response. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy.

  16. Simulations of a Thin Sampling Calorimeter with GEANT/FLUKA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Watts, John; Howell, Leonard; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS) will investigate the origin, composition and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays by measuring the elemental composition of the cosmic rays up to 10(exp 15) eV. These measurements will be made with a thin ionization calorimeter and a transition radiation detector. This paper reports studies of a thin sampling calorimeter concept for the ACCESS thin ionization calorimeter. For the past year, a Monte Carlo simulation study of a Thin Sampling Calorimeter (TSC) design has been conducted to predict the detector performance and to design the system for achieving the ACCESS scientific objectives. Simulation results show that the detector energy resolution function resembles a Gaussian distribution and the energy resolution of TSC is about 40%. In addition, simulations of the detector's response to an assumed broken power law cosmic ray spectra in the region where the 'knee' of the cosmic ray spectrum occurs have been conducted and clearly show that a thin sampling calorimeter can provide sufficiently accurate estimates of the spectral parameters to meet the science requirements of ACCESS. n

  17. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-01

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an "inline" calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an "offline" calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a "cold test" on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the "inline" calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device's power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the "offline" calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the "cold tests," and the experiments show good agreement.

  18. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-15

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an “inline” calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an “offline” calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a “cold test” on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the “inline” calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device’s power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the “offline” calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the “cold tests,” and the experiments show good agreement.

  19. Geant4 simulations of the lead fluoride calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, A. A.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Dabagov, S. B.; Anastasi, A.; Venanzoni, G.; Strikhanov, M. N.; Basti, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Bartolini, M.; Cantatore, G.; Cauz, D.; Corradi, G.; Di Sciascio, G.; Di Stefano, R.; Driutti, A.; Escalante, O.; Ferrari, C.; Fioretti, A.; Gabbanini, C.; Gioiosa, A.; Hampai, D.; Iacovacci, M.; Karuza, M.; Liedl, A.; Lusiani, A.; Marignetti, F.; Mastroianni, S.; Moricciani, D.; Pauletta, G.; Piacentino, G. M.; Raha, N.; Santi, L.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we simulate the charged particle interaction with complex structures, including the emission, with help of Geant4. We take into account Cherenkov radiation, transition radiation, bremsstrahlung, pair production and other accompanying processes. As an application we investigate the full size electromagnetic calorimeter for the muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab. A calorimeter module consists of a Delrin front panel for installation of the laser calibration system, 54 PbF2 Cherenkov crystals wrapped by black Tedlar paper, and silicon photo-multiplier sensors. We report here on results of a simulation of the radiation from positrons striking the calorimeter system. The Cherenkov radiation expansion when a positron moves down through the calorimeter at the arbitrary angle of incidence has been considered. Both spectral and angular distributions of Cherenkov optical photons in different parts of the calorimeter system was evaluated as well as the transition radiation and pre-shower distributions from both the Delrin panel and the Al vacuum chamber of the g-2 storage ring.

  20. Simulations of a Thin Sampling Calorimeter with GEANT/FLUKA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Watts, John; Howell, Leonard; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS) will investigate the origin, composition and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays by measuring the elemental composition of the cosmic rays up to 10(exp 15) eV. These measurements will be made with a thin ionization calorimeter and a transition radiation detector. This paper reports studies of a thin sampling calorimeter concept for the ACCESS thin ionization calorimeter. For the past year, a Monte Carlo simulation study of a Thin Sampling Calorimeter (TSC) design has been conducted to predict the detector performance and to design the system for achieving the ACCESS scientific objectives. Simulation results show that the detector energy resolution function resembles a Gaussian distribution and the energy resolution of TSC is about 40%. In addition, simulations of the detector's response to an assumed broken power law cosmic ray spectra in the region where the 'knee' of the cosmic ray spectrum occurs have been conducted and clearly show that a thin sampling calorimeter can provide sufficiently accurate estimates of the spectral parameters to meet the science requirements of ACCESS. n

  1. The lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter for the SELEX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M. Y. Balatz et al.

    2004-07-19

    A large-acceptance, highly segmented electromagnetic lead glass calorimeter for Experiment E781 (SELEX) at Fermi National Acceleration Laboratory was designed and built. This detector has been used to reconstruct photons and electrons with energies ranging from few GeV up to 500 GeV in the collisions of the 650 GeV {Sigma}{sup -} hyperons and {pi}{sup -} mesons with the target nucleons. The design, calibration and performance of the calorimeter are described. Energy resolution and position resolution are assessed using both calibration electron beams and {pi}{sup 0} mesons reconstructed in 650 GeV hadron-hadron interactions. The performance of the calorimeter in selecting resonant states that involve photons is demonstrated.

  2. Integrator Based Readout in Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Parra, Garoé; ATLAS Collaboration

    TileCal is the Barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC/CERN. To equalize the response of individual TileCal cells with a precision better than 1% and to monitor the response of each cell over time, a calibration and monitoring system based on a Cs137 radioactive source driven through the calorimeter volume by liquid flow has been implemented. This calibration system relies on a dedicated readout chain based on slow integrators that read currents from the TileCal photomultipliers integrating over milliseconds during the calibration runs. Moreover, during the LHC collisions the TileCal integrator based readout provides the signal coming from inelastic proton-proton collisions at low momentum transfer. This is used to monitor in ATLAS the instantaneous luminosity as well as the response of all calorimeter cells during data-taking.

  3. EURECA: a European-Japanese micro-calorimeter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Korte, Piet A. J.; Anquita, Jose V.; Barcons, Xavier; Bastia, Paolo; Beyer, Joern; Briones, Fernando; Brockley Blatt, Chris; Bruijn, Marcel; Bussons, Javier; Camon, Augustin; Ceballos, M. Teresa; Drung, Dietmar; Enns, Christian; Fabrega, Lourdes; Fraser, George; Gatti, Flavio; Gottardi, Luciano; Hajdas, Wojtek; Helistö, Panu; Hepburn, Ian; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Hoevers, Henk; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kiviranta, Mikko; van der Kuur, Jan; Mchedlishvili, Aliko; Mitsuda, Kazu; Piro, Luigi; Sese, Javier; Yamasaki, Noriko; Whitford, Chris

    2006-06-01

    EURECA (EURopean-JapanEse Calorimeter Array) comprises a 5 x 5 pixel imaging TES-based micro-calorimeter array read-out by SQUID-based frequency-domain-multiplexed electronics and cooled down by an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. A European-Japanese consortium designs, fabricates, and tests this prototype instrument with the aim to show within about 2 years technology readiness of a TES-based X-ray imaging micro-calorimeter array in anticipation of future X-ray astronomy missions, like XEUS (ESA), Constellation-X (NASA), NEXT (JAXA), DIOS (JAXA), ESTREMO (ASI), and NEW (Dutch-multinational). This paper describes the instrument concept, and shows the design of the various sub-units, like the TES detector array, LC-filters, SQUID-amplifiers, flux-locked-loop electronics, AC-bias sources, etc.

  4. Highly granular hadron calorimeter: software compensation and shower decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadeeva, M.; CALICE Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    The highly granular analogue hadron calorimeter was developed and constructed by the CALICE collaboration. The active layers of the calorimeter are assembled from scintillator tiles with individual readout by silicon photomultipliers and are interleaved with absorber plates. The response and resolution of the calorimeter equipped with steel absorber was intensively tested in single particle beams. The application of software compensation techniques developed for the scintillator-steel prototype allows for reduction of the stochastic term of the single particle resolution from 58%/ √E/GeV to 45%/ √E/GeV. The detailed study and decomposition of the longitudinal and radial profiles of hadron-induced showers in the energy range from 10 to 80 GeV are presented and compared to GEANT4 simulations.

  5. Simulation studies for design optimisation of a scintillator plate calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Proudfoot, J.; Job, P.K.; Trost, H.J. ); Handler, T. ); Gabriel, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Results on simulations studies relating to the optimisation of a sampling scintillator plate calorimeter for an SSC detector system are presented. These studies show that whereas a compensating sampling geometry can be obtained using a variety of configurations using either lead or depleted uranium as the principal absorber, no configuration based on a pure iron absorber is compensating. Unlike in a lead system, delayed energy release from long lived shower products produced in a uranium system pose a serious pile up problem. Therefore we advocate the use of lead as the principal absorber in this calorimeter. Work on optimisation of the mechanical structure is in progress and results are presented on issues such as structural support, tolerances and on the degradation in response due to other detector material within the volume of the calorimeter. 8 refs., 16 figs.

  6. The NA62 liquid Krypton calorimeter's new readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Lamanna, G.; Rouet, J.; Ryjov, V.; Venditti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the experiment photon-veto system; to cope with the new requirements, the back-end electronics of the LKr had to be completely renewed. Due to the huge number of the calorimeter readout channels ( ~ 14 K) and the maintenance requirement over 10 years of the experiment lifetime, the decision to sub-contract the development and production to industry was taken in 2011. This paper presents the primary test results of the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3] prototype delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013. All essential features, analog performance, data processing and readout, are covered.

  7. CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies for Super-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilki, Burak; CMS HCAL Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    When the Large Hadron Collider approaches Super-LHC conditions above a luminosity of 1034cm-2s-1, the scintillator tiles of the CMS Hadron Endcap calorimeters will lose their efficiencies. As a radiation hard solution, the scintillator tiles are planned to be replaced by quartz plates. In order to improve the efficiency of the photodetection, various methods were investigated including radiation hard wavelength shifters, p-terphenyl or 4% gallium doped zinc oxide. We constructed a 20 layer calorimeter prototype with pTp coated plates of size 20 cm × 20 cm, and tested the hadronic and the electromagnetic capabilities at the CERN H2 beam-line. The beam tests revealed a substantial light collection increase with pTp or ZnO:Ga deposited quartz plates. Here we report on the current R&D for a viable endcap calorimeter solution for CMS with beam tests and radiation damage studies.

  8. Gram-scale cryogenic calorimeters for rare-event searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, R.; Rothe, J.; Angloher, G.; Bento, A.; Gütlein, A.; Hauff, D.; Kluck, H.; Mancuso, M.; Oberauer, L.; Petricca, F.; Pröbst, F.; Schieck, J.; Schönert, S.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.

    2017-07-01

    The energy threshold of a cryogenic calorimeter can be lowered by reducing its size. This is of importance since the resulting increase in signal rate enables new approaches in rare-event searches, including the detection of MeV mass dark matter and coherent scattering of reactor or solar neutrinos. A scaling law for energy threshold vs detector size is given. We analyze the possibility of lowering the threshold of a gram-scale cryogenic calorimeter to the few eV regime. A prototype 0.5 g Al2 O3 device achieved an energy threshold of Eth=(19.7 ±0.9 ) eV , the lowest value reported for a macroscopic calorimeter.

  9. Improve the flame retardancy of cellulose fibers by grafting zinc ion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, KeKe; Zong, Lu; Tan, Yeqiang; Ji, Quan; Yun, Weicai; Shi, Ran; Xia, Yanzhi

    2016-01-20

    Zinc ion as the only flame retardant of cellulose fibers was successfully grafted onto cellulose fibers. Grafting maleic anhydride onto cellulose fibers via homogeneous acylation reaction between N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) as the first step. Then, graft zinc ion onto the formed cellulose fibers was conducted with zinc carbonate. The resulting copolymers were characterized by FTIR. Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of zinc-ion-modified cellulose fibers (cellulose-Zn fibers) was investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), cone calorimeter (CONE), XRD, TG and SEM. Zinc ion could effectively improve flame retardancy and thermal degradation when its content increases up to 4.96 wt%.

  10. Effect of dead materials on calorimeter response and Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmaratna, W.G.D.; D0 Collaboration

    1992-12-01

    The D0 calorimeter system, cylindrical central calorimeter and two end calorimeters, is constructed with minimal cracks and dead regions in order to provide essentially hermetic coverage over the full solid angle. The effect of the existing few construction features which could perturb the uniformity of the calorimeter is studied in detail with beam tests. The results with the correction algorithms are presented. A comparison with the Monte Carlo simulation is made.

  11. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Cameron Russell

    2015-03-11

    Many nuclear safeguards applications could benefit from high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy achievable with metallic magnetic calorimeters. This dissertation covers the development of a system for these applications based on gamma-ray detectors developed at the University of Heidelberg. It demonstrates new calorimeters of this type, which achieved an energy resolution of 45.5 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV, roughly ten times better than current state of the art high purity germanium detectors. This is the best energy resolution achieved with a gamma-ray metallic magnetic calorimeter at this energy to date. In addition to demonstrating a new benchmark in energy resolution, an experimental system for measuring samples with metallic magnetic calorimeters was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This system achieved an energy resolution of 91.3 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV under optimal conditions. Using this system it was possible to characterize the linearity of the response, the count-rate limitations, and the energy resolution as a function of temperature of the new calorimeter. With this characterization it was determined that it would be feasible to measure 242Pu in a mixed isotope plutonium sample. A measurement of a mixed isotope plutonium sample was performed over the course of 12 days with a single two-pixel metallic magnetic calorimeter. The relative concentration of 242Pu in comparison to other plutonium isotopes was determined by direct measurement to less than half a percent accuracy. This is comparable with the accuracy of the best-case scenario using traditional indirect methods. The ability to directly measure the relative concentration of 242Pu in a sample could enable more accurate accounting and detection of indications of undeclared activities in nuclear safeguards, a better constraint on source material in forensic samples containing plutonium, and improvements in verification in a future plutonium

  12. Design and Prototyping of a High Granularity Scintillator Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Zutshi, Vishnu

    2016-03-27

    A novel approach for constructing fine-granularity scintillator calorimeters, based on the concept of an Integrated Readout Layer (IRL) was developed. The IRL consists of a printed circuit board inside the detector which supports the directly-coupled scintillator tiles, connects to the surface-mount SiPMs and carries the necessary front-end electronics and signal/bias traces. Prototype IRLs using this concept were designed, prototyped and successfully exposed to test beams. Concepts and implementations of an IRL carried out with funds associated with this contract promise to result in the next generation of scintillator calorimeters.

  13. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the future PANDA Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Rainer

    2006-10-27

    Experiments with a cooled antiproton beam at the future accelerator facility FAIR at GSI, Darmstadt, will be performed with the 4{pi} detector PANDA comprising a high resolution, compact and fast homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter to detect photons between 10MeV and 10GeV energy inside a superconducting solenoid (2T). The target calorimeter comprises more than 20,000 PbWO4 crystals of significantly enhanced quality read-out with large area avalanche photodiodes at an operating temperature of -25 degree sign C. The paper describes the quality of PWO-II and illustrates the future performance based on response measurements with high-energy photons.

  14. Improvements in a calorimeter for high-power CW lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, G. E.; Simpson, P. A.; Smith, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for improving the measurement certainty with the BB series (Smith et al., 1972) of electrically calibrated calorimeters used in high-energy lasers is described. The technique is based on monitoring the energy which is backscattered from the meter and monitoring the overspill radiation impinging on the calorimeter at the entrance aperture. The design and performance of a second generation BB meter is discussed and compared to that of the original device in terms of number of electrical calibrations, the residual standard deviation of electrical calibration, the calibration constant for laser energy, the correcting factor for systematics, inaccuracy, imprecision, and uncertainty.

  15. Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward hadronic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noonan, D.

    2017-02-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is upgrading the photo-detection and readout system of the forward hadronic calorimeter. The phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward calorimeter requires the replacement of the current photomultiplier tubes, as well as the installation of a new front-end readout system. The new photomultiplier tubes contain a thinner window as well as multi-anode readout. The front-end electronics will use the QIE10 ASIC which combines signal digitization with timing information. The major components of the upgrade as well as the current status are described in this paper.

  16. Field test of the bulk-assay calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.B.; Keddar, A.

    1982-10-01

    The Bulk-Assay Calorimeter described in ANL-NDA-9/ISPO-14 was field tested at the Belgonucleaire mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant at Dessel, Belgium, May 13-19, 1982. This instrument was developed under ISPO Tasks A-9 and A-47 at Argonne National Laboratory and was supplied to the IAEA through the U.S support program. Five containers of plutonium-oxide feed stock used in the manufacture of mixed-oxide LMFBR-type fuel were assayed during the test. Electrical measurements to verify the calibration of the calorimeter were also made.

  17. The upgrade of the ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shimpei

    2016-07-01

    The first-level calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) had operated successfully through the first data taking phase of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Towards forthcoming LHC runs, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo to face new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the beam energy and the luminosity. This paper reviews the ATLAS L1Calo trigger upgrade project that introduces new architectures for the liquid-argon calorimeter trigger readout and the L1Calo trigger processing system.

  18. Modelling of a holographic interferometry based calorimeter for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigzadeh, A. M.; Vaziri, M. R. Rashidian; Ziaie, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this research work, a model for predicting the behaviour of holographic interferometry based calorimeters for radiation dosimetry is introduced. Using this technique for radiation dosimetry via measuring the variations of refractive index due to energy deposition of radiation has several considerable advantages such as extreme sensitivity and ability of working without normally used temperature sensors that disturb the radiation field. We have shown that the results of our model are in good agreement with the experiments performed by other researchers under the same conditions. This model also reveals that these types of calorimeters have the additional and considerable merits of transforming the dose distribution to a set of discernible interference fringes.

  19. Improvements in a calorimeter for high-power CW lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, G. E.; Simpson, P. A.; Smith, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for improving the measurement certainty with the BB series (Smith et al., 1972) of electrically calibrated calorimeters used in high-energy lasers is described. The technique is based on monitoring the energy which is backscattered from the meter and monitoring the overspill radiation impinging on the calorimeter at the entrance aperture. The design and performance of a second generation BB meter is discussed and compared to that of the original device in terms of number of electrical calibrations, the residual standard deviation of electrical calibration, the calibration constant for laser energy, the correcting factor for systematics, inaccuracy, imprecision, and uncertainty.

  20. Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in arc jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes were developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes were constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies. The temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its time rate of change gives the steady-state absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. Design, construction, test, and performance data are presented.

  1. A purity monitor for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Evtushenko, P. N.; Kotov, K. Yu.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Snopkov, R. G.; Rogozin, A. I.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present a purity monitor for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter. A new method is suggested based on the usage of a short pulse of a gas discharge as a source of ultraviolet radiation for the photoproduction of electrons in a drift cell of the monitor. This paper describes the design of the monitor, the results of experiments with gaseous and liquid krypton, as well as the experience of using the developed device in the process of krypton purification for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter.

  2. Progress status for the Mu2e calorimeter system

    DOE PAGES

    Pezzullo, Gianantonio; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; ...

    2015-02-13

    The Mu2e experiment at FNAL aims to measure the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron. The conversion results in a monochromatic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.97 MeV). The calorimeter should confirm that the candidates reconstructed by the extremely precise tracker system are indeed conversion electrons while performing a powerfulmore » $$\\mu/e$$ particle identification. Moreover, it should also provide a high level trigger for the experiment independently from the tracker system. The calorimeter should also be able to keep functionality in an environment where the background delivers a dose of ~ 10 krad/year in the hottest area and to work in the presence of 1 T axial magnetic field. These requirements translate in the design of a calorimeter with large acceptance, good energy resolution O(5%) and a reasonable position (time) resolution of ~<1 cm (<0.5ns). The baseline version of the calorimeter is composed by two disks of inner (outer) radius of 351 (660) mm filled by 1860 hexagonal $$BaF_2$$ crystals of 20 cm length. Each crystal is readout by two large area APD's. In this study, we summarize the experimental tests done so far as well as the simulation studies in the Mu2e environment.« less

  3. Progress status for the Mu2e calorimeter system

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzullo, Gianantonio; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Cheng, C.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Davydov, Yu.; Echenard, B.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D.; Luca, A.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Murat, P.; Ongmonkolkul, P.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Spinella, F.; Stomaci, V.; Tassielli, G.

    2015-02-13

    The Mu2e experiment at FNAL aims to measure the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron. The conversion results in a monochromatic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.97 MeV). The calorimeter should confirm that the candidates reconstructed by the extremely precise tracker system are indeed conversion electrons while performing a powerful $\\mu/e$ particle identification. Moreover, it should also provide a high level trigger for the experiment independently from the tracker system. The calorimeter should also be able to keep functionality in an environment where the background delivers a dose of ~ 10 krad/year in the hottest area and to work in the presence of 1 T axial magnetic field. These requirements translate in the design of a calorimeter with large acceptance, good energy resolution O(5%) and a reasonable position (time) resolution of ~<1 cm (<0.5ns). The baseline version of the calorimeter is composed by two disks of inner (outer) radius of 351 (660) mm filled by 1860 hexagonal $BaF_2$ crystals of 20 cm length. Each crystal is readout by two large area APD's. In this study, we summarize the experimental tests done so far as well as the simulation studies in the Mu2e environment.

  4. Temperature and humidity control in indirect calorimeter chambers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A three-chamber, indirect calorimeter has been a part of the Environmental Laboratory at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) for over 25 yr. Corrosion of the animal chambers and unreliable temperature control forced either major repairs or complete replacement. There is a strong demand for...

  5. Upgrade of hadron endcap calorimeters CMS at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunin, P. D.; Zaroubin, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    We present the survey of the main tasks in upgrading the hadron endcap (HE) calorimeters of the CMS experiment at LHC. The results of the HE upgrade during the LHC Long Shutdown (2013-2014) and plans for upgrade during LHC Extended Year End Technical Stop (December 2016-May 2017) are discussed.

  6. Three-dimensional event visualization for the ATLAS calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade Filho, Luciano M.; de Seixas, José Manoel; Vitillo, Roberto Agostino; Martin, Brian Thomas

    2012-02-01

    The ATLAS detector was commissioned with cosmic rays. For such commissioning, a number of software tools has been developed to support data analysis. Among ATLAS sub-detectors, commissioning the calorimeter system demanded a considerable effort due to its segmentation into seven detection layers, which produce more than a hundred thousand readout channels. Tasks like performance evaluation of the calorimeter, calibration and handling noisy or dead channels benefit a lot from cosmic muon track visualization, which facilitates the identification of the activated cells in the calorimeter. The coherence of the reconstructed data can be visually checked and potential problems can be detected in a easier way. This work presents a 3D visualization tool for the ATLAS calorimeter system, the CaloGeoView. The tool was built using ROOT Framework, which provides a smooth integration with analyses currently performed by the ATLAS community. The CaloGeoView structure and some applications with reconstructed data are presented. Due to its 3D graphical interface, the CaloGeoView has been providing a simple and intuitive way to analyze results of event reconstruction.

  7. Balloon test project: Cosmic Ray Antimatter Calorimeter (CRAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, J. C.; Dhenain, G.; Goret, P.; Jorand, J.; Masse, P.; Mestreau, P.; Petrou, N.; Robin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cosmic ray observations from balloon flights are discussed. The cosmic ray antimatter calorimeter (CRAC) experiment attempts to measure the flux of antimatter in the 200-600 Mev/m energy range and the isotopes of light elements between 600 and 1,000 Mev/m.

  8. Noise in a Calorimeter Readout System Using Periodic Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2009-02-26

    Fourier transform analysis of the calorimeter noise problem gives quantitative results on (a) the time-height correlation, (b) the effect of background on optimal shaping and on the ENC, (c) sampling frequency requirements, and (d) the relation between sampling frequency and the required quantization error.

  9. Cryogenic Design of the D0 Liquid Argon Collider Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; Krempetz, K.J.; Luther, R.D.; Wands, R.H.; Weber, K.J.; /Fermilab

    1987-11-04

    The superconducting Tevatron was added to Fermilab's 400 Gev Proton Accelerator, the main ring, in 1983. An antiproton source was added in 1985, and the system became a p-pbar, 1 Tev/I Tev, collider in 1987. A CoIIider Detector surrounding one of the points of the accelerator p-pbar beam crossings can measure virtually all the energy of the colliding interaction (Fig. I.) The measurement of all the energy is called hermetic calorimetry. Although there are other liquid argon calorimeters and other hermetic coIIider detectors, the D-Zero (named for the accelerator beam crossing location) liquid argon collider calorimeters will be the first of their kind (Fig. 2). The cryogenic aspects of the liquid argon calorimeter portion of the D-Zero detector are described here. The liquid argon serves as the particle detector ionizing media in a repetitive cell structure (Fig. 3) of argon, signal board, argon, and Uranium or copper absorber plate, with a superimposed electric field. Local signal board pads indicate location and the electric charge collected is proportional to the ionization and the ratio of the argon to plate absorption lengths. This arrangement provides a dense, intrinsically calibrated, drift-free calorimeter.

  10. Ignitability analysis using the cone calorimeter and lift apparatus

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Dietenberger

    1996-01-01

    The irradiance plotted as function of time to ignition for wood materials tested in the Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354) differs signiticantly from that tested in the Lateral Ignition and Flame spread Test (LIFT) apparatus (ASTM E1321). This difference in piloted ignitabilty is primarily due to the difference in forced convective cooling of the specimen tested in both...

  11. The pad readout electronics of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Cartwright, S.L.; Friedman, J.I.; Fuess, S.; Gonzalez, S.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Kendall, H.W.; Lath, A.; Lyons, T.; Osborne, L.S.; Rosenson, L.; Schneekloth, U.; Taylor, F.E.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M. ); Byers, B.L.; Escalera, J.; Gioumousis, A.; Gray, R.; Horelick, D.; Kharakh, D.; Messner, R.L.; Moss, J.; Zdark

    1990-08-01

    The design of the pad readout electronics of the Warm Iron Calorimeter for the SLD detector at SLAC, consisting of about 9000 analog channels, is described. Results of various tests performed during the construction, installation and commissioning of the electronics mounted on the detector are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Cone calorimeter testing of vegetation--an update

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; David R. Weise; Kurt Mackes; Alison C. Dibble

    2002-01-01

    As part of efforts to address fire problems in the wildland-urban interface, the cone calorimeter is being used to measure the relative flammability of different plant species. In the first two studies, we tested plants used to landscape homes in California and an assortment of plants found in Colorado. Using the effective heat of combustion and the peak heat release...

  13. The Status of GLAST CsI Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Chekhtman, A.

    2003-09-18

    GLAST is a gamma-ray observatory for celestial sources in the energy range from 20 MeV to 300 GeV. This is NASA project with launch anticipated in 2006. The principal instrument of the GLAST mission is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), consisting of an Anti Coincidence Detector (ACD), a silicon-strip detector Tracker (TKR) and a hodoscopic CsI Calorimeter (CAL). It consists of 16 identical modules arranged in a 4 x 4 array. Each module has horizontal dimensions 38 x 38 cm{sup 2} and active thickness 8.5 radiation length. It contains 96 CsI (Tl) crystals arranged in 8 layers with 12 crystals per layer. The scintillation light is measured by PIN photodiodes mounted on both ends of each crystal. The sum of signals at the two ends of the crystal provides the energy measurement. The difference in these signals provides the position measurement along the crystal. The calorimeter was designed to meet the goals of good energy resolution (better than 10% for photon energies 100 MeV-100 GeV), position resolution of {approx} 1 mm for photon energies > 1 GeV, and a rejection factor of > 100 for charged cosmic rays, under limitations on calorimeter weight (95 kg per module) and power consumption (6 W per module). The Monte Carlo simulation and prototype beam test results confirm that proposed design meets the requirements. Calorimeter production is planned to start in 2003.

  14. ATIC as a testbed for the ACCESS baseline calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Isbert, J.; Authement, J.; Coleman, J.; Guzik, T. G.; Granger, D.; Lockwood, R.; McMorris, A.; Mock, L.; Oubre, C.; Panasyuk, M.; Peck, J.; Wefel, J. P.; Adams, J. H. Jr.; Boberg, P. R.; Dion-Schwarz, C.; Kroeger, R.; Bashindzhagyan, G. B.; Khein, L.; Samsonov, G. A.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    1999-01-22

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon experiment is designed to measure the spectrum of individual elements from H through Fe up to a total energy >10{sup 14} eV. To accomplish this goal, ATIC incorporates a Silicon matrix detector composed of more than 4,000 pixels to measure the incident particle charge in the presence of backscatter background, three plastic scintillator hodoscopes to provide an event trigger as well as a backup measurement of the particle charge and trajectory, a 3/4 interaction length carbon target and a fully active ionization calorimeter composed of 22 radiation lengths of Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystals. This detector complement is very similar to the baseline calorimeter for the Advanced Cosmic Ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station, ACCESS. The ATIC flights can be used to evaluate such a calorimeter in the cosmic ray 'beam.' ATIC integration is currently underway with a first flight expected during 1999. This talk will discuss ATIC as it applies to ACCESS.

  15. Radiation effects on wavelength shifting fibers used with liquid scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Ables, E.; Armatis, P.; Bionta, R.; Britt, H.; Clamp, O.; Cochran, C.; Graham, G.; Lowry, M.; Masquelier, D.; Skulina, K.; Wuest, C.; Bolen, L.; Cremaldi, L.; Harper, S.; Moore, B.; Quinn, B.; Reidy, J.; Zhou, J.; Croft, L.; Piercey, R.; Bauer, M.L.; Bishop, B.L.; Cohn, H.O.; Gabriel, T.A.; Gordeev, A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Lillei, R.A.; Plasil, F.; Read, K.; Rennich, M.J.; Savin, A.; Shmakov, K.; Singeltary, B.H.; Smirnov, A.; Tarkovsky, E.; Todd, R.A.; Young, K.G.; Berridge, S.C.; Bugg, W.M.; Handler, T.; Pisharody, M.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Chendvankar, S.R.; Ganfuli, S.N.; Malhotra, K.; Mazumdar, K.; Raghavan, R.; Shankar, K.; Sudhakar, K.; Tonwar, S.C.; Arefiev, A.; Baranov, O.; Efremenko, Yu.; Gorodkov, Yu.; Malinin, A.; Nikitin, A.; Markizov, V.; Onoprienko, D.; Rozjkov, A.; Shoumilov, E.; Shoutko, V.

    1992-06-01

    The chemical compatibility of wave length shifting fibers with several liquid scintillators has been investigated. Based on systematic characterization of the behavior of the BC-517 family, a time of life of 70{endash}450 years was estimated for the polystyrene based wave length shifting fiber in BC-517P scintillator. WLS (wavelength shifting) fibers irradiated continuously to a dose of 6.4 Mrads (at .377Mrad/hr of Co-60) were observed to decrease from 100% to 5% transmission; however, after 100 hours of annealing, the transmission increased to 90%. Geant simulations of a simplified calorimeter located behind a BaF2 electromagnetic calorimeter for the GEM detector at SSC showed that the constant term in the energy resolution will change from 1.8 to 2.9 in five years at 10{star}{star}34 luminosity for psuedorapidity eta=3.

  16. CsI Calorimeter for a Compton-Pair Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Eric J.

    We propose to build and test a hodoscopic CsI(Tl) scintillating-crystal calorimeter for a medium-energy γ-ray Compton and pair telescope. The design and technical approach for this calorimeter relies deeply on heritage from the Fermi LAT CsI Calorimeter, but it dramatically improves the low-energy performance of that design by reading out the scintillation light with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), making the technology developed for Fermi applicable in the Compton regime. While such a hodoscopic calorimeter is useful for an entire class of medium-energy γ-ray telescope designs, we propose to build it explicitly to support beam tests and balloon flight of the Proto-ComPair telescope, the development and construction of which was funded in a four-year APRA program beginning in 2015 ("ComPair: Steps to a Medium Energy γ-ray Mission" with PI J. McEnery of GSFC). That award did not include funding for its CsI calorimeter subsystem, and this proposal is intended to cover that gap. ComPair is a MIDEX-class instrument concept to perform a high-sensitivity survey of the γ-ray sky from 0.5 MeV to 500 MeV. ComPair is designed to provide a dramatic increase in sensitivity relative to previous instruments in this energy range (predominantly INTEGRAL/SPI and Compton COMPTEL), with the same transformative sensitivity increase – and corresponding scientific return– that the Fermi Large Area Telescope provided relative to Compton EGRET. To enable transformative science over a broad range of MeV energies and with a wide field of view, ComPair is a combined Compton telescope and pair telescope employing a silicon-strip tracker (for Compton scattering and pair conversion and tracking) and a solid-state CdZnTe calorimeter (for Compton absorption) and CsI calorimeter (for pair calorimetry), surrounded by a plastic scintillator anti-coincidence detector. Under the current proposal, we will complete the detailed design, assembly, and test of the CsI calorimeter for the risk

  17. Geometric alignment of the CMD-3 endcap electromagnetic calorimeter using events of two-quantum annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetshin, R. R.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    Since 2010 the electromagnetic endcap calorimeter based on BGO crystals is used in experiments as one of the systems of the CMD-3 detector. The spacial resolution is one of crucial parameters of the calorimeter. Inaccurate knowledge of the real calorimeter position can limit the resolution. In this work the alignment of the center of the calorimeter with respect to the tracking system of the CMD-3 detector has been performed using events of two-quantum annihilation. The alignment technique that has been used to determine the position of the calorimeter is described. Finally, the improvement in spacial resolution of the calorimeter after applying the correction for the real calorimeter position is shown.

  18. Theory and development of position-sensitive quantum calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa Feliciano, Enectali

    Quantum calorimeters are being developed as imaging spectrometers for future X-ray astrophysics observatories. Much of the science to be done by these instruments could benefit greatly from larger focal-plane coverage of the detector (without increasing pixel size). An order of magnitude more area will greatly increase the science throughput of these future instruments. One of the main deterrents to achieving this goal is the complexity of the readout schemes involved. We devised a way to increase the number of pixels from the current baseline designs by an order of magnitude without increasing the number of channels required for readout. The instrument is a high energy resolution, distributed-readout imaging spectrometer called a Position-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST). A PoST is a quantum calorimeter consisting of two Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) on the ends of a long absorber to do one-dimensional imaging spectroscopy. Comparing rise time and energy information, the position of the event in the PoST is determined. Energy is inferred from the sum of the two pulses. We develop a generalized theoretical formalism for distributed-readout calorimeters and apply it to our devices. We derive the noise theory and calculate the theoretical energy resolution of a PoST. Our calculations show that a 7-pixel PoST with 6˜keV saturation energy can achieve 2.3˜eV resolution, making this a competitive design for future quantum calorimeter instruments. For this thesis we fabricated 7- and 15-pixel PoSTs using Mo/Au TESs and gold absorbers, and moved from concept drawings on scraps of napkins to a 32 eV at 1.5 keV energy resolution 7-pixel PoST calorimeter.

  19. The FOREST detector for meson photoproduction experiments at ELPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Fujimura, H.; Fukasawa, H.; Hashimoto, R.; Ishida, T.; Kaida, S.; Kasagi, J.; Kawano, A.; Kuwasaki, S.; Maeda, K.; Miyahara, F.; Mochizuki, K.; Nakabayashi, T.; Nakamura, A.; Nawa, K.; Ogushi, S.; Okada, Y.; Okamura, K.; Onodera, Y.; Saito, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sato, M.; Shimizu, H.; Sugai, H.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Tsuchikawa, Y.; Yamazaki, H.; Yonemura, H.

    2016-10-01

    An electromagnetic calorimeter complex, FOREST, has been constructed for meson photoproduction experiments at the Research Center for Electron Photon Science, Tohoku University. It consists of three types of calorimeters, which are made of pure cesium-iodide crystals, lead scintillating-fiber modules, and lead glass Cherenkov counters. Each calorimeter is equipped with a plastic scintillator hodoscope to identify charged particles. The design and performance of FOREST are described. The energy responses of test calorimeters have been investigated by using 100-800 MeV positron beams. The energy resolutions of the three calorimeters are found to be approximately 3%, 7%, and 5% for 1-GeV photons, respectively. A cryogenic hydrogen/deuterium target system fitted to the FOREST experiments and a newly developed data acquisition system are also presented.

  20. A new-concept calorimeter for future neutrino beams based on Kaon tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Terranova, F.

    2016-07-01

    Neutrino cross-section measurements are an essential requirement for the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments and they are presently limited by uncertainties on neutrino fluxes. In [1] we propose to instrument a neutrino decay tunnel to detect large angle positrons and tag the three-body semileptonic K+ →e+π0νe decays. In such a facility the absolute electron neutrino flux could be determined with unprecedented precision (O(1%)). An e+/π+ separation capability of about 2% as well as a high e+ efficiency is required for a diffuse particle source over a length of several tens of meters. Additional constraints, due to the harsh beam environment, involve radiation hardness and fast response. For this purpose we propose a specialized shashlik calorimeter (copper-scintillator) with a compact readout based on small-area Silicon PhotoMultipliers coupled to WLS fibers. The setup would allow an effective longitudinal segmentation for electron/hadron separation, reducing the dead zones introduced by fiber bundling. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations are in progress. The construction of a small prototype and exposures to pion and electron beams are foreseen.

  1. CMS hadron calorimeter front-end upgrade for SLHC phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmore, Juliana; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    We present an upgrade plan for the CMS HCAL detector. The HCAL upgrade is required for the increased luminosity (3 * 10E34) of SLHC Phase I which is targeted for 2014. A key aspect of the HCAL upgrade is to add longitudinal segmentation to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at the L1 trigger. The increased segmentation is achieved by replacing the hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) with silicon PMTs (SIPMs). We plan to instrument each fiber of the calorimeter with an SIPM (103,000 total). We will then electrically sum outputs from selected SIPMs to form the longitudinal readout segments. In addition to having more longitudinal information, the upgrade plans include a new custom ADC with matched sensitivity and timing information. The increased data volume requires higher speed transmitters and the additional power dissipation for the readout electronics requires better thermal design, since much of the on-detector infrastructure (front-end electronics crates, cooling pipes, optical fiber plant, etc.) will remain the same. We will report on the preliminary designs for these upgraded systems, along with performance requirements and initial design studies.

  2. Fiber webs

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell; James S. Han; Von L. Byrd

    2005-01-01

    Wood fibers can be used to produce a wide variety of low-density three-dimensional webs, mats, and fiber-molded products. Short wood fibers blended with long fibers can be formed into flexible fiber mats, which can be made by physical entanglement, nonwoven needling, or thermoplastic fiber melt matrix technologies. The most common types of flexible mats are carded, air...

  3. Scintillating tile/fiber calorimetry development at FNAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, G. W.; Freeman, J.; Hagstrom, R.

    1991-07-01

    The technique of calorimetry using scintillating tiles with waveshifting fibers imbedded in them for readout has been refined for use in SSC test calorimeters and for the CDF Endplug upgrade. The technique offers high light yield, good spatial uniformity, flexible readout mechanics and a very small "readout crack". Various production techniques have been developed and optimized, including control and correction of scintillator plate uniformity, techniques for splicing plastic fibers with low light losses, and laser-cutting of the groove in which the fiber is placed.

  4. Noise dependence with pile-up in the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Pile-up noise studies in the ATLAS TileCal calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Araque, J.P.

    2015-07-01

    The Tile Calorimeter, TileCal, is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, positioned between the electromagnetic calorimeter and the muon chambers. It comprises alternating layers of steel (as absorber material) and plastic (as active material), known as tiles. Between 2009 and 2012, the LHC has performed better than expected producing proton-proton collisions at a very high rate. These conditions are really challenging when dealing with the energy measurements in the calorimeter since not only the energy from an interesting event will be measured but a component coming from other collisions, which are difficult to distinguish from the interesting one, will also be present. This component is referred to as pile-up noise. Studies carried out to better understand how pile-up affects calorimeter noise under different circumstances are described. (author)

  5. Verification of Electromagnetic Calorimeter Concept for the HADES spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, O.; Blume, C.; Czyžycki, W.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Kugler, A.; Lapidus, K.; Linev, S.; Lisowski, E.; Ott, P.; Otte, P.; Petukhov; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rodríguez-Ramos, P.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Skott, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Steffen, O.; Thomas, A.; Tlustý, P.; Traxler, M.

    2015-04-01

    The HADES spectrometer currently operating on the beam of SIS18 accelerator in GSI will be moved to a new position in the CBM cave of the future FAIR complex. Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 A GeVon the beam of the new accelerator SIS100. Calorimeter will be based on 978 massive lead glass modules read out by photomultipliers and a novel front-end electronics. Secondary gamma beam with energies ranging from 81 MeV up to 1399 MeV from MAMI-C Mainz facility was used to verify selected technical solutions. Relative energy resolution was measured using modules with three different types of photomultipliers. Two types of developed front-end electronics as well as energy leakage between neighbouring modules under parallel and declined gamma beams were studied in detail.

  6. Micro-differential scanning calorimeter for liquid biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuyu; Yu, Shifeng; Siedler, Michael S.; Ihnat, Peter M.; Filoti, Dana I.; Lu, Ming; Zuo, Lei

    2016-10-20

    Here, we developed an ultrasensitive micro-DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) for liquid protein sample characterization. Our design integrated vanadium oxide thermistors and flexible polymer substrates with microfluidics chambers to achieve a high sensitivity (6 V/W), low thermal conductivity (0.7 mW/K), high power resolutions (40 nW), and well-defined liquid volume (1 μl) calorimeter sensor in a compact and cost-effective way. Furthermore, we demonstrated the performance of the sensor with lysozyme unfolding. The measured transition temperature and enthalpy change were in accordance with the previous literature data. This micro-DSC could potentially raise the prospect of high-throughput biochemical measurement by parallel operation with miniaturized sample consumption.

  7. Micro-differential scanning calorimeter for liquid biological samples

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Shuyu; Yu, Shifeng; Siedler, Michael S.; ...

    2016-10-20

    Here, we developed an ultrasensitive micro-DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) for liquid protein sample characterization. Our design integrated vanadium oxide thermistors and flexible polymer substrates with microfluidics chambers to achieve a high sensitivity (6 V/W), low thermal conductivity (0.7 mW/K), high power resolutions (40 nW), and well-defined liquid volume (1 μl) calorimeter sensor in a compact and cost-effective way. Furthermore, we demonstrated the performance of the sensor with lysozyme unfolding. The measured transition temperature and enthalpy change were in accordance with the previous literature data. This micro-DSC could potentially raise the prospect of high-throughput biochemical measurement by parallel operation with miniaturizedmore » sample consumption.« less

  8. Geometric calibration of the SND detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korol, A. A.; Melnikova, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of the software alignment procedure used to perform geometric calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter with respect to the tracking system of the SND detector which is taking data at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider (BINP, Novosibirsk). This procedure is based on the mathematical model describing the relative calorimeter position. The parameter values are determined by minimizing a χ2 function using the difference between particle directions reconstructed in these two subdetectors for e+e- →e+e- scattering events. The results of the calibration applied to data and MC simulation fit the model well and give an improvement in particle reconstruction. They are used in data reconstruction and MC simulation.

  9. Active radiometric calorimeter for absolute calibration of radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, K.E.; DeWerd, L.A.; Rudman, D.A.; Schima, S.A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the design and initial noise floor measurements of a radiometric calorimeter designed to measure therapeutic medical radioactive sources. The instrument demonstrates a noise floor of approximately 2 nW. This low noise floor is achieved by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) transition edge sensor (TES) thermometers in a temperature-control feedback loop. This feedback loop will be used to provide absolute source calibrations based upon the electrical substitution method. Other unique features of the calorimeter are (a) its ability to change sources for calibration without disrupting the vacuum of the instrument, and (b) the ability to measure the emitted power of a source in addition to the total contained source power.

  10. Identifying hadronic tau decays using calorimeter topological clusters at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trottier-McDonald, Michel

    The ATLAS experiment collects data on the world's highest energy proton-proton collisions. Its primary goals are to search for direct evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics, and to provide a final verdict on the existence of the Standard Model Higgs boson. A robust tau identification procedure is an important ingredient in the search for Standard Model and supersymmetric Higgs bosons. In this study, new tau identification variables based on calorimeter topological clusters are investigated. These variables complement existing calorimeter-based variables by bringing additional discriminating power against hadronic jets. They have a straightforward physics interpretation which allows them to be calculated at particle-level. Some of these new variables are shown to be robust against background noise from the underlying event and in-time pileup, two effects which negatively impact tau identification. Several of these new variables are now part of the official tau reconstruction software at ATLAS.

  11. Experience with a double-compensating beam calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Jarmie, N.; Brown, R.E.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Martinez, R.

    1982-01-01

    In an experiment to measure the D(t,..cap alpha..)n cross section at beam energies of 10 to 120 keV, we have developed a double-compensating beam calorimeter, based on a Swiss design to measure the partical beam intensity. A Faraday cup is not useful because of considerable charge exchange in the target gas at such low beam energies. We calibrated the calorimeter both with 10- and 3-MeV protons (comparing with a Faraday-cup measurement of the beam flux) and with the heat generated in a precision resistor. Both methods agree and give a calibration accurate to +- 0.08% over a range of 10 to 800 mW beam power. Beam powers as low as 5 mW may be used, but with less accuracy. The beam energy must be known in order to calculate the particle intensity. Some difficulties with and peculiarities of the device are discussed.

  12. ANL four-meter calorimeter design and operation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Youngdahl, G.A.; Jung, E.A.; Roche, C.T.

    1980-02-01

    The four-meter fuel rod calorimetric system measures the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of fuel rods containing Pu. The Pu mass is related to the measured power through the weighted average of the product of the isotopic decay energies and the decay constants of the Pu isotopes present. U content has no effect since the thermal power produced by the U nuclides is insignificant when compared to Pu. Radiations from Pu are alpha particles and low-energy photons. This calorimeter will measure samples producing power up to 1.5 watts at a rate of one sample every 120 min. The instrument consists of a data-acquisition module made up of a microprocessor, with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, a control cabinet and the calorimeter chamber. (FS)

  13. Silicon Photomultiplier Characterization for sPHENIX Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Meghan; Skoby, Michael; Aidala, Christine; Sphenix Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are preferable to photomultiplier tubes due to their small size, insensitivity to magnetic fields, low operating voltage, and capability of detecting single photons. The sPHENIX collaboration at RHIC will use SiPMs in their proposed electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The University of Michigan is assembling and implementing a test stand to characterize the dark count rate, temperature dependence, gain, and photon detection efficiency of SiPMs. To more accurately determine the dark count rate, we have constructed a light tight box to isolate the SiPM, which surrounds an electronics enclosure that protects the SiPM circuitry, and installed software to record the output signals. With this system, we will begin to collect data and optimize the system to test arrays of SiPMs instead of single devices as the proposed calorimeters will require testing approximately 115,000 SiPMs.

  14. Micro-differential scanning calorimeter for liquid biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuyu; Yu, Shifeng; Siedler, Michael S.; Ihnat, Peter M.; Filoti, Dana I.; Lu, Ming; Zuo, Lei

    2016-10-01

    We developed an ultrasensitive micro-DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) for liquid protein sample characterization. This design integrated vanadium oxide thermistors and flexible polymer substrates with microfluidics chambers to achieve a high sensitivity (6 V/W), low thermal conductivity (0.7 mW/K), high power resolutions (40 nW), and well-defined liquid volume (1 μl) calorimeter sensor in a compact and cost-effective way. We further demonstrated the performance of the sensor with lysozyme unfolding. The measured transition temperature and enthalpy change were in accordance with the previous literature data. This micro-DSC could potentially raise the prospect of high-throughput biochemical measurement by parallel operation with miniaturized sample consumption.

  15. OPAL silicon-tungsten calorimeter front end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Anderson, K.; Charalambous, A.; Cotta-Ramusino, A.; Dallavalle, M.; Evans, H.; Eyring, A.; Foucher, M.; Giacomelli, R.; Giles, A.

    1994-08-01

    A pair of small angle silicon-tungsten (Si-W) calorimeters has been built to measure the luminosity to a precision better than 0.1% in the OPAL experiment at the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider at CERN near Geneva. Each calorimeter contains 19 layers of tungsten (W) plates and silicon (Si) detectors, corresponding to a total of 22 radiation lengths, sampled by about 1 m(sup 2) of detectors divided into 304 x 64 independently read out channels. A complete electronics system has been developed, from the preamplifier up to the VME read out and control interface. It includes a fast trigger based on analogue sums. This paper describes how a large number of channels have been implemented in a dense environment, thanks to the use of ASIC's directly bonded on the detector.

  16. Scanning calorimeter for nanoliter-scale liquid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, E. A.; Efremov, M. Yu.; Kwan, A. T.; Lai, S.; Petrova, V.; Schiettekatte, F.; Warren, J. T.; Zhang, M.; Allen, L. H.

    2000-10-01

    We introduce a scanning calorimeter for use with a single solid or liquid sample with a volume down to a few nanoliters. Its use is demonstrated with the melting of 52 nL of indium, using heating rates from 100 to 1000 K/s. The heat of fusion was measured to within 5% of the bulk value, and the sensitivity of the measurement was ±7 μW. The heat of vaporization of water was measured in the scanning mode to be within ±23% of the bulk value by actively vaporizing water droplets from 2 to 100 nL in volume. Results within 25% were obtained for the heat of vaporization by using the calorimeter in a heat-conductive mode and measuring the passive evaporation of water. Temperature measurements over a period of 10 h had a standard deviation of 3 mK.

  17. Phase I Upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Seth I.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    In preparation for Run 2 (2015) and Run 3 of the LHC (2019), the CMS hadron calorimeter has begun a series of ambitious upgrades. These include new photodetectors in addition to improved front-end and back-end readout electronics. In the hadron forward calorimeter, the existing photomultiplier tubes are being replaced with thinner window, multi-anode readout models, while in the central region, the hybrid photodiodes will be replaced with silicon photomultipliers. The front-end electronics will include high precision timing readout, and the back-end electronics will handle the increased data bandwidth. The barrel and endcap longitudinal segmentation will also be increased. This report will describe the motivation for the upgrade, its major components, and its current status.

  18. The iMPACT project tracker and calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Bisello, D.; Giubilato, P.; Pantano, D.; Pozzobon, N.; Snoeys, W.

    2017-02-01

    In recent years the use of hadrons for cancer radiation treatment has grown in importance, and many facilities are currently operational or under construction worldwide. To fully exploit the therapeutic advantages offered by hadron therapy, precise body imaging for accurate beam delivery is decisive. While traditional X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) fails in providing 3D images with the precision required for hadrons treatment guidance, Proton Computer Tomography (pCT) scanners, currently in their R&D phase, can. A pCT scanner consists of a tracker system, to track protons, and of a calorimeter, to measure their residual energy. In this paper we will present the iMPACT project, which foresees a novel proton tracking detector with higher scanning speed, better spatial resolution and lower material budget with respect to present state-of-the-art detectors, leading to enhanced performances. The tracker will be matched to a fast, highly segmented proton range calorimeter.

  19. Calorimeter probe for the DIII-D divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J. G.; Lasnier, C. J.; Whyte, D. G.; Stangeby, P. C.; Ulrickson, M. A.

    2003-03-01

    Heat flux measurements of the DIII-D divertor plate have been obtained with 6 mm spatial resolution using a calorimeter probe. These measurements complement the infrared camera system normally used for heat flux measurements on DIII-D but at higher-spatial resolution. The calorimeter probe is inserted into the tokamak from below to a position which is flush with the lower divertor plate tiles using the divertor materials experimental station (DiMES). The DiMES mechanism allows for retraction of the probe behind a gate valve and removal from the tokamak for modification or calibration. A 6 mm diameter insulated graphite cylinder for collecting energy is mounted within a standard DiMES sample. A 0.8 mm diameter thermocouple, installed 4 mm below the surface, provides a measurement of the temperature during and after the plasma exposure. The 80 ms time constant for the measurement is fast enough to determine heat flux changes during the 5 s plasma discharge and heat flux profiles have been obtained using both fixed strike points and slow strike point sweeps across the calorimeter. Special electronics and isolation is necessary as the sample is in direct electrical contact with the plasma. The calorimeter observes approximately 100 °C temperature rise over one tokamak discharge. The thermocouple signals are typically less than 1 mV and must be amplified near the vacuum feedthrough, passed through a low-pass filter to eliminate magnetic pickup, isolated, and sent to the data acquisition system approximately 8 m away. Initial measurements are included.

  20. Development of an air flow thermal balance calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherfey, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    An air flow calorimeter, based on the idea of balancing an unknown rate of heat evolution with a known rate of heat evolution, was developed. Under restricted conditions, the prototype system is capable of measuring thermal wattages from 10 milliwatts to 1 watt, with an error no greater than 1 percent. Data were obtained which reveal system weaknesses and point to modifications which would effect significant improvements.

  1. Micro-Fabricated DC Comparison Calorimeter for RF Power Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Neji, Bilel; Xu, Jing; Titus, Albert H.; Meltzer, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Diode detection and bolometric detection have been widely used to measure radio frequency (RF) power. However, flow calorimeters, in particular micro-fabricated flow calorimeters, have been mostly unexplored as power meters. This paper presents the design, micro-fabrication and characterization of a flow calorimeter. This novel device is capable of measuring power from 100 μW to 200 mW. It has a 50-Ohm load that is heated by the RF source, and the heat is transferred to fluid in a microchannel. The temperature change in the fluid is measured by a thermistor that is connected in one leg of a Wheatstone bridge. The output voltage change of the bridge corresponds to the RF power applied to the load. The microfabricated device measures 25.4 mm × 50.8 mm, excluding the power supplies, microcontroller and fluid pump. Experiments demonstrate that the micro-fabricated sensor has a sensitivity up to 22 × 10−3 V/W. The typical resolution of this micro-calorimeter is on the order of 50 μW, and the best resolution is around 10 μW. The effective efficiency is 99.9% from 0–1 GHz and more than 97.5% at frequencies up to 4 GHz. The measured reflection coefficient of the 50-Ohm load and coplanar wave guide is less than −25 dB from 0–2 GHz and less than −16 dB at 2–4 GHz. PMID:25350509

  2. After-burning of nitropenta products in a calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H

    1999-06-18

    Explored here are the ''after-burning'' effects for explosions of Nitropenta (NP) charges in air. Detonation of the charge transforms the solid explosive ( C HNO 5 8412 , also known as PETN) into gaseous products that are rich in carbon and CO, which subsequently act as a fuel. When these hot ({approximately}3500 K) gases mix with air, rapid combustion (after-burning) takes place. The dynamics of this exothermic process was studied in ''pressure calorimeter'' experiments performed at EMI.

  3. Design of a microwave calorimeter for the microwave tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Marinak, M. )

    1988-10-07

    The initial design of a microwave calorimeter for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment is presented. The design is optimized to measure the refraction and absorption of millimeter rf microwaves as they traverse the toroidal plasma of the Alcator C tokamak. Techniques utilized can be adapted for use in measuring high intensity pulsed output from a microwave device in an environment of ultra high vacuum, intense fields of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and intense magnetic fields. 16 refs.

  4. Interactive monitoring system for backing calorimeter at ZEUS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Jezynski, Tomasz; Luszczak, Zbigniew; Zaczek, Michal

    2004-07-01

    This work describes a design and development of the Internet system for the data quality monitoring during the Backing Calorimeter (BAC) operation in the ZEUS experiment and for the archive data analysis. The development includes functional data base system application, data interaction processes and the web interface, built using PHP scripts and JAVA applets. The system implementation process, in ZEUS experiment, was described and its performance results were presented, based on the selected examples.

  5. The large-scale anisotropy with the PAMELA calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelin, A.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G.; Bazilevskaya, G.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A.; Koldashov, S.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krut'kov, S.; Kvashnin, A.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A.; Menn, W.; Mergé, M.; Mikhailov, V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S.; Sarkar, R.; Simon, M.; Scotti, V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G.; Voronov, S.; Yurkin, Y.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2015-10-01

    The large-scale anisotropy (or the so-called star-diurnal wave) has been studied using the calorimeter of the space-born experiment PAMELA. The cosmic ray anisotropy has been obtained for the Southern and Northern hemispheres simultaneously in the equatorial coordinate system for the time period 2006-2014. The dipole amplitude and phase have been measured for energies 1-20 TeV n-1.

  6. On timing properties of LYSO-based calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Duarte, J.; Pena, C.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Trevor, J.; Xie, S.

    2015-04-23

    We present test beam studies and results on the timing performance and characterization of the time resolution of Lutetium–Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO)-based calorimeters. We also demonstrate that a time resolution of 30 ps is achievable for a particular design. Additionally, we discuss precision timing calorimetry as a tool for the mitigation of physics object performance degradation effects due to the large number of simultaneous interactions in the high luminosity environment foreseen at the Large Hadron Collider.

  7. Calibration and Characterization of the Small Sample Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A.; Perry, Katherine A.

    2012-08-13

    An early component of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) between the United States and the Republic of Korea is a test of gram scale electrochemical recycling of spent fuel which is to be performed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Included in this test is the development of Nondestructive Assay (NDA) technologies that would be applicable for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards of the electrochemical recycling process. Of upmost importance to safeguarding the fuel cycle associated with the electrochemical recycling process is the ability to safeguard the U/TRU ingots that will be produced in the process. For the gram scale test, the ingots that will be produced will have an expected thermal power of approximately 130 mW. To ascertain how well the calorimetric assay NDA technique can perform in assaying these ingots, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has characterized and calibrated a small solid-state calorimeter called the Small Sample Calorimeter (SSC3) to perform these measurements at LANL. To calibrate and characterize the SSC3, a series of measurements were performed using certified {sup 238}Pu heat standards whose power output is traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) electrical standards. The results of these measurements helped establish both the calibration of the calorimeter as well as the expected performance of the calorimeter in terms of its accuracy and precision as a function of thermal power of the item that is being measured. In this report, we will describe the measurements that were performed and provide a discussion of the results of these measurements.

  8. An electromagnetic calorimeter for the JLab real compton scattering experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. J.; Shahinyan, A.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Annand, J. R. M.; Chang, T.-H.; Chudakov, E.; Danagoulian, A.; Degtyarenko, P.; Egiyan, K.; Gilman, R.; Gorbenko, V.; Hines, J.; Hovhannisyan, E.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; de Jager, C. W.; Ketikyan, A.; Mamyan, V. H.; Michaels, R.; Nathan, A. M.; Nelyubin, V.; Rachek, I.; Roedelbrom, M.; Petrosyan, A.; Pomatsalyuk, R.; Popov, V.; Segal, J.; Shestakov, Y.; Templon, J.; Voskanyan, H.

    2011-07-01

    A lead-glass hodoscope calorimeter that was constructed for use in the Jefferson Lab Real Compton Scattering experiment is described. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6%/ √{Eγ GeV}. Features of both the detector design and its performance in the high luminosity environment during the experiment are presented.

  9. The calorimeter of the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    DOE PAGES

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; ...

    2017-01-23

    Here, the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab looks for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation (CLFV) improving by 4 orders of magnitude the current experimental sensitivity for the muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom. A positive signal could not be explained in the framework of the current Standard Model of particle interactions and therefore would be a clear indication of new physics. In 3 years of data taking, Mu2e is expected to observe less than one background event mimicking the electron coming from muon conversion. Achieving such a level of background suppression requires a deep knowledge of the experimental apparatus: amore » straw tube tracker, measuring the electron momentum and time, a cosmic ray veto system rejecting most of cosmic ray background and a pure CsI crystal calorimeter, that will measure time of flight, energy and impact position of the converted electron. The calorimeter has to operate in a harsh radiation environment, in a 10-4 Torr vacuum and inside a 1 T magnetic field. The results of the first qualification tests of the calorimeter components are reported together with the energy and time performances expected from the simulation and measured in beam tests of a small scale prototype.« less

  10. Hadronic Showers in a Highly Granular Imaging Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, A.; The Calice Collaboration

    The CALICE collaboration develops highly granular calorimeter prototypes to evaluate technologies for experiments at a future lepton collider. The analogue hadronic calorimeter prototype consists of steel absorber plates interleaved with 38 active plastic scintillator layers which are sub-divided into small tiles. In total 7608 tiles are read out individually via embedded Silicon Photomultipliers. The prototype is one of the first large scale applications of these novel and very promising miniature photodetectors. Since 2006, the calorimeter has been operated in combined test beam setups at DESY, CERN and FNAL. The high-resolution 3D image data with analogue energy information are used to study properties and composition of hadronic showers at a new level of detail. This helps to constrain hadronic shower models through comparisons with model calculations. The spatial shower development and the substructure of the showers, compared to a variety of different Geant 4 shower models including decompositions into individual shower components are presented. Aspects of the energy reconstruction of hadronic showers, such as Particle Flow, are discussed.

  11. The Design of a Calorimeter to Measure Concentrated Solar Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefkow, Elizabeth Anne Bennett

    A water-cooled, cavity calorimeter was designed to accurately measure concentrated solar thermal power produced by the University of Minnesota's solar simulator. The cavity is comprised of copper tubing bent into spiral and helical coils for the base and cylindrical walls, respectively. Insulation surrounds the cavity to reduce heat transfer to the ambient, and a water- cooled aperture cover is positioned at the open end of the cavity. The calorimeter measures the heat gain of water flowing through the system as radiant energy is passed through the aperture. Chilled water flows through the tubing, and the energy incident on the cavity surface is conducted through the wall and convected to the flowing water. The energy increase in the water can be observed by an increase in fluid temperature. A Monte Carlo ray tracing method is used to predict the incident flux distribution and corresponding power on the surfaces of the cavity. These values are used to estimate the thermal losses of the system, and it is found that they account for less that 1% of the total power passed through the aperture. The overall uncertainty of the calorimeter is found by summing the measured uncertainty and the estimated heat loss and is found to be +/-2.5% for 9.2 kW of power output and +/-3.4% for 3 kW.

  12. Longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters with SiPM readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Cecchini, S.; Cindolo, F.; Ferdinando, D. Di; Jollet, C.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Meregaglia, A.; Paoloni, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Prest, M.; Sirri, G.; Terranova, F.; Vallazza, E.; Votano, L.

    2017-02-01

    The goal of the INFN SCENTT R&D project is to develop the calorimeter technologies for the instrumentation of decay tunnels in conventional neutrino beams. This instrumentation is required to achieve a substantial improvement in the uncertainty on neutrino fluxes for the next generation cross section experiments. In particular, we are designing a positron tagger based on purely calorimetric techniques that is able to measure the rate and the spectrum of the positrons produced in the K+ →e+π0νe decay. The νe flux is inferred from the positron rate in the decay tunnel. Considering the large dimensions of the tagger, the most cost effective technology is based on small modules of Fe/Scintillator shashlik calorimeters, with adequate segmentation and energy resolution to efficiently tag the positrons over the charged pion background. This contribution presents preliminary results obtained with two shashlik calorimeter prototypes readout with an array of Silicon PhotoMultipliers and tested at the CERN PS-T9 beamline.

  13. Development of Radhard VLSI electronics for SSC calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J.W.; Nodulman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A new program of development of integrated electronics for liquid argon calorimeters in the SSC detector environment is being started at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory and Vanderbilt University together with an industrial participants are expected to collaborate in this work. Interaction rates, segmentation, and the radiation environment dictate that front-end electronics of SSC calorimeters must be implemented in the form of highly integrated, radhard, analog, low noise, VLSI custom monolithic devices. Important considerations are power dissipation, choice of functions integrated on the front-end chips, and cabling requirements. An extensive level of expertise in radhard electronics exists within the industrial community, and a primary objective of this work is to bring that expertise to bear on the problems of SSC detector design. Radiation hardness measurements and requirements as well as calorimeter design will be primarily the responsibility of Argonne scientists and our Brookhaven and Vanderbilt colleagues. Radhard VLSI design and fabrication will be primarily the industrial participant's responsibility. The rapid-cycling synchrotron at Argonne will be used for radiation damage studies involving response to neutrons and charged particles, while damage from gammas will be investigated at Brookhaven. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The backward end-cap for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozza, L.; Maas, F. E.; Noll, O.; Rodriguez Pineiro, D.; Valente, R.

    2015-02-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new FAIR facility will cover a broad experimental programme in hadron structure and spectroscopy. As a multipurpose detector, the PANDA spectrometer needs to ensure almost 4π coverage of the scattering solid angle, full and accurate multiple-particle event reconstruction and very good particle identification capabilities. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will be a key item for many of these aspects. Particle energies ranging from some MeVs to several GeVs have to be measured with a relative resolution of 1% ⊕ 2%/√E/GeV . It will be a homogeneous calorimeter made of PbWO4 crystals and will be operated at -25°C, in order to improve the scintillation light yield. With the exception of the very forward section, the light will be detected by large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The current pulses from the APDs will be integrated, amplified and shaped by ASIC chips which were developed for this purpose. The whole calorimeter has been designed in three sections: a forward end-cap, a central barrel and a backward end-cap (BWEC). In this contribution, a status report on the development of the BWEC is presented.

  15. Applying fast calorimetry on a spent nuclear fuel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Liljenfeldt, Henrik

    2015-04-15

    Recently at Los Alamos National Laboratory, sophisticated prediction algorithms have been considered for the use of calorimetry for treaty verification. These algorithms aim to predict the equilibrium temperature based on early data and therefore be able to shorten the measurement time while maintaining good accuracy. The algorithms have been implemented in MATLAB and applied on existing equilibrium measurements from a spent nuclear fuel calorimeter located at the Swedish nuclear fuel interim storage facility. The results show significant improvements in measurement time in the order of 15 to 50 compared to equilibrium measurements, but cannot predict the heat accurately in less time than the currently used temperature increase method can. This Is both due to uncertainties in the calibration of the method as well as identified design features of the calorimeter that limits the usefulness of equilibrium type measurements. The conclusions of these findings are discussed, and suggestions of both improvements of the current calorimeter as well as what to keep in mind in a new design are given.

  16. Electromagnetic Calorimeter studies for the GEp(5) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayerbe Gayoso, Carlos

    2013-10-01

    The GEp(5) experiment, part of the SBS collaboration, will be the fourth measurement of the GEp /GMp ratio using the proton recoil polarization technique. The current data suggests that the GEp /GMp ratio obtained with this technique, might cross zero near Q2 ~ 10 GeV2 , now reachable with the CEBAF upgrade to 12 GeV energy beam. This measurement technique requires a precise measurement of the energy and angles of the scattered electron in coincidence with the recoil proton. The electron's measured energy and crude position will be used in the trigger, while the offline position measurement will be used in kinematic cuts to separate the elastic process from the background. A lead-glass calorimeter, which was used in the previous experiments, is not optimal for the planned experiment due to the rapid radiation damage in the experiment's running conditions. A sampling calorimeter, made of lead and plastic scintillators, is under consideration. Results from a test beam and Monte Carlo simulations of this kind of calorimeter will be presented. Supported from a NSF grant, PHY-1066374.

  17. The calorimeter of the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dané, E.; Davydov, Y. I.; Di Falco, S.; Diociaiuti, E.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Radicioni, T.; Ricci, M.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab looks for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation (CLFV) improving by 4 orders of magnitude the current experimental sensitivity for the muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom. A positive signal could not be explained in the framework of the current Standard Model of particle interactions and therefore would be a clear indication of new physics. In 3 years of data taking, Mu2e is expected to observe less than one background event mimicking the electron coming from muon conversion. Achieving such a level of background suppression requires a deep knowledge of the experimental apparatus: a straw tube tracker, measuring the electron momentum and time, a cosmic ray veto system rejecting most of cosmic ray background and a pure CsI crystal calorimeter, that will measure time of flight, energy and impact position of the converted electron. The calorimeter has to operate in a harsh radiation environment, in a 10-4 Torr vacuum and inside a 1 T magnetic field. The results of the first qualification tests of the calorimeter components are reported together with the energy and time performances expected from the simulation and measured in beam tests of a small scale prototype.

  18. Application of calorimeters for 5 MeV EB and bremsstrahlung dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Toshio; Takahashi, Toru; Saito, Toshio; Takehisa, Masaaki; Miller, Arne

    1993-10-01

    Graphite and water calorimeters, which were developed for use a 10 MeV electron beams (EB) at Riso National Laboratory, were used for process validation and routine dosimeter calibration at a 5 MeV EB. Water calorimeters were used for reference measurements for 5 MeV EB, the response was found to be directly proportional to the beam current and the variation among three water calorimeters was less than ± 2 % in the range of 10 to 40 kGy. CTA, PMMA, RCD dosimeters were calibrated by irradiating the dosimeters and water calorimeters simultaneously. The water calorimeters was proved to be an useful tool at 5 MeV EB. Graphite calorimeters gave reproducible readings within 3.3 % relative errors (95% confidence level) for X-ray measurement.

  19. Natural fibers

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caulfield

    2005-01-01

    The term “natural fibers” covers a broad range of vegetable, animal, and mineral fibers. However, in the composites industry, it usually refers to wood fiber and agrobased bast, leaf, seed, and stem fibers. These fibers often contribute greatly to the structural performance of the plant and, when used in plastic composites, can provide significant reinforcement. Below...

  20. Fiber diffraction without fibers.

    PubMed

    Poon, H-C; Schwander, P; Uddin, M; Saldin, D K

    2013-06-28

    Postprocessing of diffraction patterns of completely randomly oriented helical particles, as measured, for example, in so-called "diffract-and-destroy" experiments with an x-ray free electron laser can yield "fiber diffraction" patterns expected of fibrous bundles of the particles. This will allow "single-axis alignment" to be performed computationally, thus obviating the need to do this by experimental means such as forming fibers and laser or flow alignment. The structure of such particles may then be found by either iterative phasing methods or standard methods of fiber diffraction.

  1. Determination of shower central position in laterally segmented lead-fluoride electromagnetic calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazouz, M.; Ghedira, L.; Voutier, E.

    2016-07-01

    The spatial resolution of laterally segmented electromagnetic calorimeters, built of lead fluoride material, is studied on the basis of Monte-Carlo simulations. Parametrization of the relative resolution on the shower position is proposed and optimized in terms of the energy of incoming particles and the elementary size of the calorimeter blocks. A new fit algorithm method is proposed that improves spatial resolution at high energies (> 5 GeV), and provides guidance for the design optimization of electromagnetic calorimeters.

  2. A photon calorimeter using lead tungstate crystals for the CEBAF HAll A Compton polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    D. Neyret; T. Pussieux; T. Auger; M. Baylac; E. Burtin; C. Cavata; R. Chipaux; S. Escoffier; N. Falletto; J. Jardillier; S. Kerhoas; D. Lhuillier; F. Marie; C. Veyssiere; J. Ahrens; R. Beck; M. Lang

    2000-05-01

    A new Compton polarimeter is built on the CEBAF Hall A electron beam line. Performances of 10% resolution and 1% calibration are required for the photon calorimeter of this polarimeter. This calorimeter is built with lead tungstate scintillators coming from the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter R&D. Beam tests of this detector have been made using the tagged photon beam line at MAMI, Mainz, and a resolution of 1.76%+2.75%/v+0.41%/E has been measured.

  3. Precision closed bomb calorimeter for testing flame and gas producing initiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, D. R., Jr.; Taylor, A. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A calorimeter has been developed under this study to help meet the needs of accurate performance monitoring of electrically or mechanically actuated flame and gas producing devices, such as squib-type initiators. A ten cubic centimeter closed bomb (closed volume) calorimeter was designed to provide a standard pressure trace and to measure a nominal 50 calorie output, using the basic components of a Parr Model 1411 calorimeter. Two prototype bombs were fabricated, pressure tested to 2600 psi, and extensively evaluated.

  4. SUITABILITY OF A NEW CALORIMETER FOR EXOTIC MESON SEARCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Bookwalter, C.; Ostrovidov, A.; Eugenio, P.

    2007-01-01

    Exotic mesons, particles that have quantum numbers that are inaccessible to conventional quark-model mesons, are predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), but past experiments seeking to identify exotic candidates have produced controversial results. The HyCLAS experiment (E04005) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) proposes the use of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) in Hall B to study the photoproduction of exotic mesons. However, the base detector package at CLAS is not ideal for observing and measuring neutral particles, particularly at forward angles. The Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) experiment at TJNAF has commissioned a new calorimeter for detecting small-angle photons, but studies must be performed to determine its suitability for a meson spectroscopy experiment. The ηπ system has been under especial scrutiny in the community as a source for potential exotics, so the new calorimeter’s ability at reconstructing these resonances must be evaluated. To achieve this, the invariant mass of showers in the calorimeter are reconstructed. Also, two electroproduction reaction channels analogous to photoproduction channels of interest to HyCLAS are examined in DVCS data. It is found that, while not ideal, the new calorimeter will allow access to additional reaction channels, and its inclusion in HyCLAS is warranted. Results in basic shower reconstruction show that the calorimeter has good effi ciency in resolving π° decays, but its η reconstruction is not as strong. When examining ep → epπ°η, preliminary reconstruction of the ηπ° system shows faint signals in the a0(980) region. In the ep → e n π+ η channel, preliminary reconstruction of the ηπ+ system gave good signals in the a0(980) and a2(1320) regions, but statistics were poor. While more analyses are necessary to improve statistics and remove background, these preliminary results support the claim

  5. Tests of the D0 calorimeter response in 2--150 GeV beams

    SciTech Connect

    De, K. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-10-01

    At the heart of the D0 detector, which recently started its maiden data run at the Fermilab Tevatron p[bar p] collider, is a finely segmented hermetic large angle liquid argon calorimeter. We present here results from the latest test beam studies of the calorimeter in 1991. Modules from the central calorimeter, end calorimeter and the inter-cryostat detector were included in this run. New results on resolution, uniformity and linearity will be presented with electron and pion beams of various energies. Special emphasis will be placed on first results from the innovative technique of using scintillator sampling in the intermediate rapidity region to improve uniformity and hermeticity.

  6. Tests of the D0 calorimeter response in 2--150 GeV beams

    SciTech Connect

    De, K.; D0 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    At the heart of the D0 detector, which recently started its maiden data run at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider, is a finely segmented hermetic large angle liquid argon calorimeter. We present here results from the latest test beam studies of the calorimeter in 1991. Modules from the central calorimeter, end calorimeter and the inter-cryostat detector were included in this run. New results on resolution, uniformity and linearity will be presented with electron and pion beams of various energies. Special emphasis will be placed on first results from the innovative technique of using scintillator sampling in the intermediate rapidity region to improve uniformity and hermeticity.

  7. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Kotcher, Jonathan

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 47π muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February--May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run. We have compared the shapes of the experimentally-obtained pulse height spectra to the Landau prediction for the ionization loss in a continuous thin absorber in the four electromagnetic and four hadronic layers of the calorimeter, and find good agreement after experimental effects are folded in. We have also determined an absolute energy calibration using two independent methods: one which measures the response of the electronics to a known amount of charge injected at the preamplifiers, and one which uses a carry-over of the calibration from a beam test of central calorimeter modules. Both absolute energy conversion factors agree with one another, within their errors. The calibration determined from the test beam carryover, relevant for use with collider physics data, has an error of 2.3%. We believe that, with further study, a final error of ~1% will be achieved. The theory-to-experiment comparison of the peaks (or most probable values) of the muon spectra was used to determine the layer-to-layer consistency of the muon signal. We find that the mean response in the 3 fine hadronic layers is (12 ± 2%) higher than that in the 4 electromagnetic layers. These same comparisons have been used to verify the absolute energy conversion factors. The conversion factors work well for the electromagnetic sections.

  8. Heat splicing of plastic fibers using a PEEK tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, K.; Horiuchi, K.; Kim, S.; Nakano, I.; Takebayashi, T.; Takikawa, K.; Yasuoka, K.; Koyano, M.; Matsui, S.; Takeuchi, H.

    1994-08-01

    We have developed a device to splice plastic optical fibers by thermal fusion. The device heats the joint of fibers inserted in a PEEK tube, which can help align the fiber axes and protects the fused joint mechanically. We have tuned the device to produce splices with good light transmission and mechanical strength. Light transmission of nearly 95% with an rms variation of 1.5% has been achieved. The joint supports 1.2 kgf in tension and the bending radius can be as small as 3 cm. The mechanical strength can be improved easily by adding epoxy. We describe the optimization of the device and measurement results of 28000 fiber splices for the CDF plug-upgrade tile/fiber calorimeter.

  9. CMS level-1 upgrade calorimeter trigger prototype development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klabbers, P.; Bachtis, M.; Brooke, J.; Cepeda Hermida, M.; Compton, K.; Dasu, S.; Farmahni-Farahani, A.; Fayer, S.; Fobes, R.; Frazier, R.; Ghabrous, C.; Gorski, T.; Gregerson, A.; Hall, G.; Hunt, C.; Iles, G.; Jones, J.; Lucas, C.; Lucas, R.; Magrans, M.; Newbold, D.; Oljavo, I.; Perugupalli, A.; Pioppi, M.; Rose, A.; Ross, I.; Sankey, D.; Schulte, M.; Seemuth, D.; Smith, W. H.; Tikalsky, J.; Tapper, A.; Williams, T.

    2013-02-01

    As the LHC increases luminosity and energy, it will become increasingly difficult to select interesting physics events and remain within the readout bandwidth limitations. An upgrade to the CMS Calorimeter Trigger implementing more complex algorithms is proposed. It utilizes AMC cards with Xilinx FPGAs running in microTCA crate with card interconnections via crate backplanes and optical links operating at up to 10 Gbps. Prototype cards with Virtex-6 and Virtex-7 FPGAs have been built and software frameworks for operation and monitoring developed. The physics goals, hardware architectures, and software will be described in this talk. More details can be found in a separate poster at this conference.

  10. Simulation of Energy Response of the ATIC Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batkov, K. E.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Case, G.; Christl, M.; Chang, J.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Granger, D.; hide

    2002-01-01

    ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) is a balloon borne experiment designed to measure the cosmic ray composition for elements from hydrogen to iron and their energy spectra from approx.50 GeV to near 100 TeV. It consists of a Si-matrix detector to determine the charge of a CR particle, a scintillator hodoscope for tracking, carbon interaction targets and a fully active BGO calorimeter. ATIC had its first flight from McMurdo, Antarctica from 28/12/2000 to 13/01/2001. The ATIC flight collected approximately 25 million events. For reconstruction of primary spectra from spectra of energy deposits measured in the experiment, correlations between kinetic energy of a primary particle E(sub kin) and energy deposit in the calorimeter E(sub d) should be known. For this purpose, simulations of energy response of the calorimeter on energy spectra of different nuclei were done. The simulations were performed by GEANT-3.21 code with QGSM generator for nucleus - nucleus interactions. The incident flux was taken as isotropic in the ATIC aperture. Primary spectra power-law by momentum were used as inputs according to standard models of cosmic ray acceleration. These spectra become power-law by kinetic energy at E(sub kin) higher than approx.20Mc(sup 2), where M is primary nucleus mass. It should be noted that energy deposit spectra measured by ATIC illustrate similar behavior. Distributions of ratio E(sub kin)/E(sub d) are presented for different energy deposits and for a set of primaries. For power-law regions of energy spectra at E(sub d)> or equal to 20Mc(sup 2) the obtained mean value of E(sub kin)/E(sub d) increases from approx.2.4 for protons to approx.3.1 for iron, while rms/ decreases from 50% for protons to about 15% for iron. These values were obtained for the spectral index gamma=1.6

  11. Data acquisition system for the CALICE AHCAL calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasnicka, J.

    2017-03-01

    The data acquisition system (DAQ) for a highly granular analogue hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) for the future International Linear Collider is presented. The developed DAQ chain has several stages of aggregation and scales up to 8 million channels foreseen for the AHCAL detector design. The largest aggregation device, Link Data Aggregator, has 96 HDMI connectors, four Kintex7 FPGAs and a central Zynq System-On-Chip. Architecture and performance results are shown in detail. Experience from DESY testbeams with a small detector prototype consisting of 15 detector layers are shown.

  12. Analysis of diagnostic calorimeter data by the transfer function technique

    SciTech Connect

    Delogu, R. S. Pimazzoni, A.; Serianni, G.; Poggi, C.; Rossi, G.

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the analysis procedure applied to the thermal measurements on the rear side of a carbon fibre composite calorimeter with the purpose of reconstructing the energy flux due to an ion beam colliding on the front side. The method is based on the transfer function technique and allows a fast analysis by means of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Its efficacy has been tested both on simulated and measured temperature profiles: in all cases, the energy flux features are well reproduced and beamlets are well resolved. Limits and restrictions of the method are also discussed, providing strategies to handle issues related to signal noise and digital processing.

  13. Calorimeter and related calculations for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1989-02-01

    There are four topics to be covered in this paper. The first topic deals with the programs, the models, and the cross sections in the CALOR code package. Secondly, a discussion on compensating calorimetry as it applies to Fe/Si and U/Si calorimetry will be given. Thirdly, calculated results obtained on U/Si calorimeters using the CALOR system will be presented and discussed. Finally, the calculations that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out dealing with radiation damage at the proposed Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Kotcher, J.

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multi-purpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 4{pi} muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February - May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run.

  15. Performance of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, G.; Ellison, S.; Gould, R.; Granger, D.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Price, B.; Stewart, M.; Wefel, J. P.; Adams, J. H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATIC instrument is a balloon-borne experiment capable of measuring cosmic ray elemental spectra from 50 GeV to 100 TeV for nuclei from H to Fe with a fully active Bismuth Germanate calorimeter. Several Long Duration Balloon flights from McMurdo station, Antarctica are scheduled. The detector was tested with high energy electron, proton, and pion beams at CERN. We present results for 150 and 375 GeV protons, and 150 GeV pions and comparison with a GEANT Monte Carlo.

  16. Design and development of the SDC barrel electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ambats, I.; Balka, L.; Blair, R.

    1994-04-01

    In fulfillment of contract SSC92-W-17743, Argonne National Laboratory is required to closeout and document all work performed in the design and development of the central calorimeter for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) Detector at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL). This report will summarize the work performed, and identify all documents (technical reports, memo`s, drawings, etc.) that resulted from that effort. The work under this contract was shared in collaboration with the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is the intent of this report to provide information that can be useful in the development of future detectors for high energy physics particle research.

  17. Determination of the total absorption peak in an electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jia-Hua; Wang, Zhe; Lebanowski, Logan; Lin, Guey-Lin; Chen, Shaomin

    2016-08-01

    A physically motivated function was developed to accurately determine the total absorption peak in an electromagnetic calorimeter and to overcome biases present in many commonly used methods. The function is the convolution of a detector resolution function with the sum of a delta function, which represents the complete absorption of energy, and a tail function, which describes the partial absorption of energy and depends on the detector materials and structures. Its performance was tested with the simulation of three typical cases. The accuracy of the extracted peak value, resolution, and peak area was improved by an order of magnitude on average, relative to the Crystal Ball function.

  18. Simulation of Energy Response of the ATIC Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batkov, K. E.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Case, G.; Christl, M.; Chang, J.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Granger, D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) is a balloon borne experiment designed to measure the cosmic ray composition for elements from hydrogen to iron and their energy spectra from approx.50 GeV to near 100 TeV. It consists of a Si-matrix detector to determine the charge of a CR particle, a scintillator hodoscope for tracking, carbon interaction targets and a fully active BGO calorimeter. ATIC had its first flight from McMurdo, Antarctica from 28/12/2000 to 13/01/2001. The ATIC flight collected approximately 25 million events. For reconstruction of primary spectra from spectra of energy deposits measured in the experiment, correlations between kinetic energy of a primary particle E(sub kin) and energy deposit in the calorimeter E(sub d) should be known. For this purpose, simulations of energy response of the calorimeter on energy spectra of different nuclei were done. The simulations were performed by GEANT-3.21 code with QGSM generator for nucleus - nucleus interactions. The incident flux was taken as isotropic in the ATIC aperture. Primary spectra power-law by momentum were used as inputs according to standard models of cosmic ray acceleration. These spectra become power-law by kinetic energy at E(sub kin) higher than approx.20Mc(sup 2), where M is primary nucleus mass. It should be noted that energy deposit spectra measured by ATIC illustrate similar behavior. Distributions of ratio E(sub kin)/E(sub d) are presented for different energy deposits and for a set of primaries. For power-law regions of energy spectra at E(sub d)> or equal to 20Mc(sup 2) the obtained mean value of E(sub kin)/E(sub d) increases from approx.2.4 for protons to approx.3.1 for iron, while rms/ decreases from 50% for protons to about 15% for iron. These values were obtained for the spectral index gamma=1.6

  19. Measurement of Specific Heat Capacity Using Differential Scanning Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Daw

    2008-11-01

    This document describes the process used at the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) for measuring specific heat capacity using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The document is divided into four sections: Approach, in which the technique is described; Setup, in which the physical system is described; Procedure, in which the testing steps are listed and detailed; and Example Test, in which a typical test is outlined following the steps listed in the Procedure section. Example data, results, photos, and curves are provided throughout the document to assist other users of this system.

  20. Fiber biology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton fiber cells arising from seed epidermis is the most important agricultural textile commodity in the world. To produce fully mature fibers, approximately two months of fiber developmental process are required. The timing of four distinctive fiber development stages consisting of initiation, ...

  1. Calorimeter measures high nuclear heating rates and their gradients across a reactor test hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burwell, D.; Coombe, J. R.; Mc Bride, J.

    1970-01-01

    Pedestal-type calorimeter measures gamma-ray heating rates from 0.5 to 7.0 watts per gram of aluminum. Nuclear heating rate is a function of cylinder temperature change, measured by four chromel-alumel thermocouples attached to the calorimeter, and known thermoconductivity of the tested material.

  2. Cone Calorimeter Analysis of FRT Intumescent and Untreated Foam Core Particleboards

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Ali Shalbafan; Johannes Welling; Charles Boardman

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of treatments of the surface layer of novel foam core particleboards were evaluated by means of Cone calorimeter tests. Foam core particleboards with variations of surface layer treatment, adhesives and surface layer thicknesses under similar processing conditions were used to produce the test specimen for the Cone calorimeter tests. Ignitability,...

  3. Studies of hadron-electron separators for the ZEUS barrel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ambats, I.; Bortz, D.; Connolly, A.

    1995-05-25

    Two possible upgrades, a shower maximum detector and a presampler, designed to improve the low energy electron/hadron separation capabilities of the ZEUS barrel calorimeter are described and test-beam results are reported. The presampler can also be used to correct for energy loss of particles traversing the dead material in front of the calorimeter.

  4. Twin solution calorimeter determines heats of formation of alloys at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darby, J. B., Jr.; Kleb, R.; Kleppa, O. J.

    1968-01-01

    Calvert-type, twin liquid metal solution calorimeter determines the heats of formation of transition metal alloys at high temperatures. The twin differential calorimeter measures the small heat effects generated over extended periods of time, has maximum operating temperature of 1073 degrees K and an automatic data recording system.

  5. Test and evaluation of an Argonne National Laboratory bulk assay calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Fellers, C.L.; Lemming, J.F.

    1981-06-30

    The Argonne National Laboratory bulk assay calorimeter (BAC) was subjected to a series of tests, using plutonium-238 heat standards, to evaluate the performance of the calorimeter over its operating range. The results of these tests provide baseline information of the instrument performance under laboratory conditions.

  6. Natural fibers

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons

    2010-01-01

    The term “natural fibers” covers a broad range of vegetable, animal, and mineral fibers. However, in the composites industry, it usually refers to wood fiber and plant-based bast, leaf, seed, and stem fibers. These fibers often contribute greatly to the structural performance of the plant and, when used in plastic composites, can provide significant reinforcement....

  7. Addendum 3 to CSAR 80-027, Use of calorimeter 109B for fissile material measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, T.

    1994-12-05

    This modification to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) calorimeter system involves removing current calorimeter No. 3 from the water bath and replacing it with a calorimeter that can accommodate larger diameter items (an oversize can). The inside diameters of both the sample and the reference cells will be increased to 5.835 inches at the top opening and to 5.22 inches at the bottom, the 8 inch high measurement zone. This Addendum 3 to Criticality Safety Analysis Report 80-027 examines criticality safety during the use of the modified calorimeter (Calorimeter 109B) with enlarged cell tube diameters to assure that an adequate margin of subcriticality is maintained for all normal and contingency conditions.

  8. Computer-interfaced low-temperature, high-pressure flow calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, P.; Zollweg, J. A.; Streett, W. B.

    1989-08-01

    A flow calorimeter suitable for the measurement of heats-of-mixing of liquefied gas binaries is described. The calorimeter may be operated at temperatures between 77 and 300 K and at pressures up to 15 MPa. Endothermic energy effects are measured with a precision of (1.5 J/mol±1.2% HM ). The apparatus incorporates flow meters that measure mass flow rates directly. A computer data-acquisition system facilitates rapid measurements, a single heat-of-mixing measurement requiring less than 20 min. The calorimeter was tested by measuring the heat-of-mixing for the nitrogen-argon system. The calorimeter is an improvement on previous low-temperature flow calorimeters in both accuracy and speed of measurement.

  9. Construction of a hadron calorimeter for Jefferson Lab Hall-A Super Bigbite Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamyan, Vahe

    2015-04-01

    A ``shashlik'' hadron calorimeter is being constructed for the new Super Bigbite Spectrometer in Jefferson Lab Hall-A. The calorimeter will be used in nucleon-coincidence form-factor experiments taking advantage of Jefferson Labs' 12 GeV upgrade. An adiabatic light guide has been developed for the calorimeter based on laser cut acrylic sheets. A prototype module has been built to measure time resolution of the calorimeter for cosmic ray muons as well as to validate the Geant4 simulation. Several innovations in the calorimeter design will be discussed, in particular the choice of the scintillator, wave length shifter and the construction process of the light. The results of prototype tests is compared with Geant4 simulation for cosmic ray muons and prediction of HCal time and special resolution for hadrons in the 2-10 GeV/c momentum range will be presented. SBS COLLABORATION.

  10. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jogeswararao, G.; Parthasarathy, R.; Premalatha, S.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ananthasivan, K.

    2014-12-15

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  11. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Venkata Krishnan, R; Jogeswararao, G; Parthasarathy, R; Premalatha, S; Prabhakar Rao, J; Gunasekaran, G; Ananthasivan, K

    2014-12-01

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  12. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jogeswararao, G.; Parthasarathy, R.; Premalatha, S.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ananthasivan, K.

    2014-12-01

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  13. First level trigger processor for the ZEUS calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J.W.; Talaga, R.L.; Burr, G.W.; Laird, R.J. ); Smith, W.; Lackey, J. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of the first level trigger processor for the ZEUS calorimeter. This processor accepts data from the 13,000 photomultipliers of the calorimeter which is topologically divided into 16 regions, and after regional preprocessing, performs logical and numerical operations which cross regional boundaries. Because the crossing period at the HERA collider is 96 ns, it is necessary that first-level trigger decisions be made in pipelined hardware. One microsecond is allowed for the processor to perform the required logical and numerical operations, during which time the data from ten crossings would be resident in the processor while being clocked through the pipelined hardware. The circuitry is implemented in 100K ECL, Advanced CMOS discrete devices, and programmable gate arrays, and operates in a VME environment. All tables and registers are written/read from VME, and all diagnostic codes are executed from VME. Preprocessed data flows into the processor at a rate of 5.2GB/s, and processed data flows from the processor to the Global First-Level Trigger at a rate of 700MB/s. The system allows for subsets of the logic to be configured by software and for various important variables to be histogrammed as they flow through the processor. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Forward Physics with the CMS-CASTOR calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haevermaet, Hans

    2010-02-01

    The CASTOR calorimeter, located at 14.4 from the CMS interaction point, enhances the hermeticity of the CMS detector by extending the rapidity coverage to η< 6.6. After having described the CASTOR calorimeter, examples of the capabilities and physics program of this detector will be presented. The study of forward jets production will give access to the low x > 10-6 region where the gluon distribution increase is expected to saturate through the effects of nonlinear recombination terms in the DGLAP evolution equation. The study of events with a centrally produced dijet system and a forward jet will give access to parton dynamics beyond DGLAP and to the investigation of the BFKL or BFKL-like QCD evolution. The study of forward - central multiplicity correlations will enable to obtain a better understanding of the theoretically poorly constrained soft background that are the underlying events, defined as everything except the hard scattered components. The use of CASTOR as forward activity veto detectors is also of prime importance in the study of diffractive events, such as single diffractive W production, in order to obtain a more powerful rejection of the non-diffractive and inelastic diffractive backgrounds. )

  15. Results from an iron-proportional tube calorimeter prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.

    1998-02-03

    We have studied the energy resolution of a prototype gas tracking calorimeter in a test beam at Fermilab as part of the detector development program for the MINOS long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. The calorimeter consisted of 25 layers of 1.5 inch thick steel plates interleaved with planes of aluminum proportional tubes. The tube cells are square, with 0.9 cm edges and open tops. Cathode strips were used for read out transverse to the wire cells. The tubes operated with a nonflammable gas mixture of 88% CO{sub 2}, 9.5% isobutane and 2.5% argon which gave an operating range of >500 V (limited by the electronics). We read out the wire signals on the tubes and in some configurations the cathode stripe as well. We studied positrons, pions and muons over a momentum range of 2.5-30 GeV/c and achieved energy resolutions of about 40%/{radical}E for EM and 71%/{radical}E for hadronic showers.

  16. Assess the neutrino mass with micro and macro calorimeter approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giachero, A.

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to oscillation experiments it is now an established fact that neutrinos are massive particles. Yet, the assessment of neutrinos absolute mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in particle physics and cosmology as oscillation experiments are sensitive only to the squared mass differences of the three neutrino mass eigenstates. The mass hierarchy is not the only missing piece in the puzzle. Theories of neutrino mass generation call into play Majorana neutrinos and there are experimental observations pointing toward the existence of sterile neutrinos in addition to the three weakly interacting ones. Three experimental approaches are currently pursued: an indirect neutrino mass determination via cosmological observables, the search for neutrinoless double β-decay, and a direct measurement based on the kinematics of single β or electron capture decays. Bolometers and calorimeters are low temperature detectors used in many applications, such as astrophysics, fast spectroscopy and particle physics. In particular, sensitive calorimeters play an important role in the neutrino mass measurement and in the search for the neutrinoless double β-decay. There has been great technical progress on low temperature detectors since they were proposed for neutrino physics experiments in 1984. This general detector paradigm can be implemented in devices as small as a micrometer for sub eV radiation or as large as 1 kg for MeV scale particles. Today this technique offers the high energy resolution and scalability required for leading edges and competitive experiments addressing the still open questions in neutrino physics.

  17. π0 Reconstruction using the Muon Piston Calorimeter Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Dhruv; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Muon-Piston Calorimeter Extension (MPC-EX) is a new detector in the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider that was installed for the recent Run 15 of the experiment. In polarized p+p and polarized p+A collisions, an important measurement is the yield and momentum distribution of direct photons. Unaffected by the strong force, direct photons traverse the dense medium in the collision zone mostly unchanged, thereby providing information about the initial stages of the collision. However, there is a huge background of photons from other sources, primarily π0 which decay into two photons. The opening angle between the decay photons becomes smaller with higher energies of the original π0. For energies greater than ~20 GeV, the Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC) cannot distinguish the two decay photons from a single photon, as their showers merge. The MPC-EX, an 8-layer tungsten and silicon sensor sandwich in front of the MPC, can measure and image the shower development, and help distinguish between direct photons and π0 decay photons up to higher energies than the MPC alone. We will describe the MPC-EX detector and its readout, and present the calibration procedures applied to the data in order to obtain the π0 spectrum. This project was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  18. Unix version of CALOR89 for calorimeter applications

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, T. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Job, P.K.; Price, L.E. . High Energy Physics Div.); Gabriel, T.A. )

    1992-05-12

    CALOR89 is a system of coupled Monte Carlo particle transport computer codes which has been successfully employed for the estimation of calorimeter parameters in High Energy Physics. In the past CALOR89 has been running on various IBM machines and on CRAY X-MP at Lawrence Livermore Lab. These machines had non-unix operating systems. In this report we present a UNIX version of CALOR89, which is especially suited for the UNIX work stations. Moreover CALOR89 is also been supplemented with two new program packages which makes it more user friendly. CALPREP is a program for the preparation of the input files for CALOR89 in general geometry and ANALYZ is an analysis package to extract the final results from CALOR89 relevant to calorimeters. This report also provides two script files LCALOR and PCALOR. LCALOR runs CALOR89 sequences of programs and EGS4 for a given configuration sequentially on a single processor and PCALOR concurrently on a multiprocessor unix workstation.

  19. New calorimeters for space experiments: physics requirements and technological challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocchesi, Pier Simone

    2015-07-01

    Direct measurements of charged cosmic radiation with instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), or flying on balloons above the atmosphere, require the identification of the incident particle, the measurement of its energy and possibly the determination of its sign-of-charge. The latter information can be provided by a magnetic spectrometer together with a measurement of momentum. However, magnetic deflection in space experiments is at present limited to values of the Maximum Detectable Rigidity (MDR) hardly exceeding a few TV. Advanced calorimetric techniques are, at present, the only way to measure charged and neutral radiation at higher energies in the multi-TeV range. Despite their mass limitation, calorimeters may achieve a large geometric factor and provide an adequate proton background rejection factor, taking advantage of a fine granularity and imaging capabilities. In this lecture, after a brief introduction on electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, an innovative approach to the design of a space-borne, large acceptance, homogeneous calorimeter for the detection of high energy cosmic rays will be described.

  20. LED Monitoring System of the Phenix Muon Piston Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motschwiller, Steven

    2010-11-01

    The Muon Piston Calorimeter in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC has a monitoring system consisting of LEDs and PIN diodes to calibrate out the time dependent changes to the detector. The LEDs track the temperature and radiation-damage changes to the response of the MPC, while the absolute calibration can be done using 0̂ decays. To execute this, LEDs flash light through the PbWO4 crystal to the Avalanche Photo Diodes The MPC is made up of 416 independent electromagnetic calorimeter towers. By using the LEDs we can correct for changes in the gains of each tower in the MPC, on a run by run basis. Because the LED value only gives a relative measurement of the gain over time, this method of calibration can only be used in conjunction with absolute calibrations provided by 0̂ decays or by minimum ionizing peaks . This work will be used to make a final measurement on Transverse energy at √sNN = 200 GV in Au+Au collisions.

  1. Calibration and Monitoring of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Licata, C.

    2014-06-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) is a homogeneous and hermetic calorimeter with high granularity and fast response, designed to provide high resolution measurements of electron and photon energy. Precise calibration of the ECAL must be performed in situ at the LHC, in order to achieve and maintain its design performance and to fully exploit the physics reach of CMS. Several techniques have been developed for the intercalibration of ECAL using collision data. These methods are based on the reconstruction of the invariant mass peak of unconverted photons from low mass particle decays (π0and η) and on the azimuthal symmetry of the average energy deposition at a given pseudorapidity. Further intercalibration is carried out by using isolated electrons from W and Z bosons decays to compare the energy measured in ECAL to the momentum of the reconstructed tracks. The absolute calibration of the energy scale is performed using Z decays into electron-positron pairs. Changes in the ECAL response due to crystal radiation damage and changes in photo-detector output must be monitored. A system based on the injection of laser light into each crystal is used to track and correct for these variations during LHC operations.

  2. Unix version of CALOR89 for calorimeter applications

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, T.; Job, P.K.; Price, L.E.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1992-05-12

    CALOR89 is a system of coupled Monte Carlo particle transport computer codes which has been successfully employed for the estimation of calorimeter parameters in High Energy Physics. In the past CALOR89 has been running on various IBM machines and on CRAY X-MP at Lawrence Livermore Lab. These machines had non-unix operating systems. In this report we present a UNIX version of CALOR89, which is especially suited for the UNIX work stations. Moreover CALOR89 is also been supplemented with two new program packages which makes it more user friendly. CALPREP is a program for the preparation of the input files for CALOR89 in general geometry and ANALYZ is an analysis package to extract the final results from CALOR89 relevant to calorimeters. This report also provides two script files LCALOR and PCALOR. LCALOR runs CALOR89 sequences of programs and EGS4 for a given configuration sequentially on a single processor and PCALOR concurrently on a multiprocessor unix workstation.

  3. Cryogenic Tests of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, J.; Chalifour, M.; Fabre, C.; Gonidec, A.; Passardi, G.

    2006-04-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter consists of the barrel and two end-cap detectors housed in three independent cryostats filled with a total volume of 78 m3 of liquid argon. During cool-down the temperature differences in the composite structure of the detectors must be kept within strict limits to avoid excessive mechanical stresses and relative displacements. During normal operation the formation of gas bubbles, which are detrimental to the functioning of the detector, must be prevented and temperature gradients of less than 0.7 K across the argon bath are mandatory due to the temperature dependence of the energy measurements. Between April 2004 and May 2005 the barrel (120 t) and one end-cap (219 t) underwent qualification tests at the operating temperature of 87.3 K using a dedicated test facility at ground level. These tests provided a validation of the cooling methods to be adopted in the final underground configuration. In total 6.9 GJ and 15.7 GJ were extracted from the calorimeters and a temperature uniformity of the argon bath of less than 0.4 K was achieved.

  4. Cryogenic Tests of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, J.; Fabre, C.; Passardi, G.; Chalifour, M.

    2006-04-27

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter consists of the barrel and two end-cap detectors housed in three independent cryostats filled with a total volume of 78 m3 of liquid argon. During cool-down the temperature differences in the composite structure of the detectors must be kept within strict limits to avoid excessive mechanical stresses and relative displacements. During normal operation the formation of gas bubbles, which are detrimental to the functioning of the detector, must be prevented and temperature gradients of less than 0.7 K across the argon bath are mandatory due to the temperature dependence of the energy measurements. Between April 2004 and May 2005 the barrel (120 t) and one end-cap (219 t) underwent qualification tests at the operating temperature of 87.3 K using a dedicated test facility at ground level. These tests provided a validation of the cooling methods to be adopted in the final underground configuration. In total 6.9 GJ and 15.7 GJ were extracted from the calorimeters and a temperature uniformity of the argon bath of less than 0.4 K was achieved.

  5. Final results from the SDC dopant search for new green wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G.W.; Zhang, G.

    1993-12-01

    A scintillating tile/fiber design had been selected for the SDC calorimeter. It consisted of scintillator plates embedded with a wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber which was spliced to a clear fiber. Based on the results from previous radiation damage studies on different scintillating materials, SCSN38 had been chosen for the scintillating tile and BCF91 or Y7 for the WLS fiber. SCSN38 is a blue-emitting scintillator and both WLS fibers use K-27, a green-emitting compound, as dopant. K-27 has a decay time of approximately 12 ns which is long in comparison to that of most blue-emitting materials. Of all the factors that affect the speed of the scintillator tile/fiber calorimeter, the lifetime of the green-emitting dopant is the dominant component. To increase the speed of the calorimeter, it would be desirable that the green WLS fibers utilized had lifetimes between 3 and 5 ns. However, currently available green WLS fibers exhibit decay times between 7 and 12 ns. Development of new green-emitting WLS fibers with short decay times must be investigated. The goal of this project was to search for commercially available fluorescent compounds with {lambda}{sub abs} = 400--450 nm, {lambda}{sub em} = 450--550 nm, {tau} = 3--7 ns, and quantum efficiency of minimum 0.7 (current K-27 baseline). Large Stokes shift and low self-absorption were not important requirements since the optical pathlength for the shifted light was small. Characterization of the spectroscopic properties of these compounds after styrene polymerization is important since this is an essential part of the manufacturing of WLS fibers. This summary presents the transmittance and fluorescence data for each dopant tested. However, many fluorescence measurements using different excitation wavelengths and orientations were recorded. Volume 1 presents a plot for each dopant combining transmittance and the most representative fluorescence measurement.

  6. Final results from the SDC dopant search for new green wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G. W.; Zhang, G.

    1993-12-01

    A scintillating tile/fiber design had been selected for the SDC calorimeter. It consisted of scintillator plates embedded with a wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber which was spliced to a clear fiber. Based on the results from previous radiation damage studies on different scintillating materials, SCSN38 had been chosen for the scintillating tile and BCF91 or Y7 for the WLS fiber. SCSN38 is a blue-emitting scintillator and both WLS fibers use K-27, a green-emitting compound, as dopant. K-27 has a decay time of approximately 12 ns which is long in comparison to that of most blue-emitting materials. Of all the factors that affect the speed of the scintillator tile/fiber calorimeter, the lifetime of the green-emitting dopant is the dominant component. To increase the speed of the calorimeter, it would be desirable that the green WLS fibers utilized had lifetimes between 3 and 5 ns. However, currently available green WLS fibers exhibit decay times between 7 and 12 ns. Development of new green-emitting WLS fibers with short decay times must be investigated. The goal of this project was to search for commercially available fluorescent compounds with lambda(sub abs) = 400-450 nm, lambda(sub em) = 450-550 nm, tau = 3-7 ns, and quantum efficiency of minimum 0.7 (current K-27 baseline). Large Stokes shift and low self-absorption were not important requirements since the optical pathlength for the shifted light was small. Characterization of the spectroscopic properties of these compounds after styrene polymerization is important since this is an essential part of the manufacturing of WLS fibers. This summary presents the transmittance and fluorescence data for each dopant tested. However, many fluorescence measurements using different excitation wavelengths and orientations were recorded. Volume 1 presents a plot for each dopant combining transmittance and the most representative fluorescence measurement.

  7. Room-temperature calorimeter for x-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Kato, M; Saito, N; Tono, K; Yabashi, M; Ishikawa, T

    2015-09-01

    We have developed a room-temperature calorimeter for absolute radiant power measurements of x-ray free-electron lasers. This room-temperature calorimeter is an electrical substitution device based on the equivalence of electrical and radiant heating. Consequently, the measured radiant powers are traceable to electrical standards, i.e., the International System Units (SI). We demonstrated the performance of the room-temperature calorimeter by electrical power measurements (offline tests). In the offline tests, the room-temperature calorimeter was proven to be able to measure external powers up to at least 6.9 mW, which exceeds the upper limit (∼4 mW) of a cryogenic radiometer (the primary standard detector in Japan). In addition, measurement uncertainties of the room-temperature calorimeter were evaluated to be less than 1.0%, which is adequate for the radiant power measurements of x-ray free-electron lasers. An indirect comparison with the cryogenic radiometer was performed using a synchrotron radiation source to confirm the validity of the absolute radiant powers measured with the room-temperature calorimeter. The absolute radiant powers measured by the calorimeter agreed with those measured by the cryogenic radiometer within 0.6%, which is less than the relative standard uncertainty of the comparison (1.0%).

  8. Room-temperature calorimeter for x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T. Kato, M.; Saito, N.; Tono, K.; Yabashi, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2015-09-15

    We have developed a room-temperature calorimeter for absolute radiant power measurements of x-ray free-electron lasers. This room-temperature calorimeter is an electrical substitution device based on the equivalence of electrical and radiant heating. Consequently, the measured radiant powers are traceable to electrical standards, i.e., the International System Units (SI). We demonstrated the performance of the room-temperature calorimeter by electrical power measurements (offline tests). In the offline tests, the room-temperature calorimeter was proven to be able to measure external powers up to at least 6.9 mW, which exceeds the upper limit (∼4 mW) of a cryogenic radiometer (the primary standard detector in Japan). In addition, measurement uncertainties of the room-temperature calorimeter were evaluated to be less than 1.0%, which is adequate for the radiant power measurements of x-ray free-electron lasers. An indirect comparison with the cryogenic radiometer was performed using a synchrotron radiation source to confirm the validity of the absolute radiant powers measured with the room-temperature calorimeter. The absolute radiant powers measured by the calorimeter agreed with those measured by the cryogenic radiometer within 0.6%, which is less than the relative standard uncertainty of the comparison (1.0%)

  9. An analysis of calibration curve models for solid-state heat-flow calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Hypes, P. A.; Bracken, D. S.; McCabe, G.

    2001-01-01

    Various calibration curve models for solid-state calorimeters are compared to determine which model best fits the calibration data. The calibration data are discussed. The criteria used to select the best model are explained. A conclusion regarding the best model for the calibration curve is presented. These results can also be used to evaluate the random and systematic error of a calorimetric measurement. A linear/quadratic model has been used for decades to fit the calibration curves for wheatstone bridge calorimeters. Excellent results have been obtained using this calibration curve model. The Multical software package uses this model for the calibration curve. The choice of this model is supported by 40 years [1] of calorimeter data. There is good empirical support for the linear/quadratic model. Calorimeter response is strongly linear. Calorimeter sensitivity is slightly lower at higher powers; the negative coefficient of the x{sup 2} term accounts for this. The solid-state calorimeter is operated using the Multical [2] software package. An investigation was undertaken to determine if the linear/quadratic model is the best model for the new sensor technology used in the solid-state calorimeter.

  10. Fiber Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalle, Leona

    1976-01-01

    Describes a course in fiber techniques, which covers design methods involving fibers and fabric, that students in the Art Department at Sleeping Giant Junior High School had the opportunity to learn. (Author/RK)

  11. Central Calorimeter configuration: A study report to the SDC Technical Board

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, T.B.W.; Wicklund, A.B.

    1991-04-11

    The single most important determinant of the overall Central Calorimeter (CC) shape is the criterion for depth of hadron shower containment. This criterion and its rapidity dependence is discussed in a companion document to this report titled ``Depth Requirements in SSC Calorimeters`` by a D. Green et al., SDC-91-00016. The conclusion reached there is that the calorimeter should be 10 {lambda} thick at {eta} = 0 and increase smoothly to 12 {lambda} at {eta} = 3. We adopt this criterion in this report and discuss the mechanical properties and design details of a CC that meets this condition.

  12. The design and performance of the electromagnetic calorimeters in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Vardan Tadevosyan, Hamlet Mkrtchyan, Arshak Asaturyan, Arthur Mkrtchyan, Simon Zhamkochyan

    2012-12-01

    The design and performance of the electromagnetic calorimeters in the magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab are presented. For the existing HMS and SOS spectrometers, construction information and comparisons of simulated and experimental results are presented. The design and simulated performance for a new calorimeter to be used in the new SHMS spectrometer is also presented. We have developed and constructed electromagnetic calorimeters from TF-1 type lead-glass blocks for the HMS and SOS magnetic spectrometers at JLab Hall C. The HMS/SOS calorimeters are of identical design and construction except for their total size. Blocks of dimension 10 cm × 10 cm × 70 cm are arranged in four planes and stacked 13 and 11 blocks high in the HMS and SOS respectively. The energy resolution of these calorimeters is better than 6%/√E, and pion/electron (π/e) separation of about 100:1 has been achieved in energy range 1–5 GeV. Good agreement has been observed between the experimental and GEANT4 simulated energy resolutions. The HMS/SOS calorimeters have been used nearly in all Hall C experiments, providing good energy resolution and a high pion suppression factor. No significant deterioration in their performance has been observed in the course of use since 1994. For the SHMS spectrometer, presently under construction, details on the calorimeter design and accompanying GEANT4 simulation efforts are given. A Preshower+Shower design was selected as the most cost-effective among several design choices. The preshower will consist of a layer of 28 modules with TF-1 type lead glass radiators, stacked in two columns. The shower part will consist of 224 modules with F-101 type lead glass radiators, stacked in a “fly's eye” configuration of 14 columns and 16 rows. The active area of 120 × 130 cm(2) will encompass the beam envelope at the calorimeter. The anticipated performance of the new calorimeter is simulated over the full momentum range of the SHMS, predicting

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of a Multichannel 3D Thermopile for Chip Calorimeter Applications

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tho Phuoc; Zhang, Yilei; Yehuda, Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Thermal sensors based on thermopiles are some of the most robust and popular temperature sensing technologies across industries and research disciplines. A chip calorimeter with a 3D thermopile layout with a large sensing area and multichannel capacity has been developed, which is highly desired for many applications requiring large reaction chambers or high throughputs, such as biofilm research, drug screening, etc. The performance of the device, including temperature sensitivity and heat power sensitivity, was evaluated. The capability to split the chip calorimeter to multiple channels was also demonstrated, which makes the chip calorimeter very flexible and powerful in many applications. PMID:25654716

  14. 3-D heat transfer computer calculations of the performance of the IAEA's air-bath calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, E.; Kaizermann, S.; Perry, R.B.; Fiarman, S.

    1989-01-01

    A three dimensional (3-D) heat transfer computer code was developed to study and optimize the design parameters and to better understand the performance characteristics of the IAEA's air-bath calorimeters. The computer model accounts for heat conduction and radiation in the complex materials of the calorimeter and for heat convection and radiation at its outer surface. The temperature servo controller is modelled as an integral part of the heat balance equations in the system. The model predictions will be validated against test data using the ANL bulk calorimeter. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Evaluation of a bulk calorimeter and heat balance for determination of supersonic combustor efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclinton, C. R.; Anderson, G. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from the shakedown and evaluation test of a bulk calorimeter. The calorimeter is designed to quench the combustion at the exit of a direct-connect, hydrogen fueled, scramjet combustor model, and to provide the measurements necessary to perform an analysis of combustion efficiency. Results indicate that the calorimeter quenches reaction, that reasonable response times are obtained, and that the calculated combustion efficiency is repeatable within + or -3 percent and varies in a regular way with combustor model parameters such as injected fuel equivalence ratio.

  16. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  17. Finite element analysis of the SDC barrel and endcap calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.; Hill, N.; Nasiakta, J.

    1992-03-11

    In designing the SCD barrel and endcap calorimeters, the inter-module connecting forces must be known in order to determine the required size and number of connecting links between modules, and in order to understand how individual modules will be affected by these forces when assembled to form a full barrel and endcap. The connecting forces were found by analyzing three-dimensional Finite Element Models of both the barrel and endcap. This paper is divided into two parts, the first part will describe in detail the results of the barrel analysis and the second part will describe the results obtained from the endcap analysis. A similar approach was used in constructing the models for both analysis.

  18. The upgrade of the Belle II forward calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoni, E.; Aloisio, A.; Baccaro, S.; Branchini, P.; Cecchi, C.; Cemmi, A.; De Lucia, E.; De Nardo, G.; de Sangro, R.; Felici, G.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fiore, S.; Giordano, R.; Merola, M.; Oberhof, B.; Passeri, A.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rossi, A.; Sciacca, C.

    2017-02-01

    The new facility SuperKEKB will be an upgrade of the existing KEKB electron-positron asymmetric collider, with a target luminosity of 8 ×1035cm-2s-1, about 40 times greater than that of KEKB. The detector will also be upgraded to cope with the higher luminosity, pile-up and occupancy. We report here on the design and development of the new pure CsI calorimeter for the forward region. An intensive R&D is being carried on to study the performance of pure CsI crystals with Avalanche Photodiodes readout. Results about the relative energy resolution of this detector, along with radiation hardness studies of all the components, are presented. A matrix of 16 crystals has been put on an electron beam at the BTF facility in Frascati and results in terms of energy resolution of this prototype are also discussed.

  19. Upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter for an upgraded LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jacob; CMS Hcal Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The CMS barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (Hcal) upgrading the current photo-sensors are hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) to meet the demands of the upgraded luminosity of the LHC. A key aspect of the Hcal upgrade is to add longitudinal segmentation to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at L1 trigger. The increased segmentation can be achieved by replacing the HPD's with multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. The upgraded electronics are required to operate in a harsh environment and are constrained by the existing infrastructure. The proposed solutions span from chip level to system level. They include the development of a new ADC ASIC, the design and testing of higher speed transmitters to handle the increased data volume, the evaluation and use of circuits from other developments, evaluation of commercial FPGAs, better thermal design and improvements in the overall architecture.

  20. The CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Upgrade During Phase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülmez, E.

    2014-06-01

    The CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter is being upgraded during phase 1. The upgrade includes the replacement of the current PMTs with the 4-anode ones and the readout electronics. Stray muons hitting the PMT windows produce Cherenkov light causing erroneous signals. These signals are detrimental to the triggering and physic results, since such signals mimic very high energy events. The new 4-anode PMTs are selected because of their thin windows to reduce the Cherenkov light production. Additional anodes also provide information to eliminate such signals. These new PMTs have been tested extensively to understand their characteristics and to develop the algorithms to eliminate the unwanted signals. Eventually, the current read out will be replaced with two-channel readout electronics for each PMT. The overall expected improvement on the physics results will also be discussed.

  1. ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger: Monitoring and data reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimond, David; Hong, Tae; Carlson, Benjamin; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the monitoring and data reprocessing for the calorimeter-based hardware level-1 trigger system (L1Calo) for the ATLAS experiment. This trigger system was upgraded after the Run-1 data taking period (2009-2012) to prepare for Run-2 (2015-current), which allowed better control the event rates for algorithms based on jets and/or missing energy. Monitoring tools for the upgraded system is described. We also present a new offline tool to reprocess previous data samples with altered L1Calo settings, such as calibration constants and noise cuts. The samples are used to study the dependence of the event rates and signal efficiencies on the settings. The studies can help plan the appropriate L1Calo settings for upcoming data taking periods as well as for future runs.

  2. Application of metallic magnetic calorimeter in rare event search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I.; Jo, H. S.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, G. B.; Kim, H. L.; Kim, S. R.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, M. K.; Oh, S. Y.; So, J. H.

    2017-09-01

    Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) are highly sensitive temperature sensors that use the paramagnetic nature of erbium in a metallic host and superconducting electronics usually composed of a superconducting niobium coil and a current sensing superconducting quantum interference device. This article discusses the applicability of MMCs in experimental searches for rare events in particle physics. A detector module using two MMCs was built to perform low-temperature measurements of heat and scintillation light generated by particle interaction in a 340 g 40Ca100MoO4 crystal. The energy transfer mechanism, from incident particles to the components of the heat and light sensors, is described through a thermal model. MMCs, with gold films collecting athermal phonons, can be used over wide ranges of operating temperature and crystal volume without a significant change in detector performances. Rare event searches could thus benefit from MMC-based detectors presenting such flexibility as well as excellent energy resolution and particle discrimination power.

  3. Radiation hard programmable delay line for LHCb calorimeter upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauricio, J.; Gascón, D.; Vilasís, X.; Picatoste, E.; Machefert, F.; Lefrancois, J.; Duarte, O.; Beigbeder, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a SPI-programmable clock delay chip based on a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) in order to shift the phase of the LHC clock (25 ns) in steps of 1ns, with less than 5 ps jitter and 23 ps of DNL. The delay lines will be integrated into ICECAL, the LHCb calorimeter front-end analog signal processing ASIC in the near future. The stringent noise requirements on the ASIC imply minimizing the noise contribution of digital components. This is accomplished by implementing the DLL in differential mode. To achieve the required radiation tolerance several techniques are applied: double guard rings between PMOS and NMOS transistors as well as glitch suppressors and TMR Registers. This 5.7 mm2 chip has been implemented in CMOS 0.35 μm technology.

  4. Finite element analysis of the SDC barrel and endcap calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.; Hill, N.; Nasiakta, J.

    1992-03-11

    In designing the SCD barrel and endcap calorimeters, the inter-module connecting forces must be known in order to determine the required size and number of connecting links between modules, and in order to understand how individual modules will be affected by these forces when assembled to form a full barrel and endcap. The connecting forces were found by analyzing three-dimensional Finite Element Models of both the barrel and endcap. This paper is divided into two parts, the first part will describe in detail the results of the barrel analysis and the second part will describe the results obtained from the endcap analysis. A similar approach was used in constructing the models for both analysis.

  5. A superconducting supercollider calorimeter photomultiplier tube preamplifier circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panescu, Dorin; Lackey, Joe; Robl, Phil; Smith, Wesley H.

    1992-07-01

    This study presents the design of the front end amplifier for a scintillator calorimeter with photomultiplier tube (PMT) readout. The design is based on analytical computations and SPICE simulations, and is checked against tests performed on a prototyped circuit. We were looking to achieve 1) a very low droop within the 4 ns after the integration of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) signal was completed, 2) a very low noise figure for the whole amplifier in a 100 MHz bandwidth, 3) an input impedance optimized for the PMT which is actually used, 4) baseline restoration as quick as possible at the output of the clip amps. 5) no loss of information due to the saturation at intermediary stages (e.g. integrator), and 6) an output driving 100 Ω twisted pair cables, or 50 Ω coaxial cables, in order to transmit the signal to switched capacitor arrays for analog storage.

  6. Relative Gain Monitoring of the GlueX Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Anassontzis, Efstratios G.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Voulgaris, G.; Kappos, E.; Beattie, T.; Krueger, S.; Lolos, G. J.; Papandreou, Z.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Frye, John M.; Leckey, John P.; Shepherd, Matt; Bogart, T.; Smith, Elton S.

    2014-02-01

    The relative gain of the photodetectors for the GlueX Barrel and Forward calorimeters will be monitored using modular LED driver systems. The BCAL system consists of a global controller that feeds power, bias voltage and trigger signals to 96 local controllers situated at the ends of the 48 BCAL modules, which drive 40 LEDs associated with the 40 light guides at the end of each module. The FCAL system consists also of a global controller, a local controller for each acrylic quadrant covering the face of the FCAL, and ten 4-LED pulser boards per local controller connected in a star configuration along the edges of the acrylic panes. The respective systems are currently being installed on the detectors and their tested performance is presented herein.

  7. Performance of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel module 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Ballansat, J.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Boniface, J.; Chollet, F.; Colas, J.; Delebecque, P.; di Ciaccio, L.; Dumont-Dayot, N.; El Kacimi, M.; Gaumer, O.; Ghez, P.; Girard, C.; Gouanère, M.; Kambara, H.; Jérémie, A.; Jézéquel, S.; Lafaye, R.; Leflour, T.; Le Maner, C.; Lesueur, J.; Massol, N.; Moynot, M.; Neukermans, L.; Perrodo, P.; Perrot, G.; Poggioli, L.; Prast, J.; Przysiezniak, H.; Riccadona, X.; Sauvage, G.; Thion, J.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zitoun, R.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Chen, H.; Citterio, M.; Farrell, J.; Gordon, H.; Hackenburg, B.; Hoffman, A.; Kierstead, J.; Lanni, F.; Leite, M.; Lissauer, D.; Ma, H.; Makowiecki, D.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rescia, S.; Stumer, I.; Takai, H.; Yip, K.; Benchekroun, D.; Driouichi, C.; Hoummada, A.; Hakimi, M.; Stroynowski, R.; Ye, J.; Beck Hansen, J.; Belymam, A.; Bremer, J.; Chevalley, J. L.; Fassnacht, P.; Gianotti, F.; Hervas, L.; Marin, C. P.; Pailler, P.; Schilly, P.; Seidl, W.; Vossebeld, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Clark, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Moneta, L.; Belhorma, B.; Collot, J.; de Saintignon, P.; Dzahini, D.; Ferrari, A.; Gallin-Martel, M. L.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Martin, P.; Muraz, J. F.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Saboumazrag, S.; Ban, J.; Cartiglia, N.; Cunitz, H.; Dodd, J.; Gara, A.; Leltchouk, M.; Negroni, S.; Parsons, J. A.; Seman, M.; Simion, S.; Sippach, W.; Willis, W.; Barreiro, F.; Garcia, G.; Labarga, L.; Rodier, S.; Del Peso, J.; Alexa, C.; Barrillon, P.; Benchouk, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Dinkespiler, B.; Djama, F.; Duval, P. Y.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hinz, L.; Jevaud, M.; Karst, P.; Le van Suu, A.; Martin, L.; Martin, O.; Mirea, A.; Monnier, E.; Nagy, E.; Nicod, D.; Olivier, C.; Pralavorio, P.; Repetti, B.; Raymond, M.; Sauvage, D.; Tisserant, S.; Toth, J.; Wielers, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bonivento, W.; Carminati, L.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Delmastro, M.; Fanti, M.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Resconi, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Aulchenko, V.; Kazanin, V.; Kolachev, G.; Malyshev, V.; Maslennikov, A.; Pospelov, G.; Snopkov, R.; Shousharo, A.; Talyshev, A.; Tikhonov, Yu.; Augé, E.; Bourdarios, C.; Breton, D.; Cros, P.; de La Taille, C.; Falleau, I.; Fournier, D.; Guilhem, G.; Hassani, S.; Jacquier, Y.; Kordas, K.; Macé, G.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J. M.; Parrour, G.; Pétroff, P.; Puzo, P.; Richer, J. P.; Rousseau, D.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Serin, L.; Tocut, V.; Veillet, J. J.; Zerwas, D.; Astesan, F.; Bertoli, W.; Camard, A.; Canton, B.; Fichet, S.; Hubaut, F.; Imbault, D.; Lacour, D.; Laforge, B.; Le Dortz, O.; Martin, D.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Orsini, F.; Rossel, F.; Schwemling, P.; Cleland, W.; McDonald, J.; Abouelouafa, E. M.; Ben Mansour, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; El Mouahhidi, Y.; Ghazlane, H.; Idrissi, A.; Belorgey, J.; Bernard, R.; Chalifour, M.; Le Coroller, A.; Ernwein, J.; Mansoulié, B.; Renardy, J. F.; Schwindling, J.; Taguet, J.-P.; Teiger, J.; Clément, C.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundqvist, J.; Megner, L.; Pearce, M.; Rydstrom, S.; Egdemir, J.; Engelmann, R.; Hoffman, J.; McCarthy, R.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Steffens, J.; Atlas Electromagnetic Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    2003-03-01

    The construction and performance of the barrel pre-series module 0 of the future ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC is described. The signal reconstruction and performance of ATLAS-like electronics has been studied. The signal to noise ratio for muons has been found to be 7.11±0.07. An energy resolution of better than 9.5% GeV1/2/ E (sampling term) has been obtained with electron beams of up to 245 GeV. The uniformity of the response to electrons in an area of Δ η×Δ φ=1.2×0.075 has been measured to be better than 0.8%.

  8. The magnetized steel and scintillator calorimeters of the MINOS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minos Collaboration; Michael, D. G.; Adamson, P.; Alexopoulos, T.; Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Anderson, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Andrews, M.; Andrews, R.; Arroyo, C.; Avvakumov, S.; Ayres, D. S.; Baller, B.; Barish, B.; Barker, M. A.; Barnes, P. D.; Barr, G.; Barrett, W. L.; Beall, E.; Bechtol, K.; Becker, B. R.; Belias, A.; Bergfeld, T.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bhattacharya, D.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bocean, V.; Bock, B.; Bock, G. J.; Boehm, J.; Boehnlein, D. J.; Bogert, D.; Border, P. M.; Bower, C.; Boyd, S.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Cabrera, A.; Chapman, J. D.; Chase, T. R.; Chernichenko, S. K.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Cobb, J. H.; Coleman, S. J.; Cossairt, J. D.; Courant, H.; Crane, D. A.; Culling, A. J.; Damiani, D.; Dawson, J. W.; de Jong, J. K.; Demuth, D. M.; de Santo, A.; Dierckxsens, M.; Diwan, M. V.; Dorman, M.; Drake, G.; Ducar, R.; Durkin, T.; Erwin, A. R.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Fackler, O. D.; Falk Harris, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Felt, N.; Fields, T. H.; Ford, R.; Frohne, M. V.; Gallagher, H. R.; Gebhard, M.; Godley, A.; Gogos, J.; Goodman, M. C.; Gornushkin, Yu.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E. W.; Grossman, N.; Grudzinski, J. J.; Grzelak, K.; Guarino, V.; Habig, A.; Halsall, R.; Hanson, J.; Harris, D.; Harris, P. G.; Hartnell, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatcher, R.; Heller, K.; Hill, N.; Ho, Y.; Howcroft, C.; Hylen, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Indurthy, D.; Irwin, G. M.; James, C.; Jenner, L.; Jensen, D.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Kafka, T.; Kang, H. J.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Kilmer, J.; Kim, H.; Kim, M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kopp, S.; Kordosky, M.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kostin, M.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krakauer, D. A.; Kumaratunga, S.; Ladran, A. S.; Lang, K.; Laughton, C.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, R.; Lee, W. Y.; Libkind, M. A.; Liu, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longley, N. P.; Lucas, P.; Luebke, W.; Madani, S.; Maher, E.; Makeev, V.; Mann, W. A.; Marchionni, A.; Marino, A. D.; Marshak, M. L.; Marshall, J. S.; McDonald, J.; McGowan, A. M.; Meier, J. R.; Merzon, G. I.; Messier, M. D.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, J. L.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Moore, C. D.; Morfín, J.; Morse, R.; Mualem, L.; Mufson, S.; Murgia, S.; Murtagh, M. J.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, C.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nezrick, F.; Nichol, R. J.; Nicholls, T. C.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Oliver, J.; Oliver, W. P.; Onuchin, V. A.; Osiecki, T.; Ospanov, R.; Paley, J.; Paolone, V.; Para, A.; Patzak, T.; Pavlović, Ž.; Pearce, G. F.; Pearson, N.; Peck, C. W.; Perry, C.; Peterson, E. A.; Petyt, D. A.; Ping, H.; Piteira, R.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Plunkett, R. K.; Price, L. E.; Proga, M.; Pushka, D. R.; Rahman, D.; Rameika, R. A.; Raufer, T. M.; Read, A. L.; Rebel, B.; Reyna, D. E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Ruddick, K.; Ryabov, V. A.; Saakyan, R.; Sanchez, M. C.; Saoulidou, N.; Schneps, J.; Schoessow, P. V.; Schreiner, P.; Schwienhorst, R.; Semenov, V. K.; Seun, S.-M.; Shanahan, P.; Shield, P. D.; Shivane, R.; Smart, W.; Smirnitsky, V.; Smith, C.; Smith, P. N.; Sousa, A.; Speakman, B.; Stamoulis, P.; Stefanik, A.; Sullivan, P.; Swan, J. M.; Symes, P. A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Terekhov, A.; Tetteh-Lartey, E.; Thomas, J.; Thompson, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Thron, J. L.; Trendler, R.; Trevor, J.; Trostin, I.; Tsarev, V. A.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Vakili, M.; Vaziri, K.; Velissaris, C.; Verebryusov, V.; Viren, B.; Wai, L.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Watabe, M.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; Wehmann, A.; West, N.; White, C.; White, R. F.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Wright, D. M.; Wu, Q. K.; Yan, W. G.; Yang, T.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Yun, J. C.; Zheng, H.; Zois, M.; Zwaska, R.; MINOS Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment uses an accelerator-produced neutrino beam to perform precision measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the "atmospheric neutrino" sector associated with muon neutrino disappearance. This long-baseline experiment measures neutrino interactions in Fermilab's NuMI neutrino beam with a near detector at Fermilab and again 735 km downstream with a far detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The two detectors are magnetized steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. They are designed to be as similar as possible in order to ensure that differences in detector response have minimal impact on the comparisons of event rates, energy spectra and topologies that are essential to MINOS measurements of oscillation parameters. The design, construction, calibration and performance of the far and near detectors are described in this paper.

  9. Monitoring the stability of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Federico

    2011-04-01

    The lead tungstate electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment has been proved to achieve an excellent energy resolution during the commissioning phase of the detector. The uniformity of the relative response of individual channels and the energy scale for electrons and photons are constrained by the several calibration procedures. The stability of the detector in time is constantly monitored throughout the LHC operation by means of dedicated runs and data taken at 100 Hz in the 3 μs abort gap at the end of each 89 μs beam cycle. A laser monitoring system is used to track the single channel response variations with time, as changes of the crystal transparency caused by irradiation. The stability of crucial detector parameters such as high voltage, temperature and electronic noise and the performance of the operation of the light monitoring system are shown to fulfill the requirements needed to achieve the target resolution of 0.5% at high energies.

  10. H Calorimeter Daq Upgrade for Hera-Ii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dirk; Duval, Pierre-Yves; Vallee, Claude

    2002-01-01

    The H1 collaboration has performed an upgrade of its data acquisition system for the calorimeters in view of the HERA-II programme. A heterogeneous system based on 29K/VRTX, 68k/OS9 and Vax/VMS was replaced by an integrated Unix cluster composed of two PPC/LynxOS VME boards and Sparc/SunOS stations, using TCP/IP protocols for inter process communication (IPC) and POSIX standards in general. Software transcription consisted of porting three essential functions: hardware setup, calibration datataking with a high serial data through-put and online datataking which emphasizes low frontend deadtime through a three level buffering by means of POSIX threads and messages. Low performance control tasks were programmed in Perl, the user interface has been written in Java. Although the very frontend electronics remain unchanged, a factor two increase in performance was obtained together with a manifestly improved environment for monitoring and diagnostics.

  11. A high precision calorimeter for the SOX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, L.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Caminata, A.; Cereseto, R.; Di Noto, L.; Farinon, S.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Schönert, S.; Testera, G.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2016-07-01

    The SOX (Short distance neutrino Oscillations with BoreXino) experiment is being built to discover or reject eV-scale sterile neutrinos by observing short baseline oscillations of active-to-sterile neutrinos [1]. For this purpose, a 100 kCi 144Ce-144Pr antineutrino generator (CeSOX) will be placed under the BOREXINO detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Thanks to its large size and very low background, BOREXINO is an ideal detector to discover or reject eV-scale sterile neutrinos. To reach the maximal sensitivity, we aim at determining the neutrino flux emitted by the antineutrino generator with a < 1 % accuracy. With this goal, TU München and INFN Genova are developing a vacuum calorimeter, which is designed to measure the source-generated heat with high accuracy.

  12. A new-concept gamma calorimeter at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzi, M.; Adriani, O.; Albergo, S.; Andreotti, M.; Berto, D.; Borgheresi, R.; Cappello, G.; Cardarelli, P.; Ciaranfi, R.; Consoli, E.; Di Domenico, G.; Evangelisti, F.; Gambaccini, M.; Graziani, G.; Marziani, M.; Palumbo, L.; Passaleva, G.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Serban, A.; Starodubtsev, O.; Statera, M.; Tricomi, A.; Variola, A.; Veltri, M.

    2017-02-01

    ELI-NP is an European Research Infrastructure that will provide a monochromatic, high brilliance gamma beam with tunable energy up to 19.5 MeV. The time structure of the beam consists of 32 high intensity gamma bunches separated by a time interval of 16 ns and delivered at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. In order to match such unprecedented beam specifications, specific devices and techniques have been developed to measure and monitor the beam parameters during the commissioning and the operational phase. This paper presents an overview of the gamma beam characterization system, with particular focus on a new-concept sampling calorimeter made of silicon detectors and polyethylene absorbers.

  13. Calibration of BGO Calorimeter of the DAMPE in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explore (DAMPE) is a satellite based experiment which launched on December 2015 and aims at indirect searching for dark matter by measuring the spectra of high energy e±, γ from 5GeV up to 10TeV originating from deep space. The 3D imaging BGO calorimeter of DAMPE was designed to precisely measurement the primary energy of the electromagnetic particle and provides a highly efficient rejection of the hadronic background by reconstruct the longitudinal and lateral profiles of showers. To achieve the expected accuracy on the energy measurement, each signal channel has to be calibrated. The energy equalization is performed using the signal that Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIP) leave in each BGO bar, the MIPs measurement method with orbit data and, data quality, time stability using MIPs data will be presented, too.

  14. Data quality monitoring for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, G. D.; Marco, E. D.; Franzoni, G.; Gobbo, B.

    2008-07-01

    The detector performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter is monitored using applications based on the CMS Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) framework and running on the High-Level Trigger Farm as well as on local DAQ systems. The monitorable quantities are organized into hierarchical structures based on the physics content. The information produced is accessible by client applications according to their subscription requests. The client applications process the received quantities, according to pre-defined analyses, making the results immediately available, while also storing the results in a database, and in the form of static web pages, for subsequent studies. We describe here the functionalities of the CMS ECAL DQM applications and report about their use in real environments.

  15. Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Franzoni, G.; Ghezzi, A.; Gobbo, B.; CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Group

    2008-03-01

    One of the aims of the CMS design is to construct and operate a very high quality electromagnetic calorimeter. The detector performance will be monitored using applications based on the CMS Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) framework and running on the High-Level Trigger Farm as well as on local DAQ systems. The monitorable quantities are organized into hierarchical structures based on the physics content. The information produced is delivered to client applications according to their subscription requests. The client applications process the received quantities, according to pre-defined analyses, making the results immediately available, and store the results in a database, and in the form of static web pages, for subsequent studies. We describe here the functionalities of the CMS ECAL DQM applications and report about their use in a real environment.

  16. Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Ricca, Giuseppe; CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Group

    2007-10-01

    One of the CMS design objectives is to construct and operate a very high quality electromagnetic calorimeter. The detector performance will be monitored using applications based on the CMS Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) framework and running on the High-Level Trigger Farm as well as on local DAQ systems. The monitorable quantities are organized into hierarchical structures based on the physics content. The information produced is delivered to client applications according to their subscription requests. The client applications process the received quantities, according to pre-defined analyses, making the results immediately available, and store the results in a database, and in the form of static web pages, for subsequent studies. We describe here the functionalities of the CMS ECAL DQM applications and report about their use in a real environment.

  17. Fusion energy calorimeter for the tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.; Imel, G.R.

    1981-04-01

    One and two-dimensional neutronic analyses treating the transport and scattering of neutrons and the production and transport of gamma rays in the TFTR demonstrate that the fusion energy production in a D-T pulse in the TFTR can be determined with an uncertainty of +- 15% or less, simply by integrating the measured profile of temperature increase along the central radial axis of a large hydrocarbon moderator that fills the bay between adjacent toroidal-field coils, just outside the vacuum vessel. Limitations in thermopile temperature measurements dictate a minimum fusion-neutron fluence at the vacuum vessel of the order of 10/sup 12/ n/cm/sup 2/ per pulse (a source strength of 10/sup 18/ n/pulse in TFTR), in order that this simple calorimeter can provide useful accuracy.

  18. The LYSO crystal calorimeter for the Mu2e experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzullo, G.; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Cheng, C.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Davydov, Yu; Echenard, B.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D.; Luca, A.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Murat, P.; Ongmonkolkul, P.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Spinella, F.; Stomaci, V.; Tassielli, G.

    2014-03-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab searches the neutrino-less conversion of the muon into electron in the field of an Aluminum nucleus. If such a process will be observed, it will be a proof of the charged-lepton-flavor-violation (cLFV), otherwise Mu2e will set an upper limit of Rμe < 6 × 10-17 @ 90% C.L. (which represents an improvement by 3-4 order of magnitude over the existing limit). The Mu2e detector apparatus consists of a magnetic spectrometer, devoted to the measurement of the electrons momentum, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) which provides an independent measurement of the electron energy, time and position, used for validating or rejecting candidate tracks selected by the tracking system. In this paper, we describe the baseline project of the EMC and present results in terms of performances and R&D.

  19. A hadronic calorimeter with Glass RPC as sensitive medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, G.

    2014-09-01

    The SDHCAL technological prototype is a 1 × 1 × 1.3 m3 high-granularity Semi-Digital Hadronic CALorimeter using Glass Resistive Plate Chambers as sensitive medium. It is one of the two HCAL options considered by the ILD Collaboration to be proposed for the detector of the future International Linear Collider project. The prototype is made of up to 50 GRPC detectors of 1 m2 size and 3 mm thickness each with an embedded semi-digital electronics readout that is autotriggering and power-pulsed. The GRPC readout is finely segmented into pads of 1 cm2. Measured performances of the GRPC and the full SDHCAL prototype in terms of homogeneity, low noise and energy resolution are presented in this proceeding.

  20. The magnetized steel and scintillator calorimeters of the MINOS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, : D.G.

    2008-05-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment uses an accelerator-produced neutrino beam to perform precision measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the 'atmospheric neutrino' sector associated with muon neutrino disappearance. This long-baseline experiment measures neutrino interactions in Fermilab's NuMI neutrino beam with a near detector at Fermilab and again 735 km downstream with a far detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The two detectors are magnetized steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. They are designed to be as similar as possible in order to ensure that differences in detector response have minimal impact on the comparisons of event rates, energy spectra and topologies that are essential to MINOS measurements of oscillation parameters. The design, construction, calibration and performance of the far and near detectors are described in this paper.

  1. Progress report for the scintillator plate calorimeter subsystem

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report covers the work completed in FY90 by ANL staff and those of Westinghouse STC and BICRON Corporation under subcontract to ANL towards the design of a compensating calorimeter based on the use of scintillator plate as the sensitive medium. It is presented as five task sections dealing with respectively mechanical design; simulation studies; optical system design; electronics development; development of rad hard plastic scintillator and wavelength shifter and a summary. The work carried out by the University of Tennessee under a subcontract from ANL is reported separately. Finally, as principal institution with responsibility for the overall management of this subsystem effort, the summary here reports the conclusions resulting from the work of the collaboration and their impact on our proposed direction of effort in FY91. This proposal, for obvious reasons is given separately.

  2. The upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter with silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobbe, N.

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the hadron calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently underway. The endcap sections will be upgraded in the winter of 2016–2017 and the barrel sections during the second LHC long shutdown in 2019. The existing photosensors will be replaced with about 16 000 new silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), resulting in the first large installation of SiPMs in a radiation environment. All associated front-end electronics will also be upgraded. This paper discusses the motivation for the upgrade and provides a description of the new system, including the SiPMs with associated control electronics and the front-end readout cards.

  3. PARROT A fiber optic link for particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Maurizio; Trasatti, Luciano; Stefani, Giovanni; Avaldi, Lorenzo

    1993-09-01

    The fiber optic technology has been used to build a transmitter-receiver system capable of delivering channeltron or PM tube signals through a few hundred meter span. The intrinsic immunity of optical fibers to e.m. noise has been used to reduce noise problems in an experimental apparatus equipped with two electrostatic analyzers for coincidence (e, 2e) spectroscopy. A coincidence energy separation spectrum of He, used for calibration of the apparatus energy scale, has been measured using fiber optic links instead of coaxial cables. The system was completely built using cheap and easily available commercial components. The results show that fiber optic links could become a viable technique for noise reduction, high voltage decoupling and low temperature calorimeters signal transfer.

  4. ATLAS LAr calorimeter performance and LHC Run-2 commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spettel, Fabian; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS detector was built to study proton-proton collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center of mass energy of up to 14 TeV. The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry as well as the hadronic calorimetry in the endcap and forward regions. They have shown excellent performance during the first LHC data taking campaign, from 2010 to 2012, so-called Run 1, at a peak luminosity of 8 ×1033cm-2s-1. During the next run, peak luminosities of 1.5 ×1034cm-2s-1 and even higher are expected at a 25 ns bunch spacing. Such a high collision rate may have an impact on the quality of the energy reconstruction which is attempted to be maintained at a high level using a calibration procedure described in this contribution. It also poses major challenges to the first level of the trigger system which is constrained to a maximal rate of 100 kHz. For Run-3, scheduled to start in 2019, instantaneous luminosity as high as 3 ×1034cm-2s-1 are foreseen imposing an upgrade of the LAr trigger system to maintain its performance. A demonstrator containing prototypes of the upgraded trigger electronic architecture has been installed on one of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter readout front end crates to test it during the Run-2 campaign. The new architecture and its benefits for data taking will be discussed below as well as the results from first beam splash events.

  5. Design of Refractory Metal Life Test Heat Pipe and Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. J.; Reid, R. S.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Heat pipe life tests have seldom been conducted on a systematic basis. Typically, one or more heat pipes are built and tested for an extended period at a single temperature with simple condenser loading. Results are often reported describing the wall material, working fluid, test temperature, test duration, and occasionally the nature of any failure. Important information such as design details, processing procedures, material assay, power throughput, and radial power density are usually not mentioned. We propose to develop methods to generate carefully controlled data that conclusively establish heat pipe operating life with material-fluid combinations capable of extended operation. The test approach detailed in this Technical Publication will use 16 Mo-44.5%Re alloy/sodium heat pipe units that have an approximate12-in length and 5/8-in diameter. Two specific test series have been identified: (1) Long-term corrosion rates based on ASTM-G-68-80 (G-series) and (2) corrosion trends in a cross-correlation sequence at various temperatures and mass fluences based on a Fisher multifactor design (F-series). Evaluation of the heat pipe hardware will be performed in test chambers purged with an inert purified gas (helium or helium/argon mixture) at low pressure (10-100 torr) to provide thermal coupling between the heat pipe condenser and calorimeter. The final pressure will be selected to minimize the potential for voltage breakdown between the heat pipe and radio frequency (RF) induction coil (RF heating is currently the planned method of powering the heat pipes). The proposed calorimeter is constructed from a copper alloy and relies on a laminar flow water-coolant channel design to absorb and transport energy

  6. Prototype tests for a highly granular scintillator-based hadron calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, K.; CALICE Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    Within the CALICE collaboration, several concepts for the hadronic calorimeter of a future linear collider detector are studied. After having demonstrated the capabilities of the measurement methods in "physics prototypes", the focus now lies on improving their implementation in"technological prototypes", that are scalable to the full linear collider detector. The Analog Hadron Calorimeter (AHCAL) concept is a sampling calorimeter of tungsten or steel absorber plates and plastic scintillator tiles read out by silicon photomultipliers as active material. In the AHCAL technological prototype, the front-end chips are integrated into the active layers of the calorimeter and are designed for minimal power consumption. The versatile electronics allows the prototype to be equipped with different types of scintillator tiles and SiPMs. The current status of the AHCAL engineering prototype is shown and recent beam test measurements as well as plans for future hadron beam tests with a larger prototype will be discussed.

  7. The electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC. A Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beddo, M.E.; Bielick, E.; Dawson, J.W.; The STAR EMC Collaboration

    1993-09-22

    This report discusses the following on the electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC: conceptual design; the physics of electromagnetic calorimetry in STAR; trigger capability; integration into STAR; and cost, schedule, manpower, and funding.

  8. Optimization of light collection scheme for forward hadronic calorimeter for STAR experiment at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeeva, Maria

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of the optimization of a light collection scheme for a prototype of a sampling compensated hadronic calorimeter for upgrade of the STAR detector at RHIC (BNL). The absolute light yield and uniformity of light collection were measured with the full scale calorimeter tower for different types of reflecting materials, realistic mechanical tolerances for tower assembly and type of coupling between WLS bars and photo detectors. Measurements were performed with conventional PMTs and silicone photo multipliers. The results of these measurements were used to evaluate the influence of the optical collection scheme on the response of the calorimeter using GEANT4 MC. A large prototype of this calorimeter is presently under construction with the beam test scheduled early next year at FNAL.

  9. Experimental results and experience with the KfK-tritium-calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kapulla, H.; Heine, R.

    1995-10-01

    For the tritium assay at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) which started operation in Nov.94 an isothermal shield calorimeter was built. The calibration of the calorimeter was performed with an electrically heated simulator covering the range between 1 mW and about 2 W. After the calibration tritium activities in four Amersham uranium getter containers were determined. The excellent reproducibility and high precision of the measurements with the KfK-calorimeter was shown. The tritium activity inventories could be determined with relative standard deviations from the average value of the order of 0.01% to 0.1% depending on the activity level. These results demonstrate the suitability of the KfK-calorimeter as a nondestructive method for a careful assay of tritium. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC run 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Alexa, C.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Anderson, K. J.; Arabidze, G.; Araque, J. P.; Artamonov, A.; Asquith, L.; Astalos, R.; Backus Mayes, J.; Bartos, P.; Batkova, L.; Bertolucci, F.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Blanco Castro, A.; Blazek, T.; Bohm, C.; Boumediene, D.; Boveia, A.; Brown, H.; Busato, E.; Calkins, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Carli, T.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castro, N. F.; Cavasinni, V.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Chadelas, R.; Chakraborty, D.; Chekanov, S.; Chen, X.; Chikovani, L.; Choudalakis, G.; Cinca, D.; Ciubancan, M.; Clement, C.; Cole, S.; Constantinescu, S.; Costin, T.; Crouau, M.; Crozatier, C.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Darmora, S.; Davidek, T.; Del Prete, T.; Dita, S.; Djobava, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dotti, A.; Dubreuil, E.; Dunford, M.; Eriksson, D.; Errede, S.; Errede, D.; Faltova, J.; Farbin, A.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Feng, E. J.; Ferrer, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Francavilla, P.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Galhardo, B.; Gellerstedt, K.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G. L.; Gomes, A.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Grenier, P.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Guicheney, C.; Hakobyan, H.; Hard, A. S.; Harkusha, S.; Heelan, L.; Helsens, C.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Hernandez, C. M.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jennens, D.; Johansson, K. E.; Jon-And, K.; Jorge, P. M.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kapliy, A.; Karpov, S. N.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Khandanyan, H.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H.; Klimek, P.; Korolkov, I.; Kruse, A.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Lafarguette, P.; Lambert, D.; LeCompte, T.; Leitner, R.; Leone, S.; Liao, H.; Lie, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Lundberg, O.; Magalhaes Martins, P. J.; Maio, A.; Makouski, M.; Maneira, J.; Filho, L. Manhaes de Andrade; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Martin, B.; Mchedlidze, G.; Meehan, S.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Meoni, E.; Merritt, F. S.; Meyer, C.; Miller, D. W.; Milstead, D. A.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mir, L. M.; Molander, S.; Montejo Berlingen, J.; Mosidze, M.; Myagkov, A. G.; Nemecek, S.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nilsson, P.; Nodulman, L.; Nordkvist, B.; Ohm, C. C.; Olariu, A.; Oleiro Seabra, L. F.; Onofre, A.; Oreglia, M. J.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Pedraza Morales, M. I.; Pedro, R.; Martins, F. M. Pedro; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pina, J.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Podlyski, F.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Poveda, J.; Pravahan, R.; Pribyl, L.; Price, L. E.; Proudfoot, J.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Rossetti, V.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Santoni, C.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Says, L. P.; Schwartzman, A.; Scuri, F.; Shimizu, S.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Solans, C. A.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Spalla, M.; Stanek, R. W.; Starchenko, E. A.; Starovoitov, P.; Stavina, P.; Stoicea, G.; Succurro, A.; Suhr, C.; Sumida, T.; Sykora, I.; Tas, P.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tokár, S.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tudorache, V.; Tudorache, A.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tylmad, M.; Usai, G.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Vazeille, F.; Veloso, F.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Viret, S.; Volpi, M.; Wang, C.; Weng, Z.; White, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Yanush, S.; Yoshida, R.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Y.; Zinonos, Z.; Zutshi, V.; Ženiš, T.; van Woerden, M. C.

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the Laser calibration system of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter that has been used during the run 1 of the LHC . First, the stability of the system associated readout electronics is studied. It is found to be stable with variations smaller than 0.6 %. Then, the method developed to compute the calibration constants, to correct for the variations of the gain of the calorimeter photomultipliers, is described. These constants were determined with a statistical uncertainty of 0.3 % and a systematic uncertainty of 0.2 % for the central part of the calorimeter and 0.5 % for the end-caps. Finally, the detection and correction of timing mis-configuration of the Tile Calorimeter using the Laser system are also presented.

  11. Simulation of π0-γ Separation Study for Proposed CMS Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Ashim; Jain, Shilpi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Majumder, Gobinda

    2016-10-01

    The Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS detector is going to be upgraded in the high luminosity running as the energy of the present Electromagnetic Calorimeter (PbWO4) will degrade in the high luminosity (luminosity 1034 cm -2 s -1) running due to extensive radiation (hadron flux 1013neutrons cm,-2). Shashlik Electromagnetic Calorimeter which consists of alternate layers of 1.5 mm LYSO(Ce) crystal plates and 2.5 mm Tungsten absorbers, was a proposal for high luminosity running. One of the performance points for any electromagnetic calorimeter is the ability to separate π0 s from true photons, since final states with photons are a clean and one of the most important final states in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The objective of this project is to study the possibility of π0 and γ separation in the Shashlik detector using Multivariate Analysis (MVA) technique.

  12. The Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC run 1

    DOE PAGES

    Abdallah, J.; Alexa, C.; Coutinho, Y. Amaral; ...

    2016-10-12

    This article describes the Laser calibration system of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter that has been used during the run 1 of the LHC . First, the stability of the system associated readout electronics is studied. It is found to be stable with variations smaller than 0.6 %. Then, the method developed to compute the calibration constants, to correct for the variations of the gain of the calorimeter photomultipliers, is described. These constants were determined with a statistical uncertainty of 0.3 % and a systematic uncertainty of 0.2 % for the central part of the calorimeter and 0.5 % formore » the end-caps. Lastly, the detection and correction of timing mis-configuration of the Tile Calorimeter using the Laser system are also presented.« less

  13. Monte Carlo study of the influence of magnetic field on energy measurements in calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, V. V.

    1996-02-01

    The influence of magnetic field on energy measurements in calorimeters is studied by Monte Carlo methods. It is shown that magnetic field influence depends on type of incident particles and on material and thickness of absorber plates.

  14. A calorimeter for multilayer insulation (MLI) performance measurements at variable temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, D.; Hurd, J.; Klimas, R.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2013-05-01

    Here we describe a concentric cylindrical calorimeter with radiation guards developed to measure the thermal performance of multilayer insulation (MLI) for low temperature applications. One unique feature of this calorimeter is its ability to independently control the boundary temperatures between room temperature and about 15 K using two single-stage Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers. Also, unlike the existing calorimeters that use the evaporation rate of a liquid cryogen to measure the heat load, in the present system the total heat transfer through the MLI is measured by recording the temperature difference across a calibrated heat load support rod that connects the cold inner cylinder to the lower temperature cryocooler. This design allows the continuous mapping of MLI performance over a much wider temperature range with independently controlled boundary conditions. The calorimeter is also suitable for performing a variety of radiation heat transfer experiments including the determination of the temperature dependence of the total emissivity.

  15. Study of the performance of a semi-digital hadronic calorimeter using Monte Carlo techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmahroug, Y.; Tellili, B.; Souga, C.

    2014-04-01

    The Particle Flow Algorithm is one of the main concepts that will be used to measure the energies of hadronic jets at a future International Linear Collider. This method requires a highly granular hadronic calorimeter to measure the energy of jets with a good precision. The Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter using glass resistive plate chambers as sensitive medium is one of the hadronic calorimeters which is used in conjunction with the particle flow method. In this paper, the performance of Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter using glass resistive plate chambers as active elements has been studied by using the GEANT4 simulations. Its main operational characteristics such as mean response and energy resolution have been examined.

  16. The Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC run 1

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, J.; Alexa, C.; Coutinho, Y. Amaral; Santos, S. P. Amor Dos; Anderson, K. J.; Arabidze, G.; Araque, J. P.; Artamonov, A.; Asquith, L.; Astalos, R.; Mayes, J. Backus; Bartos, P.; Batkova, L.; Bertolucci, F.; Bylund, O. Bessidskaia; Castro, A. Blanco; Blazek, T.; Bohm, C.; Boumediene, D.; Boveia, A.; Brown, H.; Busato, E.; Calkins, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Toro, R. Camacho; Armadans, R. Caminal; Carli, T.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castro, N. F.; Cavasinni, V.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Chadelas, R.; Chakraborty, D.; Chekanov, S.; Chen, X.; Chikovani, L.; Choudalakis, G.; Cinca, D.; Ciubancan, M.; Clement, C.; Cole, S.; Constantinescu, S.; Costin, T.; Crouau, M.; Crozatier, C.; Cuciuc, C. -M.; De Sousa, M. J. Da Cunha Sargedas; Darmora, S.; Davidek, T.; Prete, T. Del; Dita, S.; Djobava, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dotti, A.; Dubreuil, E.; Dunford, M.; Eriksson, D.; Errede, S.; Errede, D.; Faltova, J.; Farbin, A.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Feng, E. J.; Ferrer, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Francavilla, P.; Torregrosa, E. Fullana; Galhardo, B.; Gellerstedt, K.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G. L.; Gomes, A.; Parra, G. Gonzalez; Grenier, P.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Guicheney, C.; Hakobyan, H.; Hard, A. S.; Harkusha, S.; Heelan, L.; Helsens, C.; Correia, A. M. Henriques; Jiménez, Y. Hernández; Hernandez, C. M.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Plante, I. Jen-La; Jennens, D.; Johansson, K. E.; Jon-And, K.; Jorge, P. M.; Rozas, A. Juste; Kapliy, A.; Karpov, S. N.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Khandanyan, H.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H.; Klimek, P.; Korolkov, I.; Kruse, A.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Lafarguette, P.; Lambert, D.; LeCompte, T.; Leitner, R.; Leone, S.; Liao, H.; Lie, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Lundberg, O.; Martins, P. J. Magalhaes; Maio, A.; Makouski, M.; Maneira, J.; Filho, L. Manhaes de Andrade; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Martin, B.; Mchedlidze, G.; Meehan, S.; Garcia, B. R. Mellado; Meoni, E.; Merritt, F. S.; Meyer, C.; Miller, D. W.; Milstead, D. A.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mir, L. M.; Molander, S.; Berlingen, J. Montejo; Mosidze, M.; Myagkov, A. G.; Nemecek, S.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nilsson, P.; Nodulman, L.; Nordkvist, B.; Ohm, C. C.; Olariu, A.; Seabra, L. F. Oleiro; Onofre, A.; Oreglia, M. J.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Hernandez, D. Paredes; Morales, M. I. Pedraza; Pedro, R.; Martins, F. M. Pedro; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pina, J.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Podlyski, F.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Poveda, J.; Pravahan, R.; Pribyl, L.; Price, L. E.; Proudfoot, J.; de Lima, J. G. Rocha; Roda, C.; Santos, D. Roda Dos; Saez, S. M. Romano; Rossetti, V.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ferrando, B. M. Salvachua; Santoni, C.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Says, L. P.; Schwartzman, A.; Scuri, F.; Shimizu, S.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Solans, C. A.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Spalla, M.; Stanek, R. W.; Starchenko, E. A.; Starovoitov, P.; Stavina, P.; Stoicea, G.; Succurro, A.; Suhr, C.; Sumida, T.; Sykora, I.; Tas, P.; Delgado, A. Tavares; Tokár, S.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tudorache, V.; Tudorache, A.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tylmad, M.; Usai, G.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Gallego, E. Valladolid; Ferrer, J. A. Valls; Vazeille, F.; Veloso, F.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Viret, S.; Volpi, M.; Wang, C.; Weng, Z.; White, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Yanush, S.; Yoshida, R.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Y.; Zinonos, Z.; Zutshi, V.; Ženiš, T.; van Woerden, M. C.

    2016-10-12

    This article describes the Laser calibration system of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter that has been used during the run 1 of the LHC . First, the stability of the system associated readout electronics is studied. It is found to be stable with variations smaller than 0.6 %. Then, the method developed to compute the calibration constants, to correct for the variations of the gain of the calorimeter photomultipliers, is described. These constants were determined with a statistical uncertainty of 0.3 % and a systematic uncertainty of 0.2 % for the central part of the calorimeter and 0.5 % for the end-caps. Lastly, the detection and correction of timing mis-configuration of the Tile Calorimeter using the Laser system are also presented.

  17. On the massless gap'' adjustment of detected energy for passive material in front of a calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Trost, H.J.

    1992-01-31

    I have designed a correction scheme for energy losses in passive material in front of a calorimeter based on the massless gap'' idea. I use a flexible geometry model of a calorimeter design for SDC outside of a solenoidal coil made of aluminium cylinders of adjustable thickness. The signal from the first radiation length of active calorimetry is scaled dependent on the incoming and observed energies of the shower. A reasonable recovery of the resolution of an unobstructed calorimeter is achieved using correction factors that depend only upon the total thickness of passive material. Thus a useful correction may be built into the hardware by increasing the amount of scintillator in the first radiation length of the active calorimeter. The distribution of correction factors determined event-by-event indicate that an additional dependence on the observed signal in the massless gap and total incident energy is clearly present.

  18. On the ``massless gap`` adjustment of detected energy for passive material in front of a calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Trost, H.J.

    1992-01-31

    I have designed a correction scheme for energy losses in passive material in front of a calorimeter based on the ``massless gap`` idea. I use a flexible geometry model of a calorimeter design for SDC outside of a solenoidal coil made of aluminium cylinders of adjustable thickness. The signal from the first radiation length of active calorimetry is scaled dependent on the incoming and observed energies of the shower. A reasonable recovery of the resolution of an unobstructed calorimeter is achieved using correction factors that depend only upon the total thickness of passive material. Thus a useful correction may be built into the hardware by increasing the amount of scintillator in the first radiation length of the active calorimeter. The distribution of correction factors determined event-by-event indicate that an additional dependence on the observed signal in the massless gap and total incident energy is clearly present.

  19. Hadronic Shower Validation Experience for the ATLAS End-Cap Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kiryunin, A. E.; Salihagic, D.

    2007-03-19

    Validation of GEANT4 hadronic physics models is carried out by comparing experimental data from beam tests of modules of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters with GEANT4 based simulations. Two physics lists (LHEP and QGSP) for the simulation of hadronic showers are evaluated. Calorimeter performance parameters like the energy resolution and response for charged pions and shapes of showers are studied. Comparison with GEANT3 predictions is done as well.

  20. A measurement of E/. pi. for a fast lead liquid argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Makowiecki, D.; Gordon, H.A.; Ma, H.; Murtagh, M.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rescia, S. ); Abrams, G.S.; Groom, D.E.; Kirsten, F.; Levi, M.; Siegrist, J. ); Amako, K.; Inaba, O.; Kondo, T. ); Baden, A.R.; Fong, D.; Hadley, N.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A. (Maryland U

    1990-01-01

    The NA34 (HELIOS) calorimeter has measured e/{pi} {congruent} 1.1 in a uranium/liquid argon calorimeter with a shaping time of 135 nsec. Lead may be a viable alternative, but e/{pi} must first be measured at fast shaping times in lead. We re preparing to measure e/{pi} at momenta ranging from 0.5 to 20 GeV/c and with shaping times of 50, 100 and 150 nsec.

  1. WE-G-17A-06: A Water Calorimeter for Use in MRI Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    De Prez, L; De Pooter, J; Jansen, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: At VSL, Dutch Metrology Institute, a new water calorimeter was developed with the purpose to replace the existing primary standard for absorbed dose to water in the Netherlands. The new water calorimeter is designed to be operable in medium- to high energy photon beams, electrons, protons as well as MRI integrated linear accelerators. VSL has operated a water calorimeter since 2001. This calorimeter formed the basis for the NCS-18 dosimetry protocol, which is commonly applied by medical physicists in the Netherlands and Belgium. Methods: The unit Gray is the unit of interest for measurement of the absorbed dose to water. Water calorimetry involves the measurement of a small temperature rise (0.24 mK/Gy) with an uncertainty of less than 1 μK/Gy at a temperature of 4 °C. Using extensive multi-physics simulations the new calorimeter's thermal performance was simulated before it was constructed at the end of 2013. With the advent of radiotherapy treatment units incorporating MR imaging the performance of the thermistor temperature sensors were characterized in a 1.5 T magnetic field. Results: A change of thermistor resistance was observed of less than 0.004% as a Result of the magneto-resistance effect in a 1.5 T magnetic field. Although a magneto-resistance effect was detectable, the effect on the temperature response in the water calorimeter was found to be negligible. Conclusion: With the realization of the new calorimeter operable in MRI linacs and designed for use in a variety of beam modalities, VSL is ready for accurate dosimetry in new advanced radiotherapy modalities. Due to the small form factor the calorimeter can be used on location in the actual therapy beam inside a 68 cm linac bore. This work was supported by EMRP grant HLT06. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union.

  2. PbWO4 crystals for the CMS electro-magnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organtini, Giovanni

    1997-02-01

    In this paper results obtained by the CMS collaboration in the study of the properties of PbWO4 crystals chosen to construct the electro-magnetic calorimeter for the CMS experiment at LHC are reported. The main activities carried out by the collaboration during 1995/1996 were devoted to the definition of the properties of the crystals needed to fully characterise them for the final calorimeter assembly.

  3. PbWO 4 crystals for the CMS electro-magnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organtini, Giovanni; CMS Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    In this paper results obtained by the CMS collaboration in the study of the properties of PbWO 4 crystals chosen to construct the electro-magnetic calorimeter for the CMS experiment at LHC are reported. The main activities carried out by the collaboration during 1995/1996 were devoted to the definition of the properties of the crystals needed to fully characterise them for the final calorimeter assembly.

  4. The SOUDAN 2 detector The design and construction of the tracking calorimeter modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ambats, I.; Ayres, D. S.; Balka, L. J.; Barr, G. D.; Barrett, W. L.; Benjamin, D.; Bode, C.; Border, P. M.; Brooks, C. B.; Cobb, J. H.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coover, K.; Cotton, R. J.; Courant, H.; Dahlin, B. B.; DasGupta, U.; Dawson, J. W.; Demuth, D. M.; Edwards, V. W.; Ewen, B.; Fields, T. H.; Garcia-Garcia, C.; Gallagher, H. M.; Giles, R. H.; Giller, G. L.; Goodman, M. C.; Gray, R. N.; Heppelmann, S.; Hill, N.; Hoftiezer, J. H.; Jankowski, D. J.; Johns, K.; Joyce, T.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Kirby-Gallagher, L. M.; Kochocki, J.; Leeson, W.; Litchfield, P. J.; Longley, N. P.; Lopez, F. V.; Lowe, M. J.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; May, E. N.; Maxam, D.; McMaster, L.; Milburn, R.; Miller, W. H.; Minor, C. P.; Mondal, N.; Mualem, L.; Napier, A.; Nelson, E. M.; Nickson, R.; Oliver, W.; Pearce, G. F.; Perkins, D. H.; Peterson, E. A.; Price, L. E.; Roback, D. M.; Rosen, D. B.; Ruddick, K.; Saitta, B.; Schmid, D. J.; Schlereth, J.; Schneps, J.; Schub, M. H.; Seidlein, R. V.; Shield, P. D.; Shupe, M. A.; Spear, S.; Stassinakis, A.; Sundaralingam, N.; Thomson, M. A.; Thron, J. L.; Vassiliev, V.; Villaume, G.; Wakely, S. P.; Wall, D.; Wallis, E. W. G.; Weems, L.; Werkema, S. J.; West, N.; Wielgosz, U.; Woods, C. A.; Yarker, S.

    1996-02-01

    SOUDAN 2 is a 960-ton tracking calorimeter which has been constructed to search for nucleon decay and other phenomena. The full detector consists of 224 calorimeter modules each weighing 4.3 tons. The design and construction of the modules are described. The modules consist of finely segmented iron instrumented with 1 m long drift tubes of 15 mm internal diameter. The tubes enable three spatial coordinates and d E/d x to be recorded for charged particles traversing the tubes.

  5. A measurement of E/{pi} for a fast lead liquid argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Makowiecki, D.; Gordon, H.A.; Ma, H.; Murtagh, M.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rescia, S.; Abrams, G.S.; Groom, D.E.; Kirsten, F.; Levi, M.; Siegrist, J.; Amako, K.; Inaba, O.; Kondo, T.; Baden, A.R.; Fong, D.; Hadley, N.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Bowen, T.; Forden, G.; Jenkins, E.; Johns, K.; Rutherfoord, J.; Shupe, M.; Burnett, T.; Cook, V.; Davisson, R.; Mockett, P.; Rothberg, J.; Williams, R.W.; Cremaldi, L.; Reidy, J.; Summers, D.; DiGiacomo, N.; Draper, P.; Ferbel, T.; Lobkowicz, F.; Faust, J.; Hauptman, J.; Pang, M.; Gabriel, T.A.; Hagopian, V.; Womersley, J.; Handler, T.; Hitlin, D.; Mulholland, G.T.; Watanabe, Y.; Weerts, H.

    1990-12-31

    The NA34 (HELIOS) calorimeter has measured e/{pi} {congruent} 1.1 in a uranium/liquid argon calorimeter with a shaping time of 135 nsec. Lead may be a viable alternative, but e/{pi} must first be measured at fast shaping times in lead. We re preparing to measure e/{pi} at momenta ranging from 0.5 to 20 GeV/c and with shaping times of 50, 100 and 150 nsec.

  6. The analog processing system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for SLD at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.M.; Nelson, D.; Freytag, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    The analog processing system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for the SLD project at SLAC is described. Amplification, storage of the analog information, and multiplexing is realized on specially developed hybrids, which will be mounted directly on the detector. This leads to a substantial reduction of the cable plant. Test results for the amplifier and for the sampling and multiplexing hybrid (CDU hybrid) are presented. The latter hybird contains a custom monolithic device, the Calorimeter Data Unit (CDU).

  7. Fire tests and analyses of a rail cask-sized calorimeter.

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Lopez, Carlos; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Greiner, Miles

    2010-10-01

    Three large open pool fire experiments involving a calorimeter the size of a spent fuel rail cask were conducted at Sandia National Laboratories Lurance Canyon Burn Site. These experiments were performed to study the heat transfer between a very large fire and a large cask-like object. In all of the tests, the calorimeter was located at the center of a 7.93-meter diameter fuel pan, elevated 1 meter above the fuel pool. The relative pool size and positioning of the calorimeter conformed to the required positioning of a package undergoing certification fire testing. Approximately 2000 gallons of JP-8 aviation fuel were used in each test. The first two tests had relatively light winds and lasted 40 minutes, while the third had stronger winds and consumed the fuel in 25 minutes. Wind speed and direction, calorimeter temperature, fire envelop temperature, vertical gas plume speed, and radiant heat flux near the calorimeter were measured at several locations in all tests. Fuel regression rate data was also acquired. The experimental setup and certain fire characteristics that were observed during the test are described in this paper. Results from three-dimensional fire simulations performed with the Cask Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) fire code are also presented. Comparisons of the thermal response of the calorimeter as measured in each test to the results obtained from the CAFE simulations are presented and discussed.

  8. Evaluation of the Argonne National Laboratory servo-controlled calorimeter system

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The control system of a replacement mode, twin-bridge, water-bath calorimeter originally built by Mound EG&G Applied Technologies was modified by Argonne National Laboratory. The calorimeter was upgraded with a PC-based computer control and data acquisition system. The system was redesigned to operate in a servo-control mode, and a preheater was constructed to allow pre-equilibration of samples. The instrument was sent to the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory for testing and evaluation of its performance in the field using heat source standards and plutonium process materials. The important parameters for calorimeter operation necessary to satisfy the nuclear materials control and accountability requirements of the Plutonium Facility were evaluated over a period of several months. These parameters include calorimeter stability, measurement precision and accuracy, and average measurement time. The observed measurement precision and accuracy were found to be acceptable for most accountability measurements, although they were slightly larger than the values for calorimeters in routine use at the Plutonium Facility. Average measurement times were significantly shorter than measurement times for identical items in the Plutonium Facility calorimeters. Unexplained shifts in the baseline measurements were observed on numerous occasions. These shifts could lead to substantial measurement errors if they are not very carefully monitored by the operating facility. Detailed results of the experimental evaluation are presented in this report.

  9. Monte Carlo Simulation Study of a Differential Calorimeter Measuring the Nuclear Heating in Material Testing Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amharrak, H.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Carette, M.; Brun, J.; De Vita, C.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.-F.; Guimbal, P.

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs) are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material. Then these measurements are used for other materials, other geometries, or other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. This paper will present new simulations with MCNP Monte-Carlo transport code to determine the gamma heating profile inside the calorimeter. The whole complex geometry of the sensor has been considered. We use as an input source in the model, the photon spectra calculated in various positions of CARMEN-1 irradiation program in OSIRIS reactor. After a description of the differential calorimeter device, the MCNP modeling used for the calculations of radial profile of nuclear heating inside the calorimeter elements will be introduced. The obtained results of different simulations will be detailed and discussed in this paper. The charged particle equilibrium inside the calorimeter elements will be studied. Then we will focus on parametric studies of the various components of the calorimeter. The influence of source type will be also took into account. Moreover the influence of the material used for the sample will be described.

  10. Cesium Iodide Crystal Calorimeter of the Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missaghian, Jessica; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Colby, Brian; Rykalin, Victor; Hurley, Ford

    2009-11-01

    Researchers at SCIPP, LLMU and NIU have collaborated to make a functioning proton imager. Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) is designated to be applied in proton therapy of human cancer systems. It will image head-sized phantom objects and provide excellent space and energy resolution using a silicon microstrip tracker and crystal calorimetry. The residual energy could be measured with precision of a few percent using a Cesium Iodide crystal calorimeter. A single element of the CsI(TI) calorimeter was tested in order to understand the behavior of the future calorimeter system. We present test results on a CsI(TI) calorimeter element with proton beams of 35, 100 and 200MeV. The detector element was designed to comply with the demands of high energy resolution of a few percent and a dynamic range of two orders of magnitude (1-300MeV) under a counting rate of 10 kHz per channel. We also report on cosmic measurement results of each crystal of the future calorimeter matrix. A detailed description of the calorimeter data acquisition system will be given.

  11. Trigger readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinkespiler, B.

    2017-09-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for the 2019–2020 shut-down period, referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to deliver digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5–10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be transmitted to the Back End using a custom serializer and optical converter and 5.12 Gb/s optical links. In order to verify the full functionality of the future Liquid Argon trigger system, a demonstrator set-up has been installed on the ATLAS detector and is operated in parallel to the regular ATLAS data taking during the LHC Run-2 in 2015 and 2016. Noise level and linearity on the energy measurement have been verified to be within our requirements. In addition, we have collected data from 13 TeV proton collisions during the LHC 2015 and 2016 runs, and have observed real pulses from the detector through the demonstrator system. The talk will give an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter readout and present the custom developed hardware including their role in real-time data processing and fast data transfer. This contribution will also report on the performance of the newly developed ASICs including their radiation

  12. Performance evaluation of a commercially available heat flow calorimeter and applicability assessment for safeguarding special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, D.S.; Biddle, R.; Rudy, C.

    1998-12-31

    The performance characteristics of a commercially available heat-flow calorimeter will be presented. The heat-flow sensors within the calorimeter are based on thermopile technology with a vendor-quoted sensitivity of 150 {micro}V/mW. The calorimeter is a full-twin design to compensate for ambient temperature fluctuations. The efficacy of temperature fluctuation compensations will also be detailed. Finally, an assessment of design applicability to special nuclear materials control and accountability and safeguarding will be presented.

  13. Cylindrical boiloff calorimeters for testing of thermal insulation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Johnson, W. L.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Coffman, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Cryostats have been developed and standardized for laboratory testing of thermal insulation systems in a cylindrical configuration. Boiloff calorimetry is the measurement principle for determining the effective thermal conductivity (ke) and heat flux (q) of a test specimen at a fixed environmental condition (boundary temperatures, cold vacuum pressure, and residual gas composition). Through its heat of vaporization, liquid nitrogen serves as the energy meter, but the design is adaptable for various cryogens. The main instrument, Cryostat-100, is thermally guarded and directly measures absolute thermal performance. A cold mass assembly and all fluid and instrumentation feedthroughs are suspended from a lid of the vacuum canister; and a custom lifting mechanism allows the assembly and specimen to be manipulated easily. Each of three chambers is filled and vented through a single feedthrough for minimum overall heat leakage. The cold mass design precludes direct, solid-conduction heat transfer (other than through the vessel's outer wall itself) from one liquid volume to another, which is critical for achieving very low heat measurements. The cryostat system design details and test methods are discussed, as well as results for select thermal insulation materials. Additional cylindrical boiloff calorimeters and progress toward a liquid hydrogen apparatus are also discussed.

  14. Low Temperature Magnetic Calorimeters For Neutrino Mass Direct Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastaldo, L.; Porst, J. P.; von Seggern, F.; Kirsch, A.; Ranitzsch, P.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.; Seidel, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    In the last years the mixing of the three neutrino flavor eigenstates through a unitary matrix has been experimentally proved. Presently one of the greatest challenges in neutrino physics is to establish the absolute value of the masses of the three neutrino mass eigenstates. The kinematic determination of electron neutrino and antineutrino mass by means of the analysis of calorimetric spectra of isotopes which undergo a beta or electron-capture decay, with especially low energy available for the decay itself, represents an interesting method. In fact this method is less affected by theoretical models defining branching ratio among different decay modes. For the beta decay the isotope with the lowest Q-value present in nature is the 187Re (Q about 2.5 keV) while for the electron capture decay the best candidate known is the 163Ho (Q about 2.5 keV). Since those experiments need to be extremely precise, they might suffer from unexpected systematic errors. It is therefore important to investigate in detail the performance of the detectors and the calorimetric spectrum. We present our results obtained with low temperature magnetic calorimeters designed for measuring low energy beta and electron capture spectra. We also discuss problematic and the possibly present systematic uncertainties using this kind of detectors.

  15. Heat-exchanger concepts for neutral-beam calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.C.; Polk, D.H.; McFarlin, D.J.; Stone, R.

    1981-10-05

    Advanced cooling concepts that permit the design of water cooled heat exchangers for use as calorimeters and beam dumps for advanced neutral beam injection systems were evaluated. Water cooling techniques ranging from pool boiling to high pressure, high velocity swirl flow were considered. Preliminary performance tests were carried out with copper, inconel and molybdenum tubes ranging in size from 0.19 to 0.50 in. diameter. Coolant flow configurations included (1) smooth tube/straight flow, (2) smooth tube with swirl flow created by tangential injection of the coolant, and (3) axial flow in internally finned tubes. Additionally, the effect of tube L/D was evaluated. A CO/sub 2/ laser was employed to irradiate a sector of the tube exterior wall; the laser power was incrementally increased until burnout (as evidenced by a coolant leak) occurred. Absorbed heat fluxes were calculated by dividing the measured coolant heat load by the area of the burn spot on the tube surface. Two six element thermopiles were used to accurately determine the coolant temperature rise. A maximum burnout heat flux near 14 kW/cm/sup 2/ was obtained for the molybdenum tube swirl flow configuration.

  16. Demonstration of Time Domain Multiplexed Readout for Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porst, J.-P.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M.; Bandler, S.; Beyer, J.; Busch, S. E.; Drung, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) have extremely high potential for x-ray applications due to the inherent high energy resolution capability and being non-dissipative. Although very high energy-resolution has been demonstrated, until now there has been no demonstration of multiplexed read-out. We report on the first realization of a time domain multiplexed (TDM) read-out. While this has many similarities with TDM of transition-edge-sensors (TES), for MGGs the energy resolution is limited by the SQUID read-out noise and requires the well established scheme to be altered in order to minimize degradation due to noise aliasing effects. In cur approach, each pixel is read out by a single first stage SQUID (SQ1) that is operated in open loop. The outputs of the SQ1 s are low-pass filtered with an array of low cross-talk inductors, then fed into a single-stage SQUID TD multiplexer. The multiplexer is addressed from room temperature and read out through a single amplifier channel. We present results achieved with a new detector platform. Noise performance is presented and compared to expectations. We have demonstrated multiplexed X-ray spectroscopy at 5.9keV with delta_FWHM=10eV. In an optimized setup, we show it is possible to multiplex 32 detectors without significantly degrading the Intrinsic detector resolution.

  17. The CMS central hadron calorimeter DAQ system upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitbeck, A.; Hirschauer, J.

    2015-05-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeters will undergo a complete replacement of their data acquisition system electronics. The replacement is phased, with portions of the replacement starting in 2014 and continuing through LHC Long Shutdown 2 in 2018. The existing VME electronics will be replaced with a μTCA-based system. New on-detector QIE electronics cards will transmit data at 4.8 GHz to the new μHTR cards residing in μTCA crates in the CMS electronics cavern. The μTCA crates are controlled by the AMC13, which accepts system clock and trigger throttling control from the CMS global DAQ system. The AMC13 distributes the clock to the μHTR and reads out data buffers from the μHTR into the CMS data acquisition system. The AMC 13 also provides the clock for in-crate GLIBs which in turn distribute the clock to the on-detector front end electronics. We report on the design, development status, and schedule of the DAQ system upgrades.

  18. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters with a Critical Temperature Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. R.; Choi, J.; Jo, H. S.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, G. B.; Kim, H. L.; Kim, I. W.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, M. K.; Oh, S. Y.; Sala, E.; So, J. H.; Yoon, W. S.; Kim, Y. H.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the progress in the development of meander-shaped metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) with a critical temperature switch. A niobium meander-shaped coil in an MMC is arranged to form a superconducting loop. It is to measure the change in magnetization and to apply a persistent current that magnetizes the MMC sensor material. In this work, part of the superconducting loop is fabricated with another superconducting material with its transition temperature (T_C) lower than that of niobium. A persistent current can be injected in the loop while reducing the temperature from above to below the T_C of the switch. Aluminum (Al) wires and an alloy of molybdenum and germanium (MoGe) were tested as critical temperature switch. The test with the Al switch demonstrated the temperature switch concept for meander-shaped MMCs that require a large field current. Microfabricated MoGe switches showed a T_C near 4.3 K, but only 7 mA of persistent current could be charged due to MoGe film discontinuity. This issue requires further improvement in the fabrication procedure.

  19. Barrel calorimeters and computer solve boiler circulation problem

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, J.W.; Ruggles, W.L.

    1997-12-01

    The specific design of water-tube fired boilers and waste-heat steam generators can sometimes actually impede circulation of the steam/water mix essential for proper tube cooling and overall operation. However, proving that and developing corrective measurements can be difficult. This situation can be dealt with using a combination of an antiquated but simple technology--barrel calorimeters--and a computer. The technique shows the effects of boiler load, steam drum water level and modifications to the steam drum primary baffle on tube top-dryness and, indirectly, circulation. The method was applied to up to 20 tubes simultaneously in a chemical plant boiler. The boiler involved was a 300 thousand pound per hour (Mlb/hr) gas-fired unit designed to operate at 335 psig and 600 F. During the first few months of operation, it experienced several incidents of sagging, ductile-swelling and thin-lipped ruptures in the front wall and roof tubes immediately above its burners. These phenomena were also accompanied by scale-related heat blistering of the furnace wall and screen tubes. Were two separate problems being experienced or were these different symptoms of a single problem?

  20. The BGO Calorimeter of BGO-OD Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bantes, B.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Becker, M.; Bella, A.; Bielefeldt, P.; Bieling, J.; Bleckwenn, M.; Böse, S.; Braghieri, A.; Brinkmann, K.-Th; Burdeynyi, D.; Curciarello, F.; De Leo, V.; Di Salvo, R.; Dutz, H.; Elsner, D.; Fantini, A.; Freyermuth, O.; Friedrich, S.; Frommberger, F.; Ganenko, V.; Geffers, D.; Gervino, G.; Ghio, F.; Giardina, G.; Girolami, B.; Glazier, D.; Goertz, S.; Gridnev, A.; Gutz, E.; Hammann, D.; Hannappel, J.; Hartmann, P.-F.; Hillert, W.; Ignatov, A.; Jahn, R.; Joosten, R.; Jude, T. C.; Klein, F.; Koop, K.; Krusche, B.; Lapik, A.; Levi Sandri, P.; Lopatin, I.; Mandaglio, G.; Mei, P.; Messi, F.; Messi, R.; Metag, V.; Moricciani, D.; Nanova, M.; Nedorezov, V.; Novinskiy, D.; Pedroni, P.; Romaniuk, M.; Rostomyan, T.; Rudnev, N.; Schaerf, C.; Scheluchin, G.; Schmieden, H.; Sumachev, V.; Tarakanov, V.; Vegna, V.; Walther, D.; Watts, D.; Zaunick, H.-G.; Zimmermann, T.

    2015-02-01

    The BGO Rugby Ball is a large solid angle electromagnetic calorimeter now installed in the ELSA Facility in Bonn. The BGO is operating in the BGO-OD experiment aiming to study meson photoproduction off proton and neutron induced by a Bremsstrahlung polarized gamma beam of energies from 0.2 to 3.2 GeV and an intensity of 5 × 107 photons per second. The scintillating material characteristics and the photomultiplier read-out make this detector particularly suited for the detection of medium energy photons and electrons with very good energy resolution. The detector has been equipped with a new electronics read-out system, consisting of 30 sampling ADC Wie-Ne-R modules which perform the off-line reconstruction of the signal start-time allowing for a good timing resolution. Performances in linearity, resolution and time response have been carefully tested at the Beam Test Facility of the INFN National Laboratories in Frascati by using a matrix of 7 BGO crystals coupled to photomultipliers and equipped with the Wie-Ne-R sampling ADCs.

  1. Front-end Electronics for the ALICE Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Aamodt, K.; Awes, Terry C; Enokizono, Akitomo; Silvermyr, David O; Zhang, Chun; Young, Glenn R; The, ALICE

    2010-05-01

    The ALICE calorimeters PHOS and EMCal are based on Avalanche Photo-Diode (APD) photosensors with Charge Sensitive Preamplifiers (CSP) for readout of the scintillating elements. The amplified signals are read out via 32-channel shaper/digitizer front-end electronics (FEE) with 14-bit effective dynamic range. The electronics is based on second order shapers with dual gain for each channel, getting digitized by ALTRO chips. Each APD channel is equipped with an individual 10-bit APD gain adjustment and 2 x 2 channel clusters generate a 100 ns shaped analog sums output (Fast OR) for the associated Trigger Region Units (TRU). The Fast OR signals are generated by first order shapers with a dynamic range of 12-bit given by the ADC in the TRU cards. Board controller firmware in the FPGA provides local monitoring and configuration of all parameters via the ALICE DCS system. The signal to noise ratio for MIP at 215 MeV is {approx}7 per channel with a noise level of 30 MeV at room temperature for a dynamic range of 80 GeV for PHOS, and the fast-OR RMS noise level is about 75 MeV for a dynamic range of 250 GeV for EMCal.

  2. Temporal Gain Correction for X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. S.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Fujimoto, R.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; McCammon, D.; Mitsuda, K.

    2016-01-01

    Calorimetric X-ray detectors are very sensitive to their environment. The boundary conditions can have a profound effect on the gain including heat sink temperature, the local radiation temperature, bias, and the temperature of the readout electronics. Any variation in the boundary conditions can cause temporal variations in the gain of the detector and compromise both the energy scale and the resolving power of the spectrometer. Most production X-ray calorimeter spectrometers, both on the ground and in space, have some means of tracking the gain as a function of time, often using a calibration spectral line. For small gain changes, a linear stretch correction is often sufficient. However, the detectors are intrinsically non-linear and often the event analysis, i.e., shaping, optimal filters etc., add additional non-linearity. Thus for large gain variations or when the best possible precision is required, a linear stretch correction is not sufficient. Here, we discuss a new correction technique based on non-linear interpolation of the energy-scale functions. Using Astro-HSXS calibration data, we demonstrate that the correction can recover the X-ray energy to better than 1 part in 104 over the entire spectral band to above 12 keV even for large-scale gain variations. This method will be used to correct any temporal drift of the on-orbit per-pixel gain using on-board calibration sources for the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory.

  3. The CMS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger for LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinthuprasith, Tutanon

    2017-01-01

    The phase-1 upgrades of the CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger have been completed. The Level-1 trigger has been fully commissioned and it will be used by CMS to collect data starting from the 2016 data run. The new trigger has been designed to improve the performance at high luminosity and large number of simultaneous inelastic collisions per crossing (pile-up). For this purpose it uses a novel design, the Time Multiplexed Design, which enables the data from an event to be processed by a single trigger processor at full granularity over several bunch crossings. The TMT design is a modular design based on the uTCA standard. The architecture is flexible and the number of trigger processors can be expanded according to the physics needs of CMS. Intelligent, more complex, and innovative algorithms are now the core of the first decision layer of CMS: the upgraded trigger system implements pattern recognition and MVA (Boosted Decision Tree) regression techniques in the trigger processors for pT assignment, pile up subtraction, and isolation requirements for electrons, and taus. The performance of the TMT design and the latency measurements and the algorithm performance which has been measured using data is also presented here.

  4. Evaluating vacuum phototriodes designed for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makónyi, K.; Marcks von Würtemberg, K.; Tegnér, P.-E.; Hansen, K.; Isaksson, L.; Lundin, M.; Schröder, B.; Balkeståhl, L.; Fransson, K.; Johansson, T.; Rosenbaum, C.; Wolke, M.; Erni, W.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krushe, B.

    2014-11-01

    In this work properties of a vacuum phototriode (VPT) and preamplifier unit designed for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA experiment being built at FAIR are investigated. With the use of lead tungstate and lanthanium bromide scintillators the VPT properties are studied at low photon energies, from tens of keV in the lanthanium bromide measurements and between 10 MeV and 60 MeV in the lead tungstate measurements. At these energies the noise of the VPT unit can be expected to influence its performance significantly. It is shown that the noise contribution to the measured energy resolution, under optimal conditions, is consistent with a fluctuation of (one standard deviation) approximately 200 electrons at the VPT anode. For a lead tungstate crystal this is equivalent to a noise of 1.2 MeV. For lanthanium bromide this makes it possible to use VPTs for gamma ray spectroscopy above a few hundreds of keV without noticeable effects on the energy resolution compared to measurements with a standard photomultiplier.

  5. Scintillation Detectors for Radiation-Hard Electromagnetic Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner, H.

    2005-02-01

    For the application in the compact and radiation hard electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter in the PANDA detection system at the new GSI facility, we have started to advance scintillation crystals and the light detection technique. PANDA is the universal internal-target detection system for charmonium spectroscopy and the search for glue-balls and hybrid states in antiproton annihilations. In particular, the large dynamic range from several GeV down to a detection threshold of some MeV for EM radiation and the expected high background rate of neutrons and ions will impose severe requirements on crystals and light sensors. In the magnetic environment of tracking devices the use of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD's) is preferred. In order to achieve suitable resolution for low energy hadrons and photons, the light output of crystals will have to be improved by special production techniques, activation and doping. These procedures might have implications for the radiation hardness. We report on measurements of signal response and radiation damage in crystals of PbWO4 and BGO both from the BTCP (Russia) and SICCAS (China) production sites. Beams of protons, electrons and photons have been applied while detectors with either phototube or APD readout were operated in the range from room temperature to -20°C. Results on light yield and energy resolution are presented. We report on the reduction of light transmission after proton irradiation and results from electron-spin resonance studies on irradiated crystals to analyse the cause of radiation damage.

  6. Modified Differential Scanning Calorimeter for Direct Electrocaloric Measurements.

    PubMed

    Sanlialp, Mehmet; Molin, Christian; Shvartsman, Vladimir V; Gebhardt, Sylvia; Lupascu, Doru C

    2016-10-01

    Solid-state refrigeration using the electrocaloric effect (ECE) in ferroelectric materials is a promising alternative to the conventional vapor-compression technology. In spite of growing interest to the investigation of the ECE, direct measurements of the effect are still rare. In this paper, we report on a modification of a differential scanning calorimeter for direct ECE measurements. The importance of proper estimation of the thermal correction factor and use of proper values of the heat capacitance for correct ECE measurements is discussed. The ECE measurements were performed for Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 and Ba(Zr0.12Ti0.88)O3 bulk ceramics. Large electrocaloric temperature changes of 0.54 and 0.34 K are achieved under the application of an electric field of 2 kV/mm for the Ba(Zr0.12Ti0.88)O3 and Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 samples, respectively. The relation between the directly measured ECE values and frequently used indirect estimation based on Maxwell's relations is discussed.

  7. The mini-calorimeter of the AGILE satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Argan, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Costa, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Gianotti, F.; Tavani, M.; Trifoglio, M.

    2006-06-01

    AGILE is a small space mission of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) devoted to astrophysics in the gamma-ray energy range 30 MeV - 50 GeV, and in the X-ray band 15 keV - 45 keV. The AGILE Payload is composed of three instruments: a gamma-ray imager based on a Tungsten-Silicon Tracker (ST), for observations in the gamma ray energy range 30 MeV - 50 GeV, a Silicon based X-ray detector, Super-Agile (SA), for imaging in the range 15 keV - 40 keV and a CsI(Tl) Mini-Calorimeter (MCAL) that detects gamma rays or particle energy deposits between 300 keV and 200 MeV. The payload is currently fully integrated and the satellite is expected to be launched in the second half of 2006. MCAL is composed of 30 CsI(Tl) scintillator detectors with the shape of a bar with photodiode readout at both ends, arranged in two orthogonal layers. MCAL can work both as a slave of the ST and as an independent gamma-ray detector for the detection of transients and Gamma Ray Bursts. In this paper a detailed description of MCAL is presented together with the first on ground calibration results.

  8. On the Challenge of Keeping ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Raw Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiskaridze, V. K.

    2012-08-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) for the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently taking data with proton-proton collisions. The TileCal read-out system was initially designed to reconstruct the data in real-time and to store for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. This approach implied discarding 80% of the raw data that correspond to noise or small signals. Practical experience operating in this scheme with increasing rate have led to several modifications and understanding that some kind of data compression is helpful during data processing and storing. An alternate approach is to use online reconstruction for Level 2 triggering only and to implement a data flow lossless compression scheme for further offiine analysis. A new version of the lossless compression algorithm is proposed which allows to both save the complete raw data and to feed the trigger with the reconstructed signal amplitude and time. It does not increase the data flow as compared to the existing approach and the size of the data fragments transmitted is more stable. We will describe the lossless compression algorithm as a possible upgrade of the Tile data acquisition and highlight some details of the implementation. We will report on its testing and validation and on the overall performance measured on high rate tests, calibration and √ {s} = 7 TeV proton-proton collisions runs.

  9. [Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders]. [Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-04

    This document provides a progress report on research that has been conducted under DOE Grant DEFG0292ER40697 for the past year, and describes proposed work for the second year of this 8 year grant starting November 15, 1992. Personnel supported by the contract include 4 faculty, 1 research faculty, 4 postdocs, and 9 graduate students. The work under this grant has in the past been directed in two complementary directions -- DO at Fermilab, and the second SSC detector GEM. A major effort has been towards the construction and commissioning of the new Fermilab Collider detector DO, including design, construction, testing, the commissioning of the central tracking and the central calorimeters. The first DO run is now underway, with data taking and analysis of the first events. Trigger algorithms, data acquisition, calibration of tracking and calorimetry, data scanning and analysis, and planning for future upgrades of the DO detector with the advent of the FNAL Main Injector are all involved. The other effort supported by this grant has been towards the design of GEM, a large and general-purpose SSC detector with special emphasis on accurate muon measurement over a large solid angle. This effort will culminate this year in the presentation to the SSC laboratory of the GEM Technical Design Report. Contributions are being made to the detector design, coordination, and physics simulation studies with special emphasis on muon final states. Collaboration with the RD5 group at CERN to study muon punch through and to test cathode strip chamber prototypes was begun.

  10. Calibration of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter with LHC collision data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obertino, M. M.; CMS Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The CMS ECAL is a high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter which relies upon precision calibration in order to achieve and maintain its design performance. Variations in light collected from the lead tungstate crystals, due to intrinsic differences in crystals/photodetectors, as well as variations with time due to radiation damage for example, need to be taken into account. Sophisticated and effective methods of inter-crystal and absolute calibration have been devised, using collision data from the 2011 LHC run and a dedicated light injection system. For inter-calibration, low mass particle (π0 and η) decays to two photons are exploited, as well as the azimuthal symmetry of the average energy deposition at a given pseudorapidity. The light injection system monitors the channel response in real-time and enables the re-calibration of the measured energies over time. This is cross-checked by the comparison of E/p measurements of electrons from W decays (where the momentum is measured in the CMS tracker) with/without these re-calibrations applied. Absolute calibration has been performed using Z decays into electron-positron pairs.

  11. The New APD Based Readout for the Crystal Barrel Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, M.; Honisch, Ch; Steinacher, M.; CBELSA/TAPS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA measures double polarization observables in meson photoproduction off protons and neutrons. To be able to measure purely neutral reactions off polarized neutrons with high efficiency, the main calorimeter has to be integrated into the first level trigger. This requires to exchange the existing PIN photo diode by a new avalanche photo diode (APD) readout. The newly developed readout electronics will provide an energy resolution compatible to the previous set-up and a fast trigger signal down to 10 MeV energy deposit per crystal. After the successful final tests with a 3x3 CsI crystal matrix in Bonn at ELSA and in Mainz at MAMI all front-end electronics were produced in fall 2013. Automated test routines for the front-end electronics were developed and the characterization measurements of all APDs were successfully accomplished in Bonn. The project is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB/TR16) and Schweizerischer Nationalfonds.

  12. Heat-exchanger concepts for neutral-beam calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, C. C.; Polk, D. H.; McFarlin, D. J.; Stone, R.

    1981-10-01

    Advanced cooling concepts that permit the design of water cooled heat exchangers for use as calorimeters and beam dumps for advanced neutral beam injection systems were evaluated. Water cooling techniques ranging from pool boiling to high pressure, high velocity swirl flow were considered. Preliminary performance tests were carried out with copper, inconel and molybdenum tubes ranging in size from 0.19 to 0.50 in. diameter. Coolant flow configurations included: (1) smooth tube/straight flow; (2) smooth tube with swirl flow created by tangential injection of the coolant; and (3) axial flow in internally finned tubes. Additionally, the effect of tube L/D was evaluated. A CO2 laser was employed to irradiate a sector of the tube exterior wall; the laser power was incrementally increased until burnout occurred. Absorbed heat fluxes were calculated by dividing the measured coolant heat load by the area of the burn spot on the tube surface. Two six element thermopiles were used to accurately determine the coolant temperature rise. A maximum burnout heat flux near 14 kW/sq cm was obtained for the molybdenum tube swirl flow configuration.

  13. Temporal Gain Correction for X-ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, F. S.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Fujimoto, R.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; McCammon, D.; Mitsuda, K.; Sawada, M.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Takei, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Tsujimoto, M.; Watanabe, T.; Yamada, S.

    2016-07-01

    Calorimetric X-ray detectors are very sensitive to their environment. The boundary conditions can have a profound effect on the gain including heat sink temperature, the local radiation temperature, bias, and the temperature of the readout electronics. Any variation in the boundary conditions can cause temporal variations in the gain of the detector and compromise both the energy scale and the resolving power of the spectrometer. Most production X-ray calorimeter spectrometers, both on the ground and in space, have some means of tracking the gain as a function of time, often using a calibration spectral line. For small gain changes, a linear stretch correction is often sufficient. However, the detectors are intrinsically non-linear and often the event analysis, i.e., shaping, optimal filters etc., add additional non-linearity. Thus for large gain variations or when the best possible precision is required, a linear stretch correction is not sufficient. Here, we discuss a new correction technique based on non-linear interpolation of the energy-scale functions. Using Astro-H/SXS calibration data, we demonstrate that the correction can recover the X-ray energy to better than 1 part in 104 over the entire spectral band to above 12 keV even for large-scale gain variations. This method will be used to correct any temporal drift of the on-orbit per-pixel gain using on-board calibration sources for the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory.

  14. Structure design and enviromental test of BGO calorimeter for satellite DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yiming; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Yunlong; Chen, Dengyi; Chang, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer, DAMPE, is a new designed satellite developed for the new Innovation 2020 program of Chinese Academy of Sciences. As the most important payload of China's first scientific satellite for detecting dark matter, the primary purposes of BGO calorimeter is to measure the energy of incident high energy electrons and gamma rays (5GeV-10TeV) and to identify hadron and electronics. BGO calorimeter also provides an important background discriminator by measuring the energy deposition due to the particle shower that produced by the e^{±}, γ and imaging their shower development profile. Structure design of BGO calorimeter is described in this paper. The new designed BGO calorimeter consists of 308 BGO crystals coupled with photomultiplier tubes on its two ends. The envelop size of the BGO calorimeter is 907.5mm×907.5mm×494.5mm,and the weight of which is 1051.4Kg. The most important purpose of mechanical design is how to package so heavy crystals into a detector as required arrangement and to make sure reliability and safety. This paper describes the results of vibration tests using the Flight Module of the BGO Calorimeter for the DAMPE satellite. During the vibration tests, no degradation of the mechanical assembly was observed. After random or sinusoidal vibrations, there was no significant changes of the frequency signatures observed during the modal surveys. The comparison of results of cosmic ray tests before and after the vibration shows no change in the performance of the BGO calorimeter.

  15. Very low-noise large-area calorimeter based on bimetallic micromechanical transduction: toward sub-nanowatt resolution in air at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Kuniaki; Fukuda, Daiji; Zama, Tatsuya

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrated a very low-noise, large-area calorimeter based on a micromechanical heat-flow sensor. The input heat flow is transduced to the bimetallic deformation of the sensor, which is observed using a high-resolution fiber optic interferometer. The characteristics of 5-mm-square Si-Al bimetallic micromechanical sensors fabricated using silicon-on-insulator micromachining processes were investigated. We experimentally achieved a heat-detection noise of 12 nW, which is comparable to the best performance of thermopiles. The developed sensor is free of Johnson noise, which constrains the signal-to-noise ratio. In principle, this technique can provide a sub-nanowatt resolution even in air at room temperature.

  16. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  17. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  18. Evaluation of hafnium-carbide wafers for use in a solar calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Laug, K.K.

    1996-03-01

    The Solar Propulsion Group (SPG) at Phillips Laboratory will determine the efficiency of transferring heat from sunlight to a gas using carbon wafers. There will be a series of tests using a calorimeter containing porous carbon and hafnium carbide coated carbon wafers that will absorb the sunlight and transfer the heat to the gas passing through them. We had half the wafers coated with hafnium carbide to prevent carbon loss in a hydrogen rich atmosphere at high temperatures. They will degrade with each test if they are not suitably coated. We conducted a wafer bakeout test to determine if they were suitable for the calorimeter testing, and to develop a baseline for degradation checks to be conducted throughout the calorimeter test series. The preliminary results indicate that the wafers will be unaffected by the environment in the calorimeter. We developed a weight baseline to use in checking the integrity of the wafers throughout the calorimeter testing. The experiments talked about in this paper are not bi-modal in the strictest sense; a single unit supplying both power and propulsion to the spacecraft or satellite. However, in the future, we may find the solar/laser thermal propulsion system that the wafers fit into lends itself to both power and propulsion in a single unit. Therefore, the information is pertinent to this forum. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Nuclear waste calorimeter for very large drums with 385 litres sample volume

    SciTech Connect

    Jossens, G.; Mathonat, C.; Bachelet, F.

    2015-03-15

    Calorimetry is a very precise and well adapted tool for the classification of drums containing nuclear waste material depending on their level of activities (low, medium, high). A new calorimeter has been developed by SETARAM Instrumentation and the CEA Valduc in France. This new calorimeter is designed for drums having a volume bigger than 100 liters. It guarantees high operator safety by optimizing drum handling and air circulation for cooling, and optimized software for direct measurement of the quantity of nuclear material. The LVC1380 calorimeter makes it possible to work over the range 10 to 3000 mW, which corresponds to approximately 0.03 to 10 g of tritium or 3 to 955 g of {sup 241}Pu in a volume up to 385 liters. This calorimeter is based on the heat flow measurement using Peltier elements which surround the drum in the 3 dimensions and therefore measure all the heat coming from the radioactive stuff whatever its position inside the drum. Calorimeter's insulating layers constitute a thermal barrier designed to filter disturbances until they represent less than 0.001 Celsius degrees and to eliminate long term disturbances associated, for example, with laboratory temperature variations between day and night. A calibration device based on Joule effect has also been designed. Measurement time has been optimized but remains long compared with other methods of measurement such as gamma spectrometry but its main asset is to have a good accuracy for low level activities.

  20. The lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeters for the magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Carlini, Roger D.; Tadevosyan, Vardan H.; Arrington, John Robert; Asaturyan, Arshak Razmik; Christy, Michael Eric; Dutta, Dipangkar; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard C.; Gaskell, David J.; Horn, Tanja; Jones, Mark K.; Keppel, Cynthia; Mack, David J.; Malace, Simona P.; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Seely, Charles Jason; Tvaskis, Vladas; Wood, Stephen A.; Zhamkochyan, Simon

    2013-08-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeters of the various magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab are presented. For the existing HMS and SOS spectrometers design considerations, relevant construction information, and comparisons of simulated and experimental results are included. The energy resolution of the HMS and SOS calorimeters is better than $\\sigma/E \\sim 6%/\\sqrt E $, and pion/electron ($\\pi/e$) separation of about 100:1 has been achieved in energy range 1 -- 5 GeV. Good agreement has been observed between the experimental and simulated energy resolutions, but simulations systematically exceed experimentally determined $\\pi^-$ suppression factors by close to a factor of two. For the SHMS spectrometer presently under construction details on the design and accompanying GEANT4 simulation efforts are given. The anticipated performance of the new calorimeter is predicted over the full momentum range of the SHMS. Good electron/hadron separation is anticipated by combining the energy deposited in an initial (preshower) calorimeter layer with the total energy deposited in the calorimeter.

  1. Optimizing the performance of a high-granularity silicon-pad EM calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganis, S.; Psallidas, A.; Steen, A.

    2017-06-01

    A silicon-based fine granularity calorimeter is a potential technology for the future International Linear Collider ILC, the future circular collider CEPC, and is also the chosen technology for the upgraded CMS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider. Active silicon sensing pads are used as MIP counters and the standard calibration of the calorimeter uses weights based on the average energy loss, dEdx. In this work, the limitations of the dEdx calibration method in terms of energy linearity, scale and resolution are explored. In the case of a calorimeter with varying passive layer thickness as the one planned for CMS, the dEdx method leads to a significant constant term in the resolution function and a non-linearity of energy response. For these reasons, a method based on the calorimeter sampling fraction that exploits the per-event measured shower depth is presented and shown to deliver superior absolute energy scale, linearity and resolution. Calorimetric designs in which the back of the shower is sampled less, offer reduced cost without loss in performance. Therefore, a proper calibration as proposed here is crucial in obtaining the most cost- and performance-effective silicon-sampling calorimeter design.

  2. FoCal - A high granularity electromagnetic calorimeter for forward direct photon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.

    2017-02-01

    The measurement of direct photon production at forward rapidity (y ∼ 3 - 5) at the LHC provides access to the structure of protons and nuclei at very small values of fractional momentum (x ∼10-5) . FoCal, an extremely-high-granularity Forward Calorimeter covering 3.3 < η < 5.3 is proposed as a detector upgrade to the ALICE experiment. To facilitate the design of the upgrade and to perform generic R&D necessary for such a novel calorimeter, a compact high-granularity electromagnetic calorimeter prototype has been built. The corresponding R&D studies are the focus of this paper. The prototype is a Si/W sampling calorimeter. It was instrumented with 24 layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors, a total of 39 M pixels. We report on performance studies of the prototype with test beams at DESY and CERN in a broad energy range. The results of the measurements demonstrate a very small Molière radius (∼ 11 mm) and good linearity of the response. Unique results on the detailed lateral shower shape, which are crucial for the two-shower separation capabilities, are presented. We compare the measurements to GEANT-based MC simulations, which additionally include a modeling of charge diffusion. The studies demonstrate the feasibility of this high-granularity technology for use in the proposed detector upgrade. They also show the extremely high potential of this technology for future calorimeter development.

  3. Influence of Catalysis and Oxidation on Slug Calorimeter Measurements in Arc Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Driver, Dave; TerrazasSalinas, Imelda

    2012-01-01

    Arc jet tests play a critical role in the characterization and certification of thermal protection materials and systems (TPS). The results from these arc jet tests feed directly into computational models of material response and aerothermodynamics to predict the performance of the TPS in flight. Thus the precise knowledge of the plasma environment to which the test material is subjected, is invaluable. As one of the environmental parameters, the heat flux is commonly measured. The measured heat flux is used to determine the plasma enthalpy through analytical or computational models. At NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), slug calorimeters of a geometrically similar body to the test article are routinely used to determine the heat flux. A slug calorimeter is a thermal capacitance-type calorimeter that uses the temperature rise in a thermally insulated slug to determine the heat transfer rate, see Figure 1(left). Current best practices for measuring the heat flux with a slug calorimeter are described in ASTM E457 - 96. Both the calorimeter body and slug are made of Oxygen Free High Conductivity Copper, and are cleaned before each run.

  4. Environmental test of the BGO calorimeter for DArk Matter Particle Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yi-Ming; Chang, Jin; Chen, Deng-Yi; Guo, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Yun-Long; Feng, Chang-Qing

    2016-11-01

    DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is the first Chinese astronomical satellite, successfully launched on Dec. 17 2015. As the most important payload of DAMPE, the BGO calorimeter contains 308 bismuth germanate crystals, with 616 photomultiplier tubes, one coupled to each end of every crystal. Environmental tests have been carried out to explore the environmental adaptability of the flight model of the BGO calorimeter. In this work we report the results of the vibration tests. During the vibration tests, no visible damage occurred in the mechanical assembly. After random or sinusoidal vibrations, the change of the first order natural frequency of BGO calorimeter during the modal surveys is less than 5%. The shift ratio of Most Probable Value of MIPs changes in cosmic-ray tests are shown, the mean value of which is about -4%. The comparison of results of cosmic-ray tests before and after the vibration shows no significant change in the performance of the BGO calorimeter. All these results suggest that the calorimeter and its structure have passed through the environment tests successfully. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11203090, 11003051, 11273070) and Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA04040202)

  5. Design and performance of a vacuum-bottle solid-state calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, D.S.; Biddle, R.; Cech, R.

    1997-11-01

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies calorimetry personnel have developed a small, thermos-bottle solid-state calorimeter, which is now undergoing performance testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The thermos-bottle solid-state calorimeter is an evaluation prototype for characterizing the heat output of small heat standards and other homogeneous heat sources. The current maximum sample size is 3.5 in. long with a diameter of 0.8 in. The overall size of the thermos bottle and thermoelectric cooling device is 9.25 in. high by 3.75 in. diameter and less than 3 lb. Coupling this unit with compact electronics and a laptop computer makes this calorimeter easily hand carried by a single individual. This compactness was achieved by servo controlling the reference temperature below room temperature and replacing the water bath used in conventional calorimeter design with the thermos-bottle insulator. Other design features will also be discussed. The performance of the calorimeter will be presented.

  6. Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, Ajoy; Thyagarajan, K.

    With the development of extremely low-loss optical fibers and their application to communication systems, a revolution has taken fiber glass place during the last 40 years. In 2001, using glass fibers as the transmission medium and lightwaves as carrier wave waves, information was transmitted at a rate more than 1 Tbit/s (which is roughly equivalent to transmission of about 15 million simultaneous telephone conversations) through one hair thin optical fiber. Experimental demonstration of transmission at the rate of 14 Tbit/s over a 160 km long single fiber was demonstrated in 2006, which is equivalent to sending 140 digital high definition movies in 1 s. Very recently record transmission of more than 100 Tbit/s over 165 km single mode fiber has been reported. These can be considered as extremely important technological achievements. In this chapter we will discuss the propagation characteristics of optical fibers with special applications to optical communication systems and also present some of the noncommunication applications such as sensing.

  7. D-0 North End Cap Calorimeter Cold Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-08-02

    The North endcap calorimeter vessel was recieved on July 1, 1990. A cooldown of the pressure vessel with liquid nitrogen was performed on July 10-11 to check the vessel's integrity. With the pressure vessel cold, the insulating vacuum was monitored for leaks. Through out the testing, the insulating vacuum remained good and the vessel passed the test. The cold test was carried out per the procedures of D-Zero engineering note 3740.220-EN-250. The test was very similar to the cold test performed on the Central Calorimeter in October of 1987. Reference D-Zero engineering notes 3740.210-EN-122, 3740.000-EN107, and 3740.210-EN-110 for information about the CC cold test. The insulating vacuum space was pumped on while equipment was being connected to the pressure vessel. Two hours after starting to pump with the blower the vacuum space pressure was at about 210 microns. Pumping on the vacuum space for the next 15 hours showed no progress and a leak detector was connected to the pumping line. A leak check showed a leak in a thermocouple feedthru on the vacuum space relief plate. After fixing the leak, the pressure dropped to 16 microns in less than one hour. A rate of rise test was performed starting at a pressure of 13 microns. The pressure rose to 39 microns within 8 minutes and then only rose to 43 microns in 2.5 hours (1.6 microns/hour). After all connections were made to the pressure vessel, a vacuum pump with an estimated effective pumping speed of about 70 scfm was valved on. The lowest pressure achieved after 2 days of pumping was 80 microns. Valving out the pump for 30 minutes resulted in a 5 micron per minute rate of rise. The rate of rise was considered acceptable since there were known leak paths through the bolts of the signal ports. The EC North vessel was rolled outside of Lab A in preparation for a 5000 gallon liquid nitrogen trailer which arrived July, 10 at 8:00am. Before filling the vessel, the vacuum space pump was valved off. The pressure in the

  8. Vacuum fiber-fiber coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrici, Axel; Bjelajac, Goran; Jonkers, Jeroen; Jakobs, Stefan; Olschok, Simon; Reisgen, Uwe

    2017-02-01

    Research and development carried out by the ISF Welding and Joining Institute of RWTH Aachen University has proven that combining high power laser and low vacuum atmosphere provides a welding performance and quality, which is comparable to electron beam welding. The developed welding machines are still using a beam forming which takes place outside the vacuum and the focusing laser beam has to be introduced to the vacuum via a suitable window. This inflexible design spoils much of the flexibility of modern laser welding. With the target to bring a compact, lightweight flying optics with flexible laser transport fibers into vacuum chambers, a high power fiber-fiber coupler has been adapted by II-VI HIGHYAG that includes a reliable vacuum interface. The vacuum-fiber-fiber coupler (V-FFC) is tested with up to 16 kW sustained laser power and the design is flexible in terms of a wide variety of laser fiber plug systems and vacuum flanges. All that is needed to implement the V-FFC towards an existing or planned vacuum chamber is an aperture of at least 100 mm (4 inch) diameter with any type of vacuum or pressure flange. The V-FFC has a state-of-the-art safety interface which allows for fast fiber breakage detection for both fibers (as supported by fibers) by electric wire breakage and short circuit detection. Moreover, the System also provides connectors for cooling and electric signals for the laser beam optics inside the vacuum. The V-FFC has all necessary adjustment options for coupling the laser radiation to the receiving fiber.

  9. Development of a graphite probe calorimeter for absolute clinical dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, James; Seuntjens, Jan; Sarfehnia, Arman; Marchington, David

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this work is to present the numerical design optimization, construction, and experimental proof of concept of a graphite probe calorimeter (GPC) conceived for dose measurement in the clinical environment (U.S. provisional patent 61/652,540). A finite element method (FEM) based numerical heat transfer study was conducted using a commercial software package to explore the feasibility of the GPC and to optimize the shape, dimensions, and materials used in its design. A functioning prototype was constructed inhouse and used to perform dose to water measurements under a 6 MV photon beam at 400 and 1000 MU/min, in a thermally insulated water phantom. Heat loss correction factors were determined using FEM analysis while the radiation field perturbation and the graphite to water absorbed dose conversion factors were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The difference in the average measured dose to water for the 400 and 1000 MU/min runs using the TG-51 protocol and the GPC was 0.2% and 1.2%, respectively. Heat loss correction factors ranged from 1.001 to 1.002, while the product of the perturbation and dose conversion factors was calculated to be 1.130. The combined relative uncertainty was estimated to be 1.4%, with the largest contributors being the specific heat capacity of the graphite (type B, 0.8%) and the reproducibility, defined as the standard deviation of the mean measured dose (type A, 0.6%). By establishing the feasibility of using the GPC as a practical clinical absolute photon dosimeter, this work lays the foundation for further device enhancements, including the development of an isothermal mode of operation and an overall miniaturization, making it potentially suitable for use in small and composite radiation fields. It is anticipated that, through the incorporation of isothermal stabilization provided by temperature controllers, a subpercent overall uncertainty will be achieved.

  10. Measurements in large pool fires with an actively cooled calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.

    1995-12-31

    The pool fire thermal test described in Safety Series 6 published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) in the United States is one of the most difficult tests that a container for larger ``Type B`` quantities of nuclear materials must pass. If retests of a container are required, costly redesign and project delays can result. Accurate measurements and modeling of the pool fire environment will ultimately lower container costs by assuring that containers past the pool fire test on the first attempt. Experiments indicate that the object size or surface temperature of the container can play a role in determining local heat fluxes that are beyond the effects predicted from the simple radiative heat transfer laws. An analytical model described by Nicolette and Larson 1990 can be used to understand many of these effects. In this model a gray gas represents soot particles present in the flame structure. Close to the container surface, these soot particles are convectively and radiatively cooled and interact with incident energy from the surrounding fire. This cooler soot cloud effectively prevents some thermal radiation from reaching the container surface, reducing the surface heat flux below the value predicted by a transparent medium model. With some empirical constants, the model suggested by Nicolette and Larson can be used to more accurately simulate the pool fire environment. Properly formulated, the gray gas approaches also fast enough to be used with standard commercial computer codes to analyze shipping containers. To calibrate this type of model, accurate experimental measurements of radiative absorption coefficients, flame temperatures, and other parameters are necessary. A goal of the calorimeter measurements described here is to obtain such parameters so that a fast, useful design tool for large pool fires can be constructed.

  11. Growth and characterization of Ce-doped YAG and LuAG fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djebli, A.; Boudjada, F.; Pauwels, K.; Kononets, V.; Patton, G.; Benaglia, A.; Lucchini, M.; Moretti, F.; Sidletskiy, O.; Dujardin, C.; Lecoq, P.; Auffray, E.; Lebbou, K.

    2017-03-01

    Undoped and Ce-doped Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) and Y3Al5O12 (YAG) single crystal fibers were grown by the micro-pulling down technique (μ-PD) with a purpose to fit the design of new dual-readout calorimeter planned to operate in future experiences of high energy physics. Fibers up to 20 cm in length and 1 mm in diameter were grown along [111] direction. Based on the measurements of the attenuation length along the fibers, the growth conditions to improve the fibers quality were selected. Our results showed that the grown fibers have the capability to be used for future detectors.

  12. JTAG-based remote configuration of FPGAs over optical fibers

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, B.; Xu, H.; Liu, C.; ...

    2015-01-28

    In this study, a remote FPGA-configuration method based on JTAG extension over optical fibers is presented. The method takes advantage of commercial components and ready-to-use software such as iMPACT and does not require any hardware or software development. The method combines the advantages of the slow remote JTAG configuration and the fast local flash memory configuration. The method has been verified successfully and used in the Demonstrator of Liquid-Argon Trigger Digitization Board (LTDB) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter Phase-I trigger upgrade. All components on the FPGA side are verified to meet the radiation tolerance requirements.

  13. The Development of a 3D Imaging Calorimeter of DAMPE for Cosmic Ray Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Hu, Yiming; Feng, Changqing; Liu, Shubin; Wang, Chi; Zhang, Zhiyong; Wei, Yifeng; Huang, Guangshun

    2016-07-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) experiment began its on-orbit operations on December 17, 2015. The BGO Electromagnetic Calorimeter (BGO ECAL) of the DAMPE is a total absorption calorimeter that allows for a precise three-dimensional imaging of the shower shape. It provides a good energy resolution (<1%@200GeV) and high electron/hadron discrimination (>10^5). The calorimeter also provides a trigger capability to DAMPE. The BGO ECAL light collection system and electronics are designed to measure electromagnetic particles over a wide energy range, from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. An Engineering qualified model was built and tested using high energy electron and proton beams with energy ranging from 1 GeV to 250GeV. Some pre results will be introduced in this talk.

  14. Topological cell clustering in the ATLAS calorimeters and its performance in LHC Run 1

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...

    2017-07-24

    The reconstruction of the signal from hadrons and jets emerging from the proton–proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and entering the ATLAS calorimeters is based on a three-dimensional topological clustering of individual calorimeter cell signals. The cluster formation follows cell signal-significance patterns generated by electromagnetic and hadronic showers. In this, the clustering algorithm implicitly performs a topological noise suppression by removing cells with insignificant signals which are not in close proximity to cells with significant signals. The resulting topological cell clusters have shape and location information, which is exploited to apply a local energy calibration and corrections dependingmore » on the nature of the cluster. Lastly, topological cell clustering is established as a well-performing calorimeter signal definition for jet and missing transverse momentum reconstruction in ATLAS.« less

  15. The time structure of hadronic showers in highly granular calorimeters with tungsten and steel absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Blaising, J.-J.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Arfaoui, S.; Benoit, M.; Dannheim, D.; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; van der Kraaij, E.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Münnich, A.; Poss, S.; Ribon, A.; Roloff, P.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Feege, N.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Fagot, A.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Sudo, Y.; Ueno, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Eté, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.-C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander Donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kozlov, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouëné, J.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T. H.; Videau, H.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; de la Taille, Ch; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Chai, J. S.; Song, H. S.; Lee, S. H.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-07-01

    The intrinsic time structure of hadronic showers influences the timing capability and the required integration time of hadronic calorimeters in particle physics experiments, and depends on the active medium and on the absorber of the calorimeter. With the CALICE T3B experiment, a setup of 15 small plastic scintillator tiles read out with Silicon Photomultipliers, the time structure of showers is measured on a statistical basis with high spatial and temporal resolution in sampling calorimeters with tungsten and steel absorbers. The results are compared to GEANT4 (version 9.4 patch 03) simulations with different hadronic physics models. These comparisons demonstrate the importance of using high precision treatment of low-energy neutrons for tungsten absorbers, while an overall good agreement between data and simulations for all considered models is observed for steel.

  16. Modeling Heat Flow In a Calorimeter Equipped With a Textured Solar Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Allen, Bradley J.

    2001-01-01

    Heat engines are being considered for generating electric power for minisatellite applications, particularly for those missions in high radiation threat orbits. To achieve this objective, solar energy must be collected and transported to the hot side of the heat engine. A solar collector is needed having the combined properties of high solar absorptance, low infrared emittance, and high thermal conductivity. To test candidate solar collector concepts, a simple calorimeter was designed, manufactured, and installed in a bench top vacuum chamber to measure heat flow. In addition, a finite element analysis model of the collector/calorimeter combination was made to model this heat flow. The model was tuned based on observations from the as-manufactured collector/calorimeter combination. In addition, the model was exercised to examine other collector concepts, properties, and scale up issues.

  17. Energy reconstruction in a highly granularity semi-digital hadronic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Sameh Mannai

    2015-07-01

    A semi-digital hadronic calorimeter using Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPCs) is one of the calorimeters candidates proposed for particle physics experiments at the future electrons collider. It is a high granular calorimeter which is required for application of the particle flow algorithm in order to improve the jet energy resolution as one of the goals of this experiments. We discussed the energy reconstruction, based on digital and semi-Digital methods, to study the effect on the improvement of the single particle energy resolution and the linearity of the detector response. This study was performed with the GEANT4 simulation. Results on the energy resolution and linearity, for negative pions over an energy range from 1 to 100 GeV are presented and compared with different energy reconstruction methods including Artificial Neural Networks. (authors)

  18. In-depth analysis and discussions of water absorption-typed high power laser calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ji Feng

    2017-02-01

    In high-power and high-energy laser measurement, the absorber materials can be easily destroyed under long-term direct laser irradiation. In order to improve the calorimeter's measuring capacity, a measuring system directly using water flow as the absorber medium was built. The system's basic principles and the designing parameters of major parts were elaborated. The system's measuring capacity, the laser working modes, and the effects of major parameters were analyzed deeply. Moreover, the factors that may affect the accuracy of measurement were analyzed and discussed. The specific control measures and methods were elaborated. The self-calibration and normal calibration experiments show that this calorimeter has very high accuracy. In electrical calibration, the average correction coefficient is only 1.015, with standard deviation of only 0.5%. In calibration experiments, the standard deviation relative to a middle-power standard calorimeter is only 1.9%.

  19. Heat loss through connecting thermistor wires in a three-body graphite calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, D.; Guerra, A. S.; Ionita, C.; Astefanoaei, I.

    2010-06-01

    The main aim of this paper is to calculate the small but significant amount of heat lost from a graphite calorimeter absorber through connecting thermistor wires during electrical calibration. Taking into account the electro-thermal interaction between the heating thermistor and its surrounding environment, a more realistic approach to the problem was developed and estimative numerical results were obtained. It was found that the wires contribute about 0.01% in extracting heat from the calorimeter core (which corresponds to a correction factor kwcore = 0.9999). The total correction factor for heat loss through the connecting thermistor wires during the electrical calibration of the calorimeter (the total combined effect of the heater and the sensor leads due to conduction, radiation and Joule effect) was determined: kw = 0.9989.

  20. Classification of high-energy antiprotons on electrons background based on calorimeter data in PAMELA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaeva, O. A.; Alekseev, V. V.; Bogomolov, Yu V.; Lukyanov, A. D.; Malakhov, V. V.; Mayorov, A. G.; Rodenko, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    In modern experimental physics a heterogeneous coordinate-sensitive calorimeters are widely used due to their good characteristics and possibilities to obtain a three-dimensional information of particles interactions. Especially it is important at high-energies when electromagnetic or hadron showers are arise. We propose a quit efficient method to identify antiprotons (positrons) with energies more than 10 GeV on electron (proton) background by calorimeter of such kind. We construct the AdaBoost classifier and SVM to separate particles into two classes, different combinations of energy release along reconstructed particle trajectory were used as feature vector. We test a preliminary version of the method on a calorimeter of the PAMELA magnetic spectrometer. For high-energy particles we got a good quality of classification: it lost about 5 · 10‑2 of antiprotons, and less than 4 · 10‑4 of electrons were classified to antiproton class.

  1. Design, status and test of the Mu2e crystal calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, Matteo; et al.

    2016-06-17

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab searches for the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrino-less conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of a aluminum nucleus. The dynamic of such a process is well modeled by a two-body decay, resulting in a monoenergetic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.967 MeV). The calorimeter of this experiment plays an important role to provide excellent particle identification capabilities and an online trigger filter while aiding the track reconstruction capabilities. The baseline calorimeter configuration consists of two disks each made with about 700 undoped CsI crystals read out by two large area UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers. These crystals match the requirements for stability of response, high resolution and radiation hardness. In this paper we present the final calorimeter design.

  2. Topological cell clustering in the ATLAS calorimeters and its performance in LHC Run 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Verzini, M. J. Alconada; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Gonzalez, B. Alvarez; Piqueras, D. Álvarez; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Coutinho, Y. Amaral; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Santos, S. P. Amor Dos; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Bella, L. Aperio; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; da Costa, J. Barreiro Guimarães; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Noccioli, E. Benhar; Garcia, J. A. Benitez; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Kuutmann, E. Bergeaas; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bylund, O. Bessidskaia; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; De Mendizabal, J. Bilbao; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Madden, W. D. Breaden; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; de Renstrom, P. A. Bruckman; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Urbán, S. Cabrera; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Toro, R. Camacho; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Armadans, R. Caminal; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Bret, M. Cano; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Garrido, M. D. M. Capeans; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Gimenez, V. Castillo; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Alberich, L. Cerda; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Barajas, C. A. Chavez; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Moursli, R. Cherkaoui El; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Muiño, P. Conde; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Ortuzar, M. Crispin; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Donszelmann, T. Cuhadar; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; De Sousa, M. J. Da Cunha Sargedas; Via, C. Da; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Hoffmann, M. Dano; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Regie, J. B. De Vivie; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Yildiz, H. Duran; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; Kacimi, M. El; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Giannelli, M. Faucci; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Martinez, P. Fernandez; Perez, S. Fernandez; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; de Lima, D. E. Ferreira; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Parodi, A. Ferretto; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Castillo, L. R. Flores; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Torregrosa, E. 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R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedersen, M.; Lopez, S. Pedraza; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Penwell, J.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Codina, E. Perez; García-Estañ, M. T. Pérez; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Pizio, C.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Astigarraga, M. E. Pozo; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Ptacek, E.; Puddu, D.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reisin, H.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Saez, S. M. Romano; Adam, E. Romero; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. 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B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Sanchez, C. A. Solans; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stabile, A.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Araya, S. Tapia; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Delgado, A. Tavares; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Kate, H. Ten; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Torres, R. E. Ticse; Tikhomirov, V. 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R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Wong, K. H. Yau; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Nedden, M. zur; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2017-07-01

    The reconstruction of the signal from hadrons and jets emerging from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and entering the ATLAS calorimeters is based on a three-dimensional topological clustering of individual calorimeter cell signals. The cluster formation follows cell signal-significance patterns generated by electromagnetic and hadronic showers. In this, the clustering algorithm implicitly performs a topological noise suppression by removing cells with insignificant signals which are not in close proximity to cells with significant signals. The resulting topological cell clusters have shape and location information, which is exploited to apply a local energy calibration and corrections depending on the nature of the cluster. Topological cell clustering is established as a well-performing calorimeter signal definition for jet and missing transverse momentum reconstruction in ATLAS.

  3. New electronics of the spectrometric channel for the SND detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achasov, M. N.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Korol, A. A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Kovrizhin, D. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Surin, I. K.; Tekut`ev, A. I.; Usov, Yu. V.

    2016-07-01

    The Spherical Neutral Detector (SND) is intended for study of electron-positron annihilation at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider (BINP, Novosibirsk) in the center-of-mass energy region below 2 GeV. The main part of the detector is a three-layer electromagnetic calorimeter based on NaI(Tl) crystals. The physics program of the SND experiment includes a high statistics study of neutron-antineutron production near threshold, for which time measurements in the calorimeter are required. In this paper we describe new shaping and digitizing calorimeter electronics, which allow to reach a time resolution of about 1 ns for 100 MeV signal and an amplitude resolution of about 250 keV.

  4. The large volume radiometric calorimeter system: A transportable device to measure scrap category plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M.F.; Wetzel, J.R.; Breakall, K.L.; Lemming, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    An innovative design concept has been used to design a large volume calorimeter system. The new design permits two measuring cells to fit in a compact, nonevaporative environmental bath. The system is mounted on a cart for transportability. Samples in the power range of 0.50 to 12.0 W can be measured. The calorimeters will receive samples as large as 22.0 cm in diameter by 43.2 cm high, and smaller samples can be measured without lengthening measurement time or increasing measurement error by using specially designed sleeve adapters. This paper describes the design considerations, construction, theory, applications, and performance of the large volume calorimeter system. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The large volume calorimeter for measuring the pressure cooker'' shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperski, P.W.; Duff, M.F.; Wetzel, J.R. ); Baker, L.B.; MacMurdo, K.W. )

    1991-01-01

    A precise, low wattage, large volume calorimeter system has been developed at Mound to measure two configurations of the 12081 containment vessel. This system was developed and constructed to perform verification measurements at the Savannah River Site. The calorimeter system has performance design specifications of {plus minus}0.3% error above the 2-watt level, and {plus minus}(0.03% plus 0.006 watts) at power levels below 2 watts (one sigma). Data collected during performance testing shows measurement errors well within this range, even down to 0.1-watt power levels. The development of this calorimeter shows that ultra-precise measurements can be achieved on extremely large volume sample configurations. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  6. Topological cell clustering in the ATLAS calorimeters and its performance in LHC Run 1.

    PubMed

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Torres, R E Ticse; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todome, K; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tolley, E; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Pastor, E Torró; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; Truong, L; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsui, K M; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turra, R; Turvey, A J; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urban, J; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Vallecorsa, S; Ferrer, J A Valls; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vannucci, F; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vazeille, F; Schroeder, T Vazquez; Veatch, J; Veloce, L M; Veloso, F; Velz, T; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Boeriu, O E Vickey; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Perez, M Villaplana; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Vivarelli, I; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Milosavljevic, M Vranjes; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, T; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; Wharton, A M; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, A; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yakabe, R; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, D; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yao, W-M; Yap, Y C; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Wong, K H Yau; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yuen, S P Y; Yurkewicz, A; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zeng, J C; Zeng, Q; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, G; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Nedden, M Zur; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L

    2017-01-01

    The reconstruction of the signal from hadrons and jets emerging from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and entering the ATLAS calorimeters is based on a three-dimensional topological clustering of individual calorimeter cell signals. The cluster formation follows cell signal-significance patterns generated by electromagnetic and hadronic showers. In this, the clustering algorithm implicitly performs a topological noise suppression by removing cells with insignificant signals which are not in close proximity to cells with significant signals. The resulting topological cell clusters have shape and location information, which is exploited to apply a local energy calibration and corrections depending on the nature of the cluster. Topological cell clustering is established as a well-performing calorimeter signal definition for jet and missing transverse momentum reconstruction in ATLAS.

  7. CaloCube: a novel calorimeter for high-energy cosmic rays in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, P. W.; Adriani, O.; Albergo, S.; Auditore, L.; Basti, A.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bonechi, L.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Brogi, P.; Carotenuto, G.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Detti, S.; Fasoli, M.; Finetti, N.; Italiano, A.; Lenzi, P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mori, N.; Olmi, M.; Orzan, G.; Pacini, L.; Papini, P.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Rossella, M.; Sciutto, A.; Spillantini, P.; Starodubtsev, O.; Stolzi, F.; Suh, J. E.; Sulaj, A.; Tiberio, A.; Tricomi, A.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Vannuccini, E.; Vedda, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2017-06-01

    In order to extend the direct observation of high-energy cosmic rays up to the PeV region, highly performing calorimeters with large geometrical acceptance and high energy resolution are required. Within the constraint of the total mass of the apparatus, crucial for a space mission, the calorimeters must be optimized with respect to their geometrical acceptance, granularity and absorption depth. CaloCube is a homogeneous calorimeter with cubic geometry, to maximise the acceptance being sensitive to particles from every direction in space; granularity is obtained by relying on small cubic scintillating crystals as active elements. Different scintillating materials have been studied. The crystal sizes and spacing among them have been optimized with respect to the energy resolution. A prototype, based on CsI(Tl) cubic crystals, has been constructed and tested with particle beams. Some results of tests with different beams at CERN are presented.

  8. The use of thermistors in the NPL electron-beam calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, M. R.; Burns, D. T.; Williams, A. J.

    1993-03-01

    The system developed for calibrating thermistors, which have been employed in the primary standard electron beam graphite calorimeter for several years, and the results of investigations into self-heating and dose response are described. The overall uncertainty in measuring temperature rises is estimated to be +/- 0.1 percent at the 95 percent confidence level. The self-heating of the thermistor type used in the calorimeter was determined to be constant over the temperature range 14 to 29 C. The same thermistor type showed no change in response within the uncertainties to an accumulated dose up to 3000 kGy. A second type of thermistor (to be used in a new calorimeter) showed no change in sensitivity although there was a change in absolute resistance of approximately 0.1 percent per MGy.

  9. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Summary of Warm-Up After Draining for the D-Zero LAr Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1996-03-14

    After a very successful physics run, the D-Zero detector Liquid Argon Calorimeters were drained in preparation of the detector rollout. During the roll out process, the calorimeters were without cooling. Information regarding the temperatures, estimated heat transfer, and pressure maintenance are documented in this engineering note.

  10. A study on dual readout crystal calorimeter for hadron and jet energy measurement at a future lepton collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Studies of requirements and specifications of crystals are necessary to develop a new generation of crystals for dual readout crystal hadron or total absorption calorimeter. This is a short and basic study of the characteristics and hadron energy measurement of PbWO4 and BGO crystals for scintillation and Cerenkov Dual Readout hadron calorimeter.

  11. Fireblocking Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    PBI was originally developed for space suits. In 1980, the need for an alternative to asbestos and stricter government anti-pollution standards led to commercialization of the fire blocking fiber. PBI is used for auto racing driver suits and aircraft seat covers. The fiber does not burn in air, is durable and easily maintained. It has been specified by a number of airliners and is manufactured by Hoechst-Celanese Corporation.

  12. Nanocomposite Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    attempts to prepare carbon nanotube , CNT, containing fiber material. Modulus and tenacity tests on experimentally prepared nanosilica filled PET...individual entities of nanofibers, such as carbon nanotubes and SiC whiskers, silica and clay, into polymers with the goal of producing new forms of...if carbon nanotube (CNT) particle implanted fibers are used, one would expect a great increase in the electrical conductivity of the so-reinforced

  13. Dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  14. Compressor calorimeter performance of refrigerant blends: Comparative methods and results for a refrigerator/freezer application

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C K; Sand, J R

    1993-01-01

    A protocol was developed to define calorimeter operating pressures for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) which corresponded with the saturated evaporator and condenser temperatures commonly used for pure refrigerants. Compressor calorimeter results were obtained using this equivalent-mean-temperature (EMT) approach and a generally applied Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) procedure at conditions characteristic of a domestic refrigerator-freezer application. Tests with R-12 and two NARMs indicate that compressor volumetric and isentropic efficiencies are nearly the same for refrigerants with similar capacities and pressure ratios. The liquid-line temperature conditions specified in the AHAM calorimeter rating procedure for refrigerator-freezer compressors were found to preferentially derate NARM performance relative to R-12. Conversion of calorimeter data taken with a fixed liquid-line temperature to a uniform minimal level of condenser subcooling is recommended as a fairer procedure when NARMs are involved. Compressor energy-efficiency-ratio (EER) and capacity data measured as a result of the EMT approach were compared to system performance calculated using an equivalent-heat-exchanger-loading (EHXL) protocol based on a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) refrigerator-freezer modeling program. The EHXL protocol was used to transform the calorimeter results into a more relevant representation of potential L-M cycle performance. The EMT method used to set up the calorimeter tests and the AHAM liquid-line conditions combined to significantly understate the cycle potential of NARMs relative to that predicted at the more appropriate EHXL conditions. Compressor conditions representative of larger heat exchanger sizes were also found to give a smaller L-M cycle advantage relative to R-12.

  15. Compressor calorimeter performance of refrigerant blends: Comparative methods and results for a refrigerator/freezer application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, C. K.; Sand, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    A protocol was developed to define calorimeter operating pressures for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARM's) which corresponded with the saturated evaporator and condenser temperatures commonly used for pure refrigerants. Compressor calorimeter results were obtained using this equivalent-mean-temperature (EMT) approach and a generally applied Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) procedure at conditions characteristic of a domestic refrigerator-freezer application. Tests with R-12 and two NARM's indicate that compressor volumetric and isentropic efficiencies are nearly the same for refrigerants with similar capacities and pressure ratios. The liquid-line temperature conditions specified in the AHAM calorimeter rating procedure for refrigerator-freezer compressors were found to preferentially derate NARM performance relative to R-12. Conversion of calorimeter data taken with a fixed liquid-line temperature to a uniform minimal level of condenser subcooling is recommended as a fairer procedure when NARM's are involved. Compressor energy-efficiency-ratio (EER) and capacity data measured as a result of the EMT approach were compared to system performance calculated using an equivalent heat exchanger loading (EHXL) protocol based on a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) refrigerator-freezer modeling program. The EHXL protocol was used to transform the calorimeter results into a more relevant representation of potential L-M cycle performance. The EMT method used to set up the calorimeter tests and the AHAM liquid-line conditions combined to significantly understate the cycle potential of NARM's relative to that predicted at the more appropriate EHXL conditions. Compressor conditions representative of larger heat exchanger sizes were also found to give a smaller L-M cycle advantage relative to R-12.

  16. Simulation study of energy resolution, position resolution and >π0-γ separation of a sampling electromagnetic calorimeter at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, A.; Jain, S.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Majumder, G.

    2017-07-01

    A simulation study of energy resolution, position resolution, and π0-γ separation using multivariate methods of a sampling calorimeter is presented. As a realistic example, the geometry of the calorimeter is taken from the design geometry of the Shashlik calorimeter which was considered as a candidate for CMS endcap for the phase II of LHC running. The methods proposed in this paper can be easily adapted to various geometrical layouts of a sampling calorimeter. Energy resolution is studied for different layouts and different absorber-scintillator combinations of the Shashlik detector. It is shown that a boosted decision tree using fine grained information of the calorimeter can perform three times better than a cut-based method for separation of π0 from γ over a large energy range of 20 GeV-200 GeV.

  17. High precision, low disturbance calibration system for the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter High Voltage apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasanella, G.

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillation lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3%/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  18. Charged particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. L.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Kozyrev, A. A.; Shebalin, V. E.; Ruban, A. A.; Bashtovoy, N. S.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes a procedure of particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector currently being developed. The procedure uses the boosted decision tree classification method with specific energy losses of charged particles in the liquid Xenon calorimeter as input variables. The efficiency of the procedure is illustrated by an example of the measurement of the cross section of the process e+e‑→K+K‑ in the center-of-mass energy range from 1.8 to 2.0 GeV.

  19. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter front-end electronics for the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.

    2017-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5-7 times greater luminosities than assumed in the original detector design. An improved trigger system requires an upgrade of the readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40-80 MHz and 16-bit dynamic range and the developments of radiation-tolerant, low-noise, low-power, and high-bandwidth front-end electronic components, including preamplifiers and shapers, 14-bit ADCs, and 10-Gb/s laser diode array drivers, are presented in this paper.

  20. Measurement of liquid water content in a melting snowpack using cold calorimeter techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Jones, E. B.; Howell, S.

    1980-01-01

    Liquid water in a snowpack is a quantifiable parameter of hydrological significance. It is also important in the interpretation of snowpack remote sensing data using microwave techniques. One acceptable approach to measuring liquid water content of a snowpack (by weight) is the cold calorimeter. This technique is presented from theory through application. Silicon oil was used successfully as the freezing agent. Consistent results can be obtained even when using operators with a minimum of training. Data can be obtained approximately every 15 minutes by using two calorimeters and three operators. Accuracy within one to two percent can be achieved under reasonable field conditions.

  1. HARDROC3, a 3rd generation ASIC with zero suppress for ILC Semi Digital Hadronic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulucq, F.; Callier, S.; de La Taille, C.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Zoccarato, Y.

    2017-02-01

    HARDROC is the front end chip designed to read out the Resistive Plate Chambers foreseen for the Digital HAdronic CALorimeter (DHCAL) of the future International Linear Collider. The very fine granularity of the calorimeter implies thousands of electronics channels per cubic meter which is a new feature of "imaging" calorimetry. Moreover, for compactness, chips must be embedded inside the detector making crucial the reduction of the power consumption down to 12 μ W per channel. This is achieved using power-pulsing and online zero-suppression. Around 800 HARDROC3 were produced in 2015. The overall performance and production tests will be detailed.

  2. Test beam results from the D0 liquid argon end calorimeter electromagnetic module

    SciTech Connect

    Spadafora, A.L.

    1991-08-01

    Results are presented from a test beam study of the D0 liquid argon end calorimeter electromagnetic module prior to its installation at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using electron beams with energies ranging from 10--150 GeV we have obtained an energy resolution of 15.7%/{radical}E(GeV) with a small constant term of 0.3% and a linearity of better than {plus minus}0.5%. The position resolution of the calorimeter is found to approximately 1 mm for 100 GeV electrons. 7 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Measurement of liquid water content in a melting snowpack using cold calorimeter techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Jones, E. B.; Howell, S.

    1980-01-01

    Liquid water in a snowpack is a quantifiable parameter of hydrological significance. It is also important in the interpretation of snowpack remote sensing data using microwave techniques. One acceptable approach to measuring liquid water content of a snowpack (by weight) is the cold calorimeter. This technique is presented from theory through application. Silicon oil was used successfully as the freezing agent. Consistent results can be obtained even when using operators with a minimum of training. Data can be obtained approximately every 15 minutes by using two calorimeters and three operators. Accuracy within one to two percent can be achieved under reasonable field conditions.

  4. The Calorimeter Trigger Processor Card: the next generation of high speed algorithmic data processing at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetek, A.; Blake, M.; Cepeda Hermida, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Fobes, R.; Gomber, B.; Gorski, T.; Guo, Z.; Klabbers, P.; Levine, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Ruggles, T.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Tikalsky, J.; Vicente, M.; Woods, N.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS Level-1 upgraded calorimeter trigger requires a powerful, flexible and compact processing card. The Calorimeter Trigger Processor Card (CTP7) uses the Virtex-7 FPGA as its primary data processor and is the first FPGA based processing card in CMS to employ the ZYNQ System-on-Chip (SoC) running embedded Linux to provide TCP/IP communication and board support functions. The CTP7 was built from the ground up to support AXI infrastructure to provide flexible and modular designs with minimal time from project conception to final implementation.

  5. The SOUDAN 2 detector The operation and performance of the tracking calorimeter modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ambats, I.; Ayres, D. S.; Balka, L. J.; Barr, G. D.; Barrett, W. L.; Benjamin, D.; Bode, C.; Border, P. M.; Brooks, C. B.; Cobb, J. H.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coover, K.; Cotton, R. J.; Courant, H.; Dahlin, B. B.; DasGupta, U.; Dawson, J. W.; Demuth, D. M.; Edwards, V. W.; Ewen, B.; Fields, T. H.; Garcia-Garcia, C.; Gallagher, H. M.; Giles, R. H.; Giller, G. L.; Goodman, M. C.; Gray, R. N.; Heppelmann, S.; Hill, N.; Hoftiezer, J. H.; Jankowski, D. J.; Johns, K.; Joyce, T.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Kirby-Gallagher, L. M.; Kochocki, J.; Leeson, W.; Litchfield, P. J.; Longley, N. P.; Lopez, F. V.; Lowe, M. J.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; May, E. N.; Maxam, D.; McMaster, L.; Milburn, R.; Miller, W. H.; Minor, C. P.; Mondal, N.; Mualem, L.; Napier, A.; Nelson, E. M.; Nickson, R.; Oliver, W.; Pearce, G. F.; Perkins, D. H.; Peterson, E. A.; Price, L. E.; Roback, D. M.; Rosen, D. B.; Ruddick, K.; Saitta, B.; Schmid, D. J.; Schlereth, J.; Schneps, J.; Schub, M. H.; Seidlein, R. V.; Shield, P. D.; Shupe, M. A.; Spear, S.; Stassinakis, A.; Sundaralingam, N.; Thomson, M. A.; Thron, J. L.; Vassiliev, V.; Villaume, G.; Wakely, S. P.; Wall, D.; Wallis, E. W. G.; Weems, L.; Werkema, S. J.; West, N.; Wielgosz, U.; Woods, C. A.; Yarker, S.

    1996-02-01

    SOUDAN 2 is a 960-ton tracking calorimeter which has been constructed to search for nucleon decay and other phenomena. The full detector consists of 224 calorimeter modules each weighing 4.3 tons. The modules consist of finely segmented iron instrumented with 1 m long drift tubes of 15 mm internal diameter. The tubes enable three spatial coordinates and {dE }/{dx } to be recorded for charged particles traversing the tubes. The spatial resolution is 0.38 cm in the x- y plane and 0.65 cm in the z, or drift, direction. The operation and performance of the modules are discussed.

  6. The upgrade of the PreProcessor system of the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, V.; Hanke, P.; Jongmanns, J.; Khomich, A.; Meier, K.; Schmitt, K.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Stamen, R.; Stock, P.; Wessels, M.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a pipelined system to identify high-pT objects and to build energy sums within a fixed latency of ~ 2 μs. It consists of a PreProcessor, which conditions and digitises analogue calorimeter signals, and two object-finding processors. The PreProcessor's tasks are implemented on a Multi-Chip Module, holding ADCs, time-adjustment and digital processing ASICs, and LVDS serialisers. A pin-compatible substitute, based on today's technology, like dual-channel ADCs and FPGAs, has been built to improve the BCID and pedestal subtraction algorithms. Test results with the first prototype are presented.

  7. Addition of photosensitive dopants to the D0 liquid argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Amos, N.A.; Anderson, D.F.

    1992-10-01

    The addition of photosensitive dopants to liquid argon greatly enhances the signal from heavily ionizing particles. Since binding energy losses we correlated with the heavily ionizing component in hadronic showers, the addition of photosensitive dopants has been suggested as a mechanism to tune the e/[pi] ratio in liquid argon calorimeters. A measurement was performed at the FNAL test beam, adding 4 ppM tetramethylgermanium to the D[phi] uranium-liquid argon calorimeter. An increase in response for electromagnetic and hadronic showers was observed, with no net change in the e/[pi] ratio.

  8. Addition of photosensitive dopants to the D0 liquid argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Amos, N.A.; Anderson, D.F.; The D0 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    The addition of photosensitive dopants to liquid argon greatly enhances the signal from heavily ionizing particles. Since binding energy losses we correlated with the heavily ionizing component in hadronic showers, the addition of photosensitive dopants has been suggested as a mechanism to tune the e/{pi} ratio in liquid argon calorimeters. A measurement was performed at the FNAL test beam, adding 4 ppM tetramethylgermanium to the D{phi} uranium-liquid argon calorimeter. An increase in response for electromagnetic and hadronic showers was observed, with no net change in the e/{pi} ratio.

  9. Studies of Excess Heat and Convection in a Water Calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Domen, J K; Domen, S R

    2001-01-01

    To explain a difference of 0.5 % between the absorbed-dose standards of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC), Seuntjens et al. suggest the fault lies with the NIST water calorimeter being operated at 22 °C and the method with which the measurements were made. Their calculations show that this difference is due to overprediction of temperature rises of six consecutive (60)Co radiation runs at NIST. However, the consecutive runs they refer to were merely preliminary measurements to determine the procedure for the NIST beam calibration. The beam calibration was determined from only two consecutive runs followed by water circulation to re-establish temperature equilibrium. This procedure was used for measurements on 77 days, with 32 runs per day. Convection external to the glass cylindrical detector assembly performed a beneficial role. It aided (along with conduction) in increasing the rate of excess heat transported away from the thin cylindrical wall. This decreased the rate of heat conducted toward the axially located thermistors. The other sources of excess heat are the: (1) non-water materials in the temperature probe, and (2) exothermic effect of the once-distilled water external to the cylinder. Finite-element calculations were made to determine the separate and combined effects of the excess heat sources for the afterdrift. From this analysis, extrapolation of the measured afterdrifts of two consecutive runs to mid radiation leads to an estimated over-prediction of no more than about 0.1 %. Experimental measurements contradict the calculated results of Seuntjens et al. that convective motion (a plume) originates from the thermistors operated with an electrical power dissipation as low as 0.6 μW, well below the measured threshold of 50 μW. The method used for detecting a plume was sensitive enough to measure a convective plume (if it had started) down to about the 10 μW power level

  10. Studies of Excess Heat and Convection in a Water Calorimeter

    PubMed Central

    Domen, John K.; Domen, Steve R.

    2001-01-01

    To explain a difference of 0.5 % between the absorbed-dose standards of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC), Seuntjens et al. suggest the fault lies with the NIST water calorimeter being operated at 22 °C and the method with which the measurements were made. Their calculations show that this difference is due to overprediction of temperature rises of six consecutive 60Co radiation runs at NIST. However, the consecutive runs they refer to were merely preliminary measurements to determine the procedure for the NIST beam calibration. The beam calibration was determined from only two consecutive runs followed by water circulation to re-establish temperature equilibrium. This procedure was used for measurements on 77 days, with 32 runs per day. Convection external to the glass cylindrical detector assembly performed a beneficial role. It aided (along with conduction) in increasing the rate of excess heat transported away from the thin cylindrical wall. This decreased the rate of heat conducted toward the axially located thermistors. The other sources of excess heat are the: (1) non-water materials in the temperature probe, and (2) exothermic effect of the once-distilled water external to the cylinder. Finite-element calculations were made to determine the separate and combined effects of the excess heat sources for the afterdrift. From this analysis, extrapolation of the measured afterdrifts of two consecutive runs to mid radiation leads to an estimated over-prediction of no more than about 0.1 %. Experimental measurements contradict the calculated results of Seuntjens et al. that convective motion (a plume) originates from the thermistors operated with an electrical power dissipation as low as 0.6 μW, well below the measured threshold of 50 μW. The method used for detecting a plume was sensitive enough to measure a convective plume (if it had started) down to about the 10 μW power level

  11. CALORIC: A readout chip for high granularity calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, L.; Bonnard, J.; Manen, S.; Gay, P.; Soumpholphakdy, X.

    2011-07-01

    A very-front-end electronics has been developed to fulfil requirements for the next generation of electromagnetic calorimeters. The compactness of this kind of detector and its large number of channels (up to several millions) impose a drastic limitation of the power consumption and a high level of integration. The electronic channel proposed is first of all composed of a low-noise Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) able to amplify the charge delivered by a silicon diode up to 10 pC. Next, a two-gain shaping, based on a Gated Integration (G.I.), is implemented to cover the 15 bits dynamic range required: a high gain shaper processes signals from 4 fC (charge corresponding to the MIP) up to 1 pC, and a low gain filter handles charges up to 10 pC. The G.I. performs also the analog memorization of the signal until it is digitalized. Hence, the analog-to-digital conversion is carried out through a low-power 12-bit cyclic ADC. If the signal overloads the high-gain channel dynamic range, a comparator selects the low-gain channel instead. Moreover, an auto-trigger channel has been implemented in order to select and store a valid event over the noise. The timing sequence of the channel is managed by a digital IP. It controls the G.I. switches, generates all needed clocks, drives the ADC and delivers the final result over 12 bits. The whole readout channel is power controlled, which permits to reduce the consumption according to the duty cycle of the beam collider. Simulations have been performed with Spectre simulator on the prototype chip designed with the 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology from Austriamicrosystems. Results show a non-linearity better than 0.1% for the high-gain channel, and a non-linearity limited to 1% for the low-gain channel. The Equivalent Noise Charge referred to the input of the channel is evaluated to 0.4 fC complying with the MIP/10 limit. With the timing sequence of the International Linear Collider, which presents a duty cycle of 1%, the power

  12. A flow calorimeter for determining combustion efficiency from residual enthalpy of exhaust gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Albert; Hibbard, Robert R

    1954-01-01

    A flow calorimeter for determining the combustion efficiency of turbojet and ram-jet combustors from measurement of the residual enthalpy of combustion of the exhaust gas is described. Briefly, the calorimeter catalytically oxidizes the combustible constituents of exhaust-gas samples, and the resultant temperature rise is measured. This temperature rise is related to the residual enthalpy of combustion of the sample by previous calibration of the calorimeter. Combustion efficiency can be calculated from a knowledge of the residual enthalpy of the exhaust gas and the combustor input enthalpy. An accuracy of +-0.2 Btu per cubic foot was obtained with prepared fuel-air mixtures, and the combustion efficiencies of single turbojet combustors measured by both the flow-calorimeter and heat-balance methods compared within 3 percentage units. Flow calorimetry appears to be a suitable method for determining combustion efficiencies at high combustor temperatures where ordinary thermocouples cannot be used. The method is fundamentally more accurate than heat-balance methods at high combustion efficiencies and can be used to verify near-100-percent efficiency data.

  13. A Simple Rate Law Experiment Using a Custom-Built Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadso, Lars; Li, Xi.

    2008-01-01

    Most processes (whether physical, chemical, or biological) produce or consume heat: measuring thermal power (the heat production rate) is therefore a typical method of studying processes. Here we describe the design of a simple isothermal heat conduction calorimeter built for use in teaching; we also provide an example of its use in simultaneously…

  14. Investigating Freezing Point Depression and Cirrus Cloud Nucleation Mechanisms Using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzewski, Kentaro Y.; Caylor, Ryan L.; Comstock, Ashley M.; Hadley, Austin T.; Imholt, Felisha M.; Kirwan, Kory D.; Oyama, Kira S.; Wise, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    A differential scanning calorimeter was used to study homogeneous nucleation of ice from micron-sized aqueous ammonium sulfate aerosol particles. It is important to understand the conditions at which these particles nucleate ice because of their connection to cirrus cloud formation. Additionally, the concept of freezing point depression, a topic…

  15. Investigating Freezing Point Depression and Cirrus Cloud Nucleation Mechanisms Using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzewski, Kentaro Y.; Caylor, Ryan L.; Comstock, Ashley M.; Hadley, Austin T.; Imholt, Felisha M.; Kirwan, Kory D.; Oyama, Kira S.; Wise, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    A differential scanning calorimeter was used to study homogeneous nucleation of ice from micron-sized aqueous ammonium sulfate aerosol particles. It is important to understand the conditions at which these particles nucleate ice because of their connection to cirrus cloud formation. Additionally, the concept of freezing point depression, a topic…

  16. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633,...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633,...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633,...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633,...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1633 - Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Assembly, Shown in Furniture Calorimeter (Configuration A) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633,...