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Sample records for leadership consensus decision

  1. Quorum responses and consensus decision making

    PubMed Central

    Sumpter, David J.T.; Pratt, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Animal groups are said to make consensus decisions when group members come to agree on the same option. Consensus decisions are taxonomically widespread and potentially offer three key benefits: maintenance of group cohesion, enhancement of decision accuracy compared with lone individuals and improvement in decision speed. In the absence of centralized control, arriving at a consensus depends on local interactions in which each individual's likelihood of choosing an option increases with the number of others already committed to that option. The resulting positive feedback can effectively direct most or all group members to the best available choice. In this paper, we examine the functional form of the individual response to others' behaviour that lies at the heart of this process. We review recent theoretical and empirical work on consensus decisions, and we develop a simple mathematical model to show the central importance to speedy and accurate decisions of quorum responses, in which an animal's probability of exhibiting a behaviour is a sharply nonlinear function of the number of other individuals already performing this behaviour. We argue that systems relying on such quorum rules can achieve cohesive choice of the best option while also permitting adaptive tuning of the trade-off between decision speed and accuracy. PMID:19073480

  2. Convergence to consensus in heterogeneous groups and the emergence of informal leadership

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilets, Sergey; Auerbach, Jeremy; van Vugt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    When group cohesion is essential, groups must have efficient strategies in place for consensus decision-making. Recent theoretical work suggests that shared decision-making is often the most efficient way for dealing with both information uncertainty and individual variation in preferences. However, some animal and most human groups make collective decisions through particular individuals, leaders, that have a disproportionate influence on group decision-making. To address this discrepancy between theory and data, we study a simple, but general, model that explicitly focuses on the dynamics of consensus building in groups composed by individuals who are heterogeneous in preferences, certain personality traits (agreeability and persuasiveness), reputation, and social networks. We show that within-group heterogeneity can significantly delay democratic consensus building as well as give rise to the emergence of informal leaders, i.e. individuals with a disproportionately large impact on group decisions. Our results thus imply strong benefits of leadership particularly when groups experience time pressure and significant conflict of interest between members (due to various between-individual differences). Overall, our models shed light on why leadership and decision-making hierarchies are widespread, especially in human groups. PMID:27412692

  3. Convergence to consensus in heterogeneous groups and the emergence of informal leadership.

    PubMed

    Gavrilets, Sergey; Auerbach, Jeremy; van Vugt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    When group cohesion is essential, groups must have efficient strategies in place for consensus decision-making. Recent theoretical work suggests that shared decision-making is often the most efficient way for dealing with both information uncertainty and individual variation in preferences. However, some animal and most human groups make collective decisions through particular individuals, leaders, that have a disproportionate influence on group decision-making. To address this discrepancy between theory and data, we study a simple, but general, model that explicitly focuses on the dynamics of consensus building in groups composed by individuals who are heterogeneous in preferences, certain personality traits (agreeability and persuasiveness), reputation, and social networks. We show that within-group heterogeneity can significantly delay democratic consensus building as well as give rise to the emergence of informal leaders, i.e. individuals with a disproportionately large impact on group decisions. Our results thus imply strong benefits of leadership particularly when groups experience time pressure and significant conflict of interest between members (due to various between-individual differences). Overall, our models shed light on why leadership and decision-making hierarchies are widespread, especially in human groups. PMID:27412692

  4. When Consensus Decision-Making Fails: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Grant T.

    Habermas's theory of dialogue was used to evaluate the process of decision making that occurred in a labor-management committee's meeting to discuss flextime. The study attempted to determine why, at that meeting, the committee's consensus process of decision making failed. W.R. Bion's theory of unconscious group motives was also used to…

  5. Teaching Decision-Making Using Situational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Daniel W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the basic tenets of the Situational Leadership model, examines the steps of the Conflict Model for decision making, and presents a conceptual model that integrates the two. The integrated model aims to provide a systematic means for allowing individuals to learn how to participate in organizational decisions. (JDD)

  6. Transformational Leadership & Decision Making in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Robert E.; Balch, Bradley V.

    2005-01-01

    It is essential for every school leader to possess the savvy to effect positive change, raise achievement levels, and foster a positive school climate. Now it seems that the struggle for school leaders to make productive decisions has become clouded with ever-growing uncertainty and skepticism. "Transformational Leadership & Decision Making in…

  7. Consensus versus Devil's Advocacy: The Influence of Decision Process and Task Structure on Strategic Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Audrey J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compares decision processes of consensus and devil's advocacy within an additive task, a disjunctive task, and a conjunctive task structure. Finds that high-conflict decision processes such as devil's advocacy enhances decision making in disjunctive tasks, retards decision making in additive tasks, but has no effect on decision making in…

  8. Consensus, clinical decision making, and unsettled cases.

    PubMed

    Adams, David M; Winslade, William J

    2011-01-01

    The model of clinical ethics consultation (CEC) defended in the ASBH Core Competencies report has gained significant traction among scholars and healthcare providers. On this model, the aim of CEC is to facilitate deliberative reflection and thereby resolve conflicts and clarify value uncertainty by invoking and pursuing a process of consensus building. It is central to the model that the facilitated consensus falls within a range of allowable options, defined by societal values: prevailing legal requirements, widely endorsed organizational policies, and professional standards of practice and codes of conduct. Moreover, the model stipulates that ethics consultants must refrain from giving substantive recommendations regarding how parties to a moral disagreement in the clinic should evaluate their options. We argue that this model of CEC is incomplete, because it wrongly assumes that what counts as the proper set of allowable options among which the parties are to deliberate will itself always be clearly discernible. We illustrate this problem with a recent case on which one of us consulted-a neonate born with trisomy 18 (T18). We try to show that law, policy, and standards of practice reveal no clear answer to the question posed by the case: namely, whether forgoing gastrostomy tube feedings for a baby with T18 is allowable. We suggest there may be other kinds of cases in which it may simply be unsettled whether a given choice falls within the set of allowable options within which consensus is to be facilitated. What should an ethicist do when confronting such unsettled cases? We agree with the facilitation model that an ethicist should remain neutral among the allowable options, when it is clear what the allowable options are. But, in unsettled cases, the role of a consultant should be expanded to include a process of moral inquiry into what the allowable options should be. We end by raising the issue of whether this means an ethicist should share his or her own

  9. Creative Leadership: It's a Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    There are administrators who merely administer and there are administrators who not only administer, but also lead. In this article, the author provides an example of the former and discusses what it means to be an administrator who is also a good leader. He shares his proposed theory of educational leadership, which has four basic elements.…

  10. From Social Network (Centralized vs. Decentralized) to Collective Decision-Making (Unshared vs. Shared Consensus)

    PubMed Central

    Sueur, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Petit, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Relationships we have with our friends, family, or colleagues influence our personal decisions, as well as decisions we make together with others. As in human beings, despotism and egalitarian societies seem to also exist in animals. While studies have shown that social networks constrain many phenomena from amoebae to primates, we still do not know how consensus emerges from the properties of social networks in many biological systems. We created artificial social networks that represent the continuum from centralized to decentralized organization and used an agent-based model to make predictions about the patterns of consensus and collective movements we observed according to the social network. These theoretical results showed that different social networks and especially contrasted ones – star network vs. equal network - led to totally different patterns. Our model showed that, by moving from a centralized network to a decentralized one, the central individual seemed to lose its leadership in the collective movement's decisions. We, therefore, showed a link between the type of social network and the resulting consensus. By comparing our theoretical data with data on five groups of primates, we confirmed that this relationship between social network and consensus also appears to exist in animal societies. PMID:22393416

  11. Collective Learning and Optimal Consensus Decisions in Social Animal Groups

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Albert B.; Miller, Noam; Torney, Colin; Hartnett, Andrew; Couzin, Iain D.

    2014-01-01

    Learning has been studied extensively in the context of isolated individuals. However, many organisms are social and consequently make decisions both individually and as part of a collective. Reaching consensus necessarily means that a single option is chosen by the group, even when there are dissenting opinions. This decision-making process decouples the otherwise direct relationship between animals' preferences and their experiences (the outcomes of decisions). Instead, because an individual's learned preferences influence what others experience, and therefore learn about, collective decisions couple the learning processes between social organisms. This introduces a new, and previously unexplored, dynamical relationship between preference, action, experience and learning. Here we model collective learning within animal groups that make consensus decisions. We reveal how learning as part of a collective results in behavior that is fundamentally different from that learned in isolation, allowing grouping organisms to spontaneously (and indirectly) detect correlations between group members' observations of environmental cues, adjust strategy as a function of changing group size (even if that group size is not known to the individual), and achieve a decision accuracy that is very close to that which is provably optimal, regardless of environmental contingencies. Because these properties make minimal cognitive demands on individuals, collective learning, and the capabilities it affords, may be widespread among group-living organisms. Our work emphasizes the importance and need for theoretical and experimental work that considers the mechanism and consequences of learning in a social context. PMID:25101642

  12. Leadership by Consensus at MU: A Look at Two Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem; Kerns, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The researchers are interested in the views and perceptions, about leadership, of two leaders within the University of Missouri at the Columbia campus. Therefore, the aim of this research is to understand and to compare and contrast the leadership styles of these two leaders. In order to reach the aim of this recent study, the researchers have…

  13. Heterogeneous Preference and Local Nonlinearity in Consensus Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Andrew T; Schertzer, Emmanuel; Levin, Simon A; Couzin, Iain D

    2016-01-22

    In recent years, a large body of research has focused on unveiling the fundamental physical processes that living systems utilize to perform functions, such as coordinated action and collective decision making. Here, we demonstrate that important features of collective decision making among higher organisms are captured effectively by a novel formulation of well-characterized physical spin systems, where the spin state is equivalent to two opposing preferences, and a bias in the preferred state represents the strength of individual opinions. We reveal that individuals (spins) without a preference (unbiased or uninformed) play a central role in collective decision making, both in maximizing the ability of the system to achieve consensus (via enhancement of the propagation of spin states) and in minimizing the time taken to do so (via a process reminiscent of stochastic resonance). Which state (option) is selected collectively, however, is shown to depend strongly on the nonlinearity of local interactions. Relatively linear social response results in unbiased individuals reinforcing the majority preference, even in the face of a strongly biased numerical minority (thus promoting democratic outcomes). If interactions are highly nonlinear, however, unbiased individuals exert the opposite influence, promoting a strongly biased minority and inhibiting majority preference. These results enhance our understanding of physical computation in biological collectives and suggest new avenues to explore in the collective dynamics of spin systems. PMID:26849620

  14. Heterogeneous Preference and Local Nonlinearity in Consensus Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, Andrew T.; Schertzer, Emmanuel; Levin, Simon A.; Couzin, Iain D.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a large body of research has focused on unveiling the fundamental physical processes that living systems utilize to perform functions, such as coordinated action and collective decision making. Here, we demonstrate that important features of collective decision making among higher organisms are captured effectively by a novel formulation of well-characterized physical spin systems, where the spin state is equivalent to two opposing preferences, and a bias in the preferred state represents the strength of individual opinions. We reveal that individuals (spins) without a preference (unbiased or uninformed) play a central role in collective decision making, both in maximizing the ability of the system to achieve consensus (via enhancement of the propagation of spin states) and in minimizing the time taken to do so (via a process reminiscent of stochastic resonance). Which state (option) is selected collectively, however, is shown to depend strongly on the nonlinearity of local interactions. Relatively linear social response results in unbiased individuals reinforcing the majority preference, even in the face of a strongly biased numerical minority (thus promoting democratic outcomes). If interactions are highly nonlinear, however, unbiased individuals exert the opposite influence, promoting a strongly biased minority and inhibiting majority preference. These results enhance our understanding of physical computation in biological collectives and suggest new avenues to explore in the collective dynamics of spin systems.

  15. A system of system lenses for leadership decision-making.

    PubMed

    Cady, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The sheer volume and dynamics among system agents in healthcare makes decision-making a daunting task at all levels. Being clear about what leaders mean by "healthcare system" is critical in aligning system strategy and leadership decision-making. This article presents an emerging set of lenses (ideology and beliefs, rational and irrational information processing, interpersonal social dynamics, process and value creation, and context) to help frame leadership decision-making in healthcare systems. PMID:26656390

  16. Consistency and consensus models for group decision-making with uncertain 2-tuple linguistic preference relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Guo, Chonghui

    2016-08-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the decision environment and the lack of knowledge, decision-makers may use uncertain linguistic preference relations to express their preferences over alternatives and criteria. For group decision-making problems with preference relations, it is important to consider the individual consistency and the group consensus before aggregating the preference information. In this paper, consistency and consensus models for group decision-making with uncertain 2-tuple linguistic preference relations (U2TLPRs) are investigated. First of all, a formula which can construct a consistent U2TLPR from the original preference relation is presented. Based on the consistent preference relation, the individual consistency index for a U2TLPR is defined. An iterative algorithm is then developed to improve the individual consistency of a U2TLPR. To help decision-makers reach consensus in group decision-making under uncertain linguistic environment, the individual consensus and group consensus indices for group decision-making with U2TLPRs are defined. Based on the two indices, an algorithm for consensus reaching in group decision-making with U2TLPRs is also developed. Finally, two examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  17. Leadership of risk decision making in a complex, technology organization: The deliberative decision making model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaming, Susan C.

    2007-12-01

    The continuing saga of satellite technology development is as much a story of successful risk management as of innovative engineering. How do program leaders on complex, technology projects manage high stakes risks that threaten business success and satellite performance? This grounded theory study of risk decision making portrays decision leadership practices at one communication satellite company. Integrated product team (IPT) leaders of multi-million dollar programs were interviewed and observed to develop an extensive description of the leadership skills required to navigate organizational influences and drive challenging risk decisions to closure. Based on the study's findings the researcher proposes a new decision making model, Deliberative Decision Making, to describe the program leaders' cognitive and organizational leadership practices. This Deliberative Model extends the insights of prominent decision making models including the rational (or classical) and the naturalistic and qualifies claims made by bounded rationality theory. The Deliberative Model describes how leaders proactively engage resources to play a variety of decision leadership roles. The Model incorporates six distinct types of leadership decision activities, undertaken in varying sequence based on the challenges posed by specific risks. Novel features of the Deliberative Decision Model include: an inventory of leadership methods for managing task challenges, potential stakeholder bias and debates; four types of leadership meta-decisions that guide decision processes, and aligned organizational culture. Both supporting and constraining organizational influences were observed as leaders managed major risks, requiring active leadership on the most difficult decisions. Although the company's engineering culture emphasized the importance of data-based decisions, the uncertainties intrinsic to satellite risks required expert engineering judgment to be exercised throughout. An investigation into

  18. Distributed Leadership: Promoting Better Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jo Nell; Lea, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The leadership role of the school business official has changed during the past two centuries. Initially, a lay board oversaw the area of school business. That responsibility then moved to selectmen of the town and later to a committee of men. In 1910, the role of school business official was formalized with the establishment of the National…

  19. Change, Leadership, and Decision Making in Improving Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipham, James M.; Rankin, Robb E.

    The findings of 13 studies of educational change, leadership, and decision-making are summarized in this report. Conducted by the staff of the Project on Administration and Organization for Instruction at the University of Wisconsin Center for Education Research, the studies utilized data gathered in over 100 middle, junior, and senior high…

  20. Doing the Right Thing: Ethical Leadership and Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza Mitchell, Regina L.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between leadership style, ethical orientation, and the AACC competencies. A glimpse of the competencies in practices is provided through the results of interviews with thirteen community college presidents. The findings presented here are culled from a larger study of presidential decision making during…

  1. Leadership and Decision Making for Effective Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipham, James M.

    1983-01-01

    To improve secondary school organization, operation, and outcomes, a research report presents major results from 13 studies of leadership, decision-making, and change conducted by Project on the Administration and Organization for Instruction staff at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in cooperation with over 100 schools. National and statewide…

  2. Reflections on the consensus process: a leadership role for emergency medicine in educational scholarship and practice across health care.

    PubMed

    Gordon, James A

    2012-12-01

    In just a few decades, emergency medicine (EM) has assumed a leadership role in medical education across many academic medical centers. This rapid evolution suggests medical education as a natural priority area for EM scholarship. This year's Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference provides an ideal forum to focus on educational research as a core element of the specialty's academic portfolio. PMID:23216790

  3. Ethical Decision Making and Effective Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaucher, Ellie

    2010-01-01

    The problem. Educational leaders face challenges in the 21st century, make numerous decisions daily, and have the choice to make decisions based on ethics. Educational leaders may follow a corporate model regarding expenses and revenues while ignoring the best interests of children and their academic achievement. The alternative to the corporate…

  4. How Peer Pressure Shapes Consensus, Leadership, and Innovations in Social Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Vargas-Estrada, Eusebio

    2013-10-01

    What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences--peer pressure (PP)--on a social group's collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups. PP can overcome barriers imposed upon a consensus by the existence of tightly connected communities with local leaders or the existence of leaders with poor cohesiveness of opinions. A moderate level of PP is also necessary to explain the rate at which innovations diffuse through a variety of social groups.

  5. How peer pressure shapes consensus, leadership, and innovations in social groups.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Ernesto; Vargas-Estrada, Eusebio

    2013-01-01

    What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences--peer pressure (PP)--on a social group's collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups. PP can overcome barriers imposed upon a consensus by the existence of tightly connected communities with local leaders or the existence of leaders with poor cohesiveness of opinions. A moderate level of PP is also necessary to explain the rate at which innovations diffuse through a variety of social groups. PMID:24104951

  6. Consensus oriented fuzzified decision support for oil spill contingency management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W

    2006-06-30

    Studies on multi-group multi-criteria decision-making problems for oil spill contingency management are in their infancy. This paper presents a second-order fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) model to resolve decision-making problems in the area of contingency management after environmental disasters such as oil spills. To assess the performance of different oil combat strategies, second-order FCE allows for the utilization of lexical information, the consideration of ecological and socio-economic criteria and the involvement of a variety of stakeholders. On the other hand, the new approach can be validated by using internal and external checks, which refer to sensitivity tests regarding its internal setups and comparisons with other methods, respectively. Through a case study, the Pallas oil spill in the German Bight in 1998, it is demonstrated that this approach can help decision makers who search for an optimal strategy in multi-thread contingency problems and has a wider application potential in the field of integrated coastal zone management. PMID:16343765

  7. The Role of Scientific Studies in Building Consensus in Environmental Decision Making: a Coral Reef Example

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a new approach for characterizing the potential of scientific studies to reduce conflict among stakeholders in an analytic-deliberative environmental decision-making process. The approach computes a normalized metric, the Expected Consensus Index of New Research (ECINR...

  8. Adaptive leadership: a novel approach for family decision making.

    PubMed

    Adams, Judith; Bailey, Donald E; Anderson, Ruth A; Galanos, Anthony N

    2013-03-01

    Family members of intensive care unit (ICU) patients want to be involved in decision making, but they may not be best served by being placed in the position of having to solve problems for which they lack knowledge and skills. This case report presents an exemplar family meeting in the ICU led by a palliative care specialist, with discussion about the strategies used to improve the capacity of the family to make a decision consistent with the patient's goals. These strategies are presented through the lens of Adaptive Leadership. PMID:22663140

  9. Democratic Leadership by Managing Meetings for Effective Group Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mary; Forest, Robert

    Instrumental to successful democratic leadership is the use of committees to solve management problems. In democratic leadership, a leader encourages participation and uses a guidance approach to direct a group toward consensus. This document offers leaders guidelines in effective democratic management of meetings. The authors first discuss the…

  10. The Appleton Consensus: suggested international guidelines for decisions to forgo medical treatment.

    PubMed

    1989-03-13

    Thirty-three physicians, bioethicists, and medical economists from ten different countries met at Lawrence University, Appleton, Wisconsin, to create The Appleton Consensus: International Guidelines for Decisions to Forgo Medical Treatment. The guidelines deal with four specific decision-making circumstances. 1. Five guidelines were created for decisions involving competent patients or patients who executed an advance directive before becoming incompetent, and those guidelines fell into three categories. 2. Thirteen guidelines were created for decisions involving patients who were once competent, but are not now competent, who have not executed an advance directive. 3. Seven guidelines were created for decisions involving patients who are not now and never have been competent, for whom "no substituted judgment" can be rendered. 4. Eleven guidelines were created for decisions involving the scarcity of medical resources, which exists in all communities. Five concepts were identified as being critical in the establishment of priorities given the reality of scarce health resources. PMID:2929046

  11. Assessing leadership decision-making styles: psychometric properties of the Leadership Judgement Indicator.

    PubMed

    Faraci, Palmira; Lock, Michael; Wheeler, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the Italian version of the Leadership Judgement Indicator, an unconventional instrument devoted to measurement of leaders' judgments and preferred styles, ie, directive, consultative, consensual, or delegative, when dealing with a range of decision-making scenarios. After forward-translation and back-translation, its psychometric properties were estimated for 299 managers at various levels, who were asked to put themselves in the position of leader and to rate the appropriateness of certain ways of responding to challenge. Differences between several groups of managers, ranked in order of seniority, provided evidence for discriminant validity. Internal consistency was adequate. The findings show that the Italian adaptation of the Leadership Judgement Indicator has promising psychometric qualities, suggesting its suitability for use to improve outcomes in both organizational and selection settings. PMID:24204179

  12. Leadership and Decision-Making Practices in Public versus Private Universities in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zulfqar, A.; Valcke, M.; Devos, G.; Tuytens, M.; Shahzad, A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine differences in leadership and decision-making practices in public and private universities in Pakistan, with a focus on transformational leadership (TL) and participative decision-making (PDM). We conducted semi-structured interviews with 46 deans and heads of department from two public and two private…

  13. Despite Best Intentions: A Critical Analysis of Social Justice Leadership and Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMatthews, David E.; Mungal, Angus Shiva; Carrola, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between social justice leadership and organizational decision making in order to make recommendations for how principals can make more socially just decisions in difficult school contexts. This article begins with a discussion of social justice leadership, facets and theories associated…

  14. Co-Constructing Distributed Leadership: District and School Connections in Data-Driven Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Vicki; Datnow, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine leadership practices in school systems that are implementing data-driven decision-making employing the theory of distributed leadership. With the advent of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) in the US, educational leaders are now required to analyse, interpret and use data to make informed decisions in…

  15. Consensus Recommendations for Systematic Evaluation of Drug-Drug Interaction Evidence for Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Scheife, Richard T.; Hines, Lisa E.; Boyce, Richard D.; Chung, Sophie P.; Momper, Jeremiah; Sommer, Christine D.; Abernethy, Darrell R.; Horn, John; Sklar, Stephen J.; Wong, Samantha K.; Jones, Gretchen; Brown, Mary; Grizzle, Amy J.; Comes, Susan; Wilkins, Tricia Lee; Borst, Clarissa; Wittie, Michael A.; Rich, Alissa; Malone, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare organizations, compendia, and drug knowledgebase vendors use varying methods to evaluate and synthesize evidence on drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This situation has a negative effect on electronic prescribing and medication information systems that warn clinicians of potentially harmful medication combinations. Objective To provide recommendations for systematic evaluation of evidence from the scientific literature, drug product labeling, and regulatory documents with respect to DDIs for clinical decision support. Methods A conference series was conducted to develop a structured process to improve the quality of DDI alerting systems. Three expert workgroups were assembled to address the goals of the conference. The Evidence Workgroup consisted of 15 individuals with expertise in pharmacology, drug information, biomedical informatics, and clinical decision support. Workgroup members met via webinar from January 2013 to February 2014. Two in-person meetings were conducted in May and September 2013 to reach consensus on recommendations. Results We developed expert-consensus answers to three key questions: 1) What is the best approach to evaluate DDI evidence?; 2) What evidence is required for a DDI to be applicable to an entire class of drugs?; and 3) How should a structured evaluation process be vetted and validated? Conclusion Evidence-based decision support for DDIs requires consistent application of transparent and systematic methods to evaluate the evidence. Drug information systems that implement these recommendations should be able to provide higher quality information about DDIs in drug compendia and clinical decision support tools. PMID:25556085

  16. The Appleton Consensus: suggested international guidelines for decisions to forego medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J M

    1989-09-01

    Thirty-three physicians, bioethicists, and medical economists from ten different countries met at Lawrence University, Appleton, Wisconsin, to create The Appleton Consensus: International Guidelines for Decisions to Forego Medical Treatment. The guidelines deal with four specific decision-making circumstances: 1. Five guidelines were created for decisions involving competent patients or patients who have executed an advance directive before becoming incompetent, and those guidelines fell into three categories. 2. Thirteen guidelines were created for decisions involving patients who were once competent, but are not now competent, who have not executed an advance directive. 3. Seven guidelines were created for decisions involving patients who are not now and never have been competent, for whom 'no substituted judgement' can be rendered. 4. Eleven guidelines were created for decisions involving the scarcity of medical resources, which exists in all communities. Five concepts were identified as being critical in the establishment of priorities, given the reality of scarce health resources (1). The term 'physician' is used in the American sense, synonymous with 'medical practitioner'. PMID:2677379

  17. Reaching a Consensus: Terminology and Concepts Used in Coordination and Decision-Making Research.

    PubMed

    Pyritz, Lennart W; King, Andrew J; Sueur, Cédric; Fichtel, Claudia

    2011-12-01

    Research on coordination and decision-making in humans and nonhuman primates has increased considerably throughout the last decade. However, terminology has been used inconsistently, hampering the broader integration of results from different studies. In this short article, we provide a glossary containing the central terms of coordination and decision-making research. The glossary is based on previous definitions that have been critically revised and annotated by the participants of the symposium "Where next? Coordination and decision-making in primate groups" at the XXIIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society (IPS) in Kyoto, Japan. We discuss a number of conceptual and methodological issues and highlight consequences for their implementation. In summary, we recommend that future studies on coordination and decision-making in animal groups do not use the terms "combined decision" and "democratic/despotic decision-making." This will avoid ambiguity as well as anthropocentric connotations. Further, we demonstrate the importance of 1) taxon-specific definitions of coordination parameters (initiation, leadership, followership, termination), 2) differentiation between coordination research on individual-level process and group-level outcome, 3) analyses of collective action processes including initiation and termination, and 4) operationalization of successful group movements in the field to collect meaningful and comparable data across different species. PMID:22207769

  18. Expert systems for implementing group consensus opinion in complex, weighted decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    The development of an expert system for instrumentation and control operations is sometimes particularly difficult because (a) the expert system must implement the consensus opinion of a group of several human experts in all circumstances, (b) there may be 20 or more complex, dynamic, interrelated factors that influence the decision, each of which must be properly considered and weighed, and (c) the decision may involve choosing from several alternative courses of action, rather that a simple yes-no'' choice. These demanding requirements can discourage or, in some cases, prevent altogether the development of expert systems that are seriously needed and would by highly beneficial. However, the integration of a formal decision analysis method into the expert system as described in this paper can smooth the development phase of the expert system and provide high assurance of the success of the project. In virtually every case, regardless of the complexity of the problem, the approach outlined will provide an expert system to function on every decision just as if the human experts had assembled and performed a formal analysis to reach the overall best balanced decision. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Leadership Styles of Principals and Teachers' Job Satisfaction, Satisfaction with Supervision, and Participation in Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    A questionnaire survey of 1,812 elementary and secondary teachers sought to determine the effects of principals' leadership behavior on teachers' job satisfaction, satisfaction with supervision, and participation in decision-making. Two dimensions of leadership behavior were studied: consideration, or supportive and expressive behavior; and…

  20. Leading to Decide or Deciding to Lead? Understanding the Relationship between Teacher Leadership and Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emira, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    This article, first, examines how Egyptian teachers and senior teachers (formal leaders) define leadership and whether the length of their teaching experience has an effect on their views. Second, it explores their perspectives on the relationship between teacher leadership and decision making. The research sample is a mixed group of 20 Egyptian…

  1. Group decisions and individual differences: route fidelity predicts flight leadership in homing pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Robin; Mann, Richard; Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora

    2011-01-01

    How social-living animals make collective decisions is currently the subject of intense scientific interest, with increasing focus on the role of individual variation within the group. Previously, we demonstrated that during paired flight in homing pigeons, a fully transitive leadership hierarchy emerges as birds are forced to choose between their own and their partner's habitual routes. This stable hierarchy suggests a role for individual differences mediating leadership decisions within homing pigeon pairs. What these differences are, however, has remained elusive. Using novel quantitative techniques to analyse habitual route structure, we show here that leadership can be predicted from prior route-following fidelity. Birds that are more faithful to their own route when homing alone are more likely to emerge as leaders when homing socially. We discuss how this fidelity may relate to the leadership phenomenon, and propose that leadership may emerge from the interplay between individual route confidence and the dynamics of paired flight. PMID:20810431

  2. Situational Leadership: Conscious Criteria Applied in Educational Leaders' Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Alan R.; Bentley, Ernest L., Jr.

    To test a situational leadership model, this study sought to determine (1) whether, among a population of educational administrators in East Tennessee, individuals possessing high flexibility/high effectiveness leadership characteristics can be identified and (2) whether those leaders consciously apply Hersey and Blanchard's concept of maturity…

  3. Leadership Asymmetries in Mixed-Age Children's Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doran C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Observed the decision-reaching and leadership behavior of children in same- amd mixed-age triads by coding their verbalizations in arriving at a consensus for their preference ranking of eight pictures. (HOD)

  4. Staff Involvement in Leadership Decision Making in the UK Further Education Sector: Perceptions of Quality and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maringe, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the quality of leadership decision making at various leadership levels in the further education (FE) sector. Using Hoffberg and Korver's model for integrated decision making, the paper aims to examine how staff in five UK FE colleges perceive the quality of their involvement in decision-making teams…

  5. The Relationship between Decision Making Styles and Leadership Styles among Public Schools Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…

  6. The Development of Social Perspective Taking and Leadership Decision-Making in City Government Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rossum, Zachary Johannes

    2013-01-01

    I examined the role of social perspective taking in leadership decision-making by investigating how a group of 70 leaders made sense of a hypothetical workplace dilemma in order to understand how they used their capacity for social perspective taking as part of their decision-making process. The majority of these leaders work in North America, are…

  7. A Leadership Decision-Making Model for the Program Development and Management of Adult Education Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sample, John A.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the issue of participation in the development and management of programs for adult learners. The Vroom and Yetton model of leadership decision making, a contingency approach that utilizes a range of decision styles, is described through various case examples. (CT)

  8. TOPSIS-based consensus model for group decision-making with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2014-08-01

    Due to the vagueness of real-world environments and the subjective nature of human judgments, it is natural for experts to estimate their judgements by using incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. In this paper, based on the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method, we present a consensus model for group decision-making (GDM) with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. To do this, we first define a new consistency measure for incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. Second, a goal programming model is proposed to estimate the missing interval preference values and it is guided by the consistency property. Third, an ideal interval fuzzy preference relation is constructed by using the induced ordered weighted averaging operator, where the associated weights of characterizing the operator are based on the defined consistency measure. Fourth, a similarity degree between complete interval fuzzy preference relations and the ideal one is defined. The similarity degree is related to the associated weights, and used to aggregate the experts' preference relations in such a way that more importance is given to ones with the higher similarity degree. Finally, a new algorithm is given to solve the GDM problem with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations, which is further applied to partnership selection in formation of virtual enterprises. PMID:24081882

  9. Measuring consensus

    SciTech Connect

    Kurstedt, H.A. Jr.; Brubaker, D.M.; Doss, A.R.; Koelling, C.P.

    1989-10-01

    For this paper, I wanted to compare mathematical techniques against group interaction in generating consensus for a ranking decision. I convened a group to come to consensus on ranking items needed for survival on the moon. I chose this problem because NASA has an approved solution. I solicited the group's individual rankings before and after discussion. I used Kendall's coefficient of concordance to measure the level of consensus before and after discussion and compared the results against individual qualitative responses to a questionnaire designed to also measure consensus. The approved solution allowed me to see if group felt more or less in agreement as they moved closer or farther from the approved solution. As background for this experiment, I researched the existing knowledge on measuring consensus. I make a distinction between consensus and successful consensus, define them, and operationalize them for the purposes of this study. I define different levels of consensus which can be reached regardless of the success of the consensus. In this experiment, I determined the interactive discussion produced consensus, but not successful consensus. The mathematical technique produced a ranking closer to the accepted answer than the group discussion did. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Decision Making in a Joint Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieth, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the decision making in developing and starting a partnership between three universities using the decision-making models developed by Graham Allison in 1971 and updated in 1999. University partnerships are complicated and require more than one decision-making model to explain all the significant decisions that are make in…

  11. Your Budget Leadership--Do You Make "Sound" Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Brian O.; DeAngelis, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    One mark of an effective leader is effective decision making. A few analysts have developed "normative" decision-making models--models that describe how administrators should make decisions--while others have developed "descriptive" models--models that describe how administrators actually make decisions. In this article, the authors introduce a…

  12. A Story About People and Porpoises: Consensus-Based Decision Making in the Shadow of Political Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Sara L.; Rigling Gallagher, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    Professionally facilitated multi-stakeholder meetings of marine mammal Take Reduction Teams, such as the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Team, are mandated by the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972. These meetings employ consensus-based decision-making to create policies to safeguard marine mammals. This opportunistic case study examines the history of the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Team multi-stakeholder group, and policy decisions the team made to address harmful interactions between harbor porpoises and the New England and mid-Atlantic groundfish fishery. For more than a decade, stakeholders regularly met to create regulations designed to mitigate the accidental entanglement of harbor porpoises in gillnets, called bycatch. A series of disruptions, including a new political appointee and the addition of new team members, altered how stakeholders interacted with one another and how regulations were implemented. These shocks to the formerly well-functioning team, placed the future of consensus-based policy creation at risk. Lessons from this case study can be applied to increase understanding of how multi-stakeholder methods, which are incorporated into many regulatory decision-making processes operate in practice and illustrate the fragile nature of long-standing consensus.

  13. Resourceful Leadership: Tradeoffs and Tough Decisions on the Road to School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    In "Resourceful Leadership", Elizabeth A. City examines decisions about the use of three key resources--time, money, and staff--and how tradeoffs among them are integrated into school leaders' improvement strategies. She undertakes a detailed study of two small urban high schools in their first year of conversion from a large, comprehensive high…

  14. Blind Man's Bluff: Instructional Leadership, Teacher Selection and Rational Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma T.; McNeely, Sonja R.

    Little research has been done to discover the process of selection of teachers by principals. This paper reports the results of a small study in which 29 principals in 11 districts in Tennessee were interviewed to determine the process used to hire a teacher, with the results analyzed for instructional leadership and rational decision making. If…

  15. Leadership Style, Anonymity, and Creativity in Group Decision Support Systems: The Mediating Role of Optimal Flow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosik, John J.; Kahai, Surinder S.; Avolio, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 159 undergraduates found that flow (a psychological state characterized by concentration, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation) mediated effects of leadership style on creativity in a Group Decision Support System (GDSS) context, and that its role may be moderated by anonymity. Results also indicated that both flow and anonymity…

  16. The Decision Sciences in Vocational Education Leadership Development Programs. Project Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, James F.

    This essay explores how the application of the decision sciences in the interdisciplinary training, research, and development activities of model graduate professional schools of management, urban and public affairs, business, government, and regional planning might be linked to current efforts to improve leadership development and training…

  17. Situational Leadership in Education: Realistic Data for Reform Decisions through Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Alan R.; Bentley, Ernest L., Jr.

    Theoretical concepts about situational management decisions are incorporated in an investigation of school administrators in Tennessee to determine (1) whether administrators can be identified who possess specified leadership characteristics and (2) if those leaders consider employee maturity criteria when selecting employees for tasks. The study…

  18. Presidential Leadership in Decision-Making: A Study of Three Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ronald E. L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates presidential leadership in decision-making at three private Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and compares understandings of presidential power within and among the three colleges given their unique institutional contexts. The research questions guiding this study include. How do the presidents of 3…

  19. Mr. Smith Goes to Washington: A Resource for Examining Ethical Leadership in Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Randall P.

    One of the challenges of a communication instructor is how to initiate the discussion of ethics in the university classroom. The classic film, "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington," has proved a useful tool for initiating discussion of ethical decision-making in leadership. This film presents a young and idealistic leader of boy ranger clubs who is…

  20. Making the Right Decisions: Leadership in 1-to-1 Computing in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towndrow, Phillip A.; Vallance, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to detail the necessity for more informed decision making and leadership in the implementation of 1-to-1 computing in education. Design/methodology/approach: The contexts of high-tech countries of Singapore and Japan are used as case studies to contextualize and support four evidence-based recommendations for…

  1. REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF APPLIED LEADERSHIP STYLES IN ETHICAL DILEMMAS WHEN NURSE MANAGERS MAKE DECISIONS.

    PubMed

    Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T

    2014-09-21

    Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas. PMID:25242639

  2. Simultaneous Decisions or Leadership in an International Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we study an international market with demand uncertainty. The model has two stages. In the first stage, the home government chooses an import tariff to maximize the revenue. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot or in a Stackelberg competition. The uncertainty is resolved between the decisions made by the home government and by the firms. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

  3. Leadership Decision Making and the Use of Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra-Lopez, Ingrid; Blake, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Intelligence gathering, or data collection, is a preliminary and critical stage of decision making. Two key approaches to intelligence gathering are "discovery" and "idea imposition." The discovery approach allows us to learn about possibilities by gathering intelligence in order to identify and weigh options. The idea imposition approach limits…

  4. Leadership Style, Decision Context, and the Poliheuristic Theory of Decision Making: An Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Jonathan W.; Yang, Yi Edward

    2008-01-01

    The poliheuristic (PH) theory of decision making has made important contributions to our understanding of political decision making but remains silent about certain key aspects of the decision process. Specifically, PH theory contends that leaders screen out politically unacceptable options, but it provides no guidance on (1) the crucial threshold…

  5. Linear response to leadership, effective temperature, and decision making in flocks.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Daniel J G; Giomi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Large collections of autonomously moving agents, such as animals or micro-organisms, are able to flock coherently in space even in the absence of a central control mechanism. While the direction of the flock resulting from this critical behavior is random, this can be controlled by a small subset of informed individuals acting as leaders of the group. In this article we use the Vicsek model to investigate how flocks respond to leadership and make decisions. Using a combination of numerical simulations and continuous modeling we demonstrate that flocks display a linear response to leadership that can be cast in the framework of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, identifying an effective temperature reflecting how promptly the flock reacts to the initiative of the leaders. The linear response to leadership also holds in the presence of two groups of informed individuals with competing interests, indicating that the flock's behavioral decision is determined by both the number of leaders and their degree of influence. PMID:27627365

  6. A consensus reaching model for 2-tuple linguistic multiple attribute group decision making with incomplete weight information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wancheng; Xu, Yejun; Wang, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to put forward a consensus reaching method for multi-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems with linguistic information, in which the weight information of experts and attributes is unknown. First, some basic concepts and operational laws of 2-tuple linguistic label are introduced. Then, a grey relational analysis method and a maximising deviation method are proposed to calculate the incomplete weight information of experts and attributes respectively. To eliminate the conflict in the group, a weight-updating model is employed to derive the weights of experts based on their contribution to the consensus reaching process. After conflict elimination, the final group preference can be obtained which will give the ranking of the alternatives. The model can effectively avoid information distortion which is occurred regularly in the linguistic information processing. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the application of the proposed method and comparative analysis with the existing methods are offered to show the advantages of the proposed method.

  7. Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brain, George B.

    There is a growing need for imaginative and creative thought to support leadership among local school systems, and the faculty in educational administration at Washington State University are engaged in a leadership development program for AASA and the National Academy of School Executives. The ideas being developed cover the following areas: 1)…

  8. Does young adults' preferred role in decision making about health, money, and career depend on their advisors' leadership skills?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Galesic, Mirta

    2013-01-01

    Few empirical data exist on how decision making about health differs from that in other crucial life domains with less threatening consequences. To shed light on this issue we conducted a study with 175 young adults (average age 19 years). We presented the participants with scenarios involving advisors who provided assistance in making decisions about health, money, and career. For each scenario, participants were asked to what extent they wanted the advisor to exhibit several leadership styles and competencies and what role (active, collaborative, or passive) they preferred to play when making decisions. Results show that decision making about health is distinct from that in the other domains in three ways. First, most of the participants preferred to delegate decision making about their health to their physician, whereas they were willing to collaborate or play an active role in decision making about their career or money. Second, the competencies and leadership style preferred for the physician differed substantially from those desired for advisors in the other two domains: Participants expected physicians to show more transformational leadership--the style that is most effective in a wide range of environments--than those who provide advice about financial investments or career. Finally, participants' willingness to share medical decision making with their physician was tied to how strongly they preferred that the physician shows an effective leadership style. In contrast, motivation to participate in decision making in the other domains was not related to preferences regarding advisors' leadership style or competencies. Our results have implications for medical practice as they suggest that physicians are expected to have superior leadership skills compared to those who provide assistance in other important areas of life. PMID:22731631

  9. Management of Side Effects of Novel Therapies for Multiple Myeloma: Consensus Statements Developed by the International Myeloma Foundation’s Nurse Leadership Board

    PubMed Central

    Bertolotti, Page; Bilotti, Elizabeth; Colson, Kathleen; Curran, Kathleen; Doss, Deborah; Faiman, Beth; Gavino, Maria; Jenkins, Bonnie; Lilleby, Kathy; Love, Ginger; Mangan, Patricia A.; McCullagh, Emily; Miceli, Teresa; Miller, Kena; Rogers, Kathryn; Rome, Sandra; Sandifer, Stacey; Smith, Lisa C.; Tariman, Joseph D.; Westphal, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Nurses play an essential role in managing the care of patients with multiple myeloma, who require education and support to receive and adhere to optimal therapy. The International Myeloma Foundation created a Nurse Leadership Board comprised of oncology nurses from leading cancer centers and community practices. An assessment survey identified the need for specific recommendations for managing key side effects of novel antimyeloma agents. Myelosuppression, thromboembolic events, peripheral neuropathy, steroid toxicities, and gastrointestinal side effects were selected for the first consensus statements. The board developed recommendations for healthcare providers in any medical setting, including grading of side-effect toxicity and strategies for managing the side effects in general, with specific recommendations pertaining to the novel agents. PMID:18490252

  10. Imitation versus payoff: Duality of the decision-making process demonstrates criticality and consensus formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turalska, M.; West, B. J.

    2014-11-01

    We consider a dual model of decision making, in which an individual forms its opinion based on contrasting mechanisms of imitation and rational calculation. The decision-making model (DMM) implements imitating behavior by means of a network of coupled two-state master equations that undergoes a phase transition at a critical value of a control parameter. The evolutionary spatial game, being a generalization of the prisoner's dilemma game, is used to determine in objective fashion the cooperative or anticooperative strategy adopted by individuals. Interactions between two sources of dynamics increases the domain of initial states attracted to phase transition dynamics beyond that of the DMM network in isolation. Additionally, on average the influence of the DMM on the game increases the final observed fraction of cooperators in the system.

  11. Developing a quality criteria framework for patient decision aids: online international Delphi consensus process

    PubMed Central

    Elwyn, Glyn; O'Connor, Annette; Stacey, Dawn; Volk, Robert; Edwards, Adrian; Coulter, Angela; Thomson, Richard; Barratt, Alexandra; Barry, Michael; Bernstein, Steven; Butow, Phyllis; Clarke, Aileen; Entwistle, Vikki; Feldman-Stewart, Deb; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Moumjid, Nora; Mulley, Al; Ruland, Cornelia; Sepucha, Karen; Sykes, Alan; Whelan, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Objective To develop a set of quality criteria for patient decision support technologies (decision aids). Design and setting Two stage web based Delphi process using online rating process to enable international collaboration. Participants Individuals from four stakeholder groups (researchers, practitioners, patients, policy makers) representing 14 countries reviewed evidence summaries and rated the importance of 80 criteria in 12 quality domains ona1to9 scale. Second round participants received feedback from the first round and repeated their assessment of the 80 criteria plus three new ones. Main outcome measure Aggregate ratings for each criterion calculated using medians weighted to compensate for different numbers in stakeholder groups; criteria rated between 7 and 9 were retained. Results 212 nominated people were invited to participate. Of those invited, 122 participated in the first round (77 researchers, 21 patients, 10 practitioners, 14 policy makers); 104/122 (85%) participated in the second round. 74 of 83 criteria were retained in the following domains: systematic development process (9/9 criteria); providing information about options (13/13); presenting probabilities (11/13); clarifying and expressing values (3/3); using patient stories (2/5); guiding/coaching (3/5); disclosing conflicts of interest (5/5); providing internet access (6/6); balanced presentation of options (3/3); using plain language (4/6); basing information on up to date evidence (7/7); and establishing effectiveness (8/8). Conclusions Criteria were given the highest ratings where evidence existed, and these were retained. Gaps in research were highlighted. Developers, users, and purchasers of patient decision aids now have a checklist for appraising quality. An instrument for measuring quality of decision aids is being developed. PMID:16908462

  12. Survivorship Care Guidelines for Patients Living With Multiple Myeloma: Consensus Statements of the International Myeloma Foundation Nurse Leadership Board

    PubMed Central

    Bilotti, Elizabeth; Faiman, Beth M.; Richards, Tiffany A.; Tariman, Joseph D.; Miceli, Teresa S.; Rome, Sandra I.

    2012-01-01

    Novel therapies approved over the past decade for the management of multiple myeloma have contributed to improved overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed disease. Nurses play a key role in educating, advocating for, and supporting patients throughout the continuum of care. Identifying potential and actual comorbid conditions associated directly with multiple myeloma and its treatment is important, as is confirming those that are patient specific so that prompt intervention can take place; therefore, the International Myeloma Foundation Nurse Leadership Board identified the most significant needs of patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma as bone health, health maintenance, mobility and safety, sexual dysfunction, and renal health. The Nurse Leadership Board then developed a survivorship care plan to assist healthcare providers and patients with multiple myeloma, their partners, and their caregivers to identify these needs. PMID:21816706

  13. Building a consensus about energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbanks, T. J.

    1981-09-01

    The making and sustaining of major energy policy decisions are considered. The major policy alternatives for making energy decision-making more effective are outlined. The focus is on relatively large decisions about energy technologies. The policy alternatives are characterized as being either focused on technology or on social action. Technology focused options include technology choices and improvements. Social action focused options include information, incentives, legitimacy, and institutional changes. But it is clear that they pose several basic philosophical questions, such as whether to base decisions on strong central leadership or on broad consensus formation. And it is clear that the options vary in being best suited for business as usual situations or emergency decision making situations.

  14. Passive sampling in contaminated sediment assessment: building consensus to improve decision making.

    PubMed

    Parkerton, Thomas F; Maruya, Keith A

    2014-04-01

    Contaminated sediments pose an ongoing, pervasive, global challenge to environmental managers, because sediments can reflect a legacy of pollution that can impair the beneficial uses of water bodies. A formidable challenge in assessing the risks of contaminated sediments has been the elucidation and measurement of contaminant bioavailability, expressed as the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) in interstitial water, which serves as a surrogate measure of the substances' chemical activity. Recent advances in passive sampling methods (PSMs) enable Cfree of sediment-associated contaminants to be quantified at trace levels, thereby overcoming current limitations of predictive models. As a result, PSMs afford the opportunity for a paradigm shift from traditional practice that can effectively reduce uncertainty in risk assessment and bolster confidence in the science used to support management of contaminated sediments. This paper provides a brief overview of the 5 subsequent papers in this series that review literature on PSM use in sediments for both organic and metal(loid) contaminants, outline the technical rationale for using PSMs as a preferred basis for risk assessment over conventional chemical analyses, describe practical considerations for and uncertainties associated with laboratory and field deployment of PSMs, discuss management application of PSMs, including illustrative case studies in which PSMs have been used in decision making, and highlight future research and communication needs. PMID:24142815

  15. Spirituality in Leadership: How Male African American Leaders in Higher Education Perceive the Influence of Spirituality in Their Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Dale S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how male African American leaders in higher education perceive the influence of spirituality on their leadership decision making. This phenomenological study provided the opportunity for seven male African American leaders in higher education to explain in their own words how they perceive the…

  16. Faculty Perceptions of Shared Decision Making and the Principal's Leadership Behaviors in Secondary Schools in a Large Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Don; Fulton, Charles Ray

    2008-01-01

    The traditional roles of teachers and principals have changed and improved organizational teamwork is fostered by all members of the learning community assuming decision making roles. Toward this end, the purpose of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between teachers' perceptions of the leadership behaviors of secondary…

  17. An Ethnographic Study of the Decision-Making Processes and Leadership Behavior at the Schoolwide Level in Selected Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstan, Jeffrey F.

    This study used field study methodology to identify and describe decision-making processes and leadership behavior at the school-wide level in secondary schools that individualize their educational programs. Indepth interviews, observations of groups and individuals, and analysis of documents were used to obtain the basic data. Two senior high…

  18. Data-Driven Decision Making: Vision to Know and Do. Backgrounder Brief. CoSN Essential Leadership Skills Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for School Networking (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Backgrounder Brief is an executive summary of "Data-Driven Decision Making: Vision to Know and Do," a component of CoSN's Essential Leadership Skills Series. Collecting student achievement data is nothing new in schools. But for all of the data gathered, many schools remain information poor. Educators are challenged to understand how to best…

  19. Group Dynamics: Toward a Study of the Administrative/Supervisory Leadership Role Within Group Decision-Making Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Francis, II

    Group processes are an integral part of the educational enterprise, but "effectiveness of group processes" does not necessarily follow from the simple act of group formation. The administrator has the responsibility of exercising effective group leadership. Group formation, group task functions or assignments, and decision-making processes are…

  20. U.S. Dept. Veterans Affairs (VA) SMEC-bio Reporting for Leadership Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Gamage, Shantini D.; Simbartl, Loretta A.; Kralovic, Stephen M.; Wallace, Katherine S.; Roselle, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess Reports sent from the United States VA Subject Matter Expertise Center for Biological Events (SMEC-bio) – a proof-of-concept decision support initiative – to the VA Integrated Operations Center (VA IOC). Introduction VA is the U.S. federal agency responsible for providing services to America’s Veterans. Within VA, VHA is the organization responsible for administration of health care services. VHA, with 152 Medical Centers and over 900 outpatient clinics located throughout the U.S. and territories, provided care to over 5 million patients in 2011. After the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, OSP, which oversees VA senior level briefing of preparedness issues, conceptualized and initiated SMEC-bio as a protocol-based mechanism to incorporate timely VHA subject matter expertise into leadership decision making via the VA IOC. Previous work has examined collection and integration of data from VA and interagency sources for trend and predictive analyses (1). This current work is an initial assessment of SMEC-bio reporting, which has been in development for the past year and functions on an ad hoc basis for decision support; needs and gaps can be assessed toward a formalized communication plan with the VA IOC. Methods In May, 2011, SMEC-bio designed a Report template. All SMEC-bio Reports submitted to the VA IOC using the template were assessed based on reason for the Report, timing, data sources used, and outcome. A gap analysis was conducted to identify areas for further improvement. Results Eight SMEC-bio Reports were produced since the template was initiated in May, 2011. The reasons for reporting fell into the following categories: 1) briefings of interagency protocol activations [e.g. National Biosurveillance Integration System (NBIS) protocol]; 2) Requests for Information (RFIs) from the VA IOC regarding specific biological events (e.g. 2012 H3N2v influenza associated with swine at fairs); 3) RFIs from the VA IOC on general infectious diseases

  1. Working toward Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Harold

    1998-01-01

    A California high school English teacher uses, with students, a culturally sensitive process of facilitating classroom decision making through consensus. He correlates communication and language skills with consensus building, the facilitation of which is a slow process implemented in small portions over the school year. Sidebar provides a…

  2. Leadership Styles and Decision-Making Styles in an Indonesian School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hariri, Hasan; Monypenny, Richard; Prideaux, Murray

    2014-01-01

    School leadership has been well researched in developed countries. However, in Asia, particularly in Indonesia, school leadership has not been well explored. Using survey data from a sample of 475 teachers in six Lampung school districts, this paper examines the relationships between school principal leadership styles and school principal…

  3. Teacher-Perceived Principal Leadership Styles, Decision-Making Styles and Job Satisfaction: How Congruent Are Data from Indonesia with the Anglophile and Western Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hariri, Hasan; Monypenny, Richard; Prideaux, Murray

    2016-01-01

    School leadership is seen as important for both schools and for government and private policy-makers. The relationships between teacher-perceived principal leadership styles, teacher-perceived principal decision-making styles and teacher-perceived job satisfaction in schools in Lampung Province, Indonesia were examined. Data were collected by…

  4. License To Lead: A Middle Level Curriculum that Develops Awareness of Positive Leadership and Decision Making in the School and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankford, David; McKay, Linda

    This curriculum is designed to increase middle level students' understanding of positive leadership through ethical decision making, and to help them apply knowledge learned to realistic situations. The program objectives are to: (1) provide students with an understanding of the characteristics needed for positive leadership; (2) provide…

  5. Distributed leadership and adaptive decision-making in the ant Tetramorium caespitum.

    PubMed

    Collignon, B; Detrain, C

    2010-04-22

    In the ant species Tetramorium caespitum, communication and foraging patterns rely on group-mass recruitment. Scouts having discovered food recruit nestmates and behave as leaders by guiding groups of recruits to the food location. After a while, a mass recruitment takes place in which foragers follow a chemical trail. Since group recruitment is crucial to the whole foraging process, we investigated whether food characteristics induce a tuning of recruiting stimuli by leaders that act upon the dynamics and size of recruited groups. High sucrose concentration triggers the exit of a higher number of groups that contain twice as many ants and reach the food source twice as fast than towards a weakly concentrated one. Similar trends were found depending on food accessibility: for a cut mealworm, accessibility to haemolymph results in a faster formation of larger groups than for an entire mealworm. These data provide the background for developing a stochastic model accounting for exploitation patterns by group-mass recruiting species. This model demonstrates how the modulations performed by leaders drive the colony to select the most profitable food source among several ones. Our results highlight how a minority of individuals can influence collective decisions in societies based on a distributed leadership. PMID:20031990

  6. Every Voice Counts: Holding a Shared Leadership Event To Make Decisions Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Jessica

    Shared leadership is a process empowering parents to exercise their civil rights, build leadership skills, and guide the design of policy positions and programs meant to improve their lives and the well-being of their children. Based on principles of family support practice, this book describes how to plan and host a 1- to 3-day shared leadership…

  7. Dilemmas of Leadership: Decision Making and Ethics in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, George B.; And Others

    Focusing primarily on issues that can be directly influenced by actions of the governing board or president, the nine chapters of this book explore the ethical dilemmas of leadership in today's community colleges. In "Leaders on a Tightrope: The Risks and Tensions of Community College Leadership," George B. Vaughan provides an overview of some of…

  8. [The influence of leadership experience on the style of resolving management decisions by executives of healthcare institutions].

    PubMed

    Vezhnovets', T A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the influence of age and management experience of executives in healthcare institutions at the style of decision-making. The psychological study of 144 executives was conducted. We found out that the age of executives in healthcare institutions does not affect the style of managerial decision making, while experience in leadership position does. Also it was established that the more experienced leader is, the more often he will make decision in authoritative, autonomous, marginal style and the less management experience is, the more likely is the usage of indulgent and situational style. Moreover, the authoritarian style is typical for younger executives, marginal and autonomous is typical for elder executives. PMID:25726687

  9. Practical leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Mistilina Dawn

    This study examines conceptions of leadership and leadership enactment by teachers to develop a conceptual foundation for teacher leadership. The research question driving this study was: How do elementary school teacher leaders within a curricular and instructional reform effort describe their conceptions and enactment of leadership within their school and district contexts? Two program sites for elementary school science reform were selected, and six teachers from each program were invited to participate in the study. First-hand reports of conceptions of leadership and stories of enactment, collected through individual and focus group interviews with the teachers, served as the primary data for the study. A case for each of the twelve teachers is presented and analyzed. The outcome of the study is a theory of practical leadership. This conception draws upon the intellectual tradition of practical reasoning, which emphasizes deliberation and action of the individual when faced with a decision or a problematic situation. Practical leadership draws primarily from three dimensions: the self of the leader; the contexts in which the leader is acting; and the purposes that drive the leader's actions. Examples of leadership enactment from the cases are presented with attention to how these enactment stories demonstrate the teachers' use of practical reasoning in the situations described. The final analysis looks more specifically at the idea of practical leadership using a dynamic model called "leadership space" to demonstrate interactions among self, contexts, and purposes over time. The dissertation highlights three conclusions: (1) practical reasoning as the theoretical foundation for analyzing leadership provides a useful and valid analytical framework since it locates the leadership enactment in the deliberation and actions of the leader rather than understanding leadership as the application of a generalized set of principles about how to lead; (2) conceptions of

  10. Achieving consensus in environmental programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kurstedt, Jr., H. A.; Jones, R. M.; Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new research effort on consensus tied to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) within the US Department of Energy's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). We define consensus and explain why consensus decisions are not merely desirable but necessary in furthering ERP activities. As examples of our planned applied research, we first discuss Nominal Group Technique as a representative consensus-generating tool, and we conclude by describing the consensus-related mission of the Waste Management Review Group, established at Virginia Tech to conduct independent, third-party review of DWTM/ERP plans and activities. 10 refs.

  11. Gender Factor in Decision Making: Challenges Facing Women Leadership Development in Primary Schools' Management in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choge, Jepkemboi Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The degree of attention given to women leadership in Education in Kenya has increased considerably in the recent years especially after the government introduced the affirmative action for both girls and women in education and employment in support of Millennium Development Goals, World Conventions, the Kenya Vision 2030 blue print for economic…

  12. The Swedish Principal: Leadership Style, Decision-Making Style, and Motivation Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Per H.; Andersen, Jon Aarum

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish schools have been under pressure for change for several decades. How leaders behave can be of vital importance in times of change. The principal is responsible for both the educational program and for the school budget. Two hundred Swedish principals (male and female) responded to questionnaires concerning their leadership style,…

  13. Leadership and followership.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Mary Frances

    2002-01-01

    Along with the well-known leadership traits, there are some subtle characteristics of true leaders. Managing managers, making decisions, tolerating diversity, and showing a sense of humor are other marks of leadership that physician executives should possess. PMID:11806240

  14. Characteristics of Systems and Leadership in K-12 Public School Educational Technology Programs: Understanding Data Use, Decision Making, and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, multi-case research study examines how leaders use data to inform decisions related to technology use, including how they use enGauge program evaluation data, identifies leadership practices and related contextual factors present in four K-12 public school districts. This research study examines the questions: What are the…

  15. A Middle School Principal's and Teachers' Perceptions of Leadership Practices in Data-Driven Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godreau Cimma, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe one Connecticut middle school's voluntary implementation of a data-driven decision making process in order to improve student academic performance. Data-driven decision making is a component of Connecticut's accountability system to assist schools in meeting the requirements of the No…

  16. Academic Leadership and Ethical Decision-Making: Getting Down to Practical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugart, Sanford; Joynton, Olin

    Although community college leaders are regularly faced with decisions that have significant ethical import, they tend to have little if any formal preparation in how to make them. For the most part, administrators want to make decisions that improve the effectiveness of educational delivery, promote organizational health, are congruent with…

  17. Decision Making for Educational Leaders: Underexamined Dimensions and Issues. SUNY Series, Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bob L., Jr.; Kruse, Sharon D.

    2010-01-01

    Why another book on decision making? In this increasingly complex world, there are many tensions inherent in the daily practice of educational leaders. This book illuminates these tensions, and acknowledges the reality that there are already multiple approaches to decision making in any educational context. The authors offer a guide to integrate…

  18. Setting Proficiency Standards for School Leadership Assessment: An Examination of Cut Score Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravens, Xiu Chen; Goldring, Ellen B.; Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Murphy, Joseph; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Performance evaluation informs professional development and helps school personnel improve student learning. Although psychometric literature indicates that a rational, sound, and coherent standard-setting process adds to the credibility of an assessment, few studies have empirically examined the decision-making process. This article…

  19. Leadership in a Performative Context: A Framework for Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitpin, Stephanie; Jones, Ken

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines a model of decision-making within the context of current and emerging regimes of accountability being proposed and implemented for school systems in a number of jurisdictions. These approaches to accountability typically involve the use of various measurable student learning outcomes as well as other measures of performance to…

  20. Intuitive Leadership: A New Dimension for Education Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cynthia J.; Achilles, C. M.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies a new source of leadership style--intuitive leadership. Discusses how an intuitive style may fit into the scheme of education leadership-training; reviews literature on intuitive leadership styles; and suggests procedures by which higher educational personnel can employ and encourage the use of intuition as part of the decision-making…

  1. Linear response to leadership, effective temperature and decision making in flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Daniel; Giomi, Luca

    The Vicsek model is the prototypical system for studying collective behavior of interacting self propelled particles (SPPs). It has formed the basis for models explaining the collective behavior of many active systems including flocks of birds and swarms of insects. To the standard Vicsek model we introduce a small angular torque to a subset of the particles and observe how this effects the direction of polarisation of the entire swarm. This is analogous to a few informed birds trying to lead the rest of a large flock by initiating a turn. We find a linear response to this perturbation and fluctuations that are in agreement with fluctuation dissipation theorem. This allows the identification of an effective temperature for the Vicsek model that follows a power law with the noise amplitude. The linear response can also be extended to the process of decision-making, wherein flocks must decide between the behaviors of two competing subgroups of individuals.

  2. Melding the Objective and Subjective Sides of Leadership: Communication and Social Judgments in Decision-Making Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavitt, Charles; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finds that judgments of communicative behaviors strongly predicted judgments of the communicator's traits and that both strongly predicted leadership evaluations; but measures of actual communication were poor predictors of trait judgments and leadership evaluations and were generally unrelated with judgments of these behaviors. Implies that…

  3. Is Leadership a Reliable Concept in Animals? An Empirical Study in the Horse

    PubMed Central

    Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Hausberger, Martine; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is commonly invoked when accounting for the coordination of group movements in animals, yet it remains loosely defined. In parallel, there is increased evidence of the sharing of group decisions by animals on the move. How leadership integrates within this recent framework on collective decision-making is unclear. Here, we question the occurrence of leadership in horses, a species in which this concept is of prevalent use. The relevance of the three main definitions of leadership – departing first, walking in front travel position, and eliciting the joining of mates – was tested on the collective movements of two semi-free ranging groups of Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii). We did not find any leader capable of driving most group movements or recruiting mates more quickly than others. Several group members often displayed pre-departure behaviours at the same time, and the simultaneous departure of several individuals was common. We conclude that the decision-making process was shared by several group members a group movement (i.e., partially shared consensus) and that the leadership concept did not help to depict individual departure and leading behaviour across movements in both study groups. Rather, the different proxies of leadership produced conflicting information about individual contributions to group coordination. This study discusses the implications of these findings for the field of coordination and decision-making research. PMID:26010442

  4. Decision making in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Lamb, B; Green, J S A; Vincent, C; Sevdalis, N

    2011-09-01

    Decisions in surgical oncology are increasingly being made by multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs). Although MDTs have been widely accepted as the preferred model for cancer service delivery, the process of decision making has not been well described and there is little evidence pointing to the ideal structure of an MDT. Performance in surgery has been shown to depend on non-technical skills, such as decision making, as well as patient factors and the technical skills of the healthcare team. Application of this systems approach to MDT working allows the identification of factors that affect the quality of decision making for cancer patients. In this article we review the literature on decision making in surgical oncology and by drawing from the systems approach to surgical performance we provide a framework for understanding the process of decision making in MDTs. Technical factors that affect decision making include the information about patients, robust ICT and video-conferencing equipment, a minimum dataset with expert review of radiological and pathological information, implementation and recording of the MDTs decision. Non-technical factors with an impact on decision making include attendance of team members at meetings, leadership, teamwork, open discussion, consensus on decisions and communication with patients and primary care. Optimising these factors will strengthen the decision making process and raise the quality of care for cancer patients. PMID:20719499

  5. Spanish Consensus Statement

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2016-01-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  6. Toward Developing Authentic Leadership: Team-Based Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a consensus that authentic leadership should be an essential component in educational leadership, no study to date has ever tried to find whether team-based simulations may promote authentic leadership. The purpose of this study was to identify whether principal trainees can develop authentic leadership through ethical decision…

  7. Where Is Leadership Heading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, James H.

    2012-01-01

    A consensus is emerging about how school leaders affect school performance, and how important principals are to improved student learning. Yet the national reform policies--No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top (RTT)--incorporate assumptions about school and district leadership that are very much at odds with this research. NCLB and RTT call…

  8. Consensus development for healthcare professionals

    PubMed Central

    Kea, Bory; Sun, Benjamin C.

    2015-01-01

    Consensus development sprang from a desire to synthesize clinician and expert opinions on clinical practice and research agendas in the 1950s. And since the American Institute of Medicine formally defined “guidelines” in 1990, there has been a proliferation of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) both formally and informally. This modern decision making tool used by both physicians and patients, requires extensive planning to meet the challenges of consensus development while reaping its rewards. Consensus allows for a group approach with multiple experts sharing ideas to form consensus on topics ranging from appropriateness of procedures to research agenda development. Disagreements can shed light on areas of controversy and launch further discussions. It has five main components: three inputs (defining the task, participant identification and recruitment, and information synthesis), the approach (consensus development by explicit or implicit means), and the output (dissemination of results). Each aspect requires extensive planning a priori as they influence the entire process, from how information will be interpreted, the interaction of participants, the resulting judgment, to whether there will be uptake of results. Implicit approaches utilize qualitative methods and/or a simple voting structure of majority wins, and are used in informal consensus development methods and consensus development conferences. Explicit approaches aggregate results or judgments using explicit rules set a priori with definitions of “agreement” or consensus. Because the implicit process can be more opaque, unforeseen challenges can emerge such as the undue influence of a minority. And yet, the logistics of explicit approaches may be more time consuming and not appropriate when speed is a priority. In determining which method to use, it is important to understand the pros and cons of the different approaches and how it will affect the overall input, approach, and outcome. PMID

  9. Linked Leadership: The Role of Technology in Gifted Education Coordinators' Approaches to Informed Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of technology in the professional leadership practice of gifted education coordinators. An adapted version of the Teacher Technology Integration Scale (TTIS) was administered to 36 gifted coordinators recruited at meetings of regional gifted coordinator groups affiliated with the state professional…

  10. Transformational leadership: a cascading chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lorraine

    2005-03-01

    Historical influences still permeate contemporary nursing practise. These are mirrored in organizational philosophies, transactional and autocratic leadership styles and disempowered staff. Whilst there is disparity amongst the theorists' definitions of leadership, there is consensus pertaining to the attributes necessary to realize effective leadership. Transformational leadership is heralded as new criterion for nurse managers, and can be achieved through training, education and professional development in key leadership competencies. To achieve a chain reaction, charismatic transformational leaders espouse intellectual stimulation and individual consideration to empower staff and enhance patient care. Nurse managers that develop and foster transformational leadership can surmount oppressive traditions and confidently navigate a complex and rapidly changing health care environment. PMID:15720482

  11. Developing Creative Leadership. Gifted Treasury Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jeanette Plauche; Begnaud, Lucy Gremillion

    This book provides an overview of leadership in grades 6-12. Drawing upon theories based on cognitive and affective leadership and the role of leadership in gifted education, it discusses leadership as it pertains to research projects, problem solving, interpersonal communication, and decision-making. The book offers strategies for curriculum…

  12. Leadership wisdom.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a good leader starts with effectively leading yourself. Good leadership flows from good followership. While leaders need to be adaptive, they need to make sure that change is actually necessary and not merely the illusion of progress. Effective juggling of leadership responsibilities requires identifying the glass balls and making sure that they do not drop. Leaders need to be visible and be out front, especially when things get rough or when they are the most perilous. Anger should never be allowed to reign and cloud a leader's judgment. Leadership is not "one size fits all," those being led are unique and, consequently, different approaches will be necessary to properly motivate followers. When considering important leadership decisions, it is advisable to seek out your own Napoleon's Corporal to be sure that your plan is sound and those who will implement it do in fact fully understand it. Genuine belief in your Soldiers is the most powerful and lasting thing that you can express as a leader. Lastly, mentoring is a solemn responsibility of leaders that must never be eclipsed by the many literal and figurative battles of the day. PMID:20073357

  13. Joining consensus of networked multi-agent systems with nonlinear couplings and weighting constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bohui; Wang, Jingcheng; Zhang, Langwen; Ge, Yang

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies the joining consensus of networked multi-agent systems subject to nonlinear couplings and weighted directed graphs via pinning control. A weighted-average consensus protocol is proposed to achieve the collective decision by interacting with the local information of some pinned agents. By proposing a novel joining consensus protocol, average consensus and general consensus strategies are joined to achieve an agreement for the weighting networked system. Furthermore, by calculating a proper consensus gain and using finite control Lyapunov controllers, an efficient joining consensus protocol is presented to improve the consensus speed. Sufficient conditions for achieving the consensuses asymptotically are proved. Finally, theoretical results are validated via simulations.

  14. Learning consensus in adversarial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vamvoudakis, Kyriakos G.; García Carrillo, Luis R.; Hespanha, João. P.

    2013-05-01

    This work presents a game theory-based consensus problem for leaderless multi-agent systems in the presence of adversarial inputs that are introducing disturbance to the dynamics. Given the presence of enemy components and the possibility of malicious cyber attacks compromising the security of networked teams, a position agreement must be reached by the networked mobile team based on environmental changes. The problem is addressed under a distributed decision making framework that is robust to possible cyber attacks, which has an advantage over centralized decision making in the sense that a decision maker is not required to access information from all the other decision makers. The proposed framework derives three tuning laws for every agent; one associated with the cost, one associated with the controller, and one with the adversarial input.

  15. Consensus among Economists Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Dan; Geide-Stevenson, Doris

    2003-01-01

    Explores consensus among economists on specific propositions on the basis of a fall 2000 survey of American Economic Association members. Finds consensus generally within the profession, although the degree of consensus varies among propositions that are international, macroeconomic, and microeconomic in nature. States the profession displays…

  16. Virtual K-12 Leadership: A Postmodern Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Tommy N.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological, mixed-method study compared and contrasted virtual K-12 school leadership with traditional face-to-face leadership. All 106 participants served for a minimum of two years in each setting. The study was conducted in two phases in order to reveal consensus and dissensus points of view. Conceptually, a postmodern framework was…

  17. The Impact of Participative and Directive Leadership on Teachers' Performance: The Intervening Effects of Job Structuring, Decision Domain, and Leader-Member Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somech, Anit; Wenderow, Maayan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The contingency model theory suggests that the effects of a leadership style cannot be studied without explicit attention to the given situation. Accordingly, the authors propose a model that allows them to examine simultaneously the relative impact of participative leadership and directive leadership on teachers' performance through the…

  18. Leadership, leadership, wherefore art thou leadership?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Charlie G

    2004-06-01

    Leadership is an elusive concept. Although no one best definition exists, some common characteristics, such as charisma and influence, tend to dominate most discussions on leadership qualities and traits. This article presents an overview of the findings of and pitfalls in research on leadership, in its varied and multifaceted contexts. It explores both personal and contextual attributes of leadership. PMID:15177243

  19. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: realist evaluation of the Leadership Development Programme for district manager decision-making in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is widespread agreement that strong district manager decision-making improves health systems, understanding about how the design and implementation of capacity-strengthening interventions work is limited. The Ghana Health Service has adopted the Leadership Development Programme (LDP) as one intervention to support the development of management and leadership within district teams. This paper seeks to address how and why the LDP ‘works’ when it is introduced into a district health system in Ghana, and whether or not it supports systems thinking in district teams. Methods We undertook a realist evaluation to investigate the outcomes, contexts, and mechanisms of the intervention. Building on two working hypotheses developed from our earlier work, we developed an explanatory case study of one rural district in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Data collection included participant observation, document review, and semi-structured interviews with district managers prior to, during, and after the intervention. Working backwards from an in-depth analysis of the context and observed short- and medium-term outcomes, we drew a causal loop diagram to explain interactions between contexts, outcomes, and mechanisms. Results The LDP was a valuable experience for district managers and teams were able to attain short-term outcomes because the novel approach supported teamwork, initiative-building, and improved prioritisation. However, the LDP was not institutionalised in district teams and did not lead to increased systems thinking. This was related to the context of high uncertainty within the district, and hierarchical authority of the system, which triggered the LDP’s underlying goal of organisational control. Conclusions Consideration of organisational context is important when trying to sustain complex interventions, as it seems to influence the gap between short- and medium-term outcomes. More explicit focus on systems thinking principles that

  20. Principals Value-Informed Decision Making, Intrapersonal Moral Discord, and Pathways to Resolution: The Complexities of Moral Leadership Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research seeks to explore the inevitable internal struggle experienced by school leaders when making ethically-informed judgments. The study acquired principals' intimate reflections about professional decision making in response to personal versus organizational and/or professional value discrepancy as identified in the ethic of the…

  1. Who Calls the Shots? Sports and University Leadership, Culture, and Decision Making. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 30, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estler, Suzanne E., Ed.; Nelson, Laurie J., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This monograph seeks, through a synthesis of existing literature, to understand better how external forces operating through an enterprise on the academic margins can lead institutions and their leaders to make decisions that appear to many observers to make little sense relative to the institution's mission. Through the athletics enterprise, the…

  2. Reinventing Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klempen, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how three Wisconsin school superintendents used the process of situation appraisal and decision analysis to improve their problem-solving and decision-making capabilities and those of their leadership teams. Provides several examples. (PKP)

  3. SRS Public Involvement in Waste Management Has Resulted in Effective Decisions Supported by the Public Including Disposal Changes and Top-to-Bottom Review Initiative Consensus

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, W. T.; Villasor, H. P.

    2003-02-27

    In the Savannah River Site's (SRS') Solid Waste Management Program, a key to success is the Public Involvement Program. The Solid Waste Division at SRS manages the site's transuranic, low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. All decisions associated with management of this waste are of interest to the public and successful program implementation would be impossible without a vigorous public involvement program. The SRS Solid Waste Division (SWD) and its Department of Energy (DOE) customer developed, implemented, and maintain a comprehensive public participation and communications program. It is staffed by public participation and technical specialists to ensure information is presented in a manner that is technically accurate while being tailored for understanding by people without a technical background. The program provides the public with accurate, complete, timely information and early meaningful participation opportunities. It also fulfills the public participation activities required by laws, regulations, DOE Orders, and negotiated agreements. The primary goal of the SWD Public Participation Program is to fulfill the objectives of the SWD and SRS Strategic Plans to ''build trust and communicate openly, honestly, and responsibly with employees, customers, stakeholders, and regulators,'' and to ''work to extend the support of external stakeholders for the pursuit of SRS and DOE Complex business goals.'' This paper focuses on the public participation program goals, the implementation through formal plans and objectives, targeted waste management programs and specific audiences, and specific effects of the program on waste management activities. A discussion of the DOE and contractor teaming along with how plans are carried out is also included.

  4. Clinical information system services and capabilities desired for scalable, standards-based, service-oriented decision support: consensus assessment of the Health Level 7 clinical decision support Work Group.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Jacobs, Jason; Welch, Brandon M; Huser, Vojtech; Paterno, Marilyn D; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Shields, David; Strasberg, Howard R; Haug, Peter J; Liu, Zhijing; Jenders, Robert A; Rowed, David W; Chertcoff, Daryl; Fehre, Karsten; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Curtis, A Clayton

    2012-01-01

    A standards-based, service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support (CDS) has the potential to significantly enhance CDS scalability and robustness. To enable such a CDS architecture, the Health Level 7 CDS Work Group reviewed the literature, hosted multi-stakeholder discussions, and consulted domain experts to identify and prioritize the services and capabilities required from clinical information systems (CISs) to enable service-oriented CDS. In addition, relevant available standards were identified. Through this process, ten CIS services and eight CIS capabilities were identified as being important for enabling scalable, service-oriented CDS. In particular, through a survey of 46 domain experts, five services and capabilities were identified as being especially critical: 1) the use of standard information models and terminologies; 2) the ability to leverage a Decision Support Service (DSS); 3) support for a clinical data query service; 4) support for an event subscription and notification service; and 5) support for a user communication service. PMID:23304315

  5. Building the Leadership Capacity of Early Childhood Directors: An Evaluation of a Leadership Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula J.; Kelton, Robyn E.

    2014-01-01

    While there is consensus among policymakers and practitioners about the importance of strong leadership in early childhood education, there is scant research on effective models of leadership development for administrators of early childhood programs, particularly those working in the child care sector. This is cause for concern because the…

  6. Leadership: Creating a Positive Environment for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Hope-Arlene

    1996-01-01

    A major challenge in implementing educational change is redefining leadership and power. A broader conceptualization of leadership includes teacher empowerment, shared decision making, and facilitation. Ideas valuable to facilitating leadership for change include not relying on one leader, not relying on force to oppose force, and honoring the…

  7. Perceptions of Leadership Styles of Department Chairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsett, Glee

    2007-01-01

    Much has been written about leadership in business management, but very little research has been done on leadership in academic departments. Department chairs have the authority to make most departmental decisions, but rarely does formal training exist for this position. Therefore, there is a need to study how the leadership styles among…

  8. Leadership Capacity for Lasting School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Linda

    This book is intended to enable educators to more fully implement the concept of leadership capacity in schools and districts. It begins by outlining the five major prerequisites for high leadership capacity: (1) skillful participation in the work of leadership; (2) inquiry-based use of data to inform decisions and practices; (3) broad involvement…

  9. Responsible Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone-Johnson, Corrie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: At a time when school leadership takes on great import, we must ask how leadership can move beyond a focus on individual- and school-level changes to collective leadership that relies on the strength of relationships between schools and the communities in which they reside to foster and sustain change. Such leadership is termed…

  10. Leadership Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne

    This book provides a personal look at the styles of several school leaders, probes the literature on school leadership, and explores some of the instruments designed to measure leadership style. The introduction explains the need to change leadership styles as education changes. Chapter 1 examines the redefinition of leadership roles and the role…

  11. Multi-Attribute Consensus Building Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyyan, Vitaliy; Christensen, Laurene; Thurlow, Martha; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Attribute Consensus Building (MACB) method is a quantitative approach for determining a group's opinion about the importance of each item (strategy, decision, recommendation, policy, priority, etc.) on a list (Vanderwood, & Erickson, 1994). This process enables a small or large group of participants to generate and discuss a set…

  12. Consensus protein design.

    PubMed

    Porebski, Benjamin T; Buckle, Ashley M

    2016-07-01

    A popular and successful strategy in semi-rational design of protein stability is the use of evolutionary information encapsulated in homologous protein sequences. Consensus design is based on the hypothesis that at a given position, the respective consensus amino acid contributes more than average to the stability of the protein than non-conserved amino acids. Here, we review the consensus design approach, its theoretical underpinnings, successes, limitations and challenges, as well as providing a detailed guide to its application in protein engineering. PMID:27274091

  13. Consensus protein design

    PubMed Central

    Porebski, Benjamin T.; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2016-01-01

    A popular and successful strategy in semi-rational design of protein stability is the use of evolutionary information encapsulated in homologous protein sequences. Consensus design is based on the hypothesis that at a given position, the respective consensus amino acid contributes more than average to the stability of the protein than non-conserved amino acids. Here, we review the consensus design approach, its theoretical underpinnings, successes, limitations and challenges, as well as providing a detailed guide to its application in protein engineering. PMID:27274091

  14. Speed Determines Leadership and Leadership Determines Learning during Pigeon Flocking.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Benjamin; Ákos, Zsuzsa; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora

    2015-12-01

    A key question in collective behavior is how individual differences structure animal groups, affect the flow of information, and give some group members greater weight in decisions. Depending on what factors contribute to leadership, despotic decisions could either improve decision accuracy or interfere with swarm intelligence. The mechanisms behind leadership are therefore important for understanding its functional significance. In this study, we compared pigeons' relative influence over flock direction to their solo flight characteristics. A pigeon's degree of leadership was predicted by its ground speeds from earlier solo flights, but not by the straightness of its previous solo route. By testing the birds individually after a series of flock flights, we found that leaders had learned straighter homing routes than followers, as we would expect if followers attended less to the landscape and more to conspecifics. We repeated the experiment from three homing sites using multiple independent flocks and found individual consistency in leadership and speed. Our results suggest that the leadership hierarchies observed in previous studies could arise from differences in the birds' typical speeds. Rather than reflecting social preferences that optimize group decisions, leadership may be an inevitable consequence of heterogeneous flight characteristics within self-organized flocks. We also found that leaders learn faster and become better navigators, even if leadership is not initially due to navigational ability. The roles that individuals fall into during collective motion might therefore have far-reaching effects on how they learn about the environment and use social information. PMID:26628007

  15. Decision making in high-velocity environments: implications for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Stepanovich, P L; Uhrig, J D

    1999-01-01

    Healthcare can be considered a high-velocity environment and, as such, can benefit from research conducted in other industries regarding strategic decision making. Strategic planning is not only relevant to firms in high-velocity environments, but is also important for high performance and survival. Specifically, decision-making speed seems to be instrumental in differentiating between high and low performers; fast decision makers outperform slow decision makers. This article outlines the differences between fast and slow decision makers, identifies five paralyses that can slow decision making in healthcare, and outlines the role of a planning department in circumventing these paralyses. Executives can use the proposed planning structure to improve both the speed and quality of strategic decisions. The structure uses planning facilitators to avoid the following five paralyses: 1. Analysis. Decision makers can no longer afford the luxury of lengthy, detailed analysis but must develop real-time systems that provide appropriate, timely information. 2. Alternatives. Many alternatives (beyond the traditional two or three) need to be considered and the alternatives must be evaluated simultaneously. 3. Group Think. Decision makers must avoid limited mind-sets and autocratic leadership styles by seeking out independent, knowledgeable counselors. 4. Process. Decision makers need to resolve conflicts through "consensus with qualification," as opposed to waiting for everyone to come on board. 5. Separation. Successful implementation requires a structured process that cuts across disciplines and levels. PMID:10537497

  16. The Leadership Training Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jeanette P.

    1983-01-01

    The article proposes a model for developing leadership among gifted students. Four components of the model are identified and sample subskills described: cognition (exploration, research); problem solving (incubation, creative thinking); interpersonal communication (self realization, cooperation, conflict resolution); and decision making skills…

  17. Managing Leadership Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Vidula; Campbell, Michael; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less ...and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to…

  18. Leadership for Tomorrow's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jerry L.

    This book presents a vision of leadership at work in the schools of tomorrow. School-based examples are used to provide guidelines for developing core values and using them to guide decision making. Chapter 1 proposes a framework that opens the organization to five areas: participation; diversity; conflict; reflection; and mistakes. The second…

  19. Competencies for Student Leadership Development in Doctor of Pharmacy Curricula to Assist Curriculum Committees and Leadership Instructors

    PubMed Central

    Traynor, Andrew P.; Boyle, Cynthia J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assist curriculum committees and leadership instructors by gathering expert opinion to define student leadership development competencies for pharmacy curricula. Methods. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define competencies for student leadership development in pharmacy curricula. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on competencies not yet meeting consensus, which was prospectively set at 80%. Results. Eleven competencies attained 80% consensus or higher and were grouped into 3 areas: leadership knowledge, personal leadership commitment, and leadership skill development. Connections to contemporary leadership development literature were outlined for each competency as a means of verifying the panel’s work. Conclusions. The leadership competencies will aid students in addressing: What is leadership? Who am I as a leader? What skills and abilities do I need to be effective? The competencies will help curriculum committees and leadership instructors to focus leadership development opportunities, identify learning assessments, and define program evaluation. PMID:24371346

  20. A Comprehensive Leadership Education Model To Train, Teach, and Develop Leadership in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, John C.; Rudd, Rick D.

    2002-01-01

    Meta-analysis of youth leadership development literature resulted in a conceptual model and curriculum framework. Model dimensions are leadership knowledge and information; leadership attitudes, will, and desire; decision making, reasoning, and critical thinking; oral and written communication; and intra/interpersonal relations. Dimensions have…

  1. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision.

    PubMed

    Svenkeson, A; Swami, A

    2015-01-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form. PMID:26439503

  2. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenkeson, A.; Swami, A.

    2015-10-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form.

  3. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision

    PubMed Central

    Svenkeson, A.; Swami, A.

    2015-01-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form. PMID:26439503

  4. Educational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohland, Mark, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This publication of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory is dedicated to articles on educational leadership. This issue contains the following articles: "Educational Leadership: Reports and Recommendations From a National Invitational Conference" (Joseph Murphy, JoAnn B. Manning, Herbert J. Walberg); "Redefining Educational Leadership:…

  5. Distributed Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    2003-01-01

    School-reform efforts in recent years have stressed, and expanded, the leadership role of the principal. But in the view of many analysts, the task of transforming a school is too complex for one person to accomplish alone. Consequently, a new model of leadership is developing: distributed leadership. This Research Roundup summarizes five…

  6. Leadership Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes how three principles of leadership presented by Heifetz (1994) in "Leadership Without Easy Answers" can be translated into the leadership parenting of young children. Focuses on distinguishing between child-rearing issues that require parents to act as trainers versus those demanding a problem-solving role, on responding to children's…

  7. Leadership Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…

  8. Leadership: Why gender and culture matter.

    PubMed

    Ayman, Roya; Korabik, Karen

    2010-04-01

    For decades, understanding of leadership has been largely based on the results of studies carried out on White men in the United States. We review major theories and models of leadership as they pertain to either gender or culture. We focus on 3 approaches to leadership: trait (including leadership categorization or implicit leadership theory), behavioral (including the two-factor, transformational-transactional leadership, and leader-member exchange models), and contingency (i.e., contingency model of leadership effectiveness and normative decision making). We discuss how dynamics related to either culture or gender (e.g., stereotypes and schemas, ingroup-outgroup interaction, role expectations, power and status differentials) can have an important impact on many aspects of leadership. PMID:20350015

  9. Top Management Leadership Style and Quality of Care in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.; Decker, Frederic H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of Nursing Home Administrator (NHA) leadership style and Director of Nursing (DON) leadership style with quality of care. Design and Methods: Leaders were categorized into 4 groups: consensus managers, consultative autocrats, shareholder managers, or autocrats. This leadership style…

  10. Teacher Leadership: Interns Crossing to the Domain of Higher Professional Learning with Mentors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millwater, Jan; Ehrich, Lisa C.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the notion of teacher leadership has emerged as a key concept in both the teaching and leadership literature. While researchers have not reached consensus regarding a definition, there has been some agreement that teacher leadership can operate at both a formal and informal level in schools and that it includes…

  11. Building Leadership Capacity in Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neigel, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Recent high school reform efforts strongly recommend that schools model democratic principles and give students, teachers, parents, and community members a significant role in school governance and the decision-making process. Specific recommendations include the creation of site-based decision-making councils, student leadership forums, and…

  12. Curriculum Leadership as Mediated Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Bob; Brooker, Ross; Macpherson, Ian; McInman, Adrian; Thurlow, Greg

    If contemporary plans for devolved decision making to schools in Australia are to be realized, the role of all teachers in curriculum decision-making processes will need to be acknowledged. This paper presents findings of a study that sought to build a theory of curriculum leadership from the teachers' own perspectives--a theory of curriculum…

  13. Presidential leadership.

    PubMed

    Goethals, George R

    2005-01-01

    This chapter reviews psychological theories of leadership and selected literature on the American presidency to highlight key psychological principles of presidential leadership. Psychological theories, framed by the principles of leadership outlined by Freud (1921), include those of Burns (1978, 2003) on transformational leadership, Bass (1997) and House & Shamir (1993) on charismatic and transformational leadership, Gardner (1995) on stories of identity, Hogg (2001, 2003) on social identity, and Tyler & Lind (1992) on procedural justice. The discussion of presidential scholarship considers work by Barber (1992) on presidential character, Simonton (1986, 1987) on presidential personality and success, Skowronek (1997) on reconstructive politics, and Winter (1987) on presidential motive profiles. These studies suggest that followers have high expectations for presidents and that successful presidential leadership depends on opportunity, high levels of activity, intelligence, optimistic resilience, and flexibility. PMID:15709946

  14. Servant leadership.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R T

    1998-01-01

    As corporations are eagerly pursuing reengineering and reorganization, leadership functions are changing to champion these efforts. Traditionally, organizations have had a "top-down" management approach, however, there is a gradual shift to other leadership models. Servant leadership is being successfully implemented in many settings. Servant leadership, first popularized by Robert Greenleaf in 1970, puts serving others as the number one priority. Ten characteristics of a servant leader include: Listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of people, and building community. Both servant leadership and the chaos theory have in common the central tenet of relationships. Since America is now approximately 80 percent a "service-economy," servant leadership can greatly benefit the individual employees, as well as help to facilitate the organization's pursuit of its changing strategic plans. PMID:10185648

  15. The Being of Leadership

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The ethical foundation of the medical profession, which values service above reward and holds the doctor-patient relationship as inviolable, continues to be challenged by the commercialization of health care. This article contends that a realigned leadership framework - one that distinguishes being a leader as the ontological basis for what leaders know, have, and do - is central to safeguarding medicine's ethical foundation. Four ontological pillars of leadership - awareness, commitment, integrity, and authenticity - are proposed as fundamental elements that anchor this foundation and the basic tenets of professionalism. Ontological leadership is shaped by and accessible through language; what health care leaders create in language "uses" them by providing a point of view (a context) within and from which they orient their conversations, decisions, and conduct such that they are ethically aligned and grounded. This contextual leadership framework exposes for us the limitations imposed by our mental maps, creating new opportunity sets for being and action (previously unavailable) that embody medicine's charter on professionalism. While this leadership methodology contrasts with the conventional results-oriented model where leading is generally equated with a successful clinical practice, a distinguished research program, or a promotion, it is not a replacement for it; indeed, results are essential for performance. Rather, being and action are interrelated and their correlated nature equips leaders with a framework for tackling health care's most complex problems in a manner that preserves medicine's venerable ethical heritage. PMID:21349187

  16. Critical Issues in Library Management: Organizing for Leadership and Decision-Making. Papers from the Thirty-Fifth Allerton Institute. Occasional Papers, Nos. 198/199.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bryce L., Ed.; Weech, Terry L., Ed.

    This is a collection of six papers on critical issues in library management presented at the annual Allerton Park Conference (35th, October 24-26, 1993) sponsored by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Graduate School of Library and Information Science. The first paper, "Learning about Leadership: What Works in Modern Organizations"…

  17. Ward leadership styles.

    PubMed

    Bowman, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to devise a leadership style scale based in the authoritarian/democratic concept of leadership and to test it with a group of nurses. The working hypothesis was that nurses, working by primary nursing methods, would have a more democratic attitude to leadership than those nurses working in a traditional task allocation system. Recent papers such as that of Henry & Tuxill (1) plead for the caring professions to take on board the concept of the 'person'. Not only is the traditional model of nursing care seen as bad for the patient; it is seen also as harmful to the nurses. Fretwell (2) describes the task system as essentially an industrial model rather than a professional one which tends to satisfy the needs of the doctor rather than the patient or nurse. Kinston (3) describes nursing decision-making and work as Level I work (tradesmen). Current models of care that individualize the nurse's response to work and decision-making become Level II type (professional). Primary nursing fulfils the need for professionalizing nursing and meeting the need for more independence as well as respecting the patient as a 'person' with the organisation there to facilitate interaction between qualified nurse and patient. Changes in attitude and relationships are essential if work is to change from task to person-centred. Styles of leadership in nurses need to alter as our orientation to care issues change (4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2615867

  18. Leadership metaphors.

    PubMed

    Duncan Edmonstone, John

    2016-05-01

    Purpose This paper aims to suggest that the language typically used about leadership in healthcare tells us something important about how we see it. Design/methodology/approach Three main metaphors currently adopted for healthcare leadership purposes are explored - military, sporting and finance. Findings The language used about leadership sustains the way the world is seen. A more life-affirming use of language is possible, which more accurately reflects what healthcare is about. Originality/value The paper builds on the work of Gareth Morgan in applying the use of metaphors to healthcare leadership. PMID:27198701

  19. Towards Consensus Gene Ages

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J.; McWhite, Claire D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Correctly estimating the age of a gene or gene family is important for a variety of fields, including molecular evolution, comparative genomics, and phylogenetics, and increasingly for systems biology and disease genetics. However, most studies use only a point estimate of a gene’s age, neglecting the substantial uncertainty involved in this estimation. Here, we characterize this uncertainty by investigating the effect of algorithm choice on gene-age inference and calculate consensus gene ages with attendant error distributions for a variety of model eukaryotes. We use 13 orthology inference algorithms to create gene-age datasets and then characterize the error around each age-call on a per-gene and per-algorithm basis. Systematic error was found to be a large factor in estimating gene age, suggesting that simple consensus algorithms are not enough to give a reliable point estimate. We also found that different sources of error can affect downstream analyses, such as gene ontology enrichment. Our consensus gene-age datasets, with associated error terms, are made fully available at so that researchers can propagate this uncertainty through their analyses (geneages.org). PMID:27259914

  20. Towards Consensus Gene Ages.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J; McWhite, Claire D; Marcotte, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    Correctly estimating the age of a gene or gene family is important for a variety of fields, including molecular evolution, comparative genomics, and phylogenetics, and increasingly for systems biology and disease genetics. However, most studies use only a point estimate of a gene's age, neglecting the substantial uncertainty involved in this estimation. Here, we characterize this uncertainty by investigating the effect of algorithm choice on gene-age inference and calculate consensus gene ages with attendant error distributions for a variety of model eukaryotes. We use 13 orthology inference algorithms to create gene-age datasets and then characterize the error around each age-call on a per-gene and per-algorithm basis. Systematic error was found to be a large factor in estimating gene age, suggesting that simple consensus algorithms are not enough to give a reliable point estimate. We also found that different sources of error can affect downstream analyses, such as gene ontology enrichment. Our consensus gene-age datasets, with associated error terms, are made fully available at so that researchers can propagate this uncertainty through their analyses (geneages.org). PMID:27259914

  1. International Consensus on drug allergy.

    PubMed

    Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H

    2014-04-01

    When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of

  2. Leadership Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following research…

  3. Uplifting Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy; Boyle, Alan

    2015-01-01

    To find out how organizations turn failure into success, Andrew Hargreaves and his colleagues studied more than 15 business, sports, and education organizations. They found that the secret to these organizations' success came down to just two words: uplifting leadership. Uplifting leadership, write Hargreaves and Boyle in this article, raises…

  4. Strategic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Barbara; Davies, Brent

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the nature of strategic leadership and assesses whether a framework can be established to map the dimensions of strategic leadership. In particular it establishes a model which outlines both the organizational abilities and the individual characteristics of strategic leaders.

  5. A Systems Model of Leadership: WICS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews a systems model of leadership. According to the model, effective leadership is a synthesis of wisdom, creativity, and intelligence (WICS). It is in large part a decision about how to marshal and deploy these resources. One needs creativity to generate ideas, academic (analytical) intelligence to evaluate whether the ideas are…

  6. Group-consensus method and results

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.A.; Peaslee, A.T. Jr.; Booker, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    This report focuses on the group consensus method, its application, results, and recommendations for future use. The method involves a group of qualified individuals who reach agreement on one answer after discussing the options in a face-to-face situation. The group method was used to elicit estimates on the relevance of weapon-related components to certain military threats or needs. In this study, the group consensus method was chosen from four possible methods to provide input data for a decision analysis model being tested for weapons-planning use. The major goal of the weapons-planning project was to determine the applicability of the decision anlaysis model, a modified linear utility model. This report examines whether the estimates (also referred to as weights) properly reflected the relationships between the components being judged. Statistical analysis (chi-square tests) indicated that the estimates were largely assigned according to the relationships between the components. Behavioral and cognitive factors could not be found to correlate to the assignment of the estimates. In sum, the group consensus method was judged suitable for situations in which a single estimate must be obtained from many estimates and stringent controls over the estimating process would be unacceptably burdensome.

  7. Women and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turock, Betty J.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of women and leadership focuses on women in librarianship. Highlights include the evolution of thought about women and leadership; feminist research and theory; Margaret McIntosh's model for leadership, including womanless leadership, problems in leadership, and leadership redefined; equity in leadership; and implications for…

  8. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  9. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5th International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  10. Consensus of expertise: the role of consensus of experts in formulating public policy and estimating facts.

    PubMed

    Veatch, R M

    1991-08-01

    For years analysts have recognized the error of assuming that experts in medical science are also experts in deciding the clinically correct course for patients. This paper extends the analysis of the use of the consensus of experts to their use in public policy groups such as NIH Consensus Development panels. After arguing that technical experts cannot be expected to be expert on public policy decisions, the author extends the criticism to the use of the consensus of experts in estimating facts to provide a basis for policy decisions. It is argued that to the extent that (a) experts' views regarding a body of facts can be expected to correlate with their values relevant to those facts; and (b) the values of experts differ from the values of lay people, even the estimates of the facts given by the consensus of expert panels can be expected to differ from the estimates lay people would have given had they had the relevant scientific expertise. PMID:1895026

  11. Productivity through Leadership Training in the Yukon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Training Methods, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The TELOS program, which identifies a range of leadership behaviors for the decision-making process, was implemented at Cyprus Anvil Mines in the Yukon. Increased productivity and individual growth among the mine's senior management resulted. (MS)

  12. Cloning and deliberation: Korean consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sik

    2002-12-01

    This article addresses the 2nd Korean consensus conference on cloning that was held by the Korean National commission for UNESCO in 1999. It notes that the citizens participated directly and handled the important social agenda through deliberative process. The consensus conference is another democratic form derived from preference aggregative democracy in the sense that it basically depends on public judgment of the citizens. Compared to other models (elitist or preference aggregative), it has some advantages: 1. It can solve the problem of political legitimacy. 2. It can check the partiality of expert groups in biotechnology and ethics. 3. It enables us to make informed, responsible decisions. 4. It results in education of citizens' preference. However, we need to expand the deliberative model. First, we need institutional efforts on behalf of future generations because cloning relates to them. Second, we should not include the value of life which cannot be expressed in the form of argument or discourse. PMID:12870502

  13. [Preliminary evaluation of Chile's First Citizen Consensus Conference].

    PubMed

    Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Zurita, Laura

    2004-05-01

    This piece provides an initial assessment of the First Citizen Consensus Conference, an event held in the city of Santiago, Chile, from 22-24 November 2003, on the subject of "The Management of My Medical Record." This conference was the first citizen consensus conference that has been held in Chile as well as the first such conference in Latin America. Consensus conferences were devised by the Danish Board of Technology in 1987 as a way to assess science and technology issues through discussions between experts and a panel of lay persons. At the end of a consensus conference, the lay persons express their opinions and recommendations in a consensus report that is directed at policymakers, decision-makers, and the public in general. The objective of a consensus conference is to bridge the gaps that routinely exist among the general public, experts, and elected officials. So far, the Danish Board of Technology has organized more than 20 of these conferences, using a methodology that has become established as a model. Taking into account the changes that have occurred in the relationship between science and society at large, the Pan American Health Organization has decided to support the holding of consensus conferences in Latin America and the Caribbean. The First Citizen Consensus Conference adapted the Danish methodology to conditions in Chile, and this piece assesses the modifications that were made. In addition, some 6 to 12 months after the conference, there will be an external evaluation of the outcomes and impact of the conference, especially in the communications media, public debate, decision-making, and perceptions of the persons who were involved. Despite the criticisms made in this piece and some shortcomings that are pointed out, the First Citizen Consensus Conference achieved all of its objectives and will serve as an excellent model for similar conferences in other countries of the Americas. PMID:15231085

  14. Leadership: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vender, Ronald J

    2015-03-01

    Despite the influence of leadership in our lives, it remains poorly understood by most of us. This review defines leadership as "a combination of position, responsibilities, attitude, skills, and behaviors that allows someone to bring out the best in others, and the best in their organization, in a sustainable manner." There are many traits and skills demonstrated by leaders. These include talent, drive, willpower, practical wisdom, loyalty, ethical behavior, emotional intelligence, integrity, self-awareness, and resilience. However, to best understand leadership we focus on what leaders are actually required to do, rather than on the skills and traits used to accomplish these tasks. We review nine functions that are at the core of leadership: serve as the public face of the organization; articulate the vision and mission; create culture; strategic planning; decide what to focus on; select, and develop, the right people; establish a decision-making process; manage your boss; and be responsible 24/7. All leaders operate in a specific context, during a unique point in the history of their organization, with a unique set of circumstances. What is required of the leader in one set of circumstances will change as those circumstances change. If the leader understands her core responsibilities, and if she develops the people, culture, and processes necessary to deal with a changing environment, she will have the self-awareness and support necessary to continue to lead successfully. PMID:25047400

  15. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  16. Surface Hopping by Consensus.

    PubMed

    Martens, Craig C

    2016-07-01

    We present a new stochastic surface hopping method for modeling molecular dynamics with electronic transitions. The approach, consensus surface hopping (CSH), is a numerical framework for solving the semiclassical limit Liouville equation describing nuclear dynamics on coupled electronic surfaces using ensembles of trajectories. In contrast to existing techniques based on propagating independent classical trajectories that undergo stochastic hops between the electronic states, the present method determines the probabilities of transition of each trajectory collectively with input from the entire ensemble. The full coherent dynamics of the coupled system arise naturally at the ensemble level and ad hoc corrections, such as momentum rescaling to impose strict trajectory energy conservation and artificial decoherence to avoid the overcoherence of the quantum states associated with independent trajectories, are avoided. PMID:27345103

  17. Evolutionary origins of leadership and followership.

    PubMed

    Van Vugt, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Drawing upon evolutionary logic, leadership is reconceptualized in terms of the outcome of strategic interactions among individuals who are following different, yet complementary, decision rules to solve recurrent coordination problems. This article uses the vast psychological literature on leadership as a database to test several evolutionary hypotheses about the origins of leadership and followership in humans. As expected, leadership correlates with initiative taking, trait measures of intelligence, specific task competencies, and several indicators of generosity. The review finds no link between leadership and dominance. The evolutionary analysis accounts for reliable age, health, and sex differences in leadership emergence. In general, evolutionary theory provides a useful, integrative framework for studying leader-follower relationships and generates various novel research hypotheses. PMID:17201593

  18. Organizational Theory and Leadership Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazer, S. David; Kruse, Sharon D.; Conley, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Teaching organizational theory in a way that bridges to leadership practice is vital to preparing deft educational leaders who understand the organizational behavior of schools and districts. Organizational theory guides understanding of the complexities of schools and districts and can be a basis for collaborative and effective decision making.…

  19. Scientific consensus, the law, and same sex parenting outcomes.

    PubMed

    adams, Jimi; Light, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    While the US Supreme Court was considering two related cases involving the constitutionality of same-sex marriage, one major question informing that decision was whether scientific research had achieved consensus regarding how children of same-sex couples fare. Determining the extent of consensus has become a key aspect of how social science evidence and testimony is accepted by the courts. Here, we show how a method of analyzing temporal patterns in citation networks can be used to assess the state of social scientific literature as a means to inform just such a question. Patterns of clustering within these citation networks reveal whether and when consensus arises within a scientific field. We find that the literature on outcomes for children of same-sex parents is marked by scientific consensus that they experience "no differences" compared to children from other parental configurations. PMID:26188455

  20. A social choice approach to expert consensus panels.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Matthew J; Shipan, Charles R

    2004-05-01

    This study uses recent theoretical work about group decision-making to assess the quality of decision-making by expert consensus panels. We specifically examine (1) when individual members of panels will divulge their private judgments about the decision to the panel, and (2) when the group judgment is superior to the judgment of individual panelists and will lead to better treatment for patients. We conclude that to maximize the chance of an accurate decision, panels should be made as large as possible, adopt the smallest supermajority rule, and attract members with the highest individual competencies. Furthermore, interdependence among panelists and the goal of reaching consensus can reduce the efficacy of these panels. PMID:15120470

  1. Multipolar consensus for phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Bonnard, Cécile; Berry, Vincent; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2006-10-01

    Collections of phylogenetic trees are usually summarized using consensus methods. These methods build a single tree, supposed to be representative of the collection. However, in the case of heterogeneous collections of trees, the resulting consensus may be poorly resolved (strict consensus, majority-rule consensus, ...), or may perform arbitrary choices among mutually incompatible clades, or splits (greedy consensus). Here, we propose an alternative method, which we call the multipolar consensus (MPC). Its aim is to display all the splits having a support above a predefined threshold, in a minimum number of consensus trees, or poles. We show that the problem is equivalent to a graph-coloring problem, and propose an implementation of the method. Finally, we apply the MPC to real data sets. Our results indicate that, typically, all the splits down to a weight of 10% can be displayed in no more than 4 trees. In addition, in some cases, biologically relevant secondary signals, which would not have been present in any of the classical consensus trees, are indeed captured by our method, indicating that the MPC provides a convenient exploratory method for phylogenetic analysis. The method was implemented in a package freely available at http://www.lirmm.fr/~cbonnard/MPC.html PMID:17060203

  2. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-09-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need technical

  3. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  4. Between consensus and contestation.

    PubMed

    Weale, Albert

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - Noting that discussions of public participation and priority setting typically presuppose certain political theories of democracy, the purpose of this paper is to discuss two theories: the consensual and the agonistic. The distinction is illuminating when considering the difference between institutionalized public participation and contestatory participation. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is a theoretical reconstruction of two ways of thinking about public participation in relation to priority setting in health care, drawing on the work of Habermas, a deliberative theorist, and Mouffe, a theorist of agonism. Findings - The different theoretical approaches can be associated with different ways of understanding priority setting. In particular, agonistic democratic theory would understand priority setting as system of inclusions and exclusions rather than the determination of a consensus of social values, which is the typical deliberative way of thinking about the issues. Originality/value - The paper shows the value of drawing out explicitly the tacit assumptions of practices of political participation in order to reveal their scope and limitations. It suggests that making such theoretical presuppositions explicit has value for health services management in recognizing these implicit choices. PMID:27468774

  5. Hohenheim consensus workshop: copper.

    PubMed

    Schümann, K; Classen, H G; Dieter, H H; König, J; Multhaup, G; Rükgauer, M; Summer, K H; Bernhardt, J; Biesalski, H K

    2002-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element with many physiological functions. Homeostatic mechanisms exist to allow Cu to act as a cofactor in enzymatic processes and to prevent accumulation of Cu to toxic levels. The aim of this commentary is to better understand the role of dietary Cu supply in deficiency and under physiological and pathological conditions. The essentiality of Cu can be attributed to its role as a cofactor in a number of enzymes that are involved in the defence against oxidative stress. Cu, however, has a second face, that of a toxic compound as it is observed with accumulating evidence in hepatic, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. The destructive potential of Cu can be attributed to inherent physico-chemical properties. The main property is its ability to take part in Fenton-like reactions in which the highly reactive and extremely deleterious hydroxyl radical is formed. Diseases caused by dietary Cu overload could be based on a genetic predisposition. Thus, an assessment of risk-groups, such as infants with impaired mechanisms of Cu homeostasis regarding detoxification, is of special interest, as their Cu intake with resuspended formula milk may be very high. This implies the need for reliable diagnostic markers to determine the Cu status. These topics were introduced at the workshop by the participants followed by extensive group discussion. The consensus statements were agreed on by all members. One of the conclusions is that a re-assessment of published data is necessary and future research is required. PMID:12032645

  6. Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, John; Oreskes, Naomi; Doran, Peter T.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Verheggen, Bart; Maibach, Ed W.; Carlton, J. Stuart; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Skuce, Andrew G.; Green, Sarah A.; Nuccitelli, Dana; Jacobs, Peter; Richardson, Mark; Winkler, Bärbel; Painting, Rob; Rice, Ken

    2016-04-01

    The consensus that humans are causing recent global warming is shared by 90%–100% of publishing climate scientists according to six independent studies by co-authors of this paper. Those results are consistent with the 97% consensus reported by Cook et al (Environ. Res. Lett. 8 024024) based on 11 944 abstracts of research papers, of which 4014 took a position on the cause of recent global warming. A survey of authors of those papers (N = 2412 papers) also supported a 97% consensus. Tol (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 048001) comes to a different conclusion using results from surveys of non-experts such as economic geologists and a self-selected group of those who reject the consensus. We demonstrate that this outcome is not unexpected because the level of consensus correlates with expertise in climate science. At one point, Tol also reduces the apparent consensus by assuming that abstracts that do not explicitly state the cause of global warming (‘no position’) represent non-endorsement, an approach that if applied elsewhere would reject consensus on well-established theories such as plate tectonics. We examine the available studies and conclude that the finding of 97% consensus in published climate research is robust and consistent with other surveys of climate scientists and peer-reviewed studies.

  7. Data-Driven Decision Making and Its Effects on Leadership Practices and Student Achievement in K-5 Public Elementary Schools in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceja, Rafael, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The enactment of the NCLB Act of 2001 and its legislative mandates for accountability testing throughout the nation brought to the forefront the issue of data-driven decision making. This emphasis on improving education has been spurred due to the alleged failure of the public school system. As a result, the role of administrators has evolved to…

  8. Leadership skills?

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Senior executive leaders might be interested in applying for the NHS Leadership Academy's director programme, which is designed to 'stretch and challenge' those with an 'existing level of complex leadership skills'. The programme also offers an opportunity for participants to work with other leaders and other parts of the system to enhance inclusiveness. There are three cohorts a year, and the programme runs for a 12 months. Closing dates for applicants are 4 September 2016, 22 January 2017 and 21 May 2017. PMID:27581902

  9. A conceptual model of the psychological health system for U.S. active duty service members: an approach to inform leadership and policy decision making.

    PubMed

    Wang, Judy Y; Glover, Wiljeana J; Rhodes, Alison M; Nightingale, Deborah

    2013-06-01

    The influence of individual-level factors such as pretraumatic risk and protective factors and the availability of unit-level and enterprise-level factors on psychological health outcomes have been previously considered individually, but have not been considered in tandem across the U.S. Military psychological health system. We use the existing literature on military psychological health to build a conceptual system dynamics model of the U.S. Military psychological health system "service-cycle" from accession and deployment to future psychological health screening and treatment. The model highlights a few key observations, challenges, and opportunities for improvement for the system that relate to several topics including the importance of modeling operational demand combined with the population's psychological health as opposed to only physical health; the role of resilience and post-traumatic growth on the mitigation of stress; the positive and negative effects of pretraumatic risk factors, unit support, and unit leadership on the service-cycle; and the opportunity to improve the system more rapidly by including more feedback mechanisms regarding the usefulness of pre- and post-traumatic innovations to medical leaders, funding authorities, and policy makers. PMID:23756065

  10. Consensus statement on palliative lung radiotherapy: third international consensus workshop on palliative radiotherapy and symptom control.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, George; Macbeth, Fergus; Burmeister, Bryan; Kelly, Karie-Lynn; Bezjak, Andrea; Langer, Corey; Hahn, Carol; Movsas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to disseminate a consensus statement on palliative radiotherapy (RT) of lung cancer created in conjunction with the Third International Lung Cancer Consensus Workshop. The palliative lung RT workshop committee agreed on 5 questions relating to (1) patient selection, (2) thoracic external-beam radiation therapy (XRT) fractionation, (3) endobronchial brachytherapy (EBB), (4) concurrent chemotherapy (CC), and (5) palliative endpoint definitions. A PubMed search for primary/cross-referenced practice guidelines, consensus statements, meta-analyses, and/or systematic reviews was conducted. Final consensus statements were created after review and discussion of the available evidence. The following summary statements reflect the consensus of the international working group. 1. Key factors involved in the decision to deliver palliative RT include performance status, tumor stage, pulmonary function, XRT volume, symptomatology, weight loss, and patient preference. 2. Palliative thoracic XRT is generally indicated for patients with stage IV disease with current/impending symptoms and for patients with stage III disease treated for palliative intent. 3. There is no evidence to routinely recommend EBB alone or in conjunction with other palliative maneuvers in the initial palliative management of endobronchial obstruction resulting from lung cancer. 4. There is currently no evidence to routinely recommend CC with palliative-intent RT. 5. Standard assessment of symptoms and health-related quality of life (QOL) using validated questionnaires should be carried out in palliative RT lung cancer trials. Despite an expanding literature, continued prospective randomized investigations to better define the role of XRT, EBB, and CC in the context of thoracic palliation of patients with lung cancer is needed. PMID:21729656

  11. The Hartford Consensus IV: A Call for Increased National Resilience.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Lenworth M

    2016-03-01

    National implementation of the Hartford Consensus is a meticulous and incremental process. It consists of many elements that require collaboration and strategic leadership to achieve an efficient, effective, knowledgeable, resilient, and prepared citizenry. We strongly believe the public can and should act as immediate responders to stop bleeding from all hazards, including active shooter and intentional mass casualty events. The ACS has a long history of setting standards and educating responders through its Committee on Trauma and its programs. The ACS is therefore well-positioned to use its national and international networks to implement bleeding control education to improve survival and enhance resilience. PMID:27051933

  12. Leadership Legacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2006-01-01

    Recent obituaries and testimonials to Coretta Scott King and Wendy Wasserstein are reminders of the leadership legacies of these women. About Coretta Scott King (1927-2006), Burch in "The Miami Herald" (February 1, 2006) stated "Coretta Scott King built a legacy from pain and progress, first as the wife who stood tall next to a man bent on…

  13. Leadership Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplun, Irina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore recent research in the field of leadership as related to education and to link such research to a possible research project. This research project would focus on increasing standardized test scores in California schools focusing on the elementary school level through focusing on increasing reading competency and…

  14. Servant Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Kent M.

    This paper discusses the development of Chaminade University in Honolulu, Hawaii, and the concept of servant leadership that is stressed by the university. Chaminade University was founded in 1955 by the Society of Mary, a Catholic organization started by Father William Joseph Chaminade in 1817. One of the major purposes of the Society of Mary is…

  15. Teaching Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshnower, Susan

    2008-01-01

    When thinking of leaders, people usually think of those in positions of power, such as political leaders, religious leaders, or student leaders. Yet, leaders can be found in all spheres of life, and leadership behaviors can be learned particularly in a small-group format (Hellriegel, Jackson, & Slocum, 2005). This article presents ideas and…

  16. Curriculum Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatthorn, Allan A.

    This textbook provides curriculum leaders and those preparing to become curriculum leaders with the knowledge and skills needed to exercise their leadership at several levels and in many roles. The first of the book's four sections explores the foundations of the field in chapters on the general concept of curriculum, the history of curriculum,…

  17. Leadership Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Thomas J.

    This paper discusses six different models of organizational structure and leadership, including the scalar chain or pyramid model, the continuum model, the grid model, the linking pin model, the contingency model, and the circle or democratic model. Each model is examined in a separate section that describes the model and its development, lists…

  18. Leadership Responsibilities of Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitstifer, Dorothy I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a leadership development model that raises the question "Leadership for what?" Leadership is about going somewhere-personally and in concert with others-in an organization. Although leadership, especially position (elected or appointed) leadership, often is discussed in terms of leader qualities and skills, the…

  19. Impact of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth E., Ed.; And Others

    This book on leadership includes the following selected titles: "Leadership Characteristics of Leadership Researchers" (Campbell); "Translating Research Results into Action" (Knauft); "Managers on Leaders" (Javidan); "Impact of Leadership on Corporate Success" (Lohmann); "Shido" (Bettin et al.); "Role and Meaning of Leadership Experience"…

  20. Leadership: Making Things Happen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    This monograph presents activities and guidelines for developing leadership training programs for gifted and talented students. Three theories of leadership are discussed: trait theory which assumes that one is either born with leadership talent or one does not have it; leadership style theory in which the patterns of leadership are categorized as…

  1. Training for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, John

    An indepth study of how to select and train for effective leadership is based on the belief that though innate character traits play a role of leadership, leadership potential can be developed. The author's theory known as "functional leadership," stresses that leadership is an interaction among leader, group members, and situation. The good…

  2. The role of the situation in leadership.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Victor H; Jago, Arthur G

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of leadership. The most recent of these, contingency theories, is argued to be most consistent with existing evidence and most relevant to professional practice. The Vroom, Yetton, and Jago contingency models of participation in decision making are described in depth, and their work provides the basis for identifying 3 distinct ways in which situational or contextual variables are relevant to both research on and the practice of leadership. PMID:17209676

  3. The leadership journey.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Leonard D

    2002-10-01

    It isn't always easy to change leadership hats or to alter the way you assess a business problem. Under pressure, most executives fall back on the management style or approach that worked in the last crisis they faced. But old approaches rarely work in new and demanding situations. Just ask Leonard Schaeffer, chairman and CEO of WellPoint Health Networks, one of the country's largest and most successful managed-care companies. In this account, he describes how he consciously adopted three very different styles of leadership at critical points during his 30-year career, depending on the business challenges at hand. Schaeffer headed up the U.S. Health Care Finance Administration during the Carter years--and led the charge toward more efficient work practices at that agency. Then he transformed Blue Cross of California from a floundering bureaucracy losing close to $1 million each day into a strong public company, WellPoint. The dire circumstances at Blue Cross had dictated that Schaeffer initially be an autocratic leader, which he considers the managerial equivalent of being an emergency room surgeon--forced to do whatever it takes to save a patient's life. But as the company rebounded, the CEO shed that "any decision is better than no decision" style. He has become a participative, hands-off leader-setting strategies and goals from above but letting WellPoint's line managers and executives figure out how best to achieve those goals. Most recently, Schaeffer has turned into a reformer--a leader who works with one foot outside the company to spur changes in health care and society. There are pitfalls in switching leadership styles, Schaeffer admits, but this flexibility is necessary for realizing corporate- and personal-success. PMID:12389460

  4. Physician leadership.

    PubMed

    Woo, K T

    2007-12-01

    Doctors, because of the nature of their training and their profession, have to be leaders. Subsequently, when they specialise, leadership qualities are even more important if they are to be effective in leading the specialty team. It is common knowledge that doctors have become leaders in various sectors of society. One of the fundamental advantages a doctor has over others in leadership positions is his basic training in studying and understanding human nature. With years of practice and experience, the doctor, a student of human nature, has a good grasp of human behaviour which enables him to become a better leader. The six universal and timeless characteristics of great leaders are: ability to share a vision, surrounding oneself with great people, ability to coach other team members, ability to focus on perfection, developing emotional intelligence and ability to train effective leaders. I would like to see three essential qualities in a strong leader: ability to secure an "envisioned future", ability to sacrifice in order to cultivate loyalty, and courage to do the right thing and protect his people. An effective leader positions himself in a situation to ensure survival. Having secured the leadership position, one must take certain steps to strengthen one's leadership so that it will survive. Six strategies from the Art of War by Sun Tzu which are of great practical value are: walk the ground, have trusted lieutenants, information gathering, confuse the enemy, win most while doing nothing, and that which is too good will not last forever. Sometimes we have to change in order to survive. We need to get rid of outmoded practices and shed old burdens to take advantage of the present. The task of exiting from leadership is facilitated if one has groomed a successor. The longer one is in a leadership position, the more difficult it is for one to step down. Some organisations retain old leaders as advisors or mentors. They should be just seen and not heard and go

  5. International Perspectives in Leadership Development: Part II.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    In the second part of this two-part series, leadership development perspectives are shared from the opening of the Penn Wharton China Center in Beijing. The symposium brought national leaders from Chinese academic settings and professional organizations together with thought leaders from the United States to discuss nursing leadership across the care continuum. Highlights of demographic shifts, clinical demands, and policy decisions are presented, with an eye toward future trends in professional development. PMID:26352039

  6. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  7. A systems model of leadership: WICS.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews a systems model of leadership. According to the model, effective leadership is a synthesis of wisdom, creativity, and intelligence (WICS). It is in large part a decision about how to marshal and deploy these resources. One needs creativity to generate ideas, academic (analytical) intelligence to evaluate whether the ideas are good, practical intelligence to implement the ideas and persuade others of their worth, and wisdom to balance the interests of all stakeholders and to ensure that the actions of the leader seek a common good. The article relates the current model to other extant models of leadership. PMID:17209678

  8. Teaching leadership/followership to RN-to-MSN students.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J M; Kinion, E S

    1993-03-01

    Leadership theory is important but a successful leader must at times be a follower. Leadership and followership concepts need to be taught together in a practical exercise. Decision-making, conflict, and resolving interpersonal communication problems are all part of both roles. As individuals become aware of their own leadership styles and inherent strengths and weaknesses, they will be more effective members of management teams. Nurses in leadership roles must work effectively with peers in group activity. To be successful in organizational decision-making, nurses must learn to work with individuals with similar leadership and followership styles as well as with differing points of view. Followership is as indispensable as leadership for success in nursing management roles. PMID:8388932

  9. Ineffective Leadership.

    PubMed

    Itri, Jason N; Lawson, Leslie M

    2016-07-01

    Radiology leaders can have a profound impact on the success and working environment of a radiology department, promoting core values and inspiring staff members to achieve the organization's mission. On the other hand, ineffective leaders can have a devastating effect on a radiology department by impairing communication among members, undermining staff commitment to the organization's success, and stifling the development of other staff members and leaders in the organization. One of the most important investments a radiology department can make is in identifying, cultivating, and promoting new leaders. The authors describe 13 habits and characteristics of new leaders that lead these individuals to address situations in both ineffective and counterproductive ways, impeding the performance of a radiology department and its capacity to play a meaningful role in shaping the future of radiology. New leaders must continually learn and improve their leadership skills if they are to avoid the destructive habits of ineffective leaders and successfully overcome the challenges facing radiology today. Senior leaders may also benefit from understanding the pitfalls that make leaders ineffective and should strive to continually improve their leadership skills given the critical role of leadership in the success of radiology departments. PMID:27026578

  10. Distributed consensus on camera pose.

    PubMed

    Jorstad, Anne; DeMenthon, Daniel; Wang, I-Jeng; Burlina, Philippe

    2010-09-01

    Our work addresses pose estimation in a distributed camera framework. We examine how processing cameras can best reach a consensus about the pose of an object when they are each given a model of the object, defined by a set of point coordinates in the object frame of reference. The cameras can only see a subset of the object feature points in the midst of background clutter points, not knowing which image points match with which object points, nor which points are object points or background points. The cameras individually recover a prediction of the object's pose using their knowledge of the model, and then exchange information with their neighbors, performing consensus updates locally to obtain a single estimate consistent across all cameras, without requiring a common centralized processor. Our main contributions are: 1) we present a novel algorithm performing consensus updates in 3-D world coordinates penalized by a 3-D model, and 2) we perform a thorough comparison of our method with other current consensus methods. Our method is consistently the most accurate, and we confirm that the existing consensus method based upon calculating the Karcher mean of rotations is also reliable and fast. Experiments on simulated and real imagery are reported. PMID:20363678

  11. International Consensus On (ICON) Pediatric Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, N. G.; Arakawa, H.; Carlsen, K.-H.; Custovic, A.; Gern, J.; Lemanske, R.; Le Souef, P.; Makela, M.; Roberts, G.; Wong, G.; Zar, H.; Akdis, C. A.; Bacharier, L. B.; Baraldi, E.; van Bever, H. P.; de Blic, J.; Boner, A.; Burks, W.; Casale, T. B.; Castro-Rodriguez, J. A.; Chen, Y. Z.; El-Gamal, Y. M.; Everard, M. L.; Frischer, T.; Geller, M.; Gereda, J.; Goh, D. Y.; Guilbert, T. W.; Hedlin, G.; Heymann, P. W.; Hong, S. J.; Hossny, E. M.; Huang, J. L.; Jackson, D. J.; de Jongste, J. C.; Kalayci, O.; Khaled, N.; Kling, S.; Kuna, P.; Lau, S.; Ledford, D. K.; Lee, S. I.; Liu, A. H.; Lockey, R. F.; Lodrup-Carlsen, K.; Lotvall, J.; Morikawa, A.; Nieto, A.; Paramesh, H.; Pawankar, R.; Pohunek, P.; Pongracic, J.; Price, D.; Robertson, C.; Rosario, N.; Rossenwasser, L. J.; Sly, P. D.; Stein, R.; Stick, S.; Szefler, S.; Taussig, L. M.; Valovirta, E.; Vichyanond, P.; Wallace, D.; Weinberg, E.; Wennergren, G.; Wildhaber, J.; Zeiger, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic lower respiratory disease in childhood throughout the world. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents are available to support medical decisions on pediatric asthma. Although there is no doubt that the use of common systematic approaches for management can considerably improve outcomes, dissemination and implementation of these are still major challenges. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), recently formed by the EAACI, AAAAI, ACAAI and WAO, has decided to propose an International Consensus on (ICON) Pediatric Asthma. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences, thus providing a concise reference. The principles of pediatric asthma management are generally accepted. Overall, the treatment goal is disease control. In order to achieve this, patients and their parents should be educated to optimally manage the disease, in collaboration with health care professionals. Identification and avoidance of triggers is also of significant importance. Assessment and monitoring should be performed regularly to re-evaluate and fine-tune treatment. Pharmacotherapy is the cornerstone of treatment. The optimal use of medication can, in most cases, help patients control symptoms and reduce the risk for future morbidity. The management of exacerbations is a major consideration, independent from chronic treatment. There is a trend towards considering phenotype specific treatment choices; however this goal has not yet been achieved. PMID:22702533

  12. THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING AT THREE DOE MEGA-CLEANUP SITES FERNALD & ROCKY FLATS & MOUND

    SciTech Connect

    JEWETT MA

    2011-01-14

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  13. Consensus statements for screening and assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Michel; Dickerson, Anne E

    2014-04-01

    Occupational therapists, both generalists and specialists, have a critical role in providing services to senior drivers. These services include evaluating fitness-to-drive, developing interventions to support community mobility, and facilitating the transition from driving to non-driving when necessary for personal and community safety. The evaluation component and decision-making process about fitness-to-drive are highly dependent on the use of screening and assessment tools. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the rationale and context for 12 consensus statements about the usefulness and appropriateness of screening and assessment tools to determine fitness-to-drive, within the occupational therapy clinical setting, and their implications on community mobility. PMID:24754760

  14. Using Network Dynamical Influence to Drive Consensus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punzo, Giuliano; Young, George F.; MacDonald, Malcolm; Leonard, Naomi E.

    2016-05-01

    Consensus and decision-making are often analysed in the context of networks, with many studies focusing attention on ranking the nodes of a network depending on their relative importance to information routing. Dynamical influence ranks the nodes with respect to their ability to influence the evolution of the associated network dynamical system. In this study it is shown that dynamical influence not only ranks the nodes, but also provides a naturally optimised distribution of effort to steer a network from one state to another. An example is provided where the “steering” refers to the physical change in velocity of self-propelled agents interacting through a network. Distinct from other works on this subject, this study looks at directed and hence more general graphs. The findings are presented with a theoretical angle, without targeting particular applications or networked systems; however, the framework and results offer parallels with biological flocks and swarms and opportunities for design of technological networks.

  15. Using Network Dynamical Influence to Drive Consensus.

    PubMed

    Punzo, Giuliano; Young, George F; Macdonald, Malcolm; Leonard, Naomi E

    2016-01-01

    Consensus and decision-making are often analysed in the context of networks, with many studies focusing attention on ranking the nodes of a network depending on their relative importance to information routing. Dynamical influence ranks the nodes with respect to their ability to influence the evolution of the associated network dynamical system. In this study it is shown that dynamical influence not only ranks the nodes, but also provides a naturally optimised distribution of effort to steer a network from one state to another. An example is provided where the "steering" refers to the physical change in velocity of self-propelled agents interacting through a network. Distinct from other works on this subject, this study looks at directed and hence more general graphs. The findings are presented with a theoretical angle, without targeting particular applications or networked systems; however, the framework and results offer parallels with biological flocks and swarms and opportunities for design of technological networks. PMID:27210291

  16. Child abuser stereotypes: consensus among clinicians.

    PubMed

    Krowchuk, H V

    1989-02-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation of nurses' stereotypes of child abusers. Ninety-four registered nurses completed a questionnaire that measured subjects' knowledge of child abuse; professional contact with perpetrators and victims of abuse; knowledge of the causes of child abuse; and child abuser stereotypes. Results reveal a consensus among the subjects as to the stereotypes associated with child abusers. This study supports the notion that nurses stereotype individuals on the basis of demographic characteristics. This study also raises questions regarding the bias that may result from the use of child abuser stereotypes. Clinical decision-making processes could become compromised if biased judgements are used in planning nursing care for clients diagnosed as child abusers. PMID:2930179

  17. Using Network Dynamical Influence to Drive Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Punzo, Giuliano; Young, George F.; Macdonald, Malcolm; Leonard, Naomi E.

    2016-01-01

    Consensus and decision-making are often analysed in the context of networks, with many studies focusing attention on ranking the nodes of a network depending on their relative importance to information routing. Dynamical influence ranks the nodes with respect to their ability to influence the evolution of the associated network dynamical system. In this study it is shown that dynamical influence not only ranks the nodes, but also provides a naturally optimised distribution of effort to steer a network from one state to another. An example is provided where the “steering” refers to the physical change in velocity of self-propelled agents interacting through a network. Distinct from other works on this subject, this study looks at directed and hence more general graphs. The findings are presented with a theoretical angle, without targeting particular applications or networked systems; however, the framework and results offer parallels with biological flocks and swarms and opportunities for design of technological networks. PMID:27210291

  18. Clinical leadership part 2: leadership styles.

    PubMed

    Fowler, John

    2016-05-12

    John Fowler, independent education consultant, introduces his new series on the role that clinically based nurses can have in leadership, and on the overlapping areas of leadership and management. PMID:27172500

  19. C3 glomerulopathy: consensus report

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Matthew C; D'Agati, Vivette D; Nester, Carla M; Smith, Richard J; Haas, Mark; Appel, Gerald B; Alpers, Charles E; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bedrosian, Camille; Braun, Michael; Doyle, Mittie; Fakhouri, Fadi; Fervenza, Fernando C; Fogo, Agnes B; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Gale, Daniel P; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Griffin, Gene; Harris, Claire L; Holers, V Michael; Johnson, Sally; Lavin, Peter J; Medjeral-Thomas, Nicholas; Paul Morgan, B; Nast, Cynthia C; Noel, Laure-Hélène; Peters, D Keith; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Servais, Aude; Sethi, Sanjeev; Song, Wen-Chao; Tamburini, Paul; Thurman, Joshua M; Zavros, Michael; Cook, H Terence

    2013-01-01

    C3 glomerulopathy is a recently introduced pathological entity whose original definition was glomerular pathology characterized by C3 accumulation with absent or scanty immunoglobulin deposition. In August 2012, an invited group of experts (comprising the authors of this document) in renal pathology, nephrology, complement biology, and complement therapeutics met to discuss C3 glomerulopathy in the first C3 Glomerulopathy Meeting. The objectives were to reach a consensus on: the definition of C3 glomerulopathy, appropriate complement investigations that should be performed in these patients, and how complement therapeutics should be explored in the condition. This meeting report represents the current consensus view of the group. PMID:24172683

  20. Building of multilevel stakeholder consensus in radioactive waste repository siting

    SciTech Connect

    Dreimanis, A.

    2007-07-01

    This report considers the problem of multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational/regional repositories for radioactive waste (RW) deep disposal. In the siting of a multinational repository there appears an essential innovative component of stakeholder consensus building, namely: to reach consent - political, social, economic, ecological - among international partners, in addition to solving the whole set of intra-national consensus building items. An entire partnering country is considered as a higher-level stakeholder - the national stakeholder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, possibly being characterized by diverse political, economic and social interests. The following theses as a possible interdisciplinary approach towards building of shared understanding and stakeholder consensus on the international scale of RW disposal are forwarded and developed: a) building of international stakeholder consensus would be promoted by activating and diversifying on the international scale multilateral interactions between intra- and international stakeholders, including web-based networks of the RW disposal site investigations and decision-making, as well as networks for international cooperation among government authorities in nuclear safety, b) gradual progress in intergovernmental consensus and reaching multilateral agreements on shared deep repositories will be the result of democratic dialogue, via observing the whole set of various interests and common resolving of emerged controversies by using advanced synergetic approaches of conflict resolution, c) cross-cultural thinking and world perception, mental flexibility, creativity and knowledge are considered as basic prerogatives for gaining a higher level of mutual understanding and consensus for seeking further consensus, for

  1. Field Theory in Organizational Psychology: An Analysis of Theoretical Approaches in Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Joseph E.

    This literature review examines Kurt Lewin's influence in leadership psychology. Characteristics of field theory are described in detail and utilized in analyzing leadership research, including the trait approach, leader behavior studies, contingency theory, path-goal theory, and leader decision theory. Important trends in leadership research are…

  2. Teacher Leadership Development in PDSs: Perceptions of 22 Veteran Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosenza, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is no common definition for teacher leadership, the concept is continually advanced as a key component for both the success of schools and professionalization of teachers. Many view teacher leadership as specific administrative roles while others view it as any opportunity in which teachers contribute to the decision-making process.…

  3. Performance Technologist Preparation: The Role of Leadership Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alison A.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the importance of leadership as an informing and unifying discipline for the preparation of performance technologists and explores the impact of this orientation on a pertinent course at Western Michigan University. Topics include leadership behaviors, vision, motivation, conflict, decision making, communication, change, followership,…

  4. Situational Leadership and the Educator of the '90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadwell, Don

    1996-01-01

    Describes Bi-Polar Situational Leadership as a model for educational administration. Discusses problem solving and leadership styles, the importance of trust and concern, a balance of authority-based leading and participation-style decision making, collaboration, leader values and development, and improvement of the learning environment. (AEF)

  5. Transformational Leadership: Profile of a High School Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liontos, Lynn Balster

    1993-01-01

    Drawing on extensive staff interviews, this publication profiles a high school principal in Eugene, Oregon, who exhibits many aspects of transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is improvement oriented and comprises three elements: (1) a collaborative, shared decision-making approach; (2) an emphasis on teacher professionalism and…

  6. Utilizing a Simulation within an Online School Technology Leadership Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strycker, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Online courses and programs have grown to become and continue to be a popular option for students. As part of an online Master's of Education in Instructional Technology program, students must complete a school technology leadership course. Leadership decision making, policy making, and how to have innovations take hold in a school settings are…

  7. Bridging Student Leadership Assessment across a Three-Institution Consortium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom-Blonigen, Jean; Bornsen, Susan E.; Larson-Casselton, Cindy; Erickson, Sheri L.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the nation, training students for leadership roles is a primary cross-disciplinary bridge from coursework to career or from service learning to community service. Student leadership training has been linked to communication traits of goal setting, decision making, conflict resolution, concern for community, and increased understanding…

  8. The Paradox of Power in Leadership in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Dora

    2012-01-01

    Western frameworks for school improvement, including the stakeholder model and the model of decentralized leadership, have recently been promoted as solutions for school improvement. Using early childhood education in Hong Kong as an illustrative case, this article focuses on the power and authority of leadership in school decision making. The…

  9. Leadership Succession Management in a University Health Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Anne M.; Henly, Debra; Chaboyer, Wendy; Clapton, Jayne; Lizzio, Alf; Teml, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We report on a succession planning pilot project in an Australian university health faculty. The programme aimed to enhance organisational stability and develop leadership capacity in middle level academics. Six monthly sessions addressed university and general leadership topics, communication, decision-making, working with change, self-management…

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Leadership Program for Veterinary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dale A.; Klingborg, Donald J.

    2001-01-01

    Developed and evaluated a five-day leadership course for new veterinary students; leadership attributes emphasized in the course included effective communication, openness to learning from others, self-awareness, commitment beyond self-interest, motivation, decision making, understanding issue complexity, and team building. Found that participants…

  11. Impact of new regulatory standards on advanced practice registered nursing: the APRN Consensus Model and LACE.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Joan M

    2012-06-01

    Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) represent a crucial resource to meeting growing health care needs. Such resources must be used to the full extent and in the most effective way possible. Through the development of the Consensus Model for APRN Regulation: Licensure, Accreditation, Certification and Education (LACE), nursing is assuming a leadership role within the health care system and participating as an equal partner in redesigning health care. When fully implemented, the Consensus Model will allow APRNs to practice to the full scope of their education and more easily move from one state to another, increasing access to quality health care for all populations. PMID:22579059

  12. Getting Better with Practice? A Longitudinal Study of Shared Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Barbara; And Others

    Despite the recent attention to shared decision making, there has been little research investigating the process. This paper presents and compares three case studies describing the leadership and decision making of three shared-decision-making teams over 4 years. The teams--from one primary, one middle, and one high school--were set in one school…

  13. Evolutionary origin of asymptotically stable consensus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chang-Bing; Wu, Bin; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Consensus is widely observed in nature as well as in society. Up to now, many works have focused on what kind of (and how) isolated single structures lead to consensus, while the dynamics of consensus in interdependent populations remains unclear, although interactive structures are everywhere. For such consensus in interdependent populations, we refer that the fraction of population adopting a specified strategy is the same across different interactive structures. A two-strategy game as a conflict is adopted to explore how natural selection affects the consensus in such interdependent populations. It is shown that when selection is absent, all the consensus states are stable, but none are evolutionarily stable. In other words, the final consensus state can go back and forth from one to another. When selection is present, there is only a small number of stable consensus state which are evolutionarily stable. Our study highlights the importance of evolution on stabilizing consensus in interdependent populations. PMID:24699444

  14. School Leadership: Some Key Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Highlights some key ideas and several perspectives on leadership, including: situational leadership; a leadership framework suggested by T.E. Deal and L.G. Bolman; leadership of the chief executive/leading professional; moral leadership; and curricular leadership. Identifies leadership by its contribution to outcomes and its influence on…

  15. International consensus on allergy immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robin; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Santos, Alexandra F; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2015-09-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been used to treat allergic disease since the early 1900s. Despite numerous clinical trials and meta-analyses proving AIT efficacious, it remains underused and is estimated to be used in less than 10% of patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma worldwide. In addition, there are large differences between regions, which are not only due to socioeconomic status. There is practically no controversy about the use of AIT in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, but for atopic dermatitis or food allergy, the indications for AIT are not well defined. The elaboration of a wider consensus is of utmost importance because AIT is the only treatment that can change the course of allergic disease by preventing the development of asthma and new allergen sensitizations and by inducing allergen-specific immune tolerance. Safer and more effective AIT strategies are being continuously developed both through elaboration of new allergen preparations and adjuvants and alternate routes of administration. A number of guidelines, consensus documents, or both are available on both the international and national levels. The international community of allergy specialists recognizes the need to develop a comprehensive consensus report to harmonize, disseminate, and implement the best AIT practice. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization, has decided to issue an international consensus on AIT. PMID:26162571

  16. Adaptive thinking & leadership simulation game training for special forces officers.

    SciTech Connect

    Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Mendini, Kip; Heneghan, Jerry; Deagle, Edwin

    2005-07-01

    Complex problem solving approaches and novel strategies employed by the military at the squad, team, and commander level are often best learned experimentally. Since live action exercises can be costly, advances in simulation game training technology offer exciting ways to enhance current training. Computer games provide an environment for active, critical learning. Games open up possibilities for simultaneous learning on multiple levels; players may learn from contextual information embedded in the dynamics of the game, the organic process generated by the game, and through the risks, benefits, costs, outcomes, and rewards of alternative strategies that result from decision making. In the present paper we discuss a multiplayer computer game simulation created for the Adaptive Thinking & Leadership (ATL) Program to train Special Forces Team Leaders. The ATL training simulation consists of a scripted single-player and an immersive multiplayer environment for classroom use which leverages immersive computer game technology. We define adaptive thinking as consisting of competencies such as negotiation and consensus building skills, the ability to communicate effectively, analyze ambiguous situations, be self-aware, think innovatively, and critically use effective problem solving skills. Each of these competencies is an essential element of leader development training for the U.S. Army Special Forces. The ATL simulation is used to augment experiential learning in the curriculum for the U.S. Army JFK Special Warfare Center & School (SWCS) course in Adaptive Thinking & Leadership. The school is incorporating the ATL simulation game into two additional training pipelines (PSYOPS and Civil Affairs Qualification Courses) that are also concerned with developing cultural awareness, interpersonal communication adaptability, and rapport-building skills. In the present paper, we discuss the design, development, and deployment of the training simulation, and emphasize how the

  17. Christian Leadership Literature Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Connie Chuen Ying

    2007-01-01

    Background: Christian leadership is distinctively different from other major leadership conceptions such as instructional, transactional, and transformational leadership conceptions. With few studies found, the author had to consult the Bible and also non-school Christian literature instead, focusing on Hong Kong principal leadership in Protestant…

  18. The Multidisciplinarity of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Shirley L.

    Recent research has shown that leadership and management are different and that leadership education programs have traditionally trained managers. This paper reviews the basic leadership theories, asks questions about future leadership, and examines the learning experiences that produce effective leaders. The paper's intent is not to create a…

  19. Democratic Leadership in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Philip A.

    2005-01-01

    In this book Philip Woods turns his attention to issues of democracy and leadership. He has provided an eloquent, intellectually compelling and sophisticated account of a new leadership label--democratic leadership. He argues that the purpose of "democratic" leadership is to create and help sustain an environment that enables everyone who is…

  20. Sailing through Leadership Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northup, Kimberly R.

    2006-01-01

    The University of Tampa's Leadership and Sailing program introduces students to leadership and sailing simultaneously by situating their learning about leadership in the context of sailing. By combining outdoor adventure and leadership training, the program is designed to help students learn the basic components of a sailboat and operate the boat…

  1. Models of Shared Leadership: Evolving Structures and Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Richardson, Don

    1988-01-01

    Explores potential changes in the power relationships among teachers and principals. Describes and analyzes the following models of teacher decision-making: (1) Instructional Leadership Teams; (2) Principals' Advisory Councils; (3) School Improvement Teams; and (4) Lead Teacher Committees. (FMW)

  2. Consensus algorithms in decentralized networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coduti, Leonardo Phillip

    We consider a decentralized network with the following goal: the state at each node of the network iteratively converges to the same value. Ensuring that this goal is achieved requires certain properties of the topology of the network and the function describing the evolution of the network. We will present these properties for deterministic systems, extending current results in the literature. As an additional contribution, we will show how the convergence results for stochastic systems are direct consequences of the corresponding deterministic systems, drastically simplifying many other current results. In general, these consensus systems can be both time invariant and time varying, and we will extend all our deterministic and stochastic results to include time varying systems as well. We will then consider a more complex consensus problem, the resource allocation problem. In this situation each node of the network has both a state and a capacity. The capacity is a monotone increasing function of the state, and the goal is for the nodes to exchange capacity in a decentralized manner in order to drive all of the states to the same value. Conditions ensuring consensus in the deterministic setting will be presented, and we will show how convergence in this system also comes from the fundamental deterministic result for consensus algorithms. The main results will again be extended to stochastic and time varying systems. The linear consensus system requires the construction of a matrix of weighting parameters with specific properties. We present an iterative algorithm for determining the weighting parameters in a decentralized fashion; the weighting parameters are specified by the nodes and each node only specifies the weighting parameters as sociated with that node. The results assume that the communication graph of the network is directed, and we consider both synchronous communication, and stochastic asynchronous networks.

  3. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises. PMID:24274133

  4. Leadership Competences in Slovenian Health Care

    PubMed Central

    KOVAČIČ, Helena; RUS, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Background Leadership competences play an important role for the success of effective leadership. The purpose of this study was to examine leadership competences of managers in the healthcare sector in Slovenia. Methods Data were collected in 2008. The research included 265 employees in healthcare and 267 business managers. Respondents assessed their level of 16 leadership relevant competences on a 7-point Likert-type scale. Results Test of differences between competences and leader position of health care professionals yielded statistically significant differences between leader and non-leader positions. Leaders gave strongest emphasis to interpersonal and informational competences, while regarding decision making competences, the differences between leaders and other employees are not that significant. When comparing competences of healthcare managers with those of business managers, results show that healthcare managers tend to give weaker emphasis to competences related to all three managerial roles than business managers. Conclusions The study showed that in Slovenian health care, leaders distinguish themselves from other employees in some leadership competences. In addition, all three dimensions of leadership competences significantly distinguished the group of healthcare managers from the business managers, which indicates a serious lag in leadership competences among leaders in Slovenian healthcare.

  5. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks – the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074

  6. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks - the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074

  7. Four lessons in adaptive leadership.

    PubMed

    Useem, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The armed services have been in the business of leadership development much longer than the corporate world has. Today's military leaders need tools and techniques to face a fast-changing and unpredictable type of enemy--so the armed services train their officers in ways that build a culture of readiness and commitment. Business leaders need to foster an adaptive culture to survive and succeed, given that they, too, face unprecedented uncertainty--and new types of competitors. Michael Useem and his colleagues at the Wharton School incorporate exposure to military leadership into MBA and executive MBA programs. Highlights include direct contact in the classroom with leaders in the U.S. Army, the U.S. Marine Corps, and the Department of Defense, along with field-training exercises and battlefield visits. The programs are designed to help students connect viscerally to essential leadership lessons. Four are featured in the article: Meet the troops. Creating a personal link is crucial to leading people in challenging times. Make decisions. Making good and timely calls is the crux of leadership. Mission first. Focus on common purpose and eschew personal gain. Convey strategic intent. Make the objectives clear, but give people the freedom to execute on them in their own way. PMID:21049684

  8. Using Consensus Groups in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Regina O.; Dirkx, John M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes online consensus group work, a form of collaborative learning. It discusses collaborative learning, small group work, and consensus learning, with recommendations for their use in online contexts.

  9. In control? IQC consensus and statutory regulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - Internal quality control (IQC) represents an essential risk management tool within the total testing pathway (TTP) that contributes to the overall objective of assuring the quality of results produced in medical laboratories. Controlling analytical phase quality alone requires significant expertise and input by scientifically trained staff. This effort has escalated exponentially following the publication of the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)15189:2012 requirements for quality and competence in medical laboratories. The reported inconsistency and diversity to IQC approaches in diagnostic laboratories is definitive evidence that international guidance in IQC programme design and implementation is long overdue. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - Herein, the authors define, describe and critically examine the essential elements four stages of an IQC programme and suggest a template to inform both design and ease of implementation. For practical application, the authors have stratified the proposed methodology into four stages: staff education and training; IQC material; IQC targets; and IQC procedure, and provide recommendations that meet ISO15189:2012 requirements. Findings - These recommendations are informed by the published literature together with the collective experience working in clinical biochemistry and diagnostic endocrinology laboratories. The authors note that the laboratory staff's effort on IQC is a continuous process, driven by changes within each IQC stage, in response to risk analysis, maximising economic value or through professional leadership and central to IQC programme implementation and delivery. Practical implications - The authors offer a template that laboratories can use to inform the design and implementation of their IQC programme. Originality/value - The proposed IQC programme is user friendly, flexible and pragmatic with the potential to harmonise practice. The authors

  10. Energy strategy: Roadmap to consensus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The United States lacks a comprehensive approach to policy-making in the energy realm. Today, as in the past, individual constituency groups tend to focus on their particular aspect of the energy challenge. Many employ a ``decide-announce-defend`` approach to policy-making, setting out to secure a unilateral advantage for themselves. By so doing, they inevitably pit interest against interest. The result is a polarization of constituencies, and shortsighted policies designed to address the issue of the moment. The American Energy Assurance Council (AEAC) is a non-profit organization founded in 1987 for the sole purpose of facilitating progress toward a fair efficient wise, stable, and consensus-based national energy strategy. AEAC does not have a substantive policy agencies. Rather, we are committed to supporting a process whereby the many stakeholders and policy makers concerned with energy-related issues can come together in productive discourse, thereby overcoming ignorance of each other`s positions. The Council seeks to act as a facilitative body, providing a ``safe`` context for inventive and creative thinking. We attempt to build a store of common knowledge, and to build on that store according to mutually agreed-upon groundrules, and employing sophisticated approaches to facilitation and mediation. This report, the National Energy Consensus Experiment (NECE), was an ambitious experiment in consensus-building. We learned a great deal from it, both in terms of substance and process, and we are convinced that it holds important lessons for others who may seek to build consensus in the public policy realm.

  11. Energy strategy: Roadmap to consensus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The United States lacks a comprehensive approach to policy-making in the energy realm. Today, as in the past, individual constituency groups tend to focus on their particular aspect of the energy challenge. Many employ a decide-announce-defend'' approach to policy-making, setting out to secure a unilateral advantage for themselves. By so doing, they inevitably pit interest against interest. The result is a polarization of constituencies, and shortsighted policies designed to address the issue of the moment. The American Energy Assurance Council (AEAC) is a non-profit organization founded in 1987 for the sole purpose of facilitating progress toward a fair efficient wise, stable, and consensus-based national energy strategy. AEAC does not have a substantive policy agencies. Rather, we are committed to supporting a process whereby the many stakeholders and policy makers concerned with energy-related issues can come together in productive discourse, thereby overcoming ignorance of each other's positions. The Council seeks to act as a facilitative body, providing a safe'' context for inventive and creative thinking. We attempt to build a store of common knowledge, and to build on that store according to mutually agreed-upon groundrules, and employing sophisticated approaches to facilitation and mediation. This report, the National Energy Consensus Experiment (NECE), was an ambitious experiment in consensus-building. We learned a great deal from it, both in terms of substance and process, and we are convinced that it holds important lessons for others who may seek to build consensus in the public policy realm.

  12. Liberal Education: An Overlapping Pragmatic Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, David C.; Kimball, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests in Bruce Kimball's thesis that a pragmatic consensus was emerging about the understanding of liberal education offers that it might be best understood by comparing it to J. Rawl's idea of an "overlapping consensus." States that by comparing and contrasting these ideas that the emerging consensus is pragmatic in nature. (CMK)

  13. The Construction of Simulations as an Instructional Activity for Graduate Students in an Education Leadership Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Nancy A.; Bravender, Marlena

    2014-01-01

    Leading, facilitating, and making decisions is central to school leadership positions. Decision-making simulations provide graduate students a vehicle for increasing their practice and fine-tuning leadership skills with guided support from college faculty. This action research study uses a case study method to reveal the perspectives of school…

  14. The Relationship between Shared Leadership and Administrative Creativity in Kuwaiti Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alanezi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    To continue to fulfill their social and educational role, educational institutions must develop or adopt modern leadership trends based on solid theory and proven effectiveness. Shared leadership is a method of management that allows teachers to participate in decision making and share in the implementation of those decisions. A study sample of…

  15. Leadership and Team Dynamics in Senior Executive Leadership Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Kerry; McCormick, John

    2012-01-01

    As secondary school environments become increasingly complex, shifts are occurring in the way leadership is being practised. New leadership practices emphasize shared or distributed leadership. A senior executive leadership team with responsibility for school leadership is likely to be one of the many, varied forms of new leadership practices…

  16. Guiding Principles for Student Leadership Development in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program to Assist Administrators and Faculty Members in Implementing or Refining Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Cynthia J.; Janke, Kristin K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Methods. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Results. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Conclusions. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought. PMID:24371345

  17. Service-Learning Leadership Development for Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Marais, Joy; Yang, Youa; Farzanehkia, Farid

    2000-01-01

    Although Generations X and Y do not promote specific social-change goals, today's young people share a concern for building, maintaining, and serving community. Simply assigning students tasks in teacher-designed service-learning projects denies them opportunities for decision making, action planning, and leadership development. (MLH)

  18. Academic Leadership in America's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervay, Stu

    2006-01-01

    Academic leadership directly helps faculty members, administrative leaders, and professional support persons improve the quantity and quality of student learning. Those who regularly lead decision-making and action-taking processes in curriculum, instruction, and assessment of student learning can be called academic leaders. This article focuses…

  19. Inklings: Collected Columns on Leadership and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David P.

    This book brings together 35 of David P. Campbell's essays originally published as a regular column in a quarterly publication called "Issues and Observations." The articles deal with topics ranging from leadership issues such as risk-taking, executive motivation, decision making, and corporate taboos, to more general concerns such as father-son…

  20. School Leadership and Information Communication Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Fooi, Foo Say

    2008-01-01

    Leadership is an important component in guiding the teaching-learning process. Principal as school leaders have a major responsibility for initiating and implementing school change through the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and can facilitate complex decision to integrate it into learning, teaching and school administration.…

  1. The Handbook of Leadership Development Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannum, Kelly M., Ed.; Martineau, Jennifer W., Ed.; Reinelt, Claire, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    With the increase in the number of organizational leadership development programs, there is a pressing need for evaluation to answer important questions, improve practice, and inform decisions. The Handbook is a comprehensive resource filled with examples, tools, and the most innovative models and approaches designed to evaluate leadership…

  2. A Code of Ethics for Democratic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Ricardo; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Democratic leadership rests on sacred values, awareness, judgement, motivation and courage. Four turning points in a 38-year school administrator's career revealed decision-making in problematic moments stemmed from values in a personal and professional code of ethics. Reflection on practice and theory added vocabulary and understanding to make…

  3. Training the Trainer: Leadership Reinforcement for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Noreen M.; And Others

    The program of consumer education for Comprehensive Health Planning was developed to assist consumers to assume leadership roles in community decision-making with regard to health services. This paper presents a description of a project that was developed to train leaders for the program. The project consisted of special, advanced training…

  4. Dying with dignity in America: the transformational leadership of Florence Wald.

    PubMed

    Adams, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    of dying patients to ensure interventions were based on evidence. To encourage a high level of participation, Florence Wald demonstrated a caring component in her leadership with a strong commitment to mentoring. Wald worked to transform the quality of end-of-life care by assessing the readiness for change prior to acting and by working to provide supports for success. Finally, the findings showed that Florence Wald built consensus on vision before executing purposeful change by collaborating with the Founders and asking the hard questions to examine standards of care. Florence Wald provided transformational leadership in creating a value-driven culture of inquiry among the Founders where decision making was evidence-based and significantly improved the quality of palliative care in the United States. Nursing leaders who build upon the shared values to provide direction and promote momentum critical to the change will have more success in reaching strategic outcomes of transformational efforts. Transformational nursing leaders who build consensus on vision before executing purposeful change by collaborating with a wide group of stakeholders will encourage a broader ownership of the change. When nursing leaders work to elevate the consciousness of their work groups to direct meaningful change by developing and sustaining value-driven cultures of inquire, decisions will more directly align with evidence and support successful outcomes. PMID:20304380

  5. SEM Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Expectations of higher education leaders are high, varied, and numerous. Leaders are expected not only to be visionary, decisive, and articulate, but also to share information, purposes, commitments, and struggles. Effective leaders must know and understand their faculty and staff; insist on realism; set clear goals and priorities; follow through;…

  6. Consensus statement on decision making in junctional trauma care.

    PubMed

    Parker, P

    2011-09-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) cause 60% of all UK fatalities in the current campaign in Afghanistan. Shorter evacuation timelines now deliver patients at the edge of the physiological envelope of survivability meaning that the available time period for haemorrhage control and initial wound surgery is short--often no more than 75 minutes. The concepts and practise of 'right turn resuscitation', damage control general and orthopaedic surgery, on-table 'ITU' pause/catch-up and then further resuscitative surgery are commonplace. In Helmand in 2011, multiple team operating is now the norm on these casualties with up to seven surgeons and three anaesthetists simultaneously involved in the operative care of one patient. This usually involves one consultant orthopaedic surgeon and trainee per lower limb, a plastic surgeon on the upper limb or faceleyes and two general surgeons obtaining proximal vascular control or in-cavity haemorrhage control. A combined meeting in 2010 of the Lower Limb and Torso Trauma Working Groups of the Academic Department of Military Surgery and Trauma produced 25 clear, didactic statements to provide advice to the consultant team. The fundamental message is that bleeding is always a surgical problem. Some adjuncts are available; pressure (direct and indirect), compressive bandaging, haemostatic dressings and tourniquets. However, only formal surgical control, by whatever means is definitive. Early proximal control is mandatory: in all cases, rapidly obtain the most distally appropriate proximal control above the zone of injury. PMID:22053391

  7. What is leadership?

    PubMed

    Klingborg, Donald J; Moore, Dale A; Varea-Hammond, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    The demand for more effective leadership is heard throughout the health professions. Modern concepts of leadership differ from the traditional definition of a charismatic individual leader. Historically, leadership has been vested in positions, while today leadership is seen as a role one moves continuously into and out of, depending on the circumstance. Leadership ideas have evolved so that newer characteristics of leaders include being a team builder; possessing creative and strategic thinking skills; demonstrating honesty and integrity; and having the ability to motivate others to action. This article discusses some of the history of leadership, current thoughts on attributes of effective leaders, and the differences and similarities between leaders and managers; identifies selected teachable leadership tools; and describes various styles and purposes of existing leadership programs. PMID:16849311

  8. The Virtues of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergiovanni, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    This article examines four leadership virtues: hope, trust, piety, and civility. When these four are at the core of leadership practice, the leverage needed for improving even the most challenging schools can be discovered.

  9. Diversity and leadership.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jean Lau; Sanchez-Hucles, Janis

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the six articles contained in the special issue of the American Psychologist (January 2007) devoted to leadership, written by W. Bennis; S. J. Zaccaro; V. H. Vroom and A. G. Yago; B. J. Avolio; R. J. Sternberg; and R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman. The current authors express concern that the special issue failed to include attention to issues of diversity and intersecting identities as they pertain to leadership. A Special Issue Part II on Diversity and Leadership is being proposed to (a) advance new models of leadership, (b) expand on existing leadership theories, and (c) incorporate diversity and multiple identities in the formulation of more inclusive leadership research and theory. The goal of this special issue will be to revise our theories of leadership and our understanding of effective leadership to include gender, racial/ethnic minority status, sexual orientation, and disability status. PMID:17874910

  10. Transformational leadership.

    PubMed

    Marlow, D L

    1996-01-01

    In these uncertain times in the healthcare industry, administrators are asked to do more with less time and resources. Because of the extended roles they are playing in today's organizations, radiology administrators are looked upon as agents of change. What leadership skills do they need in this turbulent and uncertain healthcare environment? What are the trait's of tomorrow's leaders? The transformational leader is the one who will guide us through this changing healthcare environment. Several behavioral patterns emerge as important traits for tomorrow's leaders to have-individual consideration, intellectual stimulation and charisma. Tomorrow's leader must view each person as an individual, showing genuine concern and belief in each person's ability to perform. Transformational leaders stimulate others by encouraging them to be curious and try new ideas. The final characteristic, charisma, is the ability to inspire others. Luckily, leaders are made, not born: today's leaders can learn to be responsive, to draw out new ideas from employees, and to communicate self-esteem, energy and enthusiasm. PMID:10163135

  11. Nursing Leadership.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Nurse transformational leaders can serve in academic settings and at local, national, international professional nursing organizations and community-based groups. As a transformational leader, nurses can lead in any workplace. According to a study by Stanley (2012), clinical leaders are not sought for their capacity to outline a vision, but for their values and beliefs on display that are easily recognized in their actions. This encompasses the moral component of transformational leadership. It is the APRNs duty to continue to strive towards a better vision for the well-being of all nurses, patients, and colleagues. Autonomous APRNs are happier, healthier, and better prepared to provide the best patient care to their patients. We should not be happy to sit back and let others fight this fight. APRNs need to be on the frontline, leading the way. This is only an insight that I have gained after many frustrating years of cheering our profession and then being made to feel inferior at the same time. Only nurses, who have that nurturing spirit, would hold back if they felt it might hurt others. Don't back off or hold back! It might hurt those that follow! PMID:27089563

  12. Graph-balancing algorithms for average consensus over directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yuan; Han, Runzhe; Qiu, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    Consensus strategies find extensive applications in coordination of robot groups and decision-making of agents. Since balanced graph plays an important role in the average consensus problem and many other coordination problems for directed communication networks, this work explores the conditions and algorithms for the digraph balancing problem. Based on the analysis of graph cycles, we prove that a digraph can be balanced if and only if the null space of its incidence matrix contains positive vectors. Then, based on this result and the corresponding analysis, two weight balance algorithms have been proposed, and the conditions for obtaining a unique balanced solution and a set of analytical results on weight balance problems have been introduced. Then, we point out the relationship between the weight balance problem and the features of the corresponding underlying Markov chain. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to verify the proposed algorithms.

  13. School Leadership Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…

  14. Strategic Leadership in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Henry S.; Johnson, Teryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Strategic leadership is built upon traits and actions that encompass the successful execution of all leadership styles. In a world that is rapidly changing, strategic leadership in schools guides school leader through assuring constant improvement process by anticipating future trends and planning for them and noting that plans must be flexible to…

  15. School Leadership Teaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Cathie E.

    2011-01-01

    To improve student achievement schools need the leadership of knowledgeable, highly skilled, and visionary principals and superintendents. Exemplary school leadership doesn't develop in isolation, however. Strong leadership grows from dynamic, collaborative, and intentional interactions between superintendents and their principals. These savvy…

  16. Leadership Without Followership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gorman, Frances

    1978-01-01

    The writer argues that, contrary to common assumptions, certain dimensions of adult leadership require no followership. Three negative types of leadership are discussed followed by three positive approaches (discovery learning, creative problem solving, and empathy) for educational leadership in continuing education. (MF)

  17. Voices of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaolo, Donald G.

    This report examines leadership and the impact of a leadership-education retreat through the eyes of six undergraduate college men who participated in the Institute of Men of Principle at a Midwestern College. The report relates the results of a study on what influences shaped the definition and experience of leadership for the participants of the…

  18. The Leadership Enigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Rosalind

    2009-01-01

    When teachers and administrators talk about leadership with their students and hang leadership banners on the school walls, the assumption is that leadership is grounded on an ethical framework and that leaders will have the strength to go against the tide of popular opinion. The author argues that such an assumption is a mistake. In this article,…

  19. Educational Technology: Leadership Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg, Ed.; Lynch, William, Ed.

    This book addresses the topic of leadership in the use of educational technology. The four chapters of the first part discuss some of the issues associated with leadership in the use of educational technology. They include: (1) "Educational Technology Leadership in the Age of Technology: The New Skills" (Greg Kearsley and William Lynch); (2)…

  20. The Artistry of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beairsto, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    A "binocular" perspective on leadership combines the analytical, transactional leadership present in organizations and the more personal, transformational leadership needed in communities. School systems are both hierarchical bureaucracies and moral communities, requiring leaders who simultaneously attend to both realities in a balanced way.…

  1. Leadership Development. Symposium 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Leadership Development: A Review of the Theory and Literature" (Susan A. Lynham) has four parts that analyze the leadership development process: the present state of the available body of knowledge on leadership development; core…

  2. Effective School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after President Kennedy noted the connection, The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) stated in its publication "Leadership Matters: Building Leadership Capacity" that "Leadership promotes learning." The SREB publication explores three strategies that it has found are used by leaders in schools that are increasing student…

  3. The Drama of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starratt, Robert J.

    This book reviews recent developments in the study and theory of leadership and explores new applications. It examines the questions that structuration theory raises for leadership, explores the theory of charisma and critical theory as posing new challenges to the understanding of leadership, and describes the uses of postmodernist theory for a…

  4. Leadership Can Create Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrey, John N.

    Current writers on the topic of educational leadership express essentially the same concerns: the absence of leadership and vision, the tendency to select survivalism over risk, and the control by managers rather than leaders. These writers highlight both the craving and the need for leadership. Several recent publications provide insights into…

  5. Leadership for School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    School restructuring creates new expectations of administrators that transcend instructional leadership notions. Describes a 4-year research program exploring transformational forms of leadership in restructuring schools. Summarizes evidence about transformational leadership practices and behaviors, their effects on school and teacher variables,…

  6. Leadership Is about You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Leadership remains an elusive, yet critical, component of a program's effectiveness. While most would suggest that leadership is easily recognized, this too often means that "managers" are simply supporting people's particular interests and priorities. There are many theories and models of leadership. Most people have probably personally witnessed…

  7. Leadership Succession. Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2005-01-01

    One of the most significant events in the life of a school is a change in its leadership. Yet few things in education succeed less than leadership succession. Failure to care for leadership succession is sometimes a result of manipulation or self-centeredness; but more often it is oversight, neglect, or the pressures of crisis management that are…

  8. Leadership in Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the different contexts for leadership in children's services with a particular focus on integrated working. It reviews contemporary theories that appear to offer relevant frameworks for thinking about children's service leadership. It is argued that children's services require leadership at all levels to enable a dynamic,…

  9. The Leadership Metanoia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Roy A.

    An argument is presented that "leadership metanoia," (i.e., a fundamental shift of mind in relation to leadership) has recently taken hold in many parts of the country, with implications for leadership development at Lorain Community College (LCC) in Ohio. The first section of the paper reviews the work of the six behavioral scientists who exerted…

  10. Nascent Leadership Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payette, Dennis L.; Libertella, Anthony F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a compendium of leadership behaviors that emerging or aspirant leaders could choose to enhance their management and leadership skills. These behaviors were drawn directly from the experience of the authors, both of whom have held senior leadership and management positions in business, law, and higher education. This paper is an…

  11. Leadership: Who Needs It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Critique focuses on the discourse of leadership as a vehicle for representing organizational practice. Identifies a series of conceptual inadequacies, such as difficulties in distinguishing leadership from management. Embedded in each criticism is a claim that, if leadership is to retain its conceptual and practical utility, then it has to be…

  12. The League of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rallis, Sharon F.; Militello, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Effective leadership does not depend on a set of attributes that a single individual possesses. Instead, the search for one best heroic leader should be replaced with the search for and investment in a number of superheroes: a League of Leadership. Those who create a leadership league don't explore individual skills, but collective practices, such…

  13. Conducting Leadership Training Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide informational and organizational aid to students, teachers and administrators interested in developing and strengthening student leadership through local and regional student leadership training workshops. Divided into two major parts, the first part discusses the improvement of leadership training…

  14. Spreading the message. Building a general consensus on the environment.

    PubMed

    Burke, A

    1991-01-01

    In communicating an environmental message to society at large, it is useful to distinguish between decision-makers and the general public. The influence of decision-makers on public debates is as significant as their ability to implement decisions; in democratic societies, the two functions are inseparable. Proceeding from an environmental consensus, physicians can provide a source of impartial medical/ecological wisdom, and serve as mediators of public debates. For those purposes, a network of physicians and/or scientists can be useful; three examples are provided. Communicating to the general public can only be achieved economically through the mass news media, which operate under conditions very different from those of physicians and scientists. There is considerable room for improvement in environmental journalism, and physicians can make a useful contribution to any such process. It is an important issue, since the mass media constitute the 'ecology textbook' of the general public. PMID:1910871

  15. Leadership in Sport: The Situational Leadership Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    Situational leadership theory suggests that to reach maximum leadership effectiveness, the leader must adapt his/her behavior to different situations. For athletic coaches, this means that the amount of direction provided for students should increase or decrease according to the students' maturity levels. Applications of the theory are discussed.…

  16. Quality of decision making and group norms.

    PubMed

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S

    2001-06-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of shared and unshared information: Consensus norm groups valued shared information more highly than critical groups did, and valence was a good predictor of decision outcome. In addition, the 2nd study showed that the group norm manipulation has no impact on individual decisions, consistent with the assumption that this is a group effect. Results suggest that the content of group norms is an important factor influencing the quality of group decision-making processes and that the content of group norms may be related to the group's proneness for groupthink. PMID:11414374

  17. Timeless leadership.

    PubMed

    McCullough, David

    2008-03-01

    The historian David McCullough, a two-time Pulitzer Prize winner and well-known public television host, has spent his career thinking about the qualities that make a leader great. His books, including Truman, John Adams, and 1776, illustrate his conviction that even in America's darkest moments the old-fashioned virtues of optimism, hard work, and strength of character endure. In this edited conversation with HBR senior editor Bronwyn Fryer, McCullough analyzes the strengths of American leaders past and present. Of Harry Truman he says, "He wasn't afraid to have people around him who were more accomplished than he, and that's one reason why he had the best cabinet of any president since George Washington....He knew who he was." George Washington--"a natural born leader and a man of absolute integrity"--was unusually skilled at spotting talent. Washington Roebling, who built the Brooklyn Bridge, led by example: He never asked his people to do anything he wouldn't do himself, no matter how dangerous. Franklin Roosevelt had the power of persuasion in abundance. If McCullough were teaching a business school leadership course, he says, he would emphasize the importance of listening--of asking good questions but also noticing what people don't say; he would warn against "the insidious disease of greed"; he would encourage an ambition to excel; and he would urge young MBAs to have a sense that their work maters and to make their good conduct a standard for others. PMID:18411965

  18. Group Dynamics and Decision Making: Backcountry Recreationists in Avalanche Terrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Leslie Shay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of decision-making characteristics of recreational backcountry groups when making a decision of where to travel and ride in avalanche terrain from the perspective of individuals. Decision-making characteristics encompassed communication, decision-making processes, leadership,…

  19. Leadership models with an emphasis on relationships and the completion of the project in information science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaskinou, Aikaterini I.; Drivas, Ioannis C.; Sakas, Damianos P.

    2015-02-01

    While attempting decision-making in leadership, one of the criteria that should be considered is the actual behavior of the leader towards the work group. The object of this study is the prevalence of two key leadership models, the Task Behavior and the Relationship Behavior. Firstly, the leader's behavior is focused on completing the project combined with a leadership style which is more interventionist and less conciliatory. The second leadership model focuses on working relationships, developed between leaders and employees. In this case, the character of the model is associated with a leadership behavior more supportive, motivating and participative. This article refers to the characteristics of the two models and the mechanisms and strategies that can be adopted in both leadership behaviors. Furthermore, through the research which took place, we have come to conclusions regarding the public's views about the different leadership behaviors and, also, the possibility of combining the two styles of leadership.

  20. Evidence-Based Library Management: The Leadership Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakos, Amos

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an extension of the author's earlier work on developing management information services and creating a culture of assessment in libraries. The author will focus observations on the use of data in decision-making in libraries, specifically on the role of leadership in making evidence-based decision a reality, and will review new…

  1. Facilitating Leadership: A Broader Look at Data Based Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mink, Oscar G.

    Rational decision making by leaders in higher education and similar institutions suffers from both a lack of relevant data and the failure to use data when it is available. The purpose of this paper is to describe a process which when applied seems to facilitate the rational decision making processes of an institution's leadership. The process…

  2. Teachers in the Lead: A District's Approach to Shared Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegall, David; Linton, Jayme

    2012-01-01

    Whether a principal builds a structure of shared decision making, shared leadership, or not, teachers will have ideas and conversations about what they feel may be more effective. These conversations impact the entire culture of a school. When teachers have the opportunity to take ownership of decision making and planning, the ultimate decisions…

  3. Standard operating procedures for ESPEN guidelines and consensus papers.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Stephan C; Singer, Pierre; Koller, Michael; Barazzoni, Rocco; Cederholm, Tommy; van Gossum, André

    2015-12-01

    The ESPEN Guideline standard operating procedures (SOP) is based on the methodology provided by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies of Germany (AWMF), the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), and the Centre for Evidence-based Medicine at the University of Oxford. The SOP is valid and obligatory for all future ESPEN-sponsored guideline projects aiming to generate high-quality guidelines on a regular basis. The SOP aims to facilitate the preparation of guideline projects, to streamline the consensus process, to ensure quality and transparency, and to facilitate the dissemination and publication of ESPEN guidelines. To achieve this goal, the ESPEN Guidelines Editorial board (GEB) has been established headed by two chairmen. The GEB will support and supervise the guideline processes and is responsible for the strategic planning of ESPEN guideline activities. Key elements of the SOP are the generation of well-built clinical questions according to the PICO system, a systemic literature search, a classification of the selected literature according to the SIGN evidence levels providing an evidence table, and a clear and straight-forward consensus procedure consisting of online voting's and a consensus conference. Only experts who meet the obligation to disclosure any potential conflict of interests and who are not employed by the Industry can participate in the guideline process. All recommendations will be graded according to the SIGN grading and novel outcome models besides biomedical endpoints. This approach will further extent the leadership of ESPEN in creating up-to-date and suitable for implementation guidelines and in sharing knowledge on malnutrition and clinical nutrition. PMID:26254807

  4. Leading from the heart: caring, love, peace, and values guiding leadership.

    PubMed

    Turkel, Marian C

    2014-04-01

    Contemporary transformational leadership focuses on authentic leadership styles, relational caring, meaningful recognition, creativity, building trust, relationships, participative decision making, dialogue with time for reflection, and innovation. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate how concepts from the unitary transformative paradigm and caring science can be integrated within nursing leadership practice, to invite nurse leaders to make these concepts explicit in their own transformational leadership journey, and to offer ways of reframing traditional organizational language. Practice exemplars are presented to highlight how tenets from caring theory are guiding the practice of nursing leadership. PMID:24740954

  5. Canadian asthma consensus report, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, L P; Becker, A; Bérubé, D; Beveridge, R; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide physicians with current guidelines for the diagnosis and optimal management of asthma in children and adults, including pregnant women and the elderly, in office, emergency department, hospital and clinic settings. OPTIONS: The consensus group considered the roles of education, avoidance of provocative environmental and other factors, diverse pharmacotherapies, delivery devices and emergency and in-hospital management of asthma. OUTCOMES: Provision of the best control of asthma by confirmation of the diagnosis using objective measures, rapid achievement and maintenance of control and regular follow-up. EVIDENCE: The key diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations are based on the 1995 Canadian guidelines and a critical review of the literature by small groups before a full meeting of the consensus group. Recommendations are graded according to 5 levels of evidence. Differences of opinion were resolved by consensus following discussion. VALUES: Respirologists, immunoallergists, pediatricians and emergency and family physicians gave prime consideration to the achievement and maintenance of optimal control of asthma through avoidance of environmental inciters, education of patients and the lowest effective regime of pharmacotherapy to reduce morbidity and mortality. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Adherence to the guidelines should be accompanied by significant reduction in patients' symptoms, reduced morbidity and mortality, fewer emergency and hospital admissions, fewer adverse side-effects from medications, better quality of life for patients and reduced costs. RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations are included in each section of the report. In summary, after a diagnosis of asthma is made based on clinical evaluation, including demonstration of variable airflow obstruction, and contributing factors are identified, a treatment plan is established to obtain and maintain optimal asthma control. The main components of treatment are patient education

  6. Seeking worldwide professional consensus on the principles of end-of-life care for the critically ill. The Consensus for Worldwide End-of-Life Practice for Patients in Intensive Care Units (WELPICUS) study.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Charles L; Truog, Robert D; Curtis, J Randall; Joynt, Gavin M; Baras, Mario; Michalsen, Andrej; Briegel, Josef; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Efferen, Linda; De Robertis, Edoardo; Bulpa, Pierre; Metnitz, Philipp; Patil, Namrata; Hawryluck, Laura; Manthous, Constantine; Moreno, Rui; Leonard, Sara; Hill, Nicholas S; Wennberg, Elisabet; McDermid, Robert C; Mikstacki, Adam; Mularski, Richard A; Hartog, Christiane S; Avidan, Alexander

    2014-10-15

    Great differences in end-of-life practices in treating the critically ill around the world warrant agreement regarding the major ethical principles. This analysis determines the extent of worldwide consensus for end-of-life practices, delineates where there is and is not consensus, and analyzes reasons for lack of consensus. Critical care societies worldwide were invited to participate. Country coordinators were identified and draft statements were developed for major end-of-life issues and translated into six languages. Multidisciplinary responses using a web-based survey assessed agreement or disagreement with definitions and statements linked to anonymous demographic information. Consensus was prospectively defined as >80% agreement. Definitions and statements not obtaining consensus were revised based on comments of respondents, and then translated and redistributed. Of the initial 1,283 responses from 32 countries, consensus was found for 66 (81%) of the 81 definitions and statements; 26 (32%) had >90% agreement. With 83 additional responses to the original questionnaire (1,366 total) and 604 responses to the revised statements, consensus could be obtained for another 11 of the 15 statements. Consensus was obtained for informed consent, withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, legal requirements, intensive care unit therapies, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, shared decision making, medical and nursing consensus, brain death, and palliative care. Consensus was obtained for 77 of 81 (95%) statements. Worldwide consensus could be developed for the majority of definitions and statements about end-of-life practices. Statements achieving consensus provide standards of practice for end-of-life care; statements without consensus identify important areas for future research. PMID:25162767

  7. Consensus methods: review of original methods and their main alternatives used in public health

    PubMed Central

    Bourrée, Fanny; Michel, Philippe; Salmi, Louis Rachid

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Consensus-based studies are increasingly used as decision-making methods, for they have lower production cost than other methods (observation, experimentation, modelling) and provide results more rapidly. The objective of this paper is to describe the principles and methods of the four main methods, Delphi, nominal group, consensus development conference and RAND/UCLA, their use as it appears in peer-reviewed publications and validation studies published in the healthcare literature. Methods A bibliographic search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE, Banque de Données Santé Publique (BDSP), The Cochrane Library, Pascal and Francis. Keywords, headings and qualifiers corresponding to a list of terms and expressions related to the consensus methods were searched in the thesauri, and used in the literature search. A search with the same terms and expressions was performed on Internet using the website Google Scholar. Results All methods, precisely described in the literature, are based on common basic principles such as definition of subject, selection of experts, and direct or remote interaction processes. They sometimes use quantitative assessment for ranking items. Numerous variants of these methods have been described. Few validation studies have been implemented. Not implementing these basic principles and failing to describe the methods used to reach the consensus were both frequent reasons contributing to raise suspicion regarding the validity of consensus methods. Conclusion When it is applied to a new domain with important consequences in terms of decision making, a consensus method should be first validated. PMID:19013039

  8. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Controversies to consensus

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Syed Abbas; Mahmood, Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Diagnoses of subclinicaal hypothyroidism (SCH) is biochemically made, when serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels is elevated while free thyroid hormone levels are within normal reference range. SCH is diagnosed after excluding all other causes of elevated TSH levels. Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is related to number of factors including initial serum TSH concentration, presence of auto antibodies, family history and presence goiter. Various screening recommendations for thyroid function assessment are in practice. There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), pregnancy outcomes, neuropsychiatric issues, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. Consensus will require more large randomized clinical studies involving various age groups and medical condition, especially in developing countries. All these efforts will definitely improve our understanding of disease and ultimately patient outcomes. PMID:24910826

  9. Consensus in a Precambrian garden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    At the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary, the course of life on Earth underwent a dramatic change that culminated in the rise of predators and other complex animals, a group of paleontologists agreed at a conferece last week.Just prior to 590 million years ago, the ecology of life in the oceans was very simple; soft-shelled multicellular animals called Ediacara lived in apparent harmony with vast mats o f bacteria and algae that covered the seafloor, dependent on the photosynthesis or chemosynthesis of their one-celled hosts for their existence. According to the consensus reached by the scientists, this symbiotic and apparently global “Garden of Ediacara” fell early in the Cambrian Period, as the mats declined and food chains multiplied with new animals that, for the first time in Earth's history, preyed on other living things.

  10. Data publication consensus and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, John; Strasser, Carly

    2014-01-01

    The movement to bring datasets into the scholarly record as first class research products (validated, preserved, cited, and credited) has been inching forward for some time, but now the pace is quickening. As data publication venues proliferate, significant debate continues over formats, processes, and terminology. Here, we present an overview of data publication initiatives underway and the current conversation, highlighting points of consensus and issues still in contention. Data publication implementations differ in a variety of factors, including the kind of documentation, the location of the documentation relative to the data, and how the data is validated. Publishers may present data as supplemental material to a journal article, with a descriptive “data paper,” or independently. Complicating the situation, different initiatives and communities use the same terms to refer to distinct but overlapping concepts. For instance, the term published means that the data is publicly available and citable to virtually everyone, but it may or may not imply that the data has been peer-reviewed. In turn, what is meant by data peer review is far from defined; standards and processes encompass the full range employed in reviewing the literature, plus some novel variations. Basic data citation is a point of consensus, but the general agreement on the core elements of a dataset citation frays if the data is dynamic or part of a larger set. Even as data publication is being defined, some are looking past publication to other metaphors, notably “data as software,” for solutions to the more stubborn problems. PMID:25075301

  11. Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: expert consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, John C; Aloia, Thomas A; Crane, Christopher H; Heimbach, Julie K; Nagino, Masato; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists met on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines and to agree consensus statements. It was established that the treatment of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to optimize the chances for both durable survival and effective palliation. An adequate diagnostic and staging work-up includes high-quality cross-sectional imaging; however, pathologic confirmation is not required prior to resection or initiation of a liver transplant trimodal treatment protocol. The ideal treatment for suitable patients with resectable hilar malignancy is resection of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, as well as resection of the involved ipsilateral liver. Preoperative biliary drainage is best achieved with percutaneous transhepatic approaches and may be indicated for patients with cholangitis, malnutrition or hepatic insufficiency. Portal vein embolization is a safe and effective strategy for increasing the future liver remnant (FLR) and is particularly useful for patients with an FLR of <30%. Selected patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma should be evaluated for a standard trimodal protocol incorporating external beam and endoluminal radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and liver transplantation. Post-resection chemoradiation should be offered to patients who show high-risk features on surgical pathology. Chemoradiation is also recommended for patients with locally advanced, unresectable hilar cancers. For patients with locally recurrent or metastatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma, first-line chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin is recommended based on multiple Phase II trials and a large randomized controlled trial including a heterogeneous population of patients with biliary cancers. PMID:26172136

  12. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: expert consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Mansour, John C; Aloia, Thomas A; Crane, Christopher H; Heimbach, Julie K; Nagino, Masato; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists met on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines and to agree consensus statements. It was established that the treatment of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to optimize the chances for both durable survival and effective palliation. An adequate diagnostic and staging work-up includes high-quality cross-sectional imaging; however, pathologic confirmation is not required prior to resection or initiation of a liver transplant trimodal treatment protocol. The ideal treatment for suitable patients with resectable hilar malignancy is resection of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, as well as resection of the involved ipsilateral liver. Preoperative biliary drainage is best achieved with percutaneous transhepatic approaches and may be indicated for patients with cholangitis, malnutrition or hepatic insufficiency. Portal vein embolization is a safe and effective strategy for increasing the future liver remnant (FLR) and is particularly useful for patients with an FLR of <30%. Selected patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma should be evaluated for a standard trimodal protocol incorporating external beam and endoluminal radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and liver transplantation. Post-resection chemoradiation should be offered to patients who show high-risk features on surgical pathology. Chemoradiation is also recommended for patients with locally advanced, unresectable hilar cancers. For patients with locally recurrent or metastatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma, first-line chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin is recommended based on multiple Phase II trials and a large randomized controlled trial including a heterogeneous population of patients with biliary cancers. PMID:26172136

  13. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: expert consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Weber, Sharon M; Ribero, Dario; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Kokudo, Norihiro; Miyazaki, Masaru; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2015-08-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists met on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in order to establish practice guidelines and to agree on consensus statements. The treatment of ICC requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to optimize survival. Biopsy is not necessary if the surgeon suspects ICC and is planning curative resection, although biopsy should be obtained before systemic or locoregional therapies are initiated. Assessment of resectability is best accomplished using cross-sectional imaging [computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)], but the role of positron emission tomography (PET) is unclear. Resectability in ICC is defined by the ability to completely remove the disease while leaving an adequate liver remnant. Extrahepatic disease, multiple bilobar or multicentric tumours, and lymph node metastases beyond the primary echelon are contraindications to resection. Regional lymphadenectomy should be considered a standard part of surgical therapy. In patients with high-risk features, the routine use of diagnostic laparoscopy is recommended. The preoperative diagnosis of combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) by imaging studies is extremely difficult. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment, but survival is worse than in HCC alone. There are no adequately powered, randomized Phase III trials that can provide definitive recommendations for adjuvant therapy for ICC. Patients with high-risk features (lymphovascular invasion, multicentricity or satellitosis, large tumours) should be encouraged to enrol in clinical trials and to consider adjuvant therapy. Cisplatin plus gemcitabine represents the standard-of-care, front-line systemic therapy for metastatic ICC. Genomic analyses of biliary cancers support the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID

  14. Organizational leadership: meeting the challenge.

    PubMed

    Hart, A L

    1994-06-01

    Leadership can be learned. Knowledge of leadership theories can serve as basis for developing skills and techniques. Style, trait, and transformational leadership can be applied in both health care institutions and professional associations. Organizational leadership is challenging, but those challenges can help individual nurses grow in the leadership skills that will continue to be demanded in the ever changing healthcare arena. PMID:8075165

  15. [Social consensus on medical technology policy: ethical issues and citizen participation].

    PubMed

    Sato, Hajime

    2004-01-01

    Social consensus is considered to be a necessary condition for a policy to be introduced and implemented effectively. This is the case with the approval, regulation and prohibition of certain advanced medical research and technology, especially when they could invoke moral disputes in society. Public policies on organ transplantation, definition of death, euthanasia, genetic screening and diagnosis, and human stem cell research are recent examples. The concept of consensus, however, is elusive, along with the measures to secure it. Technocratic decision making, as a paternalistic activity frequently led by experts, sometimes poses a challenge to democratic decision making, supposedly based on a well-informed and rational public. It also remains to be proved whether public involvement in policymaking can be a solution to ethical value conflicts in society. From the perspective of policy sciences, this paper first introduces the concept of consensus, especially consensus on moral issues in pluralistic societies, and its implications to public policy, including citizen participation in decision making. Then, it briefly explains the historical background with which social consensus and public involvement have increasingly flourished in the field of technology assessments and technology policy making, including biomedical technology. Next, major institutions, governmental and nongovernmental, involved in the ethical aspects of medical research and technology, are presented along with their efforts for citizen participation. Finally, the paper discusses some of the future agendas on this issue. PMID:15007900

  16. Is a moral consensus in medical ethics possible?

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, B.

    1976-01-01

    At the moment in Britain and elsewhere the debate inside and outside of Parliament on various medical issues which are essentially moral never ends. Everybody has his own point of view--or principles. But what emerges for society to adopt can often be called in lay terminology 'compromise'. Professor Mitchell argues in this paper that a moral consensus is possible and indeed ought to be achieved, as today the medical practitioner can no longer make his decision only in accordance with the strict code of ethics of the medical profession. The task of the philosopher, says Professor Mitchell, is to interpret the actions and attitudes demanded by modern medical practice. PMID:957368

  17. Leadership Training Program for Shared Leadership Based on Super Leadership at Cheo-Eum Korean Presbyterian Church: A Study of Christian Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Houng Jin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to launch a leadership training program for shared leadership based on "super leadership." The constructs of the study were designed to study Bible leaders in shared leadership, leadership paradigm and types, transformational leadership, and, super leadership and shared leadership theory that are all…

  18. Stakeholder decision-making for radioactive waste management advice given in the US and UK

    SciTech Connect

    Lawless, W.F.; Whitton, J.; Poppeliers, Ch.; Abubucker, C.P.

    2008-07-01

    We continue our past research with a study of participation by citizens providing advice on nuclear waste management decisions in the UK and US. This study is unique in that citizen participation programs in both countries are at very different stages: not yet fully operational in the UK, but mature in the US. Our hope is that a review of the programs in both of these countries can lead to findings that may benefit these and other countries as well. In summary: 1. Decision structure has a significant impact on the advice given by the public Citizen Advisory Boards to DOE. The control scheme used by an organization can lead to more rational decisions or more practical ones. Rational decisions are more likely to occur under consensus-seeking while practical decisions are more likely under majority rule ('truth seeking'). 2. CR, designed to reduce conflict, appears to promote it. The source of this conflict appears to be the inability of agents under CR to manage risk perceptions and other illusions, to produce advice that is sufficiently practical to accelerate or even to advance cleanup, and the production of a single world view incongruous with that of its sponsor, DOE. 3. Counter-intuitively, building a consistent world view sufficient to accommodate all of the parties to a decision de-emphasizes uncertainty and disagreement. For example, 'Setting aside or minimizing the importance of key structural uncertainties in underlying processes is a frequent outcome of the drive for consensus'. 4. CR produces pernicious side effects often sought by authoritarian rulers. After the new EU constitution was rejected by the voters of Europe in France and Denmark, it left the EU leadership in gridlock; they had previously rejected CR because it holds its member states hostage to the dictates of a few. The new treat signed by EU leaders on December 13, 2007 'alters the EU's decision-making architecture. More decisions are to be taken by majority vote, removing the need for

  19. Dynamic consensus estimation of weighted average on directed graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuai; Guo, Yi

    2015-07-01

    Recent applications call for distributed weighted average estimation over sensor networks, where sensor measurement accuracy or environmental conditions need to be taken into consideration in the final consensused group decision. In this paper, we propose new dynamic consensus filter design to distributed estimate weighted average of sensors' inputs on directed graphs. Based on recent advances in the filed, we modify the existing proportional-integral consensus filter protocol to remove the requirement of bi-directional gain exchange between neighbouring sensors, so that the algorithm works for directed graphs where bi-directional communications are not possible. To compensate for the asymmetric structure of the system introduced by such a removal, sufficient gain conditions are obtained for the filter protocols to guarantee the convergence. It is rigorously proved that the proposed filter protocol converges to the weighted average of constant inputs asymptotically, and to the weighted average of time-varying inputs with a bounded error. Simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed protocols.

  20. Consensus Statements on the Assessment of Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Hogan MD, David B.; Scialfa, Charles T.; Caird, Jeff K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapidly increasing number of older drivers is accentuating the challenges in concurrently identifying older drivers posing an unacceptable risk if they continue to drive, while not discriminating against those capable of safely driving. Attendees of an invitational meeting about the assessment of older drivers were asked to participate in a modified Delphi process designed to develop consensus statements on the assessment of older drivers. Methods Forty-one non-student symposium attendees were invited to participate in two rounds of a survey, in which they were asked to indicate their level of agreement (or disagreement) on a five-point Likert scale to a series of statements about the assessment of older drivers. Consensus was defined as 80% + of respondents either agreeing or disagreeing with a statement. Results More than one-half (n = 23) completed the first round of the survey and 12 participated in the second. There was consensus on the need for a modifiable, fair, rational, and widely accessible multi-step approach to the assessment of older drivers. This would require the engagement and support of physicians and other health-care practitioners in identifying and reporting medically at-risk drivers of any age. At a societal level, alternatives to driving a personal motor vehicle should be developed. Conclusions An on-going dialogue about this complex issue is required. Decisions should be based on explicitly stated principles and informed by the best available evidence. PMID:24883166

  1. Consequences of the Chicago DSD Consensus: A Personal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hughes, I A

    2015-05-01

    A decade has passed since the Chicago Consensus meeting was convened to consider how to improve the management of individuals and their families with an intersex disorder. It is apposite to review, from an individual perspective, what impact the Consensus has had on clinical practice and research. Emphasis is placed on nomenclature and DSD classification, multidisciplinary team working, striving to reach a causative diagnosis for DSD, the value of uniformity of collective case registries for rare conditions, and the potential for meaningful clinical outcome studies and basic scientific research. The impact of the Consensus can be gauged objectively by an exponential increase in DSD-related publications in the medical and scientific literature and organisation of numerous national and international meetings. Psychologists and social scientists have embraced the subject area and enhanced the holistic approach to management of DSD. Much needs to be done to improve diagnosis, and to identify measures to predict outcome that can be used both in sex assignment decision-making and to improve the quality of life for young adults with DSD. Though challenging, these goals are attainable through specialist multidisciplinary clinics working at local level and the DSD community at large, collaborating at national and international levels to tap the data resources now being developed. PMID:25750076

  2. Spanish Consensus Statement: The Treatment of Muscle Tears in Sport.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Jaén, Tomas F; Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel Del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2015-12-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms-without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period-all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  3. Youth leadership at PPNC.

    PubMed

    Ecker, N; Smith, J

    2000-04-01

    Planned Parenthood of Nassau County (PPNC) employs a wide range of local programs to assist young people in developing the skills necessary to make responsible decisions and help them become good leaders in the future. The mission that underpins their work with the youth is to help them recognize the powerful positive impact they can have on their peers, friends, loved ones, and families. For the last 16 years, peer education has played an essential role in the programs and services of PPNC for teens. The Teen Advocate Project (TAP) has trained and supported dozens of local youth who have in turn participated in several outreach and education activities. The PPNC also created the Teen Info Line, a telephone peer support service operated by and for teens. Along with the TAP, PPNC operates three other successful components of its education programs targeting the youth and their families: 1) male involvement program, 2) multicultural education program, and 3) substance awareness/sexual health education program. In recognizing that its mission to help the youth must not stop at the county border, PPNC established the Global Institute for Training in 1992 to develop youth leadership programs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe. PMID:12295858

  4. Evaluating the 2008 consensus conference on genetically modified foods in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mei-Fang

    2015-07-01

    Genetically modified foods have become one of the most popular topics for deliberative exercises involving ordinary citizens worldwide. This paper examines the Taiwanese consensus conference on GM foods held in June 2008, and the implications and limitations of the public deliberations. The consensus conference facilitated multiparty dialogues and enhanced citizens' knowledge, and affected their attitudes. This study demonstrates the ways contextual factors have influenced the outcome of the citizens' deliberative practices, including the government's conventional technocratic decision-making style, the strong influence of the U.S. government, the political and technological culture, the government's framing of economic development concerns, and a lack of pressure from civil society to compel the government to formally respond to their concerns. The consensus conference had a limited effect on policy decision-making, and seemed to serve as a socio-political experiment. PMID:24068183

  5. Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2014

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkova, E.; Sud, S.; Aucoin, N.; Biagi, J.; Burkes, R.; Samson, B.; Brule, S.; Cripps, C.; Colwell, B.; Falkson, C.; Dorreen, M.; Goel, R.; Halwani, F.; Maroun, J.; Michaud, N.; Tehfe, M.; Thirlwell, M.; Vickers, M.; Asmis, T.

    2015-01-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Montreal, Quebec, 23–25 October 2014. Expert radiation, medical, and surgical oncologists and pathologists involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussions resulting in consensus statements on such hot topics as management of neuroendocrine tumours, advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:26300681

  6. Posterior Probabilities for a Consensus Ordering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fligner, Michael A.; Verducci, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of consensus ordering is defined, and formulas for exact and approximate posterior probabilities for consensus ordering are developed under the assumption of a generalized Mallows' model with a diffuse conjugate prior. These methods are applied to a data set concerning 98 college students. (SLD)

  7. Servant leadership: enhancing quality of care and staff satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Neill, Mark W; Saunders, Nena S

    2008-09-01

    Servant leadership encompasses a powerful skill set that is particularly effective in implementing a team approach to the delivery of nursing practice. This model encourages the professional growth of nurses and simultaneously promotes the improved delivery of healthcare services through a combination of interdisciplinary teamwork, shared decision making, and ethical behavior. The authors describe the case application of servant leadership principles in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Intensive Care Unit located in a large urban center. PMID:18791423

  8. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, B M; van de Sande, M I; De Meirleir, K L; Klimas, N G; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, A C P; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Baumgarten-Austrheim, B; Bell, D S; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Jo, D; Lewis, D; Light, A R; Marshall-Gradisbik, S; Mena, I; Mikovits, J A; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Pall, M L; Stevens, S

    2011-01-01

    , Japan; A. Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia; Department of Biochemistry & Basic Medical Sciences, Washington State University, Portland, OR; Department of Sports Sciences, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA USA). Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria (Review). J Intern Med 2011; 270: 327–338. The label ‘chronic fatigue syndrome’ (CFS) has persisted for many years because of the lack of knowledge of the aetiological agents and the disease process. In view of more recent research and clinical experience that strongly point to widespread inflammation and multisystemic neuropathology, it is more appropriate and correct to use the term ‘myalgic encephalomyelitis’ (ME) because it indicates an underlying pathophysiology. It is also consistent with the neurological classification of ME in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD G93.3). Consequently, an International Consensus Panel consisting of clinicians, researchers, teaching faculty and an independent patient advocate was formed with the purpose of developing criteria based on current knowledge. Thirteen countries and a wide range of specialties were represented. Collectively, members have approximately 400 years of both clinical and teaching experience, authored hundreds of peer-reviewed publications, diagnosed or treated approximately 50 000 patients with ME, and several members coauthored previous criteria. The expertise and experience of the panel members as well as PubMed and other medical sources were utilized in a progression of suggestions/drafts/reviews/revisions. The authors, free of any sponsoring organization, achieved 100% consensus through a Delphi-type process. The scope of this paper is limited to criteria of ME and their application. Accordingly, the criteria reflect the complex symptomatology. Operational notes enhance clarity and specificity by providing guidance in the

  9. [GEITDAH consensus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gastaminza-Pérez, X; Catalá, M A; Ruiz-Sanz, F; Ruiz-Lázaro, P M; Herreros-Rodríguez, O; García-Giral, M; Ortiz-Guerra, J; Alda-Díez, J A; Mojarro-Práxedes, D; Cantó-Díez, T; Mardomingo-Sanz, M J; Sasot-Llevadot, J; Pàmias, M; Rey-Sánchez, F

    2010-11-16

    In this article, the GEITDAH -the Spanish abbreviation of the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD)- presents a consensus reached by experts in the management of ADHD from all over Spain. The consensus concerns fundamental aspects that should be the starting point for future local or regional consensus guides. Another aim of this consensus is also to reduce the amount of variability that occurs in the health care offered to patients with ADHD in our country, as well as to act as a stimulus in educational matters. That fact that it is not very long will make it more popular among greater numbers of people and this will allow these goals to be reached more effectively. The conclusions in the consensus guide have been constructed around an introduction dealing with basic aspects and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment (both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic), patient flow and organisational aspects. PMID:21069642

  10. Theme: Impact of FFA Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Stacy A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Seven articles in this theme issue discuss how to enhance leadership skills through mentoring, the pitfalls of leadership education, teachers' role, leadership for handicapped learners, and the impact of Future Farmers of America on development of student leaders. (SK)

  11. PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PROTECTS RESEARCH SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Personal leadership promotes the ethical conduct of human research activities. Leadership entails application of one’s cognitive abilities, technical skills, and emotional intelligence during the conduct of research activities, Personal leadership assures human research subject protection....

  12. Presidential leadership in the development of the US space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Editor); Mccurdy, Howard E. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Papers presented at a historical symposium on Presidential leadership in the space program include the following: 'The Imperial Presidency in the History of Space Exploration'; 'The Reluctant Racer: Dwight D. Eisenhower and United States Space Policy'; 'Kennedy and the Decision to Go to the Moon'; 'Johnson, Project Apollo, and the Politics of Space Program Planning'; 'The Presidency, Congress, and the Deceleration of the U.S. Space Program in the 1970s'; 'Politics not Science: The U.S. Space Program in the Reagan and Bush Years'; 'Presidential Leadership and International Aspects of the Space Program'; 'National Leadership and Presidential Power'; and 'Epilogue: Beyond NASA Exceptionalism'.

  13. Leadership attributes identified by practicing occupational health nurses.

    PubMed

    Murray, M B; Hill, J

    1992-10-01

    This study examined which theoretical approaches to leadership occupational health nurses perceive as most desirable. The trait approach dominates in North American research literature, with occupational health nurses favoring the more traditional leadership attributes of "visionary," "intellectually creative," and "strong linguistic ability." Australian occupational health nurses identified the managerial character traits of "being well informed," "good communication skills," and "objective decision maker" as most appropriate traits of good leaders. Occupational health nurses need to develop alternative leadership approaches to acquire effective political and organizational strategies in today's competitive environment. PMID:1463549

  14. Wilderness leadership--on the job.

    PubMed

    Kanengieter, John; Rajagopal-Durbin, Aparna

    2012-04-01

    Lessons taught and learned in the challenging, unpredictable environment of a wilderness expedition have direct applications to today's business world. That's according to two directors at the National Outdoor Leadership School, who in this article share five principles for expedition--and career-success. (1) Practice leadership. The fundamental philosophy of NOLS is that leadership can be learned-even by those who don't think they have a natural ability to lead. You just need to practice making decisions, then reflecting on and learning from the outcomes. (2) Lead from everywhere. In an expedition group, or in an organization, you can play four roles, often simultaneously: designated leader, active follower, peer leader, and self-leader. Effective teamwork rests on knowing how and when to step into each role. (3) Behave well Leadership means getting along in a diverse group, cooperating with teammates, effectively resolving conflict, and keeping yourself and others motivated. (4) Keep calm. On expeditions and in business, people often end up scrapping not only Plan A but also Plan B. Leadership involves planning for things you can control, letting go of things you can't, expecting the unexpected, and maintaining composure when unforeseen circumstances arise. (5) Disconnect to connect. The fast-paced, high-tech world of work wreaks havoc on leaders' ability to engage in the careful, strategic thinking required of them. It's important to disconnect from 21st-century distractions and to connect with nature once in a while. PMID:22458205

  15. Observations on the Invalid Scoring Algorithm of "NASA" and Similar Consensus Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevin, Dennis P.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA ranking task and similar ranking activities used to demonstrate the superiority of group thinking are examined. It is argued that the current scores cannot be used to prove the superiority of group-consensus decision making in either training or research settings. (Author)

  16. Leadership and attachment theory.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Christopher G; Mitroff, Ian I

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the six articles contained in the special issue of the American Psychologist (January 2007) devoted to leadership, written by W. Bennis; S. J. Zaccaro; V. H. Vroom and A. G. Yago; B. J. Avolio; R. J. Sternberg; and R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman. The current authors opine that the inclusion of attachment theory in the study of leadership could strengthen leadership theories as a whole. PMID:17874909

  17. [Mexican consensus on portal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Narváez-Rivera, R M; Cortez-Hernández, C A; González-González, J A; Tamayo-de la Cuesta, J L; Zamarripa-Dorsey, F; Torre-Delgadillo, A; Rivera-Ramos, J F J; Vinageras-Barroso, J I; Muneta-Kishigami, J E; Blancas-Valencia, J M; Antonio-Manrique, M; Valdovinos-Andraca, F; Brito-Lugo, P; Hernández-Guerrero, A; Bernal-Reyes, R; Sobrino-Cossío, S; Aceves-Tavares, G R; Huerta-Guerrero, H M; Moreno-Gómez, N; Bosques-Padilla, F J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the Mexican Consensus on Portal Hypertension was to develop documented guidelines to facilitate clinical practice when dealing with key events of the patient presenting with portal hypertension and variceal bleeding. The panel of experts was made up of Mexican gastroenterologists, hepatologists, and endoscopists, all distinguished professionals. The document analyzes themes of interest in the following modules: preprimary and primary prophylaxis, acute variceal hemorrhage, and secondary prophylaxis. The management of variceal bleeding has improved considerably in recent years. Current information indicates that the general management of the cirrhotic patient presenting with variceal bleeding should be carried out by a multidisciplinary team, with such an approach playing a major role in the final outcome. The combination of drug and endoscopic therapies is recommended for initial management; vasoactive drugs should be started as soon as variceal bleeding is suspected and maintained for 5 days. After the patient is stabilized, urgent diagnostic endoscopy should be carried out by a qualified endoscopist, who then performs the corresponding endoscopic variceal treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be regarded as an integral part of treatment, started upon hospital admittance and continued for 5 days. If there is treatment failure, rescue therapies should be carried out immediately, taking into account that interventional radiology therapies are very effective in controlling refractory variceal bleeding. These guidelines have been developed for the purpose of achieving greater clinical efficacy and are based on the best evidence of portal hypertension that is presently available. PMID:23664429

  18. [The basic principles of leadership].

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Holger; Neumann, Melanie; Kuch, Christine; Hammer, Antje; Janssen, Christian; Brinkmann, Anne; Ommen, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    This overview of leadership research provides insights into the different leadership concepts. Early research on leadership focused on personality traits and leadership behaviour as determinants of good leadership. The recognition of leadership as a complex phenomenon resulted in concepts that examined leader characteristics and behaviour in the context of situational conditions. Modern cognitive approaches concentrated on the perception of leaders by followers and the perception of followers by leaders and the cognitive biases involved. There is a tendency in leadership research to integrate the three central aspects of leadership--person, situation and cognition--into a single framework. PMID:19545079

  19. Tech Prep Leadership Summit: A Conference Report (Chicago, Illinois, June 22-23, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This report presents outcomes of deliberations at the Tech Prep Leadership Summit on a "national vision" for tech prep. Following an introduction, Section 2 represents the consensus reached at the summit. Discussion of the purpose of tech prep focuses on the mission statement and goals of the Tech Prep Act. The discussion of program outcomes…

  20. Sampled-Data Consensus Over Random Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junfeng; Meng, Ziyang; Yang, Tao; Shi, Guodong; Johansson, Karl Henrik

    2016-09-01

    This paper considers the consensus problem for a network of nodes with random interactions and sampled-data control actions. We first show that consensus in expectation, in mean square, and almost surely are equivalent for a general random network model when the inter-sampling interval and network size satisfy a simple relation. The three types of consensus are shown to be simultaneously achieved over an independent or a Markovian random network defined on an underlying graph with a directed spanning tree. For both independent and Markovian random network models, necessary and sufficient conditions for mean-square consensus are derived in terms of the spectral radius of the corresponding state transition matrix. These conditions are then interpreted as the existence of critical value on the inter-sampling interval, below which global mean-square consensus is achieved and above which the system diverges in mean-square sense for some initial states. Finally, we establish an upper bound on the inter-sampling interval below which almost sure consensus is reached, and a lower bound on the inter-sampling interval above which almost sure divergence is reached. Some numerical simulations are given to validate the theoretical results and some discussions on the critical value of the inter-sampling intervals for the mean-square consensus are provided.

  1. Situational theory of leadership.

    PubMed

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services. PMID:2589352

  2. Gallbladder cancer: expert consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Aloia, Thomas A; Járufe, Nicolas; Javle, Milind; Maithel, Shishir K; Roa, Juan C; Adsay, Volkan; Coimbra, Felipe J F; Jarnagin, William R

    2015-08-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists was convened on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of gallbladder carcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines. In summary, within high incidence areas, the assessment of routine gallbladder specimens should include the microscopic evaluation of a minimum of three sections and the cystic duct margin; specimens with dysplasia or proven cancer should be extensively sampled. Provided the patient is medically fit for surgery, data support the resection of all gallbladder polyps of >1.0 cm in diameter and those with imaging evidence of vascular stalks. The minimum staging evaluation of patients with suspected or proven gallbladder cancer includes contrasted cross-sectional imaging and diagnostic laparoscopy. Adequate lymphadenectomy includes assessment of any suspicious regional nodes, evaluation of the aortocaval nodal basin, and a goal recovery of at least six nodes. Patients with confirmed metastases to N2 nodal stations do not benefit from radical resection and should receive systemic and/or palliative treatments. Primary resection of patients with early T-stage (T1b-2) disease should include en bloc resection of adjacent liver parenchyma. Patients with T1b, T2 or T3 disease that is incidentally identified in a cholecystectomy specimen should undergo re-resection unless this is contraindicated by advanced disease or poor performance status. Re-resection should include complete portal lymphadenectomy and bile duct resection only when needed to achieve a negative margin (R0) resection. Patients with preoperatively staged T3 or T4 N1 disease should be considered for clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Following R0 resection of T2-4 disease in N1 gallbladder cancer, patients should be considered for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26172135

  3. An Assessment of Academic Predictors for Admission Decisions: Do Applicants Varying in National Origin and in Sex Have a Level Playing Field for a Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. Phillip; Young, Karen Holsey

    2010-01-01

    The facial neutrality of academic predictors (GPAs and Miller Analogy Test scores) are examined relative to admission decisions for applicants varying in national origin (i.e., African American, Asian, Hispanic and Whites), sex of applicants (females or males), and consistency of faculty decisions for a particular doctoral program in educational…

  4. Expert consensus v. evidence-based approaches in the revision of the DSM.

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S; Solomon, M

    2016-08-01

    The development of DSM-III through DSM-5 has relied heavily on expert consensus. In this essay, we provide an historical and critical perspective on this process. Over the last 40 years, medicine has struggled to find appropriate methods for summarizing research results and making clinical recommendations. When such recommendations are issued by authorized organizations, they can have widespread influence (i.e. DSM-III and its successors). In the 1970s, expert consensus conferences, led by the NIH, reviewed research about controversial medical issues and successfully disseminated results. However, these consensus conferences struggled with aggregating the complex available evidence. In the 1990s, the rise of evidence-based medicine cast doubt on the reliability of expert consensus. Since then, medicine has increasingly relied on systematic reviews, as developed by the evidence-based medicine movement, and advocated for their early incorporation in expert consensus efforts. With the partial exception of DSM-IV, such systematic evidence-based reviews have not been consistently integrated into the development of the DSMs, leaving their development out of step with the larger medical field. Like the recommendations made for the NIH consensus conferences, we argue that the DSM process should be modified to require systematic evidence-based reviews before Work Groups make their assessments. Our suggestions - which would require leadership and additional resources to set standards for appropriate evidence hierarchies, carry out systematic reviews, and upgrade the group process - should improve the objectivity of the DSM, increase the validity of its results, and improve the reception of any changes in nosology. PMID:27071528

  5. Electronic communication to promote consensus-building skills: an innovative teaching strategy.

    PubMed

    Lyness, A L; Raimond, J A

    1992-09-01

    EMail and a local BBS were used as vehicles to promote consensus-building skills of doctoral nursing students. The strategy was implemented into a course that dealt with knowledge-structuring by incorporating content on the use of information along with a synthesizing process. During the last class an evaluative survey was administered, focusing on the students' satisfaction regarding the goals of the assignment, the instructions, and the electronic format. The majority of positive comments support continued use of EMail and a BBS to strengthen consensus-building skills. Based on survey feedback, increased time to learn the computer aspect of the assignment will need to be considered for classes in the future. Electronic technology should be incorporated as a teaching strategy in graduate curricula. Only then will tomorrow's nurse educators be prepared to assume a leadership role in managing information in health care and academic settings. PMID:1326036

  6. Decision Making in Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relations between leadership, communication, decision making and overall crew performance. Implications of these findings for spaceflight and training for offshore installations will be discussed.

  7. Group Involvement in Decision-Making: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genrich, Sandra J.; Banks, J. Carolyn; Bufton, Karen; Savage, Mary Ellen; Owens, Marcella Upshaw

    2001-01-01

    Health care leaders (n=27) read case studies and identified leadership styles appropriate for the scenarios. Results suggest that participating in a class on the use of the Vroom-Yetton-Jago Leadership Model may help leaders gain the skill needed to delegate decision making to groups. (Contains 16 references.) (JOW)

  8. 2012 National Leadership Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Two key themes emerged from the 2012 National Leadership Forum: Taking Business to School, which was hosted by the Career and Technical Education Foundation at the end of May. The first was that employers are looking for a workforce that is technologically savvy while having leadership and employability skills. The second is that the business…

  9. Comparing Educational Leadership Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2013-01-01

    Educational leadership practice is embedded and shaped in its own context. However, contemporary policy makers are keen to use research findings from multiple educational systems to produce overall, generic models of best leadership practice. Therefore, research needs to encompass analyses of the political, societal, cultural, and institutional…

  10. Leadership and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    As part of the special edition recognizing the 40th anniversary of "Educational Management Administration & Leadership" this article reviews the coverage of leadership and diversity issues in the journal. The majority of articles concerning diversity have focused on gender, with attention turning to the wider concept of diversity since the year…

  11. Reflections on Courageous Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson , Jim

    2005-01-01

    Middle level educators can't always define it succinctly, but they know courageous, collaborative leadership when they see it. Examples of courageous leadership can range from a cancer-stricken teacher who inspires a whole school, to an educator who makes little strides by modeling the art of "hanging out" for students for whom social interaction…

  12. Leadership and Followership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frew, David R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the Leadership and Followership Style Test, which resulted from diverse areas of management theory (including the question of autocratic versus democratic styles of leadership). In the form of a questionnaire, it has become a valuable training and learning device for supervisors to isolate their particular styles and approaches to…

  13. Leadership: Walking the Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Developing leadership skills is fundamental to the success of superintendents, technology directors, principals, and classroom teachers. Educational technologists have been spending far too much time, energy, and money on bits and bytes. The focus needs to be shifted from systems to people. Embodied Leadership does not mean having a position of…

  14. Leadership in Broadcasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Fred

    The objective for the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is leadership that grows from excellence. This type of leadership requires that the network serve the diversity of the total population, present programs that develop new approaches to viewers' interests, strive for excellence in craftsmanship, program content, and management, and exercise…

  15. Mentoring and Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziczkowski, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Today's technology-based society and the vast influx of new information make leadership development a necessity. Many of the world's finest and most successful leaders have trusted mentors. Mentoring has emerged as a means to cultivate the leadership skills of current and future leaders. Mentoring has a rich history and harbors immense…

  16. The Soul of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chopra, Deepak

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the soul of leadership, including basic principles such as a leader is the symbolic soul of the group. Describes the essentials of leadership using the acronym LEADERS: Look and listen, Empowerment, Awareness, Doing, Emotional freedom and empathy, Responsibility, and Synchronicity. (PKP)

  17. Lessons in Everyday Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesch, Kit

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents and discusses some of the lessons she has learned in everyday leadership. It's the kind of leadership one learns when he or she doesn't expect it--and the kind of lessons one teaches when he or she doesn't even know he or she is doing it.

  18. Journey around Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    Ideas about leadership in education, as in other areas of professional practice, increasingly borrow from management and business thinking. In this article I provide a commentary and critique of contemporary leadership in the form of a narrative of my own experience as an educator in a business school. My experience as a woman teacher of largely…

  19. School Effectiveness and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, I. I.; Oakley, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Fiedler's contingency theory relates school effectiveness to a combination of principals' leadership style and situational favorability for the principal. Data from teacher questionnaires on school climate and effectiveness and measures of principal's leadership in 176 Canadian elementary schools did not support Fiedler's model. Contains 54…

  20. Liberal Education for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peter C.

    1994-01-01

    The liberal arts develop the basic intellectual competencies necessary for leadership in modern society and, as highly reflective disciplines, also develop integrative thinking. In addition, a caring and committed undergraduate campus community offers a wealth of practical experience in exercising responsible leadership. (MSE)

  1. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  2. Leadership: Self, School, Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Robert

    This book describes Character Development and Leadership Training in the School and Community, a high school course instituted at Lakeland High School in Shrub Oak, New York in 1983. It was written to help other educators interested in implementing similar student leadership programs. The developer of the program explains some of his reasons for…

  3. Leadership and Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains four papers presented at a symposium on leadership and management development moderated by Mark Porter at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Expanding Formative Experiences: A Critical Dimension of Leadership Deportment" (Gary D. Geroy, Jackie L. Jankovich) advocates focusing leadership…

  4. Dynamics of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Jack R.

    Examined are two types of leadership. The first type is authoritarian or paternalistic and seems appropriate to a world of machines. This is a defensive leadership built on fear and little trust between people. Techniques for control are developed which often produce undesired results such as apathy or resistance. The alternative is emergent…

  5. Leadership, Hermeneutics and Empiricism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davson-Galle, Peter

    1994-01-01

    A recent article in this journal by John Smith and Joseph Blase criticized empiricism as a theoretical base for educational leadership, suggested hermeneutics as a replacement host theory, and advanced some theories of leadership. What Blase and Smith say is consistent with both hermeneutics and empiricism. However, their hermeneutical theories…

  6. Speaking of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Bill

    In this report on leadership in the public schools, Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton demonstrates how to make schools better places for learning and to encourage more of it. A brief biography of Clinton is presented in the beginning. The report represents a new generation of thinking on school leadership in that it emphasizes the leadership…

  7. The Reconstruction of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, William

    The study of leadership has faltered partly because the wrong phenomenon has been studied. Whereas the usual definition considers leadership either as a personal property or as a property of position, this paper argues that it is a transient phenomenon residing neither in the person nor the situation and one that can be practiced equally well by…

  8. The Principles of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gerald P.

    The primary but not exclusive concern in this monograph is the principles and qualities of dynamic leaders of people rather than of ideas or cultural and artistic pursuits. Theories of leadership in the past, present, and future are discussed, as are the principles, rewards, exercise, and philosophy of leadership. A bibliography is included. (MSE)

  9. The Landscape of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Barbara B.

    This examination of the nature of leadership identifies communication as one of the most important elements of leadership, and discusses the 16 basic and 32 mixed types of personalities with whom leaders interact. The communication styles of individuals with each of these temperament styles are also discussed. The importance of effective listening…

  10. Peer Leadership Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Margaret E.; And Others

    Presented are two documents focusing on a peer leadership training program which pairs better students and leaders with younger high-risk students. One document briefly describes the peer leadership training program as a program in which students traveled to an environmental education center for 3 days of competitive and challenging activities,…

  11. Taking Library Leadership Personally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Heather; Macauley, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the emerging trends for leadership in the knowledge era. It discusses these within the context of leading, creating and sustaining the performance development cultures that libraries require. The first step is to recognise that we all need to take leadership personally no matter whether we see ourselves as leaders or followers.…

  12. Transformational Leadership: Principals, Leadership Teams, and School Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Stephen Earl; Valentine, Jerry Wayne

    The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the relationships among principal transformational leadership, school leadership-team transformational leadership, and school culture. Twelve middle schools composed the sample population. Three surveys were used, each one focusing on collecting data related to principal leadership, team…

  13. Leadership for Dummies: A Capstone Project for Leadership Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lori L.; Odom, Summer F.; Wied, Lexi M.

    2011-01-01

    Capstone courses in leadership provide students opportunities to synthesize prior knowledge about various aspects of leadership. This article describes the "Leadership for Dummies" project, which could be used as a capstone experience for leadership majors. Based on his experiences as a psychological researcher, Gardner (2008) identified five…

  14. Assessing School Leadership Challenges in Ghana Using Leadership Practices Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Alexander Kyei; Aboagye, Samuel Kwadwo

    2015-01-01

    The Ghana Education Service (GES) is facing challenges in school leadership and hence a lot of criticisms on basic school performances. The issue is whether school leadership relates to school performances and that there is the need for transformation leadership. The purpose of this study was to discuss self-reported leadership practices…

  15. Leadership in Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Pat (Meadley)

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the literature concerned with leadership in education. Topics addressed include trait theories of leadership; behavioral theories; situational leadership; instructional leadership; transformational leadership; value-added leadership; community of leaders; women as leaders; and organizational leadership. (Contains 44 references.) (LRW)

  16. How Might Aesthetic Knowing Relate to Leadership? A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz-Buonincontro, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Aesthetic knowing may be valuable to educational leadership practice because it links feeling and intuition to procedural information to inform decision-making. Within the large and diverse field of aesthetics, some models apply aesthetic knowing to leadership practice. Scholarly interest in this area emerged in the late 1980's, and various…

  17. Contested Terrain: Principal and Teacher Leadership at Grove Street Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Cobb, Casey D.; Mayer, Anysia P.

    2010-01-01

    This case describes dilemmas faced by a second-year principal whose urban school received a major grant to encourage teacher leadership, expand decision making, and promote school-based autonomy. This case focuses on the principal's efforts to negotiate his work with multiple stakeholders, including the coach, teachers, and district leadership.…

  18. Leadership Styles of New Ireland High School Administrators: A Papua New Guinea Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivinarlik, Alfred; Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2006-01-01

    This yearlong ethnographic study of principals' leadership in Papua New Guinea high schools describes influences of imposing a bureaucratic school organization on principals' decision making in a communal society. Communal values of kinship relationships, "wantok" system, and "big men" leadership challenged principals' responsibility to uphold…

  19. Leadership Assessment and Training Simulation; Field Application and Faculty Training System. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Phillip L.

    In previous research a pilot simulation was developed for use by Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) units in assessing leadership potential of officer candidates in turbulent-field environments. Peer and instructor rating forms were also developed for evaluation of leadership, decision style, ability to cope with stress, and interpersonal…

  20. An Examination of Involvement and Socially Responsible Leadership Development of Black Students Attending Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurtis, Bridget R.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an identifiable decline in moral decision making and socially responsible behaviors in society based on recent national events such as Enron and the Bernie Madoff scandal (Arvedlund, 2009; Doran, 2004). This study attempts to address this leadership crisis by examining college student involvement and leadership experiences that may…

  1. e-Leadership of School Principals: Increasing School Effectiveness by a School Data Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Ina; Presser, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, school management systems have become an important tool for effective e-leadership and data-based decision making. School management systems emphasize information flow and e-communication between teachers, students and parents. This study examines e-leadership by secondary-school principals through the Mashov school management…

  2. The Influence of Distributed Leadership on Teachers' Organizational Commitment: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert; Van Keer, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    In the present study the effects of a cooperative leadership team, distributed leadership, participative decision-making, and context variables on teachers' organizational commitment are investigated. Multilevel analyses on data from 1522 teachers indicated that 9% of the variance in teachers' organizational commitment is attributable to…

  3. Exploring the Link between Distributed Leadership and Job Satisfaction of School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to map school leaders' perceptions concerning the cooperation of the leadership team, the distribution of leadership functions and participative decision-making, and to asses their relative weight in terms of predicting school leaders' job satisfaction. Also, the effect of demographical and structural school…

  4. Students' High School Organizational Leadership Opportunities and Their Influences on Academic Achievement and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elemen, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze high school leadership praxis for its inclusion of students in organizational leadership dialogue and decision-making and the influences of these factors on student achievement and civic participation. Survey questionnaire data were provided by 215 full-time enrolled undergraduate students from…

  5. George Williams in Thailand: An Ethical Decision-Making Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Constance R.; Smith, J. Goosby

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a classroom ethical decision-making exercise designed to help students make reasoned ethical decisions while gaining insight into their own and others' ethical decision-making strategies. During the exercise, students individually analyze an original mini-case, then meet in small groups to reach consensus on the advice and…

  6. Reflective Decision Making among University Department Heads across Academic Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampmann, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Within the scope of leadership and management, decision making greatly defines the role of university administrator, in particular, the university department head and his/her ability to be a reflective practitioner in the realm of decision making. Decision making is one characteristic of university department head work which warrants close…

  7. Comparing and Contrasting Consensus versus Empirical Domains

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Kot, Bobby; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; Reed, Jordan; Furst, Jacob; Newton, Julia L.; Strand, Elin Bolle; Vernon, Suzanne D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the CFS case definition [1], there have been a number of other criteria proposed including the Canadian Consensus Criteria [2] and the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria. [3] Purpose The current study compared these domains that were developed through consensus methods to one obtained through more empirical approaches using factor analysis. Methods Using data mining, we compared and contrasted fundamental features of consensus-based criteria versus empirical latent factors. In general, these approaches found the domain of Fatigue/Post-exertional malaise as best differentiating patients from controls. Results Findings indicated that the Fukuda et al. criteria had the worst sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions These outcomes might help both theorists and researchers better determine which fundamental domains to be used for the case definition. PMID:26977374

  8. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  9. School Leadership: Constitution and Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vennebo, Kirsten Foshaug; Ottesen, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Leadership is currently viewed as a guarantee for educational quality and reforms, as a crucial component for schools' capacity building and as a major contributor to the transformation of practices. Although an array of leadership studies report on the need for leadership by demonstrating what leaders must do or how leadership practices should be…

  10. Network Leadership: An Emerging Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2012-01-01

    Network leadership is an emerging approach that can have an impact on change in education and in society. According to Merriam-Webster (2011), a network is "an interconnected or interrelated chain, group, or system." Intentional interconnectedness is what separates network leadership from other leadership theories. Network leadership has the…

  11. Capturing Complexity in Educational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Pam; Lingard, Bob

    Although the study of educational leadership has gained in prominence in the last 2 decades, leadership as a concept remains as elusive as ever, prompting some authors to argue that the search for a general theory of leadership is futile. This paper argues that further conceptual and empirical work on educational leadership is useful in avoiding…

  12. The Essentials of School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Brent, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The book brings together a unique set of "leadership voices" to explore the contemporary nature of school leadership. This book brings together some of the major leadership themes so that the reader can access key aspects and dimensions of leadership in one place, written by leading authorities in the field. The book aims to bridge the gap…

  13. Distributed Leadership: Friend or Foe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alma

    2013-01-01

    Distributed leadership is now widely known and variously enacted in schools and school systems. Distributed leadership implies a fundamental re-conceptualisation of leadership as practice and challenges conventional wisdom about the relationship between formal leadership and organisational performance. There has been much debate, speculation and…

  14. Leadership as an Organizational Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Rodney T.; Bossert, Steven T.

    1995-01-01

    Conceptualizes leadership as an organizational quality. The dominant perspective on organizations has fostered a narrow treatment of four leadership assumptions involving function, role, the individual, and culture. Originating from people's personal resources, leadership flows through networks of roles comprising organizations. Leadership shapes…

  15. A Future of Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Leadership and leadership development are popular topics today. Concurrent with the construction of leadership theory, leadership development has emerged as a practice, with programs, consultants, reports, and networking opportunities proliferating. Given the reality of limited resources, it is critical that investments in and approaches to…

  16. Examining the Scientific Consensus on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Peter T.; Kendall Zimmerman, Maggie

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-two percent of Americans think most climate scientists agree that the Earth has been warming in recent years, and 47% think climate scientists agree (i.e., that there is a scientific consensus) that human activities are a major cause of that warming, according to recent polling (see http://www.pollingreport.com/enviro.htm). However, attempts to quantify the scientific consensus on anthropogenic warming have met with criticism. For instance, Oreskes [2004] reviewed 928 abstracts from peer-reviewed research papers and found that more than 75% either explicitly or implicitly accepted the consensus view that Earth's climate is being affected by human activities. Yet Oreskes's approach has been criticized for overstating the level of consensus acceptance within the examined abstracts [Peiser, 2005] and for not capturing the full diversity of scientific opinion [Pielke, 2005]. A review of previous attempts at quantifying the consensus and criticisms is provided by Kendall Zimmerman [2008]. The objective of our study presented here is to assess the scientific consensus on climate change through an unbiased survey of a large and broad group of Earth scientists.

  17. [Leadership in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Schrappe, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Current concepts in leadership and governance on the level of supervisory board, management and departments are often considered as insufficient to cope with the profound structural change which actually takes place in the German health care system. While vertical and horizontal disconnecting is typical of the professional bureaucracy of hospitals, transition from functional to divisional structure further increases this risk. Accordingly, medical experts are oriented towards their professional peers and patient care on the one side; on the other side the management gets isolated and looses operative and strategic control. Several studies provide evidence for the relevance of role models to serve as agents of change, which are now developed into the concept of "Clinical Governance": evidence-based medicine, guidelines, continuous quality improvement, safety culture, resource accountability and organisational learning. The present situation makes it necessary to extend this conception, which focuses on the departmental level in an organisation with divisional features, to one of "Clinical Corporate Governance". This term, which also includes supervisory structures and the management board and is relevant for the total hospital and company, respectively, is based on the corporate governance concept. Inside the hospital, the management and the heads of the departments have to agree that (1) experts really need to be integrated into the decision process, and that (2) the outcomes of the entire hospital have to be regarded as equal or superior to the aims of a single department. The public image of the hospital should be one of a strong and reliable partner in health care and health care business on a local, regional and national level. Members of the supervisory board should clearly put corporate aspects above political and other implications and pay attention to personal independence from the leaders of the medical departments. PMID:19545081

  18. Leadership in rural medicine: the organization on thin ice?

    PubMed

    Hana, Jan; Rudebeck, Carl Edvard

    2011-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To explore the personal experiences of and conceptions regarding leading rural primary care in Northern Norway. DESIGN. Qualitative content analysis of focus-group interviews. SETTING. Lead primary care physicians in the three northernmost counties. Subjects. Four groups with 22 out of 88 municipal lead physicians in the region. RESULTS. Three main categories were developed and bound together by an implicit theme. Demands and challenges included the wide leadership span of clinical services and public health, placed in a merged line/board position. Constraints of human resources and time and the ever changing organizational context added to the experience of strain. Personal qualifications indicates the lack of leadership motivation and training, which was partly compensated for by a leader role developed through clinical undergraduate training and then through the responsibilities and experiences of clinical work. In Exercising the leadership, the participants described a vision of a coaching and coordinating leadership and, in practice, a display of communication skills, decision-making ability, result focusing, and ad hoc solutions. Leadership was made easier by the features of the small, rural organization, such as overview, close contact with cooperating partners, and a supportive environment. There was incongruence between demands and described qualifications, and between desired and executed leadership, but nevertheless the organization was running. Leadership demonstrated a "working inadequacy". CONCLUSION. Under resource constraints, leadership based on clinical skills favours management by exception which, in the long run, appears to make the leadership less effective. Leadership training which takes into account the prominent features of rural and decentralized primary care is strongly needed. PMID:21526921

  19. Five Key Leadership Actions Needed to Redesign Family Medicine Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Kozakowski, Stanley M.; Eiff, M. Patrice; Green, Larry A.; Pugno, Perry A.; Waller, Elaine; Jones, Samuel M.; Fetter, Gerald; Carney, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background New skills are needed to properly prepare the next generation of physicians and health professionals to practice in medical homes. Transforming residency training to address these new skills requires strong leadership. Objective We sought to increase the understanding of leadership skills useful in residency programs that plan to undertake meaningful change. Methods The Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) project (2007–2014) was a comparative case study of 14 family medicine residencies that engaged in innovative training redesign, including altering the scope, content, sequence, length, and location of training to align resident education with requirements of the patient-centered medical home. In 2012, each P4 residency team submitted a final summary report of innovations implemented, overall insights, and dissemination activities during the study. Six investigators conducted independent narrative analyses of these reports. A consensus meeting held in September 2012 was used to identify key leadership actions associated with successful educational redesign. Results Five leadership actions were associated with successful implementation of innovations and residency transformation: (1) manage change; (2) develop financial acumen; (3) adapt best evidence educational strategies to the local environment; (4) create and sustain a vision that engages stakeholders; and (5) demonstrate courage and resilience. Conclusions Residency programs are expected to change to better prepare their graduates for a changing delivery system. Insights about effective leadership skills can provide guidance for faculty to develop the skills needed to face practical realities while guiding transformation. PMID:26221432

  20. Comparing the content of leadership theories and managers' shared perceptions of effective leadership: a Q-method study of trainee managers in the English NHS.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Tim

    2013-08-01

    Health service managers face potential conflicts between corporate and professional agendas, a tension sharpened for trainees by their junior status and relative inexperience. While academic leadership theory forms an integral part of contemporary management development programmes, relatively little is known of trainees' patterned subjectivities in relation to leadership theories. The objective of this study was to explore such subjectivities within a cohort of trainees on the National Health Service Graduate Management Training Scheme (NHS GMTS), a 'fast-track' programme which prepares graduate entrants for director-level health service management posts. A Q-method design was used and four shared subjectivities were identified: leadership as collaborative social process ('relational'); leadership as integrity ('moral'); leadership as effective support of subordinates ('team'); and leadership as construction of a credible leadership persona ('identity'). While the factors broadly map onto competencies indicated within the NHS Leadership Qualities Framework which underpin assessments of performance for this student group, it is important not to overstate the governance effect of the assessment regime. Rather, factors reflect tensions between required competencies, namely the mobilisation of diverse interest groups, the ethical base of decisions and the identity work required to convince others of leadership status. Indeed, factor 2 ('moral') effectively defines leadership as the embodiment of public service ethos. PMID:25595001

  1. Composite collective decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Czaczkes, Tomer J.; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. PMID:26019155

  2. Composite collective decision-making.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-06-22

    Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. PMID:26019155

  3. Epilogue: Change Leadership and Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Desna Wallin defines change leadership as a four-part process that "anticipates" change, "analyzes" the internal and external environments, "acts" on the basis of appropriate and timely data and the strengths of team members, and "affirms" institutional actions with the goal of continuous organizational improvement. In its finest form, change…

  4. Clinical leadership: Part 2. Transforming leadership.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Mary; Corney, Barbra

    2003-08-01

    The second article in a series of three focuses on group-driven approaches to tackling problems and shows how good leadership relies on teamwork and respect for colleagues, helping to enhance problem-solving and enabling you to build on your team's successes. PMID:12955947

  5. Advancing Leadership in Sport: Time to Take Off the Blinkers?

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Andrew; Collins, Dave

    2016-09-01

    While leadership is one of the most significant factors in sport, most research has focused on who effective leaders are and what they overtly do rather than why and how they lead in a certain way at a certain time. Presumably shaped by social norms, the bulk of this work has also overstated the role of bright (or socially desirable) leadership intentions and behaviours; or at least overlooked how this style fits with the 'darker' (or socially undesirable) intentions and behaviours that are prevalent and effective in applied practice. Contextualising this situation against the origins and dominant paradigms of sport-specific study, we therefore highlight the need for greater emphasis on both the cognitive and dark sides of leadership. Regarding the former, we argue that expert leadership requires cognitive excellence given that optimal and consistent impact requires the conscious selection, combination and deployment of leadership behaviours. Regarding the latter, we also argue that bright intentions and behaviours can often only be a part of an effective leadership repertoire and can beneficially operate in tandem with inherently dark alternatives. To advance knowledge and practice, we therefore call for a more pragmatic approach to research that considers both the cognitive mechanisms-namely professional judgement and decision making-and the full spectrum of intentions and behaviours that underpin real world leadership. PMID:26914268

  6. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Tyczkowski, Brenda; Vandenhouten, Christine; Reilly, Janet; Bansal, Gaurav; Kubsch, Sylvia M; Jakkola, Raelynn

    2015-01-01

    Less than 12.5% of nurses aspire to leadership roles, noting lack of support and stress as major factors in their decision not to pursue this area of practice. Psychological resiliency, described as the ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity, is key to successful nurse managers. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a related concept to resiliency and is another noteworthy predictor of leadership and management success. This study was undertaken to determine the level of and relationship between EI and leadership style of nurse managers employed in Wisconsin and Illinois facilities. A descriptive, exploratory study design was utilized, with a convenience sample of nurse managers working in 6 large Midwestern health systems. Nurse managers were invited to participate in the study by their employer, completing the online consent form and the demographic, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0) surveys. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted between EI and transformational leadership and the outcomes of leadership (extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction). No statistically significant relationships were noted between EI and transactional or laissez-faire leadership styles. PMID:25714956

  7. [Leadership and communication].

    PubMed

    Henninger, Michael; Barth, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Medical leadership requires specific communication skills in order to meet professional demands. Communicative behaviour is usually highly automated and not necessarily conscious. Managerial communication competes against elaborated but not role-specific behaviour patterns, especially in critical situations. Accordingly, competent medical leadership requires the awareness of individual communication habits as well as the knowledge and ability to use conversation techniques suitable for a specific situational context. The training of leadership-related communication techniques requires the de-automation of existing skills and a problem-oriented construction and re-automation of new communication techniques. PMID:19545083

  8. Leadership in Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Maykel, Justin A.

    2013-01-01

    Many opportunities exist for surgeons to be leaders in healthcare. Leadership training should begin in medical school and continue throughout residency training and in clinical practice. Most leadership skills can be developed and refined through a variety of training programs. Formal programs that result in degrees can provide surgeons with special insight, experience, and skill sets. Leadership skills are used in everyday practice and are particularly valuable when shifting roles or taking on new positions, whether at your home institution or within national organizations. Ultimately, physician leaders are responsible for leading healthcare and will directly impact the quality of care delivered to our patients. PMID:24436687

  9. Climate Leadership Literacy as a Component of Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothavala, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    How can the 3rd National Climate Assessment be used to go beyond climate change literacy, to include literacy in climate leadership and its improvement? The National Climate Assessment refers to "no-regrets" strategies (i.e., beneficial despite uncertainty), such as, e.g., energy efficiency, cultivating networks, and growing our adaptive capacity. As we cultivate our capacity as a species to pivot, climate leadership performance and its improvement become legitimate - and essential - realms of research, planning, and practice. However, climate leadership across sectors is not yet well-articulated; and operationalizing literacy expressed as 'what to do' may be viewed as overtly prescriptive by scientists. This talk examines approaches and illustrative examples provided in the Climate Assessment at the scale of cities, states, and firms; along with key findings from the National Academies on communicating science to decision makers; in identifying factors to enhance literacy in climate leadership and performance.

  10. Asian Consensus Report on Functional Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Hiroto; Ghoshal, Uday C; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Ang, Tiing-Leong; Chang, Full-Young; Fock, Kwong Ming; Hongo, Michio; Hou, Xiaohua; Kachintorn, Udom; Ke, Meiyun; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Lee, Kwang Jae; Lu, Ching-Liang; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Miura, Soichiro; Park, Hyojin; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sugano, Kentaro; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Wong, Benjamin CY

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Environmental factors such as food, lifestyle and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection are widely different in Asian countries compared to the West, and physiological functions and genetic factors of Asians may also be different from those of Westerners. Establishing an Asian consensus for functional dyspepsia is crucial in order to attract attention to such data from Asian countries, to articulate the experience and views of Asian experts, and to provide a relevant guide on management of functional dyspepsia for primary care physicians working in Asia. Methods Consensus team members were selected from Asian experts and consensus development was carried out using a modified Delphi method. Consensus teams collected published papers on functional dyspepsia especially from Asia and developed candidate consensus statements based on the generated clinical questions. At the first face-to-face meeting, each statement was reviewed and e-mail voting was done twice. At the second face-to-face meeting, final voting on each statement was done using keypad voting system. A grade of evidence and a strength of recommendation were applied to each statement according to the method of the GRADE Working Group. Results Twenty-nine consensus statements were finalized, including 7 for definition and diagnosis, 5 for epidemiology, 9 for pathophysiology and 8 for management. Algorithms for diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia were added. Conclusions This consensus developed by Asian experts shows distinctive features of functional dyspepsia in Asia and will provide a guide to the diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia for Asian primary care physicians. PMID:22523724

  11. Growing Your Career through Volunteering and Leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Riordan, C. A.; Meth, C.

    2007-12-01

    From giving your first paper at a scientific meeting to chairing committees that make multi-million dollar decisions, scientific organizations provide critical opportunities for growing your career. Many organizations support student activities by providing travel grants and fellowships - an important first step towards joining the larger scientific community. Beyond these standard opportunities, organizations also provide opportunities for students interested in gaining leadership experience, a skill not typically acquired in graduate science programs. For example, the Consortium for Leadership's Schlanger Ocean Drilling Fellowship provides research funds to graduate students, but also introduces the fellows to the communication skills needed to become successful members of their scientific community. Beyond student opportunities, volunteering provides mid-career and established scientists further experience in leadership. Opportunities exist in advising government science policy, guiding large-scale research programs, organizing large scientific meetings, and serving on non-profit boards. The variety of volunteer and leadership opportunities that are available give scientists at all stages of their career a chance to expand and diversify their experience, leading to new successes.

  12. Using a Decision Grid Process to Build Consensus in Electronic Resources Cancellation Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foudy, Gerri; McManus, Alesia

    2005-01-01

    Many libraries are expending an increasing part of their collections budgets on electronic resources. At the same time many libraries, especially those which are state funded, face diminishing budgets and high rates of inflation for serials subscriptions in all formats, including electronic resources. Therefore, many libraries need to develop ways…

  13. A Research and Discussion Note: The Macrostructure of Consensus Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungra, Philippa

    2007-01-01

    This research note presents a preliminary study of the structure of consensus statements (CSs). The consensus statement is released by a medical association after calling a consensus development conference on a pertinent medical issue. Using a very small corpus, this note attempts to characterize consensus statements by identifying the sequence of…

  14. Group decision-making in fission-fusion societies.

    PubMed

    Kerth, Gerald

    2010-07-01

    The prevalent view of group splitting during group decisions is that a beneficial consensus has not been reached because time constraints, different individual information, or inter-individual conflicts lead to fission instead of a compromise. However, societies with high fission-fusion dynamics may allow their members to avoid consensus decisions that are not in their favour without foregoing grouping benefits that arise from collective behaviour. Moreover, by forming temporary subgroups that represent individual preferences better than the group as a whole fission-fusion societies could avoid a permanent break up even in situations where conflicts among their members are to strong to reach a consensus. PMID:20211711

  15. Should consensus be 'the commission method' in the US? The perspective of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, regulations, and case law.

    PubMed

    Spielman, Bethany

    2003-08-01

    This paper examines the drive for consensus from the perspective of the good government framework for federal advisory commissions in the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA)--the statute, its regulations, and case law. It shows that the FACA was intended to be an antidote to abuses in consensus-making processes, including the failure to fully include competing views on commissions. The index of suspicion in the FACA scheme rises when a group work product--including a consensus report--is to be the basis of recommendations to federal officials. Once FACA's requirements regarding committee composition are satisfied, the index of suspicion drops and FACA is indifferent to consensus-making; but the conditions for informed, meaningful participation apply to members who dissent from, as well as those who participate in, consensus. In negotiated rulemaking, the push for consensus and closure creates unacceptable tension with the good government goals of openness and accountability. Proponents of consensus-only bioethics commissions can learn from FACA-related legislative, agency, and judicial insights that consensus-seeking is not always desired by government officials; is rarely cost free; and that diversity and dissent enhance openness, accountability, and fairness. The burden of proof is therefore on proponents of a consensus-only standard for bioethics commissions to demonstrate that a drive for consensus furthers sound decision-making by government officials more than it sets back openness and accountability to a diverse public. PMID:14569979

  16. Followership--Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, James S.; Harty, Henry F.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature concerning the importance of leadership in educational administration and characteristics of the successful leader. Stresses the need for equal attention to the importance and attributes of successful followership. (NEC)

  17. New officers assume leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 2000-2002 AGU officers assumed their leadership roles on July l.On the weekend of May 27-29 the new council members and committee chairmen participated in a leadership conference. The primary focus for this was to set priorities and goals and to exchange information that will help each member of AGU's leadership team contribute effectively throughout his or her term. Participants emphasized the importance of continuing to encourage communication and the need for strengthening ties throughout the world and to address many of the complex problems of interest to us today. Another primary topic was continuing to increase the effectiveness of AGU's electronic communications—both formal electronic publications and informal communication among the leadership and members.

  18. Building a leadership brand.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2007-01-01

    How do some firms produce a pipeline of consistently excellent managers? Instead of concentrating merely on strengthening the skills of individuals, these companies focus on building a broad organizational leadership capability. It's what Ulrich and Smallwood--cofounders of the RBL Group, a leadership development consultancy--call a leadership brand. Organizations with leadership brands take an "outside-in" approach to executive development. They begin with a clear statement of what they want to be known for by customers and then link it with a required set of management skills. The Lexus division of Toyota, for instance, translates its tagline--"The pursuit of perfection"--into an expectation that its leaders excel at managing quality processes. The slogan of Bon Secours Health System is "Good help to those in need." It demands that its managers balance business skills with compassion and caring. The outside-in approach helps firms build a reputation for high-quality leaders whom customers trust to deliver on the company's promises. In examining 150 companies with strong leadership capabilities, the authors found that the organizations follow five strategies. First, make sure managers master the basics of leadership--for example, setting strategy and grooming talent. Second, ensure that leaders internalize customers' high expectations. Third, incorporate customer feedback into evaluations of executives. Fourth, invest in programs that help managers hone the right skills, by tapping customers to participate in such programs. Finally, track the success of efforts to build leadership bench strength over the long-term. The result is outstanding management that persists even when individual executives leave. In fact, companies with the strongest leadership brands often become "leader feeders"--firms that regularly graduate leaders who go on to head other companies. PMID:17642128

  19. Leadership styles and theories.

    PubMed

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice. PMID:23905259

  20. Gender and the Orthodoxies of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Examines two orthodoxies related to leadership and gender: Leadership is vested in males, and male leadership style is "macho." Draws implications for leadership role of female head teachers. (Contains 5 tables and 33 reference.) (PKP)

  1. Principles of disaster management. Lesson 7: Management leadership styles and methods.

    PubMed

    Cuny, F C

    2000-01-01

    This lesson explores the use of different management leadership styles and methods that are applied to disaster management situations. Leadership and command are differentiated. Mechanisms that can be used to influence others developed include: 1) coercion; 2) reward; 3) position; 4) knowledge; and 5) admiration. Factors that affect leadership include: 1) individual characteristics; 2) competence; 3) experience; 4) self-confidence; 5) judgment; 6) decision-making; and 8) style. Experience and understanding the task are important factors for leadership. Four styles of leadership are developed: 1) directive; 2) supportive; 3) participative; and 4) achievement oriented. Application of each of these styles is discussed. The styles are discussed further as they relate to the various stages of a disaster. The effects of interpersonal relationships and the effects of the environment are stressed. Lastly, leadership does not just happen because a person is appointed as a manager--it must be earned. PMID:11066846

  2. Lack of consensus in social systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benczik, I. J.; Benczik, S. Z.; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2008-05-01

    We propose an exactly solvable model for the dynamics of voters in a two-party system. The opinion formation process is modeled on a random network of agents. The dynamical nature of interpersonal relations is also reflected in the model, as the connections in the network evolve with the dynamics of the voters. In the infinite time limit, an exact solution predicts the emergence of consensus, for arbitrary initial conditions. However, before consensus is reached, two different metastable states can persist for exponentially long times. One state reflects a perfect balancing of opinions, the other reflects a completely static situation. An estimate of the associated lifetimes suggests that lack of consensus is typical for large systems.

  3. Trust method for multi-agent consensus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Dariusz G.; Lewis, Frank L.; Gu, Edward Y.; Hudas, Greg R.

    2012-06-01

    The consensus problem in multi-agent systems often assumes that all agents are equally trustworthy to seek agreement. But for multi-agent military applications - particularly those that deal with sensor fusion or multi-robot formation control - this assumption may create the potential for compromised network security or poor cooperative performance. As such, we present a trust-based solution for the discrete-time multi-agent consensus problem and prove its asymptotic convergence in strongly connected digraphs. The novelty of the paper is a new trust algorithm called RoboTrust, which is used to calculate trustworthiness in agents using observations and statistical inferences from various historical perspectives. The performance of RoboTrust is evaluated within the trust-based consensus protocol under different conditions of tolerance and confirmation.

  4. Consensus in personality judgments at zero acquaintance.

    PubMed

    Albright, L; Kenny, D A; Malloy, T E

    1988-09-01

    This research focused on the target effect on a perceiver's judgments of personality when the perceiver and the target are unacquainted. The perceiver was given no opportunity to interact with the target, a condition we refer to as zero acquaintance. We reasoned that in order to make personality judgments, perceivers would use the information available to them (physical appearance). Consensus in personality judgments would result, then, from shared stereotypes about particular physical appearance characteristics. Results from three separate studies with 259 subjects supported this hypothesis. On two of the five dimensions (extraversion and conscientiousness) on which subjects rated each other, a significant proportion of variance was due to the stimulus target. Consensus on judgments of extraversion appears to have been largely mediated by judgments of physical attractiveness. Across the three studies there was also evidence that the consensus in judgments on these two dimensions had some validity, in that they correlated with self-judgments on those two dimensions. PMID:3171912

  5. [SECOT consensus on medial femorotibial osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P

    2013-01-01

    A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique. PMID:24169227

  6. Consensus methods: characteristics and guidelines for use.

    PubMed Central

    Fink, A; Kosecoff, J; Chassin, M; Brook, R H

    1984-01-01

    Consensus methods are being used increasingly to solve problems in medicine and health. Their main purpose is to define levels of agreement on controversial subjects. Advocates suggest that, when properly employed, consensus strategies can create structured environments in which experts are given the best available information, allowing their solutions to problems to be more justifiable and credible than otherwise. This paper surveys the characteristics of several major methods (Delphi, Nominal Group, and models developed by the National Institutes of Health and Glaser) and provides guidelines for those who want to use the techniques. Among the concerns these guidelines address are selecting problems, choosing members for consensus panels, specifying acceptable levels of agreement, properly using empirical data, obtaining professional and political support, and disseminating results. PMID:6380323

  7. University Students' Development of Emotional Intelligence Skills for Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos-Villarreal, Joseph; Holland, Glenda

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to add to the knowledge base and further the understanding of Emotional Intelligence and leadership theory. Freshmen business students enrolled in BUAD 1201: Principles of Business Administration and graduating senior business students enrolled in MGMT 4325: Decision Making and Business Policy class provided the data for…

  8. The Complete Inklings: Columns on Leadership and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David P.

    These 61 essays are a compilation of bimonthly articles published over a 17-year period. They address various aspects of leadership, such as risk-taking, executive motivation, decision-making, and corporate taboos. They also cover numerous other issues, including general concerns such as father-son relationships, the perils of travel, intelligence…

  9. Observations on Leadership, Problem Solving, and Preferred Futures of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puncochar, Judith

    2013-01-01

    A focus on enrollments, rankings, uncertain budgets, and branding efforts to operate universities could have serious implications for discussions of sustainable solutions to complex problems and the decision-making processes of leaders. The Authentic Leadership Model for framing ill-defined problems in higher education is posited to improve the…

  10. School Principals' Understanding of Mutual Responsiveness in Effective Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, George; Beekley, Cynthia X.

    Research has demonstrated that corporations succeed or fail on the basis of how well they are led. Although the importance of leadership in organizational decision making has been recognized and studied extensively, numerous studies have also demonstrated the central role that the principal plays in shaping the school culture which, in turn, is a…

  11. Children's Spirit: Leadership Standards and Chief School Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to increase awareness of the interactions among school leadership standards, cultural competence, and decision-making practices for chief school executives. Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this objective, 1,087 chief school executives, who were members of the American Association of School…

  12. Challenges and Research Agenda of School Leadership in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Hui-Ling Wendy; Chen, Peiying

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the world, rapid political and economic change has applied enormous pressure on educators addressing leadership and accountability measures to improve instructional practices and student performance. Decentralisation of central authority regarding school site-based decision-making has drastically changed the educational environment in…

  13. Identity Performance and Collectivist Leadership in the Philadelphia Student Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Sonia M.

    2016-01-01

    Youth organizing work benefits young people in myriad ways, equipping them with the skills and dispositions to organize around the systemic inequities and policy decisions that threaten their communities. The findings from this life histories study in the Philadelphia Student Union (PSU) reveal that the organization's collectivist leadership model…

  14. Best Practices, Best Thinking, and Emerging Issues in School Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owings, William A., Ed.; Kaplan, Leslie S., Ed.

    This collection of writings presents leading research and key considerations to assist educational leaders in making decisions about new programs and new directions for their schools. Twenty-six chapters make up the book: (1) "Changing Demographics: A Call for Leadership" (Bud Hodgkinson); (2) "Media and Political Misrepresentation of Public…

  15. Transforming the Culture of School Leadership: Humanizing Our Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giancola, Joseph M.; Hutchison, Janice

    2005-01-01

    How do successful schools create meaningful change? How can stakeholders improve and impact final decisions in the change process? Lasting organizational improvement and effective leadership blossom in climates of compassion, trust, and productive relationships. The authors describe the key to true organizational transformation in the one-on-one…

  16. Leadership Characteristics That Make a Difference to Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silins, Halia C.

    The last decade has seen accelerating change in Australia in the form of devolution of authority, democratic decision making, school accountability, and central reorganization. This paper presents findings of a study that investigated transformational and transactional conceptualizations of leadership and their usefulness in predicting school…

  17. For Student Organization Sponsors: Guiding by Indirect Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, G. E.; Miller, F. M.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques for effective student organization advisors include defining a problem and allowing students to make the final decision, working with the organization's executive committee, training students for leadership, using publicity to award individual recognition, and providing varied activities. The advisor is responsible for five basic…

  18. Consensus dynamics on random rectangular graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Sheerin, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    A random rectangular graph (RRG) is a generalization of the random geometric graph (RGG) in which the nodes are embedded into a rectangle with side lengths a and b = 1 / a, instead of on a unit square [ 0 , 1 ] 2. Two nodes are then connected if and only if they are separated at a Euclidean distance smaller than or equal to a certain threshold radius r. When a = 1 the RRG is identical to the RGG. Here we apply the consensus dynamics model to the RRG. Our main result is a lower bound for the time of consensus, i.e., the time at which the network reaches a global consensus state. To prove this result we need first to find an upper bound for the algebraic connectivity of the RRG, i.e., the second smallest eigenvalue of the combinatorial Laplacian of the graph. This bound is based on a tight lower bound found for the graph diameter. Our results prove that as the rectangle in which the nodes are embedded becomes more elongated, the RRG becomes a 'large-world', i.e., the diameter grows to infinity, and a poorly-connected graph, i.e., the algebraic connectivity decays to zero. The main consequence of these findings is the proof that the time of consensus in RRGs grows to infinity as the rectangle becomes more elongated. In closing, consensus dynamics in RRGs strongly depend on the geometric characteristics of the embedding space, and reaching the consensus state becomes more difficult as the rectangle is more elongated.

  19. Studying the Existence and Attributes of Consensus on Psychological Concepts by a Cognitive Psychometric Model.

    PubMed

    Oravecz, Zita; Faust, Katherine; Batchelder, William H; Levitis, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research can take a variety of directions while building on theoretical concepts that are commonly shared among the population of researchers. We investigate the question of how agreement or consensus on basic scientific concepts can be measured. Our approach to the problem is based on a state-of-the-art cognitive psychometric technique, implemented in the theoretical framework of cultural consensus theory. With this approach, consensus-based answers for questions exploring shared knowledge can be derived while basic factors of the human decision-making process are accounted for. An example of the approach is provided by examining the definition of behavior, based on responses from researchers and students. We conclude that the consensus definition of behavior is "a response by the whole individual to external or internal stimulus, influenced by the internal processes of the individual, and is typically not a developmental change." The general goal of the article is to demonstrate the utility of a cultural consensus theory-based approach as a method for investigating what current, working definitions of scientific concepts are. PMID:26219174

  20. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-03-01

    ) defining the range of concerns of the public toward different bioremediation strategies and long-term stewardship; (2) creating materials and delivery methods that address bioremediation issues; and (3) assessing the effectiveness of the consensus workshop in identifying concerns about bioremediation and involving the public in a dialogue about their use. After a brief description of the Idaho workshop, we discuss the range of concerns articulated by the participants about bioremediation, discuss the materials and delivery methods used to communicate information about bioremediation, and assess the effectiveness of the consensus workshop. In summary we found that panel members in general: understood complex technical issues, especially when given enough time in a facilitated discussion with experts; are generally accepting of in situ bioremediation, but concerned about costs, safety, and effectiveness of the technology; are concerned equally about technology and decision processes; and liked the consensus workshop approach to learning about bioremediation.

  1. Authentic leadership: application to women leaders.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Margaret M; O'Neil, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective article is to present the argument that authentic leadership is a gendered representation of leadership. We first provide a brief history of leadership theories and definitions of authentic leadership. We then critique authentic leadership and offer arguments to support the premise that authentic leadership is not gender-neutral and is especially challenging for women. PMID:26236254

  2. Authentic leadership: application to women leaders

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Margaret M.; O’Neil, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective article is to present the argument that authentic leadership is a gendered representation of leadership. We first provide a brief history of leadership theories and definitions of authentic leadership. We then critique authentic leadership and offer arguments to support the premise that authentic leadership is not gender-neutral and is especially challenging for women. PMID:26236254

  3. Lessons in Leadership: Executive Leadership Programs for Advancing Diversity in Higher Education. Diversity in Higher Education. Volume 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, David, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    A largely unseen phenomenon is shaping the direction of higher education today: the growth of leadership programs. These programs are hidden ladders that help the talented move up toward university presidencies. Their number and importance are rapidly increasing, and they will more and more determine who makes decisions in higher education. More…

  4. Second International Consensus Conference on Advanced Breast Cancer (ABC2), Lisbon, 11/09/2013: The German Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harbeck, Nadia; Marschner, Norbert; Untch, Michael; Decker, Thomas; Hegewisch-Becker, Susanna; Jackisch, Christian; Huober, Jens; Lück, Hans-Joachim; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Scharl, Anton; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Tesch, Hans; Welt, Anja; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Thomssen, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Summary The Advanced Breast Cancer Second International Consensus Conference (ABC2) on diagnosis and treatment of advanced breast cancer took place in Lisbon, Portugal, on November 7–9, 2013. The focus of the conference was inoperable, locally advanced breast cancer. The diagnosis and treatment of metastatic breast cancer had already been discussed 2 years before at the ABC1 Consensus and were only updated regarding special issues as part of this year's ABC2 Consensus. Like 2 years ago, a working group of German breast cancer experts commented on the voting results of the ABC panelists, with special consideration of the German guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer (German Gynecological Oncology Working Group (AGO) recommendations, S3 Guideline) in order to adapt them for daily clinical practice in Germany. The goal of both the ABC Consensus and the German comments is to facilitate evidence-based therapy decisions. PMID:24803888

  5. Emerging Leadership Experiences: A Study of Lived Leadership Origins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgett, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study of the lived experience of leadership emergence was initiated to answer the question, "Where does leadership come from?" Leadership emergence was explored as the result of a nexus of contextual and structural influences. In response to these questions, a sample of leaders from a metropolitan area in a…

  6. Leadership Training in a "Not-Leadership" Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Susan

    2007-01-01

    It is no surprise that the issue of leadership is a compelling topic for students of management and the American public at large. According to the second annual National Leadership Index taken by the Center for Public Leadership at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, more than 7 in 10 Americans (70.8%) agree or agree strongly that…

  7. Improving School Leadership. Volume 2: Case Studies on System Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, David, Ed.; Nusche, Deborah, Ed.; Pont, Beatriz, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book explores what specialists are saying about system leadership for school improvement. Case studies examine innovative approaches to sharing leadership across schools in Belgium (Flanders), Finland and the United Kingdom (England) and leadership development programmes for system improvement in Australia and Austria. As these are emerging…

  8. Leadership for Service-Learning: The National Leadership Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielsmeier, James C.

    The central theme of the 10-day National Leadership Conference (NLC), sponsored by the American Youth Foundation at Camp Miniwanca (Michigan), is to train high school students in leadership for service; its goal is to sharpen service-learning leadership skills of young people and teachers and to encourage their application to transform and serve…

  9. Early Childhood Leadership through the Lens of Distributed Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikka, Johanna; Hujala, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate distribution of responsibilities for leadership in early childhood education (ECE) context. It focuses on the enactments of leadership by investigating how ECE stakeholders, e.g. teachers, ECE centre directors and administrative ECE leaders in municipalities perceive the leadership responsibilities. Using focus…

  10. Nurturing Opportunities for Educational Leadership: How Affordance and Leadership Interconnect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic study focused on the affordances that facilitated the emergence of leadership, capturing a range of perspectives on leadership and leadership development of four groups: district superintendents; teacher-educators; mentor-teachers and graduates. The term "affordances" implies a reciprocal relationship…

  11. Consensus statement on advancing research in emergency department operations and its impact on patient care.

    PubMed

    Yiadom, Maame Yaa A B; Ward, Michael J; Chang, Anna Marie; Pines, Jesse M; Jouriles, Nick; Yealy, Donald M

    2015-06-01

    The consensus conference on "Advancing Research in Emergency Department (ED) Operations and Its Impact on Patient Care," hosted by The ED Operations Study Group (EDOSG), convened to craft a framework for future investigations in this important but understudied area. The EDOSG is a research consortium dedicated to promoting evidence-based clinical practice in emergency medicine. The consensus process format was a modified version of the NIH Model for Consensus Conference Development. Recommendations provide an action plan for how to improve ED operations study design, create a facilitating research environment, identify data measures of value for process and outcomes research, and disseminate new knowledge in this area. Specifically, we call for eight key initiatives: 1) the development of universal measures for ED patient care processes; 2) attention to patient outcomes, in addition to process efficiency and best practice compliance; 3) the promotion of multisite clinical operations studies to create more generalizable knowledge; 4) encouraging the use of mixed methods to understand the social community and human behavior factors that influence ED operations; 5) the creation of robust ED operations research registries to drive stronger evidence-based research; 6) prioritizing key clinical questions with the input of patients, clinicians, medical leadership, emergency medicine organizations, payers, and other government stakeholders; 7) more consistently defining the functional components of the ED care system, including observation units, fast tracks, waiting rooms, laboratories, and radiology subunits; and 8) maximizing multidisciplinary knowledge dissemination via emergency medicine, public health, general medicine, operations research, and nontraditional publications. PMID:26014365

  12. Teaching Persuasion as Consensus in Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyler, Nancy Roundy

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that understanding the "tools of rhetorical analysis" in relation to persuasion can help business communication teachers better incorporate the concept of consensus building into their courses. Discusses incorporating rhetorical techniques (using metaphors, calling on readers' schemata, and using narratives) into a business communication…

  13. The Future of Education's Liberal Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The liberal consensus that has shaped national education policy is seen as succumbing to dubious ideas and undesirable practices. Issues discussed include: educational equity, equality and quality; measures of educational achievement; accountability; "need" and ability; statism and monoply, pluralism and diversity; federal role; and quota systems…

  14. Consensus among Economists--An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Dan; Geide-Stevenson, Doris

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore consensus among economists on specific propositions based on a fall 2011 survey of American Economic Association members. Results are based on 568 responses and provide evidence of changes in opinion over time by including propositions from earlier studies in 2000 (Fuller and Geide-Stevenson 2003) and 1992…

  15. Teacher Effectiveness in Physical Education--Consensus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rink, Judith

    2014-01-01

    This article synthesizes the series of manuscripts on teacher effectiveness in physical education recently published by the "Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport" and highlights both the consensus and points of disagreement. Although there is much agreement as to the mission to develop a physically active lifestyle, there is a great…

  16. Self-Directed Learning: Consensus & Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.; And Others

    The following papers are presented in this book: "Self-Directed Learning: Consensus and Conflict" (Long); "Challenges in the Study and Practice of Self-Directed Learning" (Long); "A Conceptual Model of Autodidactism" (Tremblay, Theil); "Functional and Dysfunctional Uses of Self-Directedness in Adult Learning" (Bonham); "Relationship between Scores…

  17. Health Promoting Schools: Consensus, Strategies, and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…

  18. Report on the Consensus Workshop on Formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The Consensus Workshop on Formaldehyde consisted of bringing together scientists from academia, government, industry and public interest groups to address some important toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. The participants in the workshop, the Executive Panel which coordinated the meeting, and the questions posed, all were chosen through a broadly based nomination process in order to achieve as comprehensive a consensus as possible. The subcommittees considered the toxicological problems associated with formaldehyde in the areas of exposure, epidemiology, carcinogenicity/histology/genotoxicity, immunology/sensitization/irritation, structure activity/biochemistry/metabolism, reproduction/teratology, behavior/neurotoxicity/psychology and risk estimation. Some questions considered included the possible human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, as well as other human health effects, and the interpretation of pathology induced by formaldehyde. These reports, plus introductory material on the procedures used in setting up the Consensus Workshop are presented here. Additionally, there is included a listing of the data base that was made available to the panel chairmen prior to the meeting and was readily accessible to the participants during their deliberations in the meeting. This data base, since it was computerized, was also capable of being searched for important terms. These materials were supplemented by information brought by the panelists. The workshop has defined the consensus concerning a number of major points in formaldehyde toxicology and has identified a number of major deficits in understanding which are important guides to future research. PMID:6525992

  19. Report on the Consensus Workshop on Formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    1984-12-01

    The Consensus Workshop on Formaldehyde consisted of bringing together scientists from academia, government, industry and public interest groups to address some important toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. The participants in the workshop, the Executive Panel which coordinated the meeting, and the questions posed, all were chosen through a broadly based nomination process in order to achieve as comprehensive a consensus as possible. The subcommittees considered the toxicological problems associated with formaldehyde in the areas of exposure, epidemiology, carcinogenicity/histology/genotoxicity, immunology/sensitization/irritation, structure activity/biochemistry/metabolism, reproduction/teratology, behavior/neurotoxicity/psychology and risk estimation. Some questions considered included the possible human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, as well as other human health effects, and the interpretation of pathology induced by formaldehyde. These reports, plus introductory material on the procedures used in setting up the Consensus Workshop are presented here. Additionally, there is included a listing of the data base that was made available to the panel chairmen prior to the meeting and was readily accessible to the participants during their deliberations in the meeting. This data base, since it was computerized, was also capable of being searched for important terms. These materials were supplemented by information brought by the panelists. The workshop has defined the consensus concerning a number of major points in formaldehyde toxicology and has identified a number of major deficits in understanding which are important guides to future research. PMID:6525992

  20. Epistemic Iterations and Consensus Definitions of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.; Behizadeh, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    In his article, Paul E. Newton has conducted a review of selected perspectives on validity theory with the goal of disambiguating the definition of validity and describing a consensus definition of validity. Newton provides a nuanced discussion of the evolution of the concept of validity over the years. His Focus article has two major goals: (1)…

  1. Consensus among Economics Teachers from Transition Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leet, Don R.; Lang, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the economic opinions of teachers and economists from the former Soviet Union who participated in economic education programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education under the auspices of the National Council on Economic Education from 1995-2001. They sought to determine the level of consensus on economic topics among the…

  2. Adventure Leadership and Experiential Education.

    PubMed

    Speelman, Elizabeth A; Wagstaff, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides background in adventure education and its connection to student leadership pedagogy. An adventure program is the ideal experiential learning setting promoting students' leadership development through direct experience, reflection, and application. PMID:26895017

  3. Leadership Style: Attitudes and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersey, Paul; Blanchard, Kenneth H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses significant differences between the Grid and Situational leadership styles. Examines the difference between attitudes and behaviors, gives examples, and explores the relationship between self-perception and leadership style. (CT)

  4. Transformational Leadership, Integrity, and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership enjoys widespread appeal among student affairs professionals. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) and American College Personnel Association (ACPA) conferences frequently feature speakers who promote transformational leadership's two primary tenets: (1) change is the central purpose of…

  5. Leadership content important in athletic training education with implications for allied health care.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Matthew R; Scialli, Joan

    2008-01-01

    A two-phase exploratory and comparative research study using a Delphi technique and a web-based national survey was done to determine leadership content (i.e., theories, styles, or practices) important to include in athletic training education. Eighteen athletic training experts participated in the Delphi technique, followed by 161 athletic trainers completing the national survey. Consensus of experts was reached after two rounds (77% interrater agreement, alpha = 0.80 and alpha = 0.93 per respective round) and identified 31 leadership content items important to include in athletic training education. The national sample then rated importance of each leadership content area for inclusion in four types of athletic training education programs (entry-level baccalaureate, entry-level master's degree, postgraduate certifications, and doctoral degree). The respondents ranked the leadership content in order of importance according to mean (mean = 1.53 +/- 0.84 to 2.55 +/- 0.55; scale, 0-3). Twenty-two content items (63%) were rated at least "very important" (mean > or = 2.0). Exploratory factor analysis established construct validity and organized leadership content by three factors: managerial leadership and knowledge management; leadership theories; and leadership issues, trends, and policies (alpha = 0.84-0.91). Repeated-measures analysis of variance (Sidak post-hoc adjustments) established criterion-related concurrent validity, which found increasing levels of importance as education type progressed (F = 4.88, p = 0.003-32.56, p = 0.000). Adding leadership content within athletic training enhances the professionalization of students, facilitates leadership competency among students and practicing professionals enrolled in postcertification educational programs, and facilitates job placement and role. PMID:19157049

  6. Temporal and Contextual Consistency of Leadership in Homing Pigeon Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos D.; Neupert, Stefanie; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K. N.

    2014-01-01

    Organized flight of homing pigeons (Columba livia) was previously shown to rely on simple leadership rules between flock mates, yet the stability of this social structuring over time and across different contexts remains unclear. We quantified the repeatability of leadership-based flock structures within a flight and across multiple flights conducted with the same animals. We compared two contexts of flock composition: flocks of birds of the same age and flight experience; and, flocks of birds of different ages and flight experience. All flocks displayed consistent leadership-based structures over time, showing that individuals have stable roles in the navigational decisions of the flock. However, flocks of balanced age and flight experience exhibited reduced leadership stability, indicating that these factors promote flock structuring. Our study empirically demonstrates that leadership and followership are consistent behaviours in homing pigeon flocks, but such consistency is affected by the heterogeneity of individual flight experiences and/or age. Similar evidence from other species suggests leadership as an important mechanism for coordinated motion in small groups of animals with strong social bonds. PMID:25054203

  7. Temporal and contextual consistency of leadership in homing pigeon flocks.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos D; Neupert, Stefanie; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K N

    2014-01-01

    Organized flight of homing pigeons (Columba livia) was previously shown to rely on simple leadership rules between flock mates, yet the stability of this social structuring over time and across different contexts remains unclear. We quantified the repeatability of leadership-based flock structures within a flight and across multiple flights conducted with the same animals. We compared two contexts of flock composition: flocks of birds of the same age and flight experience; and, flocks of birds of different ages and flight experience. All flocks displayed consistent leadership-based structures over time, showing that individuals have stable roles in the navigational decisions of the flock. However, flocks of balanced age and flight experience exhibited reduced leadership stability, indicating that these factors promote flock structuring. Our study empirically demonstrates that leadership and followership are consistent behaviours in homing pigeon flocks, but such consistency is affected by the heterogeneity of individual flight experiences and/or age. Similar evidence from other species suggests leadership as an important mechanism for coordinated motion in small groups of animals with strong social bonds. PMID:25054203

  8. Rethinking Emotions and Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorn, Diane; Boler, Megan

    2007-01-01

    The literature on emotions and educational leadership is in need of a viable conception of "emotions". Recent studies of emotions and educational leadership have unwittingly inherited serious problems from current research on educational leadership and consequently misunderstand the political force of emotions. In this article we argue that a…

  9. Linking Leadership to Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Seashore-Louis, Karen

    2011-01-01

    "Linking Leadership to Student Learning" clearly shows how school leadership improves student achievement. The book is based on an ambitious five-year study on educational leadership that was sponsored by The Wallace Foundation. The authors studied 43 districts, across 9 states and 180 elementary, middle, and secondary schools. In this book,…

  10. Global Perspective on School Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Bainbridge, William L.

    The complexity of educational leadership belies simple models and must be examined holistically and historically. Leadership has a setting, a historical framework, a wholeness of meaning, and a diversity of influences. Effective leaders must both articulate the values of society and go beyond them. Most agree leadership: (1) is situational and…

  11. Leadership and the Life Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Francis J.

    This paper discusses the experience of living and what that means to the development of leadership. The author feels that although childhood is a critical time for the development of leadership qualities, the developmental process is lifelong and does not end with adolescence. Therefore, to raise the leadership potential in society we must work…

  12. The Rewards of Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies of academic leadership confirm what many academic leaders know from personal experience: academic leadership is a complex and demanding role with significant stress and high burnout and turnover rates (Brown, 2002; Brown and Moshavi, 2002). In the light of these issues, an exploration of the nature of academic leadership and its…

  13. The Significance of Leadership Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Elise

    1998-01-01

    In a learning environment, leadership style reflects a leader's deeply held educational beliefs, which are mirrored in the school's culture. Case studies illustrate how the leadership styles of three principals affect school ambience. Good leadership practice means acknowledging each person's differing gifts, strengths, and concerns, and utilizing…

  14. Jordanian School Counselors' Leadership Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsmadi, Rana; Mahasneh, Randa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the degree to which Jordanian school counselors were seen by teachers and principals to possess and display leadership behaviors related to Bolman and Deal's (1997) transformational "four framework approach" to leadership. This was based on the view that such leadership would relate to counselors'…

  15. Distributed Leadership in Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Göksoy, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many studies are conducted about shared leadership process. Distributed leadership (DL) approach addresses leadership along with teams, groups and organizational characteristics. In practice, this approach objects the supposition that an individual should take the lead in order to ensure change. Proponents of this idea claim that…

  16. On School Educational Technology Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis of the literatures on school educational technology leadership addresses definitions of school technology leaders and leadership, their role in educational change, and why schools are now changing as a result of 21st century advancements in technology. The literatures disagree over the definition of educational technology leadership.…

  17. Student Leadership at the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Ann T.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is about the utilization of student leadership at the University. Based on research, student leadership opportunities at the university have been frequently at a low percentage (Zimmerman, Burkhart, 2002). The researcher identifies practical ways to involve students in various leadership activities. Emphases are placed on…

  18. A Feminist Redefinition of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Katee

    Women bring to the leadership process not only distinct needs, but also a unique perspective that should be incorporated in all facets of leadership definition. A woman who occupies a position of leadership is enacting both a sex role and an organizational role. Because of this dual role, women are vulnerable to role conflict. One kind of role…

  19. Leadership. Research in Management Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neider, Linda L. Ed.; Schriesheim, Chester A., Ed.

    This volume in the Research in Management series is devoted to the field of leadership--a look at where it has been and where it seems to be going. A "Foreword" (Linda L. Neider, Chester A. Schriesheim) is followed by seven chapters highlighting creative, new looks at leadership and adept analyses of leadership theories that have already made…

  20. Leadership, Rhetoric, and the "Polis."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellis, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Discusses some of the relationships between rhetoric and the concepts of leadership and the "polis" (the active assembly of citizens empowered to discuss and make public policy). Argues that the study of leadership belongs in composition, rhetoric, and communication and that scholars and teachers are more than justified in studying leadership and…

  1. Leadership Practices of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, E. C. M.; McMahon, H. George

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is a vital skill called for by the school counseling profession. However, limited research has been done to examine how leadership is characterized by practicing school counselors. The purpose of the exploratory study in this article was to assess leadership practices of school counselors, and to analyze the relationships among…

  2. Towards Transformative Leadership in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oord, Lodewijk

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that an educational organization's type of leadership will to a very large extent determine the quality of personal transformation it instigates among its stakeholders. Focusing on the importance of transformative leadership, such leadership will be viewed as a critical and collaborative process in which school-based…

  3. Is it Leadership or Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roof, Joseph; Presswood, Kristy

    2004-01-01

    Two somewhat confused and possibly misused terms in higher education today are "leadership" and "management". Many times, the word leadership or leader is substituted for what is really management or manager, and vice versa. Our goal is to explore the concepts of leadership and management and to provide some observations as to what we need in our…

  4. Leadership, Personal Transformation, and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Tim; Cleveland-Innes, M.

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of leadership abound! For the purposes of this discussion, the authors use Secretan's (2004) work which provides a perspective on how leadership should impact on other people, and identifies the need to inspire, not simply motivate. The more one examines modern ideas about "leadership," the more it seems that most are simply techniques…

  5. Dominant Leadership Style in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2006-01-01

    The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

  6. The epistemology and ethics of consensus: uses and misuses of 'ethical' expertise.

    PubMed

    Tong, R

    1991-08-01

    In this paper I examine the epistemology and ethics of consensus, focusing on the ways in which decision makers use/misuse ethical expertise. The major questions I raise and tentative answers I give are the following: First, are the 'experts' really experts? My tentative answer is that they are bona fide experts who often represent specific interest groups. Second, is the experts' authority merely epistemological or is it also ethical? My tentative answer is that the experts' authority consists not only in their command over specific matters of fact and/or value, but also in their ability to achieve 'consensus' about what is 'true'/'false', or 'right'/'wrong'. Third, should the authority of expertise be limited? My tentative answer is that it should be limited in the area of facts but especially in the area of values. Persons who are ethics 'experts' must be particularly careful to practice an ethics of persuasion rather than an ethics of compulsion. Their role is not to force their group consensus upon decision makers' individual moral perceptions and deliberations; rather it is to help decision makers come to their own conclusions about what they ought to do. PMID:1895025

  7. Accuracy of a Decision Aid for Advance Care Planning: Simulated End-of-Life Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Benjamin H.; Heverley, Steven R.; Green, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Advance directives have been criticized for failing to help physicians make decisions consistent with patients’ wishes. This pilot study sought to determine if an interactive, computer-based decision aid that generates an advance directive can help physicians accurately translate patients’ wishes into treatment decisions. Methods We recruited 19 patient-participants who had each previously created an advance directive using a computer-based decision aid, and 14 physicians who had no prior knowledge of the patient-participants. For each advance directive, three physicians were randomly assigned to review the advance directive and make five to six treatment decisions for each of six (potentially) end-of-life clinical scenarios. From the three individual physicians’ responses, a “consensus physician response” was generated for each treatment decision (total decisions = 32). This consensus response was shared with the patient whose advance directive had been reviewed, and she/he was then asked to indicate how well the physician translated his/her wishes into clinical decisions. Results Patient-participants agreed with the consensus physician responses 84 percent (508/608) of the time, including 82 percent agreement on whether to provide mechanical ventilation, and 75 percent on decisions about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Across the six vignettes, patient-participants’ rating of how well physicians translated their advance directive into medical decisions was 8.4 (range = 6.5–10, where 1 = extremely poorly, and 10 = extremely well). Physicians’ overall rating of their confidence at accurately translating patients’ wishes into clinical decisions was 7.8 (range = 6.1–9.3, 1 = not at all confident, 10 = extremely confident). Conclusion For simulated cases, a computer-based decision aid for advance care planning can help physicians more confidently make end-of-life decisions that patients will endorse. PMID:22167985

  8. Think leader, think White? Capturing and weakening an implicit pro-White leadership bias.

    PubMed

    Gündemir, Seval; Homan, Astrid C; de Dreu, Carsten K W; van Vugt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Across four studies, we found evidence for an implicit pro-White leadership bias that helps explain the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions. Both White-majority and ethnic minority participants reacted significantly faster when ethnically White names and leadership roles (e.g., manager; Study 1) or leadership traits (e.g., decisiveness; Study 2 & 3) were paired in an Implicit Association Test (IAT) rather than when ethnic minority names and leadership traits were paired. Moreover, the implicit pro-White leadership bias showed discriminant validity with the conventional implicit bias measures (Study 3). Importantly, results showed that the pro-White leadership bias can be weakened when situational cues increase the salience of a dual identity (Study 4). This, in turn, can diminish the explicit pro-White bias in promotion related decision making processes (Study 4). This research offers a new tool to measure the implicit psychological processes underlying the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions and proposes interventions to weaken such biases. PMID:24416181

  9. Think Leader, Think White? Capturing and Weakening an Implicit Pro-White Leadership Bias

    PubMed Central

    Gündemir, Seval; Homan, Astrid C.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; van Vugt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Across four studies, we found evidence for an implicit pro-White leadership bias that helps explain the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions. Both White-majority and ethnic minority participants reacted significantly faster when ethnically White names and leadership roles (e.g., manager; Study 1) or leadership traits (e.g., decisiveness; Study 2 & 3) were paired in an Implicit Association Test (IAT) rather than when ethnic minority names and leadership traits were paired. Moreover, the implicit pro-White leadership bias showed discriminant validity with the conventional implicit bias measures (Study 3). Importantly, results showed that the pro-White leadership bias can be weakened when situational cues increase the salience of a dual identity (Study 4). This, in turn, can diminish the explicit pro-White bias in promotion related decision making processes (Study 4). This research offers a new tool to measure the implicit psychological processes underlying the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions and proposes interventions to weaken such biases. PMID:24416181

  10. Leadership in sports organizations.

    PubMed

    Chelladurai, P

    1980-12-01

    The paper describes a multidimensional model of leadership which specifies three states of leader behavior: leader behavior required by the situation, leader behavior preferred by the members, and the actual leader behavior. These three states of leader behavior are defined respectively by the situational characteristics such as the goals, size and structure of the organization and the nature of the work group and its norms; the characteristics of the members such as their personality and ability; and the leader's characteristics such as his personality and ability. The degree of congruence among the three states of leader behavior determines the performance of the group and the satisfaction of the members. Based on the model and on Blau and Scott's (1969) typology of organizations, the paper suggests specific leadership styles appropriate to the various types of sports organizations. Further, leadership styles appropriate to recreational sport and to different levels of athletic teams are also suggested. PMID:7449038

  11. Management or leadership?

    PubMed

    Grint, Keith

    2002-10-01

    This article considers the roots of the division between management and leadership, and suggests that the division encourages individuals and organizations to displace responsibility for problems in health services onto others. Given the significant limits to the power of leaders, the difficulty of establishing a science of leadership, and the increasing complexity facing health service management, the problems might appear insurmountable. However, drawing on lessons from the different approaches of the combatants in the infinitely greater complexity of the Second World War, it is suggested that trying to "manage" the chaos by controlling it, or relying on "leaders" to solve our problems, or buying in yet more consultants, are deeply problematic strategies; only mass leadership and collective responsibility are likely to solve the problems. PMID:12425785

  12. Consensus implementation of a groundwater remediation project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, K.R.; Carlson, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    Because of significant characterization uncertainties existing when the Record of Decision was signed and the unfavorable national reputation of groundwater pump and treat remediation projects, the Test Area North (TAN) groundwater ROD includes the evaluation of five emerging technologies that show potential for treating the organic contamination in situ or reducing the toxicity of contaminants above ground. Treatability studies will be conducted to ascertain whether any may be suitable for implementation at TAN to yield more timely or cost effective restoration of the aquifer. The implementation approach established for the TAN groundwater project is a consensus approach, maximizing a partnership relation with stakeholders in constant, iterative implementation decision making.

  13. Leadership. The personal touch.

    PubMed

    Best, G; Brazil, R; Fry, M; Joyce, L; Owens, J; Pashley, S

    1997-10-16

    The government is likely to move from a centralised corporatist form of governance to a more collaborative approach. This will require chief executives to rely on a style of leadership which derives more from personal influence than positional forms of power. It may be time to discuss the future of politically appointed chairs and whether the chief executive should be the sole local leader. The government's commitment to delegating power to regional tiers is likely to have a major impact on the nature of leadership in the NHS. PMID:10174457

  14. On leadership and leaders.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    Leadership is the vital ingredient to achieving organizational excellence and outstanding healthcare systems. There is so much to be celebrated when reflecting on the evolution of healthcare leadership over the past 50 years. However, in 50 years, we have created silos of care, of funding and of social policy that have undermined our progress in improving the care process, shifting away from health and toward healthcare, and we have lost the opportunity to promote streamlined care through the continuum of health needs. Exemplary healthcare leaders of tomorrow will need sophisticated business skills, balanced with the capacity to inspire innovation, in order to manage an ever-growing complex environment. PMID:23107908

  15. Serving by local consensus in the public service location game

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi-Fan; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the issue of distributed and cooperative decision-making in a network game of public service location. Each node of the network can decide to host a certain public service incurring in a construction cost and serving all the neighboring nodes and itself. A pure consumer node has to pay a tax, and the collected tax is evenly distributed to all the hosting nodes to remedy their construction costs. If all nodes make individual best-response decisions, the system gets trapped in an inefficient situation of high tax level. Here we introduce a decentralized local-consensus selection mechanism which requires nodes to recommend their neighbors of highest local impact as candidate servers, and a node may become a server only if all its non-server neighbors give their assent. We demonstrate that although this mechanism involves only information exchange among neighboring nodes, it leads to socially efficient solutions with tax level approaching the lowest possible value. Our results may help in understanding and improving collective problem-solving in various networked social and robotic systems. PMID:27586793

  16. Serving by local consensus in the public service location game.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Fan; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the issue of distributed and cooperative decision-making in a network game of public service location. Each node of the network can decide to host a certain public service incurring in a construction cost and serving all the neighboring nodes and itself. A pure consumer node has to pay a tax, and the collected tax is evenly distributed to all the hosting nodes to remedy their construction costs. If all nodes make individual best-response decisions, the system gets trapped in an inefficient situation of high tax level. Here we introduce a decentralized local-consensus selection mechanism which requires nodes to recommend their neighbors of highest local impact as candidate servers, and a node may become a server only if all its non-server neighbors give their assent. We demonstrate that although this mechanism involves only information exchange among neighboring nodes, it leads to socially efficient solutions with tax level approaching the lowest possible value. Our results may help in understanding and improving collective problem-solving in various networked social and robotic systems. PMID:27586793

  17. Moving from "Youth Leadership Development" to "Youth in Governance": Learning Leadership by Doing Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeil, Carole A.

    2006-01-01

    Learning leadership happens experientially, through involvement in opportunities to practice the skills, experiment with approaches, and try on the roles. For youth leadership development, it means creating opportunities for young people to do more than hear stories of great leadership or participate in skills-building activities. In much of her…

  18. Leadership = Communication? The Relations of Leaders' Communication Styles with Leadership Styles, Knowledge Sharing and Leadership Outcomes.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Reinout E; Bakker-Pieper, Angelique; Oostenveld, Wyneke

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between leaders' communication styles and charismatic leadership, human-oriented leadership (leader's consideration), task-oriented leadership (leader's initiating structure), and leadership outcomes. METHODOLOGY: A survey was conducted among 279 employees of a governmental organization. The following six main communication styles were operationalized: verbal aggressiveness, expressiveness, preciseness, assuredness, supportiveness, and argumentativeness. Regression analyses were employed to test three main hypotheses. FINDINGS: In line with expectations, the study showed that charismatic and human-oriented leadership are mainly communicative, while task-oriented leadership is significantly less communicative. The communication styles were strongly and differentially related to knowledge sharing behaviors, perceived leader performance, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate's team commitment. Multiple regression analyses showed that the leadership styles mediated the relations between the communication styles and leadership outcomes. However, leader's preciseness explained variance in perceived leader performance and satisfaction with the leader above and beyond the leadership style variables. IMPLICATIONS: This study offers potentially invaluable input for leadership training programs by showing the importance of leader's supportiveness, assuredness, and preciseness when communicating with subordinates. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although one of the core elements of leadership is interpersonal communication, this study is one of the first to use a comprehensive communication styles instrument in the study of leadership. PMID:20700375

  19. Youth-Led Decision Making in Community Development Grants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha; Manolson, Sarah; Shaw, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines youth-led decision making (YLDM) among groups of youth who are providers or recipients of community development grants. Focus groups, interviews, and participant observation with 14- to 20-year-olds and supporting adults showed youth have a preference for consensus-based decisions. Youth used due process to reach decisions…

  20. Essays on Visual Representation Technology and Decision Making in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Chih-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Information technology has played several important roles in group decision making, such as communication support and decision support. Little is known about how information technology can be used to persuade members of a group to reach a consensus. In this dissertation, I aim to address the issues that are related to the role of visual…