Dyer, John R G; Johansson, Anders; Helbing, Dirk; Couzin, Iain D; Krause, Jens
This paper reviews the literature on leadership in vertebrate groups, including recent work on human groups, before presenting the results of three new experiments looking at leadership and decision making in small and large human groups. In experiment 1, we find that both group size and the presence of uninformed individuals can affect the speed with which small human groups (eight people) decide between two opposing directional preferences and the likelihood of the group splitting. In experiment 2, we show that the spatial positioning of informed individuals within small human groups (10 people) can affect the speed and accuracy of group motion. We find that having a mixture of leaders positioned in the centre and on the edge of a group increases the speed and accuracy with which the group reaches their target. In experiment 3, we use large human crowds (100 and 200 people) to demonstrate that the trends observed from earlier work using small human groups can be applied to larger crowds. We find that only a small minority of informed individuals is needed to guide a large uninformed group. These studies build upon important theoretical and empirical work on leadership and decision making in animal groups.
Wu, Song; Sun, Quanbin
The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of a crowd simulation model developed by the authors by reproducing Dyer et al.'s experiments (published in Philosophical Transactions in 2009) on human leadership and consensus decision making in a computer-based environment. The theoretical crowd model of the simulation environment is presented, and its results are compared and analysed against Dyer et al.'s original experiments. It is concluded that the simulation results are largely consistent with the experiments, which demonstrates the reliability of the crowd model. Furthermore, the simulation data also reveals several additional new findings, namely: 1) the phenomena of sacrificing accuracy to reach a quicker consensus decision found in ants colonies was also discovered in the simulation; 2) the ability of reaching consensus in groups has a direct impact on the time and accuracy of arriving at the target position; 3) the positions of the informed individuals or leaders in the crowd could have significant impact on the overall crowd movement; and 4) the simulation also confirmed Dyer et al.'s anecdotal evidence of the proportion of the leadership in large crowds and its effect on crowd movement. The potential applications of these findings are highlighted in the final discussion of this paper.
Bergman, Jacqueline Z; Rentsch, Joan R; Small, Erika E; Davenport, Shaun W; Bergman, Shawn M
The present study examined the process of shared leadership in 45 ad hoc decision-making teams. Each team member's leadership behavior (n = 180) was assessed by behaviorally coding videotapes of the teams' discussions. The within-team patterns of leadership behavior were examined using cluster analysis. Results indicated that the likelihood of a team experiencing a full range of leadership behavior increased to the extent that multiple team members shared leadership, and that teams with shared leadership experienced less conflict, greater consensus, and higher intragroup trust and cohesion than teams without shared leadership. This study supports previous findings that shared leadership contributes to overall team functioning, and begins to delineate the extent to which team members may naturally share leadership.
Sumpter, David J.T.; Pratt, Stephen C.
Animal groups are said to make consensus decisions when group members come to agree on the same option. Consensus decisions are taxonomically widespread and potentially offer three key benefits: maintenance of group cohesion, enhancement of decision accuracy compared with lone individuals and improvement in decision speed. In the absence of centralized control, arriving at a consensus depends on local interactions in which each individual's likelihood of choosing an option increases with the number of others already committed to that option. The resulting positive feedback can effectively direct most or all group members to the best available choice. In this paper, we examine the functional form of the individual response to others' behaviour that lies at the heart of this process. We review recent theoretical and empirical work on consensus decisions, and we develop a simple mathematical model to show the central importance to speedy and accurate decisions of quorum responses, in which an animal's probability of exhibiting a behaviour is a sharply nonlinear function of the number of other individuals already performing this behaviour. We argue that systems relying on such quorum rules can achieve cohesive choice of the best option while also permitting adaptive tuning of the trade-off between decision speed and accuracy. PMID:19073480
Gavrilets, Sergey; Auerbach, Jeremy; van Vugt, Mark
When group cohesion is essential, groups must have efficient strategies in place for consensus decision-making. Recent theoretical work suggests that shared decision-making is often the most efficient way for dealing with both information uncertainty and individual variation in preferences. However, some animal and most human groups make collective decisions through particular individuals, leaders, that have a disproportionate influence on group decision-making. To address this discrepancy between theory and data, we study a simple, but general, model that explicitly focuses on the dynamics of consensus building in groups composed by individuals who are heterogeneous in preferences, certain personality traits (agreeability and persuasiveness), reputation, and social networks. We show that within-group heterogeneity can significantly delay democratic consensus building as well as give rise to the emergence of informal leaders, i.e. individuals with a disproportionately large impact on group decisions. Our results thus imply strong benefits of leadership particularly when groups experience time pressure and significant conflict of interest between members (due to various between-individual differences). Overall, our models shed light on why leadership and decision-making hierarchies are widespread, especially in human groups. PMID:27412692
Walker, Paul; Lovat, Terry
This paper is predicated on the understanding that clinical encounters between clinicians and patients should be seen primarily as inter-relations among persons and, as such, are necessarily moral encounters. It aims to relocate the discussion to be had in challenging medical decision-making situations, including, for example, as the end of life comes into view, onto a more robust moral philosophical footing than is currently commonplace. In our contemporary era, those making moral decisions must be cognizant of the existence of perspectives other than their own, and be attuned to the demands of inter-subjectivity. Applicable to clinical practice, we propose and justify a Habermasian approach as one useful means of achieving what can be described as dialogic consensus. The Habermasian approach builds around, first, his discourse theory of morality as universalizable to all and, second, communicative action as a cooperative search for truth. It is a concrete way to ground the discourse which must be held in complex medical decision-making situations, in its actual reality. Considerations about the theoretical underpinnings of the application of dialogic consensus to clinical practice, and potential difficulties, are explored.
Can, Tolga; Camoğlu, Orhan; Singh, Ambuj K; Wang, Yuan-Fang
We propose a novel technique for automatically generating the SCOP classification of a protein structure with high accuracy. High accuracy is achieved by combining the decisions of multiple methods using the consensus of a committee (or an ensemble) classifier. Our technique is rooted in machine learning which shows that by judicially employing component classifiers, an ensemble classifier can be constructed to outperform its components. We use two sequence- and three structure-comparison tools as component classifiers. Given a protein structure, using the joint hypothesis, we first determine if the protein belongs to an existing category (family, superfamily, fold) in the SCOP hierarchy. For the proteins that are predicted as members of the existing categories, we compute their family-, superfamily-, and fold-level classifications using the consensus classifier. We show that we can significantly improve the classification accuracy compared to the individual component classifiers. In particular, we achieve error rates that are 3-12 times less than the individual classifiers' error rates at the family level, 1.5-4.5 times less at the superfamily level, and 1.1-2.4 times less at the fold level.
Brower, Robert E.; Balch, Bradley V.
It is essential for every school leader to possess the savvy to effect positive change, raise achievement levels, and foster a positive school climate. Now it seems that the struggle for school leaders to make productive decisions has become clouded with ever-growing uncertainty and skepticism. "Transformational Leadership & Decision Making in…
This on-going study explores the hypothesis that stock fund managers who underperform do so because they make bad decisions, and examines whether their choices can be improved by using a decision model that invokes principles of brain hemispheric consensus. The study, begun in fall 1999, involves two groups of business students: the control group…
Savage, Grant T.
Habermas's theory of dialogue was used to evaluate the process of decision making that occurred in a labor-management committee's meeting to discuss flextime. The study attempted to determine why, at that meeting, the committee's consensus process of decision making failed. W.R. Bion's theory of unconscious group motives was also used to…
Domenach, Florent; Tayari, Ali
There have been various attempts, solutions, and approaches towards constructing an appropriate consensus tree based on a given set of phylogenetic trees. However, for practitioners, it is not always clear, for a given data set, which of these would create the most relevant consensus tree. In this paper, we introduce an open-source software called DASACT (Decision Aiding Software for Axiomatic Consensus Theory) created to assist practitioners on choosing the most appropriate consensus function. It is based on an exhaustive evaluation of axiomatic properties and consensus functions, which define the knowledge space as a concept lattice. Using a selection of axiomatic properties provided by the user, it is able to aid the user in choosing the most suitable function. DASACT is freely available at http://www.cs.unic.ac.cy/florent/software.htm.
Kable, Joseph W.; Glimcher, Paul W.
We review and synthesize recent neurophysiological studies of decision-making in humans and non-human primates. From these studies, the basic outline of the neurobiological mechanism for primate choice is beginning to emerge. The identified mechanism is now known to include a multi-component valuation stage, implemented in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and associated parts of striatum, and a choice stage, implemented in lateral prefrontal and parietal areas. Neurobiological studies of decision-making are beginning to enhance our understanding of economic and social behavior, as well as our understanding of significant health disorders where people’s behavior plays a key role. PMID:19778504
Bayar, Adem; Kerns, James H.
The researchers are interested in the views and perceptions, about leadership, of two leaders within the University of Missouri at the Columbia campus. Therefore, the aim of this research is to understand and to compare and contrast the leadership styles of these two leaders. In order to reach the aim of this recent study, the researchers have…
Kao, Albert B; Miller, Noam; Torney, Colin; Hartnett, Andrew; Couzin, Iain D
Learning has been studied extensively in the context of isolated individuals. However, many organisms are social and consequently make decisions both individually and as part of a collective. Reaching consensus necessarily means that a single option is chosen by the group, even when there are dissenting opinions. This decision-making process decouples the otherwise direct relationship between animals' preferences and their experiences (the outcomes of decisions). Instead, because an individual's learned preferences influence what others experience, and therefore learn about, collective decisions couple the learning processes between social organisms. This introduces a new, and previously unexplored, dynamical relationship between preference, action, experience and learning. Here we model collective learning within animal groups that make consensus decisions. We reveal how learning as part of a collective results in behavior that is fundamentally different from that learned in isolation, allowing grouping organisms to spontaneously (and indirectly) detect correlations between group members' observations of environmental cues, adjust strategy as a function of changing group size (even if that group size is not known to the individual), and achieve a decision accuracy that is very close to that which is provably optimal, regardless of environmental contingencies. Because these properties make minimal cognitive demands on individuals, collective learning, and the capabilities it affords, may be widespread among group-living organisms. Our work emphasizes the importance and need for theoretical and experimental work that considers the mechanism and consequences of learning in a social context.
Bowles, Kathy H.; Holmes, John H.; Naylor, Mary D.; Liberatore, Matthew; Nydick, Robert
This paper describes the results of using a modified Delphi approach designed to achieve consensus from eight discharge planning experts regarding the decision to refer hospitalized older adults for post-discharge follow-up. Experts reviewed 150 cases using an online website designed to facilitate their interaction and efforts to reach agreement on the need for a referral for post-discharge care and the appropriate site for such care. In contrast to an average of eight weeks to complete just 50 cases using the traditional mail method, the first online Delphi round for 150 cases were completed in six weeks. Data provided by experts suggest that online Delphi is a time efficient and acceptable methodology for reaching group consensus. Other benefits include instant access to Delphi decision results, live knowledge of the time requirements and progress of each expert, and cost savings in postage, paper, copying, and storage of paper documents. This online Delphi methodology is highly recommended. PMID:14728143
McDonald, Nicholas D; Rands, Sean A; Hill, Francesca; Elder, Charlotte; Ioannou, Christos C
Whether individual behavior in social settings correlates with behavior when individuals are alone is a fundamental question in collective behavior. However, evidence for whether behavior correlates across asocial and social settings is mixed, and no study has linked observed trends with underlying mechanisms. Consistent differences between individuals in boldness, which describes willingness to accept reward over risk, are likely to be under strong selection pressure. By testing three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a risky foraging task alone and repeatedly in shoals, we demonstrate that the expression of boldness in groups is context-specific. Whereas personality is repeatable in a low-risk behavior (leaving a refuge), the collectively made consensus decision to then cross the arena outweighs leadership by bolder individuals, explaining the suppression of personality in this context. However, despite this social coordination, bolder individuals were still more likely to feed. Habituation and satiation over repeated trials degrade the effect of personality on leaving the refuge and also whether crossing the arena is a collective decision. The suppression of personality in groups suggests that individual risk-taking tendency may rarely represent actual risk in social settings, with implications for the evolution and ecology of personality variation.
McDonald, Nicholas D.; Rands, Sean A.; Hill, Francesca; Elder, Charlotte; Ioannou, Christos C.
Whether individual behavior in social settings correlates with behavior when individuals are alone is a fundamental question in collective behavior. However, evidence for whether behavior correlates across asocial and social settings is mixed, and no study has linked observed trends with underlying mechanisms. Consistent differences between individuals in boldness, which describes willingness to accept reward over risk, are likely to be under strong selection pressure. By testing three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a risky foraging task alone and repeatedly in shoals, we demonstrate that the expression of boldness in groups is context-specific. Whereas personality is repeatable in a low-risk behavior (leaving a refuge), the collectively made consensus decision to then cross the arena outweighs leadership by bolder individuals, explaining the suppression of personality in this context. However, despite this social coordination, bolder individuals were still more likely to feed. Habituation and satiation over repeated trials degrade the effect of personality on leaving the refuge and also whether crossing the arena is a collective decision. The suppression of personality in groups suggests that individual risk-taking tendency may rarely represent actual risk in social settings, with implications for the evolution and ecology of personality variation. PMID:27652342
Hartnett, Andrew T.; Schertzer, Emmanuel; Levin, Simon A.; Couzin, Iain D.
In recent years, a large body of research has focused on unveiling the fundamental physical processes that living systems utilize to perform functions, such as coordinated action and collective decision making. Here, we demonstrate that important features of collective decision making among higher organisms are captured effectively by a novel formulation of well-characterized physical spin systems, where the spin state is equivalent to two opposing preferences, and a bias in the preferred state represents the strength of individual opinions. We reveal that individuals (spins) without a preference (unbiased or uninformed) play a central role in collective decision making, both in maximizing the ability of the system to achieve consensus (via enhancement of the propagation of spin states) and in minimizing the time taken to do so (via a process reminiscent of stochastic resonance). Which state (option) is selected collectively, however, is shown to depend strongly on the nonlinearity of local interactions. Relatively linear social response results in unbiased individuals reinforcing the majority preference, even in the face of a strongly biased numerical minority (thus promoting democratic outcomes). If interactions are highly nonlinear, however, unbiased individuals exert the opposite influence, promoting a strongly biased minority and inhibiting majority preference. These results enhance our understanding of physical computation in biological collectives and suggest new avenues to explore in the collective dynamics of spin systems.
Waldfogel, Julie M; Battle, Dena J; Rosen, Michael; Knight, Louise; Saiki, Catherine B; Nesbit, Suzanne A; Cooper, Rhonda S; Browner, Ilene S; Hoofring, Laura H; Billing, Lynn S; Dy, Sydney M
End-of-life decision making in cancer can be a complicated process. Patients and families encounter multiple providers throughout their cancer care. When the efforts of these providers are not well coordinated in teams, opportunities for high-quality, longitudinal goals of care discussions can be missed. This article reviews the case of a 55-year-old man with lung cancer, illustrating the barriers and missed opportunities for end-of-life decision making in his care through the lens of team leadership, a key principle in the science of teams. The challenges demonstrated in this case reflect the importance of the four functions of team leadership: information search and structuring, information use in problem solving, managing personnel resources, and managing material resources. Engaging in shared leadership of these four functions can help care providers improve their interactions with patients and families concerning end-of-life care decision making. This shared leadership can also produce a cohesive care plan that benefits from the expertise of the range of available providers while reflecting patient needs and preferences. Clinicians and researchers should consider the roles of team leadership functions and shared leadership in improving patient care when developing and studying models of cancer care delivery.
Flaming, Susan C.
The continuing saga of satellite technology development is as much a story of successful risk management as of innovative engineering. How do program leaders on complex, technology projects manage high stakes risks that threaten business success and satellite performance? This grounded theory study of risk decision making portrays decision leadership practices at one communication satellite company. Integrated product team (IPT) leaders of multi-million dollar programs were interviewed and observed to develop an extensive description of the leadership skills required to navigate organizational influences and drive challenging risk decisions to closure. Based on the study's findings the researcher proposes a new decision making model, Deliberative Decision Making, to describe the program leaders' cognitive and organizational leadership practices. This Deliberative Model extends the insights of prominent decision making models including the rational (or classical) and the naturalistic and qualifies claims made by bounded rationality theory. The Deliberative Model describes how leaders proactively engage resources to play a variety of decision leadership roles. The Model incorporates six distinct types of leadership decision activities, undertaken in varying sequence based on the challenges posed by specific risks. Novel features of the Deliberative Decision Model include: an inventory of leadership methods for managing task challenges, potential stakeholder bias and debates; four types of leadership meta-decisions that guide decision processes, and aligned organizational culture. Both supporting and constraining organizational influences were observed as leaders managed major risks, requiring active leadership on the most difficult decisions. Although the company's engineering culture emphasized the importance of data-based decisions, the uncertainties intrinsic to satellite risks required expert engineering judgment to be exercised throughout. An investigation into
Family Support America, Chicago, IL.
At a December, 2000 shared leadership symposium 101 parent and community leaders engaged in structured discourse and debate about key issues related to family support and family and community strengthening. This document presents a consensus statement about key issues related to strengthening families and communities. The document includes…
Wood, Jo Nell; Lea, Dennis
The leadership role of the school business official has changed during the past two centuries. Initially, a lay board oversaw the area of school business. That responsibility then moved to selectmen of the town and later to a committee of men. In 1910, the role of school business official was formalized with the establishment of the National…
Lipham, James M.; Rankin, Robb E.
The findings of 13 studies of educational change, leadership, and decision-making are summarized in this report. Conducted by the staff of the Project on Administration and Organization for Instruction at the University of Wisconsin Center for Education Research, the studies utilized data gathered in over 100 middle, junior, and senior high…
Lipham, James M.
To improve secondary school organization, operation, and outcomes, a research report presents major results from 13 studies of leadership, decision-making, and change conducted by Project on the Administration and Organization for Instruction staff at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in cooperation with over 100 schools. National and statewide…
Zhang, Zhen; Guo, Chonghui
Due to the uncertainty of the decision environment and the lack of knowledge, decision-makers may use uncertain linguistic preference relations to express their preferences over alternatives and criteria. For group decision-making problems with preference relations, it is important to consider the individual consistency and the group consensus before aggregating the preference information. In this paper, consistency and consensus models for group decision-making with uncertain 2-tuple linguistic preference relations (U2TLPRs) are investigated. First of all, a formula which can construct a consistent U2TLPR from the original preference relation is presented. Based on the consistent preference relation, the individual consistency index for a U2TLPR is defined. An iterative algorithm is then developed to improve the individual consistency of a U2TLPR. To help decision-makers reach consensus in group decision-making under uncertain linguistic environment, the individual consensus and group consensus indices for group decision-making with U2TLPRs are defined. Based on the two indices, an algorithm for consensus reaching in group decision-making with U2TLPRs is also developed. Finally, two examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
modern design theory in action, particularly managing the interests of multiple stakeholders, building consensus, and confronting complex problems...The creation of a National Security Council, provided many of the foundational materials for Eisenhower’s national security strategy. Project...Solarium, a planning exercise directed by Eisenhower during the creation of his administration’s national security policy, illustrates an approach to
Estrada, Ernesto; Vargas-Estrada, Eusebio
What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences--peer pressure (PP)--on a social group's collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups. PP can overcome barriers imposed upon a consensus by the existence of tightly connected communities with local leaders or the existence of leaders with poor cohesiveness of opinions. A moderate level of PP is also necessary to explain the rate at which innovations diffuse through a variety of social groups.
Estrada, Ernesto; Vargas-Estrada, Eusebio
What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences--peer pressure (PP)--on a social group's collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups. PP can overcome barriers imposed upon a consensus by the existence of tightly connected communities with local leaders or the existence of leaders with poor cohesiveness of opinions. A moderate level of PP is also necessary to explain the rate at which innovations diffuse through a variety of social groups.
Estrada, Ernesto; Vargas-Estrada, Eusebio
What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences—peer pressure (PP)—on a social group's collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups. PP can overcome barriers imposed upon a consensus by the existence of tightly connected communities with local leaders or the existence of leaders with poor cohesiveness of opinions. A moderate level of PP is also necessary to explain the rate at which innovations diffuse through a variety of social groups. PMID:24104951
Stephens, Mary; Forest, Robert
Instrumental to successful democratic leadership is the use of committees to solve management problems. In democratic leadership, a leader encourages participation and uses a guidance approach to direct a group toward consensus. This document offers leaders guidelines in effective democratic management of meetings. The authors first discuss the…
Truong, Thang Dinh; Hallinger, Philip; Sanga, Kabini
There is an emerging global consensus that the knowledge base in educational leadership and management must offer a deeper examination of leadership practice across a more diverse set of national contexts. Nonetheless, a recent review of the literature in this field concluded that this challenge has yet to be adequately addressed with respect to…
Boufford, J I
This paper touches on patterns of federal government involvement in the health sector since the late 18th century to the present and speculates on its role in the early decades of the 21st century. Throughout the history of the US, government involvement in the health sector came only in the face of crisis, only when there was widespread consensus, and only through sustained leadership. One of the first health-related acts of Congress came about as a matter of interstate commerce regarding the dilemma as to what to do about treating merchant seamen who had no affiliation with any state. Further federal actions were implemented to address epidemics, such as from yellow fever, that traveled from state to state through commercial ships. Each federal action was met with concern and resistance from states' rights advocates, who asserted that the health of the public was best left to the states and localities. It was not until the early part of the 20th century that a concern for social well-being, not merely commerce, drove the agenda for public health action. Two separate campaigns for national health insurance, as well as a rapid expansion of programs to serve the specific health needs of specific populations, led finally to the introduction of Medicaid and Medicare in the 1960s, the most dramatic example of government intervention in shaping the personal health care delivery system in the latter half of the 20th century. As health costs continued to rise and more and more Americans lacked adequate health insurance, a perceived crisis led President Clinton to launch his 1993 campaign to insure every American--the third attempt in this century to provide universal coverage. While the crisis was perceived by many, there was no consensus on action, and leadership outside government was missing. Today, the health care crisis still looms. Despite an economic boom, 1 million Americans lose their health insurance each year, with 41 million Americans, or 15% of the population
Faraci, Palmira; Lock, Michael; Wheeler, Robert
This study aimed to validate the Italian version of the Leadership Judgement Indicator, an unconventional instrument devoted to measurement of leaders' judgments and preferred styles, ie, directive, consultative, consensual, or delegative, when dealing with a range of decision-making scenarios. After forward-translation and back-translation, its psychometric properties were estimated for 299 managers at various levels, who were asked to put themselves in the position of leader and to rate the appropriateness of certain ways of responding to challenge. Differences between several groups of managers, ranked in order of seniority, provided evidence for discriminant validity. Internal consistency was adequate. The findings show that the Italian adaptation of the Leadership Judgement Indicator has promising psychometric qualities, suggesting its suitability for use to improve outcomes in both organizational and selection settings.
Giordano, R; Passarella, G; Uricchio, V F; Vurro, M
The importance of shared decision processes in water management derives from the awareness of the inadequacy of traditional--i.e. engineering--approaches in dealing with complex and ill-structured problems. It is becoming increasingly obvious that traditional problem solving and decision support techniques, based on optimisation and factual knowledge, have to be combined with stakeholder based policy design and implementation. The aim of our research is the definition of an integrated decision support system for consensus achievement (IDSS-C) able to support a participative decision-making process in all its phases: problem definition and structuring, identification of the possible alternatives, formulation of participants' judgments, and consensus achievement. Furthermore, the IDSS-C aims at structuring, i.e. systematising the knowledge which has emerged during the participative process in order to make it comprehensible for the decision-makers and functional for the decision process. Problem structuring methods (PSM) and multi-group evaluation methods (MEM) have been integrated in the IDSS-C. PSM are used to support the stakeholders in providing their perspective of the problem and to elicit their interests and preferences, while MEM are used to define not only the degree of consensus for each alternative, highlighting those where the agreement is high, but also the consensus label for each alternative and the behaviour of individuals during the participative decision-making. The IDSS-C is applied experimentally to a decision process regarding the use of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in the Apulia Region (southern Italy).
We present a new approach for characterizing the potential of scientific studies to reduce conflict among stakeholders in an analytic-deliberative environmental decision-making process. The approach computes a normalized metric, the Expected Consensus Index of New Research (ECINR...
DeMatthews, David E.; Mungal, Angus Shiva; Carrola, Paul A.
The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between social justice leadership and organizational decision making in order to make recommendations for how principals can make more socially just decisions in difficult school contexts. This article begins with a discussion of social justice leadership, facets and theories associated…
Zulfqar, A.; Valcke, M.; Devos, G.; Tuytens, M.; Shahzad, A.
The goal of this study is to examine differences in leadership and decision-making practices in public and private universities in Pakistan, with a focus on transformational leadership (TL) and participative decision-making (PDM). We conducted semi-structured interviews with 46 deans and heads of department from two public and two private…
Conway, Lucian Gideon; Schaller, Mark
The perception of consensus typically produces conformity, but specific attributional circumstances may produce deviance instead. Ironically, the command of an authority figure may create one such circumstance. Participants were presented with scenarios in which they had to make a choice between 2 options. Prior to their decision, they observed others all making a single choice. In some conditions, this consensus occurred following an authority's explicit command to make that choice. Results revealed the hypothesized effect--the authority's command led participants to make deviant decisions-and revealed that this effect was moderated by the authority's continued presence, expertise, the target(s) of the command, and the ability of perceivers to use their cognitive resources.
Smith, Lisa C; Bertolotti, Page; Curran, Kathleen; Jenkins, Bonnie
The novel immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and thalidomide and the novel proteasome inhibitor bortezomib can cause gastrointestinal side effects, including constipation, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, which can have a deleterious effect on quality of life and interfere with optimal therapy. The International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board developed this consensus statement for the management of gastrointestinal side effects associated with novel therapies to be used by healthcare providers in any medical setting. It includes grading criteria and general recommendations for assessing and managing the side effects. Although constipation, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting are expected side effects associated with novel therapies for multiple myeloma, they are manageable with appropriate medical interventions.
Miceli, Teresa; Colson, Kathleen; Gavino, Maria; Lilleby, Kathy
Novel therapies for multiple myeloma include the immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and thalidomide and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, which have increased response rates and survival times. However, the agents can cause myelosuppression, which, if not managed effectively, can be life threatening and interfere with optimal therapy and quality of life. The International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board developed a consensus statement that includes toxicity grading, strategies for monitoring and managing myelosuppression associated with novel therapies, and educational recommendations for patients and their caregivers. Although anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia are expected side effects of novel therapies for multiple myeloma, they are manageable with appropriate interventions and education.
This article, first, examines how Egyptian teachers and senior teachers (formal leaders) define leadership and whether the length of their teaching experience has an effect on their views. Second, it explores their perspectives on the relationship between teacher leadership and decision making. The research sample is a mixed group of 20 Egyptian…
McCreery, Helen F.; Correll, Nikolaus; Breed, Michael D.
Coordinated collective behaviors often emerge from simple rules governing the interactions of individuals in groups. We model mechanisms of coordination among ants during cooperative transport, a challenging task that requires a consensus on travel direction. Our goal is to determine whether groups following simple behavioral rules can reach a consensus using minimal information. Using deterministic and stochastic models, we investigate behavioral factors that affect coordination. We define and investigate three types of behavioral rules governing individual behavior that differ in the information available: individuals either 1) have no information, 2) can measure transport success, or 3) measure success while also knowing whether they are aligned with the majority. We find that groups break deadlocks only if individuals more readily give up when they are going against the majority, corresponding to rule type 3 –such groups are “informed.” These behavioral rules succeed through positive and negative feedbacks that are implemented in our model via a single mechanism: individuals only need to measure the relative group sizes to make effective decisions. We also find that groups reach consensus more quickly if they have either a shared bias, high sensitivity to group behavior, or finely tuned persistence. Each of these is a potential adaptation for efficient cooperative transport. This flexibility makes the behavioral rules in the informed case relatively robust to deficiencies in the individuals’ capabilities. While inspired by ants, our results are generalizable to other collective decisions with deadlocks, and demonstrate that groups of behaviorally simple individuals with no memory and extremely limited information can break symmetry and reach a consensus in a decision between two equal options. PMID:27682983
Aggregation of many species of invertebrate is an example of a consensus decision, the success of which is central to survival. Personality is a stable form of behavioural diversity which has been observed in the aggregation process, but neither the reasons for its stability nor its effects on consensus decisions are well understood. By using an agent-based model of invertebrate aggregation, it is found that diverse personalities have only limited benefits to the experimental consensus decision-making process, but may have a more valuable role in natural settings. Importantly, although certain personalities may ostensibly have potential drawbacks at the individual level, such as choosing to rest in unfavourable places, all individuals are likely to benefit from maintaining a constant personality, which promotes group stability. These findings help to improve understanding of consensus decision-making and the prevalence of stable personality. PMID:27755591
Barrett-Lee, Peter J.; Gosney, Margot A.; Willett, Alexis M.; Reed, Malcolm W.; Hammond, Pauline J.
This qualitative study investigated the attitudes, perceptions, and practices of breast cancer specialists with reference to the effect of patient age on management decisions in breast cancer, and attempted to identify national consensus on this issue. One hundred thirty-three relevant specialists, including 75 surgeons and 43 oncologists, participated in a virtual consultation using e-mailed questionnaires and open-ended discussion documents, culminating in the development of proposed consensus statements sent to participants for validation. A strong consensus was seen in favor of incorporating minimum standards of diagnostic services, treatment, and care for older patients with breast cancer into relevant national guidance, endorsed by professional bodies. Similarly, an overwhelming majority of participants agreed that simple, evidence-based protocols or guidelines on standardizing assessment of biological and chronological age should be produced by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and the Scottish Medicines Consortium, developed in collaboration with specialist oncogeriatricians, and endorsed by professional bodies. A further recommendation that all breast cancer patient treatment and diagnostic procedures be undertaken in light of up-to-date, relevant scientific data met with majority support. This study was successful in gauging national specialist opinion regarding the effect of patient age on management decisions in breast cancer in the U.K. PMID:20551430
McMurray, Alan R.; Bentley, Ernest L., Jr.
To test a situational leadership model, this study sought to determine (1) whether, among a population of educational administrators in East Tennessee, individuals possessing high flexibility/high effectiveness leadership characteristics can be identified and (2) whether those leaders consciously apply Hersey and Blanchard's concept of maturity…
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the quality of leadership decision making at various leadership levels in the further education (FE) sector. Using Hoffberg and Korver's model for integrated decision making, the paper aims to examine how staff in five UK FE colleges perceive the quality of their involvement in decision-making teams…
Roy, Subhradeep; Abaid, Nicole
In this work, we study leader-follower consensus and synchronization protocols over a stochastically switching network. The agents representing the followers can communicate with any other agent, whereas the agents serving as leaders are restricted to interact only with the other leaders. The model incorporates the phenomenon of numerosity, which limits the perceptual capacity of the agents while allowing for shuffling with whom each individual interacts at each time step. We derive closed form expressions for necessary and sufficient conditions for consensus, the rate of convergence to consensus, and conditions for stochastic synchronization in terms of the asymptotic convergence factor. We provide simulation results to validate the theoretical findings and to illustrate the dependence of this factor on system parameters. The closed form results enable us to study the factors affecting the feasibility of consensus. We show that agents' traits can be chosen for an engineered system to maximize the convergence speed and that protocol speed is enhanced as the proportion of the leaders increases in certain cases. These results may find application in the design and control of an engineered leader-follower system, where consensus or synchronization at the fastest possible rate is desired.
Roy, Subhradeep; Abaid, Nicole
In this work, we study leader-follower consensus and synchronization protocols over a stochastically switching network. The agents representing the followers can communicate with any other agent, whereas the agents serving as leaders are restricted to interact only with the other leaders. The model incorporates the phenomenon of numerosity, which limits the perceptual capacity of the agents while allowing for shuffling with whom each individual interacts at each time step. We derive closed form expressions for necessary and sufficient conditions for consensus, the rate of convergence to consensus, and conditions for stochastic synchronization in terms of the asymptotic convergence factor. We provide simulation results to validate the theoretical findings and to illustrate the dependence of this factor on system parameters. The closed form results enable us to study the factors affecting the feasibility of consensus. We show that agents' traits can be chosen for an engineered system to maximize the convergence speed and that protocol speed is enhanced as the proportion of the leaders increases in certain cases. These results may find application in the design and control of an engineered leader-follower system, where consensus or synchronization at the fastest possible rate is desired.
Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad
The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…
Rome, Sandra; Doss, Deborah; Miller, Kena; Westphal, Jeanne
Patients with myeloma are at risk for serious and life-threatening thromboembolic events because of their disease, individual risk factors, and antimyeloma or other medications. The International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board developed this consensus statement for assessment and prevention of thromboembolic events. Prophylactic measures are categorized as mechanical, regimen related, and antithrombotic drug, based on individual and myeloma-related risk factors. Aspirin is suggested for patients with no or one risk factor, low-molecular-weight heparin or full-dose warfarin for patients with two or more risk factors, and low-molecular-weight heparin or full-dose warfarin for all patients with therapy-related risks, including high-dose dexamethasone, doxorubicin, or multiagent chemotherapy.
Faiman, Beth; Bilotti, Elizabeth; Mangan, Patricia A; Rogers, Kathryn
Steroids have been the foundation of multiple myeloma therapy for more than 30 years and continue to be prescribed as single agents and in combination with other antimyeloma drugs, including novel therapies. Steroids cause a wide range of side effects that affect almost every system of the body. Identification and prompt management of the toxicities contribute to the success of steroid-containing antimyeloma regimens. By following patients carefully and educating them and their caregivers, nurses can promote adherence to therapy and improve quality of life. The International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board developed this consensus statement for the management of steroid-associated side effects to be used by healthcare providers in any medical setting.
Ylimaki, Rose M.; Brunner, C. Cryss
This exploratory article draws on multiple theoretical lenses and empirical research to focus on collaboration-consensus/conflict and power as experienced within literacy curriculum change efforts. Conflict and collaboration processes are discussed in the literature but remain dualistic and lack the nuance of deeper understanding. The article…
Pearce, Daniel J. G.; Giomi, Luca
Large collections of autonomously moving agents, such as animals or micro-organisms, are able to flock coherently in space even in the absence of a central control mechanism. While the direction of the flock resulting from this critical behavior is random, this can be controlled by a small subset of informed individuals acting as leaders of the group. In this article we use the Vicsek model to investigate how flocks respond to leadership and make decisions. Using a combination of numerical simulations and continuous modeling we demonstrate that flocks display a linear response to leadership that can be cast in the framework of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, identifying an effective temperature reflecting how promptly the flock reacts to the initiative of the leaders. The linear response to leadership also holds in the presence of two groups of informed individuals with competing interests, indicating that the flock's behavioral decision is determined by both the number of leaders and their degree of influence.
Brown, Ronald E. L.
This study investigates presidential leadership in decision-making at three private Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and compares understandings of presidential power within and among the three colleges given their unique institutional contexts. The research questions guiding this study include. How do the presidents of 3…
Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
The School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children was launched in June 1994 to improve the health and education of children through better nutrition. This leadership guide provides information to school decision-makers on using materials and resources developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and describes Team Nutrition, an implementation…
Towndrow, Phillip A.; Vallance, Michael
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to detail the necessity for more informed decision making and leadership in the implementation of 1-to-1 computing in education. Design/methodology/approach: The contexts of high-tech countries of Singapore and Japan are used as case studies to contextualize and support four evidence-based recommendations for…
City, Elizabeth A.
In "Resourceful Leadership", Elizabeth A. City examines decisions about the use of three key resources--time, money, and staff--and how tradeoffs among them are integrated into school leaders' improvement strategies. She undertakes a detailed study of two small urban high schools in their first year of conversion from a large, comprehensive high…
Mueller, Crystal A.
The research addressed the problem of technology initiatives failing to meet organizational objectives. The purpose of the quantitative correlation study was to determine the relationship between transformational leadership styles, decision-making styles, and technology readiness. The findings of the study answered research questions in three…
Afghanistan and Iraq Cases ," United States Naval Academy, February 23, 2006, http://www.usna.edu/Ethics/Publications/MattisPg1-28_Final.pdf (accessed... imperative . When subjected to these pressures, the human brain defaults to an intuitive decision- making style that is easier and more natural than...unquantifiable variables. Not only are the intuitive decisions made quicker, but research indicates that in certain cases , the intuitive decision maker
Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T
Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas.
Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo
Due to the vagueness of real-world environments and the subjective nature of human judgments, it is natural for experts to estimate their judgements by using incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. In this paper, based on the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method, we present a consensus model for group decision-making (GDM) with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. To do this, we first define a new consistency measure for incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. Second, a goal programming model is proposed to estimate the missing interval preference values and it is guided by the consistency property. Third, an ideal interval fuzzy preference relation is constructed by using the induced ordered weighted averaging operator, where the associated weights of characterizing the operator are based on the defined consistency measure. Fourth, a similarity degree between complete interval fuzzy preference relations and the ideal one is defined. The similarity degree is related to the associated weights, and used to aggregate the experts' preference relations in such a way that more importance is given to ones with the higher similarity degree. Finally, a new algorithm is given to solve the GDM problem with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations, which is further applied to partnership selection in formation of virtual enterprises.
McDonald, Sara L.; Rigling Gallagher, Deborah
Professionally facilitated multi-stakeholder meetings of marine mammal Take Reduction Teams, such as the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Team, are mandated by the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972. These meetings employ consensus-based decision-making to create policies to safeguard marine mammals. This opportunistic case study examines the history of the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Team multi-stakeholder group, and policy decisions the team made to address harmful interactions between harbor porpoises and the New England and mid-Atlantic groundfish fishery. For more than a decade, stakeholders regularly met to create regulations designed to mitigate the accidental entanglement of harbor porpoises in gillnets, called bycatch. A series of disruptions, including a new political appointee and the addition of new team members, altered how stakeholders interacted with one another and how regulations were implemented. These shocks to the formerly well-functioning team, placed the future of consensus-based policy creation at risk. Lessons from this case study can be applied to increase understanding of how multi-stakeholder methods, which are incorporated into many regulatory decision-making processes operate in practice and illustrate the fragile nature of long-standing consensus.
McDonald, Sara L; Rigling Gallagher, Deborah
Professionally facilitated multi-stakeholder meetings of marine mammal Take Reduction Teams, such as the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Team, are mandated by the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972. These meetings employ consensus-based decision-making to create policies to safeguard marine mammals. This opportunistic case study examines the history of the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Team multi-stakeholder group, and policy decisions the team made to address harmful interactions between harbor porpoises and the New England and mid-Atlantic groundfish fishery. For more than a decade, stakeholders regularly met to create regulations designed to mitigate the accidental entanglement of harbor porpoises in gillnets, called bycatch. A series of disruptions, including a new political appointee and the addition of new team members, altered how stakeholders interacted with one another and how regulations were implemented. These shocks to the formerly well-functioning team, placed the future of consensus-based policy creation at risk. Lessons from this case study can be applied to increase understanding of how multi-stakeholder methods, which are incorporated into many regulatory decision-making processes operate in practice and illustrate the fragile nature of long-standing consensus.
Keller, Jonathan W.; Yang, Yi Edward
The poliheuristic (PH) theory of decision making has made important contributions to our understanding of political decision making but remains silent about certain key aspects of the decision process. Specifically, PH theory contends that leaders screen out politically unacceptable options, but it provides no guidance on (1) the crucial threshold…
Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Galesic, Mirta
Few empirical data exist on how decision making about health differs from that in other crucial life domains with less threatening consequences. To shed light on this issue we conducted a study with 175 young adults (average age 19 years). We presented the participants with scenarios involving advisors who provided assistance in making decisions about health, money, and career. For each scenario, participants were asked to what extent they wanted the advisor to exhibit several leadership styles and competencies and what role (active, collaborative, or passive) they preferred to play when making decisions. Results show that decision making about health is distinct from that in the other domains in three ways. First, most of the participants preferred to delegate decision making about their health to their physician, whereas they were willing to collaborate or play an active role in decision making about their career or money. Second, the competencies and leadership style preferred for the physician differed substantially from those desired for advisors in the other two domains: Participants expected physicians to show more transformational leadership--the style that is most effective in a wide range of environments--than those who provide advice about financial investments or career. Finally, participants' willingness to share medical decision making with their physician was tied to how strongly they preferred that the physician shows an effective leadership style. In contrast, motivation to participate in decision making in the other domains was not related to preferences regarding advisors' leadership style or competencies. Our results have implications for medical practice as they suggest that physicians are expected to have superior leadership skills compared to those who provide assistance in other important areas of life.
Zhang, Wancheng; Xu, Yejun; Wang, Huimin
The aim of this paper is to put forward a consensus reaching method for multi-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems with linguistic information, in which the weight information of experts and attributes is unknown. First, some basic concepts and operational laws of 2-tuple linguistic label are introduced. Then, a grey relational analysis method and a maximising deviation method are proposed to calculate the incomplete weight information of experts and attributes respectively. To eliminate the conflict in the group, a weight-updating model is employed to derive the weights of experts based on their contribution to the consensus reaching process. After conflict elimination, the final group preference can be obtained which will give the ranking of the alternatives. The model can effectively avoid information distortion which is occurred regularly in the linguistic information processing. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the application of the proposed method and comparative analysis with the existing methods are offered to show the advantages of the proposed method.
Leech, Don; Fulton, Charles Ray
The traditional roles of teachers and principals have changed and improved organizational teamwork is fostered by all members of the learning community assuming decision making roles. Toward this end, the purpose of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between teachers' perceptions of the leadership behaviors of secondary…
Consortium for School Networking (NJ1), 2005
This Backgrounder Brief is an executive summary of "Data-Driven Decision Making: Vision to Know and Do," a component of CoSN's Essential Leadership Skills Series. Collecting student achievement data is nothing new in schools. But for all of the data gathered, many schools remain information poor. Educators are challenged to understand…
Turalska, M.; West, B. J.
We consider a dual model of decision making, in which an individual forms its opinion based on contrasting mechanisms of imitation and rational calculation. The decision-making model (DMM) implements imitating behavior by means of a network of coupled two-state master equations that undergoes a phase transition at a critical value of a control parameter. The evolutionary spatial game, being a generalization of the prisoner's dilemma game, is used to determine in objective fashion the cooperative or anticooperative strategy adopted by individuals. Interactions between two sources of dynamics increases the domain of initial states attracted to phase transition dynamics beyond that of the DMM network in isolation. Additionally, on average the influence of the DMM on the game increases the final observed fraction of cooperators in the system.
Hariri, Hasan; Monypenny, Richard; Prideaux, Murray
School leadership has been well researched in developed countries. However, in Asia, particularly in Indonesia, school leadership has not been well explored. Using survey data from a sample of 475 teachers in six Lampung school districts, this paper examines the relationships between school principal leadership styles and school principal…
Oni, Adesoji A.; Adetoro, Jeremiah A.
This study examines student involvement in university leadership and decision-making and its impacts on leadership effectiveness in universities in Nigeria. The study uses a descriptive survey conducted among students and staff in all 12 of the public and private universities in South-West Nigeria. The research findings indicate that there is a…
Hariri, Hasan; Monypenny, Richard; Prideaux, Murray
School leadership is seen as important for both schools and for government and private policy-makers. The relationships between teacher-perceived principal leadership styles, teacher-perceived principal decision-making styles and teacher-perceived job satisfaction in schools in Lampung Province, Indonesia were examined. Data were collected by…
Collignon, B; Detrain, C
In the ant species Tetramorium caespitum, communication and foraging patterns rely on group-mass recruitment. Scouts having discovered food recruit nestmates and behave as leaders by guiding groups of recruits to the food location. After a while, a mass recruitment takes place in which foragers follow a chemical trail. Since group recruitment is crucial to the whole foraging process, we investigated whether food characteristics induce a tuning of recruiting stimuli by leaders that act upon the dynamics and size of recruited groups. High sucrose concentration triggers the exit of a higher number of groups that contain twice as many ants and reach the food source twice as fast than towards a weakly concentrated one. Similar trends were found depending on food accessibility: for a cut mealworm, accessibility to haemolymph results in a faster formation of larger groups than for an entire mealworm. These data provide the background for developing a stochastic model accounting for exploitation patterns by group-mass recruiting species. This model demonstrates how the modulations performed by leaders drive the colony to select the most profitable food source among several ones. Our results highlight how a minority of individuals can influence collective decisions in societies based on a distributed leadership.
contextual/organizational factors that Treviño et al. considers are language , rewards/punishments, ethical infrastructure, ethical climate/culture, and...leadership. Language was found to influence ethical behaviour. For example, individuals in organizations that openly discussed ethics predicted...These factors include language , rewards/punishments, ethical infrastructure, ethical climate/culture, and leadership in organizations. Page 38
Shared leadership is a process empowering parents to exercise their civil rights, build leadership skills, and guide the design of policy positions and programs meant to improve their lives and the well-being of their children. Based on principles of family support practice, this book describes how to plan and host a 1- to 3-day shared leadership…
Vaughan, George B.; And Others
Focusing primarily on issues that can be directly influenced by actions of the governing board or president, the nine chapters of this book explore the ethical dilemmas of leadership in today's community colleges. In "Leaders on a Tightrope: The Risks and Tensions of Community College Leadership," George B. Vaughan provides an overview of some of…
Bella, Jill; Bloom, Paula Jorde
Using the photographic concept of zoom as a metaphor for the goals of leadership training as well as the personal transformation that occurs within individuals who engage in professional development to enhance their leadership capacity, this study took a focused look at 182 individuals participating in two models of early childhood leadership…
Vezhnovets', T A
The aim of our study was to examine the influence of age and management experience of executives in healthcare institutions at the style of decision-making. The psychological study of 144 executives was conducted. We found out that the age of executives in healthcare institutions does not affect the style of managerial decision making, while experience in leadership position does. Also it was established that the more experienced leader is, the more often he will make decision in authoritative, autonomous, marginal style and the less management experience is, the more likely is the usage of indulgent and situational style. Moreover, the authoritarian style is typical for younger executives, marginal and autonomous is typical for elder executives.
The 1st Baltic Osseointegration Academy and Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Consensus Conference 2016. Summary and Consensus Statements: Group II - Peri-Implantitis Diagnostics and Decision Tree
Dursun, Erhan; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Juodzbalys, Gintaras; López-Martínez, Jesús; O'Valle, Francisco; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Ramanauskaite, Ausra
ABSTRACT Introduction The task of Group 2 was to review and update the existing data concerning clinical and genetic methods of diagnostics of peri-implantitis. Special interest was paid to the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) overview including analysis of enzymes and biomarkers and microbial profiles from implants. Material and Methods The main areas of interest were as follows: effect of smoking and history of periodontitis, prosthetic treatment mistakes, excess cement, overloading, general diseases influence on peri-implantitis development. The systematic review and/or meta-analysis were registered in PROSPERO, an international prospective register of systematic reviews: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/. The literature in the corresponding areas of interest was searched and reported using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) Statement: http://www.prisma-statement.org/. The method of preparation of systematic reviews of the literature based on comprehensive search strategies was discussed and standardized. The summary of the materials and methods employed by the authors in preparing the systematic review and/or meta-analysis is presented in Preface chapter. Results The results and conclusions of the review process are presented in the respective papers. The group′s general commentaries, consensus statements, clinical recommendations and implications for research are presented in this article. PMID:27833736
Choge, Jepkemboi Ruth
The degree of attention given to women leadership in Education in Kenya has increased considerably in the recent years especially after the government introduced the affirmative action for both girls and women in education and employment in support of Millennium Development Goals, World Conventions, the Kenya Vision 2030 blue print for economic…
Smiley, Robert W.
This qualitative, multi-case research study examines how leaders use data to inform decisions related to technology use, including how they use enGauge program evaluation data, identifies leadership practices and related contextual factors present in four K-12 public school districts. This research study examines the questions: What are the…
Godreau Cimma, Kelly L.
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe one Connecticut middle school's voluntary implementation of a data-driven decision making process in order to improve student academic performance. Data-driven decision making is a component of Connecticut's accountability system to assist schools in meeting the requirements of the No…
Wildy, Helen; Forster, Pat; Louden, William; Wallace, John
School principals have difficulty embracing the competing demands of school restructuring. These demands include being accountable for the outcomes of other decision-making groups within, or external to, the school community; having strong views while making decisions collaboratively; and using group processes without wasting the time, commitment,…
Johnson, Bob L., Jr.; Kruse, Sharon D.
Why another book on decision making? In this increasingly complex world, there are many tensions inherent in the daily practice of educational leaders. This book illuminates these tensions, and acknowledges the reality that there are already multiple approaches to decision making in any educational context. The authors offer a guide to integrate…
Tan, Xiao; Gong, Zaiwu; Huang, Minji; Wang, Zhou-Jing
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pose serious threats to human health. Increasing attention has been paid to POPs to protect the environment and prevent disease. Humans are exposed to POPs through diet (the major route), inhaling air and dust and skin contact. POPs are very lipophilic and hydrophobic, meaning that they accumulate in fatty tissues in animals and can biomagnify. Humans can therefore be exposed to relatively high POP concentrations in food of animal origin. Cooking animal products can decrease the POP contents, and different cooking methods achieve different reduction rates. Here, a consensus decision-making model with interval preference relations is used to prioritize cooking methods for specific animal products in terms of reducing POP concentrations. Two consistency mathematical expressions (I-consistency and II-consistency) are defined, then the ideal interval preference relations are determined for the cooking methods with respect to different social choice principles. The objective is to minimize disparities between individual judgments and the ideal consensus judgment. Consistency is used as a constraint to determine the rationality of the consistency definitions. A numerical example indicated that baking is the best cooking method for decreasing POP concentrations in grass carp. The I-consistency results were more acceptable than the II-consistency results. PMID:28216589
Tan, Xiao; Gong, Zaiwu; Huang, Minji; Wang, Zhou-Jing
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pose serious threats to human health. Increasing attention has been paid to POPs to protect the environment and prevent disease. Humans are exposed to POPs through diet (the major route), inhaling air and dust and skin contact. POPs are very lipophilic and hydrophobic, meaning that they accumulate in fatty tissues in animals and can biomagnify. Humans can therefore be exposed to relatively high POP concentrations in food of animal origin. Cooking animal products can decrease the POP contents, and different cooking methods achieve different reduction rates. Here, a consensus decision-making model with interval preference relations is used to prioritize cooking methods for specific animal products in terms of reducing POP concentrations. Two consistency mathematical expressions (I-consistency and I I -consistency) are defined, then the ideal interval preference relations are determined for the cooking methods with respect to different social choice principles. The objective is to minimize disparities between individual judgments and the ideal consensus judgment. Consistency is used as a constraint to determine the rationality of the consistency definitions. A numerical example indicated that baking is the best cooking method for decreasing POP concentrations in grass carp. The I-consistency results were more acceptable than the I I -consistency results.
Kurstedt, Jr., H. A.; Jones, R. M.; Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.
In this paper, we describe a new research effort on consensus tied to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) within the US Department of Energy's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). We define consensus and explain why consensus decisions are not merely desirable but necessary in furthering ERP activities. As examples of our planned applied research, we first discuss Nominal Group Technique as a representative consensus-generating tool, and we conclude by describing the consensus-related mission of the Waste Management Review Group, established at Virginia Tech to conduct independent, third-party review of DWTM/ERP plans and activities. 10 refs.
Norris, Cynthia J.; Achilles, C. M.
Identifies a new source of leadership style--intuitive leadership. Discusses how an intuitive style may fit into the scheme of education leadership-training; reviews literature on intuitive leadership styles; and suggests procedures by which higher educational personnel can employ and encourage the use of intuition as part of the decision-making…
Jit, Mark; Levin, Carol; Brisson, Marc; Levin, Ann; Resch, Stephen; Berkhof, Johannes; Kim, Jane; Hutubessy, Raymond
Low- and middle-income countries need to consider economic issues such as cost-effectiveness, affordability and sustainability before introducing a program for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. However, many such countries lack the technical capacity and data to conduct their own analyses. Analysts informing policy decisions should address the following questions: 1) Is an economic analysis needed? 2) Should analyses address costs, epidemiological outcomes, or both? 3) If costs are considered, what sort of analysis is needed? 4) If outcomes are considered, what sort of model should be used? 5) How complex should the analysis be? 6) How should uncertainty be captured? 7) How should model results be communicated? Selecting the appropriate analysis is essential to ensure that all the important features of the decision problem are correctly represented, but that the analyses are not more complex than necessary. This report describes the consensus of an expert group convened by the World Health Organization, prioritizing key issues to be addressed when considering economic analyses to support HPV vaccine introduction in these countries.
Pearce, Daniel; Giomi, Luca
The Vicsek model is the prototypical system for studying collective behavior of interacting self propelled particles (SPPs). It has formed the basis for models explaining the collective behavior of many active systems including flocks of birds and swarms of insects. To the standard Vicsek model we introduce a small angular torque to a subset of the particles and observe how this effects the direction of polarisation of the entire swarm. This is analogous to a few informed birds trying to lead the rest of a large flock by initiating a turn. We find a linear response to this perturbation and fluctuations that are in agreement with fluctuation dissipation theorem. This allows the identification of an effective temperature for the Vicsek model that follows a power law with the noise amplitude. The linear response can also be extended to the process of decision-making, wherein flocks must decide between the behaviors of two competing subgroups of individuals.
Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Hausberger, Martine; Petit, Odile
Leadership is commonly invoked when accounting for the coordination of group movements in animals, yet it remains loosely defined. In parallel, there is increased evidence of the sharing of group decisions by animals on the move. How leadership integrates within this recent framework on collective decision-making is unclear. Here, we question the occurrence of leadership in horses, a species in which this concept is of prevalent use. The relevance of the three main definitions of leadership – departing first, walking in front travel position, and eliciting the joining of mates – was tested on the collective movements of two semi-free ranging groups of Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii). We did not find any leader capable of driving most group movements or recruiting mates more quickly than others. Several group members often displayed pre-departure behaviours at the same time, and the simultaneous departure of several individuals was common. We conclude that the decision-making process was shared by several group members a group movement (i.e., partially shared consensus) and that the leadership concept did not help to depict individual departure and leading behaviour across movements in both study groups. Rather, the different proxies of leadership produced conflicting information about individual contributions to group coordination. This study discusses the implications of these findings for the field of coordination and decision-making research. PMID:26010442
Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Hausberger, Martine; Petit, Odile
Leadership is commonly invoked when accounting for the coordination of group movements in animals, yet it remains loosely defined. In parallel, there is increased evidence of the sharing of group decisions by animals on the move. How leadership integrates within this recent framework on collective decision-making is unclear. Here, we question the occurrence of leadership in horses, a species in which this concept is of prevalent use. The relevance of the three main definitions of leadership--departing first, walking in front travel position, and eliciting the joining of mates--was tested on the collective movements of two semi-free ranging groups of Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii). We did not find any leader capable of driving most group movements or recruiting mates more quickly than others. Several group members often displayed pre-departure behaviours at the same time, and the simultaneous departure of several individuals was common. We conclude that the decision-making process was shared by several group members a group movement (i.e., partially shared consensus) and that the leadership concept did not help to depict individual departure and leading behaviour across movements in both study groups. Rather, the different proxies of leadership produced conflicting information about individual contributions to group coordination. This study discusses the implications of these findings for the field of coordination and decision-making research.
would enable the Operation by reducing the risk to his force and he used a combination of leadership traits to achieve his goal. Eisenhower personally ...the strategy.6 He personally engaged along multiple echelons to ensure success by using different methods to communicate his intent and the...eliminate the friction as threats.8 Eisenhower recognized that personalities could derail a strategy. He understood that leadership styles
Lamb, B; Green, J S A; Vincent, C; Sevdalis, N
Decisions in surgical oncology are increasingly being made by multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs). Although MDTs have been widely accepted as the preferred model for cancer service delivery, the process of decision making has not been well described and there is little evidence pointing to the ideal structure of an MDT. Performance in surgery has been shown to depend on non-technical skills, such as decision making, as well as patient factors and the technical skills of the healthcare team. Application of this systems approach to MDT working allows the identification of factors that affect the quality of decision making for cancer patients. In this article we review the literature on decision making in surgical oncology and by drawing from the systems approach to surgical performance we provide a framework for understanding the process of decision making in MDTs. Technical factors that affect decision making include the information about patients, robust ICT and video-conferencing equipment, a minimum dataset with expert review of radiological and pathological information, implementation and recording of the MDTs decision. Non-technical factors with an impact on decision making include attendance of team members at meetings, leadership, teamwork, open discussion, consensus on decisions and communication with patients and primary care. Optimising these factors will strengthen the decision making process and raise the quality of care for cancer patients.
Although there is a consensus that authentic leadership should be an essential component in educational leadership, no study to date has ever tried to find whether team-based simulations may promote authentic leadership. The purpose of this study was to identify whether principal trainees can develop authentic leadership through ethical decision…
Parker, Jeanette Plauche; Begnaud, Lucy Gremillion
This book provides an overview of leadership in grades 6-12. Drawing upon theories based on cognitive and affective leadership and the role of leadership in gifted education, it discusses leadership as it pertains to research projects, problem solving, interpersonal communication, and decision-making. The book offers strategies for curriculum…
Melanson, Mark A
Becoming a good leader starts with effectively leading yourself. Good leadership flows from good followership. While leaders need to be adaptive, they need to make sure that change is actually necessary and not merely the illusion of progress. Effective juggling of leadership responsibilities requires identifying the glass balls and making sure that they do not drop. Leaders need to be visible and be out front, especially when things get rough or when they are the most perilous. Anger should never be allowed to reign and cloud a leader's judgment. Leadership is not "one size fits all," those being led are unique and, consequently, different approaches will be necessary to properly motivate followers. When considering important leadership decisions, it is advisable to seek out your own Napoleon's Corporal to be sure that your plan is sound and those who will implement it do in fact fully understand it. Genuine belief in your Soldiers is the most powerful and lasting thing that you can express as a leader. Lastly, mentoring is a solemn responsibility of leaders that must never be eclipsed by the many literal and figurative battles of the day.
Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez
On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161
Kariuki, C M; van Arendonk, J A M; Kahi, A K; Komen, H
Dairy cattle industries contribute to food and nutrition security and are a source of income for numerous households in many developing countries. Selective breeding can enhance efficiency in these industries. Developing dairy industries are characterized by diverse production and marketing systems. In this paper, we use weighted goal aggregating procedure to derive consensus trait preferences for different producer categories and processors. We based the study on the dairy industry in Kenya. The analytic hierarchy process was used to derive individual preferences for milk yield (MY), calving interval (CIN), production lifetime (PLT), mature body weight (MBW), and fat yield (FY). Results show that classical classification of production systems into large-scale and smallholder systems does not capture all differences in trait preferences. These differences became apparent when classification was based on productivity at the individual animal level, with high and low intensity producers and processors as the most important groups. High intensity producers had highest preferences for PLT and MY, whereas low intensity producers had highest preference for CIN and PLT; processors preferred MY and FY the most. The highest disagreements between the groups were observed for FY, PLT, and MY. Individual and group preferences were aggregated into consensus preferences using weighted goal programming. Desired gains were obtained as a product of consensus preferences and percentage genetic gains (G%). These were 2.42, 0.22, 2.51, 0.15, and 0.87 for MY, CIN, PLT, MBW, and FY, respectively. Consensus preferences can be used to derive a single compromise breeding objective for situations where the same genetic resources are used in diverse production and marketing circumstances.
exacer- bated in the mid-2000s with her marital problems and the death of her daughter, Jang Kum-song, who committed suicide in 2006. Some reports claim...community. Some believe that the close ties between the two in their days in the Kim Il-sung Socialist Youth League created a bond that con- tinues to...and his daughter al- legedly tried to commit suicide following Kim Jong-il’s death. Kim Ok appeared at various leadership events during the mourning
Tucker, Tommy N.
This phenomenological, mixed-method study compared and contrasted virtual K-12 school leadership with traditional face-to-face leadership. All 106 participants served for a minimum of two years in each setting. The study was conducted in two phases in order to reveal consensus and dissensus points of view. Conceptually, a postmodern framework was…
The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…
The 2016 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, Shared Decision Making in the Emergency Department: Development of a Policy-relevant Patient-centered Research Agenda May 10, 2016, New Orleans, LA.
Grudzen, Corita R; Anderson, Jana R; Carpenter, Christopher R; Hess, Erik P
Shared decision making in emergency medicine has the potential to improve the quality, safety, and outcomes of emergency department (ED) patients. Given that the ED is the gateway to care for patients with a variety of illnesses and injuries and the safety net for patients otherwise unable to access care, shared decision making in the ED is relevant to numerous disciplines and the interests of the United States (U.S.) public. On May 10, 2016 the 16th annual Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Shared Decision Making: Development of a Policy-Relevant Patient-Centered Research Agenda" was held in New Orleans, Louisiana. During this one-day conference clinicians, researchers, policy-makers, patient and caregiver representatives, funding agency representatives, trainees, and content experts across many areas of medicine interacted to define high priority areas for research in 1 of 6 domains: 1) diagnostic testing; 2) policy, 3) dissemination/implementation and education, 4) development and testing of shared decision making approaches and tools in practice, 5) palliative care and geriatrics, and 6) vulnerable populations and limited health literacy. This manuscript describes the current state of shared decision making in the ED context, provides an overview of the conference planning process, the aims of the conference, the focus of each respective breakout session, the roles of patient and caregiver representatives and an overview of the conference agenda. The results of this conference published in this issue of AEM provide an essential summary of the future research priorities for shared decision making to increase quality of care and patient-centered outcomes.
Kea, Bory; Sun, Benjamin Chih-An
Consensus development sprang from a desire to synthesize clinician and expert opinions on clinical practice and research agendas in the 1950s. And since the American Institute of Medicine formally defined "guidelines" in 1990, there has been a proliferation of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) both formally and informally. This modern decision-making tool used by both physicians and patients, requires extensive planning to overcome the challenges of consensus development while reaping its rewards. Consensus allows for a group approach of multiple experts sharing ideas to form consensus on topics ranging from appropriateness of procedures to research agenda development. Disagreements can shed light on areas of controversy and launch further discussions. It has five main components: three inputs (defining the task, participant identification and recruitment, and information synthesis), the approach (consensus development by explicit or implicit means), and the output (dissemination of results). Each aspect requires extensive planning a priori as they influence the entire process, from how information will be interpreted, the interaction of participants, the resulting judgment, to whether there will be uptake of results. Implicit approaches utilize qualitative methods and/or a simple voting structure of majority wins, and are used in informal consensus development methods and consensus development conferences. Explicit approaches aggregate results or judgments using explicit rules set a priori with definitions of "agreement" or consensus. Because the implicit process can be more opaque, unforeseen challenges can emerge such as the undue influence of a minority. And yet, the logistics of explicit approaches may be more time consuming and not appropriate when speed is a priority. In determining which method to use, it is important to understand the pros and cons of different approaches and how it will affect the overall input, approach, and outcome.
Kea, Bory; Sun, Benjamin C.
Consensus development sprang from a desire to synthesize clinician and expert opinions on clinical practice and research agendas in the 1950s. And since the American Institute of Medicine formally defined “guidelines” in 1990, there has been a proliferation of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) both formally and informally. This modern decision making tool used by both physicians and patients, requires extensive planning to meet the challenges of consensus development while reaping its rewards. Consensus allows for a group approach with multiple experts sharing ideas to form consensus on topics ranging from appropriateness of procedures to research agenda development. Disagreements can shed light on areas of controversy and launch further discussions. It has five main components: three inputs (defining the task, participant identification and recruitment, and information synthesis), the approach (consensus development by explicit or implicit means), and the output (dissemination of results). Each aspect requires extensive planning a priori as they influence the entire process, from how information will be interpreted, the interaction of participants, the resulting judgment, to whether there will be uptake of results. Implicit approaches utilize qualitative methods and/or a simple voting structure of majority wins, and are used in informal consensus development methods and consensus development conferences. Explicit approaches aggregate results or judgments using explicit rules set a priori with definitions of “agreement” or consensus. Because the implicit process can be more opaque, unforeseen challenges can emerge such as the undue influence of a minority. And yet, the logistics of explicit approaches may be more time consuming and not appropriate when speed is a priority. In determining which method to use, it is important to understand the pros and cons of the different approaches and how it will affect the overall input, approach, and outcome. PMID
Somech, Anit; Wenderow, Maayan
Purpose: The contingency model theory suggests that the effects of a leadership style cannot be studied without explicit attention to the given situation. Accordingly, the authors propose a model that allows them to examine simultaneously the relative impact of participative leadership and directive leadership on teachers' performance through the…
Furaus, J.P.; Shirley, C.G.
A characteristic of team implementation of projects is some type of participatory decision-making. Opinions differ on whether this is a valuable tool for project managers or whether it is only a management fad that blurs accountability. This paper recounts experience and offers observations about the effectiveness of participatory decision-making in project management. The basis of the paper is approximately a decade of projects in construction of specialized facilities for research and development (RandD) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Over the time we have developed a participatory style that distributes a balance of authority and accountability. It is a style that has worked well in our environment and is evidence that shared decision-making can be made to work. 4 figs.
Schuhmann, Richard J.
While industry and academia agree that leadership skills are critical for engineering graduates, there exists no consensus regarding the definition of "engineering leadership". The engineering leadership development program at Penn State University has a decade-long experience in teaching leadership to engineering undergraduates. In…
Estler, Suzanne E., Ed.; Nelson, Laurie J., Ed.
This monograph seeks, through a synthesis of existing literature, to understand better how external forces operating through an enterprise on the academic margins can lead institutions and their leaders to make decisions that appear to many observers to make little sense relative to the institution's mission. Through the athletics enterprise, the…
Frick, William C.
Purpose: This research seeks to explore the inevitable internal struggle experienced by school leaders when making ethically-informed judgments. The study acquired principals' intimate reflections about professional decision making in response to personal versus organizational and/or professional value discrepancy as identified in the ethic of the…
A ``rule of seven`` implies a scientific organization in which each leader is expected to contribute technically, giving each member a responsibility for the creative work needed for effective leadership. It would decentralize leadership, pushing decisions down to the level where they should be made. Such a structure need not be imposed from above.
A rule of seven'' implies a scientific organization in which each leader is expected to contribute technically, giving each member a responsibility for the creative work needed for effective leadership. It would decentralize leadership, pushing decisions down to the level where they should be made. Such a structure need not be imposed from above.
in the decision -making process. 29 During orientation observed data is 26 The Myers Briggs ...assessment tool is the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). 26 The MBTI has been a reliable and valid assessment tool over the last 40 years. 27 The...1997. The Myers Briggs Foundation. Http://www.myersbriggs.org. Noddings, Nel and Paul Shore. Awakening The Inner Eye: Intuition In Education. New
situational leadership as it applies to traits . This approach appears to have more acceptability because it lists certain traits for certain...degree trait theory. It proposes that leadership is learned behavior and is not a born quality. It portends that leadership depends more on how...effective leader. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Trait Theory, Behavior Theory, Situation Theory, Transformational Leadership, Leader, Manager 16. SECURITY
Purpose: At a time when school leadership takes on great import, we must ask how leadership can move beyond a focus on individual- and school-level changes to collective leadership that relies on the strength of relationships between schools and the communities in which they reside to foster and sustain change. Such leadership is termed…
Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula J.; Kelton, Robyn E.
While there is consensus among policymakers and practitioners about the importance of strong leadership in early childhood education, there is scant research on effective models of leadership development for administrators of early childhood programs, particularly those working in the child care sector. This is cause for concern because the…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are leadership development opportunities... Parameters § 664.420 What are leadership development opportunities? Leadership development opportunities are..., including team leadership training; (e) Training in decision-making, including determining priorities;...
Pettit, Benjamin; Ákos, Zsuzsa; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora
A key question in collective behavior is how individual differences structure animal groups, affect the flow of information, and give some group members greater weight in decisions. Depending on what factors contribute to leadership, despotic decisions could either improve decision accuracy or interfere with swarm intelligence. The mechanisms behind leadership are therefore important for understanding its functional significance. In this study, we compared pigeons' relative influence over flock direction to their solo flight characteristics. A pigeon's degree of leadership was predicted by its ground speeds from earlier solo flights, but not by the straightness of its previous solo route. By testing the birds individually after a series of flock flights, we found that leaders had learned straighter homing routes than followers, as we would expect if followers attended less to the landscape and more to conspecifics. We repeated the experiment from three homing sites using multiple independent flocks and found individual consistency in leadership and speed. Our results suggest that the leadership hierarchies observed in previous studies could arise from differences in the birds' typical speeds. Rather than reflecting social preferences that optimize group decisions, leadership may be an inevitable consequence of heterogeneous flight characteristics within self-organized flocks. We also found that leaders learn faster and become better navigators, even if leadership is not initially due to navigational ability. The roles that individuals fall into during collective motion might therefore have far-reaching effects on how they learn about the environment and use social information.
Vamvoudakis, Kyriakos G.; García Carrillo, Luis R.; Hespanha, João. P.
This work presents a game theory-based consensus problem for leaderless multi-agent systems in the presence of adversarial inputs that are introducing disturbance to the dynamics. Given the presence of enemy components and the possibility of malicious cyber attacks compromising the security of networked teams, a position agreement must be reached by the networked mobile team based on environmental changes. The problem is addressed under a distributed decision making framework that is robust to possible cyber attacks, which has an advantage over centralized decision making in the sense that a decision maker is not required to access information from all the other decision makers. The proposed framework derives three tuning laws for every agent; one associated with the cost, one associated with the controller, and one with the adversarial input.
Patterson, Jerry L.
This book presents a vision of leadership at work in the schools of tomorrow. School-based examples are used to provide guidelines for developing core values and using them to guide decision making. Chapter 1 proposes a framework that opens the organization to five areas: participation; diversity; conflict; reflection; and mistakes. The second…
Bal, Vidula; Campbell, Michael; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon
Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less ...and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to…
Ricketts, John C.; Rudd, Rick D.
Meta-analysis of youth leadership development literature resulted in a conceptual model and curriculum framework. Model dimensions are leadership knowledge and information; leadership attitudes, will, and desire; decision making, reasoning, and critical thinking; oral and written communication; and intra/interpersonal relations. Dimensions have…
Al Awaidy, Salah
The National Committee for Vaccines Regulation and Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases serves as the National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG) in the Sultanate of Oman. It is the only advisory body to assist the Government in establishing policies and strategies and in evaluating new vaccines with respect to technology, quality and safety. It has six to eight core members as well ex officio members. Committee members are appointed for a period of 3 years by the Minister of Health and committee members declare their potential conflicts of interests and sign a confidentiality agreement. The cost of vaccines and the overall immunization program are considered when the committee makes its recommendations. Evidence-based decision-making could be facilitated by introducing more economic expertise to the committee.
Dyer, Karen M.
Describes the attributes and benefits of relational leadership. Also lists six competencies of relational leadership developed by the Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, North Carolina: Leading employees, interpersonal savvy, work-team orientation, conflict management, managing change in others, and effectively confronting problem…
Rohland, Mark, Ed.
This publication of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory is dedicated to articles on educational leadership. This issue contains the following articles: "Educational Leadership: Reports and Recommendations From a National Invitational Conference" (Joseph Murphy, JoAnn B. Manning, Herbert J. Walberg); "Redefining Educational Leadership:…
Principals have two reasons to wonder about the whole concept of leadership. First, they are responsible for identifying leadership in others; and second, they must be analytical and reflective about their own capabilities. Consequently, there is always demand for valid and reliable measurement of leadership qualities. This issue reviews recent…
The Leopold Leadership Program at Stanford University, in California, which provides communications training for scientists, is accepting applications for the 2015 Leopold Leadership Fellowships through 28 April. The program plans to select 20 mid-career scientists as fellows to attend sessions to learn theoretical frameworks and applicable skills as well as approaches for translating scientific knowledge to action. According to the program, the goal is to create a community of engaged scientific leaders who link their knowledge to decision making about the environment and sustainability.
Clinical Information System Services and Capabilities Desired for Scalable, Standards-Based, Service-oriented Decision Support: Consensus Assessment of the Health Level 7 Clinical Decision Support Work Group
Kawamoto, Kensaku; Jacobs, Jason; Welch, Brandon M.; Huser, Vojtech; Paterno, Marilyn D.; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Shields, David; Strasberg, Howard R.; Haug, Peter J.; Liu, Zhijing; Jenders, Robert A.; Rowed, David W.; Chertcoff, Daryl; Fehre, Karsten; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Curtis, A. Clayton
A standards-based, service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support (CDS) has the potential to significantly enhance CDS scalability and robustness. To enable such a CDS architecture, the Health Level 7 CDS Work Group reviewed the literature, hosted multi-stakeholder discussions, and consulted domain experts to identify and prioritize the services and capabilities required from clinical information systems (CISs) to enable service-oriented CDS. In addition, relevant available standards were identified. Through this process, ten CIS services and eight CIS capabilities were identified as being important for enabling scalable, service-oriented CDS. In particular, through a survey of 46 domain experts, five services and capabilities were identified as being especially critical: 1) the use of standard information models and terminologies; 2) the ability to leverage a Decision Support Service (DSS); 3) support for a clinical data query service; 4) support for an event subscription and notification service; and 5) support for a user communication service. PMID:23304315
Rhodes, Lewis A.
Information is the framework connecting technology, leadership, and the common work of education, namely, responsive situational decision making. Decisions are based upon some form of information perceived, taken in, and acted upon. The ways that administrators and teachers process information is the variable associated with effective educational…
Shibl, Atef; Tufenkeji, Haysam; Khalil, Mohamed; Memish, Ziad
Facing the availability of the new generation of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (Menveo®, Menactra® and others pending for license) and their recent implementation in Saudi Arabia, experts from 11 countries of the Middle East region met at a "Meningococcal Leadership Forum" (MLF), which took place in May 2010 in Dubai. The participants of the conference discussed the importance of introducing the concept of conjugate vaccines - especially for children and adolescents - and elaborated a consensus recommendation to support healthcare professionals and decision makers with their expertise. In experts' opinion, conjugate vaccines are the best choice for the prevention of meningococcal disease caused by serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y. As quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines are registered and available in the Middle East region, they should replace plain polysaccharide vaccines and be integrated in pediatric and adolescent vaccination schedules, including infant vaccination concomitantly with basic EPI vaccines when licensed.
Castle, Nicholas G.; Decker, Frederic H.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of Nursing Home Administrator (NHA) leadership style and Director of Nursing (DON) leadership style with quality of care. Design and Methods: Leaders were categorized into 4 groups: consensus managers, consultative autocrats, shareholder managers, or autocrats. This leadership style…
Millwater, Jan; Ehrich, Lisa C.
Over the last two decades, the notion of teacher leadership has emerged as a key concept in both the teaching and leadership literature. While researchers have not reached consensus regarding a definition, there has been some agreement that teacher leadership can operate at both a formal and informal level in schools and that it includes…
The ethical foundation of the medical profession, which values service above reward and holds the doctor-patient relationship as inviolable, continues to be challenged by the commercialization of health care. This article contends that a realigned leadership framework - one that distinguishes being a leader as the ontological basis for what leaders know, have, and do - is central to safeguarding medicine's ethical foundation. Four ontological pillars of leadership - awareness, commitment, integrity, and authenticity - are proposed as fundamental elements that anchor this foundation and the basic tenets of professionalism. Ontological leadership is shaped by and accessible through language; what health care leaders create in language "uses" them by providing a point of view (a context) within and from which they orient their conversations, decisions, and conduct such that they are ethically aligned and grounded. This contextual leadership framework exposes for us the limitations imposed by our mental maps, creating new opportunity sets for being and action (previously unavailable) that embody medicine's charter on professionalism. While this leadership methodology contrasts with the conventional results-oriented model where leading is generally equated with a successful clinical practice, a distinguished research program, or a promotion, it is not a replacement for it; indeed, results are essential for performance. Rather, being and action are interrelated and their correlated nature equips leaders with a framework for tackling health care's most complex problems in a manner that preserves medicine's venerable ethical heritage. PMID:21349187
Shyyan, Vitaliy; Christensen, Laurene; Thurlow, Martha; Lazarus, Sheryl
The Multi-Attribute Consensus Building (MACB) method is a quantitative approach for determining a group's opinion about the importance of each item (strategy, decision, recommendation, policy, priority, etc.) on a list (Vanderwood, & Erickson, 1994). This process enables a small or large group of participants to generate and discuss a set…
Thude, Bettina Ravnborg; Thomsen, Svend Erik; Stenager, Egon; Hollnagel, Erik
Purpose Despite the practice of dual leadership in many organizations, there is relatively little research on the topic. Dual leadership means two leaders share the leadership task and are held jointly accountable for the results of the unit. To better understand how dual leadership works, this study aims to analyse three different dual leadership pairs at a Danish hospital. Furthermore, this study develops a tool to characterize dual leadership teams from each other. Design/methodology/approach This is a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Six leaders were interviewed to clarify how dual leadership works in a hospital context. All interviews were transcribed and coded. During coding, focus was on the nine principles found in the literature and another principle was found by looking at the themes that were generic for all six interviews. Findings Results indicate that power balance, personal relations and decision processes are important factors for creating efficient dual leaderships. The study develops a categorizing tool to use for further research or for organizations, to describe and analyse dual leaderships. Originality/value The study describes dual leadership in the hospital context and develops a categorizing tool for being able to distinguish dual leadership teams from each other. It is important to reveal if there are any indicators that can be used for optimising dual leadership teams in the health-care sector and in other organisations.
...) Exposure to postsecondary educational opportunities; (b) Community and service learning projects; (c) Peer..., including team leadership training; (e) Training in decision-making, including determining priorities;...
Bin Jomah, Nouf
Leadership is crucial in all facets of humanity as it enhances personal, organisational, and national socio-economic growth and development. By portraying a great vision, a leader acknowledges their followers' efforts to maximise performance within the organisation. Leaders inspire their followers to achieve beyond their expectations by providing…
Allen, Bryce L., Ed.; Weech, Terry L., Ed.
This is a collection of six papers on critical issues in library management presented at the annual Allerton Park Conference (35th, October 24-26, 1993) sponsored by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Graduate School of Library and Information Science. The first paper, "Learning about Leadership: What Works in Modern Organizations"…
Hargreaves, Andy; Boyle, Alan
To find out how organizations turn failure into success, Andrew Hargreaves and his colleagues studied more than 15 business, sports, and education organizations. They found that the secret to these organizations' success came down to just two words: uplifting leadership. Uplifting leadership, write Hargreaves and Boyle in this article, raises the…
Tollett, John R., Ed.
This document contains the following papers on educational leadership programs and technology: (1) "Technology Standards for School Administrators: Implications for Administrator Preparation Programs" (Warren C. Hope, Bernadette Kelley, and Janet A. Guyden); (2) "Information Technology and the Transformation of Leadership Preparation Programs: A…
Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess
This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…
March, James G.; Weiner, Stephen S.
Discusses the complex nature of college leadership especially in terms of community colleges. Claims that the central feature of leadership problems is a deep mismatch between the conceptions of individual leaders and key features of the organizations they lead. Concludes that civilization will not survive without civil leaders. (JS)
Sferra, Bobbie A.; Paddock, Susan C.
This booklet describes various theoretical aspects of leadership, including the proper exercise of authority, effective delegation, goal setting, exercise of control, assignment of responsibility, performance evaluation, and group process facilitation. It begins by describing the evolution of general theories of leadership from historic concepts…
Porebski, Benjamin T.; Buckle, Ashley M.
A popular and successful strategy in semi-rational design of protein stability is the use of evolutionary information encapsulated in homologous protein sequences. Consensus design is based on the hypothesis that at a given position, the respective consensus amino acid contributes more than average to the stability of the protein than non-conserved amino acids. Here, we review the consensus design approach, its theoretical underpinnings, successes, limitations and challenges, as well as providing a detailed guide to its application in protein engineering. PMID:27274091
A consensus statement of 100 experts meeting at the Aljoya Conference Center in Seattle, Washington in July 2000 for the First International Conference on Trans-Pacific Transport of Atmospheric Contaminants.
Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Apaza, Karol; Ariza-Fritas, Tania; Málaga, Lilian; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Alarcón, Marco Antonio
Background Consensus guidelines are useful to improve clinical decision making. Therefore, the methodological evaluation of these guidelines is of paramount importance. Low quality information may guide to inadequate or harmful clinical decisions. Objective To evaluate the methodological quality of consensus guidelines published in implant dentistry using a validated methodological instrument. Methods The six implant dentistry journals with impact factors were scrutinised for consensus guidelines related to implant dentistry. Two assessors independently selected consensus guidelines, and four assessors independently evaluated their methodological quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Disagreements in the selection and evaluation of guidelines were resolved by consensus. First, the consensus guidelines were analysed alone. Then, systematic reviews conducted to support the guidelines were included in the analysis. Non-parametric statistics for dependent variables (Wilcoxon signed rank test) was used to compare both groups. Results Of 258 initially retrieved articles, 27 consensus guidelines were selected. Median scores in four domains (applicability, rigour of development, stakeholder involvement, and editorial independence), expressed as percentages of maximum possible domain scores, were below 50% (median, 26%, 30.70%, 41.70%, and 41.70%, respectively). The consensus guidelines and consensus guidelines + systematic reviews data sets could be compared for 19 guidelines, and the results showed significant improvements in all domain scores (p < 0.05). Conclusions Methodological improvement of consensus guidelines published in major implant dentistry journals is needed. The findings of the present study may help researchers to better develop consensus guidelines in implant dentistry, which will improve the quality and trust of information needed to make proper clinical decisions. PMID:28107405
Vender, Ronald J
Despite the influence of leadership in our lives, it remains poorly understood by most of us. This review defines leadership as "a combination of position, responsibilities, attitude, skills, and behaviors that allows someone to bring out the best in others, and the best in their organization, in a sustainable manner." There are many traits and skills demonstrated by leaders. These include talent, drive, willpower, practical wisdom, loyalty, ethical behavior, emotional intelligence, integrity, self-awareness, and resilience. However, to best understand leadership we focus on what leaders are actually required to do, rather than on the skills and traits used to accomplish these tasks. We review nine functions that are at the core of leadership: serve as the public face of the organization; articulate the vision and mission; create culture; strategic planning; decide what to focus on; select, and develop, the right people; establish a decision-making process; manage your boss; and be responsible 24/7. All leaders operate in a specific context, during a unique point in the history of their organization, with a unique set of circumstances. What is required of the leader in one set of circumstances will change as those circumstances change. If the leader understands her core responsibilities, and if she develops the people, culture, and processes necessary to deal with a changing environment, she will have the self-awareness and support necessary to continue to lead successfully.
Svenkeson, A.; Swami, A.
Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form.
Svenkeson, A.; Swami, A.
Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form. PMID:26439503
Clark, Kenneth E., Ed.; And Others
This book on leadership includes the following selected titles: "Leadership Characteristics of Leadership Researchers" (Campbell); "Translating Research Results into Action" (Knauft); "Managers on Leaders" (Javidan); "Impact of Leadership on Corporate Success" (Lohmann); "Shido" (Bettin et al.);…
Van Vugt, Mark
Drawing upon evolutionary logic, leadership is reconceptualized in terms of the outcome of strategic interactions among individuals who are following different, yet complementary, decision rules to solve recurrent coordination problems. This article uses the vast psychological literature on leadership as a database to test several evolutionary hypotheses about the origins of leadership and followership in humans. As expected, leadership correlates with initiative taking, trait measures of intelligence, specific task competencies, and several indicators of generosity. The review finds no link between leadership and dominance. The evolutionary analysis accounts for reliable age, health, and sex differences in leadership emergence. In general, evolutionary theory provides a useful, integrative framework for studying leader-follower relationships and generates various novel research hypotheses.
Brazer, S. David; Kruse, Sharon D.; Conley, Sharon
Teaching organizational theory in a way that bridges to leadership practice is vital to preparing deft educational leaders who understand the organizational behavior of schools and districts. Organizational theory guides understanding of the complexities of schools and districts and can be a basis for collaborative and effective decision making.…
Lindelow, John; And Others
Chapter 6 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter makes a case for the use of participative decision-making (PDM) at the school-site level, outlines guidelines for its implementation, and describes the experiences of some schools with PDM systems. It begins by citing research indicating the advantages of PDM, including better decisions,…
Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Organizational Leadership, which publicly recognizes organizations for their comprehensive greenhouse gas inventories and aggressive emissions reduction goals.
Pei, Yongquan; Sun, Jitao
This paper investigates the stationary average consensus problem for second-order discrete-time multi-agent systems (SDMAS). A stationary consensus problem is to find a control algorithm that brings the state of a group of agents to a common constant value which is called the collective decision. We introduce the concept of stationary average consensus of SDMAS and propose a consensus algorithm. Based on the polynomial stability and the graph theory, we obtain two necessary and sufficient conditions of stationary average consensus of SDMAS. The last theorem provides an algebraic criterion of stationary average consensus, and can help us to determine the parameters in the consensus algorithm. Furthermore, in this consensus algorithm, only the states of the agents are transferred among the agents. Therefore, this algorithm can not only solve the stationary average consensus problem but also reduce the amount of transferred data. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the efficiency of our results.
In an epistemology of contextualism, how robust does consensus need to be for critique to be practically effective? In 'Relativism and the Critical Potential of Philosophy of Education,' Frieda Heyting proposes a form of contextualism, but her argument raises a number of problems. The kinds of criteria that her version of contextualism will…
In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need technical
The aim of this work is to explore recent research in the field of leadership as related to education and to link such research to a possible research project. This research project would focus on increasing standardized test scores in California schools focusing on the elementary school level through focusing on increasing reading competency and…
Orey, Michael; Moore, David M.; Reeves, Thomas
Contains the following two leadership profiles of individuals who have made significant contributions to the field of instructional technology: "Francis M. Dwyer: Visual Researcher Extraordinaire" (David M. Moore); and "Tribute to John G. Hedberg: Professor of Education, University of Wollongong" (Thomas Reeves). (MES)
Grady, Marilyn L.
Recent obituaries and testimonials to Coretta Scott King and Wendy Wasserstein are reminders of the leadership legacies of these women. About Coretta Scott King (1927-2006), Burch in "The Miami Herald" (February 1, 2006) stated "Coretta Scott King built a legacy from pain and progress, first as the wife who stood tall next to a man bent on…
Phillips, Ray C.
A review of theories of expectation as related to behavior shows a high correlation between educational leaders' perceptions of their faculties and the climate and quality of instructional programs. Thus, effective faculties and high quality educational programs could be linked to a particular type of leadership. Leaders who hold high expectations…
Davies, Brent; Brighouse, Tim
Passionate leadership is about energy, commitment, a belief that every child can learn and will learn, a concern with social justice and the optimism that people can make a difference. The authors argue that passion survives and prospers and is a moral driving force in ensuring children becoming all they can become. That brings them to the other…
Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H
When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of
Bermon, Stephane; Castell, Lindy M; Calder, Philip C; Bishop, Nicolette C; Blomstrand, Eva; Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten; Kavazis, Andreas N; Quindry, John C; Senchina, David S; Nieman, David C; Gleeson, Michael; Pyne, David B; Kitic, Cecilia M; Close, Graeme L; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Marcos, Ascension; Meydani, Simin N; Walsh, Neil P; Nagatomi, Ryochi
In this consensus statement on immunonutrition and exercise, a panel of knowledgeable contributors from across the globe provides a consensus of updated science, including the background, the aspects for which a consensus actually exists, the controversies and, when possible, suggested directions for future research.
Mitstifer, Dorothy I.
This paper introduces a leadership development model that raises the question "Leadership for what?" Leadership is about going somewhere-personally and in concert with others-in an organization. Although leadership, especially position (elected or appointed) leadership, often is discussed in terms of leader qualities and skills, the…
Leadership Quarterly International Journal of Political Social and Behavioral Science published “An Exploration of Stereotypical beliefs about leadership...Beliefs about Leadership Styles: Is Transformational Leadership a Route to Women’s Promotion,” The Leadership Quarterly International Journal of...
Humphreys, Betsy P; Couse, Leslie J; Sonnenmeier, Rae M; Kurtz, Alan; Russell, Susan M; Antal, Peter
The purpose of this article is to describe how the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Leadership Competencies (v 3.0) were used to examine and improve an MCH Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) training curriculum for New Hampshire and Maine. Over 15 % of the nation's children experience neurodevelopmental disabilities or special health care needs and estimates suggest 1 in every 68 children is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Across the Unites States critical shortages of qualified MCH professionals exist, particularly in poor and rural areas. A continued investment in training interdisciplinary leaders is critical. The MCH Leadership Competencies provide an effective foundation for leadership training through identification of requisite knowledge, skills, and dispositions required of MCH leaders. This paper describes a three-step process, which began in 2010 and included utilizing the MCH Leadership Competencies as a tool to reflect on, develop, and evaluate the NH LEND leadership curriculum. Curriculum development was further supported through participation in a multi-state learning collaborative. Through a series of intentional decisions, the curriculum design of NH LEND utilized the competencies and evidence-based principles of instruction to engage trainees in the development of specific MCH content knowledge and leadership skills. The LEND network specifically, and MCH leadership programs more broadly, may benefit from the intentional use of the MCH competencies to assist in curriculum development and program evaluation, and as a means to support trainees in identifying specific leadership goals and evaluating their leadership skill development.
Liebeskind, Benjamin J.; McWhite, Claire D.; Marcotte, Edward M.
Correctly estimating the age of a gene or gene family is important for a variety of fields, including molecular evolution, comparative genomics, and phylogenetics, and increasingly for systems biology and disease genetics. However, most studies use only a point estimate of a gene’s age, neglecting the substantial uncertainty involved in this estimation. Here, we characterize this uncertainty by investigating the effect of algorithm choice on gene-age inference and calculate consensus gene ages with attendant error distributions for a variety of model eukaryotes. We use 13 orthology inference algorithms to create gene-age datasets and then characterize the error around each age-call on a per-gene and per-algorithm basis. Systematic error was found to be a large factor in estimating gene age, suggesting that simple consensus algorithms are not enough to give a reliable point estimate. We also found that different sources of error can affect downstream analyses, such as gene ontology enrichment. Our consensus gene-age datasets, with associated error terms, are made fully available at so that researchers can propagate this uncertainty through their analyses (geneages.org). PMID:27259914
Anderson, Ronald E.; Dexter, Sara L.
This report examines the relationship between school leadership and effective utilization of technology. As an aid to identifying a wide variety of technology policy decisions, a taxonomy of educational technology leadership decisions was constructed. Decisions that pertain primarily to the infrastructure are distinguished from those that deal…
Schaeffer, Leonard D
It isn't always easy to change leadership hats or to alter the way you assess a business problem. Under pressure, most executives fall back on the management style or approach that worked in the last crisis they faced. But old approaches rarely work in new and demanding situations. Just ask Leonard Schaeffer, chairman and CEO of WellPoint Health Networks, one of the country's largest and most successful managed-care companies. In this account, he describes how he consciously adopted three very different styles of leadership at critical points during his 30-year career, depending on the business challenges at hand. Schaeffer headed up the U.S. Health Care Finance Administration during the Carter years--and led the charge toward more efficient work practices at that agency. Then he transformed Blue Cross of California from a floundering bureaucracy losing close to $1 million each day into a strong public company, WellPoint. The dire circumstances at Blue Cross had dictated that Schaeffer initially be an autocratic leader, which he considers the managerial equivalent of being an emergency room surgeon--forced to do whatever it takes to save a patient's life. But as the company rebounded, the CEO shed that "any decision is better than no decision" style. He has become a participative, hands-off leader-setting strategies and goals from above but letting WellPoint's line managers and executives figure out how best to achieve those goals. Most recently, Schaeffer has turned into a reformer--a leader who works with one foot outside the company to spur changes in health care and society. There are pitfalls in switching leadership styles, Schaeffer admits, but this flexibility is necessary for realizing corporate- and personal-success.
Woo, K T
Doctors, because of the nature of their training and their profession, have to be leaders. Subsequently, when they specialise, leadership qualities are even more important if they are to be effective in leading the specialty team. It is common knowledge that doctors have become leaders in various sectors of society. One of the fundamental advantages a doctor has over others in leadership positions is his basic training in studying and understanding human nature. With years of practice and experience, the doctor, a student of human nature, has a good grasp of human behaviour which enables him to become a better leader. The six universal and timeless characteristics of great leaders are: ability to share a vision, surrounding oneself with great people, ability to coach other team members, ability to focus on perfection, developing emotional intelligence and ability to train effective leaders. I would like to see three essential qualities in a strong leader: ability to secure an "envisioned future", ability to sacrifice in order to cultivate loyalty, and courage to do the right thing and protect his people. An effective leader positions himself in a situation to ensure survival. Having secured the leadership position, one must take certain steps to strengthen one's leadership so that it will survive. Six strategies from the Art of War by Sun Tzu which are of great practical value are: walk the ground, have trusted lieutenants, information gathering, confuse the enemy, win most while doing nothing, and that which is too good will not last forever. Sometimes we have to change in order to survive. We need to get rid of outmoded practices and shed old burdens to take advantage of the present. The task of exiting from leadership is facilitated if one has groomed a successor. The longer one is in a leadership position, the more difficult it is for one to step down. Some organisations retain old leaders as advisors or mentors. They should be just seen and not heard and go
Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Zurita, Laura
This piece provides an initial assessment of the First Citizen Consensus Conference, an event held in the city of Santiago, Chile, from 22-24 November 2003, on the subject of "The Management of My Medical Record." This conference was the first citizen consensus conference that has been held in Chile as well as the first such conference in Latin America. Consensus conferences were devised by the Danish Board of Technology in 1987 as a way to assess science and technology issues through discussions between experts and a panel of lay persons. At the end of a consensus conference, the lay persons express their opinions and recommendations in a consensus report that is directed at policymakers, decision-makers, and the public in general. The objective of a consensus conference is to bridge the gaps that routinely exist among the general public, experts, and elected officials. So far, the Danish Board of Technology has organized more than 20 of these conferences, using a methodology that has become established as a model. Taking into account the changes that have occurred in the relationship between science and society at large, the Pan American Health Organization has decided to support the holding of consensus conferences in Latin America and the Caribbean. The First Citizen Consensus Conference adapted the Danish methodology to conditions in Chile, and this piece assesses the modifications that were made. In addition, some 6 to 12 months after the conference, there will be an external evaluation of the outcomes and impact of the conference, especially in the communications media, public debate, decision-making, and perceptions of the persons who were involved. Despite the criticisms made in this piece and some shortcomings that are pointed out, the First Citizen Consensus Conference achieved all of its objectives and will serve as an excellent model for similar conferences in other countries of the Americas.
Ward, Suzanne F; Haase, Beth
Health care leaders need to use leadership methodologies that support safe patient care, satisfy employees, and improve the bottom line. Conscious leaders help create desirable personal and professional life experiences for themselves using specific tools that include mindfulness, context, and the observer-self, and they strive to help their employees learn to use these tools as well. In perioperative nursing, conscious leaders create an environment in which nurses are supported in their aim to provide the highest level of patient care and in which transformations are encouraged to take place; this environment ultimately promotes safety, contributes to fulfilling and meaningful work, and enhances a facility's financial viability. This article discusses some of the key concepts behind conscious leadership, how perioperative leaders can reach and maintain expanded consciousness, and how they can best assist their staff members in their own evolution to a more mindful state.
College Class of 2013 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is Unlimited This manuscript is submitted in partial...Bullis Department of Command Leadership, and Management Project Adviser This manuscript is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements...discord in the report. You decide to talk to the Inspector General’s (IG) office to see if any complaints have been submitted , and to the Staff Judge
This month, the director of the Magnet Recognition Program® takes an in-depth look at the Magnet® model component transformational leadership. The author examines the expectations for Magnet organizations around this component. What are the qualities that make a nursing leader truly transformational, and what is the best approach to successfully lead a healthcare organization through today's volatile healthcare environment?
For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.
Itri, Jason N; Lawson, Leslie M
Radiology leaders can have a profound impact on the success and working environment of a radiology department, promoting core values and inspiring staff members to achieve the organization's mission. On the other hand, ineffective leaders can have a devastating effect on a radiology department by impairing communication among members, undermining staff commitment to the organization's success, and stifling the development of other staff members and leaders in the organization. One of the most important investments a radiology department can make is in identifying, cultivating, and promoting new leaders. The authors describe 13 habits and characteristics of new leaders that lead these individuals to address situations in both ineffective and counterproductive ways, impeding the performance of a radiology department and its capacity to play a meaningful role in shaping the future of radiology. New leaders must continually learn and improve their leadership skills if they are to avoid the destructive habits of ineffective leaders and successfully overcome the challenges facing radiology today. Senior leaders may also benefit from understanding the pitfalls that make leaders ineffective and should strive to continually improve their leadership skills given the critical role of leadership in the success of radiology departments.
Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo
Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy.
The study examined age and gender differences in leadership aspirations among teenage adolescents. It was hypothesized that adolescents' valence, self-efficacy and attribution perceptions about leadership would be predictive of their aspirations to leadership. Altogether 52 fourth form and 78 seventh form high school students completed a questionnaire measuring (a) overall leadership aspirations, (b) 13 valence-instrumentality expectancies for 13 leadership outcomes, (c) self-efficacy perceptions, and (d) attributions of effective leadership. The results revealed significant gender differences in valence scores and significant age differences in self-efficacy and attribution measures. Regression analyses indicated that fourth formers' leadership aspirations were significantly predicted from their "ease-of-success" self-efficacy expectation; whereas seventh formers from either valence perceptions (males) or self-efficacy and attribution scores (females). These results were discussed in the context of the valence and self-efficacy models of career decision-making processes and attribution theory.
Kabler, Michael L.; Genshaft, Judy L.
Three areas related to decision making are discussed: (1) a research survey summary of multidisciplinary team decision making (MTD); (2) four approaches for structuring MTD decision making; and (3) styles of leadership as a factor that impacts on the decision-making teams. (Author/PN)
Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Supply Chain Leadership, which publicly recognizes organizations that are are at the leading edge of managing greenhouse gas emissions in their organizational supply chains.
adams, Jimi; Light, Ryan
While the US Supreme Court was considering two related cases involving the constitutionality of same-sex marriage, one major question informing that decision was whether scientific research had achieved consensus regarding how children of same-sex couples fare. Determining the extent of consensus has become a key aspect of how social science evidence and testimony is accepted by the courts. Here, we show how a method of analyzing temporal patterns in citation networks can be used to assess the state of social scientific literature as a means to inform just such a question. Patterns of clustering within these citation networks reveal whether and when consensus arises within a scientific field. We find that the literature on outcomes for children of same-sex parents is marked by scientific consensus that they experience "no differences" compared to children from other parental configurations.
Alvir, Howard P.
The leadership reinforcement learning package is designed as a module containing objectives, pretest, learning environments, and posttest. Objectives of this module are to enable readers to analyze existing leadership competencies, organize these leadership possibilities systematically, and plan worthwhile projects while recruiting responsible…
Garcia, Joseph E.
This literature review examines Kurt Lewin's influence in leadership psychology. Characteristics of field theory are described in detail and utilized in analyzing leadership research, including the trait approach, leader behavior studies, contingency theory, path-goal theory, and leader decision theory. Important trends in leadership research are…
Ostrom-Blonigen, Jean; Bornsen, Susan E.; Larson-Casselton, Cindy; Erickson, Sheri L.
Throughout the nation, training students for leadership roles is a primary cross-disciplinary bridge from coursework to career or from service learning to community service. Student leadership training has been linked to communication traits of goal setting, decision making, conflict resolution, concern for community, and increased understanding…
Copland, Michael A.
This article reports on findings from a longitudinal study of leadership in the context of a region-wide school renewal effort entitled the Bay Area School Reform Collaborative (BASRC). BASRC's theory of action is multifaceted, incorporating a focus on distributed leadership, continual inquiry into practice, and collective decision-making at the…
Cosenza, Michael N.
Although there is no common definition for teacher leadership, the concept is continually advanced as a key component for both the success of schools and professionalization of teachers. Many view teacher leadership as specific administrative roles while others view it as any opportunity in which teachers contribute to the decision-making process.…
Online courses and programs have grown to become and continue to be a popular option for students. As part of an online Master's of Education in Instructional Technology program, students must complete a school technology leadership course. Leadership decision making, policy making, and how to have innovations take hold in a school settings are…
McMurray, Anne M.; Henly, Debra; Chaboyer, Wendy; Clapton, Jayne; Lizzio, Alf; Teml, Martin
We report on a succession planning pilot project in an Australian university health faculty. The programme aimed to enhance organisational stability and develop leadership capacity in middle level academics. Six monthly sessions addressed university and general leadership topics, communication, decision-making, working with change, self-management…
A changing mix of forces and actors occupy the educational leadership stage. The fragmentation and curious distribution of decision-making power frustrate the workings of the education system. Twelve articles discuss the nature of the leadership problem: (1) "Education's Unknown Leaders"; (2) "Tribunes for the Schools"; (3) "Few Perks, Little…
Northup, Kimberly R.
The University of Tampa's Leadership and Sailing program introduces students to leadership and sailing simultaneously by situating their learning about leadership in the context of sailing. By combining outdoor adventure and leadership training, the program is designed to help students learn the basic components of a sailboat and operate the boat…
Woods, Philip A.
In this book Philip Woods turns his attention to issues of democracy and leadership. He has provided an eloquent, intellectually compelling and sophisticated account of a new leadership label--democratic leadership. He argues that the purpose of "democratic" leadership is to create and help sustain an environment that enables everyone…
Yu, Connie Chuen Ying
Background: Christian leadership is distinctively different from other major leadership conceptions such as instructional, transactional, and transformational leadership conceptions. With few studies found, the author had to consult the Bible and also non-school Christian literature instead, focusing on Hong Kong principal leadership in Protestant…
Warner, Linda Sue
In contrast to European cultures, many American Indian societies have been matriarchal. Indian women have had a great deal of power, both as individuals and as groups, and have held various leadership roles within their tribes. Traditionally, Indian women have worked in partnership with men, and decision-making has been related to consensus…
Curral, Luis; Marques-Quinteiro, Pedro; Gomes, Catarina; Lind, Pedro G
Recent theoretical contributions have suggested a theory of leadership that is grounded in complexity theory, hence regarding leadership as a complex process (i.e., nonlinear; emergent). This article tests if complexity leadership theory promotes efficiency in work groups. 40 groups of five participants each had to complete four decision making tasks using the city simulation game SimCity4. Before engaging in the four decision making tasks, participants received information regarding what sort of leadership behaviors were more adequate to help them perform better. Results suggest that if complexity leadership theory is applied, groups can achieve higher efficiency over time, when compared with other groups where complexity leadership is not applied. This study goes beyond traditional views of leadership as a centralized form of control, and presents new evidence suggesting that leadership is a collective and emergent phenomenon, anchored in simple rules of behavior.
Marques-Quinteiro, Pedro; Gomes, Catarina; Lind, Pedro G.
Recent theoretical contributions have suggested a theory of leadership that is grounded in complexity theory, hence regarding leadership as a complex process (i.e., nonlinear; emergent). This article tests if complexity leadership theory promotes efficiency in work groups. 40 groups of five participants each had to complete four decision making tasks using the city simulation game SimCity4. Before engaging in the four decision making tasks, participants received information regarding what sort of leadership behaviors were more adequate to help them perform better. Results suggest that if complexity leadership theory is applied, groups can achieve higher efficiency over time, when compared with other groups where complexity leadership is not applied. This study goes beyond traditional views of leadership as a centralized form of control, and presents new evidence suggesting that leadership is a collective and emergent phenomenon, anchored in simple rules of behavior. PMID:27973596
Hallinger, Philip; Richardson, Don
Explores potential changes in the power relationships among teachers and principals. Describes and analyzes the following models of teacher decision-making: (1) Instructional Leadership Teams; (2) Principals' Advisory Councils; (3) School Improvement Teams; and (4) Lead Teacher Committees. (FMW)
Kleinman, Daniel Lee; Powell, Maria; Grice, Joshua; Adrian, Judith; Lobes, Carol
A widely touted approach to involving laypeople in science and technology policy-related decisions is the consensus conference. Virtually nothing written on the topic provides detailed discussion of the many steps from citizen recruitment to citizen report. Little attention is paid to how and why the mechanics of the consensus conference process…
Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.
Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Mendini, Kip; Heneghan, Jerry; Deagle, Edwin
Complex problem solving approaches and novel strategies employed by the military at the squad, team, and commander level are often best learned experimentally. Since live action exercises can be costly, advances in simulation game training technology offer exciting ways to enhance current training. Computer games provide an environment for active, critical learning. Games open up possibilities for simultaneous learning on multiple levels; players may learn from contextual information embedded in the dynamics of the game, the organic process generated by the game, and through the risks, benefits, costs, outcomes, and rewards of alternative strategies that result from decision making. In the present paper we discuss a multiplayer computer game simulation created for the Adaptive Thinking & Leadership (ATL) Program to train Special Forces Team Leaders. The ATL training simulation consists of a scripted single-player and an immersive multiplayer environment for classroom use which leverages immersive computer game technology. We define adaptive thinking as consisting of competencies such as negotiation and consensus building skills, the ability to communicate effectively, analyze ambiguous situations, be self-aware, think innovatively, and critically use effective problem solving skills. Each of these competencies is an essential element of leader development training for the U.S. Army Special Forces. The ATL simulation is used to augment experiential learning in the curriculum for the U.S. Army JFK Special Warfare Center & School (SWCS) course in Adaptive Thinking & Leadership. The school is incorporating the ATL simulation game into two additional training pipelines (PSYOPS and Civil Affairs Qualification Courses) that are also concerned with developing cultural awareness, interpersonal communication adaptability, and rapport-building skills. In the present paper, we discuss the design, development, and deployment of the training simulation, and emphasize how the
Boyatzis, Richard E.; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I.
The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks – the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074
This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.
Jacobs, Lenworth M
National implementation of the Hartford Consensus is a meticulous and incremental process. It consists of many elements that require collaboration and strategic leadership to achieve an efficient, effective, knowledgeable, resilient, and prepared citizenry. We strongly believe the public can and should act as immediate responders to stop bleeding from all hazards, including active shooter and intentional mass casualty events. The ACS has a long history of setting standards and educating responders through its Committee on Trauma and its programs. The ACS is therefore well-positioned to use its national and international networks to implement bleeding control education to improve survival and enhance resilience.
Cook, John; Oreskes, Naomi; Doran, Peter T.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Verheggen, Bart; Maibach, Ed W.; Carlton, J. Stuart; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Skuce, Andrew G.; Green, Sarah A.; Nuccitelli, Dana; Jacobs, Peter; Richardson, Mark; Winkler, Bärbel; Painting, Rob; Rice, Ken
The consensus that humans are causing recent global warming is shared by 90%-100% of publishing climate scientists according to six independent studies by co-authors of this paper. Those results are consistent with the 97% consensus reported by Cook et al (Environ. Res. Lett. 8 024024) based on 11 944 abstracts of research papers, of which 4014 took a position on the cause of recent global warming. A survey of authors of those papers (N = 2412 papers) also supported a 97% consensus. Tol (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 048001) comes to a different conclusion using results from surveys of non-experts such as economic geologists and a self-selected group of those who reject the consensus. We demonstrate that this outcome is not unexpected because the level of consensus correlates with expertise in climate science. At one point, Tol also reduces the apparent consensus by assuming that abstracts that do not explicitly state the cause of global warming (‘no position’) represent non-endorsement, an approach that if applied elsewhere would reject consensus on well-established theories such as plate tectonics. We examine the available studies and conclude that the finding of 97% consensus in published climate research is robust and consistent with other surveys of climate scientists and peer-reviewed studies.
Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; Cunha, José Antônio Jabur da; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva dos; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida
Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection.
Purpose - Noting that discussions of public participation and priority setting typically presuppose certain political theories of democracy, the purpose of this paper is to discuss two theories: the consensual and the agonistic. The distinction is illuminating when considering the difference between institutionalized public participation and contestatory participation. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is a theoretical reconstruction of two ways of thinking about public participation in relation to priority setting in health care, drawing on the work of Habermas, a deliberative theorist, and Mouffe, a theorist of agonism. Findings - The different theoretical approaches can be associated with different ways of understanding priority setting. In particular, agonistic democratic theory would understand priority setting as system of inclusions and exclusions rather than the determination of a consensus of social values, which is the typical deliberative way of thinking about the issues. Originality/value - The paper shows the value of drawing out explicitly the tacit assumptions of practices of political participation in order to reveal their scope and limitations. It suggests that making such theoretical presuppositions explicit has value for health services management in recognizing these implicit choices.
Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida
Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256
Barnett, Kerry; McCormick, John
As secondary school environments become increasingly complex, shifts are occurring in the way leadership is being practised. New leadership practices emphasize shared or distributed leadership. A senior executive leadership team with responsibility for school leadership is likely to be one of the many, varied forms of new leadership practices…
Staub, Nancy A.; Bravender, Marlena
Leading, facilitating, and making decisions is central to school leadership positions. Decision-making simulations provide graduate students a vehicle for increasing their practice and fine-tuning leadership skills with guided support from college faculty. This action research study uses a case study method to reveal the perspectives of school…
To continue to fulfill their social and educational role, educational institutions must develop or adopt modern leadership trends based on solid theory and proven effectiveness. Shared leadership is a method of management that allows teachers to participate in decision making and share in the implementation of those decisions. A study sample of…
Clark, Noreen M.; And Others
The program of consumer education for Comprehensive Health Planning was developed to assist consumers to assume leadership roles in community decision-making with regard to health services. This paper presents a description of a project that was developed to train leaders for the program. The project consisted of special, advanced training…
Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Fooi, Foo Say
Leadership is an important component in guiding the teaching-learning process. Principal as school leaders have a major responsibility for initiating and implementing school change through the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and can facilitate complex decision to integrate it into learning, teaching and school administration.…
Knox, Alan B., Ed.
Presents some basic concepts and examples regarding finances and education that reflect effective leadership strategies; summarizes findings from a recent national study of cost accounting in continuing education; presents some generalizations pertinent to decision making regarding financial issues; and emphasizes the importance of taking…
Campbell, David P.
This book brings together 35 of David P. Campbell's essays originally published as a regular column in a quarterly publication called "Issues and Observations." The articles deal with topics ranging from leadership issues such as risk-taking, executive motivation, decision making, and corporate taboos, to more general concerns such as…
Molina, Ricardo; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin
Democratic leadership rests on sacred values, awareness, judgement, motivation and courage. Four turning points in a 38-year school administrator's career revealed decision-making in problematic moments stemmed from values in a personal and professional code of ethics. Reflection on practice and theory added vocabulary and understanding to make…
Scholz, Brett; Gordon, Sarah; Happell, Brenda
Contemporary mental health policies call for greater involvement of mental health service consumers in all aspects and at all levels of service planning, delivery, and evaluation. The extent to which consumers are part of the decision-making function of mental health organizations varies. This systematic review synthesizes empirical and review studies published in peer-reviewed academic journals relating to consumers in leadership roles within mental health organizations. The Cochrane Library, Medline, and PsycINFO were searched for articles specifically analysing and discussing consumers' mental health service leadership. Each article was critically appraised against the inclusion criteria, with 36 articles included in the final review. The findings of the review highlight current understandings of organizational resources and structures in consumer-led organizations, determinants of leadership involvement, and how consumer leadership interacts with traditional mental health service provision. It appears that organizations might still be negotiating the balance between consumer leadership and traditional structures and systems. The majority of included studies represent research about consumer-run organizations, with consumer leadership in mainstream mental health organizations being less represented in the literature. Advocates of consumer leadership should focus more on emphasizing how such leadership itself can be a valuable resource for organizations and how this can be better articulated. This review highlights the current gaps in understandings of consumer leadership in mental health, including a need for more research exploring the benefits of consumer leadership for other consumers of services.
Expectations of higher education leaders are high, varied, and numerous. Leaders are expected not only to be visionary, decisive, and articulate, but also to share information, purposes, commitments, and struggles. Effective leaders must know and understand their faculty and staff; insist on realism; set clear goals and priorities; follow through;…
Child Care Information Exchange, 1987
Provides day care center directors with relevant ideas for working with staff. Ideas include building "team spirit" among staff members; effective listening; gaining respect from staff members through effective decision-making skills; recognizing and correcting administrative errors; and effective group management techniques. (Author/BB)
Boyle, Cynthia J.; Janke, Kristin K.
Objective. To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Methods. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Results. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Conclusions. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought. PMID:24371345
Waggoner, Jane; Carline, Jan D; Durning, Steven J
The authors of this article reviewed the methodology of three common consensus methods: nominal group process, consensus development panels, and the Delphi technique. The authors set out to determine how a majority of researchers are conducting these studies, how they are analyzing results, and subsequently the manner in which they are reporting their findings. The authors conclude with a set of guidelines and suggestions designed to aid researchers who choose to use the consensus methodology in their work.Overall, researchers need to describe their inclusion criteria. In addition to this, on the basis of the current literature the authors found that a panel size of 5 to 11 members was most beneficial across all consensus methods described. Lastly, the authors agreed that the statistical analyses done in consensus method studies should be as rigorous as possible and that the predetermined definition of consensus must be included in the ultimate manuscript. More specific recommendations are given for each of the three consensus methods described in the article.
studying the effect of fading and collisions on the performance of wireless consensus gossiping and in comparing its cost (measured in terms of number of...not assumed to be symmetric under A2. III. RELATED WORK There has been a resurgence of interest in characterizing consen- sus and gossip algorithms...tree, and then distribute the consensus value, with a finite number of exchanges. The price paid is clearly that of finding the appropriate routing
of dying patients to ensure interventions were based on evidence. To encourage a high level of participation, Florence Wald demonstrated a caring component in her leadership with a strong commitment to mentoring. Wald worked to transform the quality of end-of-life care by assessing the readiness for change prior to acting and by working to provide supports for success. Finally, the findings showed that Florence Wald built consensus on vision before executing purposeful change by collaborating with the Founders and asking the hard questions to examine standards of care. Florence Wald provided transformational leadership in creating a value-driven culture of inquiry among the Founders where decision making was evidence-based and significantly improved the quality of palliative care in the United States. Nursing leaders who build upon the shared values to provide direction and promote momentum critical to the change will have more success in reaching strategic outcomes of transformational efforts. Transformational nursing leaders who build consensus on vision before executing purposeful change by collaborating with a wide group of stakeholders will encourage a broader ownership of the change. When nursing leaders work to elevate the consciousness of their work groups to direct meaningful change by developing and sustaining value-driven cultures of inquire, decisions will more directly align with evidence and support successful outcomes.
Nurse transformational leaders can serve in academic settings and at local, national, international professional nursing organizations and community-based groups. As a transformational leader, nurses can lead in any workplace. According to a study by Stanley (2012), clinical leaders are not sought for their capacity to outline a vision, but for their values and beliefs on display that are easily recognized in their actions. This encompasses the moral component of transformational leadership. It is the APRNs duty to continue to strive towards a better vision for the well-being of all nurses, patients, and colleagues. Autonomous APRNs are happier, healthier, and better prepared to provide the best patient care to their patients. We should not be happy to sit back and let others fight this fight. APRNs need to be on the frontline, leading the way. This is only an insight that I have gained after many frustrating years of cheering our profession and then being made to feel inferior at the same time. Only nurses, who have that nurturing spirit, would hold back if they felt it might hurt others. Don't back off or hold back! It might hurt those that follow!
Kearsley, Greg, Ed.; Lynch, William, Ed.
This book addresses the topic of leadership in the use of educational technology. The four chapters of the first part discuss some of the issues associated with leadership in the use of educational technology. They include: (1) "Educational Technology Leadership in the Age of Technology: The New Skills" (Greg Kearsley and William Lynch); (2)…
DiPaolo, Donald G.
This report examines leadership and the impact of a leadership-education retreat through the eyes of six undergraduate college men who participated in the Institute of Men of Principle at a Midwestern College. The report relates the results of a study on what influences shaped the definition and experience of leadership for the participants of the…
Terrey, John N.
Current writers on the topic of educational leadership express essentially the same concerns: the absence of leadership and vision, the tendency to select survivalism over risk, and the control by managers rather than leaders. These writers highlight both the craving and the need for leadership. Several recent publications provide insights into…
Williams, Henry S.; Johnson, Teryl L.
Strategic leadership is built upon traits and actions that encompass the successful execution of all leadership styles. In a world that is rapidly changing, strategic leadership in schools guides school leader through assuring constant improvement process by anticipating future trends and planning for them and noting that plans must be flexible to…
Payette, Dennis L.; Libertella, Anthony F.
This paper is a compendium of leadership behaviors that emerging or aspirant leaders could choose to enhance their management and leadership skills. These behaviors were drawn directly from the experience of the authors, both of whom have held senior leadership and management positions in business, law, and higher education. This paper is an…
Examines difference and similarities among definitions of leadership in different cultures and how the cultures shape the definitions of leadership in their own cultural environments. Focuses on the concept of leadership in Australia, China, Russia, and the United States. (Contains 50 references.) (Author/LRW)
Rallis, Sharon F.; Militello, Matthew
Effective leadership does not depend on a set of attributes that a single individual possesses. Instead, the search for one best heroic leader should be replaced with the search for and investment in a number of superheroes: a League of Leadership. Those who create a leadership league don't explore individual skills, but collective practices, such…
West, Cathie E.
To improve student achievement schools need the leadership of knowledgeable, highly skilled, and visionary principals and superintendents. Exemplary school leadership doesn't develop in isolation, however. Strong leadership grows from dynamic, collaborative, and intentional interactions between superintendents and their principals. These savvy…
A "binocular" perspective on leadership combines the analytical, transactional leadership present in organizations and the more personal, transformational leadership needed in communities. School systems are both hierarchical bureaucracies and moral communities, requiring leaders who simultaneously attend to both realities in a balanced…
Weigel, Richard A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…
Roach, Adelma A.; Wyman, Leisy T.; Brookes, Heather; Chavez, Christina; Heath, Shirley Brice; Valdes, Guadalupe
A decade-long study in underserved and at-risk communities evaluated young people identified as leaders within out-of-school youth organizations. Findings revealed that emerging youth leadership differs from established measures and leadership theories drawn from adults with a greater emphasis on how leadership happens, rather than who leaders…
When teachers and administrators talk about leadership with their students and hang leadership banners on the school walls, the assumption is that leadership is grounded on an ethical framework and that leaders will have the strength to go against the tide of popular opinion. The author argues that such an assumption is a mistake. In this article,…
Maibach, Edward W.; van der Linden, Sander L.
The spread of influential misinformation, such as conspiracy theories about the existence of a secret, large-scale atmospheric spraying program (SLAP), is contributing to the politicization of science. In an important recent study, Shearer et al (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 084011) employ a novel methodology to quantify the expert consensus of popular SLAP assertions. The authors find that 99% (76/77) of surveyed experts have not encountered any evidence that would support the existence of such a program. Here we argue that this finding is important because a growing body of research has shown that the public’s perception of expert consensus on key societal issues acts an important ‘gateway’ to science acceptance. Furthermore, communicating normative agreement among experts, such as the strong scientific consensus against the existence of a SLAP, can help limit the spread of misinformation and promote more effective public decision-making about science and society.
Case, Robert W.
Situational leadership theory suggests that to reach maximum leadership effectiveness, the leader must adapt his/her behavior to different situations. For athletic coaches, this means that the amount of direction provided for students should increase or decrease according to the students' maturity levels. Applications of the theory are discussed.…
Carrigan, V M
Thrust into a leadership position after years in solo practice demanded quick thinking for one physician executive. Faced with a need for change, he developed his own process for turning an individual's idea into a plan of action for an entire group. Learn the steps he took to build consensus and ease resistance to change.
Punzo, Giuliano; Young, George F.; MacDonald, Malcolm; Leonard, Naomi E.
Consensus and decision-making are often analysed in the context of networks, with many studies focusing attention on ranking the nodes of a network depending on their relative importance to information routing. Dynamical influence ranks the nodes with respect to their ability to influence the evolution of the associated network dynamical system. In this study it is shown that dynamical influence not only ranks the nodes, but also provides a naturally optimised distribution of effort to steer a network from one state to another. An example is provided where the “steering” refers to the physical change in velocity of self-propelled agents interacting through a network. Distinct from other works on this subject, this study looks at directed and hence more general graphs. The findings are presented with a theoretical angle, without targeting particular applications or networked systems; however, the framework and results offer parallels with biological flocks and swarms and opportunities for design of technological networks.
Punzo, Giuliano; Young, George F.; Macdonald, Malcolm; Leonard, Naomi E.
Consensus and decision-making are often analysed in the context of networks, with many studies focusing attention on ranking the nodes of a network depending on their relative importance to information routing. Dynamical influence ranks the nodes with respect to their ability to influence the evolution of the associated network dynamical system. In this study it is shown that dynamical influence not only ranks the nodes, but also provides a naturally optimised distribution of effort to steer a network from one state to another. An example is provided where the “steering” refers to the physical change in velocity of self-propelled agents interacting through a network. Distinct from other works on this subject, this study looks at directed and hence more general graphs. The findings are presented with a theoretical angle, without targeting particular applications or networked systems; however, the framework and results offer parallels with biological flocks and swarms and opportunities for design of technological networks. PMID:27210291
This paper is an extension of the author's earlier work on developing management information services and creating a culture of assessment in libraries. The author will focus observations on the use of data in decision-making in libraries, specifically on the role of leadership in making evidence-based decision a reality, and will review new…
Turkel, Marian C
Contemporary transformational leadership focuses on authentic leadership styles, relational caring, meaningful recognition, creativity, building trust, relationships, participative decision making, dialogue with time for reflection, and innovation. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate how concepts from the unitary transformative paradigm and caring science can be integrated within nursing leadership practice, to invite nurse leaders to make these concepts explicit in their own transformational leadership journey, and to offer ways of reframing traditional organizational language. Practice exemplars are presented to highlight how tenets from caring theory are guiding the practice of nursing leadership.
This report considers the problem of multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational/regional repositories for radioactive waste (RW) deep disposal. In the siting of a multinational repository there appears an essential innovative component of stakeholder consensus building, namely: to reach consent - political, social, economic, ecological - among international partners, in addition to solving the whole set of intra-national consensus building items. An entire partnering country is considered as a higher-level stakeholder - the national stakeholder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, possibly being characterized by diverse political, economic and social interests. The following theses as a possible interdisciplinary approach towards building of shared understanding and stakeholder consensus on the international scale of RW disposal are forwarded and developed: a) building of international stakeholder consensus would be promoted by activating and diversifying on the international scale multilateral interactions between intra- and international stakeholders, including web-based networks of the RW disposal site investigations and decision-making, as well as networks for international cooperation among government authorities in nuclear safety, b) gradual progress in intergovernmental consensus and reaching multilateral agreements on shared deep repositories will be the result of democratic dialogue, via observing the whole set of various interests and common resolving of emerged controversies by using advanced synergetic approaches of conflict resolution, c) cross-cultural thinking and world perception, mental flexibility, creativity and knowledge are considered as basic prerogatives for gaining a higher level of mutual understanding and consensus for seeking further consensus, for
Bruinsma, Sophie M; Roobol, Monique J; Carroll, Peter R; Klotz, Laurence; Pickles, Tom; Moore, Caroline M; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J; Villers, Arnauld; Rannikko, Antti; Valdagni, Riccardo; Frydenberg, Mark; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Filson, Christopher P; Bangma, Chris H
Active surveillance (AS) is broadly described as a management option for men with low-risk prostate cancer, but semantic heterogeneity exists in both the literature and in guidelines. To address this issue, a panel of leading prostate cancer specialists in the field of AS participated in a consensus-forming project using a modified Delphi method to reach international consensus on definitions of terms related to this management option. An iterative three-round sequence of online questionnaires designed to address 61 individual items was completed by each panel member. Consensus was considered to be reached if ≥70% of the experts agreed on a definition. To facilitate a common understanding among all experts involved and resolve potential ambiguities, a face-to-face consensus meeting was held between Delphi survey rounds two and three. Convenience sampling was used to construct the panel of experts. In total, 12 experts from Australia, France, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Japan, the UK, Canada and the USA participated. By the end of the Delphi process, formal consensus was achieved for 100% (n = 61) of the terms and a glossary was then developed. Agreement between international experts has been reached on relevant terms and subsequent definitions regarding AS for patients with localized prostate cancer. This standard terminology could support multidisciplinary communication, reduce the extent of variations in clinical practice and optimize clinical decision making.
This article focuses on teacher leadership, an important dimension of the work of the Leadership for Learning network which is the focus of this special issue. More specifically, the article focuses on the launch of a journal--"Teacher Leadership"--as a strategy for promoting key values: shared leadership, teachers' leadership of…
Bright, Leslie Shay
The purpose of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of decision-making characteristics of recreational backcountry groups when making a decision of where to travel and ride in avalanche terrain from the perspective of individuals. Decision-making characteristics encompassed communication, decision-making processes, leadership,…
Johnsen, Ellen F; Pohlman, Katherine J
School nursing practice establishes itself in the midst of both education and nursing philosophies, ethics, standards, laws, and regulations. Treading these two worlds is difficult at times and requires that a school nurse possess a strong foundational knowledge base, seek professional collaboration, and navigate conflicting professional demands in order to promote student and public safety. This article is Part 2 of a four-part series that recounts the inspiring story of a school nurse, Ellen Johnsen, who did just that back in the 1980s in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma. Part 2 describes how Ellen's actions led the Broken Arrow Public Schools to revise its unsafe and illegal medication administration policy, which brought the policy into partial compliance with the nurse practice act but culminated in Ellen losing her job. The purpose of this series is to enhance understanding of the legal parameters governing school nurse practice, provide examples of ethical decision making, and review the challenges associated with serving as a leader.
Pickering, Matthew C; D'Agati, Vivette D; Nester, Carla M; Smith, Richard J; Haas, Mark; Appel, Gerald B; Alpers, Charles E; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bedrosian, Camille; Braun, Michael; Doyle, Mittie; Fakhouri, Fadi; Fervenza, Fernando C; Fogo, Agnes B; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Gale, Daniel P; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Griffin, Gene; Harris, Claire L; Holers, V Michael; Johnson, Sally; Lavin, Peter J; Medjeral-Thomas, Nicholas; Paul Morgan, B; Nast, Cynthia C; Noel, Laure-Hélène; Peters, D Keith; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Servais, Aude; Sethi, Sanjeev; Song, Wen-Chao; Tamburini, Paul; Thurman, Joshua M; Zavros, Michael; Cook, H Terence
C3 glomerulopathy is a recently introduced pathological entity whose original definition was glomerular pathology characterized by C3 accumulation with absent or scanty immunoglobulin deposition. In August 2012, an invited group of experts (comprising the authors of this document) in renal pathology, nephrology, complement biology, and complement therapeutics met to discuss C3 glomerulopathy in the first C3 Glomerulopathy Meeting. The objectives were to reach a consensus on: the definition of C3 glomerulopathy, appropriate complement investigations that should be performed in these patients, and how complement therapeutics should be explored in the condition. This meeting report represents the current consensus view of the group.
To an extent unprecedented in history, healthcare is a complex and human enterprise. Generating the complexity are stakeholders with more diverse perspectives, needs, and agendas, and greater knowledge and vested interest than ever before. Given their pivotal position between the direct-care environment and external stakeholders, nurse managers can no longer rely on the hierarchy, authority, and linear thinking afforded by traditional management; in order to accomplish they must lead people by working through them. Ironically, when needed most, there is a lack of consensus in the literature about what leadership is. In this paper I describe the paradigms for leadership and management held by six Canadian nurse managers who participated in a phenomenological study of leadership. Thinking leaders worked through people to enhance their growth, potential, and accomplishment, participants did so by creating and sustaining inclusive environments, influencing people, and acting in a manner that reflected and supported integrity. Participants thought managers did not focus on people; instead, they carried out routine, procedure-driven tasks to run departmental business. Included in this paper are suggestions about how participants' paradigms might benefit the nursing profession, consumers of care, and healthcare organizations. Although organizations are markedly interested in the development of managers and leaders as decision makers behind accomplishment (Beyers, 1991), managed or pushed organizations will fall behind those that are "led and stretched" (Batten, 1989, p. 3). According to Bennis and Nanus (1985), whereas managers are concerned about efficiency as it relates to set routines, leaders try to be effective by doing what is right. These authors also posited that although management alone may have sufficed in our more predictable past, today's intricate world is not well served by management's linear thinking; its lack of attention to people's diversity; and its
Youn, Houng Jin
The purpose of this dissertation was to launch a leadership training program for shared leadership based on "super leadership." The constructs of the study were designed to study Bible leaders in shared leadership, leadership paradigm and types, transformational leadership, and, super leadership and shared leadership theory that are all…
Ecker, N; Smith, J
Planned Parenthood of Nassau County (PPNC) employs a wide range of local programs to assist young people in developing the skills necessary to make responsible decisions and help them become good leaders in the future. The mission that underpins their work with the youth is to help them recognize the powerful positive impact they can have on their peers, friends, loved ones, and families. For the last 16 years, peer education has played an essential role in the programs and services of PPNC for teens. The Teen Advocate Project (TAP) has trained and supported dozens of local youth who have in turn participated in several outreach and education activities. The PPNC also created the Teen Info Line, a telephone peer support service operated by and for teens. Along with the TAP, PPNC operates three other successful components of its education programs targeting the youth and their families: 1) male involvement program, 2) multicultural education program, and 3) substance awareness/sexual health education program. In recognizing that its mission to help the youth must not stop at the county border, PPNC established the Global Institute for Training in 1992 to develop youth leadership programs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe.
Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robin; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Santos, Alexandra F; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Cezmi A
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been used to treat allergic disease since the early 1900s. Despite numerous clinical trials and meta-analyses proving AIT efficacious, it remains underused and is estimated to be used in less than 10% of patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma worldwide. In addition, there are large differences between regions, which are not only due to socioeconomic status. There is practically no controversy about the use of AIT in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, but for atopic dermatitis or food allergy, the indications for AIT are not well defined. The elaboration of a wider consensus is of utmost importance because AIT is the only treatment that can change the course of allergic disease by preventing the development of asthma and new allergen sensitizations and by inducing allergen-specific immune tolerance. Safer and more effective AIT strategies are being continuously developed both through elaboration of new allergen preparations and adjuvants and alternate routes of administration. A number of guidelines, consensus documents, or both are available on both the international and national levels. The international community of allergy specialists recognizes the need to develop a comprehensive consensus report to harmonize, disseminate, and implement the best AIT practice. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization, has decided to issue an international consensus on AIT.
This report presents information from the ANS Criticality Alarm System Workshop relating to the consensus standard requirements and guidance. Topics presented include: definition; nomenclature; requirements and recommendations; purpose of criticality alarms; design criteria; signal characteristics; reliability, dependability and durability; tests; and emergency preparedness and planning.
Barnett, Vincent M., Jr.
The main question discussed in this paper is whether the confrontations which have been taking place on college campuses these past few years provide the basis for a new consensus which will enable all to move forward with confidence and a renewed sense of achievement. In discussing these confrontations, however, several fallacies need to be…
Personal leadership promotes the ethical conduct of human research activities. Leadership entails application of one’s cognitive abilities, technical skills, and emotional intelligence during the conduct of research activities, Personal leadership assures human research subject protection....
The fifth annual Climate Leadership Awards Dinner will be held on March 9, 2016 during the 2016 Climate Leadership Conference, and publicly recognize individuals and organizations for their outstanding leadership in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Launius, Roger D. (Editor); Mccurdy, Howard E. (Editor)
Papers presented at a historical symposium on Presidential leadership in the space program include the following: 'The Imperial Presidency in the History of Space Exploration'; 'The Reluctant Racer: Dwight D. Eisenhower and United States Space Policy'; 'Kennedy and the Decision to Go to the Moon'; 'Johnson, Project Apollo, and the Politics of Space Program Planning'; 'The Presidency, Congress, and the Deceleration of the U.S. Space Program in the 1970s'; 'Politics not Science: The U.S. Space Program in the Reagan and Bush Years'; 'Presidential Leadership and International Aspects of the Space Program'; 'National Leadership and Presidential Power'; and 'Epilogue: Beyond NASA Exceptionalism'.
Kanengieter, John; Rajagopal-Durbin, Aparna
Lessons taught and learned in the challenging, unpredictable environment of a wilderness expedition have direct applications to today's business world. That's according to two directors at the National Outdoor Leadership School, who in this article share five principles for expedition--and career-success. (1) Practice leadership. The fundamental philosophy of NOLS is that leadership can be learned-even by those who don't think they have a natural ability to lead. You just need to practice making decisions, then reflecting on and learning from the outcomes. (2) Lead from everywhere. In an expedition group, or in an organization, you can play four roles, often simultaneously: designated leader, active follower, peer leader, and self-leader. Effective teamwork rests on knowing how and when to step into each role. (3) Behave well Leadership means getting along in a diverse group, cooperating with teammates, effectively resolving conflict, and keeping yourself and others motivated. (4) Keep calm. On expeditions and in business, people often end up scrapping not only Plan A but also Plan B. Leadership involves planning for things you can control, letting go of things you can't, expecting the unexpected, and maintaining composure when unforeseen circumstances arise. (5) Disconnect to connect. The fast-paced, high-tech world of work wreaks havoc on leaders' ability to engage in the careful, strategic thinking required of them. It's important to disconnect from 21st-century distractions and to connect with nature once in a while.
Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter
Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.
Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be
Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula
Purpose - Internal quality control (IQC) represents an essential risk management tool within the total testing pathway (TTP) that contributes to the overall objective of assuring the quality of results produced in medical laboratories. Controlling analytical phase quality alone requires significant expertise and input by scientifically trained staff. This effort has escalated exponentially following the publication of the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)15189:2012 requirements for quality and competence in medical laboratories. The reported inconsistency and diversity to IQC approaches in diagnostic laboratories is definitive evidence that international guidance in IQC programme design and implementation is long overdue. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - Herein, the authors define, describe and critically examine the essential elements four stages of an IQC programme and suggest a template to inform both design and ease of implementation. For practical application, the authors have stratified the proposed methodology into four stages: staff education and training; IQC material; IQC targets; and IQC procedure, and provide recommendations that meet ISO15189:2012 requirements. Findings - These recommendations are informed by the published literature together with the collective experience working in clinical biochemistry and diagnostic endocrinology laboratories. The authors note that the laboratory staff's effort on IQC is a continuous process, driven by changes within each IQC stage, in response to risk analysis, maximising economic value or through professional leadership and central to IQC programme implementation and delivery. Practical implications - The authors offer a template that laboratories can use to inform the design and implementation of their IQC programme. Originality/value - The proposed IQC programme is user friendly, flexible and pragmatic with the potential to harmonise practice. The authors
Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S
Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of shared and unshared information: Consensus norm groups valued shared information more highly than critical groups did, and valence was a good predictor of decision outcome. In addition, the 2nd study showed that the group norm manipulation has no impact on individual decisions, consistent with the assumption that this is a group effect. Results suggest that the content of group norms is an important factor influencing the quality of group decision-making processes and that the content of group norms may be related to the group's proneness for groupthink.
Alderson, Philip O; Bresolin, Linda B; Becker, Gary J; Thrall, James H; Dunnick, N Reed; Hillman, Bruce J; Lee, Joseph K T; Nagy, Edward C
Opportunities for funded radiologic research are greater than ever, and the amount of federal funding coming to academic radiology departments is increasing. Even so, many medical school-based radiology departments have little or no research funding. Accordingly, a consensus panel was convened to discuss ways to enhance research productivity and broaden the base of research strength in as many academic radiology departments as possible. The consensus panel included radiologists who have leadership roles in some of the best-funded research departments, radiologists who direct other funded research programs, and radiologists with related expertise. The goals of the consensus panel were to identify the attributes associated with successful research programs and to develop an action plan for radiology research based on these characteristics.
Smith, Regina O.; Dirkx, John M.
This chapter describes online consensus group work, a form of collaborative learning. It discusses collaborative learning, small group work, and consensus learning, with recommendations for their use in online contexts.
Duan, Sisi; Li, Yun; Levitt, Karl N.
Consensus is a fundamental approach to implementing fault-tolerant services through replication where there exists a tradeoff between the cost and the resilience. For instance, Crash Fault Tolerant (CFT) protocols have a low cost but can only handle crash failures while Byzantine Fault Tolerant (BFT) protocols handle arbitrary failures but have a higher cost. Hybrid protocols enjoy the benefits of both high performance without failures and high resiliency under failures by switching among different subprotocols. However, it is challenging to determine which subprotocols should be used. We propose a moving target approach to switch among protocols according to the existing system and network vulnerability. At the core of our approach is a formalized cost model that evaluates the vulnerability and performance of consensus protocols based on real-time Intrusion Detection System (IDS) signals. Based on the evaluation results, we demonstrate that a safe, cheap, and unpredictable protocol is always used and a high IDS error rate can be tolerated.
Huang, Shan-Han; Tung, Chun-Wei
The assessment of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens (NGHCs) is currently relying on two-year rodent bioassays. Toxicogenomics biomarkers provide a potential alternative method for the prioritization of NGHCs that could be useful for risk assessment. However, previous studies using inconsistently classified chemicals as the training set and a single microarray dataset concluded no consensus biomarkers. In this study, 4 consensus biomarkers of A2m, Ca3, Cxcl1, and Cyp8b1 were identified from four large-scale microarray datasets of the one-day single maximum tolerated dose and a large set of chemicals without inconsistent classifications. Machine learning techniques were subsequently applied to develop prediction models for NGHCs. The final bagging decision tree models were constructed with an average AUC performance of 0.803 for an independent test. A set of 16 chemicals with controversial classifications were reclassified according to the consensus biomarkers. The developed prediction models and identified consensus biomarkers are expected to be potential alternative methods for prioritization of NGHCs for further experimental validation.
Huang, Shan-Han; Tung, Chun-Wei
The assessment of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens (NGHCs) is currently relying on two-year rodent bioassays. Toxicogenomics biomarkers provide a potential alternative method for the prioritization of NGHCs that could be useful for risk assessment. However, previous studies using inconsistently classified chemicals as the training set and a single microarray dataset concluded no consensus biomarkers. In this study, 4 consensus biomarkers of A2m, Ca3, Cxcl1, and Cyp8b1 were identified from four large-scale microarray datasets of the one-day single maximum tolerated dose and a large set of chemicals without inconsistent classifications. Machine learning techniques were subsequently applied to develop prediction models for NGHCs. The final bagging decision tree models were constructed with an average AUC performance of 0.803 for an independent test. A set of 16 chemicals with controversial classifications were reclassified according to the consensus biomarkers. The developed prediction models and identified consensus biomarkers are expected to be potential alternative methods for prioritization of NGHCs for further experimental validation. PMID:28117354
The United States lacks a comprehensive approach to policy-making in the energy realm. Today, as in the past, individual constituency groups tend to focus on their particular aspect of the energy challenge. Many employ a ``decide-announce-defend`` approach to policy-making, setting out to secure a unilateral advantage for themselves. By so doing, they inevitably pit interest against interest. The result is a polarization of constituencies, and shortsighted policies designed to address the issue of the moment. The American Energy Assurance Council (AEAC) is a non-profit organization founded in 1987 for the sole purpose of facilitating progress toward a fair efficient wise, stable, and consensus-based national energy strategy. AEAC does not have a substantive policy agencies. Rather, we are committed to supporting a process whereby the many stakeholders and policy makers concerned with energy-related issues can come together in productive discourse, thereby overcoming ignorance of each other`s positions. The Council seeks to act as a facilitative body, providing a ``safe`` context for inventive and creative thinking. We attempt to build a store of common knowledge, and to build on that store according to mutually agreed-upon groundrules, and employing sophisticated approaches to facilitation and mediation. This report, the National Energy Consensus Experiment (NECE), was an ambitious experiment in consensus-building. We learned a great deal from it, both in terms of substance and process, and we are convinced that it holds important lessons for others who may seek to build consensus in the public policy realm.
The United States lacks a comprehensive approach to policy-making in the energy realm. Today, as in the past, individual constituency groups tend to focus on their particular aspect of the energy challenge. Many employ a decide-announce-defend'' approach to policy-making, setting out to secure a unilateral advantage for themselves. By so doing, they inevitably pit interest against interest. The result is a polarization of constituencies, and shortsighted policies designed to address the issue of the moment. The American Energy Assurance Council (AEAC) is a non-profit organization founded in 1987 for the sole purpose of facilitating progress toward a fair efficient wise, stable, and consensus-based national energy strategy. AEAC does not have a substantive policy agencies. Rather, we are committed to supporting a process whereby the many stakeholders and policy makers concerned with energy-related issues can come together in productive discourse, thereby overcoming ignorance of each other's positions. The Council seeks to act as a facilitative body, providing a safe'' context for inventive and creative thinking. We attempt to build a store of common knowledge, and to build on that store according to mutually agreed-upon groundrules, and employing sophisticated approaches to facilitation and mediation. This report, the National Energy Consensus Experiment (NECE), was an ambitious experiment in consensus-building. We learned a great deal from it, both in terms of substance and process, and we are convinced that it holds important lessons for others who may seek to build consensus in the public policy realm.
finally allow us to follow the ACS program in bariatric surgery and link quality-based purchasing with verification. For this col- laborative...University of Washington Medicine Department of Surgery , Seattle, Washington. See under consensus statements for author affiliations. The 2012 ABA burn...correspondence to Nicole S. Gibran MD, FACS, UW Medicine Regional Burn Center, UW Medicine Department of Surgery , Seattle, Washington 98104. Copyright
Warnock, Garth L.; Tator, Charles H.
Canadian surgical research requires careful nurturing if it is to flourish in tomorrow’s environment. A consensus conference organized by the Research Development Committee of the Canadian Association of Surgical Chairs has addressed a number of issues to promote Canadian surgical research. This synopsis is a summary of the proceedings of that conference. It reflects on the meaning of surgical science, elements of establishing a successful research program, leadership in surgical science, identification of talented trainees, and the means to make the most of opportunities for funding. The information contained in the synopsis should not only assist departments of surgery and surgical specialty societies but should challenge them to set goals and innovative approaches to plan for strong surgical research in a changing environment. PMID:9711162
Moore, Lori L.; Odom, Summer F.; Wied, Lexi M.
Capstone courses in leadership provide students opportunities to synthesize prior knowledge about various aspects of leadership. This article describes the "Leadership for Dummies" project, which could be used as a capstone experience for leadership majors. Based on his experiences as a psychological researcher, Gardner (2008) identified five…
Edwards, Alexander Kyei; Aboagye, Samuel Kwadwo
The Ghana Education Service (GES) is facing challenges in school leadership and hence a lot of criticisms on basic school performances. The issue is whether school leadership relates to school performances and that there is the need for transformation leadership. The purpose of this study was to discuss self-reported leadership practices…
McKim, Aaron J.; Velez, Jonathan J.
Linking specific learning experiences to leadership development has the potential to enhance leadership education. In this study, we sought to link student growth in 13 leadership areas to specific learning experiences within a leadership development program. We measured development within the 13 areas by comparing the perceived needs of students…
Two key themes emerged from the 2012 National Leadership Forum: Taking Business to School, which was hosted by the Career and Technical Education Foundation at the end of May. The first was that employers are looking for a workforce that is technologically savvy while having leadership and employability skills. The second is that the business…
As part of the special edition recognizing the 40th anniversary of "Educational Management Administration & Leadership" this article reviews the coverage of leadership and diversity issues in the journal. The majority of articles concerning diversity have focused on gender, with attention turning to the wider concept of diversity since the year…
senior unit leaders. 1.3. Project Team • Sponsor: TRAC Military research Office ( MRO ) • Project Lead: MAJ Edward Masotti (TRAC-MTRY) • NPS Faculty: – Dr...th er p layers ch an ged th e en viro n m en tal co n d itio n s. GLOSSARY LAT Leadership Assessment Tool LDW Leadership Development Wargame MRO
The study of leadership has faltered partly because the wrong phenomenon has been studied. Whereas the usual definition considers leadership either as a personal property or as a property of position, this paper argues that it is a transient phenomenon residing neither in the person nor the situation and one that can be practiced equally well by…
Hines, Thomas E.
Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…
Knuth, Richard K.; Banks, Patricia Anne
This article introduces the reader to the Essential Leadership Model (ELM). The ELM provides a vocabulary and framework for clarifying and prioritizing the many complex and competing demands of the principalship. The ELM supports principals in identifying the critical needs of a school and the leadership knowledge, skills, and dispositions to meet…
Three presentations are provided from the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Leadership Development: A Review of the Theory and Literature" (Susan A. Lynham) has four parts that analyze the leadership development process: the present state of the available body of knowledge on leadership…
This document contains four papers presented at a symposium on leadership and management development moderated by Mark Porter at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Expanding Formative Experiences: A Critical Dimension of Leadership Deportment" (Gary D. Geroy, Jackie L. Jankovich) advocates focusing…
Describes SAIL (Students Active in Leadership) as a school-based, youth-directed group. States that the program helps teenagers learn leadership skills by developing and implementing community service activities. SAIL finds partners with whom to collaborate among local businesses, government, and health associations, and these partners provide the…
A recent article in this journal by John Smith and Joseph Blase criticized empiricism as a theoretical base for educational leadership, suggested hermeneutics as a replacement host theory, and advanced some theories of leadership. What Blase and Smith say is consistent with both hermeneutics and empiricism. However, their hermeneutical theories…
Today's technology-based society and the vast influx of new information make leadership development a necessity. Many of the world's finest and most successful leaders have trusted mentors. Mentoring has emerged as a means to cultivate the leadership skills of current and future leaders. Mentoring has a rich history and harbors immense…
Kolb, Judith A.
This study examined leadership in 16 research and 16 nonresearch teams in various manufacturing, aerospace, and health services companies. It concluded that research team leaders need to be able to fulfill a public relations or boundary management role. Engineering research teams, however, showed leadership patterns suggesting different needs for…
Social media tools are ubiquitous throughout the college student experience, particularly for students who hold leadership positions on campus. A research study on junior and senior student leaders' social media use and experience led to a number of findings that inform leadership education practice.
Davis, Heather; Macauley, Peter
This paper outlines the emerging trends for leadership in the knowledge era. It discusses these within the context of leading, creating and sustaining the performance development cultures that libraries require. The first step is to recognise that we all need to take leadership personally no matter whether we see ourselves as leaders or followers.…
Educational leadership practice is embedded and shaped in its own context. However, contemporary policy makers are keen to use research findings from multiple educational systems to produce overall, generic models of best leadership practice. Therefore, research needs to encompass analyses of the political, societal, cultural, and institutional…
In this report on leadership in the public schools, Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton demonstrates how to make schools better places for learning and to encourage more of it. A brief biography of Clinton is presented in the beginning. The report represents a new generation of thinking on school leadership in that it emphasizes the leadership…
Effective leadership is recognized internationally as a crucial factor in successful learning. It is vital that leadership talent is nurtured and developed within Scottish education. In this article, the author discusses how leaders are developed in the Scottish education system. She also discusses the characteristics that define the emerging…
Lawless, W.F.; Whitton, J.; Poppeliers, Ch.; Abubucker, C.P.
We continue our past research with a study of participation by citizens providing advice on nuclear waste management decisions in the UK and US. This study is unique in that citizen participation programs in both countries are at very different stages: not yet fully operational in the UK, but mature in the US. Our hope is that a review of the programs in both of these countries can lead to findings that may benefit these and other countries as well. In summary: 1. Decision structure has a significant impact on the advice given by the public Citizen Advisory Boards to DOE. The control scheme used by an organization can lead to more rational decisions or more practical ones. Rational decisions are more likely to occur under consensus-seeking while practical decisions are more likely under majority rule ('truth seeking'). 2. CR, designed to reduce conflict, appears to promote it. The source of this conflict appears to be the inability of agents under CR to manage risk perceptions and other illusions, to produce advice that is sufficiently practical to accelerate or even to advance cleanup, and the production of a single world view incongruous with that of its sponsor, DOE. 3. Counter-intuitively, building a consistent world view sufficient to accommodate all of the parties to a decision de-emphasizes uncertainty and disagreement. For example, 'Setting aside or minimizing the importance of key structural uncertainties in underlying processes is a frequent outcome of the drive for consensus'. 4. CR produces pernicious side effects often sought by authoritarian rulers. After the new EU constitution was rejected by the voters of Europe in France and Denmark, it left the EU leadership in gridlock; they had previously rejected CR because it holds its member states hostage to the dictates of a few. The new treat signed by EU leaders on December 13, 2007 'alters the EU's decision-making architecture. More decisions are to be taken by majority vote, removing the need for
Alotaibi, Norah Muhayya; Tayeb, Aziza
Sound leadership has an important role in achieving the success of any institution; so the leader must possess some work team leadership skills such as decision-taking, communication, motivation, conflict management and meeting management. The current study is an attempt to identify the extent of practicing team work leadership skills among the…
Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert
The main purpose of this study was to map school leaders' perceptions concerning the cooperation of the leadership team, the distribution of leadership functions and participative decision-making, and to asses their relative weight in terms of predicting school leaders' job satisfaction. Also, the effect of demographical and structural school…
... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC... Register on June 18, 2010 (75 FR 34707), announcing a meeting of the Military Leadership Diversity... of decision paper for definition of diversity.'' and add in its place the topic ``Deliberation...
McCurtis, Bridget R.
There has been an identifiable decline in moral decision making and socially responsible behaviors in society based on recent national events such as Enron and the Bernie Madoff scandal (Arvedlund, 2009; Doran, 2004). This study attempts to address this leadership crisis by examining college student involvement and leadership experiences that may…
Hunsaker, Phillip L.
In previous research a pilot simulation was developed for use by Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) units in assessing leadership potential of officer candidates in turbulent-field environments. Peer and instructor rating forms were also developed for evaluation of leadership, decision style, ability to cope with stress, and interpersonal…
Aesthetic knowing may be valuable to educational leadership practice because it links feeling and intuition to procedural information to inform decision-making. Within the large and diverse field of aesthetics, some models apply aesthetic knowing to leadership practice. Scholarly interest in this area emerged in the late 1980's, and various…
Elemen, Jennifer E.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze high school leadership praxis for its inclusion of students in organizational leadership dialogue and decision-making and the influences of these factors on student achievement and civic participation. Survey questionnaire data were provided by 215 full-time enrolled undergraduate students from…
Tivinarlik, Alfred; Wanat, Carolyn L.
This yearlong ethnographic study of principals' leadership in Papua New Guinea high schools describes influences of imposing a bureaucratic school organization on principals' decision making in a communal society. Communal values of kinship relationships, "wantok" system, and "big men" leadership challenged principals'…
Blau, Ina; Presser, Ofer
In recent years, school management systems have become an important tool for effective e-leadership and data-based decision making. School management systems emphasize information flow and e-communication between teachers, students and parents. This study examines e-leadership by secondary-school principals through the Mashov school management…
Discusses the elements of constructivist instruction/teaching. Constructivism is seen as ultimate decentralization, with student and teacher able to make decisions regarding what and how they learn. The few studies on leadership and constructivism note the power of constructivist leadership in decentralizing schools and even classes or teams, with…
Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert; Van Keer, Hilde
In the present study the effects of a cooperative leadership team, distributed leadership, participative decision-making, and context variables on teachers' organizational commitment are investigated. Multilevel analyses on data from 1522 teachers indicated that 9% of the variance in teachers' organizational commitment is attributable to…
Davis, Jennifer C; Verhagen, Evert; Bryan, Stirling; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Borland, Jeff; Buchner, David; Hendriks, Marike R C; Weiler, Richard; Morrow, James R; van Mechelen, Willem; Blair, Steven N; Pratt, Mike; Windt, Johann; al-Tunaiji, Hashel; Macri, Erin; Khan, Karim M
This article describes major topics discussed from the 'Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus Workshop' (EPIC), held in Vancouver, Canada, in April 2011. Specifically, we (1) detail existing evidence on effective physical inactivity prevention strategies; (2) introduce economic evaluation and its role in health policy decisions; (3) discuss key challenges in establishing and building health economic evaluation evidence (including accurate and reliable costs and clinical outcome measurement) and (4) provide insight into interpretation of economic evaluations in this critically important field. We found that most methodological challenges are related to (1) accurately and objectively valuing outcomes; (2) determining meaningful clinically important differences in objective measures of physical inactivity; (3) estimating investment and disinvestment costs and (4) addressing barriers to implementation. We propose that guidelines specific for economic evaluations of physical inactivity intervention studies are developed to ensure that related costs and effects are robustly, consistently and accurately measured. This will also facilitate comparisons among future economic evidence.
Vennebo, Kirsten Foshaug; Ottesen, Eli
Leadership is currently viewed as a guarantee for educational quality and reforms, as a crucial component for schools' capacity building and as a major contributor to the transformation of practices. Although an array of leadership studies report on the need for leadership by demonstrating what leaders must do or how leadership practices should be…
This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…
Leadership and leadership development are popular topics today. Concurrent with the construction of leadership theory, leadership development has emerged as a practice, with programs, consultants, reports, and networking opportunities proliferating. Given the reality of limited resources, it is critical that investments in and approaches to…
Tremblay, Christopher W.
Network leadership is an emerging approach that can have an impact on change in education and in society. According to Merriam-Webster (2011), a network is "an interconnected or interrelated chain, group, or system." Intentional interconnectedness is what separates network leadership from other leadership theories. Network leadership has the…
Kagan, Sharon L.
Based in part on a 1992 study of 72 United States early care collaborations and leaders, this paper explores conventional understandings of leadership, reviews the leadership literature, and goes on to compare and discuss collaborative leadership in detail. The paper notes that collaborative leadership stresses the relatedness of systems wherein…
Distributed leadership is now widely known and variously enacted in schools and school systems. Distributed leadership implies a fundamental re-conceptualisation of leadership as practice and challenges conventional wisdom about the relationship between formal leadership and organisational performance. There has been much debate, speculation and…
Hana, Jan; Rudebeck, Carl Edvard
OBJECTIVE. To explore the personal experiences of and conceptions regarding leading rural primary care in Northern Norway. DESIGN. Qualitative content analysis of focus-group interviews. SETTING. Lead primary care physicians in the three northernmost counties. Subjects. Four groups with 22 out of 88 municipal lead physicians in the region. RESULTS. Three main categories were developed and bound together by an implicit theme. Demands and challenges included the wide leadership span of clinical services and public health, placed in a merged line/board position. Constraints of human resources and time and the ever changing organizational context added to the experience of strain. Personal qualifications indicates the lack of leadership motivation and training, which was partly compensated for by a leader role developed through clinical undergraduate training and then through the responsibilities and experiences of clinical work. In Exercising the leadership, the participants described a vision of a coaching and coordinating leadership and, in practice, a display of communication skills, decision-making ability, result focusing, and ad hoc solutions. Leadership was made easier by the features of the small, rural organization, such as overview, close contact with cooperating partners, and a supportive environment. There was incongruence between demands and described qualifications, and between desired and executed leadership, but nevertheless the organization was running. Leadership demonstrated a "working inadequacy". CONCLUSION. Under resource constraints, leadership based on clinical skills favours management by exception which, in the long run, appears to make the leadership less effective. Leadership training which takes into account the prominent features of rural and decentralized primary care is strongly needed.
Current concepts in leadership and governance on the level of supervisory board, management and departments are often considered as insufficient to cope with the profound structural change which actually takes place in the German health care system. While vertical and horizontal disconnecting is typical of the professional bureaucracy of hospitals, transition from functional to divisional structure further increases this risk. Accordingly, medical experts are oriented towards their professional peers and patient care on the one side; on the other side the management gets isolated and looses operative and strategic control. Several studies provide evidence for the relevance of role models to serve as agents of change, which are now developed into the concept of "Clinical Governance": evidence-based medicine, guidelines, continuous quality improvement, safety culture, resource accountability and organisational learning. The present situation makes it necessary to extend this conception, which focuses on the departmental level in an organisation with divisional features, to one of "Clinical Corporate Governance". This term, which also includes supervisory structures and the management board and is relevant for the total hospital and company, respectively, is based on the corporate governance concept. Inside the hospital, the management and the heads of the departments have to agree that (1) experts really need to be integrated into the decision process, and that (2) the outcomes of the entire hospital have to be regarded as equal or superior to the aims of a single department. The public image of the hospital should be one of a strong and reliable partner in health care and health care business on a local, regional and national level. Members of the supervisory board should clearly put corporate aspects above political and other implications and pay attention to personal independence from the leaders of the medical departments.
Health service managers face potential conflicts between corporate and professional agendas, a tension sharpened for trainees by their junior status and relative inexperience. While academic leadership theory forms an integral part of contemporary management development programmes, relatively little is known of trainees' patterned subjectivities in relation to leadership theories. The objective of this study was to explore such subjectivities within a cohort of trainees on the National Health Service Graduate Management Training Scheme (NHS GMTS), a 'fast-track' programme which prepares graduate entrants for director-level health service management posts. A Q-method design was used and four shared subjectivities were identified: leadership as collaborative social process ('relational'); leadership as integrity ('moral'); leadership as effective support of subordinates ('team'); and leadership as construction of a credible leadership persona ('identity'). While the factors broadly map onto competencies indicated within the NHS Leadership Qualities Framework which underpin assessments of performance for this student group, it is important not to overstate the governance effect of the assessment regime. Rather, factors reflect tensions between required competencies, namely the mobilisation of diverse interest groups, the ethical base of decisions and the identity work required to convince others of leadership status. Indeed, factor 2 ('moral') effectively defines leadership as the embodiment of public service ethos.
This dissertation addresses the conditions that led the superpowers to undertake negotiations to limit weapons and sometimes conclude accords. This thesis presents a fourth approach. The leadership model emphasizes the executive-the Soviet general secretary and the American president-as the pivotal actor in arms control decision-making. The executive's perception of the source and level of threat consistently defines his preferred bargaining strategy, and domestic constraints on executive authority account for deviations from that approach. When he has considerable authority, the executive is able to pursue his preferred policy, but when the leader lacks power, other institutional actors within the domestic political system constrain the leader. To test the leadership model, the thesis examines four cases of American and Soviet arms control decision-making: the test ban talks of the late 1950s, the negotiations for the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, the intermediate nuclear forces discussions of the 1980s, and the last phase of the START negotiations from 1989 to 1991. In each of these case studies, the dissertation juxtaposes the leadership model with the previously accepted approaches to evaluate which explanation best conforms to the evidence. The case studies demonstrated the superiority of the leadership model. Neither the balance of power, the desire to strengthen stability, nor the bureaucratic order adequately accounts for arms control decision-making. Instead, the leader's perception f the threat and opportunity determined the nation's approach to the negotiations. Only concerns about coalition maintenance served to temper the executive's tack at the bargaining table.
Kampmann, Jennifer A.
Within the scope of leadership and management, decision making greatly defines the role of university administrator, in particular, the university department head and his/her ability to be a reflective practitioner in the realm of decision making. Decision making is one characteristic of university department head work which warrants close…
Cloud, Robert C.
Desna Wallin defines change leadership as a four-part process that "anticipates" change, "analyzes" the internal and external environments, "acts" on the basis of appropriate and timely data and the strengths of team members, and "affirms" institutional actions with the goal of continuous organizational improvement. In its finest form, change…
Tyczkowski, Brenda; Vandenhouten, Christine; Reilly, Janet; Bansal, Gaurav; Kubsch, Sylvia M; Jakkola, Raelynn
Less than 12.5% of nurses aspire to leadership roles, noting lack of support and stress as major factors in their decision not to pursue this area of practice. Psychological resiliency, described as the ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity, is key to successful nurse managers. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a related concept to resiliency and is another noteworthy predictor of leadership and management success. This study was undertaken to determine the level of and relationship between EI and leadership style of nurse managers employed in Wisconsin and Illinois facilities. A descriptive, exploratory study design was utilized, with a convenience sample of nurse managers working in 6 large Midwestern health systems. Nurse managers were invited to participate in the study by their employer, completing the online consent form and the demographic, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0) surveys. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted between EI and transformational leadership and the outcomes of leadership (extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction). No statistically significant relationships were noted between EI and transactional or laissez-faire leadership styles.
Bischoff, Stephan C; Singer, Pierre; Koller, Michael; Barazzoni, Rocco; Cederholm, Tommy; van Gossum, André
The ESPEN Guideline standard operating procedures (SOP) is based on the methodology provided by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies of Germany (AWMF), the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), and the Centre for Evidence-based Medicine at the University of Oxford. The SOP is valid and obligatory for all future ESPEN-sponsored guideline projects aiming to generate high-quality guidelines on a regular basis. The SOP aims to facilitate the preparation of guideline projects, to streamline the consensus process, to ensure quality and transparency, and to facilitate the dissemination and publication of ESPEN guidelines. To achieve this goal, the ESPEN Guidelines Editorial board (GEB) has been established headed by two chairmen. The GEB will support and supervise the guideline processes and is responsible for the strategic planning of ESPEN guideline activities. Key elements of the SOP are the generation of well-built clinical questions according to the PICO system, a systemic literature search, a classification of the selected literature according to the SIGN evidence levels providing an evidence table, and a clear and straight-forward consensus procedure consisting of online voting's and a consensus conference. Only experts who meet the obligation to disclosure any potential conflict of interests and who are not employed by the Industry can participate in the guideline process. All recommendations will be graded according to the SIGN grading and novel outcome models besides biomedical endpoints. This approach will further extent the leadership of ESPEN in creating up-to-date and suitable for implementation guidelines and in sharing knowledge on malnutrition and clinical nutrition.
Maykel, Justin A.
Many opportunities exist for surgeons to be leaders in healthcare. Leadership training should begin in medical school and continue throughout residency training and in clinical practice. Most leadership skills can be developed and refined through a variety of training programs. Formal programs that result in degrees can provide surgeons with special insight, experience, and skill sets. Leadership skills are used in everyday practice and are particularly valuable when shifting roles or taking on new positions, whether at your home institution or within national organizations. Ultimately, physician leaders are responsible for leading healthcare and will directly impact the quality of care delivered to our patients. PMID:24436687
Kothavala, D. L.
How can the 3rd National Climate Assessment be used to go beyond climate change literacy, to include literacy in climate leadership and its improvement? The National Climate Assessment refers to "no-regrets" strategies (i.e., beneficial despite uncertainty), such as, e.g., energy efficiency, cultivating networks, and growing our adaptive capacity. As we cultivate our capacity as a species to pivot, climate leadership performance and its improvement become legitimate - and essential - realms of research, planning, and practice. However, climate leadership across sectors is not yet well-articulated; and operationalizing literacy expressed as 'what to do' may be viewed as overtly prescriptive by scientists. This talk examines approaches and illustrative examples provided in the Climate Assessment at the scale of cities, states, and firms; along with key findings from the National Academies on communicating science to decision makers; in identifying factors to enhance literacy in climate leadership and performance.
O'Riordan, C. A.; Meth, C.
From giving your first paper at a scientific meeting to chairing committees that make multi-million dollar decisions, scientific organizations provide critical opportunities for growing your career. Many organizations support student activities by providing travel grants and fellowships - an important first step towards joining the larger scientific community. Beyond these standard opportunities, organizations also provide opportunities for students interested in gaining leadership experience, a skill not typically acquired in graduate science programs. For example, the Consortium for Leadership's Schlanger Ocean Drilling Fellowship provides research funds to graduate students, but also introduces the fellows to the communication skills needed to become successful members of their scientific community. Beyond student opportunities, volunteering provides mid-career and established scientists further experience in leadership. Opportunities exist in advising government science policy, guiding large-scale research programs, organizing large scientific meetings, and serving on non-profit boards. The variety of volunteer and leadership opportunities that are available give scientists at all stages of their career a chance to expand and diversify their experience, leading to new successes.
Seeking worldwide professional consensus on the principles of end-of-life care for the critically ill. The Consensus for Worldwide End-of-Life Practice for Patients in Intensive Care Units (WELPICUS) study.
Sprung, Charles L; Truog, Robert D; Curtis, J Randall; Joynt, Gavin M; Baras, Mario; Michalsen, Andrej; Briegel, Josef; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Efferen, Linda; De Robertis, Edoardo; Bulpa, Pierre; Metnitz, Philipp; Patil, Namrata; Hawryluck, Laura; Manthous, Constantine; Moreno, Rui; Leonard, Sara; Hill, Nicholas S; Wennberg, Elisabet; McDermid, Robert C; Mikstacki, Adam; Mularski, Richard A; Hartog, Christiane S; Avidan, Alexander
Great differences in end-of-life practices in treating the critically ill around the world warrant agreement regarding the major ethical principles. This analysis determines the extent of worldwide consensus for end-of-life practices, delineates where there is and is not consensus, and analyzes reasons for lack of consensus. Critical care societies worldwide were invited to participate. Country coordinators were identified and draft statements were developed for major end-of-life issues and translated into six languages. Multidisciplinary responses using a web-based survey assessed agreement or disagreement with definitions and statements linked to anonymous demographic information. Consensus was prospectively defined as >80% agreement. Definitions and statements not obtaining consensus were revised based on comments of respondents, and then translated and redistributed. Of the initial 1,283 responses from 32 countries, consensus was found for 66 (81%) of the 81 definitions and statements; 26 (32%) had >90% agreement. With 83 additional responses to the original questionnaire (1,366 total) and 604 responses to the revised statements, consensus could be obtained for another 11 of the 15 statements. Consensus was obtained for informed consent, withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, legal requirements, intensive care unit therapies, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, shared decision making, medical and nursing consensus, brain death, and palliative care. Consensus was obtained for 77 of 81 (95%) statements. Worldwide consensus could be developed for the majority of definitions and statements about end-of-life practices. Statements achieving consensus provide standards of practice for end-of-life care; statements without consensus identify important areas for future research.
Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)
contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relations between leadership, communication, decision making and overall crew performance. Implications of these findings for spaceflight and training for offshore installations will be discussed.
Bourrée, Fanny; Michel, Philippe; Salmi, Louis Rachid
Summary Background Consensus-based studies are increasingly used as decision-making methods, for they have lower production cost than other methods (observation, experimentation, modelling) and provide results more rapidly. The objective of this paper is to describe the principles and methods of the four main methods, Delphi, nominal group, consensus development conference and RAND/UCLA, their use as it appears in peer-reviewed publications and validation studies published in the healthcare literature. Methods A bibliographic search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE, Banque de Données Santé Publique (BDSP), The Cochrane Library, Pascal and Francis. Keywords, headings and qualifiers corresponding to a list of terms and expressions related to the consensus methods were searched in the thesauri, and used in the literature search. A search with the same terms and expressions was performed on Internet using the website Google Scholar. Results All methods, precisely described in the literature, are based on common basic principles such as definition of subject, selection of experts, and direct or remote interaction processes. They sometimes use quantitative assessment for ranking items. Numerous variants of these methods have been described. Few validation studies have been implemented. Not implementing these basic principles and failing to describe the methods used to reach the consensus were both frequent reasons contributing to raise suspicion regarding the validity of consensus methods. Conclusion When it is applied to a new domain with important consequences in terms of decision making, a consensus method should be first validated. PMID:19013039
Kozma, Balazs; Barrat, Alain
The structure of a network can significantly influence the properties of the dynamical processes that take place on them. While many studies have been paid to this influence, much less attention has been devoted to the interplay and feedback mechanisms between dynamical processes and network topology on adaptive networks. Adaptive rewiring of links can happen in real life systems such as acquaintance networks, where people are more likely to maintain a social connection if their views and values are similar. In our study, we consider different variants of a model for consensus formation. Our investigations reveal that the adaptation of the network topology fosters cluster formation by enhancing communication between agents of similar opinion, although it also promotes the division of these clusters. The temporal behavior is also strongly affected by adaptivity: while, on static networks, it is influenced by percolation properties, on adaptive networks, both the early and late time evolutions of the system are determined by the rewiring process. The investigation of a variant of the model reveals that the scenarios of transitions between consensus and polarized states are more robust on adaptive networks.
Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Deruggiero, Katherine; Losinski, Sarah; Barnett, Daniel
Strong leadership is critical in disaster situations when "patient surge" challenges a hospital's capacity to respond and normally acceptable patterns of care are disrupted. Activation of the emergency operations plan triggers an incident command system structure for leadership decision making. Yet, implementation of the emergency operations plan and incident command system protocols is ultimately subject to nursing and hospital leadership at the service- and unit level. The results of these service-/unit-based leadership decisions have the potential to directly impact staff and patient safety, quality of care, and ultimately, patient outcomes. Despite the critical nature of these events, nurse leaders and administrators receive little education regarding leadership and decision making during disaster events. The purpose of this study is to identify essential competencies of nursing and hospital administrators' leadership during disaster events. An integrative mixed-methods design combining qualitative and quantitative approaches to data collection and analysis was used. Five focus groups were conducted with nurse leaders and hospital administrators at a large urban hospital in the Northeastern United States in a collaborative group process to generate relevant leadership competencies. Concept Systems Incorporated was used to sort, prioritize, and analyze the data (http://conceptsystemsinc.com/). The results suggest that participants' institutional knowledge (of existing resources, communications, processes) and prior disaster experience increase leadership competence.
A one-day program of the Ventura, California, school system attempts to develop leadership, organizational, resourcefulness, and communication skills in gifted students by solving problems in a primitive setting possibly faced by the original Jamestown settlers. (DB)
Takahashi, R T; Pereira, L L
This study deals with the concepts of leadership and the role of the leader in communicating with his team. It stresses communication's concepts, process and its importance to built all organizations.
Examines two orthodoxies related to leadership and gender: Leadership is vested in males, and male leadership style is "macho." Draws implications for leadership role of female head teachers. (Contains 5 tables and 33 reference.) (PKP)
support from above. A 36% shortage exists for NCO’s at the squad level, turublence is a way of life, and many subordinate are difficult to motivate...leadership modules. Finally, consideration should be given to creating two MOS’ in the Bradley to prevent the squad leader from being overloaded. it...shortage exists for NCO’s at squad level, turublence is a way of life, and many subordinate EM are difficult to motivate. Solutions to the leadership
Giltinane, Charlotte Louise
It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.
Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm
How do some firms produce a pipeline of consistently excellent managers? Instead of concentrating merely on strengthening the skills of individuals, these companies focus on building a broad organizational leadership capability. It's what Ulrich and Smallwood--cofounders of the RBL Group, a leadership development consultancy--call a leadership brand. Organizations with leadership brands take an "outside-in" approach to executive development. They begin with a clear statement of what they want to be known for by customers and then link it with a required set of management skills. The Lexus division of Toyota, for instance, translates its tagline--"The pursuit of perfection"--into an expectation that its leaders excel at managing quality processes. The slogan of Bon Secours Health System is "Good help to those in need." It demands that its managers balance business skills with compassion and caring. The outside-in approach helps firms build a reputation for high-quality leaders whom customers trust to deliver on the company's promises. In examining 150 companies with strong leadership capabilities, the authors found that the organizations follow five strategies. First, make sure managers master the basics of leadership--for example, setting strategy and grooming talent. Second, ensure that leaders internalize customers' high expectations. Third, incorporate customer feedback into evaluations of executives. Fourth, invest in programs that help managers hone the right skills, by tapping customers to participate in such programs. Finally, track the success of efforts to build leadership bench strength over the long-term. The result is outstanding management that persists even when individual executives leave. In fact, companies with the strongest leadership brands often become "leader feeders"--firms that regularly graduate leaders who go on to head other companies.
meditation .1 —Napoleon Leadership is a subject which excites interest amongst scholars and laymen alike as it is essential for the organized...should also be covered along with intellectual stimulation including the art of objective reflection and meditation . Further subjects suggested for...towards ample leisure time for reflection and meditation . 21 Solicit active participation of corporate representatives in strategic leadership
Recognize the importance of people and show concern • for their health and well -being Professionalism: Reflect the highest standards of Military and...ARMY MANAGEMENT STAFF COLLEGE - PERSPECTIVES ON LEADERSHIP -6- leadership position, we actually spend more time reporting to our superior than...in Army Values and grows Soldiers and Civilians into competent and confident followers capable of working well on teams and within organizations to
Pande, Saket; McKee, Mac
We present an interdisciplinary approach to attach economic value to model certainty. The central theme of this paper concerns valuing certainty in water resource management, specifically resource allocation. A conceptual framework is developed to study (1) a hypothetical scenario of three water users attempting to mutually agree on allocation of some fixed amount of water amongst themselves and (2) California water policy negotiations along the lines of Adams et al. (1996). We attempt to answer how uncertainty in a policy variable affects the "allocation solution" in such consensus-based decision-making processes. This study finally evolves into economic valuation of uncertainty reduction and willingness to pay for the same.
Cuny, F C
This lesson explores the use of different management leadership styles and methods that are applied to disaster management situations. Leadership and command are differentiated. Mechanisms that can be used to influence others developed include: 1) coercion; 2) reward; 3) position; 4) knowledge; and 5) admiration. Factors that affect leadership include: 1) individual characteristics; 2) competence; 3) experience; 4) self-confidence; 5) judgment; 6) decision-making; and 8) style. Experience and understanding the task are important factors for leadership. Four styles of leadership are developed: 1) directive; 2) supportive; 3) participative; and 4) achievement oriented. Application of each of these styles is discussed. The styles are discussed further as they relate to the various stages of a disaster. The effects of interpersonal relationships and the effects of the environment are stressed. Lastly, leadership does not just happen because a person is appointed as a manager--it must be earned.
Kamm-Larew, Deborah; Stanford, Jevetta; Greene, Robert; Heacox, Christopher; Hodge, Warren
A qualitative mini-case study of I. King Jordan and his leadership style explores the influence of a transformational leader on Gallaudet University and the Deaf community. The study features a template-style semistructured interview with Jordan regarding his perceptions of leadership and his personal insights. The study highlights the attributes of transformational leadership and encourages further research into leadership as a tool for change in the Deaf community and the disability rights movement. This exploration of the leadership style of Gallaudet's first Deaf president is especially timely; the study was conducted between Jordan's retirement announcement and the Gallaudet Board of Trustees' decision to rescind an offer to his announced successor to become the university's next president. That tumultuous transition accentuated the disconnect between Jordan's transformational, charismatic leadership style, which affected generations of the Deaf community, and his followers' dissatisfaction with his management and successor planning.
Zheng, Yuanshi; Ma, Jingying; Wang, Long
In this brief, we consider the consensus problem of hybrid multiagent systems. First, the hybrid multiagent system is proposed, which is composed of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamic agents. Then, three kinds of consensus protocols are presented for the hybrid multiagent system. The analysis tool developed in this brief is based on the matrix theory and graph theory. With different restrictions of the sampling period, some necessary and sufficient conditions are established for solving the consensus of the hybrid multiagent system. The consensus states are also obtained under different protocols. Finally, simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.
James, Constance R.; Smith, J. Goosby
This article presents a classroom ethical decision-making exercise designed to help students make reasoned ethical decisions while gaining insight into their own and others' ethical decision-making strategies. During the exercise, students individually analyze an original mini-case, then meet in small groups to reach consensus on the advice and…
Boulet, L P; Becker, A; Bérubé, D; Beveridge, R; Ernst, P
OBJECTIVES: To provide physicians with current guidelines for the diagnosis and optimal management of asthma in children and adults, including pregnant women and the elderly, in office, emergency department, hospital and clinic settings. OPTIONS: The consensus group considered the roles of education, avoidance of provocative environmental and other factors, diverse pharmacotherapies, delivery devices and emergency and in-hospital management of asthma. OUTCOMES: Provision of the best control of asthma by confirmation of the diagnosis using objective measures, rapid achievement and maintenance of control and regular follow-up. EVIDENCE: The key diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations are based on the 1995 Canadian guidelines and a critical review of the literature by small groups before a full meeting of the consensus group. Recommendations are graded according to 5 levels of evidence. Differences of opinion were resolved by consensus following discussion. VALUES: Respirologists, immunoallergists, pediatricians and emergency and family physicians gave prime consideration to the achievement and maintenance of optimal control of asthma through avoidance of environmental inciters, education of patients and the lowest effective regime of pharmacotherapy to reduce morbidity and mortality. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Adherence to the guidelines should be accompanied by significant reduction in patients' symptoms, reduced morbidity and mortality, fewer emergency and hospital admissions, fewer adverse side-effects from medications, better quality of life for patients and reduced costs. RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations are included in each section of the report. In summary, after a diagnosis of asthma is made based on clinical evaluation, including demonstration of variable airflow obstruction, and contributing factors are identified, a treatment plan is established to obtain and maintain optimal asthma control. The main components of treatment are patient education
Campbell, David P.
These 61 essays are a compilation of bimonthly articles published over a 17-year period. They address various aspects of leadership, such as risk-taking, executive motivation, decision-making, and corporate taboos. They also cover numerous other issues, including general concerns such as father-son relationships, the perils of travel, intelligence…
English, Fenwick W.; Steffy, Betty E.
Films are a useful, inexpensive teaching medium for presenting longitudinal views of leaders and decisions in context, portraying leadership artistry and morality, and illustrating leaders' belief/values/action connections. The films "Nixon,""Gandhi,""Joan of Arc,""Malcolm X,""The Last Emperor,""Patton,""Inherit the Wind,""Matewan,""Lawrence of…
Curry, Katherine A.
Group decision-making can result in important benefits for organizational effectiveness. However, collaborative environments do not emerge organically. Effective leadership is critical for group success. Educational leaders must understand group processes and the importance of creating a culture that supports collaboration. Student discipline for…
Ramos-Villarreal, Joseph; Holland, Glenda
The study was conducted to add to the knowledge base and further the understanding of Emotional Intelligence and leadership theory. Freshmen business students enrolled in BUAD 1201: Principles of Business Administration and graduating senior business students enrolled in MGMT 4325: Decision Making and Business Policy class provided the data for…
A focus on enrollments, rankings, uncertain budgets, and branding efforts to operate universities could have serious implications for discussions of sustainable solutions to complex problems and the decision-making processes of leaders. The Authentic Leadership Model for framing ill-defined problems in higher education is posited to improve the…
A Report for the Global Leadership Initiative. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010. 75pp. (HD57.7 .A53 2010) Bacon , Terry R. The Elements of Power...present from Taylor & Francis . Judgment and Decision Making. Available online 2006-present in ProQuest. Negotiation Journal. Library print holdings begin
Owings, William A., Ed.; Kaplan, Leslie S., Ed.
This collection of writings presents leading research and key considerations to assist educational leaders in making decisions about new programs and new directions for their schools. Twenty-six chapters make up the book: (1) "Changing Demographics: A Call for Leadership" (Bud Hodgkinson); (2) "Media and Political Misrepresentation of Public…
Rosen, Sonia M.
Youth organizing work benefits young people in myriad ways, equipping them with the skills and dispositions to organize around the systemic inequities and policy decisions that threaten their communities. The findings from this life histories study in the Philadelphia Student Union (PSU) reveal that the organization's collectivist leadership model…
Genetically modified foods have become one of the most popular topics for deliberative exercises involving ordinary citizens worldwide. This paper examines the Taiwanese consensus conference on GM foods held in June 2008, and the implications and limitations of the public deliberations. The consensus conference facilitated multiparty dialogues and enhanced citizens' knowledge, and affected their attitudes. This study demonstrates the ways contextual factors have influenced the outcome of the citizens' deliberative practices, including the government's conventional technocratic decision-making style, the strong influence of the U.S. government, the political and technological culture, the government's framing of economic development concerns, and a lack of pressure from civil society to compel the government to formally respond to their concerns. The consensus conference had a limited effect on policy decision-making, and seemed to serve as a socio-political experiment.
Keohane, Nannerl O.
Good college leadership requires a kind of collaboration, it is argued, and creative collaborative work is the best route towards bold and effective leadership. Defining leadership, leadership models, leadership as problem solving, and leadership as taking a stand are discussed. (MLW)
Hopkins, Margaret M.; O’Neil, Deborah A.
The purpose of this perspective article is to present the argument that authentic leadership is a gendered representation of leadership. We first provide a brief history of leadership theories and definitions of authentic leadership. We then critique authentic leadership and offer arguments to support the premise that authentic leadership is not gender-neutral and is especially challenging for women. PMID:26236254
Kratz, John; Strasser, Carly
The movement to bring datasets into the scholarly record as first class research products (validated, preserved, cited, and credited) has been inching forward for some time, but now the pace is quickening. As data publication venues proliferate, significant debate continues over formats, processes, and terminology. Here, we present an overview of data publication initiatives underway and the current conversation, highlighting points of consensus and issues still in contention. Data publication implementations differ in a variety of factors, including the kind of documentation, the location of the documentation relative to the data, and how the data is validated. Publishers may present data as supplemental material to a journal article, with a descriptive “data paper,” or independently. Complicating the situation, different initiatives and communities use the same terms to refer to distinct but overlapping concepts. For instance, the term published means that the data is publicly available and citable to virtually everyone, but it may or may not imply that the data has been peer-reviewed. In turn, what is meant by data peer review is far from defined; standards and processes encompass the full range employed in reviewing the literature, plus some novel variations. Basic data citation is a point of consensus, but the general agreement on the core elements of a dataset citation frays if the data is dynamic or part of a larger set. Even as data publication is being defined, some are looking past publication to other metaphors, notably “data as software,” for solutions to the more stubborn problems. PMID:25075301
Fernandez-Jaén, Tomas F; Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel Del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez
On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms-without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period-all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain.
Hogan MD, David B.; Scialfa, Charles T.; Caird, Jeff K.
Background The rapidly increasing number of older drivers is accentuating the challenges in concurrently identifying older drivers posing an unacceptable risk if they continue to drive, while not discriminating against those capable of safely driving. Attendees of an invitational meeting about the assessment of older drivers were asked to participate in a modified Delphi process designed to develop consensus statements on the assessment of older drivers. Methods Forty-one non-student symposium attendees were invited to participate in two rounds of a survey, in which they were asked to indicate their level of agreement (or disagreement) on a five-point Likert scale to a series of statements about the assessment of older drivers. Consensus was defined as 80% + of respondents either agreeing or disagreeing with a statement. Results More than one-half (n = 23) completed the first round of the survey and 12 participated in the second. There was consensus on the need for a modifiable, fair, rational, and widely accessible multi-step approach to the assessment of older drivers. This would require the engagement and support of physicians and other health-care practitioners in identifying and reporting medically at-risk drivers of any age. At a societal level, alternatives to driving a personal motor vehicle should be developed. Conclusions An on-going dialogue about this complex issue is required. Decisions should be based on explicitly stated principles and informed by the best available evidence. PMID:24883166
Schulz, R; Harrison, S
Most operational services within the reorganized British National Health Service are managed by local teams: medical specialist, general practitioner, nurse, administrator, and finance officer. Decision by consensus has worked well to integrate services in a complex and fiscally constrained system. As larger and more formal systems of health care emerge in the United States, the British experience may be relevant.
Leon, David, Ed.
A largely unseen phenomenon is shaping the direction of higher education today: the growth of leadership programs. These programs are hidden ladders that help the talented move up toward university presidencies. Their number and importance are rapidly increasing, and they will more and more determine who makes decisions in higher education. More…
Czaczkes, Tomer J.; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen
Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. PMID:26019155
Recently I attended the RACGP Leadership Masterclass in Sydney. When I enrolled, I thought, 'Yes... sounds interesting...good speakers... I need to learn something about leadership...'As the time drew closer I started to get a bit anxious about the whole thing. I realised that the title, 'Masterclass', probably implied that the attendees were expected to already know something about leadership and its theories, if not have considerable expertise and experience in leadership. I also wondered how the workshop sessions were going to go and I started to feel a bit sorry for the facilitators. Imagine trying to facilitate a group of 10 aspiring leaders... a bit like trying to herd cats. A few days later I received a call from the organisers,saying they were a bit short of facilitators and could I help out if necessary. Great... better do a crash course in cat herding! Then there was the first 'predisposing activity'. Step 1: think of leaders you admire. Easy enough. Leaders of social justice and social change on a world stage, people who have shown great courage of their convictions and great orators popped into my head... Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Mandela, JFK. Step 2:describe the ways in which you are like these leaders. Whoa!Never going to measure up here. I wondered if there was going to be sessions on 'leadership for introverts', or 'leadership of small things', or 'leaders without grand vision or fabulous oratory skills', or perhaps 'leadership for people who are deeply suspicious of the corrupting influence of power'.
In this article the author shares his personal experience illustrating that leadership matters. Poor leadership can create, or at least maintain, a culture of dissonance; quality leadership can make the heart sing. Williams Sanders and June Rivers (University of Tennessee), in their research on the residual effects of teacher quality, concluded,…
Heikka, Johanna; Hujala, Eeva
This study aims to investigate distribution of responsibilities for leadership in early childhood education (ECE) context. It focuses on the enactments of leadership by investigating how ECE stakeholders, e.g. teachers, ECE centre directors and administrative ECE leaders in municipalities perceive the leadership responsibilities. Using focus…
It is no surprise that the issue of leadership is a compelling topic for students of management and the American public at large. According to the second annual National Leadership Index taken by the Center for Public Leadership at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, more than 7 in 10 Americans (70.8%) agree or agree strongly that…
Burgett, Michael J.
This phenomenological study of the lived experience of leadership emergence was initiated to answer the question, "Where does leadership come from?" Leadership emergence was explored as the result of a nexus of contextual and structural influences. In response to these questions, a sample of leaders from a metropolitan area in a…
Kielsmeier, James C.
The central theme of the 10-day National Leadership Conference (NLC), sponsored by the American Youth Foundation at Camp Miniwanca (Michigan), is to train high school students in leadership for service; its goal is to sharpen service-learning leadership skills of young people and teachers and to encourage their application to transform and serve…
This qualitative ethnographic study focused on the affordances that facilitated the emergence of leadership, capturing a range of perspectives on leadership and leadership development of four groups: district superintendents; teacher-educators; mentor-teachers and graduates. The term "affordances" implies a reciprocal relationship…
Hopkins, David, Ed.; Nusche, Deborah, Ed.; Pont, Beatriz, Ed.
This book explores what specialists are saying about system leadership for school improvement. Case studies examine innovative approaches to sharing leadership across schools in Belgium (Flanders), Finland and the United Kingdom (England) and leadership development programmes for system improvement in Australia and Austria. As these are emerging…
Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.
Harrison, Laura M.
Transformational leadership enjoys widespread appeal among student affairs professionals. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) and American College Personnel Association (ACPA) conferences frequently feature speakers who promote transformational leadership's two primary tenets: (1) change is the central purpose of…
Wilbanks, T. J.
This paper explores the following three propositions and their relationships: (1) that, in our pluralistic policymaking environment, we cannot solve our nation's energy problems unless we can reach agreement among a diverse group of interested parties about specific actions; (2) that, short of a manifest emergency, such a consensus is difficult to reach unless the scale of the decision-making unit is relatively small; and therefore (3) that one of the keys to an effective energy policy in the United states is to rely heavily on local and regional energy planning and decision-making. First, the paper reviews our problem of irresolution and its roots, and it summaries the policy options for resolving it. Then it explores one of those options, decentralized planning, in a little more detail. Finally, it offers some speculations about the viability of a decentralized approach to energy planninng.
Newton, Paul E.
This focus article provided the author with an opportunity to unpack the consensus definition of validity and to explore its implications in the light of recent debates. He proposed an elaboration of the consensus definition, which was intended to express the spirit of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" with increased…
Fligner, Michael A.; Verducci, Joseph S.
The concept of consensus ordering is defined, and formulas for exact and approximate posterior probabilities for consensus ordering are developed under the assumption of a generalized Mallows' model with a diffuse conjugate prior. These methods are applied to a data set concerning 98 college students. (SLD)
Tsvetkova, E.; Sud, S.; Aucoin, N.; Biagi, J.; Burkes, R.; Samson, B.; Brule, S.; Cripps, C.; Colwell, B.; Falkson, C.; Dorreen, M.; Goel, R.; Halwani, F.; Maroun, J.; Michaud, N.; Tehfe, M.; Thirlwell, M.; Vickers, M.; Asmis, T.
The annual Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Montreal, Quebec, 23–25 October 2014. Expert radiation, medical, and surgical oncologists and pathologists involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussions resulting in consensus statements on such hot topics as management of neuroendocrine tumours, advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:26300681
Montañés-Rada, F; Gastaminza-Pérez, X; Catalá, M A; Ruiz-Sanz, F; Ruiz-Lázaro, P M; Herreros-Rodríguez, O; García-Giral, M; Ortiz-Guerra, J; Alda-Díez, J A; Mojarro-Práxedes, D; Cantó-Díez, T; Mardomingo-Sanz, M J; Sasot-Llevadot, J; Pàmias, M; Rey-Sánchez, F
In this article, the GEITDAH -the Spanish abbreviation of the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD)- presents a consensus reached by experts in the management of ADHD from all over Spain. The consensus concerns fundamental aspects that should be the starting point for future local or regional consensus guides. Another aim of this consensus is also to reduce the amount of variability that occurs in the health care offered to patients with ADHD in our country, as well as to act as a stimulus in educational matters. That fact that it is not very long will make it more popular among greater numbers of people and this will allow these goals to be reached more effectively. The conclusions in the consensus guide have been constructed around an introduction dealing with basic aspects and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment (both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic), patient flow and organisational aspects.
Carruthers, B M; van de Sande, M I; De Meirleir, K L; Klimas, N G; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, A C P; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Baumgarten-Austrheim, B; Bell, D S; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Jo, D; Lewis, D; Light, A R; Marshall-Gradisbik, S; Mena, I; Mikovits, J A; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Pall, M L; Stevens, S
, Japan; A. Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia; Department of Biochemistry & Basic Medical Sciences, Washington State University, Portland, OR; Department of Sports Sciences, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA USA). Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria (Review). J Intern Med 2011; 270: 327–338. The label ‘chronic fatigue syndrome’ (CFS) has persisted for many years because of the lack of knowledge of the aetiological agents and the disease process. In view of more recent research and clinical experience that strongly point to widespread inflammation and multisystemic neuropathology, it is more appropriate and correct to use the term ‘myalgic encephalomyelitis’ (ME) because it indicates an underlying pathophysiology. It is also consistent with the neurological classification of ME in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD G93.3). Consequently, an International Consensus Panel consisting of clinicians, researchers, teaching faculty and an independent patient advocate was formed with the purpose of developing criteria based on current knowledge. Thirteen countries and a wide range of specialties were represented. Collectively, members have approximately 400 years of both clinical and teaching experience, authored hundreds of peer-reviewed publications, diagnosed or treated approximately 50 000 patients with ME, and several members coauthored previous criteria. The expertise and experience of the panel members as well as PubMed and other medical sources were utilized in a progression of suggestions/drafts/reviews/revisions. The authors, free of any sponsoring organization, achieved 100% consensus through a Delphi-type process. The scope of this paper is limited to criteria of ME and their application. Accordingly, the criteria reflect the complex symptomatology. Operational notes enhance clarity and specificity by providing guidance in the
Santos, Carlos D.; Neupert, Stefanie; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K. N.
Organized flight of homing pigeons (Columba livia) was previously shown to rely on simple leadership rules between flock mates, yet the stability of this social structuring over time and across different contexts remains unclear. We quantified the repeatability of leadership-based flock structures within a flight and across multiple flights conducted with the same animals. We compared two contexts of flock composition: flocks of birds of the same age and flight experience; and, flocks of birds of different ages and flight experience. All flocks displayed consistent leadership-based structures over time, showing that individuals have stable roles in the navigational decisions of the flock. However, flocks of balanced age and flight experience exhibited reduced leadership stability, indicating that these factors promote flock structuring. Our study empirically demonstrates that leadership and followership are consistent behaviours in homing pigeon flocks, but such consistency is affected by the heterogeneity of individual flight experiences and/or age. Similar evidence from other species suggests leadership as an important mechanism for coordinated motion in small groups of animals with strong social bonds. PMID:25054203
Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil
In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…
Leithwood, Kenneth; Seashore-Louis, Karen
"Linking Leadership to Student Learning" clearly shows how school leadership improves student achievement. The book is based on an ambitious five-year study on educational leadership that was sponsored by The Wallace Foundation. The authors studied 43 districts, across 9 states and 180 elementary, middle, and secondary schools. In this book,…
Hilliard, Ann T.
The focus of this article is about the utilization of student leadership at the University. Based on research, student leadership opportunities at the university have been frequently at a low percentage (Zimmerman, Burkhart, 2002). The researcher identifies practical ways to involve students in various leadership activities. Emphases are placed on…
Hoyle, John R.
Discusses the importance of the spiritual side of leadership. Asserts that spiritual side of leadership should be taught in administrator preparation courses and profession development programs through spiritual discussions, helping administrators develop a spiritual self, and assigning books on spiritual leadership. Includes a spiritual…
Workman, Tim; Cleveland-Innes, M.
Definitions of leadership abound! For the purposes of this discussion, the authors use Secretan's (2004) work which provides a perspective on how leadership should impact on other people, and identifies the need to inspire, not simply motivate. The more one examines modern ideas about "leadership," the more it seems that most are simply techniques…
Roof, Joseph; Presswood, Kristy
Two somewhat confused and possibly misused terms in higher education today are "leadership" and "management". Many times, the word leadership or leader is substituted for what is really management or manager, and vice versa. Our goal is to explore the concepts of leadership and management and to provide some observations as to what we need in our…
van Oord, Lodewijk
This article argues that an educational organization's type of leadership will to a very large extent determine the quality of personal transformation it instigates among its stakeholders. Focusing on the importance of transformative leadership, such leadership will be viewed as a critical and collaborative process in which school-based…
Recent studies of academic leadership confirm what many academic leaders know from personal experience: academic leadership is a complex and demanding role with significant stress and high burnout and turnover rates (Brown, 2002; Brown and Moshavi, 2002). In the light of these issues, an exploration of the nature of academic leadership and its…
Neider, Linda L. Ed.; Schriesheim, Chester A., Ed.
This volume in the Research in Management series is devoted to the field of leadership--a look at where it has been and where it seems to be going. A "Foreword" (Linda L. Neider, Chester A. Schriesheim) is followed by seven chapters highlighting creative, new looks at leadership and adept analyses of leadership theories that have already…
Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh
The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…
Willett, Brantley P.
This case study discusses the postindustrial paradigm of leadership and its influence on the field of leadership and also the higher education leadership literature. Furthermore, this case study examines the structure of one university honor society to discuss how the structure allows for the development of multiple leaders within the…
In recent years, many studies are conducted about shared leadership process. Distributed leadership (DL) approach addresses leadership along with teams, groups and organizational characteristics. In practice, this approach objects the supposition that an individual should take the lead in order to ensure change. Proponents of this idea claim that…
Kendler, K S; Solomon, M
The development of DSM-III through DSM-5 has relied heavily on expert consensus. In this essay, we provide an historical and critical perspective on this process. Over the last 40 years, medicine has struggled to find appropriate methods for summarizing research results and making clinical recommendations. When such recommendations are issued by authorized organizations, they can have widespread influence (i.e. DSM-III and its successors). In the 1970s, expert consensus conferences, led by the NIH, reviewed research about controversial medical issues and successfully disseminated results. However, these consensus conferences struggled with aggregating the complex available evidence. In the 1990s, the rise of evidence-based medicine cast doubt on the reliability of expert consensus. Since then, medicine has increasingly relied on systematic reviews, as developed by the evidence-based medicine movement, and advocated for their early incorporation in expert consensus efforts. With the partial exception of DSM-IV, such systematic evidence-based reviews have not been consistently integrated into the development of the DSMs, leaving their development out of step with the larger medical field. Like the recommendations made for the NIH consensus conferences, we argue that the DSM process should be modified to require systematic evidence-based reviews before Work Groups make their assessments. Our suggestions - which would require leadership and additional resources to set standards for appropriate evidence hierarchies, carry out systematic reviews, and upgrade the group process - should improve the objectivity of the DSM, increase the validity of its results, and improve the reception of any changes in nosology.
Myers, Edward L.
This qualitative single-site case study examined the philosophy, decisions, and behaviors of a particular male school principal who subscribed to a form of care-based leadership practice. A Pennsylvania high school principal with a distinct leadership philosophy centered on the ethic of care was chosen to participate in this study. The purpose of…
Gündemir, Seval; Homan, Astrid C.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; van Vugt, Mark
Across four studies, we found evidence for an implicit pro-White leadership bias that helps explain the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions. Both White-majority and ethnic minority participants reacted significantly faster when ethnically White names and leadership roles (e.g., manager; Study 1) or leadership traits (e.g., decisiveness; Study 2 & 3) were paired in an Implicit Association Test (IAT) rather than when ethnic minority names and leadership traits were paired. Moreover, the implicit pro-White leadership bias showed discriminant validity with the conventional implicit bias measures (Study 3). Importantly, results showed that the pro-White leadership bias can be weakened when situational cues increase the salience of a dual identity (Study 4). This, in turn, can diminish the explicit pro-White bias in promotion related decision making processes (Study 4). This research offers a new tool to measure the implicit psychological processes underlying the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions and proposes interventions to weaken such biases. PMID:24416181
Kutz, Matthew R; Scialli, Joan
A two-phase exploratory and comparative research study using a Delphi technique and a web-based national survey was done to determine leadership content (i.e., theories, styles, or practices) important to include in athletic training education. Eighteen athletic training experts participated in the Delphi technique, followed by 161 athletic trainers completing the national survey. Consensus of experts was reached after two rounds (77% interrater agreement, alpha = 0.80 and alpha = 0.93 per respective round) and identified 31 leadership content items important to include in athletic training education. The national sample then rated importance of each leadership content area for inclusion in four types of athletic training education programs (entry-level baccalaureate, entry-level master's degree, postgraduate certifications, and doctoral degree). The respondents ranked the leadership content in order of importance according to mean (mean = 1.53 +/- 0.84 to 2.55 +/- 0.55; scale, 0-3). Twenty-two content items (63%) were rated at least "very important" (mean > or = 2.0). Exploratory factor analysis established construct validity and organized leadership content by three factors: managerial leadership and knowledge management; leadership theories; and leadership issues, trends, and policies (alpha = 0.84-0.91). Repeated-measures analysis of variance (Sidak post-hoc adjustments) established criterion-related concurrent validity, which found increasing levels of importance as education type progressed (F = 4.88, p = 0.003-32.56, p = 0.000). Adding leadership content within athletic training enhances the professionalization of students, facilitates leadership competency among students and practicing professionals enrolled in postcertification educational programs, and facilitates job placement and role.
Berney, Daniel M; Wheeler, Thomas M; Grignon, David J; Epstein, Jonathan I; Griffiths, David F; Humphrey, Peter A; van der Kwast, Theo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Delahunt, Brett; Egevad, Lars; Srigley, John R
The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to the infiltration of tumor into the seminal vesicles and regional lymph nodes were coordinated by working group 4. There was a consensus that complete blocking of the seminal vesicles was not necessary, although sampling of the junction of the seminal vesicles and prostate was mandatory. There was consensus that sampling of the vas deferens margins was not obligatory. There was also consensus that muscular wall invasion of the extraprostatic seminal vesicle only should be regarded as seminal vesicle invasion. Categorization into types of seminal vesicle spread was agreed by consensus to be not necessary. For examination of lymph nodes, there was consensus that special techniques such as frozen sectioning were of use only in high-risk cases. There was no consensus on the optimal sampling method for pelvic lymph node dissection specimens, although there was consensus that all lymph nodes should be completely blocked as a minimum. There was also a consensus that a count of the number of lymph nodes harvested should be attempted. In view of recent evidence, there was consensus that the diameter of the largest lymph node metastasis should be measured. These consensus decisions will hopefully clarify the difficult areas of pathological assessment in radical prostatectomy evaluation and improve the concordance of research series to allow more accurate assessment of patient prognosis.
Sívori, Martín; Benzo, Roberto; Rhodius, Edgardo; Jolly, Enrique; Boim, Clarisa; Saadia, Marcela; Conti, Ernesto; Guevara, Ivan; Carles, Daniel; Victorio, Carlos; Santini, Fabian; Ratto, Patricia; Capparelli, Ignacio; Prieto, Ernesto; Azvalinsky, Marcos; Alais, Maria
A group of pulmonologists and physical therapists from the Asociacion Argentina de Medicina Respiratoria revised the scientific literature on Respiratory Rehabilitation (RR) to elaborate evidence-based national recommendations to promote its use. RR is a multidisciplinary program of care for patients with chronic respiratory impairment, individually tailored, designed to optimize physical and social performance and autonomy of patients. It is particularly indicated in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) with exercise intolerance. Inclusion and exclusion criteria, guidelines for initial evaluation and follow up have been defined. The resources needed were defined. It was recommended a hospital ambulatory program with domiciliary complement. A pulmonologist and physical therapist were required for the program as minimum. Aerobic training was recommended for lower limb (LL) (Evidence A) and upper limb (UL) (Evidence B), strength training for LL and UL (Evidence C), as well as respiratory muscles training by resistive inspiratory threshold load (Evidence D) and other physiotherapy techniques were recommended for specific patients. In addition recommendations have been made for educational objectives of the program, nutritional and psychological support. The positive impact of RR on health care was analyzed through the reduction in exacerbation of COPD, length of hospital stay and cost. RR is a key component in the treatment of COPD patients. This evidenced-based consensus statement was prepared to provide recommendations to be implemented nationally.
Adamaszek, M; D'Agata, F; Ferrucci, R; Habas, C; Keulen, S; Kirkby, K C; Leggio, M; Mariën, P; Molinari, M; Moulton, E; Orsi, L; Van Overwalle, F; Papadelis, C; Priori, A; Sacchetti, B; Schutter, D J; Styliadis, C; Verhoeven, J
Over the past three decades, insights into the role of the cerebellum in emotional processing have substantially increased. Indeed, methodological refinements in cerebellar lesion studies and major technological advancements in the field of neuroscience are in particular responsible to an exponential growth of knowledge on the topic. It is timely to review the available data and to critically evaluate the current status of the role of the cerebellum in emotion and related domains. The main aim of this article is to present an overview of current facts and ongoing debates relating to clinical, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological findings on the role of the cerebellum in key aspects of emotion. Experts in the field of cerebellar research discuss the range of cerebellar contributions to emotion in nine topics. Topics include the role of the cerebellum in perception and recognition, forwarding and encoding of emotional information, and the experience and regulation of emotional states in relation to motor, cognitive, and social behaviors. In addition, perspectives including cerebellar involvement in emotional learning, pain, emotional aspects of speech, and neuropsychiatric aspects of the cerebellum in mood disorders are briefly discussed. Results of this consensus paper illustrate how theory and empirical research have converged to produce a composite picture of brain topography, physiology, and function that establishes the role of the cerebellum in many aspects of emotional processing.
Narváez-Rivera, R M; Cortez-Hernández, C A; González-González, J A; Tamayo-de la Cuesta, J L; Zamarripa-Dorsey, F; Torre-Delgadillo, A; Rivera-Ramos, J F J; Vinageras-Barroso, J I; Muneta-Kishigami, J E; Blancas-Valencia, J M; Antonio-Manrique, M; Valdovinos-Andraca, F; Brito-Lugo, P; Hernández-Guerrero, A; Bernal-Reyes, R; Sobrino-Cossío, S; Aceves-Tavares, G R; Huerta-Guerrero, H M; Moreno-Gómez, N; Bosques-Padilla, F J
The aim of the Mexican Consensus on Portal Hypertension was to develop documented guidelines to facilitate clinical practice when dealing with key events of the patient presenting with portal hypertension and variceal bleeding. The panel of experts was made up of Mexican gastroenterologists, hepatologists, and endoscopists, all distinguished professionals. The document analyzes themes of interest in the following modules: preprimary and primary prophylaxis, acute variceal hemorrhage, and secondary prophylaxis. The management of variceal bleeding has improved considerably in recent years. Current information indicates that the general management of the cirrhotic patient presenting with variceal bleeding should be carried out by a multidisciplinary team, with such an approach playing a major role in the final outcome. The combination of drug and endoscopic therapies is recommended for initial management; vasoactive drugs should be started as soon as variceal bleeding is suspected and maintained for 5 days. After the patient is stabilized, urgent diagnostic endoscopy should be carried out by a qualified endoscopist, who then performs the corresponding endoscopic variceal treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be regarded as an integral part of treatment, started upon hospital admittance and continued for 5 days. If there is treatment failure, rescue therapies should be carried out immediately, taking into account that interventional radiology therapies are very effective in controlling refractory variceal bleeding. These guidelines have been developed for the purpose of achieving greater clinical efficacy and are based on the best evidence of portal hypertension that is presently available.
de Vries, Reinout E; Bakker-Pieper, Angelique; Oostenveld, Wyneke
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between leaders' communication styles and charismatic leadership, human-oriented leadership (leader's consideration), task-oriented leadership (leader's initiating structure), and leadership outcomes. METHODOLOGY: A survey was conducted among 279 employees of a governmental organization. The following six main communication styles were operationalized: verbal aggressiveness, expressiveness, preciseness, assuredness, supportiveness, and argumentativeness. Regression analyses were employed to test three main hypotheses. FINDINGS: In line with expectations, the study showed that charismatic and human-oriented leadership are mainly communicative, while task-oriented leadership is significantly less communicative. The communication styles were strongly and differentially related to knowledge sharing behaviors, perceived leader performance, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate's team commitment. Multiple regression analyses showed that the leadership styles mediated the relations between the communication styles and leadership outcomes. However, leader's preciseness explained variance in perceived leader performance and satisfaction with the leader above and beyond the leadership style variables. IMPLICATIONS: This study offers potentially invaluable input for leadership training programs by showing the importance of leader's supportiveness, assuredness, and preciseness when communicating with subordinates. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although one of the core elements of leadership is interpersonal communication, this study is one of the first to use a comprehensive communication styles instrument in the study of leadership.
Connick, P. de; Seguin, M.; Chornet, E.; Laramee, L.; Twizeyemariya, A.; Abatzoglou, N.; Racine, L.
Waste management planning and implementation is not only a technological issue, but a social and political one as well. In this paper, the authors discuss a proposal to rethink certain aspects about waste management planning and implementation. Specifically, they present a framework whereby the ordinary citizen can proactively and constructively participate in the decision-making process. After briefly discussing the STOPER research team and certain limits inherent in current waste-management practices, the authors propose a mode of consultation known as the informed consensus approach. They assert that this approach incorporates social perceptions of key intervenors such as experts, decision makers, interest groups, and ordinary citizens and that this can enrich the decision-making process concerning complex environmental issues such as waste management. The authors focus their presentation on the results of the application of an informed consensus approach to waste management strategies in the municipality of Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada).
Avkan-Oğuz, Vildan; Baykam, Nurcan; Sökmen, Selman; Güner, Rahmet; Agalar, Fatih; Alp, Emine; Doğrul, Ahmet; Turhan, Özge; Ağalar, Canan; Kurtaran, Behice; Geçim, İbrahim Ethem; Özaras, Reşat; Yılmaz, Gürdal; Akbulut, Ayhan; Koksal, İftihar
Guidelines include the recommendations of experts from various specialties within a topic in consideration of data specific to each country. However, to date there has not been a guideline standardizing the nomenclature and offering recommendations for intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in Turkey. This is mainly due to the paucity of laboratory studies regarding the clinical diagnosis and treatment of IAIs or the sensitivity of microorganisms isolated from patients with IAIs. However, due to the diversification of host characteristics and advancements in technological treatment methods, it has become imperative to ‘speak a common language’. For this purpose May 2015, a group of 15 experts in intra-abdominal infections, under the leadership of the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Specialty Society of Turkey (EKMUD) and with representatives from the Turkish Surgical Association, Turkish Society of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Hernia Society, Turkish Society of Hepato-pancreato-biliary Surgery, and the Turkish Society of Hospital Infections and Control, was formed to analyze relevant studies in the literature. Ultimately, the suggestions for adults found in this consensus report were developed using available data from Turkey, referring predominantly to the 2010 guidelines for diagnosing and managing complicated IAIs in adults and children by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Surgical Infection Society. The recommendations are presented in two sections, from the initial diagnostic evaluation of patients to the treatment approach for IAI. This Consensus Report was presented at the EKMUD 2016 Congress in Antalya and was subsequently opened for suggestions on the official websites of the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Specialty Society of Turkey and Turkish Surgical Association for one month. The manuscript was revised according to the feedback received. PMID:28149134
Ardichvili, Alexander; Cardozo, Richard N.; Gasparishvili, Alexander
Interviews with 256 Russian owners of companies created since 1986 found that owners involved peers, but not subordinates, in decision making; had fewer authoritarian and many situational leadership styles; women used more consultative decision making; work design and performance-management interventions used more often than training/development…
Turner, Nick; Barling, Julian; Epitropaki, Olga; Butcher, Vicky; Milner, Caroline
Terms such as moral and ethical leadership are used widely in theory, yet little systematic research has related a sociomoral dimension to leadership in organizations. This study investigated whether managers' moral reasoning (n = 132) was associated with the transformational and transactional leadership behaviors they exhibited as perceived by their subordinates (n = 407). Managers completed the Defining Issues Test (J. R. Rest, 1990), whereas their subordinates completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (B. M. Bass & B. J. Avolio, 1995). Analysis of covariance indicated that managers scoring in the highest group of the moral-reasoning distribution exhibited more transformational leadership behaviors than leaders scoring in the lowest group. As expected, there was no relationship between moral-reasoning group and transactional leadership behaviors. Implications for leadership development are discussed.
Blomenberg, Emily M
Radiology administrators often are challenged to do more with less. In today's fast-paced work environment, leaders must be creative. They must surround themselves with good people in order to successfully achieve their organizations' goals. Once a radiology administrator is satisfied and comfortable that he or she has, the right staff involved, a leadership team can be formally establislished. Howard Regional Health System established an Imaging Services Leadership Team with a vision to provide leaders for the staff to "follow," just as team members learn from the radiology administrator. In addition, team members are vital in assisting the radiology administrator in managing the department The process of building the team consisted of 3 steps: selecting team members (the most challenging and time-consuming component), formalizing a functional team, and putting the team into action. Finding the right people, holding regular meetings, and making those team meetings meaningful are keys to a successful leadership team. The implementation of the team has had a positive effect on imaging services: the number of procedures has increased, the team is used as a communication tool for front-line staff, front-line staff are becoming more comfortable with making decisions.
Generative Leadership is a case study of how two New York City High Schools sustain and develop leadership. The study explores their system of school governance, its rationale and beliefs, the leadership structures and how their collaborative leadership practice insures that no leader stands alone and that replacement leadership is available at…
Huebner, K. M.; Luxton, L.
The 1990 Josephine L. Taylor Leadership Institute addressed the theme "Funding Drives Service Decisions: A Moral Dilemma." Institute participants identified specific dilemmas related to legislation, funding, and placement issues in education and rehabilitation of visually handicapped individuals. Participants subsequently generated solutions in…
Strickland, James, Ed.
These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent the quarterly for 1991. Articles in number 1 deal with whole language and include: "CEL: Shorter and Better" (Myles D. Eley); "Toward a New Philosophy of Language Learning" (Kathleen Strickland); "Whole Language: Implications for Secondary Classrooms"…
Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.
This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…
Milliron, Mark D., Ed.
The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…
Doucette, Don, Ed.
This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…
Shoop, Robert J.
In 1997, two faculty members at Kansas State University began the process of creating something special and distinctive that never existed before. They clearly understood that they were embarking on a journey that would be exciting, yet not totally within their control. They were passionate about the value of developing a leadership studies…
Rao, Christopher; Patel, Vanash; Ibrahim, Michael; Ahmed, Kamran; Wong, Kathie A; Darzi, Ara; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Athanasiou, Thanos
Despite the efficacy of cardiac surgery, less invasive interventions with more uncertain long-term outcomes are increasingly challenging surgery as first-line treatment for several congenital, degenerative and ischemic cardiac diseases. The specialty must evolve if it is to ensure its future relevance. More importantly, it must evolve to ensure that future patients have access to treatments with proven long-term effectiveness. This cannot be achieved without dynamic leadership; however, our contention is that this is not enough. The demands of a modern surgical career and the importance of the task at hand are such that the serendipitous emergence of traditional charismatic leadership cannot be relied upon to deliver necessary change. We advocate systematic analysis and strategic leadership at a local, national and international level in four key areas: Clinical Care, Research, Education and Training, and Stakeholder Engagement. While we anticipate that exceptional individuals will continue to shape the future of our specialty, the creation of robust structures to deliver collective leadership in these key areas is of paramount importance.
Strickland, James, Ed.
These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1993. Articles in number 1 deal with parent involvement and participation, and include: "Opening the Doors to Open House" (Jolene A. Borgese); "Parent/Teacher Conferences: Avoiding the Collision Course" (Robert Perrin); "Expanding Human…
Strickland, James, Ed.; Kiernan, Henry, Ed.
These 4 issues of the English Leadership Quarterly comprise volume 16, published during 1994. Articles in number 1 deal with practical advice, and include: "The Law of Privacy and the Writing Teacher" (Ben T. Allen); Beware of Teachers Who Laminate Their Lesson Plans and Other Useful Suggestions about Teaching" (Robert Perrin);…
Leadership Abstracts, 1999
This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education.…
Alvy, Harvey; Robbins, Pam
New school principals have the necessity to lead at the very time they are learning the ropes of their new jobs. Some essential themes are identified that can guide new principals into growing in their new leadership roles, which are presented and discussed.
Strickland, James, Ed.
These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1992. Articles in number 1 deal with testing assessing, and measuring student performance, and include: "Real Evaluation: Portfolios as an Effective Alternative to Standardized Testing" (Kate Kiefer); "No More Objective Tests, Ever" (Carol…
This document explores issues of leadership for accountability and reviews five resources on the subject. These include: (1) "Accountability by Carrots and Sticks: Will Incentives and Sanctions Motivate Students, Teachers, and Administrators for Peak Performance?" (Larry Lashway); (2) "Organizing Schools for Teacher Learning"…
Davies, Brent, Ed.
Developing and sustaining leaders is a major challenge for all those involved in education today. This book contains a collection of essays from recognized authors to provide insights, frameworks and ideas on how to sustain school leaders and develop values-based leadership. It also offers guidance on countering short-term management solutions,…
Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly
In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…
Gardner, John W.; And Others
Five individuals discuss the relationship of the humanities and leadership in different contexts: the liberal arts (John W. Gardner); the sculpting of a statue of James Madison (Walker Hancock); the Kennedy years (Thomas R. West), our civic culture (Bruce Adams); and liberal education (Gregory S. Prince, Jr.). (MSE)
DeChurch, Leslie A.; Marks, Michelle A.
This study examined 2 leader functions likely to be instrumental in synchronizing large systems of teams (i.e., multiteam systems [MTSs]). Leader strategizing and coordinating were manipulated through training, and effects on functional leadership, interteam coordination, and MTS performance were examined. Three hundred eighty-four undergraduate…
Johnson, Larry, Ed.
The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…
More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.
Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.
This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…
Kiernan, Henry, Ed.
These 4 issues of the English Leadership Quarterly comprise volume 17, published during 1995. Articles in number 1 deal with multicultural and multiethnic literature, and are, as follows: "Guidelines for Selecting European Ethnic Literature for Interdisciplinary Courses" (Sandra Stotsky); "Striving for Kinship within Diverse Communities" (Peter…
McGraw, Tammy, Ed.
This publication focuses on promising new and emerging technologies and what they might mean to the future of K-12 schools. Half of the volume contains articles devoted in some way to "Vision," and articles in the other half are under the heading of "Leadership." Contents in the "Vision" section include: "The…
Earley, Peter; Weindling, Dick
This is one of the most important books on school leadership because it incorporates so much research evidence from the work of the two authors themselves, and such a perceptive and intelligent understanding of the research of others. It provides an opportunity for two of the senior researchers in the field over the last 20 years to reflect on…
Dana, Joyce A.
Women are challenged most by cultural norms, particularly sex-role norms, religious and political ideologies, and gender-structured opportunities that favor men. Although some stereotypes have loosened a bit, dilemmas remain for women who aspire to fill school district leadership positions. The author's predicament is not unique. It is something…
Many questions concerning quality of functioning and effectiveness are connected with the management of education as a professional field in educational organizations. The role of educational leadership in an educational organization raises many questions related to legislative regulations of activities, issues of institutional placement,…
This text is intended for use in college recreation courses. It presents leadership techniques and teaching methods for conducting successful recreation programs in community centers, schools, churches, industry, hospitals, prisons, and on playgrounds. Over 1,000 program ideas and ways to teach are suggested that cover a wide range of activities…
IDRA Newsletter, 1997
This newsletter includes three articles on the theme of leadership development, particularly in relation to high-risk students or Mexican American communities. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: 'Because All Children Are Valuable'" (Linda Cantu) shares some success stories from the program, which recruits high-risk students to be tutors of…
IDRA Newsletter, 1995
This theme issue focuses on motivating young people to learn by providing leadership opportunities in school. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: Assessing Progress" (Josie Danini Supik) examines the program's success. This program, which trains high-risk middle and high school students as tutors of younger children, has dramatically…
This document contains three papers from a symposium on leadership and executive development. "Leading and Managing in a Service Organization: An Examination of Line vs. Staff Effectiveness" (Allan H. Church, Janine Waclawski) presents an analysis of differences in managerial strengths and weaknesses between 45 line managers and 52 human resources…
In life, one will come across diverse types of leaders. While each leadership type has positive and negative qualities, each style fits appropriately in distinct situations. Supervisors must determine how to manage their staff in constructive ways, engaging and motivating them to learn more and do more within their specific professional area. The…
This paper presents a lecture given at the 17th Annual Lecture of the Association of University Administrators (AUA). The subject of the lecture is equality and diversity in higher education (HE) leadership, or possibly the absence of equality and diversity. The author focuses on what can be done to ensure that capable women enter HE leadership…
In this article, the author discusses responsibilities that accompany leadership roles, explaining that difficult situations can often teach leaders valuable lessons about principles, loyalty, and their own strength of character. Examples of challenging situations encountered on his own career path are shared. Guiding principles for achieving…
Kentucky Department of Education, 2015
The mission of teacher leadership is to elevate teachers as experts and leaders in and beyond the classroom. This framework contains six spheres or dimensions, each describing a set of dispositions, core beliefs, knowledge base, requisite skills and unique roles for teacher leaders. While the spheres are interrelated, with each one broadening the…
Bolman, Lee G.; Gallos, Joan V.
In "Reframing Academic Leadership," the authors offer higher education leaders a provocative and pragmatic guide for: (1) Crafting dynamic institutions where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts; (2) Creating campus environments that facilitate creativity and commitment; (3) Forging alliances and partnerships in service of the mission;…
Cheng, Yin Cheong
This document is a chapter in "The Principles and Practice of Educational Management," which aims to provide a systematic and analytical introduction to the study of educational management. The structure of the book reflects the main substantive areas of educational leadership and management, and most of the major themes are covered in the…
This work focuses on the importance of teacher leadership in the virtual environment and the role of managers in the workforce. It depicts student expectations of the virtual classroom, specifically the professor's role in this environment. The study on teachers in the virtual environment is compared and contrasted with generational differences in…
Bonnici, Charles A.
Many articles about school improvement talk about data-driven instruction and statistics. In the barrage of evaluative numbers, school leaders can forget that teaching and leading are arts, not sciences. Positive outcomes depend on the ambience of the school, which is a direct result of the leadership style of its principal and assistant…
Kezar, Adrianna; Lester, Jaime
Various factors are making faculty leadership challenging including the rise in part-time and non-tenure-track faculty, the increasing pressure to publish and teach more courses and adopt new technologies and pedagogies, increasing standards for tenure and promotion, ascension of academic capitalism, and heavy service roles for women and people of…
Kim, Karen A.
Provides a brief sample of degree and non-degree programs currently offered to administrators, staff and faculty in community college leadership. Includes listings on: (1) programs sponsored by national organizations and associations; (2) regional workshops and seminars; (3) community college programs; (4) continuing education programs by…
Bennis, Warren G.; Thomas, Robert J.
Often, a traumatic event that forces a profound redefinition of the self forges leadership. The stories of a diverse group of business leaders and the "crucible experiences" that shaped them reveal four essential skills: ability to engage others in shared meanings, compelling voice, integrity, and adaptive capacity (applied creativity). (SK)
Howe, Eleanor B.
Discusses ten attributes of leadership and offers suggestions for school librarians to implement them. Highlights include communicating vision and ideas; ethical values and integrity; self-awareness and self-knowledge; context; cooperation; diverse skills and flexibility; organizational development; personal growth; and taking action. (LRW)
This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in…
The contextual leadership theory provides a frame to investigate the leadership phenomenon in a childcare context. According to the contextual leadership theory, leadership is perceived of as a socially constructed, situational and interpretive phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to investigate leadership in a Finnish childcare context based…
Shanta, Linda L; Kalanek, Constance B
Effective leadership is essential to healthcare, and it is no less important to the leadership of healthcare regulatory agencies. This article describes and differentiates the 3 leadership styles: transactional, transformational, and strategic. The article further argues that the skills of strategic leadership are essential to regulatory leadership and, despite the bureaucracy, can be cultivated in the regulatory arena.
Moore, Lori L.; Lewis, Lauren J.
As Huber (2002) noted, striving to understand how leadership is taught and learned is both a challenge and an opportunity facing leadership educators. This article describes the "Leadership Aha! Moment" assignment used in a leadership theory course to help students recognize the intersection of leadership theories and their daily lives while…
Jenkins, Charles W. Ed.
This collection of papers examines issues concerning leadership in facilities management in higher education. Chapters include: (1) "Catch the Spirit of Leadership" (Jack Hug); (2) "Visionary Leadership: Creating a New Tomorrow" (Burt Nanus); (3) "Some Thoughts on Leadership" (Charles W. Jenkins); (4) "Educational Leadership: The Role of…
Levitt, Dana Heller
In this article, the author explores the nature of leadership from a gendered perspective, specifically addressing leadership challenges for women. Leadership challenges, gender stereotypes, and definitions of leadership are discussed. Recommendations for professional redefinition of leadership within the counseling profession and strategies for…
Wang, Jing; Wu, Bin; Wang, Long; Fu, Feng
Multicommunity population systems may reach a consensus state where the fractions of each species in different communities agree on a common value. In this paper, by analyzing the evolutionary dynamics based on an extended replicator equation incorporating community effects, the consensus problem of population systems with n communities is studied. In particular, the simple case of two communities is investigated in detail. In general, for n communities, a sufficient and necessary condition for population systems to reach a consensus of coexistent state is provided. Regarding the population dynamics for the four different types of games, whether the population systems can achieve consensus is determined. The dynamics of community-structured populations shows richer features than nonstructured populations, and some nontrivial phenomena arising from different community-structured population systems are illustrated with concrete numerical examples.
Wang, Ying; Yang, Wen; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaofan
This paper considers a leader-follower system with the aim to select an optimal leader so as to drive the remaining nodes to reach the desired consensus with the fastest convergence speed. An index called consensus centrality (CC) is proposed to quantify how fast a leader could guide the network to achieve the desired consensus. The experiment results explored the big similarities between the distributions of CC and degree in the network, which suggest that the suboptimal leader selected by the maximum degree can approximately approach the optimal leader in heterogeneous networks. Combining the degree-based k-shell decomposition with consensus centrality, a leader selection algorithm is proposed to reduce the computational complexity in large-scale networks. Finally, the convergence time of an equivalent discrete-time model is given to illustrate the properties of the suboptimal solutions.
Leadership teams that can't reach consensus wait for the CEO to make the final call--and often are disappointed by the outcome. Frisch calls this phenomenon the dictator-by-default syndrome. Many companies turn to team-building and communication exercises to try to fix the situation. But that won't work, the author argues, because the trouble is not with the people, it's with the decision-making process. Attempting to arrive at a collective preference on the basis of individual opinions is inherently problematic. Once leadership teams realize that voting-system mathematics are the culprit, they can stop wasting time on irrelevant psychological exercises and instead adopt practical measures designed to break the impasse. They must begin by acknowledging the problem and understanding what causes it. When more than two options are on the table, the scene is set for the CEO to become a dictator by default. Even yes-or-no choices present difficulties, because they always include a third, implied alternative: "Neither of the above." When the CEO and the team understand why they have trouble making decisions, they can adopt the following tactics to minimize dysfunction: Clearly articulate the desired outcome, generate a range of options for achieving it, test "fences" (which can be moved) and "walls" (which cannot), surface preferences early, state each option's pros and cons, and devise new options that preserve the best features of existing ones, Teams using such tactics need to adhere to two ground rules. First, they must deliberate confidentially, because a secure climate for conversation allows members to float trial balloons and cut deals. And second, members must be given enough time to study their options and assess the counterarguments. Only then can they achieve genuine alignment.
This purpose of the study was to explore moral literacy and legal reasoning through educational leadership decision making. Participants in the study were students enrolled in a law and ethics course in an educational leadership graduate program. Each student drafted a personal code of ethics at the beginning of the course. Throughout the course,…
Doga, M; Bonadonna, S; Gola, M; Nuzzo, M; Giustina, A
In February 1999 and May 2000, two workshops were held in Cortina, Italy and Montecarlo, respectively, to develop a consensus defining the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly. The workshops were sponsored by the Italian Society of Endocrinology, the Pituitary Society and European Neuroendocrine Association. Partecipants from all over the world included endocrinologists, neurosurgeons and radiotherapists skilled in the management of acromegaly. This review paper summarizes the main points of the two consensus statements published following these two workshops.
Oliver, Diane E.; Hioco, Barbara
The purpose of this article is to describe a decision-making framework developed for use by community college administrators and higher education faculty members who teach graduate courses in community college administration or leadership. The rationale for developing a decision-making approach that integrates ethics and critical thinking was…
Chambers, David W
A decision is a commitment of resources under conditions of risk in expectation of the best future outcome. The smart decision is always the strategy with the best overall expected value-the best combination of facts and values. Some of the special circumstances involved in decision making are discussed, including decisions where there are multiple goals, those where more than one person is involved in making the decision, using trigger points, framing decisions correctly, commitments to lost causes, and expert decision makers. A complex example of deciding about removal of asymptomatic third molars, with and without an EBD search, is discussed.
Whitcomb, G R; Williams, E G
This paper presents the findings of a case study dealing mainly with the effects of two divergent leadership styles on the productivity of a planning organization. Changes in various kinds of participation in the agency's activities--an important side effect--are also linked to the two leadership patterns. The agency studied, a private health and welfare council in a medium-sized American city, varied considerably in its output of planning activities and decision making depending on whether it had a participative or a directive leader. The results indicated that there was a trade-off between such highly revered social values as leadership and the extent of participation by staff, board members, and local agency administrators. Implications focus on ways to achieve diversity in communication style among managers and the role of productivity measures in determining the overall effectiveness of planning agencies.
Willson, P D
The United Nations-sponsored International Conference on Population held in Mexico City was both a rejection and an affirmation of a new policy of the Reagan administration. The policy denies international family planning funds to nongovernmental organizations that perform or actively promote abortion as a family planning method in other nations. A compromise statement was accepted urging governments to take appropriate measures to discourage abortion as a family planning method and when possible to provide for the humane treatment and counseling of women ho resorted to abortion. The statement on abortion was 1 of 88 reccomendations approved by the conference. The commitment expressed in the 10-year-old World Population Plan of Action to the rights and responsiblity to all people as reaffirmed. The conference also endorsed family life education and sex education as well as suitable family planning, information and services for adolescents, with due consideration given to the role, rights and obligations of parents. Increased support for international population and family planning programs was urged and World Bank President, Clausen, urged a 4-fold increase in international funding by the year 2000. Most of the conference's recommendations re devoted to the broad range of population policy issues, including morbidity and mortality, international and internal migration, the relationship between population and economic development and the status of women. The purpose of the recommendations is to increase the momentum of international support. The Mexico City conference was characterized by a remarkable degree of consensus about population policies with respect to integration with economic development, the need to respect individual rights and the recognition that all nations have sovereign rights to develop and implement their own population policies. Conflict and controversy arose in the areas of the arms race and the Middle East. The US position on abortion funding
Smith, Patrick O
Leadership is a crucial component to the success of academic health science centers (AHCs) within the shifting U.S. healthcare environment. Leadership talent acquisition and development within AHCs is immature and approaches to leadership and its evolution will be inevitable to refine operations to accomplish the critical missions of clinical service delivery, the medical education continuum, and innovations toward discovery. To reach higher organizational outcomes in AHCs requires a reflection on what leadership approaches are in place and how they can better support these missions. Transactional leadership approaches are traditionally used in AHCs and this commentary suggests that movement toward a transformational approach is a performance improvement opportunity for AHC leaders. This commentary describes the transactional and transformational approaches, how they complement each other, and how to access the transformational approach. Drawing on behavioral sciences, suggestions are made on how a transactional leader can change her cognitions to align with the four dimensions of the transformational leadership approach.
Paterlini, G; Tagliabue, P
The field of neonatology presents a fascinating context in which hugely important decisions have to be made on the basis of physicians' assessments of the long term consequences of various possible choices. In many cases such assessments cannot be derived from a consensual professional opinion; the situation is characterized by a high level of uncertainty. A sample of neonatologists in different countries received a questionnaire including vignette cases for which no clear consensus exists regarding the (probabilistic) prognosis. They were asked to (I) assess the probability of various outcomes (death, severe impairment) and (II) choose a treatment to be offered to the parents. Information on the physicians' professional and socio-demographic characteristics and their ethical "values" was also collected. The goal of this international survey is to understand the prognosis and to analyze decision making by professionals in the context of life and death in medicine. The availability of an identical technology in different social and institutional contexts should help identifying the convergences and differences under consideration. Seventy percent of those invited responded to the questionnaire (International 60-80%). Italian neonatologists seem to be quite pessimistic about the prognosis of infants at high risk of death or long term disabilities, they show a pro-life attitude, but in a certain proportion are willing to change their minds if requested by parents. Furthermore personal opinions predominate in the decision-making process and the contribution of team meeting and/or ethic consultation seem not significantly modify the decisions.
Cairns, Karen Jean
of all stakeholders, conflict resolution, and problem solving through consensus building. The concluding chapter includes a presentation of a framework for environmental education programs aimed at promotion of community leadership, emphasizing public sphere behaviors or visible community actions, and based upon democratic process. Participatory democratic process as defined by this study is a decision making process involving inclusion of stakeholders at all levels, collaboration, consensus-building, problem-solving, and conflict resolution.
Mafe, Cecilia; Menyah, Effie; Nkere, Munachi
Health care management and leadership education is an important gap in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Lack of training promotes poor decision making and may lead to inadequate health services, adversely affecting patients. We propose an integrated approach to health care management and leadership education at undergraduate level, to enable doctors to be effective leaders and manage resources appropriately and to ultimately improve patient care. PMID:26929680
Jenkins, Daniel M.; Andenoro, Anthony C.
This chapter provides the critical leadership logic model as a tool to help educators develop leadership-learning opportunities. This proactive logic model includes curricular and co-curricular educational experiences to ensure critical thinking through leadership education.
Kirkpatrick, Mary; Brown, Sylvia T.; Atkins, Anthony; Vance, Anna
A nursing leadership course used analysis of films depicting cultural diversity, leadership and management styles, power, and teamwork. The experience promoted critical and reflective thinking and provided relevant and engaging examples of leadership. (SK)
Tannenbaum, Robert; Schmidt, Warren H.
Examines the different patterns of leadership behavior from which a manager can choose in relating with nonmanagers. Suggests a framework for managers caught in the dilemma of when to exert strong'' leadership and when to exercise permissive'' leadership. (WM)
Miwa, Hiroto; Ghoshal, Uday C; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Ang, Tiing-Leong; Chang, Full-Young; Fock, Kwong Ming; Hongo, Michio; Hou, Xiaohua; Kachintorn, Udom; Ke, Meiyun; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Lee, Kwang Jae; Lu, Ching-Liang; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Miura, Soichiro; Park, Hyojin; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sugano, Kentaro; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Wong, Benjamin CY
Background/Aims Environmental factors such as food, lifestyle and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection are widely different in Asian countries compared to the West, and physiological functions and genetic factors of Asians may also be different from those of Westerners. Establishing an Asian consensus for functional dyspepsia is crucial in order to attract attention to such data from Asian countries, to articulate the experience and views of Asian experts, and to provide a relevant guide on management of functional dyspepsia for primary care physicians working in Asia. Methods Consensus team members were selected from Asian experts and consensus development was carried out using a modified Delphi method. Consensus teams collected published papers on functional dyspepsia especially from Asia and developed candidate consensus statements based on the generated clinical questions. At the first face-to-face meeting, each statement was reviewed and e-mail voting was done twice. At the second face-to-face meeting, final voting on each statement was done using keypad voting system. A grade of evidence and a strength of recommendation were applied to each statement according to the method of the GRADE Working Group. Results Twenty-nine consensus statements were finalized, including 7 for definition and diagnosis, 5 for epidemiology, 9 for pathophysiology and 8 for management. Algorithms for diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia were added. Conclusions This consensus developed by Asian experts shows distinctive features of functional dyspepsia in Asia and will provide a guide to the diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia for Asian primary care physicians. PMID:22523724
This research note presents a preliminary study of the structure of consensus statements (CSs). The consensus statement is released by a medical association after calling a consensus development conference on a pertinent medical issue. Using a very small corpus, this note attempts to characterize consensus statements by identifying the sequence of…
Kling, Vera G
Nurse educators seek innovative strategies to maximize student learning in the classroom and clinical settings. Students enrolled in a nursing leadership and management course often find they spend more clinical time observing leaders than practicing the necessary skills to lead others in the provision of nursing care. In addition, opportunities to explore the nurse educator role often do not exist in baccalaureate nursing education, despite the shortage of nurse educators. An experience was developed in a baccalaureate nursing program to give senior students, under supervision of faculty, the opportunity to lead and evaluate lower-level students providing patient care in the clinical setting and to experience the role of nursing faculty. Feedback from senior students was positive, and students noted increased proficiency in leadership ability and critical thinking. Student interest in the nurse educator role was also enhanced. Program expansion and evaluation with faculty, clinical staff, and patients are planned.
Shirey, Maria R
The purpose of this article is to showcase the relationship among authentic leadership, organizational culture, and healthy work environments using a stress and coping lens. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to determine what situations contribute to nurse manager stress, what coping strategies they utilize, what health outcomes they report, and what decision-making processes they follow to address stressful situations in their roles. A purposive sample of 21 nurse managers employed at 3 US acute care hospitals completed a demographic questionnaire and 14-question interview incorporating components of the Critical Decision Method. A secondary analysis of the data was conducted to identify differences in nurse manager narratives based upon differences in the organizational cultures where the managers worked. Of the 21 nurse managers studied, differences were evident in the organizational cultures reported. Nurse managers working in the positive organizational cultures (n = 12) generally worked in healthy work environments and engaged in more authentic leadership behaviors. Conversely, nurse managers working in the negative organizational cultures (n = 9) worked in unhealthy work environments and reported less optimism and more challenges engaging in authentic leadership practices. Organizational culture and leadership matter in creating and sustaining healthy work environments. Nurse managers play a pivotal role in creating these environments, yet they need supportive structures and resources to more effectively execute their roles.
Campo, Miriam A.
Leadership is defined as "the position or function of a leader, a person who guides or directs a group" (Dictionary.com). Most think of a leader as the head of an organization. I challenge that: every single person is in a position to be a leader even if they are not the head of an organization and do not have direct reports. There are…
low neuroticism (N), high extraversion (E), and high openness (O) with strong leadership.27 Studies of FFT also indicate that personality traits do...bad processes.26 One of the resultant efforts was personality trait screening. Research efforts to isolate predictive traits of outstanding leaders...bias toward a specific culture, gender, or ethnicity. Although behavioral research confirms a positive correlation between FFT personality traits
Bresnahan, Christopher G.; Mitroff, Ian I.
Comments on the six articles contained in the special issue of the American Psychologist (January 2007) devoted to leadership, written by W. Bennis (see record 2006-23492-002); S. J. Zaccaro (see record 2006-23492-003); V. H. Vroom and A. G. Yago (see record 2006-23492-004); B. J. Avolio (see record 2006-23492-005); R. J. Sternberg (see record…
Blenkinsopp, John; Snowden, Nicholas
In their valuable discussion of whistleblowing in healthcare organisations, Mannion and Davies highlight the importance of organisational culture in influencing whether people raise concerns, and whether these concerns are listened to and acted upon. The role of leadership in shaping organisational culture is well-established1 and in this commentary, we will examine the influence of leaders in creating cultures of silence or cultures of voice. PMID:26927401
many of these expectations through his leadership philosophy when he addresses the environmental conditions. The environment is the variable in the...of the name will not change, even though behavior and style change with the environment .9 The variables set forth common contingencies which 6 senior...leader’s philosophy in the following sequence: Self-Assessment Vision Skills The Environment Ethics Trust ENVIRONMENT SELF ASSESSMENT SKILLS VISION
AGU continues to evolve into a stronger, more innovative organization thanks to the dedication of volunteer leaders working in partnership with AGU staff. The Board and Council, which form the core of AGU's bicameral governance structure, provide guidance for the organization within the framework of its stakeholder-driven strategic plan. Members elected to Board and Council leadership positions are critically important to AGU's continued success.
Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N.; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv
Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning. PMID:26501046
Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv
Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning.
Cook, M J
The purpose of this work was to explore clinical nursing leadership. The research was based on a critical examination of the leadership themes derived from the nursing literature of the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Australia, between 1992 and 1997. The work was also influenced by the findings from semistructured interviews undertaken with five clinical leaders in nursing from the United Kingdom, and study tours to both the United States of America and Australia. The findings support a proposed leadership model as a basis for further exploration and as a framework for contemplating clinical leadership and leadership preparation. A model is presented that identifies factors which influence leadership styles, such as external environment, internal environment, experience and understanding. Four leadership styles are outlined: transactional, transformational, connective and renaissance. These leadership styles are linked to nursing care approaches. A second model provides a basis for considering power and its impact in the workplace. Based on these findings, the contents of a leadership preparation course are outlined.
Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée
Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.
Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha; Manolson, Sarah; Shaw, Katie
This study examines youth-led decision making (YLDM) among groups of youth who are providers or recipients of community development grants. Focus groups, interviews, and participant observation with 14- to 20-year-olds and supporting adults showed youth have a preference for consensus-based decisions. Youth used due process to reach decisions…
Information technology has played several important roles in group decision making, such as communication support and decision support. Little is known about how information technology can be used to persuade members of a group to reach a consensus. In this dissertation, I aim to address the issues that are related to the role of visual…
Edwards, W; Fasolo, B
This review is about decision technology-the rules and tools that help us make wiser decisions. First, we review the three rules that are at the heart of most traditional decision technology-multi-attribute utility, Bayes' theorem, and subjective expected utility maximization. Since the inception of decision research, these rules have prescribed how we should infer values and probabilities and how we should combine them to make better decisions. We suggest how to make best use of all three rules in a comprehensive 19-step model. The remainder of the review explores recently developed tools of decision technology. It examines the characteristics and problems of decision-facilitating sites on the World Wide Web. Such sites now provide anyone who can use a personal computer with access to very sophisticated decision-aiding tools structured mainly to facilitate consumer decision making. It seems likely that the Web will be the mode by means of which decision tools will be distributed to lay users. But methods for doing such apparently simple things as winnowing 3000 options down to a more reasonable number, like 10, contain traps for unwary decision technologists. The review briefly examines Bayes nets and influence diagrams-judgment and decision-making tools that are available as computer programs. It very briefly summarizes the state of the art of eliciting probabilities from experts. It concludes that decision tools will be as important in the 21st century as spreadsheets were in the 20th.
Ambros, P F; Ambros, I M; Brodeur, G M; Haber, M; Khan, J; Nakagawara, A; Schleiermacher, G; Speleman, F; Spitz, R; London, W B; Cohn, S L; Pearson, A D J; Maris, J M
Neuroblastoma serves as a paradigm for utilising tumour genomic data for determining patient prognosis and treatment allocation. However, before the establishment of the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Task Force in 2004, international consensus on markers, methodology, and data interpretation did not exist, compromising the reliability of decisive genetic markers and inhibiting translational research efforts. The objectives of the INRG Biology Committee were to identify highly prognostic genetic aberrations to be included in the new INRG risk classification schema and to develop precise definitions, decisive biomarkers, and technique standardisation. The review of the INRG database (n=8800 patients) by the INRG Task Force finally enabled the identification of the most significant neuroblastoma biomarkers. In addition, the Biology Committee compared the standard operating procedures of different cooperative groups to arrive at international consensus for methodology, nomenclature, and future directions. Consensus was reached to include MYCN status, 11q23 allelic status, and ploidy in the INRG classification system on the basis of an evidence-based review of the INRG database. Standardised operating procedures for analysing these genetic factors were adopted, and criteria for proper nomenclature were developed. Neuroblastoma treatment planning is highly dependant on tumour cell genomic features, and it is likely that a comprehensive panel of DNA-based biomarkers will be used in future risk assignment algorithms applying genome-wide techniques. Consensus on methodology and interpretation is essential for uniform INRG classification and will greatly facilitate international and cooperative clinical and translational research studies.
This article offers lessons from an initiative refashioning the doctoral thesis in an education leadership program. The program serves a practitioner clientele; most are teachers and administrators. The new model for the thesis emphasizes leadership, problem solving, decision making, and organizational improvement. The former model was a…
Crampton, Peter; Hoek, Janet; Beaglehole, Robert
Health leadership comes from government, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), commercial organisations, and the community as a whole. Government has an obligation to act to protect the health of its citizens, both in respect of traditional threats to health, such as infectious diseases, and in response to newer threats, such as diet. Leadership requires the recognition and rejection of strategies that attempt to replace evidence with rhetoric. We recommend that health policy decisions have a clear evidence base and equity rationale, where the proposed interventions have been balanced against the freedom of individuals to act on their own account without undue influence from marketing. We recommend that government draws on the experience and expertise of the NGO and public health sectors, and communities to promote responsiveness to local priorities and needs. We recommend that public health practitioners strengthen their links with communities and build constituencies so public health decision-making does not occur predominantly in the bureaucratic domain.
Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.
) defining the range of concerns of the public toward different bioremediation strategies and long-term stewardship; (2) creating materials and delivery methods that address bioremediation issues; and (3) assessing the effectiveness of the consensus workshop in identifying concerns about bioremediation and involving the public in a dialogue about their use. After a brief description of the Idaho workshop, we discuss the range of concerns articulated by the participants about bioremediation, discuss the materials and delivery methods used to communicate information about bioremediation, and assess the effectiveness of the consensus workshop. In summary we found that panel members in general: understood complex technical issues, especially when given enough time in a facilitated discussion with experts; are generally accepting of in situ bioremediation, but concerned about costs, safety, and effectiveness of the technology; are concerned equally about technology and decision processes; and liked the consensus workshop approach to learning about bioremediation.
Problem Statement: The current study's purpose is: First, to examine the relationship between shared leadership and distributed leadership, which, despite having many similar aspects in theory and practice, are defined as separate concepts. Second, to compare the two approaches and dissipate the theoretical contradictions. In this sense, the main…
Madsen, Wendy; O'Mullan, Cathy; Keen-Dyer, Helen
Leadership programs have been extensively promoted in rural communities in Australia. However, few have been evaluated. The results of the evaluation of a rural leadership program provided in this paper highlight the need for adult learning theories to be more overtly identified and utilised as the basis of planning and implementing leadership…
Shaked, Haim; Schechter, Chen
As instructional leadership involves attempts to understand and improve complex systems, this study explored principals' perceptions regarding possible contributions of systems thinking to instructional leadership. Based on a qualitative analysis, systems thinking was perceived by middle and high school principals to contribute to the following…
Strategy is a much debated concept in the field of educational leadership. This article draws on a variety of data from a larger research programme focused on reconceptualising strategy in the specific context of school leadership. Rather than offering a definitive voice, this article lays the foundations for further inquiry on the topic through a…
Stedman, Nicole L. P.; Rutherford, Tracy A.; Rosser, Manda H.; Elbert, Chanda
The National FFA Organization continues to be a leader in the positive development of youth. Programs sponsored by the FFA provide youth with opportunities to develop their capacity for leadership and citizenship. The Washington Leadership Conference (WLC) is a weeklong conference during the summer that culminates the FFA experience. The WLC's…
Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh; Rajbhandari, Smriti
In this study, leadership maintenance employs psychological, sociological and physiological paradigms in creating a conducive environment for both leaders' and followers' well-being in educational settings. Leadership maintenance is an ongoing process, which entails the understanding of leader's cognitive complexity, relational approaches towards…
The State Early Childhood Policy Leadership Forum seeks to build state capacity to develop and strengthen statewide, cross-system early childhood policies and programs. The Forum provides intense leadership retreats, professional development opportunities, policy discussions, and one-on-one technical assistance for individuals who are leading…
Donaldson, Gordon A., Jr.; Bowe, Linda M.; Marnik, Sally V. MacKenzie
This article discusses how schools and school districts across the U.S. face a growing "leadership deficit." Accelerating retirements and reportedly shallow pools of applicants for administrative positions are raising alarms about future leadership. And all of this is happening just when schools will need the best leaders ever. Four…
Leaders and aspiring leaders are constantly searching for role models who are successful in placing leadership theory into effective practice. This book identifies ten such role models whose heroic leadership behavior is analyzed in order to reveal what particular abilities and skills made them successful and how those attributes can be applied to…
Schmidt, Sheri Lyn
Diversity affects every aspect of leadership and should be integral to the training model implemented in college student affairs programs. Effective leadership is culturally inclusive, and requires willingness to take risks, cultural self-awareness, ability to separate individuals from stereotypes, attentive listening, ability to view cultural…
Liang, Jia G.; Sandmann, Lorilee R.
This article presents distributed leadership as a framework for analysis, showing how the phenomenon complements formal higher education structures by mobilizing leadership from various sources, formal and informal. This perspective more accurately portrays the reality of leading engaged institutions. Using the application data from 224…
Yiadom, Maame Yaa A B; Ward, Michael J; Chang, Anna Marie; Pines, Jesse M; Jouriles, Nick; Yealy, Donald M
The consensus conference on "Advancing Research in Emergency Department (ED) Operations and Its Impact on Patient Care," hosted by The ED Operations Study Group (EDOSG), convened to craft a framework for future investigations in this important but understudied area. The EDOSG is a research consortium dedicated to promoting evidence-based clinical practice in emergency medicine. The consensus process format was a modified version of the NIH Model for Consensus Conference Development. Recommendations provide an action plan for how to improve ED operations study design, create a facilitating research environment, identify data measures of value for process and outcomes research, and disseminate new knowledge in this area. Specifically, we call for eight key initiatives: 1) the development of universal measures for ED patient care processes; 2) attention to patient outcomes, in addition to process efficiency and best practice compliance; 3) the promotion of multisite clinical operations studies to create more generalizable knowledge; 4) encouraging the use of mixed methods to understand the social community and human behavior factors that influence ED operations; 5) the creation of robust ED operations research registries to drive stronger evidence-based research; 6) prioritizing key clinical questions with the input of patients, clinicians, medical leadership, emergency medicine organizations, payers, and other government stakeholders; 7) more consistently defining the functional components of the ED care system, including observation units, fast tracks, waiting rooms, laboratories, and radiology subunits; and 8) maximizing multidisciplinary knowledge dissemination via emergency medicine, public health, general medicine, operations research, and nontraditional publications.
become an important part of the management process for Chief Executive Officers and top decision-makers through- out business and government. However...the management process ±or Ciiei axecutive OUticers (CEOs) and too decision-makers througnout ousiness anu qovernment. When decisions are made...analytical techniques and at the same time expert in the subject being studied. plus have the management an,.: leadership skills required to bring a study to
Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P
A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique.
Mahachai, Varocha; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Pittayanon, Rapat; Rojborwonwitaya, Jarin; Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Kositchaiwat, Chomsri; Mairiang, Pisaln; Praisontarangkul, Ong-Ard; Ovartlarnporn, Buncha; Sottisuporn, Jaksin; Pisespongsa, Pises; Maneerattanaporn, Monthira; Sony, Ravin; Sirinthornpunya, Siam; Chaiyamahapurk, Orawan; Wiwattanachang, Olarn; Sansak, Inchaya; Harnsomboon, Piyathida; Chitapanarux, Taned; Chuenrattanakul, Surapon
Management of Helicobacter pylori infection is an important aspect of many upper gastrointestinal tract diseases, such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The Thailand Consensus on H. pylori treatment 2015 consisted of 22 national experts who took active roles, discussed all important clinical information and investigated clinical aspects in four workshops, focuising on: (1) Diagnosis (2) Treatment (3) Follow-up after eradication and (4) H. pylori infection and special conditions. Experts were invited to participate on the basis of their expertise and contribution to H. pylori works and/or consensus methodology. The results of each workshop were taken to a final consensus vote by all experts. Recommendations were developed from the best evidence and availability to guide clinicians in management of this specific infection associated with variety of clinical outcomes.