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Sample records for leaf buds analyses

  1. Use of Stored Carbon Reserves in Growth of Temperate Tree Roots and Leaf Buds: Analyses Using Radiocarbon Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudinski, Julia B.; Torn, Margaret S.; Riley, W. J.; Swanston, Christopher W.; Trumbore, Susan E.; JoslinJr., John D.; Majdi, H; Dawson, Todd E.; Hanson, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing the use of C reserves in trees is important for understanding stress responses, impacts of asynchrony between photosynthesis and growth demand, and isotopic exchanges in plant dynamic studies. Using an inadvertent, whole ecosystem radiocarbon (14C) exposure in a temperate deciduous oak forest and numerical modeling, we calculated that the mean age of stored C used to grow leaf buds and new fine root tissue is 0.5-1.0 y. The mean age of stored C used to grow new roots was about 0.7 y across a range of realistic values of 14C inputs to the system. The amount of stored C used on an annual basis to grow fine roots was between 15 and 55% of total root growth, with the range defined by the assumed 14C input profile. We estimate the annually-averaged mean age of C in new root tissues is 1-5 months. Therefore, accounting for storage C use in isotope root models may be unnecessary in all but the fastest cycling root populations (i.e., mean age <1 y). Consistent with the whole ecosystem labeling results, we found, using "bomb-14C," that the mean C age of new root tissues in three additional forest sites (one deciduous, two coniferous) was less than 2 years. We conclude that in many ecosystem types, growth from stored C is insufficient to impact bomb-14C based estimates of long root lifetimes.

  2. Preformation in vegetative buds of Prunus persica: factors influencing number of leaf primordia in overwintering buds.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D; Damiano, C; DeJong, T M

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the influence of bud position, cultivar, tree age, tree carbohydrate status, sampling date, drought and light exposure on the number of leaf primordia formed in dormant vegetative peach buds (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) relative to the number of primordia formed after bud break (neoformed). During winter dormancy, vegetative peach buds from California and Italy were dissected and the number of leaf primordia recorded. Between leaf drop and bud break, the number of leaf primordia doubled from about five to about 10. Parent shoot length, number of nodes on the parent shoot, cross-sectional area of the parent shoot, bud position along the parent shoot and bud cross-sectional area were correlated with the number of leaf primordia. Previous season light exposure, drought and tree carbohydrate status did not affect the number of leaf primordia present. The number of leaf primordia differed significantly among peach varieties and tree ages at leaf drop, but not at bud break. Our results indicate that neoformation accounted for all shoot growth beyond about 10 nodes. The predominance of neoformed shoot growth in peach allows this species great plasticity in its response to current-season conditions.

  3. The use of stored carbon reserves in growth of temperate tree roots and leaf buds: Analyses using radiocarbon measurements and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudinski, J.B.; Torn, M.S.; Riley, W.J.; Swanston, C.; Trumbore, S.E.; Joslin, J.D.; Majdi, H.; Dawson, T.E.; Hanson, P.J.

    2009-02-01

    Characterizing the use of carbon (C) reserves in trees is important for understanding regional and global C cycles, stress responses, asynchrony between photosynthetic activity and growth demand, and isotopic exchanges in studies of tree physiology and ecosystem C cycling. Using an inadvertent, whole-ecosystem radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) release in a temperate deciduous oak forest and numerical modeling, we estimated that the mean age of stored C used to grow both leaf buds and new roots is 0.7 years and about 55% of new-root growth annually comes from stored C. Therefore, the calculated mean age of C used to grow new-root tissue is {approx}0.4 years. In short, new roots contain a lot of stored C but it is young in age. Additionally, the type of structure used to model stored C input is important. Model structures that did not include storage, or that assumed stored and new C mixed well (within root or shoot tissues) before being used for root growth, did not fit the data nearly as well as when a distinct storage pool was used. Consistent with these whole-ecosystem labeling results, the mean age of C in new-root tissues determined using 'bomb-{sup 14}C' in three additional forest sites in North America and Europe (one deciduous, two coniferous) was less than 1-2 years. The effect of stored reserves on estimated ages of fine roots is unlikely to be large in most natural abundance isotope studies. However, models of root C dynamics should take stored reserves into account, particularly for pulse-labeling studies and fast-cycling roots (<1 years).

  4. High biological variability of plastids, photosynthetic pigments and pigment forms of leaf primordia in buds.

    PubMed

    Solymosi, Katalin; Morandi, Dominique; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla; Schoefs, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    To study the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus in nature, the carotenoid and chlorophyllous pigment compositions of differently developed leaf primordia in closed and opening buds of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as well as in closed buds of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima P. Mill.) were analyzed with HPLC. The native organization of the chlorophyllous pigments was studied using 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy, and plastid ultrastructure was investigated with electron microscopy. Complete etiolation, i.e., accumulation of protochlorophyllide, and absence of chlorophylls occurred in the innermost leaf primordia of common ash buds. The other leaf primordia were partially etiolated in the buds and contained protochlorophyllide (0.5-1 μg g(-1) fresh mass), chlorophyllides (0.2-27 μg g(-1) fresh mass) and chlorophylls (0.9-643 μg g(-1) fresh mass). Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies and either regular or only low grana were found in leaves having high or low amounts of chlorophyll a and b, respectively. After bud break, etioplast-chloroplast conversion proceeded and the pigment contents increased in the leaves, similarly to the greening processes observed in illuminated etiolated seedlings under laboratory conditions. The pigment contents and the ratio of the different spectral forms had a high biological variability that could be attributed to (i) various light conditions due to light filtering in the buds resulting in differently etiolated leaf primordia, (ii) to differences in the light-exposed and inner regions of the same primordia in opening buds due to various leaf folding, and (iii) to tissue-specific slight variations of plastid ultrastructure.

  5. Gene expression analysis of bud and leaf color in tea.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Zhang, Yazhen; Wu, Liyun; Li, Hailin; Ruan, Li; Bai, Peixian; Zhang, Chengcai; Zhang, Fen; Xu, Liyi; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Purple shoot tea attributing to the high anthocyanin accumulation is of great interest for its wide health benefits. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in purple buds and leaves formation in tea plants, we performed transcriptome analysis of six green or purple shoot tea individuals from a F1 population using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 292 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and assembled into 112,233 unigenes, with an average length of 759 bp and an N50 of 1081 bp. Moreover, totally 2193 unigenes showed significant differences in expression levels between green and purple tea samples, with 1143 up- and 1050 down-regulated in the purple teas. Further real time PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq results. Our study identified 28 differentially expressed transcriptional factors and A CsMYB gene was found to be highly similar to AtPAP1 in Arabidopsis. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and transportation showed that the late biosynthetic genes and genes involved in anthocyanin transportation were largely affected but the early biosynthetic genes were less or none affected. Overall, the identification of a large number of differentially expressed genes offers a global view of the potential mechanisms associated with purple buds and leaves formation, which will facilitate molecular breeding in tea plants.

  6. Perception of photoperiod in individual buds of mature trees regulates leaf-out.

    PubMed

    Zohner, Constantin M; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data on the perception of day length and temperature in dormant temperate zone trees are surprisingly scarce. In order to investigate when and where these environmental signals are perceived, we carried out bagging experiments in which buds on branches of Fagus sylvatica, Aesculus hippocastanum and Picea abies trees were exposed to natural light increase or kept at constant 8-h days from December until June. Parallel experiments used twigs cut from the same trees, harvesting treated and control twigs seven times and then exposing them to 8- or 16-h days in a glasshouse. Under 8-h days, budburst in Fagus outdoors was delayed by 41 d and in Aesculus by 4 d; in Picea, day length had no effect. Buds on nearby branches reacted autonomously, and leaf primordia only reacted to light cues in late dormancy after accumulating warm days. Experiments applying different wavelength spectra and high-resolution spectrometry to buds indicate a phytochrome-mediated photoperiod control. By demonstrating local photoperiodic control of buds, revealing the time when these signals are perceived, and showing the interplay between photoperiod and chilling, this study contributes to improved modelling of the impact of climate warming on photosensitive species.

  7. From buds to litter: seasonal changes in leaf wax concentrations and carbon isotopes and implications for the geologic past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Y. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of leaf waxes, such as n-alkanes, have extensively been used in paleoenvironmental studies for reconstruction of the past vegetation, climate and carbon cycling. There is however little information available on the seasonal variation of leaf wax concentration and δ13C in modern plants and when the δ13C signal is set. This lack of information confounds interpretations of leaf wax δ13C in sedimentary archives. To address this gap, this study investigates temporal changes in n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid δ13C values in several species (Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Ulmus Americana, Sassafras albidum, and Juniperus virginiana) within a single temperate deciduous forest stand in southern Ohio. We sampled atmospheric air, buds, leaves, leaf litter, and surface soil weekly during leaf flush and biweekly thereafter. In A. rubrum, A. saccharum, and U. Americana, buds had one or two dominant n-alkanes, such as C29 and C31. After leaf flush, the concentrations of shorter n-alkanes (C23~C27) significantly increased relative to the longer chain-lengths. We are currently analyzing remaining samples from the growing season and are analyzing bulk leaf and leaf wax (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) δ13C values. This information will be important for identifying environmental and physiological controls on leaf wax δ13C and will improve interpretations of leaf wax δ13C preserved in the geologic record.

  8. Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin-1 Is a Reliable Taste Bud Marker for In Situ Hybridization Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Joto; Okada, Shinji; Kishi, Mikiya; Misaka, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Taste signals are received by taste buds. To better understand the taste reception system, expression patterns of taste-related molecules are determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses at the histological level. Nevertheless, even though ISH is essential for determining mRNA expression, few taste bud markers can be applied together with ISH. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) appears to be a reliable murine taste bud marker based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses. However, there is no evidence as to whether UEA-1 can be used for ISH. Thus, the present study evaluated UEA-1 using various histochemical methods, especially ISH. When lectin staining was performed after ISH procedures, UEA-1 clearly labeled taste cellular membranes and distinctly indicated boundaries between taste buds and the surrounding epithelial cells. Additionally, UEA-1 was determined as a taste bud marker not only when used in single-colored ISH but also when employed with double-labeled ISH or during simultaneous detection using IHC and ISH methods. These results suggest that UEA-1 is a useful marker when conducting analyses based on ISH methods. To clarify UEA-1 staining details, multi-fluorescent IHC (together with UEA-1 staining) was examined, resulting in more than 99% of cells being labeled by UEA-1 and overlapping with KCNQ1-expressing cells. PMID:26718243

  9. Comparison of axillary bud growth and patatin accumulation in potato leaf cuttings as assays for tuber induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Hannapel, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    Single-node leaf cuttings from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Norland, Superior, Norchip, and Kennebec, were used to assess tuber induction in plants grown under 12, 16, and 20 h daily irradiation (400 micromol s-1 m-2 PPF). Leaf cuttings were taken from plants at four, six and 15 weeks after planting and cultured for 14 d in sand trays in humid environments. Tuber induction was determined by visually rating the type of growth at the attached axillary bud, and by measuring the accumulation of the major tuber protein, patatin, in the base of the petioles. Axillary buds from leaf cuttings of plants grown under the 12 h photoperiod consistently formed round, sessile tubers at the axils for all four cultivars at all harvests. Buds from cuttings of plants grown under the 16 and 20 h photoperiods exhibited mixed tuber, stolon, and leafy shoot growth. Patatin accumulation was highest in petioles of cuttings taken from 12 h plants for all cultivars at all harvests, with levels in 16 and 20 h cuttings approx. one-half that of the 12 h cuttings. Trends, both in visual ratings of axillary buds and in petiole patatin accumulation, followed the harvest index (ratio of tuber to total plant dry matter), suggesting that either method is an acceptable assay for tuber induction in the potato.

  10. CG Methylation Covaries with Differential Gene Expression between Leaf and Floral Bud Tissues of Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Kyria; Takuno, Shohei; Gaut, Brandon S

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation has the potential to influence plant growth and development through its influence on gene expression. To date, however, the evidence from plant systems is mixed as to whether patterns of DNA methylation vary significantly among tissues and, if so, whether these differences affect tissue-specific gene expression. To address these questions, we analyzed both bisulfite sequence (BSseq) and transcriptomic sequence data from three biological replicates of two tissues (leaf and floral bud) from the model grass species Brachypodium distachyon. Our first goal was to determine whether tissues were more differentiated in DNA methylation than explained by variation among biological replicates. Tissues were more differentiated than biological replicates, but the analysis of replicated data revealed high (>50%) false positive rates for the inference of differentially methylated sites (DMSs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Comparing methylation to gene expression, we found that differential CG methylation consistently covaried negatively with gene expression, regardless as to whether methylation was within genes, within their promoters or even within their closest transposable element. The relationship between gene expression and either CHG or CHH methylation was less consistent. In total, CG methylation in promoters explained 9% of the variation in tissue-specific expression across genes, suggesting that CG methylation is a minor but appreciable factor in tissue differentiation.

  11. CG Methylation Covaries with Differential Gene Expression between Leaf and Floral Bud Tissues of Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, Kyria; Takuno, Shohei; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation has the potential to influence plant growth and development through its influence on gene expression. To date, however, the evidence from plant systems is mixed as to whether patterns of DNA methylation vary significantly among tissues and, if so, whether these differences affect tissue-specific gene expression. To address these questions, we analyzed both bisulfite sequence (BSseq) and transcriptomic sequence data from three biological replicates of two tissues (leaf and floral bud) from the model grass species Brachypodium distachyon. Our first goal was to determine whether tissues were more differentiated in DNA methylation than explained by variation among biological replicates. Tissues were more differentiated than biological replicates, but the analysis of replicated data revealed high (>50%) false positive rates for the inference of differentially methylated sites (DMSs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Comparing methylation to gene expression, we found that differential CG methylation consistently covaried negatively with gene expression, regardless as to whether methylation was within genes, within their promoters or even within their closest transposable element. The relationship between gene expression and either CHG or CHH methylation was less consistent. In total, CG methylation in promoters explained 9% of the variation in tissue-specific expression across genes, suggesting that CG methylation is a minor but appreciable factor in tissue differentiation. PMID:26950546

  12. Light controls shoot meristem organogenic activity and leaf primordia growth during bud burst in Rosa sp.

    PubMed

    Girault, Tiffanie; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Combes, Didier; Viemont, Jean-Daniel; Leduc, Nathalie

    2008-11-01

    Light controls bud burst in many plants, which subsequently affects their architecture. Nevertheless, very little is known about this photomorphogenic process. This study ascertains the effects of light on bud burst and on two of its components, i.e. growth of preformed leaves and meristem organogenesis in six cultivars from three Rosa species (R. hybrida L., R. chinensis L., R. wichurana L.). Defoliated plants were severed above the third basal bud and exposed, either to darkness or to different intensities of white light, to blue, red or to FR, at constant temperature. Bud bursting was inhibited in darkness in the six cultivars of Rosa, but not in Arabidopsis, tomato and poplar plants under the same condition. In all Rosa cultivars, bud burst, growth of preformed leaves and meristem organogenesis were triggered by blue and red lights, and extended by increasing light intensities. FR was inhibitory of bud burst. Partial shading experiments demonstrated that bud and not stem was the active site for light perception in bud burst.

  13. Genetic variation of the bud and leaf phenology of seventeen poplar clones in a short rotation coppice culture.

    PubMed

    Pellis, A; Laureysens, I; Ceulemans, R

    2004-01-01

    Leaf phenology of 17 poplar ( Populus spp.) clones, encompassing spring phenology, length of growth period and end-of-year phenology, was examined over several years of different rotations. The 17 poplar clones differed in their latitude of origin (45 degrees 30'N to 51 degrees N) and were studied on a short rotation experimental field plantation, situated in Boom (province of Antwerpen, Belgium; 51 degrees 05'N, 04 degrees 22'E). A similar, clear pattern of bud burst was observed during the different years of study for all clones. Clones Columbia River, Fritzi Pauley, Trichobel (Populus trichocarpa) and Balsam Spire (Populus trichocarpa x Populus balsamifera) from 45 degrees 30'N to 49 degrees N reached bud burst (expressed as day of the year or degree day sums) almost every year earlier than clones Wolterson (Populus nigra), Gaver, Gibecq and Primo (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) (50 degrees N to 51 degrees N). This observation could not be generalised to end-of-season phenology, for which a yearly returning pattern for all clones was lacking. Late bud burst and early leaf fall of some clones (Beaupré, Boelare, IBW1, IBW2, IBW3) was brought about by increasing rust incidence during the years of observation. For these clones, the variability in leaf phenology was reflected in high coefficients of variation among years. The patterns of genetic variation in leaf phenology have implications for short rotation intensive culture forestry and management of natural populations. Moreover, the variation in phenology reported here is relevant with regard to the genetic mapping of poplar.

  14. Twilight far-red treatment advances leaf bud burst of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Linkosalo, Tapio; Lechowicz, Martin J

    2006-10-01

    Bud development of boreal trees in spring, once initiated, is driven by ambient air temperature, but the mechanism triggering bud development remains unclear. We determined if some aspect of the diurnal or seasonal light regime influences initiation of bud burst once the chilling requirement is met. We grew 3-year-old birch plantlets cloned from a mature tree of boreal origin in light conditions realistically simulating the lengthening days of spring at 60 degrees N. To emulate the reduction in red to far-red light (R:FR) ratio between daylight and twilight, one group of plantlets was subjected to reduced R:FR ratio in the morning and evening in addition to progressively lengthening days, whereas the other group was subjected to the same R:FR ratio throughout the day. The reduced R:FR ratio of twilight advanced bud burst by 4 days compared with the reference group (P = 0.04). To assess the interplay between the fulfillment of the chilling requirement and the subsequent response to warming, we fitted a thermal time model to the data with separate parameterizations for the starting dates of heat sum accumulation in each treatment. Least-squares fitting suggested that bud development started in light regimes corresponding to late March, almost two months after the chilling requirement for dormancy release was satisfied. Therefore, shortening night length or increasing day length, or both, appears to be the cue enabling bud development in spring, with twilight quality having an effect on the photoperiodic response. If twilight alone were the cue, the difference in bud burst dates between the experimental groups would have been greater than 4 days. The result gives experimental support for the use of thermal-time models in phenological modeling.

  15. Proteomic analyses of baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus budded and occluded virus.

    PubMed

    Braconi, Carla Torres; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Garcia-Maruniak, Alejandra; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais; Maruniak, James E; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade

    2014-04-01

    Baculoviruses infect insects, producing two distinct phenotypes during the viral life cycle: the budded virus (BV) and the occlusion-derived virus (ODV) for intra- and inter-host spread, respectively. Since the 1980s, several countries have been using Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) as a biological control agent against the velvet bean caterpillar, A. gemmatalis. The genome of AgMNPV isolate 2D (AgMNPV-2D) carries at least 152 potential genes, with 24 that possibly code for structural proteins. Proteomic studies have been carried out on a few baculoviruses, with six ODV and two BV proteomes completed so far. Moreover, there are limited data on virion proteins carried by AgMNPV-2D. Therefore, structural proteins of AgMNPV-2D were analysed by MALDI- quadrupole-TOF and liquid chromatography MS/MS. A total of 44 proteins were associated with the ODV and 33 with the BV of AgMNPV-2D. Although 38 structural proteins were already known, we found six new proteins in the ODV and seven new proteins carried by the AgMNPV-2D BV. Eleven cellular proteins that were found on several other enveloped viruses were also identified, which are possibly carried with the virion. These findings may provide novel insights into baculovirus biology and their host interaction. Moreover, our data may be helpful in subsequent applied studies aiming to improve AgMNPV use as a biopesticide and a biotechnology tool for gene expression or delivery.

  16. Characterization of bud emergence 46 (BEM46) protein: Sequence, structural, phylogenetic and subcellular localization analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Abhishek; Kollath-Leiß, Krisztina; Kempken, Frank

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •All eukaryotes have at least a single copy of a bem46 ortholog. •The catalytic triad of BEM46 is illustrated using sequence and structural analysis. •We identified indels in the conserved domain of BEM46 protein. •Localization studies of BEM46 protein were carried out using GFP-fusion tagging. -- Abstract: The bud emergence 46 (BEM46) protein from Neurospora crassa belongs to the α/β-hydrolase superfamily. Recently, we have reported that the BEM46 protein is localized in the perinuclear ER and also forms spots close by the plasma membrane. The protein appears to be required for cell type-specific polarity formation in N. crassa. Furthermore, initial studies suggested that the BEM46 amino acid sequence is conserved in eukaryotes and is considered to be one of the widespread conserved “known unknown” eukaryotic genes. This warrants for a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of this superfamily to unravel origin and molecular evolution of these genes in different eukaryotes. Herein, we observe that all eukaryotes have at least a single copy of a bem46 ortholog. Upon scanning of these proteins in various genomes, we find that there are expansions leading into several paralogs in vertebrates. Usingcomparative genomic analyses, we identified insertion/deletions (indels) in the conserved domain of BEM46 protein, which allow to differentiate fungal classes such as ascomycetes from basidiomycetes. We also find that exonic indels are able to differentiate BEM46 homologs of different eukaryotic lineage. Furthermore, we unravel that BEM46 protein from N. crassa possess a novel endoplasmic-retention signal (PEKK) using GFP-fusion tagging experiments. We propose that three residues namely a serine 188S, a histidine 292H and an aspartic acid 262D are most critical residues, forming a catalytic triad in BEM46 protein from N. crassa. We carried out a comprehensive study on bem46 genes from a molecular evolution perspective with combination of functional

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Differentiation across Six Shared Willow Host Species in Leaf- and Bud-Galling Sawflies

    PubMed Central

    Leppänen, Sanna A.; Malm, Tobias; Värri, Kaisa; Nyman, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Genetic divergence and speciation in plant-feeding insects could be driven by contrasting selection pressures imposed by different plant species and taxa. While numerous examples of host-associated differentiation (HAD) have been found, the overall importance of HAD in insect diversification remains unclear, as few studies have investigated its frequency in relation to all speciation events. One promising way to infer the prevalence and repeatability of HAD is to estimate genetic differentiation in multiple insect taxa that use the same set of hosts. To this end, we measured and compared variation in mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS2 sequences in population samples of leaf-galling Pontania and bud-galling Euura sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) collected from six Salix species in two replicate locations in northern Fennoscandia. We found evidence of frequent HAD in both species complexes, as individuals from the same willow species tended to cluster together on both mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic trees. Although few fixed differences among the putative species were found, hierarchical AMOVAs showed that most of the genetic variation in the samples was explained by host species rather than by sampling location. Nevertheless, the levels of HAD measured across specific pairs of host species were not correlated in the two focal galler groups. Hence, our results support the hypothesis of HAD as a central force in herbivore speciation, but also indicate that evolutionary trajectories are only weakly repeatable even in temporally overlapping radiations of related insect taxa. PMID:25551608

  18. Proteomics and transcriptomics analyses of Arabidopsis floral buds uncover important functions of ARABIDOPSIS SKP1-LIKE1

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Dihong; Ni, Weimin; Stanley, Bruce A.; Ma, Hong

    2016-03-03

    The ARABIDOPSIS SKP1-LIKE1 (ASK1) protein functions as a subunit of SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligases. Previous genetic studies showed that ASK1 plays important roles in Arabidopsis flower development and male meiosis. However, the molecular impact of ASK1-containing SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases (ASK1-E3s) on the floral proteome and transcriptome is unknown. Here we identified proteins that are potentially regulated by ASK1-E3s by comparing floral bud proteomes of wild-type and the ask1 mutant plants. More than 200 proteins were detected in the ask1 mutant but not in wild-type and >300 were detected at higher levels in the ask1 mutant than in wild-type, but their RNA levels were not significantly different between wild-type and ask1 floral buds as shown by transcriptomics analysis, suggesting that they are likely regulated at the protein level by ASK1-E3s. Integrated analyses of floral proteomics and transcriptomics of ask1 and wild-type uncovered several potential aspects of ASK1-E3 functions, including regulation of transcription regulators, kinases, peptidases, and ribosomal proteins, with implications on possible mechanisms of ASK1-E3 functions in floral development. In conclusion, our results suggested that ASK1-E3s play important roles in Arabidopsis protein degradation during flower development. This study opens up new possibilities for further functional studies of these candidate E3 substrates.

  19. Proteomics and transcriptomics analyses of Arabidopsis floral buds uncover important functions of ARABIDOPSIS SKP1-LIKE1

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Dihong; Ni, Weimin; Stanley, Bruce A.; ...

    2016-03-03

    The ARABIDOPSIS SKP1-LIKE1 (ASK1) protein functions as a subunit of SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligases. Previous genetic studies showed that ASK1 plays important roles in Arabidopsis flower development and male meiosis. However, the molecular impact of ASK1-containing SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases (ASK1-E3s) on the floral proteome and transcriptome is unknown. Here we identified proteins that are potentially regulated by ASK1-E3s by comparing floral bud proteomes of wild-type and the ask1 mutant plants. More than 200 proteins were detected in the ask1 mutant but not in wild-type and >300 were detected at higher levels in the ask1 mutant than in wild-type,more » but their RNA levels were not significantly different between wild-type and ask1 floral buds as shown by transcriptomics analysis, suggesting that they are likely regulated at the protein level by ASK1-E3s. Integrated analyses of floral proteomics and transcriptomics of ask1 and wild-type uncovered several potential aspects of ASK1-E3 functions, including regulation of transcription regulators, kinases, peptidases, and ribosomal proteins, with implications on possible mechanisms of ASK1-E3 functions in floral development. In conclusion, our results suggested that ASK1-E3s play important roles in Arabidopsis protein degradation during flower development. This study opens up new possibilities for further functional studies of these candidate E3 substrates.« less

  20. Species diversity of Fergusonina Malloch gall flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) forming leaf bud galls on snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex), with a description of a new species from Tasmania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) fly is described from terminal leaf bud galls (TLBGs) from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (snow gum) species complex. Fergusonina tasmaniensis Nelson sp.n. is the first species from the genus Fergusonina to be described from Tasmania...

  1. QTL mapping for a trade-off between leaf and bud production in a recombinant inbred population of Microseris douglasii and M. bigelovii (Asteraceae, Lactuceae): a potential preadaptation for the colonization of serpentine soils.

    PubMed

    Gailing, O; Macnair, M R; Bachmann, K

    2004-07-01

    The different response to growth on serpentine soil is a major autecological difference between the annual asteracean species Microseris douglasii and M. bigelovii, with nearly non-overlapping distribution ranges in California. Early flowering and seed set is regarded as a crucial character contributing to escape drought and thus is strongly correlated with survival and reproductive success on serpentine as naturally toxic soil. M. bigelovii (strain C94) from non-serpentine soil produces more leaves at the expense of bud production in the first growing phase than M. douglasii (B14) from serpentine soil. A QTL mapping study for this trade-off and for other growth-related traits was performed after six generations of inbreeding (F7) from a single interspecific hybrid between B14 and C94 on plants that were grown on serpentine and alternatively on normal potting soil. The trade-off is mainly correlated with markers on one map region on linkage group 03a (lg03a) with major phenotypic effects (phenotypic variance explained [PVE] = 18.8 - 31.7 %). Plants with the M. douglasii allele in QTL-B1 (QTL-NL1) produce more buds but fewer leaves in the first 119 days on both soil types. Three modifier QTL could be mapped for bud and leaf production. In one modifier (QTL-B2 = QTL-NL4) the M. douglasii allele is again associated with more buds but fewer leaves. QTL mapped for bud set in the F6 co-localize with QTL-B1 (major QTL) and QTL-B3. Two additional QTL for leaf length and red coloration of leaves could be mapped to one map region on lg03a. Co-localization of the two QTL loci with major phenotypic effects on bud and leaf production strongly suggests that a major genetic locus controls the trade-off between the two adaptive traits. The importance of mutational changes in major genes for the adaptation to stressful environments is discussed.

  2. Arenavirus Budding

    PubMed Central

    Urata, Shuzo; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health concern in their endemic regions. On the other hand, the prototypic arenavirus LCMV is a superb workhorse for the investigation of virus-host interactions and associated disease. The arenavirus small RING finger protein called Z has been shown to be the main driving force of virus budding. The budding activity of Z is mediated by late (L) domain motifs, PT/SAP, and PPXY, located at the C-terminus of Z. This paper will present the current knowledge on arenavirus budding including the diversity of L domain motifs used by different arenaviruses. We will also discuss how improved knowledge of arenavirus budding may facilitate the development of novel antiviral strategies to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses. PMID:22312335

  3. High Throughput Analyses of Budding Yeast ARSs Reveal New DNA Elements Capable of Conferring Centromere-Independent Plasmid Propagation.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Timothy; Liachko, Ivan; Burt, Cassaundra; Meikle, Troy; Jiang, Katherine; Craciun, Gheorghe; Dunham, Maitreya J; Fox, Catherine A

    2016-04-07

    The ability of plasmids to propagate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been instrumental in defining eukaryotic chromosomal control elements. Stable propagation demands both plasmid replication, which requires a chromosomal replication origin (i.e., an ARS), and plasmid distribution to dividing cells, which requires either a chromosomal centromere for segregation or a plasmid-partitioning element. While our knowledge of yeast ARSs and centromeres is relatively advanced, we know less about chromosomal regions that can function as plasmid partitioning elements. The Rap1 protein-binding site (RAP1) present in transcriptional silencers and telomeres of budding yeast is a known plasmid-partitioning element that functions to anchor a plasmid to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which in turn facilitates plasmid distribution to daughter cells. This Rap1-dependent INM-anchoring also has an important chromosomal role in higher-order chromosomal structures that enhance transcriptional silencing and telomere stability. Thus, plasmid partitioning can reflect fundamental features of chromosome structure and biology, yet a systematic screen for plasmid partitioning elements has not been reported. Here, we couple deep sequencing with competitive growth experiments of a plasmid library containing thousands of short ARS fragments to identify new plasmid partitioning elements. Competitive growth experiments were performed with libraries that differed only in terms of the presence or absence of a centromere. Comparisons of the behavior of ARS fragments in the two experiments allowed us to identify sequences that were likely to drive plasmid partitioning. In addition to the silencer RAP1 site, we identified 74 new putative plasmid-partitioning motifs predicted to act as binding sites for DNA binding proteins enriched for roles in negative regulation of gene expression and G2/M-phase associated biology. These data expand our knowledge of chromosomal elements that may function in plasmid

  4. Leaf Length Tracker: a novel approach to analyse leaf elongation close to the thermal limit of growth in the field.

    PubMed

    Nagelmüller, Sebastian; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Yates, Steven; Hiltpold, Maya; Walter, Achim

    2016-03-01

    Leaf growth in monocot crops such as wheat and barley largely follows the daily temperature course, particularly under cold but humid springtime field conditions. Knowledge of the temperature response of leaf extension, particularly variations close to the thermal limit of growth, helps define physiological growth constraints and breeding-related genotypic differences among cultivars. Here, we present a novel method, called 'Leaf Length Tracker' (LLT), suitable for measuring leaf elongation rates (LERs) of cereals and other grasses with high precision and high temporal resolution under field conditions. The method is based on image sequence analysis, using a marker tracking approach to calculate LERs. We applied the LLT to several varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), summer barley (Hordeum vulgare), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), grown in the field and in growth cabinets under controlled conditions. LLT is easy to use and we demonstrate its reliability and precision under changing weather conditions that include temperature, wind, and rain. We found that leaf growth stopped at a base temperature of 0°C for all studied species and we detected significant genotype-specific differences in LER with rising temperature. The data obtained were statistically robust and were reproducible in the tested environments. Using LLT, we were able to detect subtle differences (sub-millimeter) in leaf growth patterns. This method will allow the collection of leaf growth data in a wide range of future field experiments on different graminoid species or varieties under varying environmental or treatment conditions.

  5. Leaf Length Tracker: a novel approach to analyse leaf elongation close to the thermal limit of growth in the field

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgessner, Norbert; Yates, Steven; Hiltpold, Maya; Walter, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Leaf growth in monocot crops such as wheat and barley largely follows the daily temperature course, particularly under cold but humid springtime field conditions. Knowledge of the temperature response of leaf extension, particularly variations close to the thermal limit of growth, helps define physiological growth constraints and breeding-related genotypic differences among cultivars. Here, we present a novel method, called ‘Leaf Length Tracker’ (LLT), suitable for measuring leaf elongation rates (LERs) of cereals and other grasses with high precision and high temporal resolution under field conditions. The method is based on image sequence analysis, using a marker tracking approach to calculate LERs. We applied the LLT to several varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), summer barley (Hordeum vulgare), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), grown in the field and in growth cabinets under controlled conditions. LLT is easy to use and we demonstrate its reliability and precision under changing weather conditions that include temperature, wind, and rain. We found that leaf growth stopped at a base temperature of 0°C for all studied species and we detected significant genotype-specific differences in LER with rising temperature. The data obtained were statistically robust and were reproducible in the tested environments. Using LLT, we were able to detect subtle differences (sub-millimeter) in leaf growth patterns. This method will allow the collection of leaf growth data in a wide range of future field experiments on different graminoid species or varieties under varying environmental or treatment conditions. PMID:26818912

  6. Distinct Domains of Yeast Cortical Tag Proteins Bud8p and Bud9p Confer Polar Localization and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Krappmann, Anne-Brit; Taheri, Naimeh; Heinrich, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, diploid yeast cells follow a bipolar budding program, which depends on the two transmembrane glycoproteins Bud8p and Bud9p that potentially act as cortical tags to mark the cell poles. Here, we have performed systematic structure-function analyses of Bud8p and Bud9p to identify functional domains. We find that polar transport of Bud8p and Bud9p does not depend on N-terminal sequences but instead on sequences in the median part of the proteins and on the C-terminal parts that contain the transmembrane domains. We show that the guanosine diphosphate (GDP)/guanosine triphosphate (GTP) exchange factor Bud5p, which is essential for bud site selection and physically interacts with Bud8p, also interacts with Bud9p. Regions of Bud8p and Bud9p predicted to reside in the extracellular space are likely to confer interaction with the N-terminal region of Bud5p, implicating indirect interactions between the cortical tags and the GDP/GTP exchange factor. Finally, we have identified regions of Bud8p and Bud9p that are required for interaction with the cortical tag protein Rax1p. In summary, our study suggests that Bud8p and Bud9p carry distinct domains for delivery of the proteins to the cell poles, for interaction with the general budding machinery and for association with other cortical tag proteins. PMID:17581861

  7. Comparative analyses of leaf anatomy of dicotyledonous species in Tibetan and Inner Mongolian grasslands.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianjing; Ji, Chengjun; Han, Mei; Zhang, Tingfang; Yan, Xuedong; Hu, Dong; Zeng, Hui; He, Jinsheng

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the leaf anatomy of grassland plants is crucial for understanding how these plants adapt to the environment. Tibetan alpine grasslands and Inner Mongolian temperate grasslands are two major grassland types in northern China. Tibetan alpine grasslands occur in high-altitude regions where the low temperatures limit plant growth. Inner Mongolian temperate grasslands are found in arid regions where moisture is the limiting factor. Few comparative studies concerning the leaf anatomy of grassland plants of the Tibetan Plateau and Inner Mongolian Plateau have been conducted. We examined leaf characteristics at 71 sites and among 65 species, across the alpine grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau and the temperate grasslands of the Inner Mongolian Plateau. We compared the leaf structures of plants with different life forms and taxonomies, and their adaptation to arid or cold environments. We explored relationships among leaf features and the effects of climatic factors (i.e., growing season temperature and precipitation) on leaf characteristics. Our results showed that (i) there were significant differences in leaf anatomy between Tibetan alpine and Inner Mongolian temperate grasslands. Except for mesophyll cell density, the values obtained for thickness of leaf tissue, surface area and volume of mesophyll cells were larger on the Tibetan Plateau than on the Inner Mongolian Plateau. (ii) Within the same family or genus, leaf anatomy showed significant differences between two regions, and trends were consistent with those of whole species. (iii) Leaf anatomy of woody and herbaceous plants also showed significant differences between the regions. Except for mesophyll cell density, the values obtained for the thickness of leaf tissue, and the surface area and volume of mesophyll cells were larger in herbaceous than in woody plants. (iv) Leaf anatomical traits changed accordingly. Total leaf thickness, thicknesses of lower and upper epidermal cells, and surface area

  8. Analyses of the leaf, fruit and seed of Thaumatococcus daniefii (Benth.): exploring potential uses.

    PubMed

    Chinedu, Shalom Nwodo; Oluwadamisi, Adetayo Y; Popoola, Samuel T; David, Bolaji J; Epelle, Tamunotonyesia

    2014-06-01

    Thaumatococcus daniellii is an economic plant with versatile uses in Southern Nigeria. The arils attached to the seeds contain thaumatin, a non-sugar sweetener and taste modifier. This study examined the chemical constituents of the leaf, fruit and seed of T. daniellii. The fresh fruit, on weight basis, consists of 4.8% aril, 22.8% seed and 72.4% fleshy part. The leaf contained (per 100 g): 10.67 g moisture, 8.95 g ash, 17.21 g fat, 21.06 g protein, 24.61 g crude fiber 17.50 g carbohydrate, 0.10 g calcium, 0.08 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.37 g phosphorus. The fruit (fleshy part) contained 10.04 g moisture, 21.08 g ash, 0.93 g fat, 11.53 g protein, 18.43 g crude fiber, 37.27 g carbohydrate, 0.34 g calcium, 0.30 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.21 g phosphorus. The seed contained 15.15 g moisture, 11.30 g ash, 0.21 g fat, 10.36 g protein, 20.52 g crude fiber and 42.46 g carbohydrate. Terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides were significantly present in both the leaf and fruit whereas phlobatannin, saponin, steroids, anthraquinones and ascorbic acid were absent. Tannin was present only in the leaf. The leaf and fruit of T. daniellii have significant nutritional and medicinal benefits. The leaf is rich in protein and fat. The fruit is a good source of minerals, particularly, calcium and magnesium; the leaf is also rich in phosphorus.

  9. Late Quaternary climate and environmental changes in a permafrost section near Igarka, Northern Siberia based on leaf wax analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Imke; Schweri, Lea; Zech, Jana; Tananaev, Nikita; Zech, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Leaf wax biomarkers, such as long chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, and their carbon isotopic composition are a promising tool for reconstructing past climate and environmental changes and gain more and more attention in paleoresearch. Here we present the results of leaf wax analyses from a permafrost outcrop at the left banks of the Yenisei River near the city of Igarka, Northern Russia. Fluvio-glacial sediments are exposed in the lower part of the outcrop and probably date back to ~60 ka. The upper part consist of aeolian sediments deposited since, overprinted by various pedogenetic processes. First results indicate a continuous contribution of deciduous trees to the vegetation during the last glacial. Compound specific deuterium and radiocarbon analyses are in progress in order to investigate changes in paleoclimate and to establish a robust chronology.

  10. Structure of the Bro1 Domain Protein BROX and Functional Analyses of the ALIX Bro1 Domain in HIV-1 Budding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai Q.; Robinson H.; Landesman M. B.; Sundquist W. I.; Hill C. P.

    2011-12-01

    Bro1 domains are elongated, banana-shaped domains that were first identified in the yeast ESCRT pathway protein, Bro1p. Humans express three Bro1 domain-containing proteins: ALIX, BROX, and HD-PTP, which function in association with the ESCRT pathway to help mediate intraluminal vesicle formation at multivesicular bodies, the abscission stage of cytokinesis, and/or enveloped virus budding. Human Bro1 domains share the ability to bind the CHMP4 subset of ESCRT-III proteins, associate with the HIV-1 NC{sup Gag} protein, and stimulate the budding of viral Gag proteins. The curved Bro1 domain structure has also been proposed to mediate membrane bending. To date, crystal structures have only been available for the related Bro1 domains from the Bro1p and ALIX proteins, and structures of additional family members should therefore aid in the identification of key structural and functional elements. We report the crystal structure of the human BROX protein, which comprises a single Bro1 domain. The Bro1 domains from BROX, Bro1p and ALIX adopt similar overall structures and share two common exposed hydrophobic surfaces. Surface 1 is located on the concave face and forms the CHMP4 binding site, whereas Surface 2 is located at the narrow end of the domain. The structures differ in that only ALIX has an extended loop that projects away from the convex face to expose the hydrophobic Phe105 side chain at its tip. Functional studies demonstrated that mutations in Surface 1, Surface 2, or Phe105 all impair the ability of ALIX to stimulate HIV-1 budding. Our studies reveal similarities in the overall folds and hydrophobic protein interaction sites of different Bro1 domains, and show that a unique extended loop contributes to the ability of ALIX to function in HIV-1 budding.

  11. What Are Taste Buds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... taste buds all the credit for your favorite flavors, it's important to thank your nose . Olfactory (say: ... with your taste buds to create the true flavor of that yummy slice of pizza by telling ...

  12. Proteomic and gene expression analyses during bolting-related leaf color change in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y W; Guo, M H; Tang, X B; Jin, D; Fang, Z Y

    2016-08-12

    Bolting and flowering are key processes during the growth and development of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis). Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering is of significance for improving production of the vegetable. A leaf-color change from bright green to gray-green has been observed following differentiation of the flowering stem and before bolting in the vegetable, and is considered to be a signal for bolting. Proteomics in meristem tissues of an inbred line (C30) were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis during the transition period. We found that some proteins were specifically expressed while others were differentially expressed. Among these, 17 proteins were specifically expressed before the color change, 18 were specifically expressed after the color change, 21 were downregulated during the color change, and 29 were upregulated. Mass spectrometric analysis (MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS) was used to analyze 17 protein spots, and four proteins (subunit E1 of vacuolar-type H+ transporter ATPase, the large subunit of Rubicon, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, and tubulin α-2) were identified. qPCR analysis was conducted to quantify the expression of genes encoding these proteins during the transitional period. The expression of BrVHA-E1, BrSAMS, BrrbcL, and BrTUA6 was significantly different before and after the leaf-color change, suggesting that these genes might be involved in regulating flower differentiation and bolting.

  13. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Resistant Host Responses in Arachis diogoi Challenged with Late Leaf Spot Pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dilip; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2015-01-01

    Late leaf spot is a serious disease of peanut caused by the imperfect fungus, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Wild diploid species, Arachis diogoi. is reported to be highly resistant to this disease and asymptomatic. The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular responses of the wild peanut challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen using cDNA-AFLP and 2D proteomic study. A total of 233 reliable, differentially expressed genes were identified in Arachis diogoi. About one third of the TDFs exhibit no significant similarity with the known sequences in the data bases. Expressed sequence tag data showed that the characterized genes are involved in conferring resistance in the wild peanut to the pathogen challenge. Several genes for proteins involved in cell wall strengthening, hypersensitive cell death and resistance related proteins have been identified. Genes identified for other proteins appear to function in metabolism, signal transduction and defence. Nineteen TDFs based on the homology analysis of genes associated with defence, signal transduction and metabolism were further validated by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses in resistant wild species in comparison with a susceptible peanut genotype in time course experiments. The proteins corresponding to six TDFs were differentially expressed at protein level also. Differentially expressed TDFs and proteins in wild peanut indicate its defence mechanism upon pathogen challenge and provide initial breakthrough of genes possibly involved in recognition events and early signalling responses to combat the pathogen through subsequent development of resistivity. This is the first attempt to elucidate the molecular basis of the response of the resistant genotype to the late leaf spot pathogen, and its defence mechanism. PMID:25646800

  14. 14C analyses quantify time lag between coca leaf harvest and street-level seizure of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Ehleringer, James R; Casale, John F; Barnette, Janet E; Xu, Xiaomei; Lott, Michael J; Hurley, Janet

    2012-01-10

    Measurements were made on the natural abundance (14)C content (Δ(14)C) of cocaine specimens seized between 2003 and 2009. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which Δ(14)C analyses could quantify the "age" of recent cocaine seizures. Here "age" of a seized cocaine specimen is defined as the time period between when a coca leaf was harvested in South America and its seizure as cocaine at either the international or domestic street levels. Based on Δ(14)C analyses of seizure specimens, there were no statistically significant differences in the ages of domestic cocaine HCl and cocaine base specimens seized on the streets in different locations across the United States. Between 2007 and 2009, the average age of a street-level cocaine seizure in the United States was 24.6±1.1 months. Cocaine shipment seizures that were in excess of 150 kg during this time period had an average age of 18.2±1.4 months, whereas smaller shipment seizures were significantly older with an average age of 22.3±0.6 months. Analyses of the largest cocaine shipment seizures suggested that these seizures were composed of specimens with different ages, possibly representing accumulations over as much as a 31-month period.

  15. Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Potential of Antidiabetic Herb Alternanthera sessilis: Comparative Analyses of Leaf and Callus Solvent Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Khoo, Chee-Siong; Tee, Chong-Siang; Wong, Fai-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alternanthera sessilis is a medicinal herb which is consumed as vegetable and used as traditional remedies of various ailments in Asia and Africa. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the antiglucosidase and antioxidant activity of solvent fractions of A. sessilis leaf and callus. Materials and Methods: Leaf and callus methanol extracts were fractionated to produce hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. Antiglucosidase and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activities as well as total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), and total coumarin (TC) contents were evaluated. Lineweaver–Burk plot analysis was performed on leaf and callus fractions with the strongest antiglucosidase activity. Results: Leaf ethyl acetate fraction (LEF) had the strongest antiglucosidase (EC50 0.55 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC50 10.81 μg/mL) activity among leaf fractions. Callus ethyl acetate fraction (CEF) and chloroform fraction had the highest antiglucosidase (EC50 0.25 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC50 34.12 μg/mL) activity, respectively, among callus fractions. LEF and CEF were identified as noncompetitive and competitive α-glucosidase inhibitors, respectively. LEF and CEF had greater antiglucosidase activity than acarbose. Leaf fractions had higher phytochemical contents than callus fractions. LEF had the highest TP, TF, and TC contents. Antiglucosidase and antioxidant activities of leaf fractions correlated with phytochemical contents. Conclusion: LEF had potent antiglucosidase activity and concurrent antioxidant activity. CEF had the highest antiglucosidase activity among all fractions. Callus culture is a promising tool for enhancing production of potent α-glucosidase inhibitors. SUMMARY Leaf ethyl acetate fraction (LEF) had the strongest antiglucosidase (EC50 0.55 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC50 10.81 μg/mL) activity among leaf fractionsCallus ethyl acetate fraction (CEF) and chloroform fraction had the highest

  16. What Are Taste Buds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your taste buds for letting you appreciate the saltiness of pretzels and the sweetness of ice cream. ... allow you to experience tastes that are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. How exactly do your taste ...

  17. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2002-01-01

    The shoot system is the basic unit of development of seed plants and is composed of a leaf, a stem, and a lateral bud that differentiates into a lateral shoot. The most specialized organ in angiosperms, the flower, can be considered to be part of the same shoot system since floral organs, such as the sepal, petal, stamen, and carpel, are all modified leaves. Scales, bracts, and certain kinds of needle are also derived from leaves. Thus, an understanding of leaf development is critical to an understanding of shoot development. Moreover, leaves play important roles in photosynthesis, respiration and photoperception. Thus, a full understanding of leaves is directly related to a full understanding of seed plants. The details of leaf development remain unclear. The difficulties encountered in studies of leaf development, in particular in dicotyledonous plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Henyn., are derived from the complex process of leaf development, during which the division and elongation of cells occur at the same time and in the same region of the leaf primordium (Maksymowych, 1963; Poethig and Sussex, 1985). Thus, we cannot divide the entire process into unit processes in accordance with the tenets of classical anatomy. Genetic approaches in Arabidopsis, a model plant (Meyerowitz and Pruitt, 1985), have provided a powerful tool for studies of mechanisms of leaf development in dicotyledonous plants, and various aspects of the mechanisms that control leaf development have been revealed in recent developmental and molecular genetic studies of Arabidopsis (for reviews, see Tsukaya, 1995 and 1998; Van Lijsebettens and Clarke, 1998; Sinha, 1999; Van Volkenburgh, 1999; Tsukaya, 2000; Byrne et al., 2001; Dengler and Kang, 2001; Dengler and Tsukaya, 2001; Tsukaya, 2001). In this review, we shall examine the information that is currently available about various mechanisms of leaf development in Arabidopsis. Vascular patterning is also an important factor in the

  18. Influences of polar auxin transport on polarity of adventitious bud formation in hybrid populas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Myung Won ); Hackett, W. )

    1989-04-01

    The role of auxin and cytokinin distribution of polar regeneration of adventitious bud has been investigated. Explants from leaf midvein were labelled with {sup 14}C-NAA and {sup 14}C-BA and the radioactivity in proximal, mid, and distal portions was counted after 24h and 48h. Explants showing polar regeneration of buds on the proximal end showed a clear polar distribution of {sup 14}CNAA. Auxin transport inhibitors (NPA, TIBA) eliminated polar distribution of auxin and reduced polarity of bud formation and the total number of buds formed, but did not reduce callus formation. Increased concentration of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} decreased polarity of bud formation and increased the number of buds formed but did not affect the distribution of auxin of cytokinin. Some factor in addition to polar distribution of auxin or cytokinin-auxin ratio appears to influence the polarity of adventitious bud formation.

  19. Potassium channels in barley: cloning, functional characterization and expression analyses in relation to leaf growth and development.

    PubMed

    Boscari, Alexandre; Clément, Mathilde; Volkov, Vadim; Golldack, Dortje; Hybiak, Jolanta; Miller, Anthony J; Amtmann, Anna; Fricke, Wieland

    2009-12-01

    It is not known how the uptake and retention of the key osmolyte K(+) in cells are mediated in growing leaf tissue. In the present study on the growing leaf 3 of barley, we have cloned the full-length coding sequence of three genes which encode putative K(+) channels (HvAKT1, HvAKT2, HvKCO1/HvTPK1), and of one gene which encodes a putative K(+) transporter (HvHAK4). The functionality of the gene products of HvAKT1 and HvAKT2 was tested through expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Both are inward-rectifying K(+) channels which are inhibited by Cs(+). Function of HvAKT1 in oocytes requires co-expression of a calcineurin-interacting protein kinase (AtCIPK23) and a calcineurin B-like protein (AtCBL9) from Arabidopsis, showing cross-species complementation of function. In planta, HvAKT1 is expressed primarily in roots, but is also expressed in leaf tissue. HvAKT2 is expressed particularly in leaf tissue, and HvHAK4 is expressed particularly in growing leaf tissue. Within leaves, HvAKT1 and HvAKT2 are expressed predominantly in mesophyll. Expression of genes changes little in response to low external K(+) or salinity, despite major changes in K(+) concentrations and osmolality of cells. Possible contributions of HvAKT1, HvAKT2, HvKCO1 and HvHAK4 to regulation of K(+) relations of growing barley leaf cells are discussed.

  20. Leaf waxes, compound-specific D/H and 14C analyses in the Loess Paleosol Sequence Möhlin, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wüthrich, Lorenz; Bliedtner, Marcel; Kathrin Schäfer, Imke; Zech, Jana; Gaar, Dorian; Preusser, Frank; Zech, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Leaf waxes, such as long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, and their D/H isotopic composition, are increasingly used for paleoenvironmental and -climate reconstructions. Recent technological innovations now also allow to perform radiocarbon analyses on leaf waxes. For this study, we analyzed leaf waxes and their δD and 14C composition in the 7 m Loess Paleosol Sequence Möhlin, Switzerland. The chain length patterns in the upper part of the profile indicate n-alkane contribution from deciduous trees, while the underlying loess is dominated by inputs from grasses and herbs. Our δD record does not show depleted, glacial values compared to the Holocene, as we had expected in analogy to the Greenland ice core records. Values are most enriched at 1 m depth, i.e. well below the topsoil. Further research is needed to disentangle source effects and evapotranspirative enrichment, before the δD record can be interpreted robustly. Our radiocarbon ages for the leaf waxes are in very good agreement with independent age control based on luminescence ages, corroborating that massive loess accumulation occurred already at 35 ka. Only the uppermost 3 m were deposited during the last glacial maximum.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Tomato Leaf Curl China Virus, Infecting Tomato Plants in China, and Functional Analyses of Its Associated Betasatellite▿†

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiuling; Guo, Wei; Ma, Xinying; An, Qianli; Zhou, Xueping

    2011-01-01

    A novel tomato-infecting begomovirus from Guangxi province, China, was identified and characterized, for which the name Tomato leaf curl China virus (ToLCCNV) was proposed. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses of the virus genomic sequences suggested that ToLCCNV may have arisen by recombination among Tomato leaf curl Vietnam virus (ToLCVV), Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus (ToLCGV), and an unknown virus. A betasatellite molecule was found to be associated with ToLCCNV (ToLCCNB), and its complete nucleotide sequences were determined. Infectious clones of ToLCCNV and ToLCCNB were constructed and then used for agro-inoculation of plants; ToLCCNV alone infected Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa, Petunia hybrida, and Solanum lycopersicum plants, but no symptoms were induced. ToLCCNB was required for induction of leaf curl disease in these hosts. The βC1 protein of ToLCCNB was identified as a suppressor of RNA silencing and accumulated primarily in the nucleus. Deletion mutagenesis of βC1 showed that the central part of βC1 (amino acids 44 to 74) was responsible for both the suppressor activity and nuclear localization. PMID:21378048

  2. "Bud, Not Buddy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the award-winning book "Bud, Not Buddy" written by Christopher Paul Curtis. Lists different versions of the book; suggests learning activities; lists sources for biographical information and interviews with Curtis, teacher guides, professional articles, and other Depression era novels; and provides a citation for the author's…

  3. The mode of origin of root buds and root sprouts in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Bosela, M; Ewers, F

    1997-11-01

    The developmental anatomy of root buds and root sprouts was examined in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum. Root samples from 13 clones that varied widely in age and vigor were sectioned and two types of buds were found, "additional" buds and "reparative" buds. Additional buds form during the early growth of uninjured roots and they perennate by growing outwards in concert with the vascular cambium such that bud traces are produced in the secondary xylem. Reparative buds form de novo in response to senescence, injuries, or other types of disturbance. Reparative buds were found on the roots of seven of the clones, whereas additional buds were found on the roots of all 13 clones. The reparative buds had originated in the proliferated pericycle, where they were subtended by sphaeroblasts, or spherical nodules of wood. Few of the reparative buds were vascularized and none were connected with the vasculature of their parent roots. In contrast, most of the additional buds were vascularized, and the leaf traces of several of the additional buds appeared to be contiguous with the conducting xylem of their parent roots. To determine whether both bud types were functional, 82 field-collected root sprouts and 44 incubation-induced sprouts were sectioned at the root-sprout junction and examined for evidence relating to their mode of origin. None of the sprouts were subtended by sphaeroblasts, but 98% were subtended by bud traces, which indicated that they had originated from additional buds. Although reparative buds were more common than additional buds on some of the root samples, they appear to be dysfunctional at sprouting. Additional buds, on the other hand, are able to sprout both as a normal part of clonal spread and from root cuttings.

  4. Leaf waxes and compound-specific δD analyses in a Holocene fluvial sediment-paleosol sequence from the upper Alazani River, SE-Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliedtner, Marcel; von Suchodoletz, Hans; Schäfer, Imke; Zech, Jana; Zielhofer, Christoph; Zech, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Leaf waxes of terrestrial plants are relatively resistant against degradation and serve as valuable biomarkers preserved in various sedimentary archives. Compound-specific D/H analyses on leaf waxes are increasingly used to reconstruct past climate and environmental conditions. Here, we present a n-alkane and compound-specific δD record from a Holocene fluvial sediment-paleosol sequence along the upper Alazani River in eastern Georgia. Generally, such records from fluvial sedimentary archives must be divided into a catchment signal recorded in the fluvial sediment layers and a local in-situ signal recorded in the intercalated paleosols. The n-alkane homologue pattern shows a clear catchment versus in-situ signal. The paleosols are dominated by n-alkanes derived from the local vegetation, mainly grasses throughout the Holocene. The fluvial sediment layers contain leaf waxes derived from the forested catchment, although with relatively high contributions from grasses between 8 and 5 ka, possibly indicating more arid conditions. Because of the well-known altitude-effect on the isotopic composition of precipitation, we had expected more depleted δD values for the fluvial sediment layers, i.e. the catchment-derived samples, and more enriched δD values for the paleosols, i.e. the low altitude, in-situ signal. This is, however, not the case, and we speculate that the altitude effect might be offset by evapo-transpirative enrichment of tree leaf water and leaf waxes. The catchment and in-situ δD records both show a minor trend to more enriched values during the Holocene, while the recent topsoil is most depleted. Interpretation of these isotope records is not straight-forward and requires disentangling the effects of changing vegetation, source signal and local climate.

  5. Chronological Sequence of Leaf Phenology, Xylem and Phloem Formation and Sap Flow of Quercus pubescens from Abandoned Karst Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Lavrič, Martina; Eler, Klemen; Ferlan, Mitja; Vodnik, Dominik; Gričar, Jožica

    2017-01-01

    Intra-annual variations in leaf development, radial growth, including the phloem part, and sap flow have rarely been studied in deciduous trees from drought-prone environments. In order to understand better the chronological order and temporal course of these processes, we monitored leaf phenology, xylem and phloem formation and sap flow in Quercus pubescens from abandoned karst grasslands in Slovenia during the growing season of 2014. We found that the initial earlywood vessel formation started before bud opening at the beginning of April. Buds started to open in the second half of April and full leaf unfolding occurred by the end of May. LAI values increased correspondingly with leaf development. About 28% of xylem and 22% of phloem annual increment were formed by the time of bud break. Initial earlywood vessels were fully lignified and ready for water transport, indicating that they are essential to provide hydraulic conductivity for axial water flow during leaf development. Sap flow became active and increasing contemporarily with leaf development and LAI values. Similar early spring patterns of xylem sap flow and LAI denoted that water transport in oaks broadly followed canopy leaf area development. In the initial 3 weeks of radial growth, phloem growth preceded that of xylem, indicating its priority over xylem at the beginning of the growing season. This may be related to the fact that after bud break, the developing foliage is a very large sink for carbohydrates but, at the same time, represents a small transpirational area. Whether the interdependence of the chronological sequence of the studied processes is fixed in Q. pubescens needs to be confirmed with more data and several years of analyses, although the ‘correct sequence’ of processes is essential for synchronized plant performance and response to environmental stress. PMID:28321232

  6. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  7. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-Long; Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  8. The roots of plant defenses: integrative multivariate analyses uncover dynamic behaviors of gene and metabolic networks of roots elicited by leaf herbivory.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Jyotasana; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-03-01

    High-throughput analyses have frequently been used to characterize herbivory-induced reconfigurations in plant primary and secondary metabolism in above- and below-ground tissues, but the conclusions drawn from these analyses are often limited by the univariate methods used to analyze the data. Here we use our previously described multivariate time-series data analysis to evaluate leaf herbivory-elicited transcriptional and metabolic dynamics in the roots of Nicotiana attenuata. We observed large, but transient, systemic responses in the roots that contrasted with the pattern of co-linearity observed in the up- and downregulation of genes and metabolites across the entire time series in treated and systemic leaves. Using this newly developed approach for the analysis of whole-plant molecular responses in a time-course multivariate data set, we simultaneously analyzed stress responses in leaves and roots in response to the elicitation of a leaf. We found that transient systemic responses in roots resolved into two principal trends characterized by: (i) an inversion of root-specific semi-diurnal (12 h) transcript oscillations and (ii) transcriptional changes with major amplitude effects that translated into a distinct suite of root-specific secondary metabolites (e.g. alkaloids synthesized in the roots of N. attenuata). These findings underscore the importance of understanding tissue-specific stress responses in the correct day-night phase context and provide a holistic framework for the important role played by roots in above-ground stress responses.

  9. Proteomic and Metabolomic Analyses of Leaf from Clematis terniflora DC. Exposed to High-Level Ultraviolet-B Irradiation with Dark Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingxian; Wang, Xin; Gao, Cuixia; Chen, Meng; Guan, Qijie; Tian, Jingkui; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-08-05

    Clematis terniflora DC. has potential pharmaceutical value; on the contrary, high-level UV-B irradiation with dark treatment led to the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Metabolomic and proteomic analyses of leaf of C. terniflora were performed to investigate the systematic response mechanisms to high-level UV-B irradiation with dark treatment. Metabolites related to carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids and/or proteins related to stress, cell wall, and amino acid metabolism were gradually increased in response to high-level UV-B irradiation with dark treatment. On the basis of cluster analysis and mapping of proteins related to amino acid metabolism, the abundances of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and cysteine synthase as well as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity were gradually increased in response to high-level UV-B irradiation with dark treatment. Furthermore, the abundance of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase/glutamate dehydrogenase and the content of γ-aminobutyric acid were also increased following high-level UV-B irradiation with dark treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that high-level UV-B irradiation with dark treatment induces the activation of reactive oxygen species scavenging system and γ-aminobutyric acid shunt pathway in leaf of C. terniflora.

  10. Phenological synchrony between Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) hatchings and grapevine bud break: could this explain the insect's expansion?

    PubMed

    Chuche, J; Desvignes, E; Bonnard, O; Thiéry, D

    2015-02-01

    Scaphoideus titanus is the invasive vector of the phytoplasma causing the Flavescence dorée in European vineyards. This epidemic is a serious threat to viticulture that has been increasing for more than 60 years in Europe. We studied the effect of synchrony with the plant phenology and the effect of plant-sap quality on the individual fitness. Thus, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine if insect hatchings were synchronized with grapevine bud break. We used two natural populations: one from a cold winter vineyard and one from a mild winter vineyard. In both cases, egg hatching was synchronized with bud break and leaf appearance. The phloem quality of the young and old leaves as a food source was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the effects on S. titanus growth were evaluated. Phloem composition varied with the grapevine cutting's age but also varied between leaves of different ages from the same plant. The older leaves were less nutritious because they had the highest carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and the lowest content of essential amino acids. Despite diverse phloem qualities, no fitness difference was observed. We found that the synchronization of egg hatchings with bud break is well regulated. However, the nymphs are not affected by the phloem-sap quality, suggesting that S. titanus may accept different food qualities and that egg hatching synchrony could contribute to population expansion in vineyards.

  11. The Barley Uniculme4 Gene Encodes a BLADE-ON-PETIOLE-Like Protein That Controls Tillering and Leaf Patterning1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tavakol, Elahe; Okagaki, Ron; Verderio, Gabriele; Shariati J., Vahid; Hussien, Ahmed; Bilgic, Hatice; Scanlon, Mike J.; Todt, Natalie R.; Close, Timothy J.; Druka, Arnis; Waugh, Robbie; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Himmelbach, Axel; Stein, Nils; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Tillers are vegetative branches that develop from axillary buds located in the leaf axils at the base of many grasses. Genetic manipulation of tillering is a major objective in breeding for improved cereal yields and competition with weeds. Despite this, very little is known about the molecular genetic bases of tiller development in important Triticeae crops such as barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Recessive mutations at the barley Uniculme4 (Cul4) locus cause reduced tillering, deregulation of the number of axillary buds in an axil, and alterations in leaf proximal-distal patterning. We isolated the Cul4 gene by positional cloning and showed that it encodes a BROAD-COMPLEX, TRAMTRACK, BRIC-À-BRAC-ankyrin protein closely related to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2. Morphological, histological, and in situ RNA expression analyses indicate that Cul4 acts at axil and leaf boundary regions to control axillary bud differentiation as well as the development of the ligule, which separates the distal blade and proximal sheath of the leaf. As, to our knowledge, the first functionally characterized BOP gene in monocots, Cul4 suggests the partial conservation of BOP gene function between dicots and monocots, while phylogenetic analyses highlight distinct evolutionary patterns in the two lineages. PMID:25818702

  12. Molecular cloning, expression analyses and primary evolution studies of REV- and TB1-like genes in bamboo.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hua-Zheng; Lin, Er-Pei; Sang, Qing-Liang; Yao, Sheng; Jin, Qun-Ying; Hua, Xi-Qi; Zhu, Mu-Yuan

    2007-09-01

    Most cultured bamboos are perennial woody evergreens that reproduce from rhizomes. It is unclear why some rhizome buds develop into aerial bamboo shoots instead of new rhizomes. REVOLUTA (REV)-like Class III homeodomain leucine-zipper (HD-Zip) proteins and TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1)-like transcription factors have been shown to play regulatory roles in meristem initiation and outgrowth. We cloned and analyzed the bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox C.D. Chu & C.S. Chao.) REV- (PpHB1) and TB1-like (PpTB1) gene. Gene expression was mainly detected by in situ hybridization. PpHB1 expression was detected in the tips of lateral buds, on the adaxial portion of the leaf and within the developing procambium, indicating its close correlation to rhizome bud formation and procambial development. PpTB1 expression was mainly detected on the top of buds at later developmental stages, suggesting it was more likely involved in bud outgrowth. Meristem genes might therefore serve as specific molecular markers of rhizome bud development and could be useful in studies designed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying bamboo shoot development. In addition, meristem genes such as TB1-like sequences may be useful in phylogenetic analyses of bamboo species.

  13. Bud8p and Bud9p, Proteins That May Mark the Sites for Bipolar Budding in YeastV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Harkins, Heidi A.; Pagé, Nicolas; Schenkman, Laura R.; De Virgilio, Claudio; Shaw, Sidney; Bussey, Howard; Pringle, John R.

    2001-01-01

    The bipolar budding pattern of a/α Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells appears to depend on persistent spatial markers in the cell cortex at the two poles of the cell. Previous analysis of mutants with specific defects in bipolar budding identified BUD8 and BUD9 as potentially encoding components of the markers at the poles distal and proximal to the birth scar, respectively. Further genetic analysis reported here supports this hypothesis. Mutants deleted for BUD8 or BUD9 grow normally but bud exclusively from the proximal and distal poles, respectively, and the double-mutant phenotype suggests that the bipolar budding pathway has been totally disabled. Moreover, overexpression of these genes can cause either an increased bias for budding at the distal (BUD8) or proximal (BUD9) pole or a randomization of bud position, depending on the level of expression. The structures and localizations of Bud8p and Bud9p are also consistent with their postulated roles as cortical markers. Both proteins appear to be integral membrane proteins of the plasma membrane, and they have very similar overall structures, with long N-terminal domains that are both N- and O-glycosylated followed by a pair of putative transmembrane domains surrounding a short hydrophilic domain that is presumably cytoplasmic. The putative transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the two proteins are very similar in sequence. When Bud8p and Bud9p were localized by immunofluorescence and tagging with GFP, each protein was found predominantly in the expected location, with Bud8p at presumptive bud sites, bud tips, and the distal poles of daughter cells and Bud9p at the necks of large-budded cells and the proximal poles of daughter cells. Bud8p localized approximately normally in several mutants in which daughter cells are competent to form their first buds at the distal pole, but it was not detected in a bni1 mutant, in which such distal-pole budding is lost. Surprisingly, Bud8p localization to the presumptive bud

  14. Spectral and HRTEM analyses of Annona muricata leaf extract mediated silver nanoparticles and its Larvicidal efficacy against three mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Shanthi Bhupathi; Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit various diseases which mainly affect the human beings and every year cause millions of deaths globally. Currently available chemical and synthetic mosquitocidal agents pose severe side effects, pollute the environment vigorously, and become resistance. There is an urgent need to identify and develop the cost effective, compatible and eco-friendly product for mosquito control. The present study was aimed to find out the larvicidal potential of aqueous crude extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Annona muricata leaves were tested against fourth instar larvae of three important mosquitoes i.e. Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti using different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) and the aqueous leaf extract (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) for 24 and 48 h. The maximum mortality was noticed in AgNPs than aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata against tested mosquitoes with least LC50 values of 37.70, 31.29, and 20.65 ppm (24h) and 546.7, 516.2, and 618.4 ppm (48 h), respectively. All tested concentrations of AgNps exhibited 100% mortality in A. aegypti larvae at 48 hour observation. In addition, the plant mediated AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction, high resonance transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis for confirmation of nanoparticle synthesis. Based on the findings of the study suggests that the use of A. muricata plant mediated AgNPs can act as an alternate insecticidal agents for controlling target mosquitoes.

  15. Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Brewer, C.; Havens, K.; Meymaris, K.

    2007-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. Project BudBurst launched a pilot program in the Spring of 2007. The goals of Project BudBurst were to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From April through mid-June 2007, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of ~60 easily identifiable, broadly distributed wild and cultivated species found across the continent. We will report on the results of the pilot project and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst as it becomes a year round event beginning in 2008. A broad consortium of collaborators, representing the Chicago Botanic Garden, Plant Conservation Alliance, ESRI, the USA-National Phenology Network, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, University of Arizona, University of Montana, University of California-Santa Barbara, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, came together to design and implement Project BudBurst with seed funding from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the National Phenology Network (through a RCN grant from the NSF), and the Plant Conservation Alliance.

  16. The Anillin-Related Region of Bud4 Is the Major Functional Determinant for Bud4's Function in Septin Organization during Bud Growth and Axial Bud Site Selection in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huan; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The anillin-related protein Bud4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for axial bud site selection by linking the axial landmark to the septins, which localize at the mother bud neck. Recent studies indicate that Bud4 plays a role in septin organization during cytokinesis. Here we show that Bud4 is also involved in septin organization during bud growth prior to cytokinesis, as bud4Δ shs1Δ cells displayed an elongated bud morphology and defective septin organization at 18°C. Bud4 overexpression also affected septin organization during bud growth in shs1Δ cells at 30°C. Bud4 was previously thought to associate with the septins via its central region, while the C-terminal anillin-related region was not involved in septin association. Surprisingly, we found that the central region of Bud4 alone targets to the bud neck throughout the cell cycle, unlike full-length Bud4, which localizes to the bud neck only during G2/M phase. We identified the anillin-related region to be a second targeting domain that cooperates with the central region for proper septin association. In addition, the anillin-related region could largely mediate Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and bud site selection. We show that this region interacts with the C terminus of Bud3 and the two segments depend on each other for association with the septins. Moreover, like the bud4Δ mutant, the bud3Δ mutant genetically interacts with shs1Δ and cdc12-6 mutants in septin organization, suggesting that Bud4 and Bud3 may cooperate in septin organization during bud growth. These observations provide new insights into the interaction of Bud4 with the septins and Bud3. PMID:25576483

  17. The anillin-related region of Bud4 is the major functional determinant for Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and axial bud site selection in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Ya-Ting; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2015-03-01

    The anillin-related protein Bud4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for axial bud site selection by linking the axial landmark to the septins, which localize at the mother bud neck. Recent studies indicate that Bud4 plays a role in septin organization during cytokinesis. Here we show that Bud4 is also involved in septin organization during bud growth prior to cytokinesis, as bud4Δ shs1Δ cells displayed an elongated bud morphology and defective septin organization at 18°C. Bud4 overexpression also affected septin organization during bud growth in shs1Δ cells at 30°C. Bud4 was previously thought to associate with the septins via its central region, while the C-terminal anillin-related region was not involved in septin association. Surprisingly, we found that the central region of Bud4 alone targets to the bud neck throughout the cell cycle, unlike full-length Bud4, which localizes to the bud neck only during G2/M phase. We identified the anillin-related region to be a second targeting domain that cooperates with the central region for proper septin association. In addition, the anillin-related region could largely mediate Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and bud site selection. We show that this region interacts with the C terminus of Bud3 and the two segments depend on each other for association with the septins. Moreover, like the bud4Δ mutant, the bud3Δ mutant genetically interacts with shs1Δ and cdc12-6 mutants in septin organization, suggesting that Bud4 and Bud3 may cooperate in septin organization during bud growth. These observations provide new insights into the interaction of Bud4 with the septins and Bud3.

  18. Glycoconjugate in rat taste buds.

    PubMed

    Kano, K; Ube, M; Taniguchi, K

    2001-05-01

    The taste buds of the fungiform papillae, circumvallate papilla, foliate papillae, soft palate and epiglottis of the rat oral cavity were examined by lectin histochemistry to elucidate the relationships between expression of glycoconjugates and innervation. Seven out of 21 lectins showed moderate to intense staining in at least more than one taste bud. They were succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA). Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). UEA-I and BSL-I showed moderate to intense staining in all of the taste buds examined. They strongly stained the taste buds of the epiglottis, which are innervated by the cranial nerve X. UEA-I intensely stained the taste buds of the fungiform papillae and soft palate, both of which are innervated by the cranial nerve VII. The taste buds of circumvallate papilla and foliate papillae were innervated by the cranial nerve IX and strongly stained by BSL-I. Thus, UEA-I and BSL-I binding glycoconjugates, probably alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose, respectively, might be specific for taste buds. Although the expression of these glycoconjugates would be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve X, the differential expression of alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose might be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve VII and IX, respectively.

  19. An actin-binding protein, CAP, is expressed in a subset of rat taste bud cells.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Y; Yasuoka, A; Asano-Miyoshi, M; Abe, K; Emori, Y

    2001-02-12

    Single cell cDNA libraries were constructed from taste bud cells of rat circumvallate papillae. Using three steps of screening, including differential hybridization, sequence analyses and in situ hybridization, a clone encoding a rat homolog of yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) was identified to be highly expressed in a subset of taste bud cells.

  20. Morphological Characterization and Gene Expression Profiling during Bud Development in a Tropical Perennial, Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huifen; Li, Hua; Lai, Biao; Xia, Haoqiang; Wang, Huicong; Huang, Xuming

    2016-01-01

    Tropical evergreen perennials undergo recurrent flush growth, and their terminal buds alternate between growth and dormancy. In sharp contrast to the intensive studies on bud development in temperate deciduous trees, there is little information about bud development regulation in tropical trees. In this study, litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was used as a model tropical perennial for morphological characterization and transcriptomic analysis of bud development. Litchi buds are naked with apical meristem embraced by rudimentary leaves, which are brown at dormant stage (Stage I). They swell and turn greenish as buds break (Stage II), and as growth accelerates, the rudimentary leaves elongate and open exposing the inner leaf primodia. With the outgrowth of the needle-like leaflets, bud growth reaches a maximum (Stage III). When leaflets expand, bud growth cease with the abortion of the rudimentary leaves at upper positions (Stage IV). Then buds turn brown and reenter dormant status. Budbreak occurs again when new leaves become hard green. Buds at four stages (Stage I to IV) were collected for respiration measurements and in-depth RNA sequencing. Respiration rate was the lowest at Stage I and highest at Stage II, decreasing toward growth cessation. RNA sequencing obtained over 5 Gb data from each of the bud samples and de novo assembly generated a total of 59,999 unigenes, 40,119 of which were annotated. Pair-wise comparison of gene expression between stages, gene profiling across stages, GO/KEGG enrichment analysis, and the expression patterns of 17 major genes highlighted by principal component (PC) analysis displayed significant changes in stress resistance, hormone signal pathways, circadian rhythm, photosynthesis, cell division, carbohydrate metabolism, programmed cell death during bud development, which might be under epigenetic control involving chromatin methylation. The qPCR results of 8 selected unigenes with high PC scores agreed with the RPKM values

  1. Project BudBurst: People, Plants, and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Ward, D.; Havens, K.; Gardiner, L. S.; Alaback, P.

    2010-12-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2009 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2010 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst co managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and

  2. Mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Boldogh, I R; Yang, H C; Pon, L A

    2001-06-01

    During the past decade significant advances were made toward understanding the mechanism of mitochondrial inheritance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A combination of genetics, cell-free assays and microscopy has led to the discovery of a great number of components. These fall into three major categories: cytoskeletal elements, mitochondrial membrane components and regulatory proteins. These proteins mediate activities, including movement of mitochondria from mother cells to buds, segregation of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA, and equal distribution of the organelle between mother cells and buds during yeast cell division.

  3. Hormonal Regulation of Lateral Bud (Tiller) Release in Oats (Avena sativa L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Marcia A.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1980-01-01

    Stem segments containing a single node and quiescent lateral bud (tiller) were excised from the bases of oat shoots (cv. `Victory') and used to study the effects of plant hormones on release of lateral buds and development of adventitious root primordia. Kinetin (10−5 and 10−6 molar) stimulates development of tillers and inhibits development of root primordia, whereas indoleacetic acid (IAA) (10−5 and 10−6 molar) causes the reverse effects. Abscisic acid strongly inhibits kinetin-induced tiller bud release and elon-gation and IAA-induced adventitious root development. IAA, in combination with kinetin, also inhibits kinetin-induced bud prophyll (outermost leaf of the axillary bud) elongation. The IAA oxidase cofactor p-coumaric acid stimulates lateral bud release; the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodo-benzoic acid and the antiauxin α (p-chlorophenoxy)-isobutyric acid inhibit IAA-induced adventitious root formation. Gibberellic acid is synergistic with kinetin in the elongation of the bud prophyll. In intact oat plants, tiller release is induced by shoot decapitation, geostimulation, or the emergence of the inflorescence. Results shown support the apical dominance theory, namely, that the cytokinin to auxin ratio plays a decisive role in determining whether tillers are released or adventitious roots develop. They also indicate that abscisic acid and possibly gibberellin may act as modulator hormones in this system. PMID:16661589

  4. Foamy Virus Budding and Release

    PubMed Central

    Hütter, Sylvia; Zurnic, Irena; Lindemann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Like all other viruses, a successful egress of functional particles from infected cells is a prerequisite for foamy virus (FV) spread within the host. The budding process of FVs involves steps, which are shared by other retroviruses, such as interaction of the capsid protein with components of cellular vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) machinery via late domains identified in some FV capsid proteins. Additionally, there are features of the FV budding strategy quite unique to the spumaretroviruses. This includes secretion of non-infectious subviral particles and a strict dependence on capsid-glycoprotein interaction for release of infectious virions from the cells. Virus-like particle release is not possible since FV capsid proteins lack a membrane-targeting signal. It is noteworthy that in experimental systems, the important capsid-glycoprotein interaction could be bypassed by fusing heterologous membrane-targeting signals to the capsid protein, thus enabling glycoprotein-independent egress. Aside from that, other systems have been developed to enable envelopment of FV capsids by heterologous Env proteins. In this review article, we will summarize the current knowledge on FV budding, the viral components and their domains involved as well as alternative and artificial ways to promote budding of FV particle structures, a feature important for alteration of target tissue tropism of FV-based gene transfer systems. PMID:23575110

  5. Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Alaback, P.; Havens, K.

    2008-12-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its second year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, participants from 49 states have submitted data that is being submitted to the USA National Phenology Network (www.usanpn.org) database. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project Budburst and will report on the results of the 2008 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2009. Project BudBurst is a Windows to the Universe Citizen Science program managed by the University

  6. Project BudBurst: Continental-scale citizen science for all seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.; Havens-Young, K.; Alaback, P.; Meymaris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Project BudBurst's (budburst.org) recent move to the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has benefitted both programs. NEON has been able to use Project BudBurst as a testbed to learn best practices, network with experts in the field, and prototype potential tools for engaging people in continental-scale ecology as NEON develops its citizen science program. Participation in Project BudBurst has grown significantly since the move to NEON. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2010 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2012 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago

  7. [Compensation effect of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction at bud stage].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Pei-Tong; Li, Chun-Hong; Yin, Jian-Mei; Han, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the dynamic characteristics of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction (SD) at bud stage and its effect on yield formation, a pot experiment was conducted in which soil salt content was declined from 5 per thousand level to 2 per thousand level at cotton bud stage. The results showed that the plant height, biomass, total fruit branch and fruit node number, boll number, boll mass of cotton plants increased after soil salt content reduction at bud stage. The distribution proportions of biomass in root and boll decreased after soil salt content reduction, however, the distribution proportions of biomass in leaf, main stem and fruit branch were on the rise. The growth rate of cotton plant increased after soil salt content reduction. Plant dry matter accumulation rate of SD cotton exceeded CK cotton at 22 days after soil salt content reduction. The response of different organs of cotton plant were different to soil salt content reduction, the plant height was the earliest, followed by the fruit branch and fruit node formation, and the bud and boll were the latest, which indicated that the compensation effect of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction at bud stage firstly appeared on the formation and growth of new leaf, fruit branch and fruit node, and on this basis, gradually brought out yield compensation.

  8. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of MISR nadir-camera images.

    The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image.

    The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001 (Terra orbit 6552). Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image.

    Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation.

    Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images. The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image. The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001. Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image. Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation. Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide. Image courtesy NASA/JPL/GSFC/LaRC, MISR Team

  10. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  11. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-03

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium.

  12. KNAP2, a class I KN1-like gene is a negative marker of bud growth potential in apple trees (Malus domestica [L.] Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Brunel, Nicole; Leduc, Nathalie; Poupard, Pascal; Simoneau, Philippe; Mauget, Jean-Claude; Viémont, Jean-Daniel

    2002-11-01

    The determinism of bud bursting pattern along the 1-year-old shoot was studied at the molecular and morphological levels in the apple tree variety 'Lodi' which shows an acrotonic tendency. At the molecular level, the expression of KNAP2, which belongs to the class I KN1-like gene family, was studied. Measurements were carried out during dormancy (October), breaking dormancy (January) and just before bud bursting (March). The results showed that KNAP2 is more highly expressed in buds that will remain at rest in the spring. Expression of KNAP2 was found in the meristem and in the marginal meristem of the two latest shaped primordia. In the January and March buds, this gene is also expressed in the procambial zone underneath the apical meristem. This study therefore suggests that KNAP2 may be considered as a negative marker of bud growth potential and that the growth inhibition in proximal buds could partially result from differential gene activity. At the morphological level, it was shown that no organogenetic activity took place between October and March as revealed by the constant number of leaf primordia in buds. Nevertheless, those buds likely to grow the following spring had a larger size and fewer hard scales than other buds. This suggests that genetic control may act together with other mechanisms, possibly physical (number of scales) or biochemical, to control bud inhibition.

  13. Meta-analyses of microarrays of Arabidopsis asymmetric leaves1 (as1), as2 and their modifying mutants reveal a critical role for the ETT pathway in stabilization of adaxial-abaxial patterning and cell division during leaf development.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiro; Iwakawa, Hidekazu; Ishibashi, Nanako; Kojima, Shoko; Matsumura, Yoko; Prananingrum, Pratiwi; Iwasaki, Mayumi; Takahashi, Anna; Ikezaki, Masaya; Luo, Lilan; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

    2013-03-01

    It is necessary to use algorithms to analyze gene expression data from DNA microarrays, such as in clustering and machine learning. Previously, we developed the knowledge-based fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (KB-FuzzyART), a clustering algorithm suitable for analyzing gene expression data, to find clues for identifying gene networks. Leaf primordia form around the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which consists of indeterminate stem cells. Upon initiation of leaf development, adaxial-abaxial patterning is crucial for lateral expansion, via cellular proliferation, and the formation of flat symmetric leaves. Many regulatory genes that specify such patterning have been identified. Analysis by the KB-FuzzyART and subsequent molecular and genetic analyses previously showed that ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) and AS2 repress the expression of some abaxial-determinant genes, such as AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3)/ETTIN (ETT) and ARF4, which are responsible for defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity in as1 and as2. In the present study, genetic analysis revealed that ARF3/ETT and ARF4 were regulated by modifier genes, BOBBER1 (BOB1) and ELONGATA3 (ELO3), together with AS1-AS2. We analyzed expression arrays with as2 elo3 and as2 bob1, and extracted genes downstream of ARF3/ETT by using KB-FuzzyART and molecular analyses. The results showed that expression of Kip-related protein (KRP) (for inhibitors of cyclin-dependent protein kinases) and Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) (for biosynthesis of cytokinin) genes were controlled by AS1-AS2 through ARF3/ETT and ARF4 functions, which suggests that the AS1-AS2-ETT pathway plays a critical role in controlling the cell division cycle and the biosynthesis of cytokinin around SAM to stabilize leaf development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  14. Experimental evolution in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss our progress in analyzing evolution in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We take two basic approaches. The first is to try and examine quantitative aspects of evolution, for example by determining how the rate of evolution depends on the mutation rate and the population size or asking whether the rate of mutation is uniform throughout the genome. The second is to try to evolve qualitatively novel, cell biologically interesting phenotypes and track the mutations that are responsible for the phenotype. Our efforts include trying to alter cell morphology, evolve multicellularity, and produce a biological oscillator.

  15. Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes through Association Mapping and in silico Comparative Genomics Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, M.; Antony Ceasar, S.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Vinod, K. K.; Kalpana, Krishnan; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Ignacimuthu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Finger millet is one of the small millets with high nutritive value. This crop is vulnerable to blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea, which occurs annually during rainy and winter seasons. Leaf blast occurs at early crop stage and is highly damaging. Mapping of resistance genes and other quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomic performance can be of great use for improving finger millet genotypes. Evaluation of one hundred and twenty-eight finger millet genotypes in natural field conditions revealed that leaf blast caused severe setback on agronomic performance for susceptible genotypes, most significant traits being plant height and root length. Plant height was reduced under disease severity while root length was increased. Among the genotypes, IE4795 showed superior response in terms of both disease resistance and better agronomic performance. A total of seven unambiguous QTLs were found to be associated with various agronomic traits including leaf blast resistance by association mapping analysis. The markers, UGEP101 and UGEP95, were strongly associated with blast resistance. UGEP98 was associated with tiller number and UGEP9 was associated with root length and seed yield. Cross species validation of markers revealed that 12 candidate genes were associated with 8 QTLs in the genomes of grass species such as rice, foxtail millet, maize, Brachypodium stacei, B. distachyon, Panicum hallii and switchgrass. Several candidate genes were found proximal to orthologous sequences of the identified QTLs such as 1,4-β-glucanase for leaf blast resistance, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) for tiller production, calmodulin (CaM) binding protein for seed yield and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) for root growth and development. Most of these QTLs and their putatively associated candidate genes are reported for first time in finger millet. On validation, these novel QTLs may be utilized in future for marker assisted breeding for the development of fungal

  16. Decellularized Tooth Bud Scaffolds for Tooth Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Vazquez, B; Oreadi, D; Yelick, P C

    2017-01-01

    Whole tooth regeneration approaches currently are limited by our inability to bioengineer full-sized, living replacement teeth. Recently, decellularized organ scaffolds have shown promise for applications in regenerative medicine by providing a natural extracellular matrix environment that promotes cell attachment and tissue-specific differentiation leading to full-sized organ regeneration. We hypothesize that decellularized tooth buds (dTBs) created from unerupted porcine tooth buds (TBs) can be used to guide reseeded dental cell differentiation to form whole bioengineered teeth, thereby providing a potential off-the-shelf scaffold for whole tooth regeneration. Porcine TBs were harvested from discarded 6-mo-old pig jaws, and decellularized by successive sodium dodecyl sulfate/Triton-X cycles. Four types of replicate implants were used in this study: 1) acellular dTBs; 2) recellularized dTBs seeded with porcine dental epithelial cells, human dental pulp cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (recell-dTBs); 3) dTBs seeded with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 (dTB-BMPs); and 4) freshly isolated nondecellularized natural TBs (nTBs). Replicate samples were implanted into the mandibles of host Yucatan mini-pigs and grown for 3 or 6 mo. Harvested mandibles with implanted TB constructs were fixed in formalin, decalcified, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and analyzed via histological methods. Micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis was performed on harvested 6-mo samples prior to decalcification. All harvested constructs exhibited a high degree of cellularity. Significant production of organized dentin and enamel-like tissues was observed in dTB-recell and nTB implants, but not in dTB or dTB-BMP implants. Micro-CT analyses of 6-mo implants showed the formation of organized, bioengineered teeth of comparable size to natural teeth. To our knowledge, these results are the first to describe the potential use of dTBs for functional whole tooth regeneration.

  17. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established.

  18. Chances and pitfalls of leaf wax biomarker analyses applied to fluvial sediment sequences - the example of a Holocene fluvial sediment-paleosol sequence from the upper Alazani River, eastern Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Bliedtner, Marcel; Zielhofer, Christoph; Faust, Dominik; Zech, Roland

    2016-04-01

    During the last decades, fluvial sediment sequences in many regions have intensively been studied to reconstruct Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental and palaeohydrological conditions. However, up to now analyses of leaf wax biomarkers that are increasingly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental and -climate conditions e.g. from lake sediments or loess-paleosol sequences were not systematically applied to Late Quaternary fluvial sediments. Given the ubiquitous distribution of fluvial sediment sequences on the earth's surface such investigations could potentially strongly enhance the knowledge about former environmental conditions in many regions. For this conceptual study we exemplarily analysed leaf wax biomarker (long-chain n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) in a fluvial sediment palaeosol sequence from the upper Alazani River in eastern Georgia to discuss general possibilities and pitfalls: Generally, biomarker records from fluvial archives can be divided into i) a catchment signal recorded in the fluvial sediment layers and ii) a local in-situ signal recorded in the intercalated paleosols. This offers the great chance to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions in both the whole catchment and at the sampling site. However, potential pitfalls are, for example, that inherited catchment signals can bias the in-situ signal from paleosols, while intermediate sediment storage in the catchment prior to sediment deposition and postsedimentary processes may alter the original catchment signal in the fluvial sediment layers. Thus, when applying leaf wax biomarker analyses to fluvial sediment sequences one has to be careful: The interpretation of the biomarker record strongly depends on the specific geomorphological and sedimentological conditions of the investigated site and of the catchment area.

  19. PSII photochemistry in vegetative buds and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) probed by OJIP chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement.

    PubMed

    Katanić, Zorana; Atić, Lejla; Ferhatović, Dž; Cesar, Vera; Lepeduš, H

    2012-06-01

    Vegetative buds represent developmental stage of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) needles where chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthetic activity begin. We used the analyses of polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence rise (OJIP) to compare photosystem II (PSII) functioning in vegetative buds and fully photosynthetically active mature current-year needles. Considerably decreased performance index (PIABS) in vegetative buds compared to needles pointed to their low photosynthetic efficiency. Maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in buds was slightly decreased but above limited value for functionality indicating that primary photochemistry of PSII is not holdback of vegetative buds photosynthetic activity. The most significant difference observed between investigated developmental stages was accumulation of reduced primary quinine acceptor of PSII (QA-) in vegetative buds, as a result of its limited re-oxidation by passing electrons to secondary quinone acceptor, QB. We suggest that reduced electron transfer from QA- to QB could be the major limiting factor of photosynthesis in vegetative buds.

  20. Axillary Meristems and the Development of Epicormic Buds in Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis)

    PubMed Central

    BURROWS, G. E.; OFFORD, C. A.; MEAGHER, P. F.; ASHTON, K.

    2003-01-01

    Intact trees of Wollemia nobilis Jones, Hill and Allen (Araucariaceae) routinely develop multiple coppice shoots as well as orthotropic epicormic shoots that become replacement or additional leaders. As these are unusual architectural features for the Araucariaceae, an investigation was made of the axillary meristems of the main stem and their role in the production of epicormic and possibly coppice shoots. Leaf axils, excised from the apex to the base of 2‐m‐high W. nobilis plants (seedling origin, ex situ grown), were examined anatomically. Small, endogenous, undifferentiated (no leaf primordia, no vascular or provascular connections) meristems were found in the axils from near the shoot apex. In the more proximal positions about half the meristems sampled did not differentiate further, but became tangentially elongated to compensate for increases in stem diameter. In the remaining axils the meristems slowly developed into bud primordia, although these buds usually developed few leaf primordia and their apical ‘domes’ were wide and flat. Associated vascular development was generally restricted to provascular dedifferentiation of the cortical parenchyma, with the procambium usually forming a ‘closed loop’ that did not extend back to the secondary vascular tissues. Development of the meristems was very uneven with adjacent axils often at widely differing stages of development into buds. The study shows that, unlike most conifers, W. nobilis possesses long‐lived meristematic potential in most, if not all, leaf axils. Unlike other araucarias that have been investigated, many of the meristems in the orthotropic main stem will slowly develop into bud primordia beneath the bark in intact plants. It appears likely that this slow but continued development provides a ready source of additional or replacement leaders and thus new branches and leaves. PMID:14612379

  1. Making continental-scale environmental programs relevant locally for educators with Project BudBurst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Henderson, S.; Wasser, L.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage non professionals in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide excellent opportunities for educators and their students to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch, this on-line program has engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent, and in contemplating the meaning of such data in their local environments. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst educational resources and share lessons learned from educators in implementing the program in formal and informal education settings. Lesson plans and tips from educators will be highlighted. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago Botanic Garden.

  2. Early transcriptome analyses of Z-3-Hexenol-treated zea mays revealed distinct transcriptional networks and anti-herbivore defense potential of green leaf volatiles.

    PubMed

    Engelberth, Jurgen; Contreras, Claudia Fabiola; Dalvi, Chinmay; Li, Ting; Engelberth, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV), which are rapidly emitted by plants in response to insect herbivore damage, are now established as volatile defense signals. Receiving plants utilize these molecules to prime their defenses and respond faster and stronger when actually attacked. To further characterize the biological activity of these compounds we performed a microarray analysis of global gene expression. The focus of this project was to identify early transcriptional events elicited by Z-3-hexenol (Z-3-HOL) as our model GLV in maize (Zea mays) seedlings. The microarray results confirmed previous studies on Z-3-HOL -induced gene expression but also provided novel information about the complexity of Z-3-HOL -induced transcriptional networks. Besides identifying a distinct set of genes involved in direct and indirect defenses we also found significant expression of genes involved in transcriptional regulation, Ca(2+)-and lipid-related signaling, and cell wall reinforcement. By comparing these results with those obtained by treatment of maize seedlings with insect elicitors we found a high degree of correlation between the two expression profiles at this early time point, in particular for those genes related to defense. We further analyzed defense gene expression induced by other volatile defense signals and found Z-3-HOL to be significantly more active than methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate, and ethylene. The data presented herein provides important information on early genetic networks that are activated by Z-3-HOL and demonstrates the effectiveness of this compound in the regulation of typical plant defenses against insect herbivores in maize.

  3. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  4. The dormant buds of Rhabdopleura compacta (Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Dilly, P N

    1975-06-13

    Rhabdopleura has an overwintering stage that consists of two layers of cells surrounding a central yolk mass. This cellular part is surrounded by a thick electron dense capsule which is secreted by the bud itself. The capsule is probably impervious and protective to its contents. Blood vessels join the buds to the zooids of the colony. They form the probable route of transfer of yolk from the zooids to the dormant bud. The capsule of the dormant bud has some structural features in common with the black stolon of the adult zooids. The black stolon is probably formed in a manner similar to that which made the fusellar fabric of the periderm of fossil graptolities.

  5. Passion fruit flowers: Kunitz trypsin inhibitors and cystatin differentially accumulate in developing buds and floral tissues.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Keitty R B; Botelho-Júnior, Sylvio; Domingues, Dalvania P; Machado, Olga L T; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Madureira, Herika C; Pereira, Telma N S; Jacinto, Tânia

    2011-11-01

    In order to better understand the physiological functions of protease inhibitors (PIs) the PI activity in buds and flower organs of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) was investigated. Trypsin and papain inhibitory activities were analyzed in soluble protein extracts from buds at different developmental stages and floral tissues in anthesis. These analyses identified high levels of inhibitory activity against both types of enzymes at all bud stages. Intriguingly, the inhibitory activity against both proteases differed remarkably in some floral tissues. While all organs tested were very effective against trypsin, only sepal and petal tissues exhibited strong inhibitory activity against papain. The sexual reproductive tissues (ovary, stigma-style and stamen) showed either significantly lower activity against papain or practically none. Gelatin-SDS-PAGE assay established that various trypsin inhibitors (TIs) homogenously accumulated in developing buds, although some were differentially present in floral organs. The N-terminal sequence analysis of purified inhibitors from stamen demonstrated they had homology to the Kunitz family of serine PIs. Western-blot analysis established presence of a ∼60 kDa cystatin, whose levels progressively increased during bud development. A positive correlation between this protein and strong papain inhibitory activity was observed in buds and floral tissues, except for the stigma-style. Differences in temporal and spatial accumulation of both types of PIs in passion fruit flowers are thus discussed in light of their potential roles in defense and development.

  6. Taste Bud Labeling in Whole Tongue Epithelial Sheet in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Boggs, Kristin; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Molecular labeling in whole-mount tissues provides an efficient way to obtain general information about the formation, maintenance, degeneration, and regeneration of many organs and tissues. However, labeling of lingual taste buds in whole tongue tissues in adult mice has been problematic because of the strong permeability barrier of the tongue epithelium. In this study, we present a simple method for labeling taste buds in the intact tongue epithelial sheet of an adult mouse. Following intralingual protease injection and incubation, immediate fixation of the tongue on mandible in 4% paraformaldehyde enabled the in situ shape of the tongue epithelium to be well maintained after peeling. The peeled epithelium was accessible to taste bud labeling with a pan-taste cell marker, keratin 8, and a type II taste cell marker, α-gustducin, in all three types of taste papillae, that is, fungiform, foliate, and circumvallate. Overnight incubation of tongue epithelial sheets with primary and secondary antibodies was sufficient for intense labeling of taste buds with both fluorescent and DAB visualizations. Labeled individual taste buds were easy to identify and quantify. This protocol provides an efficient way for phenotypic analyses of taste buds, especially regarding distribution pattern and number.

  7. Structural Characterization of Ginsenosides from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng by RRLC-Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Ziyan; Teng, Yaran; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-02-01

    Ginseng flower bud as a part of Panax ginseng has received much attention as a valuable functional food with medicinal potential. A few studies focused on systematic and comprehensive studies on its major ingredients. This study aims to rapidly characterize ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds and provide scientific basis for developing functional food, exploiting pharmaceutical effects and making full use of ginseng resources. A rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds. The compounds were identified by comparing retention time of the reference standards, accurate mass measurement and the fragment ions obtained from RRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. A total of 14 kinds of ginsenosides were identified and 5 kinds of malonyl-ginsenosides were first tentatively identified in ginseng flower buds. Ten kinds of main ginsenosides were quantitatively analyzed. The developed RRLC-Q-TOF-MS method was demonstrated as an effective analytical means for rapid characterization of the ginsenosides in flower buds of P. ginseng. The research result is valuable for quality control, assessment of authenticity and stability evaluation of ginseng flower buds.

  8. Tumor Budding, uPA, and PAI-1 in Colorectal Cancer: Update of a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hardt, Jochen; Franz, Simon; Schaller, Tina; Schenkirsch, Gerhard; Kriening, Bernadette; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Rüth, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Aims. The prognostic role of the proteases uPA and PAI-1, as well as tumor budding, in colon cancer, has been investigated previously. Methods. We provide 6-year follow-up data and results of the validation set. The initial test set and validation set consisted of 55 colon cancers and 68 colorectal cancers, respectively. Tissue samples were analyzed for uPA and PAI-1 using a commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Tumor budding was analyzed on cytokeratin-stained slides. Survival analyses were performed using cut-offs that were determined previously. Results. uPA was not prognostic for outcome. PAI-1 showed a trend towards reduced cancer specific survival in PAI-1 high-grade cases (68 versus 83 months; P = 0.091). The combination of high-grade PAI-1 and tumor budding was associated with significantly reduced cancer specific survival (60 versus 83 months; P = 0.021). After pooling the data from both sets, multivariate analyses revealed that the factors pN-stage, V-stage, and a combination of tumor budding and PAI-1 were independently prognostic for the association with distant metastases. Conclusions. A synergistic adverse effect of PAI-1 and tumor budding in uni- and multivariable analyses was found. PAI-1 could serve as a target for anticancer therapy. PMID:28286517

  9. Early Transcriptome Analyses of Z-3-Hexenol-Treated Zea mays Revealed Distinct Transcriptional Networks and Anti-Herbivore Defense Potential of Green Leaf Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Engelberth, Jurgen; Contreras, Claudia Fabiola; Dalvi, Chinmay; Li, Ting; Engelberth, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV), which are rapidly emitted by plants in response to insect herbivore damage, are now established as volatile defense signals. Receiving plants utilize these molecules to prime their defenses and respond faster and stronger when actually attacked. To further characterize the biological activity of these compounds we performed a microarray analysis of global gene expression. The focus of this project was to identify early transcriptional events elicited by Z-3-hexenol (Z-3-HOL) as our model GLV in maize (Zea mays) seedlings. The microarray results confirmed previous studies on Z-3-HOL -induced gene expression but also provided novel information about the complexity of Z-3-HOL -induced transcriptional networks. Besides identifying a distinct set of genes involved in direct and indirect defenses we also found significant expression of genes involved in transcriptional regulation, Ca2+-and lipid-related signaling, and cell wall reinforcement. By comparing these results with those obtained by treatment of maize seedlings with insect elicitors we found a high degree of correlation between the two expression profiles at this early time point, in particular for those genes related to defense. We further analyzed defense gene expression induced by other volatile defense signals and found Z-3-HOL to be significantly more active than methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate, and ethylene. The data presented herein provides important information on early genetic networks that are activated by Z-3-HOL and demonstrates the effectiveness of this compound in the regulation of typical plant defenses against insect herbivores in maize. PMID:24155960

  10. Project LEAF

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project LEAF has a goal of educating farmworkers about how to reduce pesticide exposure to their families from pesticide residues they may be inadvertently taking home on their clothing, etc. Find outreach materials.

  11. Developing a biomimetic tooth bud model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth E; Zhang, Weibo; Schiele, Nathan R; Khademhosseini, Ali; Kuo, Catherine K; Yelick, Pamela C

    2017-01-08

    A long-term goal is to bioengineer, fully functional, living teeth for regenerative medicine and dentistry applications. Biologically based replacement teeth would avoid insufficiencies of the currently used dental implants. Using natural tooth development as a guide, a model was fabricated using post-natal porcine dental epithelial (pDE), porcine dental mesenchymal (pDM) progenitor cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) encapsulated within gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels. Previous publications have shown that post-natal DE and DM cells seeded onto synthetic scaffolds exhibited mineralized tooth crowns composed of dentin and enamel. However, these tooth structures were small and formed within the pores of the scaffolds. The present study shows that dental cell-encapsulated GelMA constructs can support mineralized dental tissue formation of predictable size and shape. Individually encapsulated pDE or pDM cell GelMA constructs were analysed to identify formulas that supported pDE and pDM cell attachment, spreading, metabolic activity, and neo-vasculature formation with co-seeded endothelial cells (HUVECs). GelMa constructs consisting of pDE-HUVECS in 3% GelMA and pDM-HUVECs within 5% GelMA supported dental cell differentiation and vascular mineralized dental tissue formation in vivo. These studies are the first to demonstrate the use of GelMA hydrogels to support the formation of post-natal dental progenitor cell-derived mineralized and functionally vascularized tissues of specified size and shape. These results introduce a novel three-dimensional biomimetic tooth bud model for eventual bioengineered tooth replacement teeth in humans. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Photoperiod and temperature responses of bud swelling and bud burst in four temperate forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Basler, David; Körner, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Spring phenology of temperate forest trees is optimized to maximize the length of the growing season while minimizing the risk of freezing damage. The release from winter dormancy is environmentally mediated by species-specific responses to temperature and photoperiod. We investigated the response of early spring phenology to temperature and photoperiod at different stages of dormancy release in cuttings from four temperate tree species in controlled environments. By tracking bud development, we were able to identify the onset of bud swelling and bud growth in Acer pseudoplatanus L., Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. At a given early stage of dormancy release, the onset and duration of the bud swelling prior to bud burst are driven by concurrent temperature and photoperiod, while the maximum growth rate is temperature dependent only, except for Fagus, where long photoperiods also increased bud growth rates. Similarly, the later bud burst was controlled by temperature and photoperiod (in the photoperiod sensitive species Fagus, Quercus and Picea). We conclude that photoperiod is involved in the release of dormancy during the ecodormancy phase and may influence bud burst in trees that have experienced sufficient chilling. This study explored and documented the early bud swelling period that precedes and defines later phenological stages such as canopy greening in conventional phenological works. It is the early bud growth resumption that needs to be understood in order to arrive at a causal interpretation and modelling of tree phenology at a large scale. Classic spring phenology events mark visible endpoints of a cascade of processes as evidenced here.

  13. Live confocal imaging of Arabidopsis flower buds.

    PubMed

    Prunet, Nathanaël; Jack, Thomas P; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in confocal microscopy, coupled with the development of numerous fluorescent reporters, provide us with a powerful tool to study the development of plants. Live confocal imaging has been used extensively to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the formation of roots, shoots and leaves. However, it has not been widely applied to flowers, partly because of specific challenges associated with the imaging of flower buds. Here, we describe how to prepare and grow shoot apices of Arabidopsis in vitro, to perform both single-point and time-lapse imaging of live, developing flower buds with either an upright or an inverted confocal microscope.

  14. Size-dependent leaf area ratio in plant twigs: implication for leaf size optimization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongmei; Niklas, Karl J.; Xiang, Shuang; Sun, Shucun

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Although many hypotheses have been proposed to explain variation in leaf size, the mechanism underlying the variation remains not fully understood. To help understand leaf size variation, the cost/benefit of twig size was analysed, since, according to Corner's rule, twig size is positively correlated with the size of appendages the twig bears. Methods An extensive survey of twig functional traits, including twig (current-year shoots including one stem and few leaves) and leaf size (individual leaf area and mass), was conducted for 234 species from four broadleaved forests. The scaling relationship between twig mass and leaf area was determined using standardized major axis regression and phylogenetic independent comparative analyses. Key Results Leaf area was found to scale positively and allometrically with both stem and twig mass (stem mass plus leaf mass) with slopes significantly smaller than 1·0, independent of life form and habitat type. Thus, the leaf area ratio (the ratio of total leaf area to stem or twig mass) decreases with increasing twig size. Moreover, the leaf area ratio correlated negatively with individual leaf mass. The results of phylogenetic independent comparativeanalyses were consistent with the correlations. Based on the above results, a simple model for twig size optimization was constructed, from which it is postulated that large leaf size–twig size may be favoured when leaf photosynthetic capacity is high and/or when leaf life span and/or stem longevity are long. The model's predictions are consistent with leaf size variation among habitats, in which leaf size tends to be small in poor habitats with a low primary productivity. The model also explains large variations in leaf size within habitats for which leaf longevity and stem longevity serve as important determinants. Conclusions The diminishing returns in the scaling of total leaf area with twig size can be explained in terms of a very simple model on twig size

  15. Bud development in corydalis (Corydalis bracteata) requires low temperature: a study of developmental and carbohydrate changes

    PubMed Central

    Khodorova, Nadejda V.; Miroslavov, Evgeniy A.; Shavarda, Alexey L.; Laberche, Jean-Claude; Boitel-Conti, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Spring geophytes require a period of low temperature for proper flower development but the mechanism that underlies the relationship between cold treatment and flowering remains unknown. The present study aims to compare the developmental anatomy and carbohydrate content of the tuberous geophyte Corydalis bracteata growing under natural winter conditions from 10 to −10 °C (field-grown) and under a mild temperature regime of 18 °C (indoor-grown plants). Methods Samples were studied under light and electron microscopy. A histochemical test (periodic acid – Schiff's) was employed to identify starch in sectioned material. Sugars were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. Apoplastic wash fluid was prepared. Key Results Under natural conditions, shoots were elongated, and buds gained in dry mass and developed normally. For indoor-grown plants, these parameters were lower in value and, from December, a progressive necrosis of flower buds was observed. The tuber consisted of the new developing one, which was connected to the bud, and the old tuber with its starch reserve. Due to the absence of plasmodesmata between new and old tuber cells, sugar transport cannot be through the symplast. Thus, a potential apoplastic route is proposed from old tuber phloem parenchyma cells to the adjacent new tuber cells. Sugar content in buds during the autumn months (September–November) was lower for indoor-grown plants than control plants, whereas the sugar content in tubers during the same period was similar for plants from both temperature treatments. However, the amount of apoplastic sugars in tubers of field-grown plants was almost 15-fold higher than in indoor-grown tubers. Conclusions The results suggest that low temperature activates the apoplastic route of sugar transport in C. bracteata tubers and a consequent carbohydrate delivery to the bud. In the absence of cold treatment, the carbohydrate reserve is locked in old tuber cells so the nutrient

  16. Microspore Induced Doubled Haploids Production from Ethyl Methanesulfonate (EMS) Soaked Flower Buds Is an Efficient Strategy for Mutagenesis in Chinese Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yin; Dai, Shuangyan; Gu, Aixia; Liu, Mengyang; Wang, Yanhua; Luo, Shuangxia; Zhao, Yujing; Wang, Shan; Xuan, Shuxin; Chen, Xueping; Li, Xiaofeng; Bonnema, Guusje; Zhao, Jianjun; Shen, Shuxing

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage buds were soaked with Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) to induce mutagenesis. The influence of different EMS concentrations and treatment durations on microspore development, embryo production rate and seedling rate were evaluated in five Chinese cabbage genotypes. Mutations in four color-related genes were identified using high resolution melting (HRM) curves of their PCR products. The greatest embryo production and seedling rates were observed when buds were treated with 0.03 to 0.1% EMS for 5 to 10 min, while EMS concentrations greater than 0.1% were lethal to the microspores. In total, 142 mutants with distinct variations in leaf shape, leaf color, corolla size, flower color, bolting time and downy mildew resistance were identified from 475 microspore culture derived Doubled Haploids. Our results demonstrate that microspore derived Doubled Haploids from EMS soaked buds represents an efficient approach to rapidly generate homozygous Chinese cabbage mutants. PMID:28018368

  17. Microspore Induced Doubled Haploids Production from Ethyl Methanesulfonate (EMS) Soaked Flower Buds Is an Efficient Strategy for Mutagenesis in Chinese Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yin; Dai, Shuangyan; Gu, Aixia; Liu, Mengyang; Wang, Yanhua; Luo, Shuangxia; Zhao, Yujing; Wang, Shan; Xuan, Shuxin; Chen, Xueping; Li, Xiaofeng; Bonnema, Guusje; Zhao, Jianjun; Shen, Shuxing

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage buds were soaked with Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) to induce mutagenesis. The influence of different EMS concentrations and treatment durations on microspore development, embryo production rate and seedling rate were evaluated in five Chinese cabbage genotypes. Mutations in four color-related genes were identified using high resolution melting (HRM) curves of their PCR products. The greatest embryo production and seedling rates were observed when buds were treated with 0.03 to 0.1% EMS for 5 to 10 min, while EMS concentrations greater than 0.1% were lethal to the microspores. In total, 142 mutants with distinct variations in leaf shape, leaf color, corolla size, flower color, bolting time and downy mildew resistance were identified from 475 microspore culture derived Doubled Haploids. Our results demonstrate that microspore derived Doubled Haploids from EMS soaked buds represents an efficient approach to rapidly generate homozygous Chinese cabbage mutants.

  18. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling provides insights into floral bud development of summer-flowering Camellia azalea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhengqi; Li, Jiyuan; Li, Xinlei; Wu, Bin; Wang, Jiangying; Liu, Zhongchi; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-05-15

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in woody perennials involves pathways controlling flowering timing, bud dormancy and outgrowth in responses to seasonal cues. However little is known about the mechanism governing the adaptation of signaling pathways to environmental conditions in trees. Camellia azalea is a rare species in this genus flowering during summer, which provides a unique resource for floral timing breeding. Here we reported a comprehensive transcriptomics study to capture the global gene profiles during floral bud development in C. azalea. We examined the genome-wide gene expression between three developmental stages including floral bud initiation, floral organ differentiation and bud outgrowth, and identified nine co-expression clusters with distinctive patterns. Further, we identified the differential expressed genes (DEGs) during development and characterized the functional properties of DEGs by Gene Ontology analysis. We showed that transition from floral bud initiation to floral organ differentiation required changes of genes in flowering timing regulation, while transition to floral bud outgrowth was regulated by various pathways such as cold and light signaling, phytohormone pathways and plant metabolisms. Further analyses of dormancy associated MADS-box genes revealed that SVP- and AGL24- like genes displayed distinct expression patterns suggesting divergent roles during floral bud development.

  19. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  20. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

  1. Micropropagation of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume and regeneration induction via adventitious buds and somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Radice, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Codiaeum variegatum (L) Blume cv. "Corazon de oro" and cv. "Norma" are successfully micropropagated when culture are initiated with explants taken from newly sprouted shoots. The establishment and multiplication steps are possible when 1 mg/L BA or 1 mg/L IAA and 3 mg/L 2iP are added to MS medium, according to the cultivar respectively selected.Adventive organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are induced from leaf explants taken from in vitro buds of croton. On leaf-sectioned of "Corazon de oro" cultured in vitro, 1 mg/L BA stimulates continuous somatic embryos development and induces some shoots too. Replacing BA with 1 mg/L TDZ induces up to 100% bud regeneration in the same explants. On the other hand, leaf-sectioned of C. variegatum cv. Norma does not start somatic embryo differentiation if 1 mg/L TDZ is not added to the MS basal medium. Incipient callus is observed after 30 days of culture, and then, subculture to MS with 1 mg/L BA allows the same process to show on the "Corazon de oro" cultivar. Somatic embryos show growth arrest that is partially overcome by transfer to hormone-free basal medium with activated charcoal. Root induction is possible on basal medium plus 1 mg/L IBA. Plantlets in the greenhouse have variegated leaves true-to-type.

  2. The essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis is conserved in budding and fission yeasts.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kun; Kawara, Haruka; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Kume, Kazunori; Yabuki, Yukari; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Kenji; Ueno, Masaru; Kanai, Muneyoshi; Hirata, Dai; Funato, Kouichi; Mizuta, Keiko

    2015-09-01

    The Rrs1 protein plays an essential role in the biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Here, we examined whether the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) homologue of Rrs1 also plays a role in ribosome biogenesis. To this end, we constructed two temperature-sensitive fission yeast strains, rrs1-D14/22G and rrs1-L51P, which had amino acid substitutions corresponding to those of the previously characterized budding yeast rrs1-84 (D22/30G) and rrs1-124 (L61P) strains, respectively. The fission yeast mutants exhibited severe defects in growth and 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis at high temperatures. In addition, expression of the Rrs1 protein of fission yeast suppressed the growth defects of the budding yeast rrs1 mutants at high temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid analyses revealed that the interactions of Rrs1 with the Rfp2 and Ebp2 proteins were conserved in budding and fission yeasts. These results suggest that the essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis may be conserved in budding and fission yeasts.

  3. Cryopreservation of Salix sp. dormant winter buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cryopreservation, using dormant winter buds (DB) as source plant materials is economically advantageous over tissue culture options (TC). Processing DB does not require aseptic conditions and elaborate cryopreservation procedures. However, the DB approach is only feasible for cryopreserving a sel...

  4. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-11-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy.

  5. Bilingual Buds: The Evolution of a Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The impetus to begin Bilingual Buds came about six years ago when the author, pregnant with twins and commuting into New York City, was reading about the numerous cognitive benefits for children of acquiring a second language early in their lives. She was surprised to learn that even by the age of six months, children begin to lose the ability to…

  6. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood.

  7. Physiological differences between bud breaking and flowering after dormancy completion revealed by DAM and FT/TFL1 expression in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Saito, Takanori; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Bai, Songling; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms underlying bud breaking (scale leaf elongation) and flowering in the lateral flower buds of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai 'Kosui') are unknown. To more fully characterize these processes, we treated pear trees with different amounts of chilling initiated at different times. Chilling for ∼900 h at 6 °C always induced bud breaking (scale elongation in ≥70% lateral flower bud) when provided between October and February, whereas chilling provided earlier (between October and December) was less effective on flowering (floret growth and development) than later chilling and the flowering rate increased with longer chilling durations. During chilling, the expression of pear DAMs (PpMADS13-1, 13-2 and 13-3) in lateral flower buds decreased as chilling accumulated irrespective of the timing of chilling. In addition, pear TFL1 (PpTFL1-1a) in the lateral flower buds was expressed at higher levels when the time interval for chilling was earlier. On the other hand, during forcing at 15 °C after chilling, the expression pattern of all three PpMADS13 genes was similar among the treatments, and the expression levels seemed lower in the treatment where scale leaves of the lateral flower bud elongated faster, whereas pear FT (PpFT2a) was expressed at higher levels in the buds whose flower clusters elongated more vigorously during forcing. From these results, we infer that flowering time may be mediated via the balance of flowering-related genes FT and TFL1, whereas bud breaking may be regulated via the DAM genes in Japanese pear.

  8. Localization of Bud2p, a GTPase-activating protein necessary for programming cell polarity in yeast to the presumptive bud site

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hay-Oak; Sanson, Anthony; Herskowitz, Ira

    1999-01-01

    Yeast cells of different cell type exhibit distinct budding patterns that reflect the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Bud1p (Rsr1p), a Ras-like GTPase, and Bud2p, a GTPase-activating protein for Bud1p, are essential for proper budding pattern. We show that Bud2p is localized at the presumptive bud site in G1 cells in all cell types and that this localization is independent of Bud1p. Bud2p subsequently localizes to the mother-bud neck after bud emergence; this localization depends on the integrity of the septins. These observations indicate that Bud2p becomes positioned in G1 cells by recognizing cell type-specific landmarks at the presumptive bud site. PMID:10444589

  9. Processing umami and other tastes in mammalian taste buds.

    PubMed

    Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-07-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potential to shape the final signal output that taste buds transmit to the brain. The following paragraphs summarize current thinking about how taste signals generally, and umami taste in particular, are processed in taste buds.

  10. Dynamics of the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machinery in the stalked budding bacterium Hyphomonas neptunium.

    PubMed

    Cserti, Emöke; Rosskopf, Sabine; Chang, Yi-Wei; Eisheuer, Sabrina; Selter, Lars; Shi, Jian; Regh, Christina; Koert, Ulrich; Jensen, Grant J; Thanbichler, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Most commonly studied bacteria grow symmetrically and divide by binary fission, generating two siblings of equal morphology. An exception to this rule are budding bacteria, in which new offspring emerges de novo from a morphologically invariant mother cell. Although this mode of proliferation is widespread in diverse bacterial lineages, the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Here, we report the first molecular-level analysis of growth and morphogenesis in the stalked budding alphaproteobacterium Hyphomonas neptunium. Peptidoglycan labeling shows that, in this species, buds originate from a stalk-like extension of the mother cell whose terminal segment is gradually remodeled into a new cell compartment. As a first step toward identifying the machinery mediating the budding process, we performed comprehensive mutational and localization studies of predicted peptidoglycan biosynthetic proteins in H. neptunium. These analyses identify factors that localize to distinct zones of dispersed and zonal growth, and they suggest a critical role of the MreB-controlled elongasome in cell morphogenesis. Collectively, our work shows that the mechanism of growth in H. neptunium is distinct from that in related, polarly growing members of the order Rhizobiales, setting the stage for in-depth analyses of the molecular principles regulating the fascinating developmental cycle of this species.

  11. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle.

  12. Eukaryotic-Like Virus Budding in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Quemin, Emmanuelle R. J.; Chlanda, Petr; Sachse, Martin; Forterre, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Similar to many eukaryotic viruses (and unlike bacteriophages), viruses infecting archaea are often encased in lipid-containing envelopes. However, the mechanisms of their morphogenesis and egress remain unexplored. Here, we used dual-axis electron tomography (ET) to characterize the morphogenesis of Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), the prototype of the family Fuselloviridae and representative of the most abundant archaea-specific group of viruses. Our results show that SSV1 assembly and egress are concomitant and occur at the cellular cytoplasmic membrane via a process highly reminiscent of the budding of enveloped viruses that infect eukaryotes. The viral nucleoprotein complexes are extruded in the form of previously unknown rod-shaped intermediate structures which have an envelope continuous with the host membrane. Further maturation into characteristic spindle-shaped virions takes place while virions remain attached to the cell surface. Our data also revealed the formation of constricted ring-like structures which resemble the budding necks observed prior to the ESCRT machinery-mediated membrane scission during egress of various enveloped viruses of eukaryotes. Collectively, we provide evidence that archaeal spindle-shaped viruses contain a lipid envelope acquired upon budding of the viral nucleoprotein complex through the host cytoplasmic membrane. The proposed model bears a clear resemblance to the egress strategy employed by enveloped eukaryotic viruses and raises important questions as to how the archaeal single-layered membrane composed of tetraether lipids can undergo scission. PMID:27624130

  13. The control of bud dormancy in potato tubers. Measurement of the seasonal pattern of changing concentrations of zeatin-cytokinins.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, C G; Hanke, D E

    1985-08-01

    A radioimmunoassay, combined with high-performance liquid chromatography, has been used to analyse the zeatin-type cytokinins of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Majestic) tubers and tuber buds throughout growth and storage. During tuber growth, zeatin riboside was the predominant cytokinin detected in all tissues. Immediately after harvest, the total cytokinin concentration fell dramatically in the storage tissue, largely as a consequence of the disappearance of zeatin riboside. During storage, levels of cytokinins in the storage tissue remained relatively constant, but increased in the tuber buds. In the buds of tubers stored at 2°C there was a 20-to 50-fold increase in total cytokinin over six weeks, coinciding with the natural break of innate dormancy. At 10°C the rise in the level of bud cytokinins was slower, correlating with the longer duration of innate dormancy. Injecting unlabelled cytokinins into tubers in amounts known to induce sprouting gave rise to increases in cytokinin concentrations in the buds of the same order as the increase associated with the natural break of dormancy. Metabolism of injected cytokinins was greater in non-dormant than in dormant tubers. The roles of cytokinin concentration and the sensitivity of the buds to cytokinin in the control of dormancy are discussed.

  14. Characterization of dependencies between growth and division in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Michael B; Iversen, Edwin S; Hartemink, Alexander J

    2017-02-01

    Cell growth and division are processes vital to the proliferation and development of life. Coordination between these two processes has been recognized for decades in a variety of organisms. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this coordination or 'size control' appears as an inverse correlation between cell size and the rate of cell-cycle progression, routinely observed in G1 prior to cell division commitment. Beyond this point, cells are presumed to complete S/G2/M at similar rates and in a size-independent manner. As such, studies of dependence between growth and division have focused on G1 Moreover, in unicellular organisms, coordination between growth and division has commonly been analysed within the cycle of a single cell without accounting for correlations in growth and division characteristics between cycles of related cells. In a comprehensive analysis of three published time-lapse microscopy datasets, we analyse both intra- and inter-cycle dependencies between growth and division, revisiting assumptions about the coordination between these two processes. Interestingly, we find evidence (i) that S/G2/M durations are systematically longer in daughters than in mothers, (ii) of dependencies between S/G2/M and size at budding that echo the classical G1 dependencies, and (iii) in contrast with recent bacterial studies, of negative dependencies between size at birth and size accumulated during the cell cycle. In addition, we develop a novel hierarchical model to uncover inter-cycle dependencies, and we find evidence for such dependencies in cells growing in sugar-poor environments. Our analysis highlights the need for experimentalists and modellers to account for new sources of cell-to-cell variation in growth and division, and our model provides a formal statistical framework for the continued study of dependencies between biological processes.

  15. Singularity in polarization: rewiring yeast cells to make two buds.

    PubMed

    Howell, Audrey S; Savage, Natasha S; Johnson, Sam A; Bose, Indrani; Wagner, Allison W; Zyla, Trevin R; Nijhout, H Frederik; Reed, Michael C; Goryachev, Andrew B; Lew, Daniel J

    2009-11-13

    For budding yeast to ensure formation of only one bud, cells must polarize toward one, and only one, site. Polarity establishment involves the Rho family GTPase Cdc42, which concentrates at polarization sites via a positive feedback loop. To assess whether singularity is linked to the specific Cdc42 feedback loop, we disabled the yeast cell's endogenous amplification mechanism and synthetically rewired the cells to employ a different positive feedback loop. Rewired cells violated singularity, occasionally making two buds. Even cells that made only one bud sometimes initiated two clusters of Cdc42, but then one cluster became dominant. Mathematical modeling indicated that, given sufficient time, competition between clusters would promote singularity. In rewired cells, competition occurred slowly and sometimes failed to develop a single "winning" cluster before budding. Slowing competition in normal cells also allowed occasional formation of two buds, suggesting that singularity is enforced by rapid competition between Cdc42 clusters.

  16. Estimation of population effects in synchronized budding yeast experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemistoe, Antti; Aho, Tommi; Thesleff, Henna; Tiainen, Mikko; Marjanen, Kalle; Linne, Marja-Leena; Yli-Harja, Olli P.

    2003-05-01

    An approach for estimating the distribution of a synchronized budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell population is discussed. This involves estimation of the phase of the cell cycle for each cell. The approach is based on counting the number of buds of different sizes in budding yeast images. An image processing procedure is presented for the bud-counting task. The procedure employs clustering of the local mean-variance space for segmentation of the images. The subsequent bud-detection step is based on an object separation method which utilizes the chain code representation of objects as well as labeling of connected components. The procedure is tested with microscopic images that were obtained in a time-series experiment of a synchronized budding yeast cell population. The use of the distribution estimate of the cell population for inverse filtering of signals that are obtained in time-series microarray measurements is discussed as well.

  17. Identification of an Amphipathic Helix Important for the Formation of Ectopic Septin Spirals and Axial Budding in Yeast Axial Landmark Protein Bud3p

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Gong, Ting; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Correct positioning of polarity axis in response to internal or external cues is central to cellular morphogenesis and cell fate determination. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bud3p plays a key role in the axial bud-site selection (axial budding) process in which cells assemble the new bud next to the preceding cell division site. Bud3p is thought to act as a component of a spatial landmark. However, it is not clear how Bud3p interacts with other components of the landmark, such as the septins, to control axial budding. Here, we report that overexpression of Bud3p causes the formation of small septin rings (∼1 µm in diameter) and arcs aside from previously reported spiral-like septin structures. Bud3p closely associates with the septins in vivo as Bud3p colocalizes with these aberrant septin structures and forms a complex with two septins, Cdc10p and Cdc11p. The interaction of Bud3p with the septins may involve multiple regions of Bud3p including 1–858, 850–1220, and 1221–1636 a.a. since they all target to the bud neck but exhibit different effects on septin organization when overexpressed. In addition, our study reveals that the axial budding function of Bud3p is mediated by the N-terminal region 1–858. This region shares an amphipathic helix (850–858) crucial for bud neck targeting with the middle portion 850–1103 involved in the formation of ectopic septin spirals and rings. Interestingly, the Dbl-homology domain located in 1–858 is dispensable for axial bud-site selection. Our findings suggest that multiple regions of Bud3p ensure efficient targeting of Bud3p to the bud neck in the assembly of the axial landmark and distinct domains of Bud3p are involved in axial bud-site selection and other cellular processes. PMID:21408200

  18. Genetic evidence for the roles of the bud-site-selection genes BUD5 and BUD2 in control of the Rsr1p (Bud1p) GTPase in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, A

    1993-01-01

    Yeast cells normally display either an axial (for MATa or MAT alpha cells) or bipolar (for MATa/alpha cells) pattern of bud-site selection. The RSR1 gene, which was previously identified as a multicopy suppressor of Ts- mutations in the bud-emergence gene CDC24, encodes a GTPase of the Ras family that is required for both budding patterns. Mutations in Rsr1p that presumably block its ability to bind or hydrolyze GTP cause a randomized budding phenotype, suggesting that regulators of Rsr1p will prove to be required for proper bud positioning. The BUD5 gene product is required for proper bud-site selection and contains similarity to GDP-dissociation stimulators (GDS) for Ras-type proteins, suggesting that Bud5p may be a GDS for Rsr1p. Here I report that BUD5 is required for wild-type RSR1, but not for mutationally activated rsr1val12, to serve as a multicopy suppressor of cdc24, indicating that Bud5p functions as a GDS for Rsr1p in vivo. To identify the GAP (GTPase-activating protein) for Rsr1p, a genetic selection was designed based on the observation that mutationally activated rsr1val12, but not wild-type RSR1, can serve as a multicopy suppressor of yeast RAS2(Ts) mutants. Mutants were selected that allowed wild-type RSR1 to act as a multicopy suppressor of RAS2(Ts). Two such mutations proved to be in the BUD2 gene, suggesting that Bud2p functions as a GAP for Rsr1p in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8234337

  19. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds

    PubMed Central

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca2+-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

  20. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds.

    PubMed

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-07-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca(2+)-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed.

  1. Molecular mechanism of arenavirus assembly and budding.

    PubMed

    Urata, Shuzo; Yasuda, Jiro

    2012-10-10

    Arenaviruses have a bisegmented negative-strand RNA genome, which encodes four viral proteins: GP and NP by the S segment and L and Z by the L segment. These four viral proteins possess multiple functions in infection, replication and release of progeny viruses from infected cells. The small RING finger protein, Z protein is a matrix protein that plays a central role in viral assembly and budding. Although all arenaviruses encode Z protein, amino acid sequence alignment showed a huge variety among the species, especially at the C-terminus where the L-domain is located. Recent publications have demonstrated the interactions between viral protein and viral protein, and viral protein and host cellular protein, which facilitate transportation and assembly of viral components to sites of virus egress. This review presents a summary of current knowledge regarding arenavirus assembly and budding, in comparison with other enveloped viruses. We also refer to the restriction of arenavirus production by the antiviral cellular factor, Tetherin/BST-2.

  2. Functional Diversity of Silencers in Budding Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sjöstrand, Jimmy O. O.; Kegel, Andreas; Åström, Stefan U.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the silencing of the cryptic mating-type loci HMLα and HMRa in the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. A 102-bp minimal silencer fragment was defined that was both necessary and sufficient for silencing of HMLα. Mutagenesis of the silencer revealed three distinct regions (A, B, and C) that were important for silencing. Recombinant K. lactis ribosomal DNA enhancer binding protein 1 (Reb1p) could bind the silencer in vitro, and point mutations in the B box abolished both Reb1p binding and silencer function. Furthermore, strains carrying temperature-sensitive alleles of the REB1 gene derepressed the transcription of the HMLα1 gene at the nonpermissive temperature. A functional silencer element from the K. lactis cryptic HMRa locus was also identified, which contained both Reb1p binding sites and A boxes, strongly suggesting a general role for these sequences in K. lactis silencing. Our data indicate that different proteins bind to Kluyveromyces silencers than to Saccharomyces silencers. We suggest that the evolution of silencers is rapid in budding yeasts and discuss the similarities and differences between silencers in Saccharomyces and Kluyveromyces. PMID:12456003

  3. Electrochemical Regulation of Budding Yeast Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Piel, Matthieu; Chang, Fred; Minc, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs) at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs), which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization. PMID:25548923

  4. Molecular Mechanism of Arenavirus Assembly and Budding

    PubMed Central

    Urata, Shuzo; Yasuda, Jiro

    2012-01-01

    Arenaviruses have a bisegmented negative-strand RNA genome, which encodes four viral proteins: GP and NP by the S segment and L and Z by the L segment. These four viral proteins possess multiple functions in infection, replication and release of progeny viruses from infected cells. The small RING finger protein, Z protein is a matrix protein that plays a central role in viral assembly and budding. Although all arenaviruses encode Z protein, amino acid sequence alignment showed a huge variety among the species, especially at the C-terminus where the L-domain is located. Recent publications have demonstrated the interactions between viral protein and viral protein, and viral protein and host cellular protein, which facilitate transportation and assembly of viral components to sites of virus egress. This review presents a summary of current knowledge regarding arenavirus assembly and budding, in comparison with other enveloped viruses. We also refer to the restriction of arenavirus production by the antiviral cellular factor, Tetherin/BST-2. PMID:23202453

  5. Tritrichomonas foetus: budding from multinucleated pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Neves, Antonio; Benchimol, Marlene

    2009-11-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a flagellated protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis, a major sexually transmitted disease in cattle. T. foetus presents a simple life cycle, exhibiting only the trophozoitic form. However, under unfavorable growth conditions, the trophozoites, which are polar and flagellated, can round up and internalize their flagella forming pseudocysts. In this form no cyst wall surrounds the cell and it also displays a distinct mitosis when compared with the trophozoite form. In pseudocyst mitosis, the cell proceeds with duplication of cytoskeletal and mastigont structures; nuclear division occurs but without the corresponding cytoplasm division. Thus, giant multinucleated cells which present many mastigont structures are formed (approximately 62% of the population). These polymastigont/multinucleated cells are maintained when the cells are under stress conditions. When environmental conditions become favorable, the flagella are externalized and new flagellated trophozoites one by one, gradually bud from the multinucleated cell. Thus, in order to better understand the pseudocyst mitosis, the polymastigont formation and the generation of new cells by this budding process, video microscopy and other complementary techniques, such as immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy were used.

  6. Cold acclimation and floral development in almond bud break: insights into the regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro M; Gonçalves, Nuno; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2012-07-01

    In temperate fruit trees, seasonal dormancy and cold acclimation have a major impact on blooming time and, consequently, fruit production. To gain insight into the still unclear molecular processes underlying blooming, expression of genes putatively involved in the cold response was studied in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), which is the earliest fruit tree in the family Rosaceae to bloom. The transcript levels of two C-repeat binding factor (PdCBF) genes and one of their putative targets, PdDehydrin1 (PdDHN1), were analysed in flower buds and shoot internodes during seasonal dormancy up to bud break. In parallel, expression of candidate genes related to flower development was also followed. In a 2-year study, PdCBF2 showed a progressive increase in transcript abundance during the autumn in close correlation with cold acclimation, while high transcript levels of PdCBF1 and PdDHN1 were already found by summer. After bud break, with temperatures still within the chilling range, both PdCBF genes and PdDHN1 were found to sharply reduce transcription in flower buds and internodes, suggesting damping of CBF-mediated cold signalling during growth resumption, in correlation with cold hardiness decline. Flower bud break was also followed by a decrease in the expression of PdGA20OX, a candidate gene involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, and an increase in the expression of two homeotic genes related to floral organ development, PdMADS1 and -3. These genes may also be relevant players in the regulation of anthesis in this model Rosaceae species.

  7. RACK1 regulates mesenchymal cell recruitment during sexual and asexual reproduction of budding tunicates.

    PubMed

    Tatzuke, Yuki; Sunanaga, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kawamura, Kaz

    2012-08-15

    A homolog of receptor for activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) was cloned from the budding tunicate Polyandrocarpa misakiensis. By RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses, PmRACK1 showed biphasic gene expression during asexual and sexual reproduction. In developing buds, the signal was exclusively observed in the multipotent atrial epithelium and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells that contributed to morphogenesis by the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). In juvenile zooids, the signal was first observable in germline precursor cells that arose as mesenchymal cell aggregated in the ventral hemocoel. In mature zooids, the germinal epithelium in the ovary and the pharynx were the most heavily stained parts. GFP reporter assay indicated that the ovarian expression of PmRACK1 was constitutive from germline precursor cells to oocytes. To elucidate the in vivo function of PmRACK1, RNA interference was challenged. When growing buds were incubated with 5 nmol/mL siRNA, most mesenchymal cells remained round and appeared to have no interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM), causing lower activity of MET without any apparent effects on cell proliferation. The resultant zooids became growth-deficient. The dwarf zooids did not form buds or mature gonads. Prior to RNAi, buds were treated with human BMP4 that could induce PmRACK1 expression, which resulted in MET activity. We conclude that in P. misakiensis, PmRACK1 plays roles in mesenchymal cell recruitment during formation of somatic and gonad tissues, which contributes to zooidal growth and sexual and asexual reproduction.

  8. Conjugates of a secoiridoid glucoside with a phenolic glucoside from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Omichi, Yuka; Kurimoto, Shin-ichiro; Shibata, Hirofumi; Miyake, Yoshiyuki; Kirimoto, Tsukasa; Takaishi, Yoshihisa

    2013-12-01

    Secoiridoid glucosides, including two conjugates with a phenolic and two conjugates with a nicotinic acid derivative (3 and 4), together with seven known secoiridoid derivatives, were isolated from flower buds of Lonicera japonica. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Anti-influenza activities of six isolated compounds were also evaluated by plaque assay and neuraminidase inhibitory assay.

  9. Anatomy and morphology in developing vegetative buds on detached Norway spruce branches in controlled conditions before bud burst.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, Sirkka; Partanen, Jouni; Viherä-Aarnio, Anneli; Häkkinen, Risto

    2009-11-01

    We studied the light and stereomicroscopic structure of developing vegetative buds from a 16-year-old Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] of southern Finnish origin in relation to temperature sum and to externally visible changes in the buds before and during bud burst in forcing conditions. Branches were collected on 17 January and transferred to the greenhouse where they were first subjected to preforcing conditions (darkness, +4 degrees C) for 7 days and then to the forcing conditions (day length 12 h, +20 degrees C). Buds were sampled 20 times between 17 January and 13 February. Air temperature was recorded hourly throughout the study period. The first microscopic change was a temporary increase in the size and number of lipid droplets before the onset of temperature sum (T > or = +5 degrees C) accumulation. From the 4th to the 9th day under the forcing conditions, tracheids started to develop from the base up to the top of the bud. This was closely synchronized with an observed morphological change in the shape of needle tip from rounded to pointed ones. Development from the first visible change in the bud scales on the 12th forcing day to bud burst took 9 days when the temperature sum was 313 d.d. The temperature sums in our experiment overestimated the requirements of temperature sum for bud development phases measured in the field. Bud development could be divided into four structural phases. The first two phases, i.e., morphological changes in the primary needles, occurred without any externally visible changes in the buds. Thus, these phases have a potential for testing and improving the phenological models, which, up to now, have mainly been based on the bud burst observation by the naked eye.

  10. Biofilm/Mat assays for budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Paul J

    2015-02-02

    Many microbial species form biofilms/mats under nutrient-limiting conditions, and fungal pathogens rely on this social behavior for virulence. In budding yeast, mat formation is dependent on the mucin-like flocculin Flo11, which promotes cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate adhesion in mats. The biofilm/mat assays described here allow the evaluation of the role of Flo11 in the formation of mats. Cells are grown on surfaces with different degrees of rigidity to assess their expansion and three-dimensional architecture, and the cells are also exposed to plastic surfaces to quantify their adherence. These assays are broadly applicable to studying biofilm/mat formation in microbial species.

  11. Mitochondrial movement and inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Boldogh, Istvan R; Fehrenbacher, Kammy L; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Pon, Liza A

    2005-07-18

    Mitochondria are essential organelles that perform fundamental cellular functions including aerobic energy mobilization, fatty acid oxidation, amino acid metabolism, heme biosynthesis and apoptosis. Mitochondria cannot be synthesized de novo. Therefore, the inheritance of this organelle is an essential part of the cell cycle; that is, daughter cells that do not inherit mitochondria will not survive. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a facultative aerobe that can tolerate mitochondrial mutations that would be lethal in other organisms. Therefore, yeast has been used extensively to study inheritance and segregation of mitochondria. As a result, much of what we know regarding mitochondrial inheritance has been uncovered using yeast as a model system. Here, we describe the latest developments in mitochondrial motility and inheritance.

  12. Budding Yeast for Budding Geneticists: A Primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model System

    PubMed Central

    Duina, Andrea A.; Miller, Mary E.; Keeney, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:24807111

  13. Budding yeast for budding geneticists: a primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system.

    PubMed

    Duina, Andrea A; Miller, Mary E; Keeney, Jill B

    2014-05-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans.

  14. Measuring mitotic spindle dynamics in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, Kemp

    In order to carry out its life cycle and produce viable progeny through cell division, a cell must successfully coordinate and execute a number of complex processes with high fidelity, in an environment dominated by thermal noise. One important example of such a process is the assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle prior to chromosome segregation. The mitotic spindle is a modular structure composed of two spindle pole bodies, separated in space and spanned by filamentous proteins called microtubules, along which the genetic material of the cell is held. The spindle is responsible for alignment and subsequent segregation of chromosomes into two equal parts; proper spindle positioning and timing ensure that genetic material is appropriately divided amongst mother and daughter cells. In this thesis, I describe fluorescence confocal microscopy and automated image analysis algorithms, which I have used to observe and analyze the real space dynamics of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast. The software can locate structures in three spatial dimensions and track their movement in time. By selecting fluorescent proteins which specifically label the spindle poles and cell periphery, mitotic spindle dynamics have been measured in a coordinate system relevant to the cell division. I describe how I have characterised the accuracy and precision of the algorithms by simulating fluorescence data for both spindle poles and the budding yeast cell surface. In this thesis I also describe the construction of a microfluidic apparatus that allows for the measurement of long time-scale dynamics of individual cells and the development of a cell population. The tools developed in this thesis work will facilitate in-depth quantitative analysis of the non-equilibrium processes in living cells.

  15. A new acetophenone glycoside from the flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (cloves).

    PubMed

    Ryu, Byeol; Kim, Hye Mi; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Choi, Jung-Hye; Jang, Dae Sik

    2016-12-01

    A new acetophenone, 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-methylacetophenone-2-O-β-d-glucoside (1), together with 21 known compounds; one acetophenone (2), four chromone glycosides (3-6), six phenylpropanoids (7-12), six sesquiterpenoids (13-18), two triterpenoids (19 and 20), one sterol (21), and one tannin (22) were isolated from the flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (cloves). The structure of the new compound 1 was determined by spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR and HRMS interpretation. Among the isolates, one acetophenone (2), three phenylpropanoids (10-12), and one sesquiterpenoid (13) were isolated from the flower buds of S. aromaticum for the first time in this study. All the isolates (1-22) were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human ovarian cancer cells (A2780) using MTT assays. Some of the isolates (5, 6, 9, 15, 17, 19, 20, and 21) showed either moderate or weak cytotoxicity on A2780 cells.

  16. The mother-bud neck as a signaling platform for the coordination between spindle position and cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Laura; Piatti, Simonetta

    2011-08-01

    During asymmetric cell division, spindle positioning is critical for ensuring the unequal inheritance of polarity factors. In budding yeast, the mother-bud neck determines the cleavage plane and a correct nuclear division between mother and daughter cell requires orientation of the mitotic spindle along the mother-bud axis. A surveillance device called the spindle position/orientation checkpoint (SPOC) oversees this process and delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the spindle is properly oriented along the division axis, thus ensuring genome stability. Cytoskeletal proteins called septins form a ring at the bud neck that is essential for cytokinesis. Furthermore, septins and septin-associated proteins are implicated in spindle positioning and SPOC. In this review, we discuss the emerging connections between septins and the SPOC and the role of the mother-bud neck as a signaling platform to couple proper chromosome segregation to cytokinesis.

  17. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging.

  18. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  19. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8–12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  20. Negative feedback regulation of auxin signaling by ATHB8/ACL5-BUD2 transcription module.

    PubMed

    Baima, Simona; Forte, Valentina; Possenti, Marco; Peñalosa, Andrés; Leoni, Guido; Salvi, Sergio; Felici, Barbara; Ruberti, Ida; Morelli, Giorgio

    2014-06-01

    The role of auxin as main regulator of vascular differentiation is well established, and a direct correlation between the rate of xylem differentiation and the amount of auxin reaching the (pro)cambial cells has been proposed. It has been suggested that thermospermine produced by ACAULIS5 (ACL5) and bushy and dwarf2 (BUD2) is one of the factors downstream to auxin contributing to the regulation of this process in Arabidopsis. Here, we provide an in-depth characterization of the mechanism through which ACL5 modulates xylem differentiation. We show that an increased level of ACL5 slows down xylem differentiation by negatively affecting the expression of homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) III and key auxin signaling genes. This mechanism involves the positive regulation of thermospermine biosynthesis by the HD-ZIP III protein Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox8 tightly controlling the expression of ACL5 and BUD2. In addition, we show that the HD-ZIP III protein REVOLUTA contributes to the increased leaf vascularization and long hypocotyl phenotype of acl5 likely by a direct regulation of auxin signaling genes such as like auxin resistant2 (LAX2) and LAX3. We propose that proper formation and differentiation of xylem depend on a balance between positive and negative feedback loops operating through HD-ZIP III genes.

  1. Proteomics of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus budded virions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranran; Deng, Fei; Hou, Dianhai; Zhao, Yong; Guo, Lin; Wang, Hualin; Hu, Zhihong

    2010-07-01

    Baculoviruses produce two progeny phenotypes during their replication cycles. The occlusion-derived virus (ODV) is responsible for initiating primary infection in the larval midgut, and the budded virus (BV) phenotype is responsible for the secondary infection. The proteomics of several baculovirus ODVs have been revealed, but so far, no extensive analysis of BV-associated proteins has been conducted. In this study, the protein composition of the BV of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the type species of baculoviruses, was analyzed by various mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, including liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap (LC-Qtrap), liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-Q-TOF), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analyses showed that the three most abundant proteins of the AcMNPV BV were GP64, VP39, and P6.9. A total of 34 viral proteins associated with the AcMNPV BV were identified by the indicated methods. Thirteen of these proteins, PP31, AC58/59, AC66, IAP-2, AC73, AC74, AC114, AC124, chitinase, polyhedron envelope protein (PEP), AC132, ODV-E18, and ODV-E56, were identified for the first time to be BV-associated proteins. Western blot analyses showed that ODV-E18 and ODV-E25, which were previously thought to be ODV-specific proteins, were also present in the envelop fraction of BV. In addition, 11 cellular proteins were found to be associated with the AcMNPV BV by both LC-Qtrap and LC-Q-TOF analyses. Interestingly, seven of these proteins were also identified in other enveloped viruses, suggesting that many enveloped viruses may commonly utilize certain conserved cellular pathways.

  2. Anti-herbivore Structures of Paulownia tomentosa: Morphology, Distribution, Chemical Constituents and Changes During Shoot and Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Sawa; Asai, Teigo; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Kohshima, Shiro

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies have shown that small structures on plant surfaces serve ecological functions such as resistance against herbivores. The morphology, distribution, chemical composition and changes during shoot and leaf development of such small structures were examined on Paulownia tomentosa. Methods The morphology and distribution of the structures were studied under light microscopy, and their chemical composition was analysed using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. To further investigate the function of these structures, several simple field experiments and observations were also conducted. Key Results Three types of small structures on P. tomentosa were investigated: bowl-shaped organs, glandular hairs and dendritic trichomes. The bowl-shaped organs were densely aggregated on the leaves near flower buds and were determined to be extrafloral nectarines (EFNs) that secrete sugar and attract ants. Nectar production of these organs was increased by artificial damage to the leaves, suggesting an anti-herbivore function through symbiosis with ants. Glandular hairs were found on the surfaces of young and/or reproductive organs. Glandular hairs on leaves, stems and flowers secreted mucilage containing glycerides and trapped small insects. Secretions from glandular hairs on flowers and immature fruits contained flavonoids, which may provide protection against some herbivores. Yellow dendritic trichomes on the adaxial side of leaves also contained flavonoids identical to those secreted by the glandular hairs on fruits and flowers. Three special types of leaves, which differed from the standard leaves in shape, size and identity of small structures, developed near young shoot tips or young flower buds. The density of small structures on these leaf types was higher than on standard leaves, suggesting that these leaf types may be specialized to protect young leaves or reproductive organs. Changes in the small structures

  3. Characterization of Septin Ultrastructure in Budding Yeast Using Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Summary Septins are essential for the completion of cytokinesis. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septins are located at the bud neck during mitosis and are closely connected to the inner plasma membrane. In vitro, yeast septins have been shown to self-assemble into a variety of filamentous structures, including rods, paired filaments, bundles and rings [1–3]. Using electron tomography of freeze-substituted section and cryo-electron tomography of frozen sections, we determined the three dimensional organization of the septin cytoskeleton in dividing budding yeast with molecular resolution [4,5]. Here we describe the detailed procedures used for our characterization of the septin cellular ultrastructure. PMID:26519309

  4. [Establishment of high frequency regeneration via leaf explants of 'Red Sun' kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis)].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xupeng; Luo, Keming; Zhou, Yue; Wu, Xiuhua; Yang, Li; Tang, Shaohu

    2013-11-01

    A high efficient in vitro regeneration protocol was developed from leaf explants of the female 'Red Sun' kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) and the multiplication coefficient and rooting rate of adventitious buds were also optimized. This method does not require formation of callus tissues which leads to somaclonal variations. The results show that the adventitious buds developing directly from explants tissue were noticed after 30 d of culture. The maximum regeneration frequency of adventitious buds is 100% and 18.67 shoots was observed in each leaf explants when MS medium was supplemented with 3.0 mg/L BA+1.0 mg/L NAA. The optimal culture medium for bud multiplication is MS+2.0 mg/L BA+1.0 mg/L NAA+0.1 mg/L GA3 and the multiplication coefficient reached 8.63. On the rooting medium with 1/2 MS+0.8 mg/L IBA for 15 d, the adventitious plantlets were transferred into matrix perlite supplied with 1/2 MS liquid medium for 15 d and the rooting rate reached 100%. 95 out of 98 plantlets (96.94%) survived acclimatization, producing healthy plants in the greenhouse. Taken together, a highly efficient regeneration method via leaf explants of 'Red Sun' kiwifruit was successfully established. This protocol may be useful for micropropagation and genetic transformation studies of 'Red Sun' kiwifruit.

  5. Freezing behaviours in wintering Cornus florida flower bud tissues revisited using MRI.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaya; Ide, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Hideyuki; Murakawa, Hiroki; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Price, William S; Arata, Yoji

    2016-12-01

    How plant tissues control their water behaviours (phase and movement) under subfreezing temperatures through adaptative strategies (freezing behaviours) is important for their survival. However, the fine details of freezing behaviours in complex organs and their regulation mechanisms are poorly understood, and non-invasive visualization/analysis is required. The localization/density of unfrozen water in wintering Cornus florida flower buds at subfreezing temperatures was visualized with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This allowed tissue-specific freezing behaviours to be determined. MRI images revealed that individual anthers and ovules remained stably supercooled to -14 to -21 °C or lower. The signal from other floral tissues decreased during cooling to -7 °C, which likely indicates their extracellular freezing. Microscopic observation and differential thermal analyses revealed that the abrupt breakdown of supercooled individual ovules and anthers resulted in their all-or-nothing type of injuries. The distribution of ice nucleation activity in flower buds determined using a test tube-based assay corroborated which tissues primarily froze. MRI is a powerful tool for non-invasively visualizing unfrozen tissues. Freezing events and/or dehydration events can be located by digital comparison of MRI images acquired at different temperatures. Only anthers and ovules preferentially remaining unfrozen are a novel freezing behaviour in flower buds. Physicochemical and biological mechanisms/implications are discussed.

  6. Cholesterol modification restricts the spread of Shh gradient in the limb bud

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yina; Zhang, Huimin; Litingtung, Ying; Chiang, Chin

    2006-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) produced in the zone of polarizing activity is the major determinant of anteroposterior development of the amniote limb. The mature and active Shh protein is cholesterol-modified at its C terminus, and the hydrophobic nature of the modification requires the function of Dispatched (mDispA), a seven-pass transmembrane protein, for Shh release from its source. The current model suggests that the cholesterol moiety promotes the spread of Shh gradient in the limb bud. However, this model is inconsistent with findings in Drosophila and not in line with current thoughts on the role of the cholesterol moiety in Shh multimerization. Therefore, it remains unclear how the cholesterol moiety affects the postrelease extracellular behavior of Shh that relates to the shape of its activity gradient in responsive tissues. Here, we report functional analyses in mice showing that Shh lacking cholesterol modification (ShhN) has an increased propensity to spread long-distance, eliciting ectopic Shh pathway activation consistent with target gene expressions and modulating the level of Gli3 processing in the anterior limb mesoderm. These molecular alterations are reflected in the mispatterning of digits in ShhN mutants. Additionally, we provide direct evidence for the long-distance movement of ShhN across the anteroposterior axis of the limb bud. Our findings suggest that the cholesterol moiety regulates the range and shape of the Shh morphogen gradient by restricting rather than promoting the postrelease spread of Shh across the limb bud during early development. PMID:16611729

  7. Mechanical feedback stabilizes budding yeast morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Samhita; Trogdon, Michael; Petzold, Linda; Campas, Otger

    Walled cells have the ability to remodel their shape while sustaining an internal turgor pressure that can reach values up to 10 atmospheres. This requires a tight and simultaneous regulation of cell wall assembly and mechanochemistry, but the underlying mechanisms by which this is achieved remain unclear. Using the growth of mating projections in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) as a motivating example, we have developed a theoretical description that couples the mechanics of cell wall expansion and assembly via a mechanical feedback. In the absence of a mechanical feedback, cell morphogenesis is inherently unstable. The presence of a mechanical feedback stabilizes changes in cell shape and growth, and provides a mechanism to prevent cell lysis in a wide range of conditions. We solve for the dynamics of the system and obtain the different dynamical regimes. In particular, we show that several parameters affect the stability of growth, including the strength of mechanical feedback in the system. Finally, we compare our results to existing experimental data.

  8. Micropropagation of Helleborus through axillary budding.

    PubMed

    Beruto, Margherita; Viglione, Serena; Bisignano, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Helleborus genus, belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, has 20 species of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. The commercial exploitation of this plant is dependent on the selection and propagation of appropriate lines. High propagation rate could be accomplished by using a suitable tissue culture method enabling the rapid introduction of valuable selections in the market. However, in vitro cultivation of Helleborus is still very difficult. Thereby the development of reliable in vitro propagation procedures is crucial for future production systems. Axillary buds cultured on agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg/L benzyladenine, 0.1 mg/L β-naphthoxyacetic acid, and 2 mg/L isopentenyl adenine develop shoots after 16 weeks of culture under 16 h light regime, 50-60 μmol/s/m(2), and 19 ± 1°C. The multiplication rate ranges from 1.4 to 2.1. However, the genotype and the number of subcultures affect the efficiency of the micropropagation process. The rooting of shoots is about 80% in solidified MS medium containing 1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid. The described protocol provides information which can contribute to the commercial production of Helleborus plants.

  9. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jianan; Lin, Haiyan; Wang, Kunbo; Cheng, Xiaomei; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-06-18

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant changes in the metabolite contents of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis were performed. A total of 233 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, 116 proteins were up-regulated and 117 proteins were down-regulated in the young expanding leaves compared with the buds. A large array of diverse functions was revealed, including roles in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and photosynthesis- and defense-related processes. These results suggest that polyphenol biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related proteins regulate the secondary metabolite content of tea plants. The energy and antioxidant metabolism-related proteins may promote tea leaf development. However, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the protein expression levels were not well correlated with the gene expression levels. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the changes in the metabolite content of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants.

  10. The Effect of Water Stress on Some Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Characteristics and Bud Success on Apple and Quince Rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    Bolat, Ibrahim; Dikilitas, Murat; Ercisli, Sezai; Ikinci, Ali; Tonkaz, Tahsin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe) on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67%) and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33%) combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present. PMID:24741357

  11. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jianan; Lin, Haiyan; Wang, Kunbo; Cheng, Xiaomei; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant changes in the metabolite contents of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis were performed. A total of 233 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, 116 proteins were up-regulated and 117 proteins were down-regulated in the young expanding leaves compared with the buds. A large array of diverse functions was revealed, including roles in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and photosynthesis- and defense-related processes. These results suggest that polyphenol biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related proteins regulate the secondary metabolite content of tea plants. The energy and antioxidant metabolism-related proteins may promote tea leaf development. However, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the protein expression levels were not well correlated with the gene expression levels. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the changes in the metabolite content of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants. PMID:26096006

  12. Grapevine bud break prediction for cool winter climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nendel, Claas

    2010-05-01

    Statistical analysis of bud break data for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Müller-Thurgau) at 13 sites along the northern boundary of commercial grapevine production in Europe revealed that, for all investigated sites, the heat summation method for bud break prediction can be improved if the starting date for the accumulation of heat units is specifically determined. Using the coefficient of variance as a criterion, a global minimum for each site can be identified, marking the optimum starting date. Furthermore, it was shown that the application of a threshold temperature for the heat summation method does not lead to an improved prediction of bud break. Using site-specific parameters, bud break of grapevine can be predicted with an accuracy of ± 2.5 days. Using average parameters, the prediction accuracy is reduced to ± 4.5 days, highlighting the sensitivity of the heat summation method to the quality and the representativeness of the driving temperature data.

  13. Oriented cell motility and division underlie early limb bud morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wyngaarden, Laurie A; Vogeli, Kevin M; Ciruna, Brian G; Wells, Mathew; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Hopyan, Sevan

    2010-08-01

    The vertebrate limb bud arises from lateral plate mesoderm and its overlying ectoderm. Despite progress regarding the genetic requirements for limb development, morphogenetic mechanisms that generate early outgrowth remain relatively undefined. We show by live imaging and lineage tracing in different vertebrate models that the lateral plate contributes mesoderm to the early limb bud through directional cell movement. The direction of cell motion, longitudinal cell axes and bias in cell division planes lie largely parallel to one another along the rostrocaudal (head-tail) axis in lateral plate mesoderm. Transition of these parameters from a rostrocaudal to a mediolateral (outward from the body wall) orientation accompanies early limb bud outgrowth. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Wnt5a acts as a chemoattractant in the emerging limb bud where it contributes to the establishment of cell polarity that is likely to underlie the oriented cell behaviours.

  14. Studies on Cytokinin-Controlled Bud Formation in Moss Protonemata

    PubMed Central

    Brandes, H.; Kende, H.

    1968-01-01

    Application of cytokinins to moss protonemata of the proper physiological age causes bud formation on specific cells (caulonema). During the early stages of their development, buds revert to protonemal filaments if the cytokinin has been removed by washing the protonemata. This indicates that the hormone is not acting as a “trigger” but has to be present during a critical period of time until differentiation is stabilized. Autoradiographs of protonemata treated with a labeled cytokinin, benzyladenine-benzyl-7-14C, show a striking accumulation of the radioactivity in caulonema cells which are in the stage of bud formation, and in the buds themselves. Cells which did not react to the hormone contained very little radioactivity. The accumulation of benzyladenine in the “target cells” may be due to the presence of binding sites which, in turn, may distinguish responding cells from non-responding ones. Images PMID:16656847

  15. Polarity-Driven Geometrical Cluster Growth Model of Budding Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Reniel B.; Lim, May T.

    We present a polarity-driven activator-inhibitor model of budding yeast in a two-dimensional medium wherein impeding metabolites secretion (or growth inhibitors) and growth directionality are determined by the local nutrient level. We found that colony size and morphological features varied with nutrient concentration. A branched-type morphology is associated with high impeding metabolite concentration together with a high fraction of distal budding, while opposite conditions (low impeding metabolite concentration, high fraction of proximal budding) promote Eden-type patterns. Increasing the anisotropy factor (or polarity) produced other spatial patterns akin to the electrical breakdown under varying electric field. Rapid changes in the colony morphology, which we conjecture to be equivalent to a transition from an inactive quiescent state to an active budding state, appeared when nutrients were limited.

  16. Innervation of the undifferentiated limb bud in rabbit embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J; McCredie, J

    1982-01-01

    The concept that there are no nerves in the limb bud of mammalian embryos prior to differentiation has been re-examined. Rabbit embryos were collected at 260 and 290 hours gestation, which is prior to cartilage formation in the forelimb at 320 hours. Forelimb buds and adjacent neural tube were excised, fixed and embedded for light and electron microscopy. The limb buds were sectioned in two planes by serial 1 micrometer sections and inspected by light microscopy. Bundles of nerve fibres were seen within the proximal third of the limb bud, with distal ramification into adjacent zones of condensing mesenchyme. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of axons and associated immature Schwann cells. These results demonstrate the existence of an anatomical framework through which a neurotrophic influence might be brought to bear upon mesenchyme prior to early differentiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7130041

  17. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  18. Synchronism of Leaf and Tiller Emergence Relative to Position and to Main Stem Development Stage in a Rice Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    JAFFUEL, SYLVIE; DAUZAT, JEAN

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Tillering is an essential factor when estimating yield, but investigations rarely include both the temporal and spatial changes that occur in tillers. This study analyses the morphology and development dynamics of each tiller, based on its topological location, the timing of appearance and main stem development stage. • Methods An indica cultivar of rice, ‘Ir64’, glasshouse-grown (25/20 °C, 12 h photoperiod), was used to examine the emergence, phenology and morphology of each axis starting at the third leaf stage up to heading. • Key Results Little variability was observed in the structural and morphological characteristics of the tillers, and the rice population appeared to be hierarchical. Blade length initially increased with leaf rank and then decreased sharply for the last three leaves. The number of phytomers per axis decreased with branching order and rank. An analysis of plant dynamics showed synchronous emergence of the leaves on the main stem and on the tillers up to flowering. Axillary bud development into tillers depended on their topological location and plant developmental stage. • Conclusions The timing and frequency of flowering tillers complied with rules of priority depending on their order, rank and emergence time. Precise description of plant topology in grasses is a useful tool that can be used to quantify growth events and predict tillering in terms of location, structure and fate according to growing conditions. PMID:15601682

  19. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katherine A

    2016-03-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  20. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27047605

  1. Tumor Budding: The Name is EMT. Partial EMT.

    PubMed Central

    Grigore, Alexandru Dan; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Jia, Dongya; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Levine, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Tumor budding is a histological phenomenon encountered in various cancers, whereby individual malignant cells and/or small clusters of malignant cells are seen in the tumor stroma. Postulated to be mirror epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor budding has been associated with poor cancer outcomes. However, the vast heterogeneity in its exact definition, methodology of assessment, and patient stratification need to be resolved before it can be routinely used as a standardized prognostic feature. Here, we discuss the heterogeneity in defining and assessing tumor budding, its clinical significance across multiple cancer types, and its prospective implementation in clinical practice. Next, we review the emerging evidence about partial, rather than complete, epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype at the tumor bud level, and its connection with tumor proliferation, quiescence, and stemness. Finally, based on recent literature, indicating a co-expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers in many tumor buds, we posit tumor budding to be a manifestation of this hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype displaying collective cell migration. PMID:27136592

  2. Dielectric modelling of cell division for budding and fission yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Koji; Sekine, Katsuhisa

    2007-02-01

    The frequency dependence of complex permittivity or the dielectric spectrum of a system including a cell in cell division has been simulated by a numerical technique based on the three-dimensional finite difference method. Two different types of cell division characteristic of budding and fission yeast were examined. The yeast cells are both regarded as a body of rotation, and thus have anisotropic polarization, i.e. the effective permittivity of the cell depends on the orientation of the cell to the direction of an applied electric field. In the perpendicular orientation, where the rotational axis of the cell is perpendicular to the electric field direction, the dielectric spectra for both yeast cells included one dielectric relaxation and its intensity depended on the cell volume. In the parallel orientation, on the other hand, two dielectric relaxations appeared with bud growth for budding yeast and with septum formation for fission yeast. The low-frequency relaxation was shifted to a lower frequency region by narrowing the neck between the bud and the mother cell for budding yeast and by increasing the degree of septum formation for fission yeast. After cell separation, the low-frequency relaxation disappeared. The simulations well interpreted the oscillation of the relative permittivity of culture broth found for synchronous cell growth of budding yeast.

  3. Early epithelial signaling center governs tooth budding morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Thesleff, Irma

    2016-01-01

    During organogenesis, cell fate specification and patterning are regulated by signaling centers, specialized clusters of morphogen-expressing cells. In many organs, initiation of development is marked by bud formation, but the cellular mechanisms involved are ill defined. Here, we use the mouse incisor tooth as a model to study budding morphogenesis. We show that a group of nonproliferative epithelial cells emerges in the early tooth primordium and identify these cells as a signaling center. Confocal live imaging of tissue explants revealed that although these cells reorganize dynamically, they do not reenter the cell cycle or contribute to the growing tooth bud. Instead, budding is driven by proliferation of the neighboring cells. We demonstrate that the activity of the ectodysplasin/Edar/nuclear factor κB pathway is restricted to the signaling center, and its inactivation leads to fewer quiescent cells and a smaller bud. These data functionally link the signaling center size to organ size and imply that the early signaling center is a prerequisite for budding morphogenesis. PMID:27621364

  4. Inflammation and taste disorders: mechanisms in taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2009-01-01

    Taste disorders, including taste distortion and taste loss, negatively impact general health and quality of life. To understand the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms, we set out to identify inflammation-related molecules in taste tissue and to assess their role in the development of taste dysfunctions. We found that 10 out of 12 mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs), type I and II interferon (IFN) receptors and their downstream signaling components are present in taste tissue. Some TLRs appear to be selectively or more abundantly expressed in taste buds than in non-gustatory lingual epithelium. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies against TLRs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 confirmed the presence of these receptor proteins in taste bud cells, of which TLRs 2, 3 and 4 are expressed in the gustducin-expressing type II taste bud cells. Administration of TLR receptor ligands, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) that mimics bacterial or viral infection, activates the IFN signaling pathways, up-regulates the expression of IFN-inducible genes but down-regulates the expression of c-fos in taste buds. Finally, systemic administration of IFNs augments apoptosis of taste bud cells in mice. Taken together, these data suggest that TLR and IFN pathways function collaboratively in recognizing pathogens and mediating inflammatory responses in taste tissue. This process, however, may interfere with normal taste transduction and taste bud cell turnover and contributes to the development of taste disorders. PMID:19686199

  5. Leaf waxes in riparian trees: hydrogen isotopes, concentrations, and chain-length patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Ehleringer, J.; Doman, C.; Khachaturyan, S.

    2011-12-01

    The stable hydrogen isotope ratios of epicuticular leaf wax n-alkanes record aspects of a plant's ecophysiological conditions. However, it remains unclear as to whether n-alkane hydrogen isotope values (δ2H) directly reflect environmental water (source water or tissue water) or environmental water in combination with a biochemical fractionation. Furthermore, it is uncertain if leaf n-alkane δ2H values reflect a single time interval during leaf expansion or if n-alkane δ2H values record the combination of inputs throughout the entire lifespan of a leaf. These different possibilities will influence how leaf wax biomarkers are interpreted in both ecological and environmental reconstruction contexts. To address these issues, we sampled leaves/buds, stems, and water sources of five common western U.S. riparian species under natural field conditions throughout the growing season. Riparian species were selected because the input water source is most likely to be nearly constant through the growing season. We found that species in this study demonstrated marked and systematic variations in n-alkane concentration, average chain length, and δ2H values. Intraspecific patterns were consistent: average chain lengths and δ2H values increased from bud opening through full leaf expansion with little variation during the remainder of the sampling interval, while leaf-wax concentration as a fraction of total biomass increased throughout the growing season. These data imply that leaf-wax δ2H values reflect multiple periods of wax growth and that the leaf wax is continually produced throughout a leaf's lifespan.

  6. Crosslinks in the cell wall of budding yeast control morphogenesis at the mother–bud neck

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Noelia; Reidy, Michael; Arroyo, Javier; Cabib, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Summary Previous work has shown that, in cla4Δ cells of budding yeast, where septin ring organization is compromised, the chitin ring at the mother–daughter neck becomes essential for prevention of neck widening and for cytokinesis. Here, we show that it is not the chitin ring per se, but its linkage to β(1-3)glucan that is required for control of neck growth. When in a cla4Δ background, crh1Δ crh2Δ mutants, in which the chitin ring is not connected to β(1-3)glucan, grew very slowly and showed wide and growing necks, elongated buds and swollen cells with large vacuoles. A similar behavior was elicited by inhibition of the Crh proteins. This aberrant morphology matched that of cla4Δ chs3Δ cells, which have no chitin at the neck. Thus, this is a clear case in which a specific chemical bond between two substances, chitin and glucan, is essential for the control of morphogenesis. This defines a new paradigm, in which chemistry regulates growth. PMID:23077181

  7. The Roles of Bud-Site-Selection Proteins during Haploid Invasive Growth in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul J.; Sprague, George F.

    2002-01-01

    In haploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucose depletion causes invasive growth, a foraging response that requires a change in budding pattern from axial to unipolar-distal. To begin to address how glucose influences budding pattern in the haploid cell, we examined the roles of bud-site-selection proteins in invasive growth. We found that proteins required for bipolar budding in diploid cells were required for haploid invasive growth. In particular, the Bud8p protein, which marks and directs bud emergence to the distal pole of diploid cells, was localized to the distal pole of haploid cells. In response to glucose limitation, Bud8p was required for the localization of the incipient bud site marker Bud2p to the distal pole. Three of the four known proteins required for axial budding, Bud3p, Bud4p, and Axl2p, were expressed and localized appropriately in glucose-limiting conditions. However, a fourth axial budding determinant, Axl1p, was absent in filamentous cells, and its abundance was controlled by glucose availability and the protein kinase Snf1p. In the bud8 mutant in glucose-limiting conditions, apical growth and bud site selection were uncoupled processes. Finally, we report that diploid cells starved for glucose also initiate the filamentous growth response. PMID:12221111

  8. [Bud population dynamics of Phragmites australis in heterogeneous habitats of Northeast grassland, China].

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    To adapt ecological environment, typical clonal plants can occur continuously by means of buds. The changes in the bud bank and bud flow in the heterogeneous habitats become the foundation for deep understanding the characteristics of vegetative propagation. By sampling soil from the unit area, a comparative analysis was performed for rhizome bud population dynamics of Phragmites australis community in both meadow soil and saline-alkali soil habitats in meadow grassland of Northeast China. The one-age class rhizome buds formed in the current year were used as input, with the other age classes rhizome buds as output, counting the dormancy buds and death buds. The results showed that the storage, input, output, dormancy, death and the input rates of P. australis rhizome bud populations in meadow soil habitat were significantly higher than that in saline-alkali habitat. There was no significant difference in output rate between the two habitats. The dormant rate in saline-alkali habitat was significantly greater than that in meadow soil habitat. The death rates remained at relatively low levels in both, less than 2%. With the going of growing season, the input buds and input rate of bud bank increased in the two habitats, while the output buds remained relatively stable. The output rate increased first and decreased later, the dormancy buds and dormant rate decreased. Bud bank and bud flow were positively related to soil moisture, soil organic matter and soil available nitrogen content. However, they were negatively related to soil pH value and soil available phosphorus content. Bud bank and bud flow had a similar seasonal variation. Constantly for both habitats, P. australis populations generated new rhizome buds supplied to the bud bank and kept a stable output to maintain their vegetative propagation.

  9. Genetic analysis of the bipolar pattern of bud site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, J E; Harkins, H A; Pringle, J R

    1996-01-01

    Previous analysis of the bipolar budding pattern of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has suggested that it depends on persistent positional signals that mark the region of the division site and the tip of the distal pole on a newborn daughter cell, as well as each previous division site on a mother cell. In an attempt to identify genes encoding components of these signals or proteins involved in positioning or responding to them, we identified 11 mutants with defects in bipolar but not in axial budding. Five mutants displaying a bipolar budding-specific randomization of budding pattern had mutations in four previously known genes (BUD2, BUD5, SPA2, and BNI1) and one novel gene (BUD6), respectively. As Bud2p and Bud5p are known to be required for both the axial and bipolar budding patterns, the alleles identified here probably encode proteins that have lost their ability to interact with the bipolar positional signals but have retained their ability to interact with the distinct positional signal used in axial budding. The function of Spa2p is not known, but previous work has shown that its intracellular localization is similar to that postulated for the bipolar positional signals. BNI1 was originally identified on the basis of genetic interaction with CDC12, which encodes one of the neck-filament-associated septin proteins, suggesting that these proteins may be involved in positioning the bipolar signals. One mutant with a heterogeneous budding pattern defines a second novel gene (BUD7). Two mutants budding almost exclusively from the proximal pole carry mutations in a fourth novel gene (BUD9). A bud8 bud9 double mutant also buds almost exclusively from the proximal pole, suggesting that Bud9p is involved in positioning the proximal pole signal rather than being itself a component of this signal. PMID:8657162

  10. Are there efferent synapses in fish taste buds?

    PubMed

    Reutter, Klaus; Witt, Martin

    2004-12-01

    In fish, nerve fibers of taste buds are organized within the bud's nerve fiber plexus. It is located between the sensory epithelium consisting of light and dark elongated cells and the basal cells. It comprises the basal parts and processes of light and dark cells that intermingle with nerve fibers, which are the dendritic endings of the taste sensory neurons belonging to the cranial nerves VII, IX or X. Most of the synapses at the plexus are afferent; they have synaptic vesicles on the light (or dark) cells side, which is presynaptic. In contrast, the presumed efferent synapses may be rich in synaptic vesicles on the nerve fibers (presynaptic) side, whereas the cells (postsynaptic) side may contain a subsynaptic cistern; a flat compartment of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This structure is regarded as a prerequisite of a typical efferent synapse, as occurring in cochlear and vestibular hair cells. In fish taste buds, efferent synapses are rare and were found only in a few species that belong to different taxa. The significance of efferent synapses in fish taste buds is not well understood, because efferent connections between the gustatory nuclei of the medulla with taste buds are not yet proved.

  11. Electron Tomography Reveals the Steps in Filovirus Budding

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Sonja; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Krähling, Verena; Riches, James D.; Becker, Stephan; Briggs, John A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a “submarine-like” budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular “rocket-like” protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses. PMID:20442788

  12. Multiple pathways influence mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Rebecca L; Okamoto, Koji; Shaw, Janet M

    2008-02-01

    Yeast mitochondria form a branched tubular network. Mitochondrial inheritance is tightly coupled with bud emergence, ensuring that daughter cells receive mitochondria from mother cells during division. Proteins reported to influence mitochondrial inheritance include the mitochondrial rho (Miro) GTPase Gem1p, Mmr1p, and Ypt11p. A synthetic genetic array (SGA) screen revealed interactions between gem1Delta and deletions of genes that affect mitochondrial function or inheritance, including mmr1Delta. Synthetic sickness of gem1Delta mmr1Delta double mutants correlated with defective mitochondrial inheritance by large buds. Additional studies demonstrated that GEM1, MMR1, and YPT11 each contribute to mitochondrial inheritance. Mitochondrial accumulation in buds caused by overexpression of either Mmr1p or Ypt11p did not depend on Gem1p, indicating these three proteins function independently. Physical linkage of mitochondria with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has led to speculation that distribution of these two organelles is coordinated. We show that yeast mitochondrial inheritance is not required for inheritance or spreading of cortical ER in the bud. Moreover, Ypt11p overexpression, but not Mmr1p overexpression, caused ER accumulation in the bud, revealing a potential role for Ypt11p in ER distribution. This study demonstrates that multiple pathways influence mitochondrial inheritance in yeast and that Miro GTPases have conserved roles in mitochondrial distribution.

  13. Global Climatic Controls On Leaf Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, I. J.; Prentice, I. C.; Dong, N.; Maire, V.

    2015-12-01

    Since the 1890s it's been known that the wet tropics harbour plants with exceptionally large leaves. Yet the observed latitudinal gradient of leaf size has never been fully explained: it is still unclear which aspects of climate are most important for understanding geographic trends in leaf size, a trait that varies many thousand-fold among species. The key is the leaf-to-air temperature difference, which depends on the balance of energy inputs (irradiance) and outputs (transpirational cooling, losses to the night sky). Smaller leaves track air temperatures more closely than larger leaves. Widely cited optimality-based theories predict an advantage for smaller leaves in dry environments, where transpiration is restricted, but are silent on the latitudinal gradient. We aimed to characterize and explain the worldwide pattern of leaf size. Across 7900 species from 651 sites, here we show that: large-leaved species predominate in wet, hot, sunny environments; smaller-leaved species typify hot, sunny environments only when arid; small leaves are required to avoid freezing in high latitudes and at high elevation, and to avoid overheating in dry environments. This simple pattern was unclear in earlier, more limited analyses. We present a simple but robust, fresh approach to energy-balance modelling for both day-time and night-time leaf-to-air temperature differences, and thus risk of overheating and of frost damage. Our analysis shows night-chilling is important as well as day-heating, and simplifies leaf temperature modelling. It provides both a framework for modelling leaf size constraints, and a solution to one of the oldest conundrums in ecology. Although the path forward is not yet fully clear, because of its role in controlling leaf temperatures we suggest that climate-related leaf size constraints could usefully feature in the next generation of land ecosystem models.

  14. A Role for the Actin Cytoskeleton of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Bipolar Bud-Site Selection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shirley; Ayscough, Kathryn R.; Drubin, David G.

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells select bud sites according to one of two predetermined patterns. MATa and MATα cells bud in an axial pattern, and MATa/α cells bud in a bipolar pattern. These budding patterns are thought to depend on the placement of spatial cues at specific sites in the cell cortex. Because cytoskeletal elements play a role in organizing the cytoplasm and establishing distinct plasma membrane domains, they are well suited for positioning bud-site selection cues. Indeed, the septin-containing neck filaments are crucial for establishing the axial budding pattern characteristic of MATa and MATα cells. In this study, we determined the budding patterns of cells carrying mutations in the actin gene or in genes encoding actin-associated proteins: MATa/α cells were defective in the bipolar budding pattern, but MATa and MATα cells still exhibit a normal axial budding pattern. We also observed that MATa/α actin cytoskeleton mutant daughter cells correctly position their first bud at the distal pole of the cell, but mother cells position their buds randomly. The actin cytoskeleton therefore functions in generation of the bipolar budding pattern and is required specifically for proper selection of bud sites in mother MATa/α cells. These observations and the results of double mutant studies support the conclusion that different rules govern bud-site selection in mother and daughter MATa/α cells. A defective bipolar budding pattern did not preclude an sla2-6 mutant from undergoing pseudohyphal growth, highlighting the central role of daughter cell bud-site selection cues in the formation of pseudohyphae. Finally, by examining the budding patterns of mad2-1 mitotic checkpoint mutants treated with benomyl to depolymerize their microtubules, we confirmed and extended previous evidence indicating that microtubules do not function in axial or bipolar bud-site selection. PMID:9008707

  15. Budding and vesiculation induced by conical membrane inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auth, Thorsten; Gompper, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Conical inclusions in a lipid bilayer generate an overall spontaneous curvature of the membrane that depends on concentration and geometry of the inclusions. Examples are integral and attached membrane proteins, viruses, and lipid domains. We propose an analytical model to study budding and vesiculation of the lipid bilayer membrane, which is based on the membrane bending energy and the translational entropy of the inclusions. If the inclusions are placed on a membrane with similar curvature radius, their repulsive membrane-mediated interaction is screened. Therefore, for high inclusion density the inclusions aggregate, induce bud formation, and finally vesiculation. Already with the bending energy alone our model allows the prediction of bud radii. However, in case the inclusions induce a single large vesicle to split into two smaller vesicles, bending energy alone predicts that the smaller vesicles have different sizes whereas the translational entropy favors the formation of equal-sized vesicles. Our results agree well with those of recent computer simulations.

  16. Light Signaling in Bud Outgrowth and Branching in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Nathalie; Roman, Hanaé; Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Huché-Thélier, Lydie; Lothier, Jérémy; Demotes-Mainard, Sabine; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Branching determines the final shape of plants, which influences adaptation, survival and the visual quality of many species. It is an intricate process that includes bud outgrowth and shoot extension, and these in turn respond to environmental cues and light conditions. Light is a powerful environmental factor that impacts multiple processes throughout plant life. The molecular basis of the perception and transduction of the light signal within buds is poorly understood and undoubtedly requires to be further unravelled. This review is based on current knowledge on bud outgrowth-related mechanisms and light-mediated regulation of many physiological processes. It provides an extensive, though not exhaustive, overview of the findings related to this field. In parallel, it points to issues to be addressed in the near future. PMID:27135502

  17. Budding yeast colony growth study based on circular granular cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprianti, Devi; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-08-01

    Yeast colony growth can be modelled by using circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. The bud growth angle can be set to regulate cell budding pattern. Cohesion force, contact force and Stokes force were adopted to accommodate the behaviour and interactions among cells. Simulation steps are divided into two steps, the explicit step is due to cell growing and implicit step for the cell rearrangement. Only in explicit step that time change was performed. In this study, we examine the influence of cell diameter growth time and reproduction time combination toward the growth of cell number and colony formation. We find a commutative relation between the cell diameter growth time and reproduction time to the specific growth rate. The greater value of the multiplication of the parameters, the smaller specific growth rate is obtained. It also shows a linear correlation between the specific growth rate and colony diameter growth rate.

  18. EARLY BUD-BREAK1 (EBB1) defines a conserved mechanism for control of bud-break in woody perennials

    PubMed Central

    Busov, Victor; Carneros, Elena; Yakovlev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Bud-break is an environmentally and economically important trait in trees, shrubs and vines from temperate latitudes. Poor synchronization of bud-break timing with local climates can lead to frost injuries, susceptibility to pests and pathogens and poor crop yields in fruit trees and vines. The rapid climate changes outpace the adaptive capacities of plants to respond through natural selection. This is particularly true for trees which have long generation cycle and thus the adaptive changes are significantly delayed. Therefore, to devise appropriate breeding and conservation strategies, it is imperative to understand the molecular underpinnings that govern dormancy mechanisms. We have recently identified and characterized the poplar EARLY BUD-BREAK 1 (EBB1) gene. EBB1 is a positive regulator of bud-break and encodes a transcription factor from the AP2/ERF family. Here, using comparative and functional genomics approaches we show that EBB1 function in regulation of bud-break is likely conserved across wide range of woody perennial species with importance to forestry and agriculture. PMID:26317150

  19. EARLY BUD-BREAK1 (EBB1) defines a conserved mechanism for control of bud-break in woody perennials.

    PubMed

    Busov, Victor; Carneros, Elena; Yakovlev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Bud-break is an environmentally and economically important trait in trees, shrubs and vines from temperate latitudes. Poor synchronization of bud-break timing with local climates can lead to frost injuries, susceptibility to pests and pathogens and poor crop yields in fruit trees and vines. The rapid climate changes outpace the adaptive capacities of plants to respond through natural selection. This is particularly true for trees which have long generation cycle and thus the adaptive changes are significantly delayed. Therefore, to devise appropriate breeding and conservation strategies, it is imperative to understand the molecular underpinnings that govern dormancy mechanisms. We have recently identified and characterized the poplar EARLY BUD-BREAK 1 (EBB1) gene. EBB1 is a positive regulator of bud-break and encodes a transcription factor from the AP2/ERF family. Here, using comparative and functional genomics approaches we show that EBB1 function in regulation of bud-break is likely conserved across wide range of woody perennial species with importance to forestry and agriculture.

  20. Relationships among micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds within individual cells in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Han S J; Seth, Isheeta; Joiner, Michael C; Tucker, James D

    2013-07-01

    Micronuclei have been used extensively in studies as an easily evaluated indicator of DNA damage but little is known about their association with other types of damage such as nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. Here, radiation-induced clastogenic events were evaluated via the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in two normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines exposed to neutrons or γ-radiation. DNA damage induced by the chemical agents mitomycin C and phleomycin was also evaluated in two normal and two mitochondrial mutant human lymphoblastoid cell lines. In addition to micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds were enumerated by recording the coincident presence of these end points within individual cells, and the associations among these three end points were evaluated for all treatment conditions. The common odds ratios for micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges were found to be significantly larger than unity, indicating that the presence of one or more micronuclei in a cell imposes a significant risk of having one or more nucleoplasmic bridges in that same cell, and vice versa. The strength of this association did not change significantly with radiation dose or concentration of the chemical clastogens. Common odds ratios for association between micronuclei and buds, and between bridges and buds were also found to be significantly higher than unity. However, associations between micronuclei and buds could not be calculated for some treatments due to heterogeneity in the odds ratios and hence may depend on chemical clastogen concentration or radiation dose. This study provides evidence of how paired analyses among genetic end points in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay can provide information concerning abnormalities of cell division and possibly about structural chromosomal rearrangements induced by clastogens.

  1. [Effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-li; Xia, Ya-zhen; Sun, Zhi-qiang

    2016-02-01

    In order to explore the effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treat- ments every day with 10 °C for 10 minutes in. an artificial climate chamber. Tomato seedlings were treated with cold-shock at the first true leaf stage and the treatment lasted for 15 days. Tomato seed- lings without cold-shock were used as control. At the fourth true leaf period of tomato seedlings, five plants were randomly sampled and the growth characteristics and the ultrastructure changes of meso- phyll cell of tomato seedlings were examined. The flower bud differentiation process of tomato seed- lings was observed at the periods of the second, fourth and sixth true leaves respectively. Flowering and fruiting of tomato seedlings were also investigated after transplanting. The results showed that the stem diameter and health index of tomato seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced by 7.2% and 55.5% compared with seedlings without cold-shock. Mesophyll cells of the seedlings with cold-shock arranged loosely and various organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria were morphologically integrated, while chloroplasts and mitochondria of seedlings mesophyll cells without cold-shock swelled up and thylakoids vacuolized apparently. The flower bud differentiation process of seedlings with cold-shock could be advanced significantly at the early seedling stage compared with the control and the advancement was weakened with the seedling growing. Fruit set number and percentage on the first and second inflorescence of tomato plants transplanted by seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced significantly compared with those of the control. These results indicated that the injury of membrane structure of various organelles, especially chloroplast and mitochondria could be allevia- ted by cold-shock treatment under high temperature tress. Cold-shock treatment could not only im- prove the

  2. AFLP-based genetic mapping of the “bud-flowering” trait in heather (Calluna vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calluna vulgaris is one of the most important landscaping plants produced in Germany. Its enormous economic success is due to the prolonged flower attractiveness of mutants in flower morphology, the so-called bud-bloomers. In this study, we present the first genetic linkage map of C. vulgaris in which we mapped a locus of the economically highly desired trait “flower type”. Results The map was constructed in JoinMap 4.1. using 535 AFLP markers from a single mapping population. A large fraction (40%) of markers showed distorted segregation. To test the effect of segregation distortion on linkage estimation, these markers were sorted regarding their segregation ratio and added in groups to the data set. The plausibility of group formation was evaluated by comparison of the “two-way pseudo-testcross” and the “integrated” mapping approach. Furthermore, regression mapping was compared to the multipoint-likelihood algorithm. The majority of maps constructed by different combinations of these methods consisted of eight linkage groups corresponding to the chromosome number of C. vulgaris. Conclusions All maps confirmed the independent inheritance of the most important horticultural traits “flower type”, “flower colour”, and “leaf colour”. An AFLP marker for the most important breeding target “flower type” was identified. The presented genetic map of C. vulgaris can now serve as a basis for further molecular marker selection and map-based cloning of the candidate gene encoding the unique flower architecture of C. vulgaris bud-bloomers. PMID:23915059

  3. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  4. Root-zone temperatures affect phenology of bud break, flower cluster development, shoot extension growth and gas exchange of 'Braeburn' (Malus domestica) apple trees.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H; Wünsche, Jens N; Norling, Cara L; Wiggins, Harry N

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of root-zone temperature on bud break, flowering, shoot growth and gas exchange of potted mature apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.)) trees with undisturbed roots. Soil respiration was also determined. Potted 'Braeburn' apple trees on M.9 rootstock were grown for 70 days in a constant day/night temperature regime (25/18 degrees C) and one of three constant root-zone temperatures (7, 15 and 25 degrees C). Both the proportion and timing of bud break were significantly enhanced as root-zone temperature increased. Rate of floral cluster opening was also markedly increased with increasing root-zone temperature. Shoot length increased but shoot girth growth declined as root-zone temperatures increased. Soil respiration and leaf photosynthesis generally increased as root-zone temperatures increased. Results indicate that apple trees growing in regions where root zone temperatures are < or = 15 degrees C have delayed bud break and up to 20% fewer clusters than apple trees exposed to root zone temperatures of > or = 15 degrees C. The effect of root-zone temperature on shoot performance may be mediated through the mobilization of root reserves, although the role of phytohormones cannot be discounted. Variation in leaf photosynthesis across the temperature treatments was inadequately explained by stomatal conductance. Given that root growth increases with increasing temperature, changes in sink activity induced by the root-zone temperature treatments provide a possible explanation for the non-stomatal effect on photosynthesis. Irrespective of underlying mechanisms, root-zone temperatures influence bud break and flowering in apple trees.

  5. The shifting phenological landscape: Within- and between-species variation in leaf emergence in a mixed-deciduous woodland.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ella F; Sheldon, Ben C

    2017-02-01

    Many organisms rely on synchronizing the timing of their life-history events with those of other trophic levels-known as phenological matching-for survival or successful reproduction. In temperate deciduous forests, the extent of matching with the budburst date of key tree species is of particular relevance for many herbivorous insects and, in turn, insectivorous birds. In order to understand the ecological and evolutionary forces operating in these systems, we require knowledge of the factors influencing leaf emergence of tree communities. However, little is known about how phenology at the level of individual trees varies across landscapes, or how consistent this spatial variation is between different tree species. Here, we use field observations, collected over 2 years, to characterize within- and between-species differences in spring phenology for 825 trees of six species (Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Fagus sylvatica, Betula pendula, Corylus avellana, and Acer pseudoplatanus) in a 385-ha woodland. We explore environmental predictors of individual variation in budburst date and bud development rate and establish how these phenological traits vary over space. Trees of all species showed markedly consistent individual differences in their budburst timing. Bud development rate also varied considerably between individuals and was repeatable in oak, beech, and sycamore. We identified multiple predictors of budburst date including altitude, local temperature, and soil type, but none were universal across species. Furthermore, we found no evidence for interspecific covariance of phenology over space within the woodland. These analyses suggest that phenological landscapes are highly complex, varying over small spatial scales both within and between species. Such spatial variation in vegetation phenology is likely to influence patterns of selection on phenology within populations of consumers. Knowledge of the factors shaping the phenological environments

  6. Extensive transcriptome changes during natural onset and release of vegetative bud dormancy in Populus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To survive winter conditions, axillary buds of poplar transition from paradormancy to endodormancy. Following sufficient chilling, endodormant axillary buds will transition from endodormancy to ecodormancy. We utilized the near whole genome NimbleGen poplar microarrays to follow transcriptome diff...

  7. Extending the dormant bud cryopreservation method to new tree species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cryopreservation of germplasm, using dormant winter buds (DB) as source plant material is economically favorable over tissue culture options. Although the DB cryopreservation method has been known for many years, the approach is feasible only for cryopreserving a select number of temperate tree s...

  8. Science Shorts: Project BudBurst--Analyzing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kimberly J.; Coskie, Tracy L.

    2008-01-01

    Project BudBurst is a national program intended to get students and other "citizen scientists" to participate in a real study about plants, the environment, and climate change. It also provides an excellent opportunity for students to build data-analysis skills. A collaboration of several agencies and universities, the program began last year and…

  9. Mechanisms of Budding of Nanoscale Particles through Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Herrero, Teresa; Velasco, Enrique; Hagan, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the budding of a nanoscale particle through a lipid bilayer using molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations, and an elastic theory, with the aim of determining the extent to which equilibrium elasticity theory can describe the factors that control the mechanism and efficiency of budding. The particle is a smooth sphere which experiences attractive interactions to the lipid head groups. Depending on the parameters, we observe four classes of dynamical trajectories: particle adhesion to the membrane, stalled partially wrapped states, budding followed by scission, and membrane rupture. In most regions of parameter space we find that the elastic theory agrees nearly quantitatively with the simulated phase behavior as a function of adhesion strength, membrane bending rigidity, and particle radius. However, at parameter values near the transition between particle adhesion and budding, we observe long-lived partially wrapped states which are not captured by existing elastic theories. These states could constrain the accessible system parameters for those enveloped viruses or drug delivery vehicles which rely on exo- or endocytosis for membrane transport. PMID:22803595

  10. Intracellular and extracellular regulation of ureteric bud morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    DAVIES, JAMIE

    2001-01-01

    The urinary collecting duct system of the permanent kidney develops by growth and branching of an initially unbranched epithelial tubule, the ureteric bud. Formation of the ureteric bud as an outgrowth of the wolffian duct is induced by signalling molecules (such as GDNF) that emanate from the adjacent metanephrogenic mesenchyme. Once it has invaded the mesenchyme, growth and branching of the bud is controlled by a variety of molecules, such as the growth factors GDNF, HGF, TGFβ, activin, BMP-2, BMP-7, and matrix molecules such as heparan sulphate proteoglycans and laminins. These various influences are integrated by signal transduction systems inside ureteric bud cells, with the MAP kinase, protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways appearing to play major roles. The mechanisms of morphogenetic change that produce branching remain largely obscure, but matrix metalloproteinases are known to be necessary for the process, and there is preliminary evidence for the involvement of the actin/myosin contractile cytoskeleton in creating branch points. PMID:11322719

  11. Teacher's Guide for Budding Twigs. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Rose Lea; And Others

    This teaching guide supplements a science unit concerned with bud maturation recommended for use in fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms. The first section describes possible activities for children to explore, such as field study, collections, dissecting, and experiments. The second section offers a few brief suggestions for teaching the unit. The…

  12. Geographic trend of bud hardiness response in Vitis riparia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major goal of grapevine breeding efforts for production outside of Mediterranean climates is the production of varieties that have cold tolerance phenotypes. Typically, grapevine breeders use midwinter bud hardiness measures as the descriptive phenotype for cold tolerance. Historical practices of...

  13. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Fumihisa; Shibata, Michiko; Torigoe, Motoki; Matsumoto, Yuta; Yamamoto, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Noboru; Hada, Yoshio; Mori, Yoshihisa; Takarabe, Kenichi

    2013-06-01

    In our previous studies on the tolerance of small plants and animals to the high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa, it was shown that all the living samples could be borne at this high pressure, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than the proteinic denaturation pressure. To make this inconsistency clear, we have extended these studies to a smaller sized fungus, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate (PC72, Sumitomo 3M), and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar (PDA). It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for 12 and 24 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is weaker than that of tardigrades.

  14. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation.

  15. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  16. Molecular events of apical bud formation in white spruce, Picea glauca.

    PubMed

    El Kayal, Walid; Allen, Carmen C G; Ju, Chelsea J-T; Adams, Eri; King-Jones, Susanne; Zaharia, L Irina; Abrams, Suzanne R; Cooke, Janice E K

    2011-03-01

    Bud formation is an adaptive trait that temperate forest trees have acquired to facilitate seasonal synchronization. We have characterized transcriptome-level changes that occur during bud formation of white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss], a primarily determinate species in which preformed stem units contained within the apical bud constitute most of next season's growth. Microarray analysis identified 4460 differentially expressed sequences in shoot tips during short day-induced bud formation. Cluster analysis revealed distinct temporal patterns of expression, and functional classification of genes in these clusters implied molecular processes that coincide with anatomical changes occurring in the developing bud. Comparing expression profiles in developing buds under long day and short day conditions identified possible photoperiod-responsive genes that may not be essential for bud development. Several genes putatively associated with hormone signalling were identified, and hormone quantification revealed distinct profiles for abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, auxin and their metabolites that can be related to morphological changes to the bud. Comparison of gene expression profiles during bud formation in different tissues revealed 108 genes that are differentially expressed only in developing buds and show greater transcript abundance in developing buds than other tissues. These findings provide a temporal roadmap of bud formation in white spruce.

  17. Fire and nitrogen alter axillary bud number and activity in purple threeawn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Belowground accumulation of vegetative buds provides a reservoir of meristems that can be utilized following disturbance. Perennial grass bud banks are the primary source of nearly all tiller growth, yet understanding of fire and nitrogen effects on bud banks is limited. We tested effects of fire ...

  18. Leaf growth is conformal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I.; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-10-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  19. Secondary neurulation: Fate-mapping and gene manipulation of the neural tube in tail bud.

    PubMed

    Shimokita, Eisuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2011-04-01

    The body tail is a characteristic trait of vertebrates, which endows the animals with a variety of locomotive functions. During embryogenesis, the tail develops from the tail bud, where neural and mesodermal tissues make a major contribution. The neural tube in the tail bud develops by the process known as secondary neurulation (SN), where mesenchymal cells undergo epithelialization and tubulogenesis. These processes contrast with the well known primary neurulation, which is achieved by invagination of an epithelial cell sheet. In this study we have identified the origin of SN-undergoing cells, which is located caudo-medially to Hensen's node of early chicken embryo. This region is distinctly fate-mapped from tail-forming mesoderm. The identification of the presumptive SN region has allowed us to target this region with exogenous genes using in ovo electroporation techniques. The SN-transgenesis has further enabled an exploration of molecular mechanisms underlying mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition during SN, where activity levels of Cdc42 and Rac1 are critical. This is the first demonstration of molecular and cellular analyses of SN, which can be performed at a high resolution separately from tail-forming mesoderm.

  20. [Expression of CFL gene during differentiation of floral and vegetative buds in cucumber cotyledonary nodes cultured in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Lin; Pang, Ji-Liang; Liang, Hai-Man; Zhu, Mu-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    CFL gene, a LFY homologue, was cloned from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this paper, in situ hybridization was performed to analyze the expression pattern of CFL gene at the stage of floral and vegetative buds differentiation in cucumber cotyledonary nodes cultured in vitro. The results showed that at the stage of floral differentiation, CFL gene was strongly expressed in primordia, floral organ primordia, and each whirl of floral organs at the early stage of their formation, but weakly expressed or not expressed in floral organs after their formation (Fig. 2). At the stage of vegetative bud differentiation, CFL gene was strongly expressed in meristem, leaf primordium and young leaves, and no apparent expression signal was detected in mature tissues (Fig. 3). The results suggest that the expression of CFL gene be necessary for the differentiation and formation of floral and vegetative primordias, and it plays an important role in floral and vegetative development in cucumber. The results also indicate that CFL gene involving in mitosis initiation, mitosis controlling, and transformation of vegetative meristem to floral meristem.

  1. Attachment of the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is mediated by adhesives localized at sites of bud cell development.

    PubMed

    Buck, J W; Andrews, J H

    1999-02-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides (anamorph, Rhodotorula glutinis) is a common phylloplane epiphyte with biocontrol potential. To understand how R. toruloides adheres to plant surfaces, we obtained nonadherent fungal mutants after chemical mutagenesis with methane-sulfonic acid ethyl ester. Sixteen attachment-minus (Att-) mutants were identified by three methods: (i) screening capsule-minus colonies for loss of adhesive ability; (ii) enrichment for mutants unable to attach to polystyrene; and (iii) selection for reduced fluorescence of fluorescein isothiocyanate-concanavalin A (Con A)-stained cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. None of the 16 mutants attached to polystyrene or barley leaves. The lectin Con A eliminated adhesion in all of the wild-type isolates tested. Hapten competition assays indicated that Con A bound to mannose residues on the cell surface. Adhesion of wild-type R. toruloides was transient; nonadhesive cells subsequently became adhesive, with bud development. All Att- mutants and nonattaching wild-type cells lacked polar regions that stained intensely with fluorescein isothiocyanate-Con A and India ink. Lectin, enzyme, and chemical treatments showed that the polar regions consisted of alkali-soluble materials, including mannose residues. Tunicamycin treatment reduced wild-type adhesion, indicating that the mannose residues could be associated with glycoproteins. We concluded that compounds, including mannose residues, that are localized at sites of bud development mediate adhesion of R. toruloides to both polystyrene and barley leaf surfaces.

  2. Project LEAF Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project LEAF has a goal of educating farmworkers about how to reduce pesticide exposure to their families from pesticide residues they may be inadvertently taking home on their clothing, etc. Find outreach materials.

  3. A Genomic Study of the Bipolar Bud Site Selection Pattern in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Li; Snyder, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A genome-wide screen of 4168 homozygous diploid yeast deletion strains has been performed to identify nonessential genes that participate in the bipolar budding pattern. By examining bud scar patterns representing the sites of previous cell divisions, 127 mutants representing three different phenotypes were found: unipolar, axial-like, and random. From this screen, 11 functional classes of known genes were identified, including those involved in actin-cytoskeleton organization, general bud site selection, cell polarity, vesicular transport, cell wall synthesis, protein modification, transcription, nuclear function, translation, and other functions. Four characterized genes that were not known previously to participate in bud site selection were also found to be important for the haploid axial budding pattern. In addition to known genes, we found 22 novel genes (20 are designated BUD13-BUD32) important for bud site selection. Deletion of one resulted in unipolar budding exclusively from the proximal pole, suggesting that this gene plays an important role in diploid distal budding. Mutations in 20 other novel BUD genes produced a random budding phenotype and one produced an axial-like budding defect. Several of the novel Bud proteins were fused to green fluorescence protein; two proteins were found to localize to sites of polarized cell growth (i.e., the bud tip in small budded cells and the neck in cells undergoing cytokinesis), similar to that postulated for the bipolar signals and proteins that target cell division site tags to their proper location in the cell. Four others localized to the nucleus, suggesting that they play a role in gene expression. The bipolar distal marker Bud8 was localized in a number of mutants; many showed an altered Bud8-green fluorescence protein localization pattern. Through the genome-wide identification and analysis of different mutants involved in bipolar bud site selection, an integrated pathway for this process is presented in

  4. [Inhibition of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth of Capsicum annu- um and the alleviation effect of nitrogen application].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hu, Ting-xing; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hong-ling; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Guang-liang; Chen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Effects of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth, physiological and phenological traits of Capsicum annuum, and modification of these effects by nitrogen application were investigated using a pot experiment. C. camphora leaf litter was applied at rate of 0, 25, 50 100 g per pot, resulting into four treatments, i.e., CK (the control), L25, L50, and L100. Nitrogen application was firstly performed on the 39th d of decomposition (3.0 g urea was added to each pot six times). Leaf area, plant height, basal diameter and biomass production of C. annuum were all inhibited sharply by exposure to the leaf litter, and the inhibition effect increased with the increasing leaf litter in terms of both the intensity and the stability. Treated with L25, budding number reduced by 88.7% averagely during 55th-75th d, and the rate of fructification plant decreased by 40% on the 96th d of decomposition, while neither buds nor fruits were observed when exposed to L50 and L100 at that time. Pigment contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) were impacted due to leaf litter addition, and malonaldehyde (MDA) was only markedly promoted by L100. Inhibition on growth and development of C. annuum caused by leaf litter decomposition could be alleviated by nitrogen application. Leaf area treated with leaf litter recovered to the control level on the 52nd d after nitrogen application, and similar results appeared on the 83rd d after nitrogen application for other growth traits. Budding and fructification status were also visibly improved.

  5. Experimental evidence that ptarmigan regulate willow bud production to their own advantage.

    PubMed

    Christie, Katie S; Ruess, R W

    2015-07-01

    In some ecosystems, vertebrate herbivores increase the nutritional quality and biomass of their food source through repeated grazing, thereby manipulating their environment to support higher densities of animals. We tested whether ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus and L. muta) are capable of regulating the nutritional quality, abundance, and availability of feltleaf willow (Salix alaxensis) buds using a simulated browsing experiment and a feeding preference study with wild birds. Simulated ptarmigan browsing resulted in smaller buds, but greater numbers of buds per shoot. Furthermore, browsing altered the morphology of willow branches such that buds were at higher densities and closer to snow level compared to unbrowsed controls. Browsing increased the number of willows with accessible buds (buds within 50 cm of snow level) from 55 to 89%, and increased total accessible bud biomass from 113 ± 30 to 129 ± 50 mg/ramet. Browsing did not affect bud nitrogen or carbon concentration and slightly reduced protein precipitation capacity (tannins) in buds the following winter, indicating that ptarmigan browsing does not induce a defensive response in this species. When branches of broomed (previously browsed) and unbroomed willows were placed in the snow at equal heights, ptarmigan showed no preference for either type; however, they obtained more buds from broomed willows. Increased accessibility and density of willow buds caused by browsing has the potential to increase habitat carrying capacity, thereby supporting higher densities of ptarmigan.

  6. Membrane-elasticity model of Coatless vesicle budding induced by ESCRT complexes.

    PubMed

    Różycki, Bartosz; Boura, Evzen; Hurley, James H; Hummer, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The formation of vesicles is essential for many biological processes, in particular for the trafficking of membrane proteins within cells. The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) directs membrane budding away from the cytosol. Unlike other vesicle formation pathways, the ESCRT-mediated budding occurs without a protein coat. Here, we propose a minimal model of ESCRT-induced vesicle budding. Our model is based on recent experimental observations from direct fluorescence microscopy imaging that show ESCRT proteins colocalized only in the neck region of membrane buds. The model, cast in the framework of membrane elasticity theory, reproduces the experimentally observed vesicle morphologies with physically meaningful parameters. In this parameter range, the minimum energy configurations of the membrane are coatless buds with ESCRTs localized in the bud neck, consistent with experiment. The minimum energy configurations agree with those seen in the fluorescence images, with respect to both bud shapes and ESCRT protein localization. On the basis of our model, we identify distinct mechanistic pathways for the ESCRT-mediated budding process. The bud size is determined by membrane material parameters, explaining the narrow yet different bud size distributions in vitro and in vivo. Our membrane elasticity model thus sheds light on the energetics and possible mechanisms of ESCRT-induced membrane budding.

  7. Labeling and analysis of chicken taste buds using molecular markers in oral epithelial sheets

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Wang, Zhonghou; Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Tehrani, Kayvan F.; Payne, Jason; Swetenburg, Raymond L.; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Mortensen, Luke J.; Stice, Steven L.; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In chickens, the sensory organs for taste are the taste buds in the oral cavity, of which there are ~240–360 in total number as estimated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There is not an easy way to visualize all taste buds in chickens. Here, we report a highly efficient method for labeling chicken taste buds in oral epithelial sheets using the molecular markers Vimentin and α-Gustducin. Immediate tissue fixation following incubation with sub-epithelially injected proteases enabled us to peel off whole epithelial sheets, leaving the shape and integrity of the tissue intact. In the peeled epithelial sheets, taste buds labeled with antibodies against Vimentin and α-Gustducin were easily identified and counted under a light microscope and many more taste buds, patterned in rosette-like clusters, were found than previously reported with SEM. Broiler-type, female-line males have more taste buds than other groups and continue to increase the number of taste buds over stages after hatch. In addition to ovoid-shaped taste buds, big tube-shaped taste buds were observed in the chicken using 2-photon microscopy. Our protocol for labeling taste buds with molecular markers will factilitate future mechanistic studies on the development of chicken taste buds in association with their feeding behaviors. PMID:27853250

  8. Tumor budding is an independent adverse prognostic factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kate; Li-Chang, Hector H; Kalloger, Steven E; Peixoto, Renata D; Webber, Douglas L; Owen, David A; Driman, David K; Kirsch, Richard; Serra, Stefano; Scudamore, Charles H; Renouf, Daniel J; Schaeffer, David F

    2015-04-01

    Tumor budding is a well-established adverse prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. However, the significance and diagnostic reproducibility of budding in pancreatic carcinoma requires further study. We aimed to assess the prognostic significance of tumor budding in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, determine its relationship with other clinicopathologic features, and assess interobserver variability in its diagnosis. Tumor budding was assessed in 192 archival cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections; tumor buds were defined as single cells or nonglandular clusters composed of <5 cells. The presence of budding was determined through assessment of all tumor-containing slides, and associations with clinicopathologic features and outcomes were analyzed. Six gastrointestinal pathologists participated in an interobserver variability study of 120 images of consecutive tumor slides stained with H&E and cytokeratin. Budding was present in 168 of 192 cases and was associated with decreased overall survival (P=0.001). On multivariable analysis, tumor budding was prognostically significantly independent of stage, grade, tumor size, nodal status, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion. There was substantial agreement among pathologists in assessing the presence of tumor budding using both H&E (K=0.63) and cytokeratin (K=0.63) stains. The presence of tumor budding is an independent adverse prognostic factor in pancreatic ductal carcinoma. The assessment of budding with H&E is reliable and could be used to better risk stratify patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

  9. Auxin flow-mediated competition between axillary buds to restore apical dominance

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Jozef; Medveďová, Zuzana; Kalousek, Petr; Matiješčuková, Natálie; Friml, Jiří; Reinöhl, Vilém; Procházka, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Apical dominance is one of the fundamental developmental phenomena in plant biology, which determines the overall architecture of aerial plant parts. Here we show apex decapitation activated competition for dominance in adjacent upper and lower axillary buds. A two-nodal-bud pea (Pisum sativum L.) was used as a model system to monitor and assess auxin flow, auxin transport channels, and dormancy and initiation status of axillary buds. Auxin flow was manipulated by lateral stem wounds or chemically by auxin efflux inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), 1-N-naphtylphtalamic acid (NPA), or protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) treatments, which served to interfere with axillary bud competition. Redirecting auxin flow to different points influenced which bud formed the outgrowing and dominant shoot. The obtained results proved that competition between upper and lower axillary buds as secondary auxin sources is based on the same auxin canalization principle that operates between the shoot apex and axillary bud. PMID:27824063

  10. Membrane budding and scission by the ESCRT machinery: it's all in the neck

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, James H.; Hanson, Phyllis I.

    2010-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) catalyze one of the most unusual membrane remodelling events in cell biology. ESCRT-I and ESCRT-II direct membrane budding away from the cytosol by stabilizing bud necks without coating the bud and without being consumed in the buds. ESCRT-III cleaves the bud necks from their cytosolic face. ESCRT-III-mediated membrane neck cleavage is crucial for many processes, including the biogenesis of multivesicular bodies, viral budding, cytokinesis, and probably autophagy. Recent studies of ultrastructures induced by ESCRT-III overexpression in cells and the in vitro reconstitution of the budding and scission reactions have led to breakthroughs in understanding these remarkable membrane reactions. PMID:20588296

  11. Strategies of leaf expansion in Ficus carica under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, A M; Peters, J

    2010-05-01

    Leaf area expansion, thickness and inclination, gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content were analysed in field-grown fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves over time, from emergence until after full leaf expansion (FLE). Ficus carica leaves showed a subtle change in shape during the early stages of development, and FLE was reached within ca. 30 days after emergence. Changes in leaf thickness and inclination after FLE demonstrated good adaptation to environmental conditions during summer in areas with a Mediterranean climate. Changes in gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content showed that F. carica is a delayed-greening species, reaching maximum values 20 days after FLE. Correlation analysis of datasets collected during leaf expansion, confirmed dependence among structural and functional traits in F. carica. Pn was directly correlated with stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration (E), leaf area (LA) and relative chlorophyll content up to FLE. The effect of pruning on leaf expansion, a cultural technique commonly applied in this fruit tree, was also evaluated. Although leaf development in pruned branches gave a significantly higher relative leaf area growth rate (RGR(l)) and higher LA than non-pruned branches, no significant differences were found in other morphological and physiological traits, indicating no pruning effect on leaf development. All studied morphological and physiological characteristics indicate that F. carica is well adapted to semiarid conditions. The delayed greening strategy of this species is discussed.

  12. Comparative proteomic and transcriptomic approaches to address the active role of GA4 in Japanese apricot flower bud dormancy release.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Weibing; Gao, Zhihong; Wang, Liangju; Zhong, Wenjun; Ni, Zhaojun; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-11-01

    Hormones are closely associated with dormancy in deciduous fruit trees, and gibberellins (GAs) are known to be particularly important. In this study, we observed that GA4 treatment led to earlier bud break in Japanese apricot. To understand better the promoting effect of GA4 on the dormancy release of Japanese apricot flower buds, proteomic and transcriptomic approaches were used to analyse the mechanisms of dormancy release following GA4 treatment, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling, respectively. More than 600 highly reproducible protein spots (P<0.05) were detected and, following GA4 treatment, 38 protein spots showed more than a 2-fold difference in expression, and 32 protein spots were confidently identified according to the databases. Compared with water treatment, many proteins that were associated with energy metabolism and oxidation-reduction showed significant changes after GA4 treatment, which might promote dormancy release. We observed that genes at the mRNA level associated with energy metabolism and oxidation-reduction also played an important role in this process. Analysis of the functions of the identified proteins and genes and the related metabolic pathways would provide a comprehensive proteomic and transcriptomic view of the coordination of dormancy release after GA4 treatment in Japanese apricot flower buds.

  13. Inhibitory effect of jasmonic acid and ethylene on epicotyl growth and bud induction in the maritime pine, Pinus pinaster Soland. in ait.

    PubMed

    Martin, Maria Teresa; Pedranzani, Hilda; García-Molinero, Patricia; Pando, Valentin; Sierra-de-Grado, Rosario

    2009-12-01

    Two independent parameters, epicotyl height (cm) and number of induced buds were studied on Pinus pinaster explants to analyse the effects of three phytohormones (6-benzylaminopurine, jasmonic acid, ethylene) which were combined or not in 11 different treatments. Epicotyle length diminished significantly in relation to the control medium (medium without exogen phytohormones) in presence of jasmonic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine or Ethephon (which is converted to ethylene in plants) in any of treatments. Concentrations of 100 microM of jasmonic acid and Ethephon had a greater inhibitory effect than the treatments with 10 microM. In addition to that, jasmonic acid was a stronger inhibitor than Ethephon in any of the tried combinations. There were no significant differences between the control treatment and the treatments with only 10 microM of jasmonic acid or Ethephon. However, 10 microM 6-benzylaminopurine induced bud formation. The different combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine with jasmonic acid and Ethephon showed that concentrations of 10 to 100 microM did not affect the number of induced buds. Jasmonic acid had an inhibitory effect which Ethephon only showed when combined with 100 microM of jasmonic acid and 10 microM of 6-benzylaminopurine. Three response groups were defined by cluster analysis: group 1 produced the greatest mean number of buds (4 to 5) and a mean epicotyl growth of 1 to 1.5 cm; group 2 produced 2 to 4 buds and a mean growth of 0.5 to 1.2 cm; group 3 produced only one bud and a mean epicotyl length of 1.2 to 2 cm.

  14. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  15. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  16. How to halve ploidy: lessons from budding yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Gary William; Sarkar, Sourav; Arumugam, Prakash

    2012-09-01

    Maintenance of ploidy in sexually reproducing organisms requires a specialized form of cell division called meiosis that generates genetically diverse haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Meiotic cells halve their ploidy by undergoing two rounds of nuclear division (meiosis I and II) after a single round of DNA replication. Research in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) has shown that four major deviations from the mitotic cell cycle during meiosis are essential for halving ploidy. The deviations are (1) formation of a link between homologous chromosomes by crossover, (2) monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores during meiosis I, (3) protection of centromeric cohesion during meiosis I, and (4) suppression of DNA replication following exit from meiosis I. In this review we present the current understanding of the above four processes in budding yeast and examine the possible conservation of molecular mechanisms from yeast to humans.

  17. Budding transition of asymmetric two-component lipid domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Jean; Komura, Shigeyuki; Andelman, David

    2016-09-01

    We propose a model that accounts for the budding transition of asymmetric two-component lipid domains, where the two monolayers (leaflets) have different average compositions controlled by independent chemical potentials. Assuming a coupling between the local curvature and local lipid composition in each of the leaflets, we discuss the morphology and thermodynamic behavior of asymmetric lipid domains. The membrane free-energy contains three contributions: the bending energy, the line tension, and a Landau free-energy for a lateral phase separation. Within a mean-field treatment, we obtain various phase diagrams containing fully budded, dimpled, and flat states as a function of the two leaflet compositions. The global phase behavior is analyzed, and depending on system parameters, the phase diagrams include one-phase, two-phase, and three-phase regions. In particular, we predict various phase coexistence regions between different morphologies of domains, which may be observed in multicomponent membranes or vesicles.

  18. Nuclear envelope fission is linked to cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, J; Li, R

    2000-11-01

    We have investigated the relationship between nuclear envelope fission and cytokinesis during mitotic cell division in budding yeast. By carrying out time-lapse and optical sectioning video microscopy analysis of cells that express green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged nuclear envelope and actomyosin ring components, we found that nuclear division is temporally coupled to cytokinesis. Light and electron microscopy analysis also showed that nuclear envelope fission and the division of the nucleoplasm are severely delayed in cytokinesis mutants, resulting in discoupling between the nuclear division cycle and the budding cycle. These results suggest that homotypic membrane fusion may be activated by components or the mechanical action of cytokinetic structures and presents a mechanism for the equal partitioning of the nucleus and the temporal coordination of this event with chromosome segregation during mitosis.

  19. Patterns of bud-site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae select bud sites in either of two distinct spatial patterns, known as axial (expressed by a and alpha cells) and bipolar (expressed by a/alpha cells). Fluorescence, time-lapse, and scanning electron microscopy have been used to obtain more precise descriptions of these patterns. From these descriptions, we conclude that in the axial pattern, the new bud forms directly adjacent to the division site in daughter cells and directly adjacent to the immediately preceding division site (bud site) in mother cells, with little influence from earlier sites. Thus, the division site appears to be marked by a spatial signal(s) that specifies the location of the new bud site and is transient in that it only lasts from one budding event to the next. Consistent with this conclusion, starvation and refeeding of axially budding cells results in the formation of new buds at nonaxial sites. In contrast, in bipolar budding cells, both poles are specified persistently as potential bud sites, as shown by the observations that a pole remains competent for budding even after several generations of nonuse and that the poles continue to be used for budding after starvation and refeeding. It appears that the specification of the two poles as potential bud sites occurs before a daughter cell forms its first bud, as a daughter can form this bud near either pole. However, there is a bias towards use of the pole distal to the division site. The strength of this bias varies from strain to strain, is affected by growth conditions, and diminishes in successive cell cycles. The first bud that forms near the distal pole appears to form at the very tip of the cell, whereas the first bud that forms near the pole proximal to the original division site (as marked by the birth scar) is generally somewhat offset from the tip and adjacent to (or overlapping) the birth scar. Subsequent buds can form near either pole and appear almost always to be adjacent either to

  20. The protein machinery of vesicle budding and fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    A general protein machinery that buds and fuses transport vesicles is harnessed to generate the complex web of intracellular transport pathways critical for such diverse processes as cell growth, endocytosis, hormone release, and neurotransmission. With this appreciation, the challenge of understanding the precise molecular mechanisms of these many facets of cell biology has been reduced to a series of problems in protein structure and chemistry. PMID:8745395

  1. Biomolecules and Natural Medicine Preparations: Analysis of New Sources of Bioactive Compounds from Ribes and Rubus spp. Buds

    PubMed Central

    Donno, Dario; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Alessandro Kim; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that plants are important sources for the preparation of natural remedies as they contain many biologically active compounds. In particular, polyphenols, terpenic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins are the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals. Some endemic species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant bioactivity, as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory capacities, and health benefits. Blackberry sprouts and blackcurrant buds are known to contain appreciable levels of bioactive compounds, including flavonols, phenolic acids, monoterpenes, vitamin C, and catechins, with several clinical effects. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of blackcurrant and blackberry bud-preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main biomarkers, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint to evaluate the single botanical class contribution to total phytocomplex and relative bioactivity, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph−Diode Array Detector; the same analyses were performed both on the University laboratory and commercial preparations. Different chromatographic methods were used to determine concentrations of biomolecules in the preparations, allowing for quantification of statistically significant differences in their bioactive compound content both in the case of Ribes nigrum and Rubus cultivated varieties at different harvest stages. In blackcurrant bud-extracts the most important class was organic acids (50.98%) followed by monoterpenes (14.05%), while in blackberry preparations the main bioactive classes were catechins (50.06%) and organic acids (27.34%). Chemical, pharmaceutical and agronomic-environmental knowledge could be important for obtaining label certifications for the valorization of specific genotypes, with high clinical and pharmaceutical value: this study allowed to develop an effective tool for the natural preparation quality

  2. Internal development of vegetative buds of Norway spruce trees in relation to accumulated chilling and forcing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Viherä-Aarnio, Anneli; Sutinen, Sirkka; Partanen, Jouni; Häkkinen, Risto

    2014-05-01

    The timing of budburst of temperate trees is known to be controlled by complicated interactions of temperature and photoperiod. To improve the phenological models of budburst, better knowledge of the internal bud development preceding budburst in relation to environmental cues is needed. We studied the effect of accumulated chilling and forcing temperatures on the internal development of vegetative buds preceding budburst in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. Branches from 17-year-old trees of southern Finnish origin were transferred eight times at 1- to 2-week intervals from October to December 2007 from the field at Punkaharju (61°48'N, 29°20'E) to the greenhouse with forcing conditions (day length 12 h, +20 °C). After seven different durations of forcing, the developmental phase and primordial shoot growth of the buds were analysed at the stereomicroscopic level. Air temperature was recorded hourly throughout the study period. The accumulated chilling unit sum had a significant effect on the temperature sum that was required to attain a certain developmental phase; a higher amount of chilling required a lower amount of forcing. The variation in the rate of development of different buds within each sample branch in relation to the chilling unit and forcing temperature sum was low. Regarding primordial shoot growth, there was also an inverse relation between accumulated chilling and forcing, i.e., a higher accumulated chilling unit sum before forcing required a lower temperature sum to initiate primordial shoot growth and resulted in a stronger effect of accumulated forcing. A second-order regression model with an interaction of chilling and forcing explained the variation of primordial shoot growth with high precision (R(2) = 0.88). However, further studies are required to determine the final parameter values to be used in phenological modelling.

  3. Arenavirus budding: a common pathway with mechanistic differences.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Svenja; Ebihara, Hideki; Groseth, Allison

    2013-01-31

    The Arenaviridae is a diverse and growing family of viruses that includes several agents responsible for important human diseases. Despite the importance of this family for public health, particularly in Africa and South America, much of its biology remains poorly understood. However, in recent years significant progress has been made in this regard, particularly relating to the formation and release of new enveloped virions, which is an essential step in the viral lifecycle. While this process is mediated chiefly by the viral matrix protein Z, recent evidence suggests that for some viruses the nucleoprotein (NP) is also required to enhance the budding process. Here we highlight and compare the distinct budding mechanisms of different arenaviruses, concentrating on the role of the matrix protein Z, its known late domain sequences, and the involvement of cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway components. Finally we address the recently described roles for the nucleoprotein NP in budding and ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) incorporation, as well as discussing possible mechanisms related to its involvement.

  4. Leptin's effect on taste bud calcium responses and transmitter secretion.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Tricia L; Corcoran, Alan; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone released by adipose tissue, acts on the hypothalamus to control cravings and appetite. Leptin also acts to decrease taste responses to sweet substances, though there is little detailed information regarding where leptin acts in the taste transduction cascade. The present study examined the effects of leptin on sweet-evoked responses and neuro transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Our results indicate that leptin moderately decreased sweet-evoked calcium mobilization in isolated mouse taste buds. We also employed Chinese hamster ovary biosensor cells to examine taste transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Leptin reduced ATP and increased serotonin release in response to sweet stimulation. However, leptin has no effect on bitter-evoked transmitter release, further showing that the action of leptin is sweet specific. Our results support those of previous studies, which state that leptin acts on taste tissue via the leptin receptor, most likely on Type II (Receptor) cells, but also possibly on Type III (Presynaptic) cells.

  5. Lectins influence chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in limb bud mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Monsefi, Malihezaman; Ghasemi, Mansoureh

    2011-02-01

    The role of cell surface glycoproteins in cell behavior can be characterized by their interactions with plant lectins. This study was designed to identify the effects of lectins on chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in limb bud mesenchymal cells in vitro. Limb bud mesenchymal cells from mouse embryos were cultured in high-density micromass culture. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (ConA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) were added separately to the culture media. Cells were cultured for 5 or 9 days, and cell viability was assayed by neutral red on day 5. The micromasses were stained with alcian blue, alizarin red S and Von Kossa stains, and alkaline phosphatase assays were also done. Dolichos biflorus agglutinin induced an increase in chondrogenesis, calcium precipitation and proteoglycan production. ConA and PNA did not affect chondrocyte differentiation but induced chondrocytes to produce more proteoglycan. Wheat germ agglutinin reduced chondrification and ossification but induced mesenchymal cells to store lipid droplets. Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 was toxic and significantly reduced cell survival. In conclusion, DBA was the most effective inducer of ossification and chondrification. Wheat germ agglutinin induced adipogenesis instead. These assays showed that lectins play important roles in limb bud development.

  6. Trichomes control flower bud shape by linking together young petals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiafu; Walford, Sally-Anne; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny

    2016-06-20

    Trichomes are widespread in plants and develop from surface cells on different tissues(1). They have many forms and functions, from defensive spines to physical barriers that trap layers of air to insulate against desiccation, but there is growing evidence that trichomes can also have developmental roles in regulating flower structure(2,3). We report here that the trichomes on petals of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are essential for correct flower bud shape through a mechanical entanglement of the trichomes on adjacent petals that anchor the edges to counter the opposing force generated by asymmetric expansion of overlapping petals. Silencing a master regulator of petal trichomes, GhMYB-MIXTA-Like10 (GhMYBML10), by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed petal trichome growth and resulted in flower buds forming into abnormal corkscrew shapes that exposed developing anthers and stigmas to desiccation damage. Artificially gluing petal edges together could partially restore correct bud shape and fertility. Such petal 'Velcro' is present in other Malvaceae and perhaps more broadly in other plant families, although it is not ubiquitous. This mechanism for physical association between separate organs to regulate flower shape and function is different from the usual organ shape control(4) exerted through cell-to-cell communication and differential cell expansion within floral tissues(5,6).

  7. Seasonal variability of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of Acer platanoides and Tilia platyphyllos in central Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of maple (Acer platanoides-Ap) and linden (Tilia platyphyllos-Tp) collected in four periods of the growing season of trees, i.e. in April (IV), June (VI), August (VIII) and November (IX) in 2013, from the area of Poznań city (Poland). The highest average concentration of mercury for 88 samples was determined in soils and it equaled 65.8 ± 41.7 ng g(-1) (range 14.5-238.9 ng g(-1)); lower average concentration was found in Ap samples (n = 66): 55.4 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) (range 26.5-106.9 ng g(-1)); in Tp samples 50.4 ± 15.8 ng g(-1) (range 23.1-88.7 ng g(-1)) and in 22 samples of Tp buds 40.8 ± 22.7 ng g(-1) (range 12.4-98.7 ng g(-1)) and Ap buds 28.2 ± 13.6 ng g(-1) (range 8.0-59.5 ng g(-1)). Based on the obtained results, it was observed that the highest concentration of mercury in soils occurred in the centre of Poznań city (95.5 ± 39.1 ng g(-1)), and it was two times higher than the concentration of mercury in other parts of the city. Similar dependencies were not observed for the leaf samples of Ap and Tp. It was found that mercury concentrations in the soil and leaves of maple and linden were different depending on the period of the growing season (April to November). Mercury content in the examined samples was higher in the first two research periods (April IV, June VI), and then, in the following periods, the accumulation of mercury decreased both in soil and leaf samples of the two tree species. There was no correlation found between mercury concentration in leaves and mercury concentration in soils during the four research periods (April-November). When considering the transfer coefficient, it was observed that the main source of mercury in leaves is the mercury coming from the atmosphere.

  8. H2B Ubiquitylation Modulates Spliceosome Assembly and Function in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hérissant, Lucas; Moehle, Erica A.; Bertaccini, Diego; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Guthrie, Christine; Dargemont, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background information Commitment to splicing occurs co-transcriptionally, but a major unanswered question is the extent to which various modifications of chromatin, the template for transcription in vivo, contribute to the regulation of splicing. Results Here we perform genome-wide analyses showing that inhibition of specific marks – H2B ubiquitylation, H3K4 methylation, and H3K36 methylation – perturbs splicing in budding yeast, with each modification exerting gene-specific effects. Furthermore, semi-quantitative mass spectrometry on purified nuclear mRNPs and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis on intron-containing genes indicated that H2B ubiquitylation, but not Set1-, Set2- or Dot1-dependent H3 methylation, stimulates recruitment of the early splicing factors, namely U1 and U2 snRNPs, onto nascent RNAs. Conclusions These results suggest that histone modifications impact splicing of distinct subsets of genes using distinct pathways. PMID:24476359

  9. Damped leaf flexure hinge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong; Chen, Guisheng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Flexure-based mechanism like compliant actuation system embeds complex dynamics that will reduce the control bandwidth and limits their dynamic positioning precision. This paper presents a theoretical model of a leaf flexure hinge with damping layers using strain energy method and Kelvin damping model. The modified loss factor of the damped leaf flexure hinge is derived, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the damped leaf hinge is obtained, which could be used to improve the pseudo-rigid-model. The free vibration signals of the hinge in three different damping configurations are measured. The experimental modal analysis also is performed on the three kinds of damped leaf flexure hinges in order to evaluate their 1st order bending natural frequency and vibration-suppressing effects. The evaluation of modified loss factor model also is performed. The experimental results indicate that the constrained layer damping can enhance the structure damping of the hinge even if only single damping layer each side, the modified loss factor model can get good predicts of a damped leaf flexure hinge in the frequency range below 1st order natural frequency, and it is necessary that the dimensional parameters of the damping layers and basic layer of the hinge should be optimized for simplification at the mechanism's design stage.

  10. Automated Sensing of Douglas Fir Bud-Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintz, H. E.; Kruger, A.; Wagner, D. A.; Tenney, I. J.

    2011-12-01

    The timing of plant biological events such as budburst in the spring can have major impacts on plant productivity and ecosystem carbon balance. While research efforts that address the timing of events is gaining considerable momentum, the technology available for sensing and recording the timing of events is limited, especially for trees. Thus, researchers often perform manual measurements, which can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. This has resulted in efforts such as Project BudBurst, a network of professional and volunteer observers across the United States that monitor plants as seasons change. Access to forest trees can be difficult during periods of greatest interest, such as when buds open in the spring. For example, high elevation, snow, and melting snow during the spring hamper access to trees in alpine regions. Researchers at Oregon State University and The University of Iowa are developing instrumentation for automating sensing of budburst in Douglas firs. While the instrumentation targets Douglas firs, it can find application in studying budburst in other species. We present an initial bud-burst sensor that uses optical techniques to sense bud opening. An optical fiber illuminates a target bud with modulated light, a second fiber detects, and guides reflect light to a photodetector and signal processing electronics. Changes in the reflected light indicate the budburst. The instrumentation exploits advances in microelectronics, particularly miniaturization and low power consumption, and uses advanced signal processing techniques such as lock-in detection. The instrumentation records the reflected light every 15 minutes on high-capacity, non-volatile Flash media. Power consumption is very low and sensors have an extrapolated, continuous operating time more than 9 months, suggesting their deployment in the fall, and retrieval in the following spring. We believe the sensor will enable a caliber of research not yet achievable owing to the difficulty of

  11. Leaf dynamics in growth and reproduction of Xanthium canadense as influenced by stand density

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Takahiro; Oikawa, Shimpei; Hirose, Tadaki

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf longevity is controlled by the light gradient in the canopy and also by the nitrogen (N) sink strength in the plant. Stand density may influence leaf dynamics through its effects on light gradient and on plant growth and reproduction. This study tests the hypothesis that the control by the light gradient is manifested more in the vegetative period, whereas the opposite is true when the plant becomes reproductive and develops a strong N sink. Methods Stands of Xanthium canadense were established at two densities. Emergence, growth and death of every leaf on the main stem and branches, and plant growth and N uptake were determined from germination to full senescence. Mean residence time and dry mass productivity were calculated per leaf number, leaf area, leaf mass and leaf N (collectively termed ‘leaf variables’) in order to analyse leaf dynamics and its effect on plant growth. Key Results Branching and reproductive activities were higher at low than at high density. Overall there was no significant difference in mean residence time of leaf variables between the two stands. However, early leaf cohorts on the main stem had a longer retention time at low density, whereas later cohorts had a longer retention time at high density. Branch leaves emerged earlier and tended to live longer at low than at high density. Leaf efficiencies, defined as carbon export per unit investment of leaf variables, were higher at low density in all leaf variables except for leaf number. Conclusions In the vegetative phase of plant growth, the light gradient strongly controls leaf longevity, whereas later the effects of branching and reproductive activities become stronger and over-rule the effect of light environment. As leaf N supports photosynthesis and also works as an N source for plant development, N use is pivotal in linking leaf dynamics with plant growth and reproduction. PMID:26248476

  12. Apparent Overinvestment in Leaf Venation Relaxes Leaf Morphological Constraints on Photosynthesis in Arid Habitats1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Drake, Paul L.; Wendt, Erin; Price, Charles A.; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Turner, Neil C.; Nicolle, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Leaf veins supply the mesophyll with water that evaporates when stomata are open to allow CO2 uptake for photosynthesis. Theoretical analyses suggest that water is optimally distributed in the mesophyll when the lateral distance between veins (dx) is equal to the distance from these veins to the epidermis (dy), expressed as dx:dy ≈ 1. Although this theory is supported by observations of many derived angiosperms, we hypothesize that plants in arid environments may reduce dx:dy below unity owing to climate-specific functional adaptations of increased leaf thickness and increased vein density. To test our hypothesis, we assembled leaf hydraulic, morphological, and photosynthetic traits of 68 species from the Eucalyptus and Corymbia genera (termed eucalypts) along an aridity gradient in southwestern Australia. We inferred the potential gas-exchange advantage of reducing dx beyond dy using a model that links leaf morphology and hydraulics to photosynthesis. Our observations reveal that eucalypts in arid environments have thick amphistomatous leaves with high vein densities, resulting in dx:dy ratios that range from 1.6 to 0.15 along the aridity gradient. Our model suggests that, as leaves become thicker, the effect of reducing dx beyond dy is to offset the reduction in leaf gas exchange that would result from maintaining dx:dy at unity. This apparent overinvestment in leaf venation may be explained from the selective pressure of aridity, under which traits associated with long leaf life span, high hydraulic and thermal capacitances, and high potential rates of leaf water transport confer a competitive advantage. PMID:27784769

  13. Transcriptomic Analysis for Different Sex Types of Ricinus communis L. during Development from Apical Buds to Inflorescences by Digital Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Tan, Meilian; Xue, Jianfeng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Jiaxiang; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Xingchu

    2015-01-01

    The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a versatile industrial oilseed crop with a diversity of sex patterns, its hybrid breeding for improving yield and high purity is still hampered by genetic instability of female and poor knowledge of sex expression mechanisms. To obtain some hints involved in sex expression and provide the basis for further insight into the molecular mechanisms of castor plant sex determination, we performed DGE analysis to investigate differences between the transcriptomes of apices and racemes derived from female (JXBM0705P) and monoecious (JXBM0705M) lines. A total of 18 DGE libraries were constructed from the apices and racemes of a wild monoecious line and its isogenic female derivative at three stages of apex development, in triplicate. Approximately 5.7 million clean tags per library were generated and mapped to the reference castor genome. Transcriptomic analysis showed that identical dynamic changes of gene expression were indicated in monoecious and female apical bud during its development from vegetation to reproduction, with more genes expressed at the raceme formation and infant raceme stages compare to the early leaf bud stage. More than 3000 of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in Ricinus apices at three developmental stages between two different sex types. A number of DEGs involved in hormone response and biosynthesis, such as auxin response and transport, transcription factors, signal transduction, histone demethylation/methylation, programmed cell death, and pollination, putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered, and the selected DEGs showed consistent expression between qRT-PCR validation and the DGE patterns. Most of those DEGs were suppressed at the early leaf stage in buds of the mutant, but then activated at the following transition stage (5-7-leaf stage) of buds in the mutant, and ultimately, the number of up-regulated DEGs was equal to that of down-regulation in the

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis for Different Sex Types of Ricinus communis L. during Development from Apical Buds to Inflorescences by Digital Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Meilian; Xue, Jianfeng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Jiaxiang; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Xingchu

    2016-01-01

    The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a versatile industrial oilseed crop with a diversity of sex patterns, its hybrid breeding for improving yield and high purity is still hampered by genetic instability of female and poor knowledge of sex expression mechanisms. To obtain some hints involved in sex expression and provide the basis for further insight into the molecular mechanisms of castor plant sex determination, we performed DGE analysis to investigate differences between the transcriptomes of apices and racemes derived from female (JXBM0705P) and monoecious (JXBM0705M) lines. A total of 18 DGE libraries were constructed from the apices and racemes of a wild monoecious line and its isogenic female derivative at three stages of apex development, in triplicate. Approximately 5.7 million clean tags per library were generated and mapped to the reference castor genome. Transcriptomic analysis showed that identical dynamic changes of gene expression were indicated in monoecious and female apical bud during its development from vegetation to reproduction, with more genes expressed at the raceme formation and infant raceme stages compare to the early leaf bud stage. More than 3000 of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in Ricinus apices at three developmental stages between two different sex types. A number of DEGs involved in hormone response and biosynthesis, such as auxin response and transport, transcription factors, signal transduction, histone demethylation/methylation, programmed cell death, and pollination, putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered, and the selected DEGs showed consistent expression between qRT-PCR validation and the DGE patterns. Most of those DEGs were suppressed at the early leaf stage in buds of the mutant, but then activated at the following transition stage (5-7-leaf stage) of buds in the mutant, and ultimately, the number of up-regulated DEGs was equal to that of down-regulation in the

  15. Elevated CO{sub 2} and leaf shape: Are dandelions getting toothier?

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.C.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    Heteroblastic leaf development in Taraxacum officinale is compared between plants grown under ambient (350 ppm) vs. elevated (700 ppm) CO{sub 2} levels. Leaves of elevated CO{sub 2} plants exhibited more deeply incised leaf margins and relatively more slender leaf laminae than leaves of ambient CO{sub 2} plants. These differences were found to be significant in allometric analyses that controlled for differences in leaf size, as well as analyses that controlled for leaf development order. The effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on leaf shape were most pronounced when plants were grown individually, but detectable differences were also found in plants grown at high density. Although less dramatic than in Taraxacum, significant effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on leaf shape were also found in two other weedy rosette species, Plantago major and Rumex crispus. These observations support the long-standing hypothesis that leaf carbohydrate level plays an important role in regulating heteroblastic leaf development, though elevated CO{sub 2} may also affect leaf development through direct hormonal interactions or increased leaf water potential. In Taraxacum, pronounced modifications of leaf shape were found at CO{sub 2} levels predicted to occur within the next century. 33 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Differentiation of Apical Bud Cells in a Newly Developed Apical Bud Transplantation Model Using GFP Transgenic Mice as Donor

    PubMed Central

    Sakagami, Ryuji; Yoshinaga, Yasunori; Okamura, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Rodent mandibular incisors have a unique anatomical structure that allows teeth to grow throughout the lifetime of the rodent. This report presents a novel transplantation technique for studying the apical bud differentiation of rodent mandibular incisors. Incisal apical end tissue with green fluorescent protein from transgenic mouse was transplanted to wild type mice, and the development of the transplanted cells were immunohistologically observed for 12 weeks after the transplantation. Results indicate that the green fluorescent apical end tissue replaced the original tissue, and cells from the apical bud differentiated and extended toward the incisal edge direction. The immunostaining with podoplanin also showed that the characteristics of the green fluorescent tissue were identical to those of the original. The green fluorescent cells were only found in the labial side of the incisor up to 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, however, they were also found in the lingual side. Here the green fluorescent cementocyte-like cells were only present in the cementum close to the dentin surface. This study suggests that some of the cells that form the cellular cementum come from the apical tissue including the apical bud in rodent incisors. PMID:26978064

  17. NAP1 acts with Clb1 to perform mitotic functions and to suppress polar bud growth in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    NAP1 is a 60-kD protein that interacts specifically with mitotic cyclins in budding yeast and frogs. We have examined the ability of the yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 to function in cells that lack NAP1. Our results demonstrate that Clb2 is unable to carry out its full range of functions without NAP1, even though Clb2/p34CDC28-associated kinase activity rises to normal levels. In the absence of NAP1, Clb2 is unable to efficiently induce mitotic events, and cells undergo a prolonged delay at the short spindle stage with normal levels of Clb2/p34CDC28 kinase activity. NAP1 is also required for the ability of Clb2 to induce the switch from polar to isotropic bud growth. As a result, polar bud growth continues during mitosis, giving rise to highly elongated cells. Our experiments also suggest that NAP1 is required for the ability of the Clb2/p34CDC28 kinase complex to amplify its own production, and that NAP1 plays a role in regulation of microtubule dynamics during mitosis. Together, these results demonstrate that NAP1 is required for the normal function of the activated Clb2/p34CDC28 kinase complex, and provide a step towards understanding how cyclin- dependent kinase complexes induce specific events during the cell cycle. PMID:7622567

  18. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Mikiko; Toyomasu, Takayuki; Aoki, Takayuki; Price, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA) of various flower bud tissues using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121∘C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving-labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA) was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen. PMID:25859249

  19. Polarized Growth Controls Cell Shape and Bipolar Bud Site Selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Yi-Jun; Barral, Yves; Snyder, Michael

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between polarized growth and division site selection, two fundamental processes important for proper development of eukaryotes. Diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exhibit an ellipsoidal shape and a specific division pattern (a bipolar budding pattern). We found that the polarity genes SPA2, PEA2, BUD6, and BNI1 participate in a crucial step of bud morphogenesis, apical growth. Deleting these genes results in round cells and diminishes bud elongation in mutants that exhibit pronounced apical growth. Examination of distribution of the polarized secretion marker Sec4 demonstrates that spa2Δ, pea2Δ, bud6Δ, and bni1Δ mutants fail to concentrate Sec4 at the bud tip during apical growth and at the division site during repolarization just prior to cytokinesis. Moreover, cell surface expansion is not confined to the distal tip of the bud in these mutants. In addition, we found that the p21-activated kinase homologue Ste20 is also important for both apical growth and bipolar bud site selection. We further examined how the duration of polarized growth affects bipolar bud site selection by using mutations in cell cycle regulators that control the timing of growth phases. The grr1Δ mutation enhances apical growth by stabilizing G1 cyclins and increases the distal-pole budding in diploids. Prolonging polarized growth phases by disrupting the G2/M cyclin gene CLB2 enhances the accuracy of bud site selection in wild-type, spa2Δ, and ste20Δ cells, whereas shortening the polarized growth phases by deleting SWE1 decreases the fidelity of bipolar budding. This study reports the identification of components required for apical growth and demonstrates the critical role of polarized growth in bipolar bud site selection. We propose that apical growth and repolarization at the site of cytokinesis are crucial for establishing spatial cues used by diploid yeast cells to position division planes. PMID:10866679

  20. [Dynamics of bud flow and bud bank of Phragmites communis population in dry land habitat of alkalinized meadow in the Songnen Plains of China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunfei; Wei, Chunyan; Zhang, Baotian; Liu, Bao

    2005-05-01

    In the dry land habitat of alkalinized meadow in Songnen Plains, the rhizomes of Phragmites communis population are distributed in different depths of one meter soil layer, which usually live for 6 years and a few for 7-9 years or even longer. Based on the investigation of their buds, a "bud flow" model of the population was established, and the method for estimating the dynamics of its bud bank storage, i.e., adding the input rate of 1st year age-class rhizome buds to the storage rate of other age-classes dormant buds in the bank, was put forward. The results showed that the input rate of the bud bank increased with plant growth seasons while the burgeoned output rate exhibited a decreasing trend, whereas the output rate of the dead remained at a low level on the whole. By the end of September in the early dormant period, the input rate of the bud bank was as 2.04 times as its output rate, and the dormant buds of each age-class manifested a steady burgeoned output. Quantitative analysis indicated that the burgeoned output rate of dormant buds increased by 11% each year. In another word, 11% of different age-classes dormant buds would germinate and form one-year class new rhizomes. The top of one-year class new rhizomes would develop to ramets in the next year, which would transport nutrients to nearby old-age rhizomes, and thus, maintain the vitality of old-age class rhizomes.

  1. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants.

  2. Identification of differentially expressed genes in a spontaneous altered leaf shape mutant of the navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck].

    PubMed

    Da, Xinlei; Yu, Keqin; Shen, Shihui; Zhang, Yajian; Wu, Juxun; Yi, Hualin

    2012-07-01

    Most of the economically important citrus cultivars have originated from bud mutations. Leaf shape and structure are important factors that impact plant photosynthesis. We found a spontaneous bud mutant exhibiting a narrow leaf phenotype in navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck]. To identify and characterize the genes involved in the formation of this trait, we performed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and macroarray analysis. A total of 221 non-redundant differentially expressed transcripts were obtained. These transcripts included cell wall- and microtubule-related genes and two transcription factor-encoding genes, yabby and wox, which are crucial for leaf morphogenesis. Many highly redundant transcripts were associated with stress responses, while others, encoding caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) and a myb-like transcription factor, might be involved in the lignin pathway, which produces a component of secondary walls. Furthermore, real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed for selected genes to validate the quality of the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the SSH libraries. This study represents an attempt to investigate the molecular mechanism associated with a leaf shape mutation, and its results provide new clues for understanding leaf shape mutations in citrus.

  3. Isolation, characterization and molecular cloning of a leaf-specific lectin from ramsons (Allium ursinum L.).

    PubMed

    Smeets, K; Van Damme, E J; Van Leuven, F; Peumans, W J

    1997-11-01

    Lectins were isolated from roots and leaves of ramsons and compared to the previously described bulb lectins. Biochemical analyses indicated that the root lectins AUAIr and AUAIIr are identical to the bulb lectins AUAI and AUAII, whereas the leaf lectin AUAL has no counterpart in the bulbs. cDNA cloning confirmed that the leaf lectin differs from the bulb lectins. Northern blot analysis further indicated that the leaf lectin is tissue-specifically expressed. Sequence comparisons revealed that the ramsons leaf lectin differs considerably from the leaf lectins of garlic, leek, onion and shallot.

  4. Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-07-01

    During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding.

  5. Tsg101 and the vacuolar protein sorting pathway are essential for HIV-1 budding.

    PubMed

    Garrus, J E; von Schwedler, U K; Pornillos, O W; Morham, S G; Zavitz, K H; Wang, H E; Wettstein, D A; Stray, K M; Côté, M; Rich, R L; Myszka, D G; Sundquist, W I

    2001-10-05

    Like other enveloped viruses, HIV-1 uses cellular machinery to bud from infected cells. We now show that Tsg101 protein, which functions in vacuolar protein sorting (Vps), is required for HIV-1 budding. The UEV domain of Tsg101 binds to an essential tetrapeptide (PTAP) motif within the p6 domain of the structural Gag protein and also to ubiquitin. Depletion of cellular Tsg101 by small interfering RNA arrests HIV-1 budding at a late stage, and budding is rescued by reintroduction of Tsg101. Dominant negative mutant Vps4 proteins that inhibit vacuolar protein sorting also arrest HIV-1 and MLV budding. These observations suggest that retroviruses bud by appropriating cellular machinery normally used in the Vps pathway to form multivesicular bodies.

  6. Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-01-01

    During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding. PMID:25058275

  7. Effect of CO sub 2 enriched air on the kinetics of leaf expansion. [Pisum sativa; Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Vegetative plants of Pisum sativum (pea) and Glycine max (soybean) were transferred from 350 to 1,200 ppm CO{sub 2} when they had one (pea) or two (soybean) mature leaves and several developing leaves. Controls were kept at 350 ppm. For pea, high CO{sub 2} for 8 days increased dry mass of root, stem, and leaf fractions by 30-50%. Leaf dry mass increase was due primarily to carbohydrate, particularly starch. Dawn levels of starch increased 10-fold within 1 day at high CO{sub 2} and 20-fold at 2 days. At 2 days after transfer leaf starch levels were 1.0 mg cm{sup {minus}2} of leaf area or nearly 30% of leaf dry weight. Soybean data are less complete, but 10 days at high CO{sub 2} increased leaf + stem dry mass by 50% and leaf weight per unit area increased by 14 and 48% at dawn within 1 and 2 days, respectively, at high CO{sub 2}. However 8-10 days at high CO{sub 2} increased total leaf area only slightly (about 15%) for both species, with all the leaf area increase occurring at nodes that were nearly microscopic at the time of transfer. For soybean, most of the increased leaf area due to high CO{sub 2} was from lateral bud break despite a high CO{sub 2} did not stimulated more leaves per plant. Apparently, extra photosynthate had a delayed effect on leaf expansion and did not increase nodes along the main axis. Leaf expansion under high CO{sub 2} was not limited by photosynthate.

  8. Comparative leaf development in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2014-02-01

    Recent accumulation of our knowledge on basic leaf development mechanisms in model angiosperm species has allowed us to pursue evolutionary development (evo/devo) studies of various kinds of leaf development. As a result, unexpected findings and clues have been unearthed aiding our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the diversity of leaf morphology, although the covered remain limited. In this review, we highlight recent findings of diversified leaf development in angiosperms.

  9. Bacterial leaf spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

  10. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  11. Comparison of chemoreceptions of terminal buds and pit organs of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Marui, T; Funakoshi, M

    1980-07-14

    Neural responses to several chemicals of the pit organs and terminal buds on the facial skin of the carp were compared electrophysiologically. Nerve inpulses from the pit organs were larger than those from the terminal buds. The pit organs were more sensitive to salts and especially acids than the terminal buds. The former did not respond to sucrose, silk worm pupa extract, betaine and amino acids except acidic ones. The latter, however, responded well to them.

  12. Identification of budding yeast using a fiber-optic imaging bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschwanez, John; Holl, Mark; Marquardt, Brian; Dragavon, Joe; Burgess, Lloyd; Meldrum, Deirdre

    2004-05-01

    A successful imaging system has been designed and built for yeast pedigree analysis. The system uses a fiber-optic imaging bundle to recognize single yeast cells. Image processing software has been developed to accurately classify the cells as either budding or not budding a daughter cell. This system is intended to replace the body of a microscope for the detection of budding in a microfluidic system.

  13. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar. PMID:25873679

  14. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida.

    PubMed

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-05-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar.

  15. Spaceflight enhances cell aggregation and random budding in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Crabbé, Aurélie; Nielsen-Preiss, Sheila M; Woolley, Christine M; Barrila, Jennifer; Buchanan, Kent; McCracken, James; Inglis, Diane O; Searles, Stephen C; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A; Ott, C Mark; Wilson, James W; Pierson, Duane L; Stefanyshyn-Piper, Heidemarie M; Hyman, Linda E; Nickerson, Cheryl A

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground controls, which represented 8.3% of the analyzed ORFs. Spaceflight-cultured C. albicans-induced genes involved in cell aggregation (similar to flocculation), which was validated by microscopic and flow cytometry analysis. We also observed enhanced random budding of spaceflight-cultured cells as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples, in accordance with the gene expression data. Furthermore, genes involved in antifungal agent and stress resistance were differentially regulated in spaceflight, including induction of ABC transporters and members of the major facilitator family, downregulation of ergosterol-encoding genes, and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Finally, downregulation of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton was observed. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator Cap1 and over 30% of the Cap1 regulon was differentially expressed in spaceflight-cultured C. albicans. A potential role for Cap1 in the spaceflight response of C. albicans is suggested, as this regulator is involved in random budding, cell aggregation, and oxidative stress resistance; all related to observed spaceflight-associated changes of C. albicans. While culture of C. albicans in microgravity potentiates a global change in gene expression that could induce a virulence-related phenotype, no increased virulence in a murine intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection model was observed under the conditions of this study. Collectively, our data represent an important basis for the assessment of the risk that commensal flora could play during human spaceflight missions. Furthermore, since the low fluid

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) leaf explants.

    PubMed

    Petri, César; Wang, Hong; Alburquerque, Nuria; Faize, Mohamed; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2008-08-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation for scored, whole leaf explants of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) cultivar Helena was developed. Regenerated shoots were selected using a two-step increased concentrations of paromomycin sulphate. Different factors affecting survival of transformed buds, including possible toxicity of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and time of exposure to high cytokine concentration in the regeneration medium, were examined. Transformation efficiency, based on PCR analysis of individual putative transformed shoots from independent lines was 5.6%, when optimal conditions for bud survival were provided. Southern blot analysis on four randomly chosen PCR-positive shoots confirmed the presence of the nptII transgene. This is the first time that stable transformation of an apricot cultivar is reported and constitutes also one of the few reports on the transformation of Prunus cultivars.

  17. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming. PMID:25566281

  18. γ-Lactam alkaloids from the flower buds of daylily.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Ohta, Tomoe; Yano, Mamiko; Tsujihata, Junichiro; Tsukioka, Junko; Ogawa, Keiko; Fukaya, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Four new alkaloids, hemerocallisamines IV-VII, were isolated from the methanol extract of flower buds of daylily. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The absolute stereochemistry of the hemerocallisamines IV-VI was elucidated by the application of the modified Mosher's method, HPLC analysis, and optical rotation. In the present study, the isolated alkaloids significantly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ42 in vitro. This is the first report about bioactive alkaloids with a γ-lactam ring from daylily. In addition, isolated nucleosides showed accelerative effects on neurite outgrowth under the non-fasting condition.

  19. [Iridoid glycosides from buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Yin, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yu-cui; Li, Hong-bo

    2011-10-01

    The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  20. Analysis of Assembly and Budding of Lujo Virus

    PubMed Central

    Urata, Shuzo; Weyer, Jacqueline; Storm, Nadia; Miyazaki, Yukiko; van Vuren, Petrus Jansen; Paweska, Janusz Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    The recently identified arenavirus Lujo virus (LUJV) causes fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. We analyzed its mechanism of viral release driven by matrix protein Z and the cell surface glycoprotein precursor GPC. The L domains in Z are required for efficient virus-like particle release, but Tsg101, ALIX/AIP1, and Vps4A/B are unnecessary for budding. LUJV GPC is cleaved by site 1 protease (S1P) at the RKLM motif, and treatment with the S1P inhibitor PF-429242 reduced LUJV production. PMID:26719243

  1. Sociopolitical Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane, Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains four articles devoted to the topic of "Sociopolitical Analyses." In "An Interview with Peter L. McLaren," Mary Leach presented the views of Peter L. McLaren on topics of local and national discourses, values, and the politics of difference. Landon E.…

  2. Bud protection: a key trait for species sorting in a forest-savanna mosaic.

    PubMed

    Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Beckett, Heath; Midgley, Guy F; Bond, William J

    2015-09-01

    Contrasting fire regimes maintain patch mosaics of savanna, thicket and forest biomes in many African subtropical landscapes. Species dominating each biome are thus expected to display distinct fire-related traits, commonly thought to be bark related. Recent Australian savanna research suggests that bud position, not bark protection alone, determines fire resilience via resprouting. We tested first how bud position influences resprouting ability in 17 tree species. We then compared the effect of both bark-related protection and bud position on the distribution of 63 tree species in 253 transects in all three biomes. Tree species with buds positioned deep under bark had a higher proportion of post-fire aboveground shoot resprouting. Species with low bud protection occurred in fire-prone biomes only if they could root-sucker. The effect of bud protection was supported by a good relationship between species bud protection and distribution across a gradient of fire frequency. Bud protection and high bark production are required to survive frequent fires in savanna. Forests are fire refugia hosting species with little or no bud protection and thin bark. Root-suckering species occur in the three biomes, suggesting that fire is not the only factor filtering this functional type.

  3. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development

    PubMed Central

    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary inductive signal for taste placode formation, followed by taste papilla morphogenesis and taste bud differentiation, but the degree to which these later elements were direct or indirect consequences of β-catenin signaling was not explored. Here, we define discrete spatiotemporal functions of β-catenin in fungiform taste bud development. Specifically, we show that early epithelial activation of β-catenin, before taste placodes form, diverts lingual epithelial cells from a taste bud fate. By contrast, β-catenin activation a day later within Shh+ placodes, expands taste bud precursors directly, but enlarges papillae indirectly. Further, placodal activation of β-catenin drives precocious differentiation of Type I glial-like taste cells, but not other taste cell types. Later activation of β-catenin within Shh+ precursors during papilla morphogenesis also expands taste bud precursors and accelerates Type I cell differentiation, but papilla size is no longer enhanced. Finally, although Shh regulates taste placode patterning, we find that it is dispensable for the accelerated Type I cell differentiation induced by β-catenin. PMID:26525674

  4. The Race against Protease Activation Defines the Role of ESCRTs in HIV Budding

    PubMed Central

    Bendjennat, Mourad; Saffarian, Saveez

    2016-01-01

    HIV virions assemble on the plasma membrane and bud out of infected cells using interactions with endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). HIV protease activation is essential for maturation and infectivity of progeny virions, however, the precise timing of protease activation and its relationship to budding has not been well defined. We show that compromised interactions with ESCRTs result in delayed budding of virions from host cells. Specifically, we show that Gag mutants with compromised interactions with ALIX and Tsg101, two early ESCRT factors, have an average budding delay of ~75 minutes and ~10 hours, respectively. Virions with inactive proteases incorporated the full Gag-Pol and had ~60 minutes delay in budding. We demonstrate that during budding delay, activated proteases release critical HIV enzymes back to host cytosol leading to production of non-infectious progeny virions. To explain the molecular mechanism of the observed budding delay, we modulated the Pol size artificially and show that virion release delays are size-dependent and also show size-dependency in requirements for Tsg101 and ALIX. We highlight the sensitivity of HIV to budding “on-time” and suggest that budding delay is a potent mechanism for inhibition of infectious retroviral release. PMID:27280284

  5. Effects of Lantana camara leaf extract on the activity of superoxide dismutase and accumulation of H2O2 in water hyacinth leaf.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui-Qiong; Wei, Ning; Wang, Liu-Fa; He, Ping

    2006-04-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the most productive plants, but is also a troublesome weed in the world. In order to protect the public water system from chemical herbicides pollution, biological method has been suggested to control the growth and the reproduction of this weed. Lantana (Lantana camara L.) is an important weed of the family Verbenaceae and its leaf extract is highly toxic to water hyacinth. The results of this study showed that the extract of lantana leaves suppressed the emergence of leaf buds of water hyacinth plant, and caused the decay of its leaves by foliar spraying. In addition, the increase of SOD activity in water hyacinth leaves was in accordance with the accumulation of H(2)O(2) and the increase in degree of membrane peroxidation, while the activity of catalase, which might remove the excessive H(2)O(2) in water hyacinth leaves, was inhibited by treatment with lantana extract. At tissue level, high H(2)O(2) histochemical labeling was detected in guard cells after treatment with lantana extract. This overproduction of H(2)O(2) could kill the leaf cells and cause leaf necrosis in the treated plant. Therefore, the high toxicity of lantana leaf extract to water hyacinth might be due to oxidative stress.

  6. Aip3p/Bud6p, a yeast actin-interacting protein that is involved in morphogenesis and the selection of bipolar budding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Amberg, D C; Zahner, J E; Mulholland, J W; Pringle, J R; Botstein, D

    1997-01-01

    A search for Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins that interact with actin in the two-hybrid system and a screen for mutants that affect the bipolar budding pattern identified the same gene, AIP3/BUD6. This gene is not essential for mitotic growth but is necessary for normal morphogenesis. MATa/alpha daughter cells lacking Aip3p place their first buds normally at their distal poles but choose random sites for budding in subsequent cell cycles. This suggests that actin and associated proteins are involved in placing the bipolar positional marker at the division site but not at the distal tip of the daughter cell. In addition, although aip3 mutant cells are not obviously defective in the initial polarization of the cytoskeleton at the time of bud emergence, they appear to lose cytoskeletal polarity as the bud enlarges, resulting in the formation of cells that are larger and rounder than normal. aip3 mutant cells also show inefficient nuclear migration and nuclear division, defects in the organization of the secretory system, and abnormal septation, all defects that presumably reflect the involvement of Aip3p in the organization and/or function of the actin cytoskeleton. The sequence of Aip3p is novel but contains a predicted coiled-coil domain near its C terminus that may mediate the observed homo-oligomerization of the protein. Aip3p shows a distinctive localization pattern that correlates well with its likely sites of action: it appears at the presumptive bud site prior to bud emergence, remains near the tips of small bund, and forms a ring (or pair of rings) in the mother-bud neck that is detectable early in the cell cycle but becomes more prominent prior to cytokinesis. Surprisingly, the localization of Aip3p does not appear to require either polarized actin or the septin proteins of the neck filaments. Images PMID:9247651

  7. Potato leaf explants as a spaceflight plant test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of explant tissues or organs may circumvent limitations facing whole-plant experimentation during spaceflight. In the case of potato, a crop currently being studied for application to bioregenerative life support systems, excised leaves and their subtended axillary buds can be used to test a variety of stem growth and development phases ranging from tubers through stolons (horizontal stems) to upright leafy shoots. The leaves can be fit well into small-volume test packages and sustained under relatively low irradiance levels using light-weight growing media. Tubers formed on potato leaf cuttings can yield up from 0.5 to 1.0 g fresh mass 10 days after excision and up to 2.0 g or more, 14 days from excision.

  8. Systematic identification of cell size regulators in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Soifer, Ilya; Barkai, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Cell size is determined by a complex interplay between growth and division, involving multiple cellular pathways. To identify systematically processes affecting size control in G1 in budding yeast, we imaged and analyzed the cell cycle of millions of individual cells representing 591 mutants implicated in size control. Quantitative metric distinguished mutants affecting the mechanism of size control from the majority of mutants that have a perturbed size due to indirect effects modulating cell growth. Overall, we identified 17 negative and dozens positive size control regulators, with the negative regulators forming a small network centered on elements of mitotic exit network. Some elements of the translation machinery affected size control with a notable distinction between the deletions of parts of small and large ribosomal subunit: parts of small ribosomal subunit tended to regulate size control, while parts of the large subunit affected cell growth. Analysis of small cells revealed additional size control mechanism that functions in G2/M, complementing the primary size control in G1. Our study provides new insights about size control mechanisms in budding yeast. PMID:25411401

  9. Budding Yeast: An Ideal Backdrop for In vivo Lipid Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pushpendra

    2016-01-01

    Biological membranes are non-covalent assembly of lipids and proteins. Lipids play critical role in determining membrane physical properties and regulate the function of membrane associated proteins. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers an exceptional advantage to understand the lipid-protein interactions since lipid metabolism and homeostasis are relatively simple and well characterized as compared to other eukaryotes. In addition, a vast array of genetic and cell biological tools are available to determine and understand the role of a particular lipid in various lipid metabolic disorders. Budding yeast has been instrumental in delineating mechanisms related to lipid metabolism, trafficking and their localization in different subcellular compartments at various cell cycle stages. Further, availability of tools and enormous potential for the development of useful reagents and novel technologies to localize a particular lipid in different subcellular compartments in yeast makes it a formidable system to carry out lipid biology. Taken together, yeast provides an outstanding backdrop to characterize lipid metabolic changes under various physiological conditions.

  10. Budding Yeast: An Ideal Backdrop for In vivo Lipid Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pushpendra

    2017-01-01

    Biological membranes are non-covalent assembly of lipids and proteins. Lipids play critical role in determining membrane physical properties and regulate the function of membrane associated proteins. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers an exceptional advantage to understand the lipid-protein interactions since lipid metabolism and homeostasis are relatively simple and well characterized as compared to other eukaryotes. In addition, a vast array of genetic and cell biological tools are available to determine and understand the role of a particular lipid in various lipid metabolic disorders. Budding yeast has been instrumental in delineating mechanisms related to lipid metabolism, trafficking and their localization in different subcellular compartments at various cell cycle stages. Further, availability of tools and enormous potential for the development of useful reagents and novel technologies to localize a particular lipid in different subcellular compartments in yeast makes it a formidable system to carry out lipid biology. Taken together, yeast provides an outstanding backdrop to characterize lipid metabolic changes under various physiological conditions. PMID:28119915

  11. Replication-Associated Recombinational Repair: Lessons from Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Jaclyn N.; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Recombinational repair processes multiple types of DNA lesions. Though best understood in the repair of DNA breaks, recombinational repair is intimately linked to other situations encountered during replication. As DNA strands are decorated with many types of blocks that impede the replication machinery, a great number of genomic regions cannot be duplicated without the help of recombinational repair. This replication-associated recombinational repair employs both the core recombination proteins used for DNA break repair and the specialized factors that couple replication with repair. Studies from multiple organisms have provided insights into the roles of these specialized factors, with the findings in budding yeast being advanced through use of powerful genetics and methods for detecting DNA replication and repair intermediates. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in this organism, ranging from our understanding of the classical template switch mechanisms to gap filling and replication fork regression pathways. As many of the protein factors and biological principles uncovered in budding yeast are conserved in higher eukaryotes, these findings are crucial for stimulating studies in more complex organisms. PMID:27548223

  12. Rapid measurement of the three-dimensional distribution of leaf orientation and the leaf angle probability density function using terrestrial LiDAR scanning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf orientation plays a fundamental role in many transport processes in plant canopies. At the plant or stand level, leaf orientation is often highly anisotropic and heterogeneous, yet most analyses neglect such complexity. In many cases, this is due to the difficulty in measuring the spatial varia...

  13. BudBurst Buddies: Introducing Young Citizen Scientists to Plants and Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Gardiner, L. S.; Henderson, S.

    2011-12-01

    As part of Project BudBurst, the BudBurst Buddies recently moved to the National Ecological Network (NEON) as part of its Education and Public Engagement efforts. The BudBurst Buddies (www.budburstbuddies.org) were created to engage elementary school age children in the science of observing plants and the timing of phenological (life cycle) events. BudBurst Buddies is a part of the Project BudBurst national citizen science initiative (www.budburst.org), which allows individuals to engage in the scientific process, contributing to a better understanding of climate change while increasing public awareness of phenology and the impacts of climate change on plants. As a first step towards engaging the next generation of citizen scientists, BudBurst Buddies provides the opportunity for children to gain experience with scientific research and increases awareness of how plants change throughout the year. Hundreds of young students have participated in the inaugural year of BudBurst Buddies. Children can participate in BudBurst Buddies on their own, with their families, or in formal or informal education settings. The program was recently highlighted by education staff at the New York Hall of Science and numerous classrooms have been implementing this resource as part of their curriculum. Each child who participates creates a journal about a plant of his or her choosing, makes observations of the plant over the growing season and submits findings online, earning an official BudBurst Buddies certificate. An online storybook for kids tells how two children, Lily and Sage, observed plants in their neighborhood and became BudBurst Buddies. This presentation will provide an overview of the BudBurst Buddies resources including a new implementation guide and will also share feedback from the first year of implementation.

  14. GATA6 Is a Crucial Regulator of Shh in the Limb Bud

    PubMed Central

    Kozhemyakina, Elena; Ionescu, Andreia; Lassar, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    In the limb bud, patterning along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is controlled by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a signaling molecule secreted by the “Zone of Polarizing Activity”, an organizer tissue located in the posterior margin of the limb bud. We have found that the transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6, which are key regulators of cell identity, are expressed in an anterior to posterior gradient in the early limb bud, raising the possibility that GATA transcription factors may play an additional role in patterning this tissue. While both GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in an A-P gradient in the forelimb buds, the hindlimb buds principally express GATA6 in an A-P gradient. Thus, to specifically examine the role of GATA6 in limb patterning we generated Prx1-Cre; GATA6fl/fl mice, which conditionally delete GATA6 from their developing limb buds. We found that these animals display ectopic expression of both Shh and its transcriptional targets specifically in the anterior mesenchyme of the hindlimb buds. Loss of GATA6 in the developing limbs results in the formation of preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs. Conversely, forced expression of GATA6 throughout the limb bud represses expression of Shh and results in hypomorphic limbs. We have found that GATA6 can bind to chromatin (isolated from limb buds) encoding either Shh or Gli1 regulatory elements that drive expression of these genes in this tissue, and demonstrated that GATA6 works synergistically with FOG co-factors to repress expression of luciferase reporters driven by these sequences. Most significantly, we have found that conditional loss of Shh in limb buds lacking GATA6 prevents development of hindlimb polydactyly in these compound mutant embryos, indicating that GATA6 expression in the anterior region of the limb bud blocks hindlimb polydactyly by repressing ectopic expression of Shh. PMID:24415953

  15. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  16. Photosynthesis in developing leaf of juveniles and adults of three Mediterranean species with different growth forms.

    PubMed

    Chondrogiannis, Christos; Grammatikopoulos, George

    2016-12-01

    Leaf development is influenced by almost all the prevailing environmental conditions as well as from the conditions at the time of bud formation. Furthermore, the growth form of a plant determines the leaf longevity and subsequently the investment in biomass and the internal structure of the mesophyll. Therefore, photosynthetic traits of a growing leaf, though, partly predetermined, should also acclimate to temporal changes during developmental period. In addition, the age of the plant can affect photosynthesis of the growing leaf, yet, in the majority of studies, the age is associated to the size of the plant. To test if the reproductive status of the plant affects the time kinetics of the photosynthetic capacity of a growing leaf and the relative contribution of the plants' growth form to the whole procedure, field measurements were conducted in juveniles (prereproductive individuals) and adults (fully reproductive individuals) of an evergreen sclerophyllous shrub (Nerium oleander), a semi-deciduous dimorphic shrub (Phlomis fruticosa), and a winter deciduous tree with pre-leafing flowering (Cercis siliquastrum). PSII structural and functional integrity was progressively developed in all species, but already completed, only some days after leaf expansion in P. fruticosa. Developing leaf as well as fully developed leaf in adults of C. siliquastrum showed enhanced relative size of the pool of final PSI electron acceptors. Photosynthetic traits between juveniles and adults of P. fruticosa were similar, though the matured leaf of adults exhibited lower transpiration rates and improved water-use efficiency than that of juveniles. Adults of the evergreen shrub attained higher CO2 assimilation rate than juveniles in matured leaf which can be attributed to higher electron flow devoted to carboxylation, and lower photorespiration rate. The reproductive phase of the plant seemed to be involved in modifications of the PSII and PSI functions of the deciduous tree, in

  17. Characterizing and marker-assisting a novel chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yellow bud mutant with cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Sun, G S; Dai, Z L; Bosland, P W; Wang, Q; Sun, C Q; Zhang, Z C; Ma, Z H

    2017-02-23

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in pepper is a better way to produce hybrid seeds compared to manual production. We used the two sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers (CRF-SCAR and CMS-SCAR130) in CMS pepper, to identify the genotype. We assembled two CMS yellow bud mutants (YBM; YBM12-A and YBM12-B). This mutation in leaf color is controlled by a single dominant nuclear gene. The aim was to create a new hybrid seed production method that reduces the costs and increases F1 hybrid seed purity. The results suggest that the CRF-SCAR and CMS-SCAR130 markers can be used together in multiple generations to screen for restorer or maintainer genes. We found the marker linked to the restorer gene (Rf) in the C-line and F1 hybrids, as well as partially in the F2 generation, whereas it was not found in the sterile YBM12-A or the maintainer line YBM12-B. In the F2 population, sterility and fertility segregated at a 3:1 ratio based on the CRF-SCAR marker. A 130 bp fragment was produced in the YBM12-A, F1, and F2 populations, suggesting that these lines contained sterile cytoplasm. A 140 bp fragment present in the YBM12-B and C-line indicated that these lines contained normal cytoplasm. In addition, we identified some morphological characters distinguishing sterile and fertile buds and flowers that may be linked to the sterility gene. If more restorer lines are identified, CMS expressing the YBM trait can be used in hybrid seed production.

  18. Development and growth of primordial shoots in Norway spruce buds before visible bud burst in relation to time and temperature in the field.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, Sirkka; Partanen, Jouni; Viherä-Aarnio, Anneli; Häkkinen, Risto

    2012-08-01

    The timing of bud development in ecodormancy is critical for trees in boreal and temperate regions with seasonally alternating climates. The development of vegetative buds and the growth of primordial shoots (the primordial shoot ratio) in Norway spruce were followed by the naked eye and at stereo and light microscopic levels in fresh-cut and fixed buds obtained by regular field samplings during the spring of 2007, 2008 and 2009. Buds were collected from 15 randomly selected trees (all 16 years old in 2007) of one southern Finnish half-sib family. The air temperature was recorded hourly throughout the observation period. In 2008 and 2009, initial events in the buds, seen as accumulation of lipid droplets in the cortex area, started in mid-March and were depleted in late April, simultaneously with the early development of vascular tissue and primordial needles. In mid-April 2007, however, the development of the buds was at least 10 days ahead as a result of warm spells in March and early April. Variation in the timing of different developmental phases within and among the sample trees was negligible. There was no clear one-to-one correspondence between the externally visible and the internal development of the buds. The dependence of the primordial shoot ratio on different types of temperature sum was studied by means of regression analysis. High coefficients of determination (R(2) ≈ 95%) were attained with several combinations of the starting time (beginning of the year/vernal equinox), the threshold value (from -3 to +5 °C), and the time step (hour/day) used in the temperature summation, i.e., the prediction power of the primordial shoot ratio models turned out to be high, but the parameter estimate values were not unambiguous. According to our results, temperature sums describe the growth of the primordial shoot inside the bud before bud burst. Thus, the results provide a realistic interpretation for the present phenological models of bud development that

  19. Have NEC Coat, Will Travel: Structural Basis of Membrane Budding During Nuclear Egress in Herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Bigalke, J M; Heldwein, E E

    2017-01-01

    Herpesviruses are unusual among enveloped viruses because they bud twice yet acquire a single envelope. Furthermore, unlike other DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus, herpesviruses do not exit it by passing through the nuclear pores or by rupturing the nuclear envelope. Instead, herpesviruses have a complex mechanism of nuclear escape whereby nascent capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol. This makes them some of the very few known viruses that bud into the nuclear envelope. The envelope acquired during nuclear budding does not end up in the mature viral particle but instead allows the capsid to translocate from the nucleus into the cytosol. The viral nuclear egress complex (NEC) is a critical player in the nuclear egress, yet its function and mechanism have remained enigmatic. Recent studies have demonstrated that the NEC buds membranes without the help of other proteins by forming a honeycomb coat, which established the NEC as the first virally encoded budding machine that operates at the nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, membrane. This review discusses our current understanding of the NEC budding mechanism, with the emphasis on studies that illuminated the structure of the NEC coat and its role in capsid budding during herpesvirus nuclear escape.

  20. Symplastic connection is required for bud outgrowth following dormancy in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Viola, Roberto; Pelloux, Jérôme; van der Ploeg, Anke; Gillespie, Trudi; Marquis, Nicola; Roberts, Alison G; Hancock, Robert D

    2007-08-01

    To gain greater insight into the mechanism of dormancy release in the potato tuber, an investigation into physiological and biochemical changes in tuber and bud tissues during the transition from bud dormancy (immediately after harvest) to active bud growth was undertaken. Within the tuber, a rapid shift from storage metabolism (starch synthesis) to reserve mobilization within days of detachment from the mother plant suggested transition from sink to source. Over the same period, a shift in the pattern of [U-(14)C]sucrose uptake by tuber discs from diffuse to punctate accumulation was consistent with a transition from phloem unloading to phloem loading within the tuber parenchyma. There were no gross differences in metabolic capacity between resting and actively growing tuber buds as determined by [U-(14)C]glucose labelling. However, marked differences in metabolite pools were observed with large increases in starch and sucrose, and the accumulation of several organic acids in growing buds. Carboxyfluorescein labelling of tubers clearly demonstrated strong symplastic connection in actively growing buds and symplastic isolation in resting buds. It is proposed that potato tubers rapidly undergo metabolic transitions consistent with bud outgrowth; however, growth is initially prevented by substrate limitation mediated via symplastic isolation.

  1. Colonization of Dormant Walnut Buds by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis Is Predictive of Subsequent Disease.

    PubMed

    Lindow, Steven; Olson, William; Buchner, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The potential role of walnut buds as a driver of walnut blight disease, caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis, was addressed by quantifying its temporal dynamics in a large number of orchards in California. The abundance of X. arboricola pv. juglandis on individual dormant and developing buds and shoots of walnut trees varied by >10(6)-fold at any sample time and within a given tree. X. arboricola pv. juglandis population size in shoots was often no larger than that in the buds from which the shoots were derived but was strongly correlated with prior pathogen population sizes in buds. X. arboricola pv. juglandis populations on developing nuts were strongly related to that on the shoots on which they were borne. The incidence of disease of nuts in June was strongly correlated with the logarithm of the population size of X. arboricola pv. juglandis in dormant buds in March. Inoculum efficiency, the slope of this linear relationship, varied between years but was strongly related to the number of rain events following bud break in each year. Thus, inoculum of X. arboricola pv. juglandis present on dormant buds is the primary determinant of nut infections and the risk of disease can be predicted from both the numbers of X. arboricola pv. juglandis in buds and the incidence of early spring rain.

  2. 48 CFR 1419.202-70 - Acquisition screening and BUDS recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BUDS recommendations. 1419.202-70 Section 1419.202-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... screening and BUDS recommendations. (a) For open market acquisitions estimated to exceed the SAT, the DI... document the rationale for not accepting a SBS recommendation on DI Form 1886, under “Notes.” (See FAR...

  3. 48 CFR 1419.202-70 - Acquisition screening and BUDS recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BUDS recommendations. 1419.202-70 Section 1419.202-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... screening and BUDS recommendations. (a) For open market acquisitions estimated to exceed the SAT, the DI... document the rationale for not accepting a SBS recommendation on DI Form 1886, under “Notes.” (See FAR...

  4. 48 CFR 1419.202-70 - Acquisition screening and BUDS recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BUDS recommendations. 1419.202-70 Section 1419.202-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... screening and BUDS recommendations. (a) For open market acquisitions estimated to exceed the SAT, the DI... document the rationale for not accepting a SBS recommendation on DI Form 1886, under “Notes.” (See FAR...

  5. Proteomic study of 'Moncada' mandarin buds from on- versus off-crop trees.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Mesejo, Carlos; Reig, Carmina; Agustí, Manuel; Tárraga, Susana; Lisón, Purificación; Iglesias, Domingo J; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; González-Mas, M Carmen

    2013-12-01

    A proteomic analysis of buds from mandarin trees with contrasting fruit load (on- and off-crop trees) was carried out during the onset of low-temperature induction. The aim of the study was to find out more about the molecular mechanism relating to alternate bearing in Citrus and its relationship with flowering. The 'Moncada' variety (Clementine 'Oroval'x'Kara' mandarin), displaying remarkable behaviour in alternate production, was used in this study. From 2D DIGE gel, 192 spots were isolated: 97 showed increased expression in the off-crop buds as compared to the on-crop buds, while 95 exhibited enhanced expression in the on-crop buds versus the off-crop buds. These spots were identified by MALDI-MS or LC-MS-MS. The largest groups of proteins up-expressed in the off-crop buds were the proteins involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the proteins expressed in response to stimuli such as reactive oxygen species. The largest groups of proteins up-expressed in the on-crop buds were related to primary metabolism, oxidative stress and defence responses. Depending on their function, some of these proteins can stimulate the flowering, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase or leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase, while others can inhibit it, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit II. Twenty-two other proteins with unknown functions were up-expressed in the on- or off-crop buds.

  6. Differential expression of carbohydrate metabolism genes during bud dormancy changes in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy, throughout the year. In this study, relationships between carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined and real-time PCR was used to determine if shifts in carbohydra...

  7. Differential Expression of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes Associated with Bud Dormancy Changes in Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy, throughout the year. In this study, relationships between carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined and real-time PCR was used to determine if shifts in carbohydra...

  8. Key stages in mammary gland development: the mammary end bud as a motile organ.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Lindsay; Silberstein, Gary B

    2005-01-01

    In the rodent, epithelial end buds define the tips of elongating mammary ducts. These highly motile structures undergo repeated dichotomous branching as they aggressively advance through fatty stroma and, turning to avoid other ducts, they finally cease growth leaving behind the open, tree-like framework on which secretory alveoli develop during pregnancy. This review identifies the motility of end buds as a unique developmental marker that represents the successful integration of systemic and local mammotrophic influences, and covers relevant advances in ductal growth regulation, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, and cell adhesion in the inner end bud. An unexpected growth-promoting synergy between insulin-like growth factor-1 and progesterone, in which ducts elongate without forming new end buds, is described as well as evidence strongly supporting self-inhibition of ductal elongation by end-bud-secreted transforming growth factor-beta acting on stromal targets. The influence of the matrix metalloproteinase ECM-remodeling enzymes, notably matrix metalloproteinase-2, on end bud growth is discussed in the broader context of enzymes that regulate the polysaccharide-rich glycosaminoglycan elements of the ECM. Finally, a critical, motility-enabling role for the cellular architecture of the end bud is identified and the contribution of cadherins, the netrin/neogenin system, and ErbB2 to the structure and motility of end buds is discussed.

  9. New technique for more rapid cryopreservation of dormant vegetative tree buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation of dormant buds of temperate trees in liquid nitrogen can provide a safe backup of field germplasm collections. However the process requires several months of preparation before buds can be cryopreserved. Cryopreservation at the natural moisture content (MC) would greatly accelerate...

  10. Size Does Matter: Staging of Silene latifolia Floral Buds for Transcriptome Studies

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Su San; Perlin, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Dioecious plants in the Caryophyllaceae family are susceptible to infection by members of the anthericolous smut fungi. In our studies of the Silene latifolia/Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae pathosystem, we were interested in characterizing the plant-pathogen interaction at the molecular level before and during teliosporogenesis. This takes place during floral bud development, and we hoped to capture the interaction by Illumina Next-Gen RNA-Sequencing. Using previous literature that documented the stages of the floral buds for S. latifolia, we examined the floral buds from plants grown and infected under growth chamber conditions, using the disserting microscope to determine the stage of floral buds based on the morphology. We compiled the information and determined the size of floral buds that correspond to the desired stages of development for tissue collection, for the purpose of RNA-sequencing. This offers a practical approach for researchers who require a large number of floral buds/tissue categorized by stages of development, ascertaining whether infected/uninfected buds are at comparable stages of development and whether this also holds true for male vs. female buds. We also document our experience in infecting the plants and some of the unusual morphologies we observed after infection. PMID:26378529

  11. Generation of bioengineered feather buds on a reconstructed chick skin from dissociated epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    Various kinds of in vitro culture systems of tissues and organs have been developed, and applied to understand multicellular systems during embryonic organogenesis. In the research field of feather bud development, tissue recombination assays using an intact epithelial tissue and mesenchymal tissue/cells have contributed to our understanding the mechanisms of feather bud formation and development. However, there are few methods to generate a skin and its appendages from single cells of both epithelium and mesenchyme. In this study, we have developed a bioengineering method to reconstruct an embryonic dorsal skin after completely dissociating single epithelial and mesenchymal cells from chick skin. Multiple feather buds can form on the reconstructed skin in a single row in vitro. The bioengineered feather buds develop into long feather buds by transplantation onto a chorioallantoic membrane. The bioengineered bud sizes were similar to those of native embryo. The number of bioengineered buds was increased linearly with the initial contact length of epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers where the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions occur. In addition, the bioengineered bud formation was also disturbed by the inhibition of major signaling pathways including FGF (fibroblast growth factor), Wnt/β-catenin, Notch and BMP (bone morphogenetic protein). We expect that our bioengineering technique will motivate further extensive research on multicellular developmental systems, such as the formation and sizing of cutaneous appendages, and their regulatory mechanisms.

  12. Have NEC Coat, Will Travel: Structural Basis of Membrane Budding During Nuclear Egress in Herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Bigalke, J.M.; Heldwein, E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Herpesviruses are unusual among enveloped viruses because they bud twice yet acquire a single envelope. Furthermore, unlike other DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus, herpesviruses do not exit it by passing through the nuclear pores or by rupturing the nuclear envelope. Instead, herpesviruses have a complex mechanism of nuclear escape whereby nascent capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol. This makes them some of the very few known viruses that bud into the nuclear envelope. The envelope acquired during nuclear budding does not end up in the mature viral particle but instead allows the capsid to translocate from the nucleus into the cytosol. The viral nuclear egress complex (NEC) is a critical player in the nuclear egress, yet its function and mechanism have remained enigmatic. Recent studies have demonstrated that the NEC buds membranes without the help of other proteins by forming a honeycomb coat, which established the NEC as the first virally encoded budding machine that operates at the nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, membrane. This review discusses our current understanding of the NEC budding mechanism, with the emphasis on studies that illuminated the structure of the NEC coat and its role in capsid budding during herpesvirus nuclear escape. PMID:28057257

  13. Plant development controls leaf area expansion in alfalfa plants competing for light

    PubMed Central

    Baldissera, Tiago Celso; Frak, Ela; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar de Faccio; Louarn, Gaëtan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The growth of crops in a mixture is more variable and difficult to predict than that in pure stands. Light partitioning and crop leaf area expansion play prominent roles in explaining this variability. However, in many crops commonly grown in mixtures, including the forage species alfalfa, the sensitivity and relative importance of the physiological responses involved in the light modulation of leaf area expansion are still to be established. This study was designed to assess the relative sensitivity of primary shoot development, branching and individual leaf expansion in alfalfa in response to light availability. Methods Two experiments were carried out. The first studied isolated plants to assess the potential development of different shoot types and growth periods. The second consisted of manipulating the intensity of competition for light using a range of canopies in pure and mixed stands at two densities so as to evaluate the relative effects on shoot development, leaf growth, and plant and shoot demography. Key Results Shoot development in the absence of light competition was deterministic (constant phyllochrons of 32·5 °Cd and 48·2 °Cd for primary axes and branches, branching probability of 1, constant delay of 1·75 phyllochron before axillary bud burst) and identical irrespective of shoot type and growth/regrowth periods. During light competition experiments, changes in plant development explained most of the plant leaf area variations, with average leaf size contributing to a lesser extent. Branch development and the number of shoots per plant were the leaf area components most affected by light availability. Primary axis development and plant demography were only affected in situations of severe light competition. Conclusions Plant leaf area components differed with regard to their sensitivity to light competition. The potential shoot development model presented in this study could serve as a framework to integrate light responses

  14. Budding yeast dma proteins control septin dynamics and the spindle position checkpoint by promoting the recruitment of the Elm1 kinase to the bud neck.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Laura; Fraschini, Roberta; Boettcher, Barbara; Barral, Yves; Lucchini, Giovanna; Piatti, Simonetta

    2012-01-01

    The first step towards cytokinesis in budding yeast is the assembly of a septin ring at the future site of bud emergence. Integrity of this ring is crucial for cytokinesis, proper spindle positioning, and the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC). This checkpoint delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis as long as the anaphase spindle does not properly align with the division axis. SPOC signalling requires the Kin4 protein kinase and the Kin4-regulating Elm1 kinase, which also controls septin dynamics. Here, we show that the two redundant ubiquitin-ligases Dma1 and Dma2 control septin dynamics and the SPOC by promoting the efficient recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck. Indeed, dma1 dma2 mutant cells show reduced levels of Elm1 at the bud neck and Elm1-dependent activation of Kin4. Artificial recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck of the same cells is sufficient to re-establish a normal septin ring, proper spindle positioning, and a proficient SPOC response in dma1 dma2 cells. Altogether, our data indicate that septin dynamics and SPOC function are intimately linked and support the idea that integrity of the bud neck is crucial for SPOC signalling.

  15. Molecular toolbox for genetic manipulation of the stalked budding bacterium Hyphomonas neptunium.

    PubMed

    Jung, Alexandra; Eisheuer, Sabrina; Cserti, Emöke; Leicht, Oliver; Strobel, Wolfgang; Möll, Andrea; Schlimpert, Susan; Kühn, Juliane; Thanbichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The alphaproteobacterium Hyphomonas neptunium proliferates by a unique budding mechanism in which daughter cells emerge from the end of a stalk-like extension emanating from the mother cell body. Studies of this species so far have been hampered by the lack of a genetic system and of molecular tools allowing the regulated expression of target genes. Based on microarray analyses, this work identifies two H. neptunium promoters that are activated specifically by copper and zinc. Functional analyses show that they have low basal activity and a high dynamic range, meeting the requirements for use as a multipurpose expression system. To facilitate their application, the two promoters were incorporated into a set of integrative plasmids, featuring a choice of two different selection markers and various fluorescent protein genes. These constructs enable the straightforward generation and heavy metal-inducible synthesis of fluorescent protein fusions in H. neptunium, thereby opening the door to an in-depth analysis of polar growth and development in this species.

  16. Molecular Toolbox for Genetic Manipulation of the Stalked Budding Bacterium Hyphomonas neptunium

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Alexandra; Eisheuer, Sabrina; Cserti, Emöke; Leicht, Oliver; Strobel, Wolfgang; Möll, Andrea; Schlimpert, Susan; Kühn, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    The alphaproteobacterium Hyphomonas neptunium proliferates by a unique budding mechanism in which daughter cells emerge from the end of a stalk-like extension emanating from the mother cell body. Studies of this species so far have been hampered by the lack of a genetic system and of molecular tools allowing the regulated expression of target genes. Based on microarray analyses, this work identifies two H. neptunium promoters that are activated specifically by copper and zinc. Functional analyses show that they have low basal activity and a high dynamic range, meeting the requirements for use as a multipurpose expression system. To facilitate their application, the two promoters were incorporated into a set of integrative plasmids, featuring a choice of two different selection markers and various fluorescent protein genes. These constructs enable the straightforward generation and heavy metal-inducible synthesis of fluorescent protein fusions in H. neptunium, thereby opening the door to an in-depth analysis of polar growth and development in this species. PMID:25398860

  17. Glucosinolate composition of young shoots and flower buds of capers (Capparis species) growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Ozcan, Musa

    2002-12-04

    The content and glucosinolate composition of young shoots and raw flower buds of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens at three different sizes (x 13 mm) were investigated by HPLC with UV detection. Samples were harvested in August 2001 in Turkey. Twelve different glucosinolates were identified in the young shoots and buds of both species. Total content of glucosinolates ranged from 6.55 micromol/g (large buds of C. spinosa) to 45.56 micromol/g (young shoots of C. ovata). The main glucosinolate was glucocapperin, which amounted to approximately 90% of the total glucosinolates. In both species the total glucosinolate content varied in dependence on the bud size, whereas a greater variability was given for buds from C. spinosa.

  18. Influenza virus budding from the tips of cellular microvilli in differentiated human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, Larissa; Heck, Sonja; Matrosovich, Tatyana; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Becker, Stephan; Matrosovich, Mikhail

    2013-05-01

    The epithelium of conducting airways represents the main target for influenza virus in mammals. However, the peculiarities of virus interactions with differentiated airway epithelial cells remain largely unknown. Here, influenza virus budding was studied in differentiated cultures of human tracheobronchial epithelial cells using transmission electron microscopy. Budding of spherical and filamentous virions was observed on the apical surfaces of cells with no association with cilia and secretory granules. Quantitative analysis of the distribution of viral buds on the cell surface indicated that the tips of the microvilli represented a prominent site of influenza virus budding in the human airway epithelium. As the microvilli of differentiated cells are involved in many fundamental cell functions, these data will prompt further studies on the biological significance of microvilli-associated budding for virus replication, transmission and pathogenicity.

  19. Computational model of polarized actin cables and cytokinetic actin ring formation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haosu; Bidone, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast actin cables and contractile ring are important for polarized growth and division, revealing basic aspects of cytoskeletal function. To study these formin-nucleated structures, we built a 3D computational model with actin filaments represented as beads connected by springs. Polymerization by formins at the bud tip and bud neck, crosslinking, severing, and myosin pulling, are included. Parameter values were estimated from prior experiments. The model generates actin cable structures and dynamics similar to those of wild type and formin deletion mutant cells. Simulations with increased polymerization rate result in long, wavy cables. Simulated pulling by type V myosin stretches actin cables. Increasing the affinity of actin filaments for the bud neck together with reduced myosin V pulling promotes the formation of a bundle of antiparallel filaments at the bud neck, which we suggest as a model for the assembly of actin filaments to the contractile ring. PMID:26538307

  20. The ureteric bud epithelium: morphogenesis and roles in metanephric kidney patterning.

    PubMed

    Nagalakshmi, Vidya K; Yu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The mammalian metanephric kidney is composed of two epithelial components, the collecting duct system and the nephron epithelium, that differentiate from two different tissues -the ureteric bud epithelium and the nephron progenitors, respectively-of intermediate mesoderm origin. The collecting duct system is generated through reiterative ureteric bud branching morphogenesis, whereas the nephron epithelium is formed in a process termed nephrogenesis, which is initiated with the mesenchymal-epithelial transition of the nephron progenitors. Ureteric bud branching morphogenesis is regulated by nephron progenitors, and in return, the ureteric bud epithelium regulates nephrogenesis. The metanephric kidney is physiologically divided along the corticomedullary axis into subcompartments that are enriched with specific segments of these two epithelial structures. Here, we provide an overview of the major molecular and cellular processes underlying the morphogenesis and patterning of the ureteric bud epithelium and its roles in the cortico-medullary patterning of the metanephric kidney.

  1. Chirality-Induced Budding: A Raft-Mediated Mechanism for Endocytosis and Morphology of Caveolae?

    PubMed Central

    Sarasij, R. C.; Mayor, Satyajit; Rao, Madan

    2007-01-01

    The formation of transport carriers (spherical vesicles and tubules) involves membrane budding, growth, and ultimately fission. We propose a mechanism of membrane budding, wherein the tilt and chirality of constituent molecules, confined to a patch of area A, induces buds of ∼50–100 nm that are comparable to vesicles involved in endocytosis. Because such chiral and tilted lipid molecules are likely to exist in “rafts”, we suggest the involvement of this mechanism in generating membrane buds in the clathrin and dynamin-independent, raft-component mediated endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. We argue that caveolae, permanent cell surface structures with characteristic morphology and enriched in raft constituents, are also likely to be formed by this mechanism. Thus, molecular chirality and tilt, and its expression over large spatial scales may be a common organizing principle in membrane budding of transport carriers. PMID:17237196

  2. Identification of a new androgen receptor (AR) co-regulator BUD31 and related peptides to suppress wild-type and mutated AR-mediated prostate cancer growth via peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Wu, Po-Long; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Lin, An-Chi; Ting, Huei-Ju; Pang, See-Tong; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Ma, Wen-Lung; Chen, Chung-Jung; Wu, Wen-Guey; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-12-01

    Treatment with individual anti-androgens is associated with the development of hot-spot mutations in the androgen receptor (AR). Here, we found that anti-androgens-mt-ARs have similar binary structure to the 5α-dihydrotestosterone-wt-AR. Phage display revealed that these ARs bound to similar peptides, including BUD31, containing an Fxx(F/H/L/W/Y)Y motif cluster with Tyr in the +5 position. Structural analyses of the AR-LBD-BUD31 complex revealed formation of an extra hydrogen bond between the Tyr+5 residue of the peptide and the AR. Functional studies showed that BUD31-related peptides suppressed AR transactivation, interrupted AR N-C interaction, and suppressed AR-mediated cell growth. Combination of peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis may serve as a new strategy for developing anti-ARs that simultaneously suppress both wt and mutated AR function.

  3. Regional trends for bud burst and flowering of woody plants in Norway as related to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordli, Ø.; Wielgolaski, F. E.; Bakken, A. K.; Hjeltnes, S. H.; Måge, F.; Sivle, A.; Skre, O.

    2008-09-01

    Data series for bud burst, beginning of flowering and petal fall for 20 species of deciduous trees and conifers at four sites in different regions of southern Norway have been analysed and related to temperature series. On average, the spring phenophases occurred 7 days earlier during the period 1971-2005. The most significant linear trends were observed for the earliest phases. The trends in this period were compared with trends in other periods, the longest one starting in 1927. Those starting in cold decades and ending in 2005 were in most instances statistically significant, whereas hardly any significant trend appeared for series starting in warm decades. This fact showed that the results of trend studies are very sensitive to the choice of starting year. There were significant decadal variations in 40% of the series. The dates of occurrence of the phenophases, varying from the first days of May to the first days of June, correlated with seasonal temperature series, in most cases strongest to mean temperatures for the seasons March-May and April-May. The North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) for January and February appeared to have some predictive power for the date of occurrence of the recorded phases. The basis for this may be that the oscillations described by the index are of importance for the fulfilment of physiological chilling requirements needed to break bud dormancy. The same genotypes of the trees were grown in region West Norway and in Central Norwegian region; during the period 1965-2005 the trends towards earlier bud burst were more pronounced and steeper at the western site.

  4. Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus 5 virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Anthony P; Leser, George P; Waning, David L; Lamb, Robert A

    2002-04-01

    Enveloped viruses are released from infected cells after coalescence of viral components at cellular membranes and budding of membranes to release particles. For some negative-strand RNA viruses (e.g., vesicular stomatitis virus and Ebola virus), the viral matrix (M) protein contains all of the information needed for budding, since virus-like particles (VLPs) are efficiently released from cells when the M protein is expressed from cDNA. To investigate the requirements for budding of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5), its M protein was expressed in mammalian cells, and it was found that SV5 M protein alone could not induce vesicle budding and was not secreted from cells. Coexpression of M protein with the viral hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) or fusion (F) glycoproteins also failed to result in significant VLP release. It was found that M protein in the form of VLPs was only secreted from cells, with an efficiency comparable to authentic virus budding, when M protein was coexpressed with one of the two glycoproteins, HN or F, together with the nucleocapsid (NP) protein. The VLPs appeared similar morphologically to authentic virions by electron microscopy. CsCl density gradient centrifugation indicated that almost all of the NP protein in the cells had assembled into nucleocapsid-like structures. Deletion of the F and HN cytoplasmic tails indicated an important role of these cytoplasmic tails in VLP budding. Furthermore, truncation of the HN cytoplasmic tail was found to be inhibitory toward budding, since it prevented coexpressed wild-type (wt) F protein from directing VLP budding. Conversely, truncation of the F protein cytoplasmic tail was not inhibitory and did not affect the ability of coexpressed wt HN protein to direct the budding of particles. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple viral components, including assembled nucleocapsids, have important roles in the paramyxovirus budding process.

  5. Breaking-bud pollination: a new pollination process in partially opened flowers by small bees.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Futa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions have usually been researched in flowers that have fully opened. However, some pollinators can visit flowers before full opening and contribute to fruit and seed sets. In this paper, we researched the pollination biology of flowers just starting to open in four field experiments. We observed the insect visitors to Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea for 3 years at five sites. These observations revealed that only small bees, Lasioglossum japonicum, often entered through tiny spaces between the tepals of 'breaking buds' (i.e. partially opened flowers) and collected pollen. We hypothesized that they can pollinate this species at the breaking-bud stage, when the stigma is located near the anthers. To measure the pollination effect of small bees at the breaking-bud stage, we bagged several breaking buds after small bees had visited them and examined whether these buds were pollinated. In bagging experiments, 30% of the breaking buds set fruit and seeds. Fruit-set ratios of the breaking buds did not differ significantly from those of the fully opened flowers, which had been visited by several insect species. We also counted the pollen grain numbers on the body of L. japonicum and on the anthers of randomly-selected and manipulated flowers. These experiments revealed that all of the captured bees had some pollen of target plants and that L. japonicum collected most of the pollen grains at the breaking-bud stage. Our results showed that the new pollination process, breaking-bud pollination, happened in breaking buds by L. japonicum, although there is no evidence to reveal that this is the most effective pollination method for L. sanguinea var. sanguinea. In principle, this new pollination process can occur in other flowering plants and our results are a major contribution to studies of plant-pollinator interactions.

  6. Novel Features of the Prenatal Horn Bud Development in Cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Wiener, Dominique Judith; Wiedemar, Natalie; Welle, Monika Maria; Drögemüller, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the genetic background of horn growth in cattle has been studied extensively, little is known about the morphological changes in the developing fetal horn bud. In this study we histologically analyzed the development of horn buds of bovine fetuses between ~70 and ~268 days of pregnancy and compared them with biopsies taken from the frontal skin of the same fetuses. In addition we compared the samples from the wild type (horned) fetuses with samples taken from the horn bud region of age-matched genetically hornless (polled) fetuses. In summary, the horn bud with multiple layers of vacuolated keratinocytes is histologically visible early in fetal life already at around day 70 of gestation and can be easily differentiated from the much thinner epidermis of the frontal skin. However, at the gestation day (gd) 212 the epidermis above the horn bud shows a similar morphology to the epidermis of the frontal skin and the outstanding layers of vacuolated keratinocytes have disappeared. Immature hair follicles are seen in the frontal skin at gd 115 whereas hair follicles below the horn bud are not present until gd 155. Interestingly, thick nerve bundles appear in the dermis below the horn bud at gd 115. These nerve fibers grow in size over time and are prominent shortly before birth. Prominent nerve bundles are not present in the frontal skin of wild type or in polled fetuses at any time, indicating that the horn bud is a very sensitive area. The samples from the horn bud region from polled fetuses are histologically equivalent to samples taken from the frontal skin in horned species. This is the first study that presents unique histological data on bovine prenatal horn bud differentiation at different developmental stages which creates knowledge for a better understanding of recent molecular findings.

  7. Spatial Variability of Grapevine Bud Burst Percentage and Its Association with Soil Properties at Field Scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Hao, Xinmei; Kang, Shaozhong

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in precision viticulture with the development of global positioning system and geographical information system technologies. Limited information is available on spatial variation of bud behavior and its possible association with soil properties. The objective of this study was to investigate spatial variability of bud burst percentage and its association with soil properties based on 2-year experiments at a vineyard of arid northwest China. Geostatistical approach was used to describe the spatial variation in bud burst percentage within the vineyard. Partial least square regressions (PLSRs) of bud burst percentage with soil properties were used to evaluate the contribution of soil properties to overall spatial variability in bud burst percentage for the high, medium and low bud burst percentage groups. Within the vineyard, the coefficient of variation (CV) of bud burst percentage was 20% and 15% for 2012 and 2013 respectively. Bud burst percentage within the vineyard showed moderate spatial variability, and the overall spatial pattern of bud burst percentage was similar between the two years. Soil properties alone explained 31% and 37% of the total spatial variation respectively for the low group of 2012 and 2013, and 16% and 24% for the high group of 2012 and 2013 respectively. For the low group, the fraction of variations explained by soil properties was found similar between the two years, while there was substantial difference for the high group. The findings are expected to lay a good foundation for developing remedy measures in the areas with low bud burst percentage, thus in turn improving the overall grape yield and quality.

  8. BudBurst Buddies: A New Tool for Engaging the Youngest Citizen Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.

    2010-12-01

    BudBurst Buddies (www.budburstbuddies.org) introduces elementary school age children to the science of observing plants and the timing of phenological (life cycle) events. BudBurst Buddies is a new part of the Project BudBurst national citizen science initiative (www.budburst.org), which allows individuals to engage in the scientific process, contributing to a better understanding of climate change while increasing public awareness of phenology and the impacts of climate change on plants. As a first step towards engaging the next generation of citizen scientists, BudBurst Buddies provides the opportunity for children to gain experience with scientific research and increases awareness of how plants change throughout the year. Children can participate in BudBurst Buddies on their own, with their families, or in formal or informal education settings. Each child who participates creates a journal about a plant of his or her choosing, makes observations of the plant over the growing season and submits findings online, earning an official BudBurst Buddies certificate. An online storybook for kids tells how two children, Lily and Sage, observed plants in their neighborhood and became BudBurst Buddies. This presentation will provide an overview of the BudBurst Buddies newly developed resources. BudBurst Buddies is a part of Project BudBurst, a national citizen science program coordinated by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the Chicago Botanic Garden. Funding for this resource was provided by NEON, NSF, NASA, and the National Geographic Education Foundation.

  9. Spatial Variability of Grapevine Bud Burst Percentage and Its Association with Soil Properties at Field Scale

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Hao, Xinmei; Kang, Shaozhong

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in precision viticulture with the development of global positioning system and geographical information system technologies. Limited information is available on spatial variation of bud behavior and its possible association with soil properties. The objective of this study was to investigate spatial variability of bud burst percentage and its association with soil properties based on 2-year experiments at a vineyard of arid northwest China. Geostatistical approach was used to describe the spatial variation in bud burst percentage within the vineyard. Partial least square regressions (PLSRs) of bud burst percentage with soil properties were used to evaluate the contribution of soil properties to overall spatial variability in bud burst percentage for the high, medium and low bud burst percentage groups. Within the vineyard, the coefficient of variation (CV) of bud burst percentage was 20% and 15% for 2012 and 2013 respectively. Bud burst percentage within the vineyard showed moderate spatial variability, and the overall spatial pattern of bud burst percentage was similar between the two years. Soil properties alone explained 31% and 37% of the total spatial variation respectively for the low group of 2012 and 2013, and 16% and 24% for the high group of 2012 and 2013 respectively. For the low group, the fraction of variations explained by soil properties was found similar between the two years, while there was substantial difference for the high group. The findings are expected to lay a good foundation for developing remedy measures in the areas with low bud burst percentage, thus in turn improving the overall grape yield and quality. PMID:27798692

  10. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum.

    PubMed

    Wright, Ian J; Reich, Peter B; Westoby, Mark; Ackerly, David D; Baruch, Zdravko; Bongers, Frans; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Chapin, Terry; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Diemer, Matthias; Flexas, Jaume; Garnier, Eric; Groom, Philip K; Gulias, Javier; Hikosaka, Kouki; Lamont, Byron B; Lee, Tali; Lee, William; Lusk, Christopher; Midgley, Jeremy J; Navas, Marie-Laure; Niinemets, Ulo; Oleksyn, Jacek; Osada, Noriyuki; Poorter, Hendrik; Poot, Pieter; Prior, Lynda; Pyankov, Vladimir I; Roumet, Catherine; Thomas, Sean C; Tjoelker, Mark G; Veneklaas, Erik J; Villar, Rafael

    2004-04-22

    Bringing together leaf trait data spanning 2,548 species and 175 sites we describe, for the first time at global scale, a universal spectrum of leaf economics consisting of key chemical, structural and physiological properties. The spectrum runs from quick to slow return on investments of nutrients and dry mass in leaves, and operates largely independently of growth form, plant functional type or biome. Categories along the spectrum would, in general, describe leaf economic variation at the global scale better than plant functional types, because functional types overlap substantially in their leaf traits. Overall, modulation of leaf traits and trait relationships by climate is surprisingly modest, although some striking and significant patterns can be seen. Reliable quantification of the leaf economics spectrum and its interaction with climate will prove valuable for modelling nutrient fluxes and vegetation boundaries under changing land-use and climate.

  11. Taste bud leptin: sweet dampened at initiation site.

    PubMed

    Travers, Susan P; Frank, Marion E

    2015-05-01

    The intriguing observation that leptin decreases sweet-evoked peripheral gustatory responses has aroused much interest (Kawai K, Sugimoto K, Nakashima K, Miura H, Ninomiya Y. 2000. Leptin as a modulator of sweet taste sensitivities in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97(20):11044-11049.) due to its implied importance in controlling appetite. The effects of this anorexic hormone, however, appear more conditional than originally believed. In this issue of Chemical Senses, a careful study by Glendinning and colleagues, find no effects of leptin on sweet-evoked chorda tympani responses, whereas an equally careful study by Meredith and colleagues, find decreased release of ATP and increased release of 5-HT from taste buds in response to sweet stimuli.

  12. The Terminal End Bud: the Little Engine that Could.

    PubMed

    Paine, Ingrid S; Lewis, Michael T

    2017-02-06

    The mammary gland is one of the most regenerative organs in the body, with the majority of development occurring postnatally and in the adult mammal. Formation of the ductal tree is orchestrated by a specialized structure called the terminal end bud (TEB). The TEB is responsible for the production of mature cell types leading to the elongation of the subtending duct. The TEB is also the regulatory control point for basement membrane deposition, branching, angiogenesis, and pattern formation. While the hormonal control of TEB growth is well characterized, the local regulatory factors are less well understood. Recent studies of pubertal outgrowth and ductal elongation have yielded surprising details in regards to ongoing processes in the TEB. Here we summarize the current understanding of TEB biology, discuss areas of future study, and discuss the use of the TEB as a model for the study of breast cancer.

  13. A comprehensive model to predict mitotic division in budding yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sutradhar, Sabyasachi; Yadav, Vikas; Sridhar, Shreyas; Sreekumar, Lakshmi; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Santanu Kumar; Paul, Raja; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity chromosome segregation during cell division depends on a series of concerted interdependent interactions. Using a systems biology approach, we built a robust minimal computational model to comprehend mitotic events in dividing budding yeasts of two major phyla: Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. This model accurately reproduces experimental observations related to spindle alignment, nuclear migration, and microtubule (MT) dynamics during cell division in these yeasts. The model converges to the conclusion that biased nucleation of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) is essential for directional nuclear migration. Two distinct pathways, based on the population of cMTs and cortical dyneins, differentiate nuclear migration and spindle orientation in these two phyla. In addition, the model accurately predicts the contribution of specific classes of MTs in chromosome segregation. Thus we present a model that offers a wider applicability to simulate the effects of perturbation of an event on the concerted process of the mitotic cell division. PMID:26310442

  14. Exogenous folates stimulate growth and budding of Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Porzoor, Afsaneh; Macreadie, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    Folate, vitamin B9, is well recognized as being essential for cell growth. The utilization of folate is common to all cells, but the source of it may be quite different. For example, mammalian cells depend on exogenous uptake of folates, while plants and microbes can synthesize them. There has been little consideration of uptake of folate in microbial cells, and studies on the effects of folates in mammalian cells, where conditions are restricted. This study shows that exogenous folates (folic acid or folinic acid), causes Candida glabrata cells suspended in water alone to undergo two cycles of cell division and to form multiple buds. The effect was limited to cells in the stationary phase and more profound in quiescent cells. These data indicate a novel response of yeast to folates that may increase the utility of yeast as a model to study folate transport and signaling. PMID:28357288

  15. Mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeasts: towards an integrated understanding.

    PubMed

    Solieri, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    Recent advances in yeast mitogenomics have significantly contributed to our understanding of the diversity of organization, structure and topology in the mitochondrial genome of budding yeasts. In parallel, new insights on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae highlighted an integrated scenario where recombination, replication and segregation of mtDNA are intricately linked to mitochondrial nucleoid (mt-nucleoid) structure and organelle sorting. In addition to this, recent discoveries of bifunctional roles of some mitochondrial proteins have interesting implications on mito-nuclear genome interactions and the relationship between mtDNA inheritance, yeast fitness and speciation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on yeast mitogenomics, mtDNA inheritance with regard to mt-nucleoid structure and organelle dynamics, and mito-nuclear genome interactions.

  16. The physics of lipid droplet nucleation, growth and budding.

    PubMed

    Thiam, Abdou Rachid; Forêt, Lionel

    2016-08-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular oil-in-water emulsion droplets, covered by a phospholipid monolayer and mainly present in the cytosol. Despite their important role in cellular metabolism and growing number of newly identified functions, LD formation mechanism from the endoplasmic reticulum remains poorly understood. To form a LD, the oil molecules synthesized in the ER accumulate between the monolayer leaflets and induce deformation of the membrane. This formation process works through three steps: nucleation, growth and budding, exactly as in phase separation and dewetting phenomena. These steps involve sequential biophysical membrane remodeling mechanisms for which we present basic tools of statistical physics, membrane biophysics, and soft matter science underlying them. We aim to highlight relevant factors that could control LD formation size, site and number through this physics description. An emphasis will be given to a currently underestimated contribution of the molecular interactions between lipids to favor an energetically costless mechanism of LD formation.

  17. Changes in clonal poplar leaf chemistry caused by stem galls alter herbivory and leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Künkler, Nora; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gall-inducing insects are highly specialized herbivores that modify the phenotype of their host plants. Beyond the direct manipulation of plant morphology and physiology in the immediate environment of the gall, there is also evidence of plant-mediated effects of gall-inducing insects on other species of the assemblages and ecosystem processes associated with the host plant. We analysed the impact of gall infestation by the aphid Pemphigus spirothecae on chemical leaf traits of clonal Lombardy poplars (Populus nigra var. italica) and the subsequent effects on intensity of herbivory and decomposition of leaves across five sites. We measured the herbivory of two feeding guilds: leaf-chewing insects that feed on the blade (e.g. caterpillars and sawfly larvae) and skeletonising insects that feed on the mesophyll of the leaves (e.g. larvae of beetles). Galled leaves had higher phenol (35%) and lower nitrogen and cholorophyll contents (35% respectively 37%) than non-galled leaves, and these differences were stronger in August than in June. Total herbivory intensity was 27% higher on galled than on non-galled leaves; damage by leaf chewers was on average 61% higher on gall infested leaves, whereas damage by skeletonising insects was on average 39% higher on non-galled leaves. After nine months the decomposition rate of galled leaf litter was 15% lower than that of non-galled leaf litter presumably because of the lower nitrogen content of the galled leaf litter. This indicated after-life effects of gall infestation on the decomposers. We found no evidence for galling x environment interactions.

  18. Characterization of dependencies between growth and division in budding yeast

    DOE PAGES

    Mayhew, Michael B.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Hartemink, Alexander J.

    2017-02-01

    Cell growth and division are processes vital to the proliferation and development of life. Coordination between these two processes has been recognized for decades in a variety of organisms. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this coordination or ‘size control’ appears as an inverse correlation between cell size and the rate of cell-cycle progression, routinely observed in G1 prior to cell division commitment. Beyond this point, cells are presumed to complete S/G2/M at similar rates and in a size-independent manner. As such, studies of dependence between growth and division have focused on G1. Moreover, in unicellular organisms, coordination between growthmore » and division has commonly been analyzed within the cycle of a single cell without accounting for correlations in growth and division characteristics between cycles of related cells. In a comprehensive analysis of three published time-lapse microscopy datasets, we analyze both intra- and inter-cycle dependencies between growth and division, revisiting assumptions about the coordination between these two processes. Interestingly, we find evidence (1) that S/G2/M durations are systematically longer in daughters than in mothers, (2) of dependencies between S/G2/M and size at budding that echo the classical G1 dependencies, and, (3) in contrast with recent bacterial studies, of negative dependencies between size at birth and size accumulated during the cell cycle. In addition, we develop a novel hierarchical model to uncover inter-cycle dependencies, and we find evidence for such dependencies in cells growing in sugar-poor environments. Our analysis highlights the need for experimentalists and modelers to account for new sources of cell-to-cell variation in growth and division, and our model provides a formal statistical framework for the continued study of dependencies between biological processes.« less

  19. The formation of premuscle masses during chick wing bud development.

    PubMed

    Schramm, C; Solursh, M

    1990-01-01

    The skeletal musculature of chick limb buds is derived from somitic cells that migrate into the somatopleure of the future limb regions. These cells become organized into the earliest muscle primordia, the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses, prior to myogenic differentiation. Therefore, skeletal-muscle specific markers cannot be used to observe myogenic cells during the process of premuscle mass formation. In this study, an alternative marking method was used to determine the specific stages during which this process occurs. Quail somite strips were fluorescently labeled and implanted into chick hosts. Paraffin sections of the resulting chimeric wing buds were stained with the monoclonal antibody QH1 in order to identify graft-derived endothelium. Non-endothelial graft-derived cells present in the wing mesenchyme were assumed to be myogenic. At Hamburger and Hamilton stage 20, myogenic cells were distributed throughout the central region of the limb, including the future dorsal and ventral premuscle mass regions and the prechondrogenic core region. By stage 21, the myogenic cells were present at greater density in dorsal and ventral regions than in the core. By stage 23, nearly all myogenic cells were located in the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses. Therefore, the two premuscle masses become established by stage 21 and premuscle mass formation is not complete until stage 23 or later. Premuscle mass formation occurs concurrently with early chondrogenic events, as observed with the marker peanut agglutinin. To facilitate the investigation of possible underlying mechanisms of premuscle mass formation, the micromass culture system was evaluated, to determine whether or not it can serve as an accurate in vitro model system. The initially randomly distributed myogenic cells were observed to segregate from prechondrogenic regions prior to myogenic differentiation. This is similar to myogenic patterning in vivo.

  20. Changes in well-defined phases of bud dormancy associated with shifts in carbohydrate metabolism may involve beta-amylases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is a noxious perennial weed that infests range lands in the Northern Great Plains. It is being used as a model to investigate dormancy in underground adventitious buds, i.e., root and crown buds. Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) are 1) maintained in a quie...

  1. Carbohydrate uptake from xylem vessels and its distribution among stem tissues and buds in walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Marc; Peuch, Médéric; Ameglio, Thierry; Rageau, Rémy; Guilliot, Agnès; Decourteix, Mélanie; Alves, Georges; Sakr, Soulaiman; Lacointe, André

    2010-01-01

    Bud break pattern is a key determinant of tree architecture. The mechanisms leading to the precedence of certain buds over the others are not yet fully explained, but the availability of soluble sugars may play a significant role, especially those in the xylem sap at the onset of the growing period. Here, we measured carbon availability in the different tissues (bud, xylem and bark). To assess the capacity of buds to use the xylem sap carbohydrates, the fluxes between xylem vessels and parenchyma cells, bark and buds of walnut (Juglans regia cv 'Franquette') were measured during the rest period until bud break. This uptake capacity varies according to the temperature, the sugar and the position on the branch of the fragment studied. Between December and March, in xylem tissues, the active component of sucrose uptake was predominant compared with diffusion (90% of the total uptake), whereas the active component accounted for more moderate amounts in buds (50% of the uptake). The active uptake of hexoses took place belatedly (April) in xylem. The flow rates between xylem vessels and buds increased 1 month before bud break and reached 2000 microg sucrose h(-)(1) g DW(-)(1). Fluxes seemed to depend on bud position on the branch. However, this study strongly suggests that they were mainly dependent on the sink strength of the buds and on the sink competition between bud, xylem parenchyma and bark.

  2. Dormancy-associated MADS-box genes and microRNAs jointly control dormancy transition in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) flower bud.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qingfeng; Li, Jianzhao; Cai, Danying; Qian, Minjie; Jia, Huimin; Bai, Songling; Hussain, Sayed; Liu, Guoqin; Teng, Yuanwen; Zheng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Bud dormancy in perennial plants is indispensable to survival over winter and to regrowth and development in the following year. However, the molecular pathways of endo-dormancy induction, maintenance, and release are still unclear, especially in fruit crops. To identify genes with roles in regulating endo-dormancy, 30 MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes were identified in the pear genome and characterized. The 30 genes were analysed to determine their phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes, genome locations, gene structure, tissue-specific transcript profiles, and transcriptional patterns during flower bud dormancy in 'Suli' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group). The roles in regulating bud dormancy varied among the MIKC gene family members. Yeast one-hybrid and transient assays showed that PpCBF enhanced PpDAM1 and PpDAM3 transcriptional activity during the induction of dormancy, probably by binding to the C-repeat/DRE binding site, while DAM proteins inhibited the transcriptional activity of PpFT2 during dormancy release. In the small RNA-seq analysis, 185 conserved, 24 less-conserved, and 32 pear-specific miRNAs with distinct expression patterns during bud dormancy were identified. Joint analyses of miRNAs and MIKC genes together with degradome data showed that miR6390 targeted PpDAM transcripts and degraded them to release PpFT2. Our data show that cross-talk among PpCBF, PpDAM, PpFT2, and miR6390 played important roles in regulating endo-dormancy. A model for the molecular mechanism of dormancy transition is proposed: short-term chilling in autumn activates the accumulation of CBF, which directly promotes DAM expression; DAM subsequently inhibits FT expression to induce endo-dormancy, and miR6390 degrades DAM genes to release endo-dormancy.

  3. Spring predictability explains different leaf-out strategies in the woody floras of North America, Europe and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Zohner, Constantin M; Benito, Blas M; Fridley, Jason D; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Renner, Susanne S

    2017-02-14

    Intuitively, interannual spring temperature variability (STV) should influence the leaf-out strategies of temperate zone woody species, with high winter chilling requirements in species from regions where spring warming varies greatly among years. We tested this hypothesis using experiments in 215 species and leaf-out monitoring in 1585 species from East Asia (EA), Europe (EU) and North America (NA). The results reveal that species from regions with high STV indeed have higher winter chilling requirements, and, when grown under the same conditions, leaf out later than related species from regions with lower STV. Since 1900, STV has been consistently higher in NA than in EU and EA, and under experimentally short winter conditions NA species required 84% more spring warming for bud break, EU ones 49% and EA ones only 1%. These previously unknown continental-scale differences in phenological strategies underscore the need for considering regional climate histories in global change models.

  4. Trichoplusia ni Kinesin-1 Associates with Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Nucleocapsid Proteins and Is Required for Production of Budded Virus

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Siddhartha; Blissard, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mechanism by which nucleocapsids of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) egress from the nucleus to the plasma membrane, leading to the formation of budded virus (BV), is not known. AC141 is a nucleocapsid-associated protein required for BV egress and has previously been shown to be associated with β-tubulin. In addition, AC141 and VP39 were previously shown by fluorescence resonance energy transfer by fluorescence lifetime imaging to interact directly with the Drosophila melanogaster kinesin-1 light chain (KLC) tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. These results suggested that microtubule transport systems may be involved in baculovirus nucleocapsid egress and BV formation. In this study, we investigated the role of lepidopteran microtubule transport using coimmunoprecipitation, colocalization, yeast two-hybrid, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) analyses. We show that nucleocapsid AC141 associates with the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni KLC and kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC) by coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization. Kinesin-1, AC141, and microtubules colocalized predominantly at the plasma membrane. In addition, the nucleocapsid proteins VP39, FP25, and BV/ODV-C42 were also coimmunoprecipitated with T. ni KLC. Direct analysis of the role of T. ni kinesin-1 by downregulation of KLC by siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in BV production. Nucleocapsids labeled with VP39 fused with three copies of the mCherry fluorescent protein also colocalized with microtubules. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed no evidence of a direct interaction between kinesin-1 and AC141 or VP39, suggesting that either other nucleocapsid proteins or adaptor proteins may be required. These results further support the conclusion that microtubule transport is required for AcMNPV BV formation. IMPORTANCE In two key processes of the replication cycle of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), nucleocapsids are

  5. In vitro organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of Leucosceptrum canum sm.

    PubMed

    Pal, A; Banerjee, A; Dhar, K

    1985-10-01

    Plantlets were obtained from leaf explants of a Labiatae tree - Leucosceptrum canum Sm. using plant tissue culture techniques. Two types of calli proliferated from the leaf explants when grown on different media, one of which was amenable to somatic embryogenesis. Differentiation of the embryoids started from the fourth passage of culture and continued up to the seventh passage. The number of embryoids decreased with the age of the callus. The capacity of such embryoids to form entire plantlets was studied using different nutrient mileux. Embryoids formed plantlets on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium fortified with benzylaminopurine plus indolebutyric acid. Organogenesis was observed in shoot-buds derived from explants of in vitro regenerated plantlets on MS basal medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine. Culture regenerated plantlets were transferred to MS medium without sucrose and growth hormones; finally transferred to pots containing sterile vermiculite where they are growing.

  6. Sugars are under light control during bud burst in Rosa sp.

    PubMed

    Girault, Tiffanie; Abidi, Farouk; Sigogne, Monique; Pelleschi-Travier, Sandrine; Boumaza, Rachid; Sakr, Soulaiman; Leduc, Nathalie

    2010-08-01

    Bud burst in certain species is conditioned by the luminous environment. With roses, the requirement for light is absolute, and darkness totally inhibits bud burst. Few studies have looked into understanding the action of light on the physiological bud burst processes. Here, we show the impact of light on certain components of glucidic metabolism during bud burst. Measurements were taken on decapitated plants of Rosa hybrida L. 'Radrazz' exposed either to darkness, white, blue or R light. Results show that a mobilization of bud and the carrying stem sucrose reserves only takes place in light and accompanies the bud burst. Furthermore, the activity of the RhVI vacuolar acid invertase which contributes to the breakdown of sucrose in the buds, as well as the transcription of the RhVI gene, is reduced in darkness, although it is strongly stimulated by light. The same analysis concerning the RhNAD-SDH gene, coding an NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase, shows, on the contrary, a strong induction of its transcription in darkness that could reflect the use of survival mechanisms in this condition.

  7. Variations of metabolites and proteome in Lonicera japonica Thunb. buds and flowers under UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Wen; Hu, Xingjiang; Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2017-04-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb., also known as Jin Yin Hua and Japanese honeysuckle, is used as a herbal medicine in Asian countries. Its flowers have been used in folk medicine in the clinic and in making food or healthy beverages for over 1500years in China. To investigate the molecular processes involved in L. japonica development from buds to flowers exposed to UV radiation, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed. Fifty-four proteins were identified as differentially expressed, including 42 that had increased expression and 12 that had decreased expression. The levels of the proteins related to glycolysis, TCA/organic acid transformation, major carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative pentose phosphate, stress, secondary metabolism, hormone, and mitochondrial electron transport were increased during flower opening process after exposure to UV radiation. Six metabolites in L. japonica buds and flowers were identified and relatively quantified using LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was performed using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, which revealed that L. japonica buds had more activity than the UV irradiated flowers. This suggests that UV-B radiation induces production of endogenous ethylene in L. japonica buds, thus facilitating blossoming of the buds and activating the antioxidant system. Additionally, the higher metabolite contents and antioxidant properties of L. japonica buds indicate that the L. japonica bud stage may be a more optimal time to harvest than the flower stage when using for medicinal properties.

  8. Inhibitory effect of a rhizobitoxine analog on bud growth after release from dormancy.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, R H; Lieberman, M; Broome, O C

    1977-02-01

    Application of the ethoxy analog of rhizobitoxine (l-2-amino-4-[2'-aminoethoxy]-trans-3-butenoic acid), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, inhibited growth of apple, crabapple, and apricot buds released from dormancy by chilling or by treatment with benzyladenine. When tea crabapple (Malus hupehensis [Pamp.] Rehd.) buds were sprayed once with 8.8 x 10(-3)m benzyladenine, ethylene production by the buds increased significantly 24 to 48 hours after benzyladenine treatment. Application of the rhizobitoxine analog to the buds at the time of benzyladenine treatment reduced ethylene evolution to the level of the controls for up to 2 weeks after treatment. Increase in bud weight was inhibited also but to a lesser extent. These data suggest that growth of buds is accompanied by ethylene production and that the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis also inhibits bud growth. Since additional metabolic effects result from the action of the rhizobitoxine analog, no firm conclusions on its role can be drawn at this time.

  9. Automated quantification of budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a novel image cytometry method.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Daniel J; Kury, Alexandria L; Kuksin, Dmitry; Pirani, Alnoor; Flanagan, Kevin; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The measurements of concentration, viability, and budding percentages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are performed on a routine basis in the brewing and biofuel industries. Generation of these parameters is of great importance in a manufacturing setting, where they can aid in the estimation of product quality, quantity, and fermentation time of the manufacturing process. Specifically, budding percentages can be used to estimate the reproduction rate of yeast populations, which directly correlates with metabolism of polysaccharides and bioethanol production, and can be monitored to maximize production of bioethanol during fermentation. The traditional method involves manual counting using a hemacytometer, but this is time-consuming and prone to human error. In this study, we developed a novel automated method for the quantification of yeast budding percentages using Cellometer image cytometry. The automated method utilizes a dual-fluorescent nucleic acid dye to specifically stain live cells for imaging analysis of unique morphological characteristics of budding yeast. In addition, cell cycle analysis is performed as an alternative method for budding analysis. We were able to show comparable yeast budding percentages between manual and automated counting, as well as cell cycle analysis. The automated image cytometry method is used to analyze and characterize corn mash samples directly from fermenters during standard fermentation. Since concentration, viability, and budding percentages can be obtained simultaneously, the automated method can be integrated into the fermentation quality assurance protocol, which may improve the quality and efficiency of beer and bioethanol production processes.

  10. Increased IAA transport in axillary buds upon release from apical dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Tamas, I.A.; Reimels, A.J. )

    1989-04-01

    To investigate the transport of indoleacetic acid (IAA) simultaneously in the stem and the axillary bud, bud-bearing nodal stem segments of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were excised and agar blocks containing {sup 14}C-IAA or {sup 3}H-IAA were placed on the apical cut surface and the bud stump respectively. A plain receiver block was placed on the basal end. After a period of transport, the stem segment and the attached bud stump were sectioned, and the activity of sections and agar blocks was counted. We found that the transport of {sup 3}H-IAA from the bud stump to the receiver was greatly accelerated in plants decapitated one or two days prior to the experiment, compared to the intact controls. Decapitation also caused a decrease in the ability of the stem axis to transport {sup 14}C-IAA from the apical to the basal end of the stem segment. The increased ability of the axillary bud to transport IAA, relative to that of the stem axis, may play a role int he release of the bud from apical dominance.

  11. Using dielectrophoresis to study the dynamic response of single budding yeast cells to Lyticase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Yi, Pyshar; Soffe, Rebecca; Nahavandi, Sofia; Shukla, Ravi; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2015-05-01

    Budding yeast cells are quick and easy to grow and represent a versatile model of eukaryotic cells for a variety of cellular studies, largely because their genome has been widely studied and links can be drawn with higher eukaryotes. Therefore, the efficient separation, immobilization, and conversion of budding yeasts into spheroplast or protoplast can provide valuable insight for many fundamentals investigations in cell biology at a single cell level. Dielectrophoresis, the induced motion of particles in non-uniform electric fields, possesses a great versatility for manipulation of cells in microfluidic platforms. Despite this, dielectrophoresis has been largely utilized for studying of non-budding yeast cells and has rarely been used for manipulation of budding cells. Here, we utilize dielectrophoresis for studying the dynamic response of budding cells to different concentrations of Lyticase. This involves separation of the budding yeasts from a background of non-budding cells and their subsequent immobilization onto the microelectrodes at desired densities down to single cell level. The immobilized yeasts are then stimulated with Lyticase to remove the cell wall and convert them into spheroplasts, in a highly dynamic process that depends on the concentration of Lyticase. We also introduce a novel method for immobilization of the cell organelles released from the lysed cells by patterning multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) between the microelectrodes.

  12. Carbohydrate concentrations and freezing stress resistance of silver birch buds grown under elevated temperature and ozone.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Tuomainen, Marjo; Oksanen, Elina

    2013-03-01

    The effects of slightly elevated temperature (+0.8 °C), ozone (O3) concentration (1.3 × ambient O3 concentration) and their combination on over-wintering buds of Betula pendula Roth were studied after two growing seasons of exposure in the field. Carbohydrate concentrations, freezing stress resistance (FSR), bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio, and transcript levels of cytochrome oxidase (COX), alternative oxidase (AOX) and dehydrin (LTI36) genes were studied in two clones (clones 12 and 25) in December. Elevated temperature increased the bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio and the ratio of raffinose family oligosaccharides to sucrose and the transcript levels of the dehydrin (LTI36) gene (in clone 12 only), but did not alter the FSR of the buds. Genotype-specific alterations in carbohydrate metabolism were found in the buds grown under elevated O3. The treatments did not significantly affect the transcript level of the COX or AOX genes. No clear pattern of an interactive effect between elevated temperature and O3 concentration was found. According to these data, the increase in autumnal temperatures and slightly increasing O3 concentrations do not increase the risk for freeze-induced damage in winter in silver birch buds, although some alterations in bud physiology occur.

  13. Characterization of potato leaf starch.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Stalin; Koch, Kristine; Andersson, Roger; Aman, Per

    2004-04-07

    The starch accumulation-degradation process as well as the structure of leaf starch are not completely understood. To study this, starch was isolated from potato leaves collected in the early morning and late afternoon in July and August, representing different starch accumulation rates. The starch content of potato leaves varied between 2.9 and 12.9% (dry matter basis) over the night and day in the middle of July and between 0.6 and 1.5% in August. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of the four isolated starch samples showed that the granules had either an oval or a round shape and did not exceed 5 microm in size. Starch was extracted by successive washing steps with dimethyl sulfoxide and precipitated with ethanol. An elution profile on Sepharose CL-6B of debranched starch showed the presence of a material with a chain length distribution between that generally found for amylose and amylopectin. Amylopectin unit chains of low molecular size were present in a higher amount in the afternoon than in the morning samples. What remains at the end of the night is depleted in specific chain lengths, mainly between DP 15 and 24 and above DP 35, relative to the end of the day.

  14. Cytokinins Are Initial Targets of Light in the Control of Bud Outgrowth1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Girault, Tiffanie; Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Pěnčík, Aleš; Sakr, Soulaiman; Lothier, Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    Bud outgrowth is controlled by environmental and endogenous factors. Through the use of the photosynthesis inhibitor norflurazon and of masking experiments, evidence is given here that light acts mainly as a morphogenic signal in the triggering of bud outgrowth and that initial steps in the light signaling pathway involve cytokinins (CKs). Indeed, in rose (Rosa hybrida), inhibition of bud outgrowth by darkness is suppressed solely by the application of CKs. In contrast, application of sugars has a limited effect. Exposure of plants to white light (WL) induces a rapid (after 3–6 h of WL exposure) up-regulation of CK synthesis (RhIPT3 and RhIPT5), of CK activation (RhLOG8), and of CK putative transporter RhPUP5 genes and to the repression of the CK degradation RhCKX1 gene in the node. This leads to the accumulation of CKs in the node within 6 h and in the bud at 24 h and to the triggering of bud outgrowth. Molecular analysis of genes involved in major mechanisms of bud outgrowth (strigolactone signaling [RwMAX2], metabolism and transport of auxin [RhPIN1, RhYUC1, and RhTAR1], regulation of sugar sink strength [RhVI, RhSUSY, RhSUC2, and RhSWEET10], and cell division and expansion [RhEXP and RhPCNA]) reveal that, when supplied in darkness, CKs up-regulate their expression as rapidly and as intensely as WL. Additionally, up-regulation of CKs by WL promotes xylem flux toward the bud, as evidenced by Methylene Blue accumulation in the bud after CK treatment in the dark. Altogether, these results suggest that CKs are initial components of the light signaling pathway that controls the initiation of bud outgrowth. PMID:27462085

  15. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate.

    PubMed

    Boggs, Kristin; Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Mederacke, Ingmar; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Stice, Steve; Schwabe, Robert F; Mistretta, Charlotte M; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Taste buds, the sensory organs for taste, have been described as arising solely from the surrounding epithelium, which is in distinction from other sensory receptors that are known to originate from neural precursors, i.e., neural ectoderm that includes neural crest (NC). Our previous study suggested a potential contribution of NC derived cells to early immature fungiform taste buds in late embryonic (E18.5) and young postnatal (P1-10) mice. In the present study we demonstrated the contribution of the underlying connective tissue (CT) to mature taste buds in mouse tongue and soft palate. Three independent mouse models were used for fate mapping of NC and NC derived connective tissue cells: (1) P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP) to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2) Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3) Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT cells and derivatives upon tamoxifen treatment. Both P0-Cre/RFP and Dermo1-Cre/RFP labeled cells were abundant in mature taste buds in lingual taste papillae and soft palate, but not in the surrounding epithelial cells. Concurrently, labeled cells were extensively distributed in the underlying CT. RFP signals were seen in the majority of taste buds and all three types (I, II, III) of differentiated taste bud cells, with the neuronal-like type III cells labeled at a greater proportion. Further, Vimentin-CreER labeled cells were found in the taste buds of 3-month-old mice whereas Vimentin immunoreactivity was only seen in the CT. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized origin of taste bud cells from the underlying CT, a conceptually new finding in our knowledge of taste bud cell derivation, i.e., from both the surrounding epithelium and the underlying CT that is primarily derived from NC.

  16. Insight into the role of sugars in bud burst under light in the rose.

    PubMed

    Rabot, Amelie; Henry, Clemence; Ben Baaziz, Khaoula; Mortreau, Eric; Azri, Wassim; Lothier, Jeremy; Hamama, Latifa; Boummaza, Rachid; Leduc, Nathalie; Pelleschi-Travier, Sandrine; Le Gourrierec, José; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2012-06-01

    Bud burst is a decisive process in plant architecture that requires light in Rosa sp. This light effect was correlated with stimulation of sugar transport and metabolism in favor of bud outgrowth. We investigated whether sugars could act as signaling entities in the light-mediated regulation of vacuolar invertases and bud burst. Full-length cDNAs encoding two vacuolar invertases (RhVI1 and RhVI2) were isolated from buds. Unlike RhVI2, RhVI1 was preferentially expressed in bursting buds, and was up-regulated in buds of beheaded plants exposed to light. To assess the importance of sugars in this process, the expression of RhVI1 and RhVI2 and the total vacuolar invertase activity were further characterized in buds cultured in vitro on 100 mM sucrose or mannitol under light or in darkness for 48 h. Unlike mannitol, sucrose promoted the stimulatory effect of light on both RhVI1 expression and vacuolar invertase activity. This up-regulation of RhVI1 was rapid (after 6 h incubation) and was induced by as little as 10 mM sucrose or fructose. No effect of glucose was found. Interestingly, both 30 mM palatinose (a non-metabolizable sucrose analog) and 5 mM psicose (a non-metabolizable fructose analog) promoted the light-induced expression of RhVI1 and total vacuolar invertase activity. Sucrose, fructose, palatinose and psicose all promoted bursting of in vitro cultured buds under light. These findings indicate that soluble sugars contribute to the light effect on bud burst and vacuolar invertases, and can function as signaling entities.

  17. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Mederacke, Ingmar; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Stice, Steve; Schwabe, Robert F.; Mistretta, Charlotte M.; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Taste buds, the sensory organs for taste, have been described as arising solely from the surrounding epithelium, which is in distinction from other sensory receptors that are known to originate from neural precursors, i.e., neural ectoderm that includes neural crest (NC). Our previous study suggested a potential contribution of NC derived cells to early immature fungiform taste buds in late embryonic (E18.5) and young postnatal (P1-10) mice. In the present study we demonstrated the contribution of the underlying connective tissue (CT) to mature taste buds in mouse tongue and soft palate. Three independent mouse models were used for fate mapping of NC and NC derived connective tissue cells: (1) P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP) to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2) Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3) Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT cells and derivatives upon tamoxifen treatment. Both P0-Cre/RFP and Dermo1-Cre/RFP labeled cells were abundant in mature taste buds in lingual taste papillae and soft palate, but not in the surrounding epithelial cells. Concurrently, labeled cells were extensively distributed in the underlying CT. RFP signals were seen in the majority of taste buds and all three types (I, II, III) of differentiated taste bud cells, with the neuronal-like type III cells labeled at a greater proportion. Further, Vimentin-CreER labeled cells were found in the taste buds of 3-month-old mice whereas Vimentin immunoreactivity was only seen in the CT. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized origin of taste bud cells from the underlying CT, a conceptually new finding in our knowledge of taste bud cell derivation, i.e., from both the surrounding epithelium and the underlying CT that is primarily derived from NC. PMID:26741369

  18. How to pattern a leaf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, an...

  19. Gravity-induced buds formation from protonemata apical cells in the mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyyak, Natalia; Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava

    The acceleration of moss protonemata development after the exit it to light from darkness is important gravidependent morphogenetic manifestation of the moss protonemata. The accelerated development of mosses shows in transformation of apical protonemata cells into the gametophores buds (Ripetskyj et al., 1999). In order to establish, that such reaction on gravitation is general property of gravisensity species, or its typical only for single moss species, experiments with the following moss species - Bryum intermedium (Ludw.) Brig., Bryum caespiticium Hedw., Bryum argenteum Hedw., Dicranodontium denudatum (Brid.) Britt. were carried out. All these species in response to influence of gravitation were capable to form rich bunches of gravitropical protonemata in darkness, that testified to their gravisensity. After the transference of Petri dishes with gravitropical protonemata from darkness on light was revealed, that in 3 of the investigated species the gametophores buds were absent. Only B. argenteum has reacted to action of gravitation by buds formation from apical cells of the gravitropical protonemata. With the purpose of strengthening of buds formation process, the experiments with action of exogenous kinetin (in concentration of 10 (-6) M) were carried out. Kinetin essentially stimulated apical buds formation of B. argenteum. The quantity of apical buds has increased almost in three times in comparison with the control. Besides, on separate stolons a few (3-4) buds from one apical cell were formed. Experimentally was established, that the gametophores buds formation in mosses is controlled by phytohormones (Bopp, 1985; Demkiv et al., 1991). In conditions of gravity influence its essentially accelerated. Probably, gravity essentially strengthened acropetal transport of phytohormones and formation of attractive center in the protonemata apical cell. Our investigations have allowed to make the conclusion, that gravi-dependent formation of the apical buds is

  20. Analysis of Cell Cycle Progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using the Budding Index and Tubulin Staining.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barrera, Marta; Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The budding index and the morphology of the spindle and the nucleus are excellent markers for the analysis of the progression through the different stages of the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we describe a protocol to evaluate the budding index in this model organism using phase contrast microscopy. We also describe an indirect immunofluorescence method designed for the visualization of microtubules and the nucleus in S. cerevisiae. Finally, we explain how both methodologies can be used in order to analyze cell cycle progression in the budding yeast.

  1. [Investigation on formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ai-Li; Gao, Hui-Min; Chen, Liang-Mian; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2014-05-01

    To investigate formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica, secologanic acid was enriched and purified from the sun-dried buds of L. japonica by various column chromatography on macroporus resin HPD-100, silica gel and ODS. The stimulation experiments of sulfur-fumigation process were carried out using secologanic acid reacted with SO2 in the aqueous solution. The reaction mechanism could be involved in the esterification or addition reaction. The present investigation provides substantial evidences for interpreting formation pathway of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of L. japonica.

  2. Safety and efficacy of Bixa orellana (achiote, annatto) leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J

    2014-07-01

    Bixa orellana leaf preparations have been used for many years by indigenous people for a variety of medicinal applications. Published research studies in animals indicate that various extracts of Bixa leaves exhibit antioxidant, broad antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal), anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypoglycemic, and antidiarrheal activities. No studies have specifically assessed the ability of leaf extracts to inhibit urogenital infections although Bixa products have been used in folkloric medicine to treat gonorrhea and other infections. Few human studies have been conducted and published using Bixa leaf preparations. Many more studies have been conducted and published involving Bixa seed (annatto) extracts than with leaf extracts. No subchronic safety (toxicity) studies have been conducted in animals. A 6 month study in humans given 750 mg of leaf powder per day demonstrated no significant or serious adverse effects. Bixa leaf extracts appear to be safe when given under current conditions of use. However, additional human and animal controlled safety and efficacy studies are needed. In addition, detailed chemical analyses are required to establish structure-function relationships.

  3. Characterization of leaf blade- and leaf sheath-associated bacterial communities and assessment of their responses to environmental changes in CO₂, temperature, and nitrogen levels under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Seishi; Tokida, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Usui, Yasuhiro; Okubo, Takashi; Tago, Kanako; Hayashi, Kentaro; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ono, Hiroshi; Tomita, Satoru; Hayatsu, Masahito; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    Rice shoot-associated bacterial communities at the panicle initiation stage were characterized and their responses to elevated surface water-soil temperature (ET), low nitrogen (LN), and free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) were assessed by clone library analyses of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinate analyses combining all sequence data for leaf blade- and leaf sheath-associated bacteria revealed that each bacterial community had a distinct structure, as supported by PC1 (61.5%), that was mainly attributed to the high abundance of Planctomycetes in leaf sheaths. Our results also indicated that the community structures of leaf blade-associated bacteria were more sensitive than those of leaf sheath-associated bacteria to the environmental factors examined. Among these environmental factors, LN strongly affected the community structures of leaf blade-associated bacteria by increasing the relative abundance of Bacilli. The most significant effect of FACE was also observed on leaf blade-associated bacteria under the LN condition, which was explained by decreases and increases in Agrobacterium and Pantoea, respectively. The community structures of leaf blade-associated bacteria under the combination of FACE and ET were more similar to those of the control than to those under ET or FACE. Thus, the combined effects of environmental factors need to be considered in order to realistically assess the effects of environmental changes on microbial community structures.

  4. Light acclimation potential and carry-over effects vary among three evergreen tree species with contrasting patterns of leaf emergence and maturation.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroaki; Ohsugi, Yoshihiro

    2011-08-01

    We compared light acclimation potential among three evergreen broadleaved species with contrasting patterns of shoot elongation, leaf emergence and leaf maturation. Understory saplings were transferred to a high-light environment before bud break, grown for 13 months, and then transferred back to the understory to observe subsequent carry-over effects. Acclimation potential was highest and sapling mortality was lowest for Cinnamomum japonicum Sieb. ex Nakai. Indeterminate growth and successive leaf emergence allowed this species to acclimate to both high and low light by adjusting leaf production as well as leaf properties. Sapling mortality occurred after both transfers for Camellia japonica L., which also has indeterminate growth and successive leaf emergence. In this species, carry-over effects were observed at the individual level, but leaf-level acclimation potential was high. Acclimation potential was lowest and sapling mortality occurred soon after the transfer to high light for Quercus glauca Thunb. ex Murray. Determinate growth and flush-type leaf emergence resulted in significant carry-over effects in this species. Indeterminate growth and successive leaf emergence increase whole-plant acclimation potential by extending the period of growth and architectural development during the growing season. Similarly, we inferred that delayed leaf maturation, observed in many evergreen species, increases the acclimation potential of current-year leaves by extending the period of leaf development. In evergreen species, the acclimation potential of preexisting leaves determines the role that leaf turnover plays in whole-plant light acclimation, resulting in diverse strategies for light acclimation among species, as observed in this study.

  5. Analysis of basic leucine zipper genes and their expression during bud dormancy in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Yue; Fu, Xi-Ling; Tan, Qiu-Ping; Liu, Li; Chen, Min; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Li, Ling; Chen, Xiu-De; Gao, Dong-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Dormancy is a biological characteristic developed to resist the cold conditions in winter. The bZIP transcription factors are present exclusively in eukaryotes and have been identified and classified in many species. bZIP proteins are known to regulate numerous biological processes, however, the role of bZIP in bud dodormancy has not been studied extensively. In total, 50 PpbZIP transcription factor-encoding genes were identified and categorized them into 10 groups (A-I and S). Similar intron/exon structures, additional conserved motifs, and DNA-binding site specificity supported our classification scheme. Additionally, chromosomal distribution and collinearity analyses suggested that expansion of the PpbZIP transcription factor family was due to segment/chromosomal duplications. We also predicted the dimerization properties based on characteristic features of the leucine zipper and classified PpbZIP proteins into 23 subfamilies. Furthermore, qRT-PCR results indicated that PpbZIPs genes may be involved in regulating dormancy. The same gene of different species might participate in different regulating networks through interactions with specific partners. Our expression profiling results complemented the microarray data, suggesting that co-expression patterns of bZIP transcription factors during dormancy differed among deciduous fruit trees. Our findings further clarify the molecular characteristics of the PpbZIP transcription factor family, including potential gene functions during dormancy. This information may facilitate further research on the evolutionary history and biological functions of bZIP proteins in peach and other rosaceae plants.

  6. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic constituents and toxicity of hot water extract from red maple buds.

    PubMed

    Meda, Naamwin R; Poubelle, Patrice E; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2017-03-11

    The present study reports, for the first time, the results of the antioxidant capacity and the phenolic composition of a hot water extract from red maple buds (RMB), as well as its safety. In this regard and comparatively to antioxidant standards, this extract exhibits a significant antiradical capacity when tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and anion superoxide trapping assays. High-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analyses permitted to determine for the first time, in red maple species, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside and quercetin. Also, the quantification of individual phenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method revealed that ginnalin A at 117.0 mg/g is the major compound of RMB hot water extract. Finally, using flow cytometry evaluation, the extract of RMB was determined to have no toxicity neither to cause significant modification of apoptosis process, up to concentration of 100 μg / mL, on human peripheral blood neutrophils. These results allow anticipating various fields of application of RMB water extract. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Mitochondrial anchorage and fusion contribute to mitochondrial inheritance and quality control in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Charalel, Joseph K; Viana, Matheus P; Garcia, Enrique J; Sing, Cierra N; Koenigsberg, Andrea; Swayne, Theresa C; Vevea, Jason D; Boldogh, Istvan R; Rafelski, Susanne M; Pon, Liza A

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning mitochondria that are more reduced and have less ROS are anchored in the yeast bud tip by the Dsl1-family protein Mmr1p. Here we report a role for mitochondrial fusion in bud-tip anchorage of mitochondria. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) and network analysis experiments revealed that mitochondria in large buds are a continuous reticulum that is physically distinct from mitochondria in mother cells. FLIP studies also showed that mitochondria that enter the bud can fuse with mitochondria that are anchored in the bud tip. In addition, loss of fusion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by deletion of mitochondrial outer or inner membrane fusion proteins (Fzo1p or Mgm1p) leads to decreased accumulation of mitochondria at the bud tip and inheritance of fitter mitochondria by buds compared with cells with no mtDNA. Conversely, increasing the accumulation and anchorage of mitochondria in the bud tip by overexpression of MMR1 results in inheritance of less-fit mitochondria by buds and decreased replicative lifespan and healthspan. Thus quantity and quality of mitochondrial inheritance are ensured by two opposing processes: bud-tip anchorage by mitochondrial fusion and Mmr1p, which favors bulk inheritance; and quality control mechanisms that promote segregation of fitter mitochondria to the bud.

  8. Mitochondrial anchorage and fusion contribute to mitochondrial inheritance and quality control in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Charalel, Joseph K.; Viana, Matheus P.; Garcia, Enrique J.; Sing, Cierra N.; Koenigsberg, Andrea; Swayne, Theresa C.; Vevea, Jason D.; Boldogh, Istvan R.; Rafelski, Susanne M.; Pon, Liza A.

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning mitochondria that are more reduced and have less ROS are anchored in the yeast bud tip by the Dsl1-family protein Mmr1p. Here we report a role for mitochondrial fusion in bud-tip anchorage of mitochondria. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) and network analysis experiments revealed that mitochondria in large buds are a continuous reticulum that is physically distinct from mitochondria in mother cells. FLIP studies also showed that mitochondria that enter the bud can fuse with mitochondria that are anchored in the bud tip. In addition, loss of fusion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by deletion of mitochondrial outer or inner membrane fusion proteins (Fzo1p or Mgm1p) leads to decreased accumulation of mitochondria at the bud tip and inheritance of fitter mitochondria by buds compared with cells with no mtDNA. Conversely, increasing the accumulation and anchorage of mitochondria in the bud tip by overexpression of MMR1 results in inheritance of less-fit mitochondria by buds and decreased replicative lifespan and healthspan. Thus quantity and quality of mitochondrial inheritance are ensured by two opposing processes: bud-tip anchorage by mitochondrial fusion and Mmr1p, which favors bulk inheritance; and quality control mechanisms that promote segregation of fitter mitochondria to the bud. PMID:26764088

  9. Extensive Transcriptome Changes During Natural Onset and Release of Vegetative Bud Dormancy in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Glenn T.; Horvath, David P.; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Priest, Henry D.; Mockler, Todd C.; Strauss, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    To survive winter, many perennial plants become endodormant, a state of suspended growth maintained even in favorable growing environments. To understand vegetative bud endodormancy, we collected paradormant, endodormant, and ecodormant axillary buds from Populus trees growing under natural conditions. Of 44,441 Populus gene models analyzed using NimbleGen microarrays, we found that 1,362 (3.1%) were differentially expressed among the three dormancy states, and 429 (1.0%) were differentially expressed during only one of the two dormancy transitions (FDR p-value < 0.05). Of all differentially expressed genes, 69% were down-regulated from paradormancy to endodormancy, which was expected given the lower metabolic activity associated with endodormancy. Dormancy transitions were accompanied by changes in genes associated with DNA methylation (via RNA-directed DNA methylation) and histone modifications (via Polycomb Repressive Complex 2), confirming and extending knowledge of chromatin modifications as major features of dormancy transitions. Among the chromatin-associated genes, two genes similar to SPT (SUPPRESSOR OF TY) were strongly up-regulated during endodormancy. Transcription factor genes and gene sets that were atypically up-regulated during endodormancy include a gene that seems to encode a trihelix transcription factor and genes associated with proteins involved in responses to ethylene, cold, and other abiotic stresses. These latter transcription factors include ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3), ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN (EBP), ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF), ZINC FINGER PROTEIN 10 (ZAT10), ZAT12, and WRKY DNA-binding domain proteins. Analyses of phytohormone-associated genes suggest important changes in responses to ethylene, auxin, and brassinosteroids occur during endodormancy. We found weaker evidence for changes in genes associated with salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and little evidence for important changes in genes associated with

  10. Preformation in vegetative buds of pistachio (Pistacia vera): relationship to shoot morphology, crown structure and rootstock vigor.

    PubMed

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2007-08-01

    Effects of rootstock, shoot carbohydrate status, crop load and crown position on the number of preformed leaf primordia in the dormant terminal and lateral buds of mature and immature 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees were investigated to determine if rootstock vigor is associated with greater shoot preformation. There was no significant variation in preformation related to the factors studied, suggesting strong genetic control of preformation in 'Kerman' pistachio. The growth differences observed among trees on different rootstocks were associated with greater stimulation of neoformed growth in trees on the more vigorous rootstocks. However, most annual extension growth in mature tree crowns was preformed, contrasting with the relatively high rate of neoformation found in young tree crowns. Large amounts of neoformed growth in young trees may allow the trees to become established quickly and secure resources, whereas predominantly preformed growth in mature trees may allow for continued crown expansion without outgrowing available resources. We hypothesized that the stimulation of neoformed growth by the more vigorous rootstocks is associated with greater resource uptake or transport, or both. Understanding the source of variation in shoot extension growth on different rootstocks has important implications for orchard management practices.

  11. Analysis of leaf surfaces using scanning ion conductance microscopy.

    PubMed

    Walker, Shaun C; Allen, Stephanie; Bell, Gordon; Roberts, Clive J

    2015-05-01

    Leaf surfaces are highly complex functional systems with well defined chemistry and structure dictating the barrier and transport properties of the leaf cuticle. It is a significant imaging challenge to analyse the very thin and often complex wax-like leaf cuticle morphology in their natural state. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and to a lesser extent Atomic force microscopy are techniques that have been used to study the leaf surface but their remains information that is difficult to obtain via these approaches. SEM is able to produce highly detailed and high-resolution images needed to study leaf structures at the submicron level. It typically operates in a vacuum or low pressure environment and as a consequence is generally unable to deal with the in situ analysis of dynamic surface events at submicron scales. Atomic force microscopy also possess the high-resolution imaging required and can follow dynamic events in ambient and liquid environments, but can over exaggerate small features and cannot image most leaf surfaces due to their inherent roughness at the micron scale. Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM), which operates in a liquid environment, provides a potential complementary analytical approach able to address these issues and which is yet to be explored for studying leaf surfaces. Here we illustrate the potential of SICM on various leaf surfaces and compare the data to SEM and atomic force microscopy images on the same samples. In achieving successful imaging we also show that SICM can be used to study the wetting of hydrophobic surfaces in situ. This has potentially wider implications than the study of leaves alone as surface wetting phenomena are important in a range of fundamental and applied studies.

  12. Tumor Budding in Colorectal Carcinoma: Confirmation of Prognostic Significance and Histologic Cutoff in a Population-based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Rondell P.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Tillmans, Lori S.; Wang, Alice H.; Laird, Peter W; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Lynch, Charles F.; French, Amy J.; Slager, Susan L.; Raissian, Yassaman; Garcia, Joaquin J.; Kerr, Sarah E.; Lee, Hee Eun; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Cerhan, James R.; Limburg, Paul J.; Smyrk, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor budding in colorectal carcinoma has been associated with poor outcome in multiple studies, but the absence of an established histologic cutoff for “high” tumor budding, heterogeneity in study populations and varying methods for assessing tumor budding have hindered widespread incorporation of this parameter in clinical reports. We used an established scoring system in a population-based cohort to determine a histologic cutoff for “high” tumor budding and confirm its prognostic significance. We retrieved hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from 553 incident colorectal carcinoma cases. Each case was previously characterized for select molecular alterations and survival data. Interobserver agreement was assessed between two GI pathologists and a group of four general surgical pathologists. High budding (≥10 tumor buds in a 20× objective field) was present in 32% of cases, low budding in 46% and no budding in 22%. High tumor budding was associated with advanced pathologic stage (p<0.001), microsatellite stability (p=0.005), KRAS mutation (p=0.010) and on multivariate analysis with a greater than two times risk of cancer-specific death (HR=2.57 (1.27, 5.19)). After multivariate adjustment, via penalized smoothing splines, we found increasing tumor bud counts from 5 upward to be associated with an increasingly shortened cancer-specific survival. By this method, a tumor bud count of 10 corresponded to approximately 2.5 times risk of cancer –specific death. The interobserver agreement was good with weighted kappa of 0.70 for two GI pathologists over 121 random cases and 0.72 between all six pathologists for 20 random cases. Using an established method to assess budding on routine histologic stains, we have shown a cutoff of 10 for high tumor budding is independently associated with a significantly worse prognosis. The reproducibility data provide support for the routine widespread implementation of tumor budding in clinical reports. PMID:26200097

  13. Asymmetric nucleosomes flank promoters in the budding yeast genome.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Srinivas; Zentner, Gabriel E; Henikoff, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Nucleosomes in active chromatin are dynamic, but whether they have distinct structural conformations is unknown. To identify nucleosomes with alternative structures genome-wide, we used H4S47C-anchored cleavage mapping, which revealed that 5% of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) nucleosome positions have asymmetric histone-DNA interactions. These asymmetric interactions are enriched at nucleosome positions that flank promoters. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) sequence-based profiles of asymmetric nucleosome positions revealed a corresponding asymmetry in MNase protection near the dyad axis, suggesting that the loss of DNA contacts around H4S47 is accompanied by protection of the DNA from MNase. Chromatin immunoprecipitation mapping of selected nucleosome remodelers indicated that asymmetric nucleosomes are bound by the RSC chromatin remodeling complex, which is required for maintaining nucleosomes at asymmetric positions. These results imply that the asymmetric nucleosome-RSC complex is a metastable intermediate representing partial unwrapping and protection of nucleosomal DNA on one side of the dyad axis during chromatin remodeling.

  14. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat, and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells. PMID:24385952

  15. Consider the workhorse: Nonhomologous end joining in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Charlene H.; Bertuch, Alison A.

    2017-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are dangerous sources of genome instability and must be repaired by the cell. Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway to repair DSBs by direct ligation of the ends, with no requirement for a homologous template. While NHEJ is the primary DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells, conservation of the core NHEJ factors throughout eukaryotes make the pathway attractive for study in model organisms. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used extensively to develop a functional picture of NHEJ. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of NHEJ in S. cerevisiae. Topics include canonical end-joining, alternative end-joining, and pathway regulation. Particular attention will be paid to the NHEJ mechanism involving core factors, including Yku70/80, Dnl4, Lif1, and Nej1, as well as the various factors implicated in the processing of the broken ends. The relevance of chromatin dynamics to NHEJ will also be discussed. This review illustrates the use of S. cerevisiae as a powerful system to understand the principles of NHEJ, as well as in pioneering the direction of the field. PMID:27240172

  16. Actin and Septin Ultrastructures at the Budding Yeast Cell Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rodal, Avital A.; Kozubowski, Lukasz; Goode, Bruce L.; Drubin, David G.; Hartwig, John H.

    2005-01-01

    Budding yeast has been a powerful model organism for studies of the roles of actin in endocytosis and septins in cell division and in signaling. However, the depth of mechanistic understanding that can be obtained from such studies has been severely hindered by a lack of ultrastructural information about how actin and septins are organized at the cell cortex. To address this problem, we developed rapid-freeze and deep-etch techniques to image the yeast cell cortex in spheroplasted cells at high resolution. The cortical actin cytoskeleton assembles into conical or mound-like structures composed of short, cross-linked filaments. The Arp2/3 complex localizes near the apex of these structures, suggesting that actin patch assembly may be initiated from the apex. Mutants in cortical actin patch components with defined defects in endocytosis disrupted different stages of cortical actin patch assembly. Based on these results, we propose a model for actin function during endocytosis. In addition to actin structures, we found that septin-containing filaments assemble into two kinds of higher order structures at the cell cortex: rings and ordered gauzes. These images provide the first high-resolution views of septin organization in cells. PMID:15525671

  17. A simple biophysical model emulates budding yeast chromosome condensation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tammy MK; Heeger, Sebastian; Chaleil, Raphaël AG; Matthews, Nik; Stewart, Aengus; Wright, Jon; Lim, Carmay; Bates, Paul A; Uhlmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic chromosomes were one of the first cell biological structures to be described, yet their molecular architecture remains poorly understood. We have devised a simple biophysical model of a 300 kb-long nucleosome chain, the size of a budding yeast chromosome, constrained by interactions between binding sites of the chromosomal condensin complex, a key component of interphase and mitotic chromosomes. Comparisons of computational and experimental (4C) interaction maps, and other biophysical features, allow us to predict a mode of condensin action. Stochastic condensin-mediated pairwise interactions along the nucleosome chain generate native-like chromosome features and recapitulate chromosome compaction and individualization during mitotic condensation. Higher order interactions between condensin binding sites explain the data less well. Our results suggest that basic assumptions about chromatin behavior go a long way to explain chromosome architecture and are able to generate a molecular model of what the inside of a chromosome is likely to look like. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05565.001 PMID:25922992

  18. Regulation of the divalent metal ion transporter via membrane budding

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, KimberlyD; Foot, Natalie J; Anand, Sushma; Dalton, Hazel E; Chaudhary, Natasha; Collins, Brett M; Mathivanan, Suresh; Kumar, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is important for both normal physiology and disease. However, a basic understanding of the targeting of EV cargoes, composition and mechanism of release is lacking. Here we present evidence that the divalent metal ion transporter (DMT1) is unexpectedly regulated through release in EVs. This process involves the Nedd4-2 ubiquitin ligase, and the adaptor proteins Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 via different budding mechanisms. We show that mouse gut explants release endogenous DMT1 in EVs. Although we observed no change in the relative amount of DMT1 released in EVs from gut explants in Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 deficient mice, the extent of EVs released was significantly reduced indicating an adaptor role in biogenesis. Furthermore, using Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we show that both Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 are non-redundant positive regulators of EV release. Our results suggest that DMT1 release from the plasma membrane into EVs may represent a novel mechanism for the maintenance of iron homeostasis, which may also be important for the regulation of other membrane proteins. PMID:27462458

  19. Tanshinones extend chronological lifespan in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2014-10-01

    Natural products with anti-aging property have drawn great attention recently but examples of such compounds are exceedingly scarce. By applying a high-throughput assay based on yeast chronological lifespan measurement, we screened the anti-aging activity of 144 botanical materials and found that dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have significant anti-aging activity. Tanshinones isolated from the plant including cryptotanshione, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIa, are the active components. Among them, cryptotanshinone can greatly extend the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chronological lifespan (up to 2.5 times) in a dose- and the-time-of-addition-dependent manner at nanomolar concentrations without disruption of cell growth. We demonstrate that cryptotanshinone prolong chronological lifespan via a nutrient-dependent regime, especially essential amino acid sensing, and three conserved protein kinases Tor1, Sch9, and Gcn2 are required for cryptotanshinone-induced lifespan extension. In addition, cryptotanshinone significantly increases the lifespan of SOD2-deleted mutants. Altogether, those data suggest that cryptotanshinone might be involved in the regulation of, Tor1, Sch9, Gcn2, and Sod2, these highly conserved longevity proteins modulated by nutrients from yeast to humans.

  20. Programmed Cell Death Initiation and Execution in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Strich, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) was initially described in metazoans as a genetically controlled process leading to intracellular breakdown and engulfment by a neighboring cell . This process was distinguished from other forms of cell death like necrosis by maintenance of plasma membrane integrity prior to engulfment and the well-defined genetic system controlling this process. Apoptosis was originally described as a mechanism to reshape tissues during development. Given this context, the assumption was made that this process would not be found in simpler eukaryotes such as budding yeast. Although basic components of the apoptotic pathway were identified in yeast, initial observations suggested that it was devoid of prosurvival and prodeath regulatory proteins identified in mammalian cells. However, as apoptosis became extensively linked to the elimination of damaged cells, key PCD regulatory proteins were identified in yeast that play similar roles in mammals. This review highlights recent discoveries that have permitted information regarding PCD regulation in yeast to now inform experiments in animals. PMID:26272996

  1. Consider the workhorse: Nonhomologous end-joining in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Charlene H; Bertuch, Alison A

    2016-10-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are dangerous sources of genome instability and must be repaired by the cell. Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway to repair DSBs by direct ligation of the ends, with no requirement for a homologous template. While NHEJ is the primary DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells, conservation of the core NHEJ factors throughout eukaryotes makes the pathway attractive for study in model organisms. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used extensively to develop a functional picture of NHEJ. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of NHEJ in S. cerevisiae. Topics include canonical end-joining, alternative end-joining, and pathway regulation. Particular attention will be paid to the NHEJ mechanism involving core factors, including Yku70/80, Dnl4, Lif1, and Nej1, as well as the various factors implicated in the processing of the broken ends. The relevance of chromatin dynamics to NHEJ will also be discussed. This review illustrates the use of S. cerevisiae as a powerful system to understand the principles of NHEJ, as well as in pioneering the direction of the field.

  2. Good Bud, Bad Bud

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus cultivars produce branches that can be characterized as “floral” and “vegetative”. Both types of mother branches produce the same number of daughter shoots, but floral mother branches produce a greater proportion of inflorescences (>95%) compared to vegetative shoots. In contrast, vegetative ...

  3. Luminal mitosis drives epithelial cell dispersal within the branching ureteric bud

    PubMed Central

    Packard, Adam; Georgas, Kylie; Michos, Odyssé; Riccio, Paul; Cebrian, Cristina; Combes, Alexander N.; Ju, Adler; Ferrer-Vaquer, Anna; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Zong, Hui; Little, Melissa H.; Costantini, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Summary The ureteric bud is an epithelial tube that undergoes branching morphogenesis to form the renal collecting system. Though development of a normal kidney depends on proper ureteric bud morphogenesis, the cellular events underlying this process remain obscure. Here, we used time-lapse microscopy together with several genetic labeling methods to observe ureteric bud cell behaviors in developing mouse kidneys. We observed an unexpected cell behavior in the branching tips of the ureteric bud, which we term “mitosis-associated cell dispersal”. Pre-mitotic ureteric tip cells delaminate from the epithelium and divide within the lumen; while one daughter cell retains a basal process, allowing it to reinsert into the epithelium at the site of origin, the other daughter cell reinserts at a position one to three cell diameters away. Given the high rate of cell division in ureteric tips, this cellular behavior causes extensive epithelial cell rearrangements that may contribute to renal branching morphogenesis. PMID:24183650

  4. HIV Assembly and Budding: Ca(2+) Signaling and Non-ESCRT Proteins Set the Stage.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Lorna S; Carter, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    More than a decade has elapsed since the link between the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery and HIV-1 protein trafficking and budding was first identified. L domains in HIV-1 Gag mediate recruitment of ESCRT which function in bud abscission releasing the viral particle from the host cell. Beyond virus budding, the ESCRT machinery is also involved in the endocytic pathway, cytokinesis, and autophagy. In the past few years, the number of non-ESCRT host proteins shown to be required in the assembly process has also grown. In this paper, we highlight the role of recently identified cellular factors that link ESCRT machinery to calcium signaling machinery and we suggest that this liaison contributes to setting the stage for productive ESCRT recruitment and mediation of abscission. Parallel paradigms for non-ESCRT roles in virus budding and cytokinesis will be discussed.

  5. Automatic nuclear bud detection using ellipse fitting, moving sticks or top-hat transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Sun, C; Vallotton, P; Fenech, M; Pham, T D

    2013-11-01

    Micronucleus assays are extensively used by biologists to assess genotoxicity and to monitor human exposure to genotoxic materials. As recent studies suggested that nuclear buds can be a new source of micronuclei formed in interphase, the quantification of nuclear buds, which are micronucleus like objects that are attached to the nuclei in interphase, in normal and control group is needed. Three automatic nuclear bud detection algorithms fit for different situations are proposed in this paper. One is based on ellipse fitting, one is based on a stick model and the other is based on the top-hat transform. Comparison of the three methods is also given in this paper. Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithms are all effective and efficient for nuclear bud detection.

  6. Selective Entrapment of Extrachromosomally Amplified DNA by Nuclear Budding and Micronucleation during S Phase

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Noriaki; Itoh, Nobuo; Utiyama, Hiroyasu; Wahl, Geoffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    Acentric, autonomously replicating extrachromosomal structures called double-minute chromosomes (DMs) frequently mediate oncogene amplification in human tumors. We show that DMs can be removed from the nucleus by a novel micronucleation mechanism that is initiated by budding of the nuclear membrane during S phase. DMs containing c-myc oncogenes in a colon cancer cell line localized to and replicated at the nuclear periphery. Replication inhibitors increased micronucleation; cell synchronization and bromodeoxyuridine–pulse labeling demonstrated de novo formation of buds and micronuclei during S phase. The frequencies of S-phase nuclear budding and micronucleation were increased dramatically in normal human cells by inactivating p53, suggesting that an S-phase function of p53 minimizes the probability of producing the broken chromosome fragments that induce budding and micronucleation. These data have implications for understanding the behavior of acentric DNA in interphase nuclei and for developing chemotherapeutic strategies based on this new mechanism for DM elimination. PMID:9508765

  7. Lodgepole pine: the first evidence of seed-based somatic embryogenesis and the expression of embryogenesis marker genes in shoot bud cultures of adult trees.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Young; Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Park, Ji-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2010-11-01

    Of the various alternatives for cloning elite conifers, somatic embryogenesis (SE) appears to be the best option. In recent years, significant areas of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest have been devastated by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) in Western Canada. In an attempt to establish an SE propagation system for MPB-resistant lodgepole pine, several families displaying varying levels of resistance were selected for experimentation involving shoot bud and immature seed explants. In bud cultures, eight embryogenic lines were induced from 2 of 15 genotypes following various treatments. Genotype had an important influence on embryogenic culture initiation, and this effect was consistent over time. These lines were identified by microscopic observation and genetic markers. Despite the abundance of early somatic embryos, the cultures have yet to develop into mature embryos. In contrast, immature zygotic embryos (ZEs) cultured from megagametophytes initiated SE at an early dominance stage via nodule-type callus in 1 of 10 genotypes. As part of the study, putative embryogenesis-specific genes, WOX2 (WUSCHELL homeobox 2) and HAP3A, were analyzed in cultures of both shoot bud explants and ZEs. On the basis of these analyses, we postulate that PcHAP3A was expressed mainly in callus and may be involved in cell division, whereas WOX2 was expressed mainly in embryonal mass (EM)-like tissues. The findings from this study, based on molecular assessment, suggest that the cell lines derived from bud cultures were truly EM. Moreover, these experimental observations suggest that PcWOX2 could be used as an early genetic marker to discriminate embryogenic cultures from callus.

  8. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of polyploid giant cancer cells and budding progeny cells reveals several distinct pathways for ovarian cancer development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiwu; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Hanash, Samir; Liu, Jinsong

    2013-01-01

    Polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) are a morphologically distinct subgroup of human tumor cells with increased nuclear size or multiple nuclei, but they are generally considered unimportant because they are presumed to be nondividing and thus nonviable. We have recently shown that these large cancer cells are not only viable but also can divide asymmetrically and yield progeny cancer cells with cancer stem-like properties via budding division. To further understand the molecular events involved in the regulation of PGCCs and the generation of their progeny cancer cells, we comparatively analyzed the proteomic profiles of PGCCs, PGCCs with budding daughter cells, and regular control cancer cells from the HEY and SKOv3 human ovarian cancer cell lines with and without CoCl2. We used a high-throughput iTRAQ-based proteomic methodology coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectroscopy to determine the differentiated regulated proteins. We performed Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses to validate the differences in the expression patterns of a variety of proteins between PGCCs or budding PGCCs and regular cancer cells identified by iTRAQ approach and also a selected group of proteins from the literature. The differentially regulated proteins included proteins involved in response to hypoxia, stem cell generation, chromatin remodeling, cell-cycle regulation, and invasion and metastasis. In particular, we found that HIF-1alpha and its known target STC1 are upregulated in PGCCs. In addition, we found that a panel of stem cell-regulating factors and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition regulatory transcription factors were upregulated in budding PGCCs, whereas expression of the histone 1 family of nucleosomal linker proteins was consistently lower in PGCCs than in control cells. Thus, proteomic expression patterns provide valuable insight into the underlying mechanisms of PGCC formation and the relationship between PGCCs and

  9. Leaf hydraulics II: vascularized tissues.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Fulton E; Holbrook, N Michele; Stroock, Abraham D

    2014-01-07

    Current models of leaf hydration employ an Ohm's law analogy of the leaf as an ideal capacitor, neglecting the resistance to flow between cells, or treat the leaf as a plane sheet with a source of water at fixed potential filling the mid-plane, neglecting the discrete placement of veins as well as their resistance. We develop a model of leaf hydration that considers the average conductance of the vascular network to a representative areole (region bounded by the vascular network), and represent the volume of tissue within the areole as a poroelastic composite of cells and air spaces. Solutions to the 3D flow problem are found by numerical simulation, and these results are then compared to 1D models with exact solutions for a range of leaf geometries, based on a survey of temperate woody plants. We then show that the hydration times given by these solutions are well approximated by a sum of the ideal capacitor and plane sheet times, representing the time for transport through the vasculature and tissue respectively. We then develop scaling factors relating this approximate solution to the 3D model, and examine the dependence of these scaling factors on leaf geometry. Finally, we apply a similar strategy to reduce the dimensions of the steady state problem, in the context of peristomatal transpiration, and consider the relation of transpirational gradients to equilibrium leaf water potential measurements.

  10. Development of a full-genome cDNA clone of Citrus leaf blotch virus and infection of citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Vives, María Carmen; Martín, Susana; Ambrós, Silvia; Renovell, Agueda; Navarro, Luis; Pina, Jose Antonio; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José

    2008-11-01

    Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV), a member of the family Flexiviridae, has a ~9-kb single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA encapsidated by a 41-kDa coat protein. CLBV isolates are associated with symptom production in citrus including leaf blotching of Dweet tangor and stem pitting in Etrog citron (Dweet mottle disease), and some isolates are associated with bud union crease on trifoliate rootstocks, but Koch's postulates for this virus were not fulfilled. A full-genome cDNA of CLBV isolate SRA-153, which induces bud union crease, was placed under the T7 promoter (clone T7-CLBV), or between the 35S promoter and the Nos-t terminator, with or without a ribozyme sequence downstream of the CLBV sequence (clones 35SRbz-CLBV and 35S-CLBV). RNA transcripts from T7-CLBV failed to infect Etrog citron and Nicotiana occidentalis and N. benthamiana plants, whereas agro-inoculation with binary vectors carrying 35SRbz-CLBV or 35S-CLBV, and the p19 silencing suppressor, caused systemic infection and production of normal CLBV virions. Virus accumulation was similar in citron plants directly agro-infiltrated, or mechanically inoculated with wild-type or 35SRbz-CLBV-derived virions from Nicotiana, and the three sources incited the symptoms characteristic of Dweet mottle disease, but not bud union crease. Our results show that (1) virions derived from an infectious clone show the same replication, movement and pathogenicity characteristics as the wild-type CLBV; (2) CLBV is the causal agent of Dweet mottle disease but not of the bud union crease syndrome; and (3) for the first time an RNA virus could be successfully agro-inoculated on citrus plants. This infectious clone may become a useful viral vector for citrus genomic studies.

  11. q-deformations and the dynamics of the larch bud-moth population cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, Sudharsana V.; Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    The concept of q-deformation of numbers is applied here to improve and modify a tritrophic population dynamics model to understand defoliation of the coniferous larch trees due to outbreaks of the larch bud-moth insect population. The results are in qualitative agreement with observed behavior, with the larch needle lengths, bud-moth population and parasitoid populations all showing 9-period cycles which are mutually synchronized.

  12. Ultrastructural and physiological analysis of cytokinin-induced bud formation in the moss Funaria hygrometrica

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The author proposes that the morphological events associated with Fumaria budding are due to cytokinin activating the Ca/sup 2 +/-CAM branch of the Ca/sup 2 +/ messenger system to initiate the response, and the protein kinase C branch to maintain the response. Several lines of evidence support this hypothesis. (1) 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) ligands, which alter Ca/sup 2 +/ flux through voltage-operated channels, vary the budding response. The DHP antagonists, (-) 202-791 and nifedipine, block cytokinin-induced bud formation, while the agonists, (+)202-791 and CGP 28392, in the absence of hormone, stimulate initial formation of every cell. These initials rarely develop further, suggesting that increasing Ca/sup 2 +/ flux can initiate the response but is inadequate to maintain the response. (2) The amount of /sup 3/-H label incorporated into inositol phosphates increases with cytokinin treatment, suggesting that cytokinin stimulates the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP/sub 2/), and event that triggers both branches of the Ca/sup 2 +/ messenger system. (3) TPA activates protein kinase C and works synergistically with the Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore A23187 to bypass the hormone-receptor mediated events and directly activate both arms of the Ca/sup 2 +/ messenger system. In Funaria these agents, when used separately, cause a slight increase in the number of buds; when used simultaneously they stimulate budding 9 fold. (4) 5-hydroxytryptamine, a stimulator of PIP/sub 2/ hydrolysis, increases the number of caulonemata. When used in conjunction with (+) 202-791, the early stages of budding are enhanced. Neomycin, used in concentrations that block PIP/sub 2/ hydrolysis (blocks IP/sub 3/ but not DG formation) increases the number of cytokinin-induced buds. These data suggest that protein kinase C activation is operating during sustained bud formation.

  13. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  14. Secondary metabolites from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica and their in vitro anti-diabetic activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiang; Cheng, Zhuoyang; He, Qingjun; Lin, Bin; Gao, Pinyi; Li, Lingzhi; Liu, Qingbo; Song, Shaojiang

    2016-04-01

    Four new compounds (1, 2, 7 and 8) and twenty known compounds were isolated from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR and HR-ESIMS spectroscopic data analyses. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 are a pair of diastereoisomers possessing a rare chemical structure, and their absolute configurations were determined by comparing their experimental and calculated ECD spectra. Furthermore, all the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), especially 1 and 2, which displayed both significant inhibitions. In addition, the possible action mechanism of the active compounds was also explored by using molecular docking studies.

  15. UV radiation is the primary factor driving the variation in leaf phenolics across Chinese grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Litong; Niu, Kechang; Wu, Yi; Geng, Yan; Mi, Zhaorong; Flynn, Dan FB; He, Jin-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to the role leaf phenolics in defending against ultraviolet B (UVB) under previously controlled conditions, we hypothesize that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) could be a primary factor driving the variation in leaf phenolics in plants over a large geographic scale. We measured leaf total phenolics, ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVAC), and corresponding leaf N, P, and specific leaf area (SLA) in 151 common species. These species were from 84 sites across the Tibetan Plateau and Inner Mongolian grasslands of China with contrasting UVR (354 vs. 161 mW/cm2 on average). Overall, leaf phenolics and UVAC were all significantly higher on the Tibetan Plateau than in the Inner Mongolian grasslands, independent of phylogenetic relationships between species. Regression analyses showed that the variation in leaf phenolics was strongly affected by climatic factors, particularly UVR, and soil attributes across all sites. Structural equation modeling (SEM) identified the primary role of UVR in determining leaf phenolic concentrations, after accounting for colinearities with altitude, climatic, and edaphic factors. In addition, phenolics correlated positively with UVAC and SLA, and negatively with leaf N and N: P. These relationships were steeper in the lower-elevation Inner Mongolian than on the Tibetan Plateau grasslands. Our data support that the variation in leaf phenolics is controlled mainly by UV radiation, implying high leaf phenolics facilitates the adaptation of plants to strong irradiation via its UV-screening and/or antioxidation functions, particularly on the Tibetan Plateau. Importantly, our results also suggest that leaf phenolics may influence on vegetation attributes and indirectly affect ecosystem processes by covarying with leaf functional traits. PMID:24363898

  16. Molecular anatomy of tunicate senescence: reversible function of mitochondrial and nuclear genes associated with budding cycles.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kaz; Kitamura, Seigo; Sekida, Satoko; Tsuda, Masayuki; Sunanaga, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    Zooids of the asexual strain of Polyandrocarpa misakiensis have a lifespan of 4-5 months; before dying, they produce many buds, enabling continuation of the strain. This study was designed to investigate the nature of gene inactivation and reactivation during this continuous process of senescence and budding. During senescence, the zooidal epidermis showed acid β-galactosidase activity, lost proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunoreactivity and became ultrastructurally worn, indicating that the epidermis is a major tissue affected by the ageing process. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis showed that the genes encoding mitochondrial respiratory chains (MRCs) engaged in decreased transcriptional activity in senescent adults compared with younger adults. The results of in situ hybridization showed that the epidermis dramatically attenuates MRC expression during ageing but restores gene activity when budding commences. During budding and ageing, the nuclear gene Eed (a polycomb group component) was activated and inactivated in a pattern similar to that observed in MRCs. In buds, RNA interference (RNAi) of Eed attenuated Eed transcripts but did not affect the gene expression of pre-activated MRCs. A tunicate humoral factor, TC14-3, could induce Eed, accompanying the reactivation of MRC in adult zooids. When RNAi of Eed and Eed induction were performed simultaneously, zooidal cells and tissues failed to engage in MRC reactivation, indicating the involvement of Eed in MRC activation. Results of this study provide evidence that the mitochondrial gene activities of Polyandrocarpa can be reversed during senescence and budding, suggesting that they are regulated by nuclear polycomb group genes.

  17. Circulating cytokeratin-positive cells and tumor budding in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Märkl, Bruno; Wilhelms, Narjes; Anthuber, Matthias; Schenkirsch, Gerhard; Schlimok, Günter; Oruzio, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether circulating cytokeratin-positive (CK+) cells in the mesenteric blood of resected colorectal specimens are prognostic and correlate with tumor budding. METHODS Fifty-six colorectal specimens were collected between 9/2007 and 7/2008. Blood from the mesenteric vein was drawn immediately after receiving the fresh and unfixed specimens in the pathology department. After separation of the mononuclear cells by Ficoll-Hypaque density-gradient centrifugation, cytological smears were immunocytochemically stained for CK18. Tumor budding was evaluated on slides stained for pan-cytokeratin. The identification of ≥ 30 buds/1.3 mm2 was defined as high grade budding. RESULTS CK+ cells and clusters were identified in 29 (48%) and 14 (25%) of the samples, respectively. Two cells were identified in one of three non-malignant cases. Clusters were found exclusively in malignant cases. The occurrence of CK+ cells or clusters was not associated with any of the evaluated clinicopathological factors, including surgical technique and tumor budding. Moreover, the occurrence of CK+ cells or clusters had no influence on the cancer-specific survival [75 mo (CI: 61; 88) vs 83 mo (CI: 72; 95) and 80 mo (CI: 63; 98) vs 79 mo (CI: 69; 89), respectively]. CONCLUSION CK+ cells and showed neither prognostic significance nor an association with tumor budding. It is very likely that CK18-staining is not specific enough to identify the relevant cells. PMID:28008384

  18. Cryopreservation of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) in vitro buds using vitrification-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Ozudogru, E A; Kirdok, E; Kaya, E; Capuana, M; Benelli, C; Engelmann, E

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the efficiency of three vitrification-based cryopreservation techniques, i.e. vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification were compared for cryopreserving Sequoia sempervirens apical and basal buds sampled from in vitro shoot cultures. The effect of cold-hardening of mother-plants and of bud culture medium and sucrose preculture was also investigated. Culture of apical and basal buds sampled from cold-hardened mother-plants on Quoirin and Lepoivre medium with activated charcoal had a positive effect on regrowth. Only droplet-vitrification ensured survival and regrowth after cryopreservation. After cryopreservation, regeneration of apical buds was possible for PVS2 exposure durations between 90 and 180 min but it remained low, with a maximum of 18 percent after 135 min treatment. With basal buds, regeneration after cryopreservation was possible over a larger range of PVS2 treatment durations, between 30 and 180 min. The highest regeneration percentage was slightly higher (22 percent) than that measured with apical buds, and was also achieved after 135 min PVS2 exposure.

  19. High-Grade Tumor Budding Stratifies Early-Stage Cervical Cancer with Recurrence Risk

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xia; Guo, Shuang; Wang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated prognostic significance of tumor budding in early-stage cervical cancer (ESCC) following radical surgery and its contribution to improve the stratification of patients with recurrence risk. Methods The archival medical records and H&E-stained slides of 643 patients with IA2-IIA stage cervical cancer who underwent radical surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Clinicopathological parameters were noted, and tumor buds were counted using immunohistochemistry for each case. The prognostic significance of tumor budding was analyzed. Prediction models that comprised tumor budding were established, and the performance was compared between the novel models and classic criteria via log-rank test and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Tumors with high-grade tumor budding (HTB) exhibited a substantially increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio = 4.287, P < 0.001). Nine predictive models for recurrence were established, in which HTB was combined with recognized risk factors. The model using of at least two risk factors of HTB, tumor size ≥ 4 cm, deep stromal invasion of outer 1/3, and lymphovascular space invasion to stratify patients with an intermediate risk was most predictive of recurrence compared with the classic criteria. Conclusions Tumor budding is an independent, unfavorable, prognostic factor for ESCC patients following radical surgery and holds promise for improved recurrence risk stratification. PMID:27861522

  20. Resprouting as a key functional trait: how buds, protection and resources drive persistence after fire.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P J; Lawes, M J; Midgley, J J; Lamont, B B; Ojeda, F; Burrows, G E; Enright, N J; Knox, K J E

    2013-01-01

    Resprouting as a response to disturbance is now widely recognized as a key functional trait among woody plants and as the basis for the persistence niche. However, the underlying mechanisms that define resprouting responses to disturbance are poorly conceptualized. Resprouting ability is constrained by the interaction of the disturbance regime that depletes the buds and resources needed to fund resprouting, and the environment that drives growth and resource allocation. We develop a buds-protection-resources (BPR) framework for understanding resprouting in fire-prone ecosystems, based on bud bank location, bud protection, and how buds are resourced. Using this framework we go beyond earlier emphases on basal resprouting and highlight the importance of apical, epicormic and below-ground resprouting to the persistence niche. The BPR framework provides insights into: resprouting typologies that include both fire resisters (i.e. survive fire but do not resprout) and fire resprouters; the methods by which buds escape fire effects, such as thick bark; and the predictability of community assembly of resprouting types in relation to site productivity, disturbance regime and competition. Furthermore, predicting the consequences of global change is enhanced by the BPR framework because it potentially forecasts the retention or loss of above-ground biomass.

  1. Remote sensing of forest canopy and leaf biochemical contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Matson, Pamela A.; Card, Don H.; Aber, John D.; Wessman, Carol; Swanberg, Nancy; Spanner, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Recent research on the remote sensing of forest leaf and canopy biochemical contents suggests that the shortwave IR region contains this information; laboratory analyses of dry ground leaves have yielded reliable predictive relationships between both leaf nitrogen and lignin with near-IR spectra. Attention is given to the application of these laboratory techniques to a limited set of spectra from fresh, whole leaves of conifer species. The analysis of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer data reveals that total water content variations in deciduous forest canopies appear as overall shifts in the brightness of raw spectra.

  2. Consequences of Repeated Defoliation on Belowground Bud Banks of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) in the Dongting Lake Wetlands, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Zheng-Miao; Xie, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years. The composition of bud banks, which consisted of long and short rhizome buds, also did not change significantly in response to repeated defoliation. Nevertheless, the ramet height and the shoot, root, and rhizome mass of C. brevicuspis declined significantly under repeated defoliation. Our findings suggest that bud banks are a conservative reproductive strategy that enables C. brevicuspis to tolerate a certain amount of defoliation. The maintenance of large bud banks after repeated defoliation may enable C. brevicuspis populations to regenerate and persist in disturbed habitats. However, bud bank density of C. brevicuspis might decline in the long term because the amount of carbon stored in rhizome buds and plants is reduced by frequent defoliation.

  3. Consequences of Repeated Defoliation on Belowground Bud Banks of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) in the Dongting Lake Wetlands, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Zheng-Miao; Xie, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years. The composition of bud banks, which consisted of long and short rhizome buds, also did not change significantly in response to repeated defoliation. Nevertheless, the ramet height and the shoot, root, and rhizome mass of C. brevicuspis declined significantly under repeated defoliation. Our findings suggest that bud banks are a conservative reproductive strategy that enables C. brevicuspis to tolerate a certain amount of defoliation. The maintenance of large bud banks after repeated defoliation may enable C. brevicuspis populations to regenerate and persist in disturbed habitats. However, bud bank density of C. brevicuspis might decline in the long term because the amount of carbon stored in rhizome buds and plants is reduced by frequent defoliation. PMID:27524993

  4. Diffuse and specular characteristics of leaf reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Lois

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution of current understanding of the mechanisms of leaf reflectance is reviewed. The use of measurements of polarized reflectance to separate leaf reflectance into diffuse and specular components is discussed. A section on the factors influencing leaf reflectance - leaf structure and physiological disturbances - is included along with discussion on the manner in which these influences are manifested.

  5. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface...

  6. Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling using Fresnel's equation (Kumar and Silva, 1973) and Snell's Law successfully approximated the spectral curve for a 0.25-mm turgid oak leaf lying on a Halon background. Calculations were made for ten interfaces, air-wax, wax-cellulose, cellulose-water, cellulose-air, air-water, and their inverses. A water path of 0.5 mm yielded acceptable results, and it was found that assignment of more weight to those interfaces involving air versus water or cellulose, and less to those involving wax, decreased the standard deviation of the error for all wavelengths. Data suggest that the air-cell interface is not the only important contributor to the overall reflectance of a leaf. Results also argue against the assertion that the near infrared plateau is a function of cell structure within the leaf.

  7. Experiments in Whole Leaf Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, J. C.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Described is a simple experimental system, which uses radioactive carbon dioxide to study whole leaf photosynthesis under a variety of conditions. Other experiments and simple apparatus for the experiments are also described. (Author/RH)

  8. Investigation on the relationship between leaf water use efficiency and physio-biochemical traits of winter wheat under rained condition.

    PubMed

    Baodi, Dong; Mengyu, Liu; Hongbo, Shao; Quanqi, Li; Lei, Shi; Feng, Du; Zhengbin, Zhang

    2008-04-01

    Different statistical methods and path analysis were used to study the relationship between leaf water use efficiency (WUE) and physio-biochemical traits for 19 wheat genotypes, including photosynthesis rate (P(n)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), transpiration rate (T(r)), intercellular concentration of carbon oxide (C(i)), leaf water potential (Psi(w)), leaf temperature, wax content, leaf relative water content (RWC), rate of water loss from excised-leaf (RWL), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. The results showed that photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were the most important leaf WUE variables under rained conditions. Based on the results of five statistical analyses, it is reasonable to assume that high leaf WUE wheat under the rained could be obtained by selecting breeding materials with high photosynthesis rate, low transpiration rate and stomatal conductance.

  9. Origin of irreversibility of cell cycle start in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Charvin, Gilles; Oikonomou, Catherine; Siggia, Eric D; Cross, Frederick R

    2010-01-19

    Budding yeast cells irreversibly commit to a new division cycle at a regulatory transition called Start. This essential decision-making step involves the activation of the SBF/MBF transcription factors. SBF/MBF promote expression of the G1 cyclins encoded by CLN1 and CLN2. Cln1,2 can activate their own expression by inactivating the Whi5 repressor of SBF/MBF. The resulting transcriptional positive feedback provides an appealing, but as yet unproven, candidate for generating irreversibility of Start. Here, we investigate the logic of the Start regulatory module by quantitative single-cell time-lapse microscopy, using strains in which expression of key regulators is efficiently controlled by changes of inducers in a microfluidic chamber. We show that Start activation is ultrasensitive to G1 cyclin. In the absence of CLN1,2-dependent positive feedback, we observe that Start transit is reversible, due to reactivation of the Whi5 transcriptional repressor. Introduction of the positive feedback loop makes Whi5 inactivation and Start activation irreversible, which therefore guarantees unidirectional entry into S phase. A simple mathematical model to describe G1 cyclin turn on at Start, entirely constrained by empirically measured parameters, shows that the experimentally measured ultrasensitivity and transcriptional positive feedback are necessary and sufficient dynamical characteristics to make the Start transition a bistable and irreversible switch. Our study thus demonstrates that Start irreversibility is a property that arises from the architecture of the system (Whi5/SBF/Cln2 loop), rather than the consequence of the regulation of a single component (e.g., irreversible protein degradation).

  10. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf

  11. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Michelle; Sigmon, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm(2) leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf

  12. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, Kevin A.; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M.; Dawson, Todd E.; Franks, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem–leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO2 concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO2 on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem–leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO2 assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  13. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Kevin A; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M; Dawson, Todd E; Franks, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem-leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO₂ concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO₂ concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO₂ on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem-leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO₂ assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand.

  14. Vascular budding in Symplegma brakenhielmi and the evolution of coloniality in styelid ascidians.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Stefania; Brown, Federico D

    2017-03-15

    Individuals of colonial animals (e.g. zooids) are in continuous turnover. In ascidians colonial or solitary species have evolved by convergence multiple times. Colonial Botryllus and Botrylloides are well-studied genera that exhibit colony-wide developmental mechanisms that regulate synchronous and orchestrated cycles of budding and turnover of zooids. The origins of modular developmental mechanisms that facilitated the evolution of coloniality in this group remain unclear. To reconstruct ancestral states of coloniality we studied Symplegma brakenhielmi, a sister taxon of the botryllids. S. brakenhielmi zooids are embedded in a common tunic and present a similar vascular system as the botrylloides, however development and turnover of zooids occurs asynchronously and in a more independent manner. We generated a table of common stages of budding in Symplegma and Botryllus for comparative studies of asexual development. We tested dependent processes of budding among individuals of the colony by systemic bud or zooid removals. Although our results showed a higher degree of independence in bud development in S. brakenhielmi, we found a subtle colony-wide regulatory mechanism of modular development, i.e. new buds expedited development after the removal of all buds in the colony. Next, we characterized external morphology, ultrastructure, and abundance of circulatory blood cells in the vascular system of S. brakenhielmi. Macrophage-like cells (MLCs) are involved in zooid resorption and turnover. Proportions of MLCs in the blood of S. brakenhielmi corresponded to the peak of occurrence of this cell type during the budding cycle of B. schlosseri. We found several new blood cell types in S. brakenhielmi, including two cell types that resemble circulatory progenitor stem cells of other botryllid colonial ascidians. These cells showed features of undifferentiated cells and expressed mitotic marker Phospho-histone H3. Comparative studies of S. brakenhielmi and B. schlosseri

  15. Sugar binding to purified fractions from bovine taste buds and epithelial tissue. Relationships to bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Lum, C K; Henkin, R I

    1976-02-24

    Binding of various sugars was compared in purified subfractions of taste buds isolated from bovine circumvallate papillae and of non-taste bud-bearing epithelium isolated from tissue surrounding these papillae. Binding of 14C-labeled sugars was greater in purified subfractions obtained from taste bud than from non-taste bud-bearing tissue and was, in general, greater in those taste bud subfractions in which a greater membrane purification was achieved. Binding specificity of the 14C-labeled sugars sucrose, fructose, glucose and of 14C-labeled cyclamate and saccharine was measured by competition of each 14C-labeled sugar or synthetic sweetener with its unlabeled homologous sugar in P4(B) taste bud subfractions; this binding, as shown for sucrose, was reversible and temperature dependent. Essentially no competition of the 14C-lageled sugars sucrose, fructose, glucose or 14C-labeled cyclamate and saccharine by their respective unlabeled homologues occurred in epithelial tissue P4(B) subfractions; this binding was not reversible. Binding specificity was further observed by the competition of 14C-labeled sucrose, fructose and glucose with each unlabeled sugar for binding sites on P4(B) taste bud subfractions; unlabeled sucrose was more effective in competing with each 14C-labeled surgar than was unlabeled fructose or glucose. The relatively non-sweet sugar lactose did not compete with 14C-labeled lactose in P4(B) subfractions from either taste bud or non-taste bud-bearing epithelial tissue. Binding of 14C-labeled sucrose in purified P4(B) bud subfractions was inhibited by increased concentrations of unlabeled sucrose, phospholipase C, neuraminidase, EDTA, NaCl and urea. Dissociation constants for sugar or synthetic sweetener binding were low (approx. 10(-3) M) but in a rank order (sucrose greater than fructose greater than glucose greater than saccharine) consistent with preference and electrophysiological responses in cow. The cow is behaviorally indifferent to

  16. Espin cytoskeletal proteins in the sensory cells of rodent taste buds.

    PubMed

    Sekerková, Gabriella; Freeman, David; Mugnaini, Enrico; Bartles, James R

    2005-09-01

    Espins are multifunctional actin-bundling proteins that are highly enriched in the microvilli of certain chemosensory and mechanosensory cells, where they are believed to regulate the integrity and/or dimensions of the parallel-actin-bundle cytoskeletal scaffold. We have determined that, in rats and mice, affinity purified espin antibody intensely labels the lingual and palatal taste buds of the oral cavity and taste buds in the pharyngo-laryngeal region. Intense immunolabeling was observed in the apical, microvillar region of taste buds, while the level of cytoplasmic labeling in taste bud cells was considerably lower. Taste buds contain tightly packed collections of sensory cells (light, or type II plus type III) and supporting cells (dark, or type I), which can be distinguished by microscopic features and cell type-specific markers. On the basis of results obtained using an antigen-retrieval method in conjunction with double immunofluorescence for espin and sensory taste cell-specific markers, we propose that espins are expressed predominantly in the sensory cells of taste buds. In confocal images of rat circumvallate taste buds, we counted 21.5 +/- 0.3 espin-positive cells/taste bud, in agreement with a previous report showing 20.7 +/- 1.3 light cells/taste bud when counted at the ultrastructural level. The espin antibody labeled spindle-shaped cells with round nuclei and showed 100% colocalization with cell-specific markers recognizing all type II [inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type III (IP(3)R(3))(,) alpha-gustducin, protein-specific gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5)] and a subpopulation of type III (IP(3)R(3), PGP9.5) taste cells. On average, 72%, 50%, and 32% of the espin-positive taste cells were labeled with antibodies to IP(3)R(3), alpha-gustducin, and PGP9.5, respectively. Upon sectional analysis, the taste buds of rat circumvallate papillae commonly revealed a multi-tiered, espin-positive apical cytoskeletal apparatus. One espin-positive zone, a

  17. Co-ordination between Leaf Initiation and Leaf Appearance in Field-grown Maize (Zea mays): Genotypic Differences in Response of Rates to Temperature

    PubMed Central

    PADILLA, J. M.; OTEGUI, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims In maize (Zea mays), early flowering date, which is a valuable trait for several cropping systems, is associated with the number of leaves per plant and the leaf appearance rate. Final leaf number depends upon the rate and duration of leaf initiation. The aims of this study were to analyse the genotypic variation in the response to temperature of leaf appearance rate and leaf initiation rate, and to investigate the co-ordination between these processes under field conditions. • Methods Sixteen hybrids of different origins were grown under six contrasting environmental conditions. The number of appeared leaves was measured twice a week to estimate leaf appearance rate (leaves d−1). Plants were dissected at four sampling dates to determine the number of initiated leaves and estimate leaf initiation rate (leaves d−1). A co-ordination model was fitted between the number of initiated leaves and the number of appeared leaves. This model was validated using two independent data sets. • Key Results Significant (P < 0·05) differences were found among hybrids in the response to temperature of leaf initiation rate (plastochron) and leaf appearance rate (phyllochron). Plastochron ranged between 24·3 and 36·4 degree days (°Cd), with a base temperature (Tb) between 4·0 and 8·2 °C. Phyllochron ranged between 48·6 and 65·5 °Cd, with a Tb between 2·9 and 5·0 °C. A single co-ordination model was fitted between the two processes for all hybrids and environments (r2 = 0·96, P < 0·0001), and was successfully validated (coefficient of variation < 9 %). • Conclusions This work has established the existence of genotypic variability in leaf initiation rate and leaf appearance rate in response to temperature, which is a promising result for maize breeding; and the interdependence between these processes from seedling emergence up to floral initiation. PMID:16126778

  18. Differentiated dynamics of bud dormancy and growth in temperate fruit trees relating to bud phenology adaptation, the case of apple and almond trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Yaacoubi, Adnane; Malagi, Gustavo; Oukabli, Ahmed; Citadin, Idemir; Hafidi, Majida; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil. Low-chill almond cultivars offered an additional relevant plant material for comparison with apple in northern Morocco. Divergent patterns of dormancy and growth dynamics were clearly found in apple tree between southern France and southern Brazil. Divergences were less pronounced between France and Morocco. A global view outlined main differences in the dormancy chronology and intensity, the transition between endordormancy and ecodormancy and the duration of ecodormancy. A key role of bud rehydration in the transition period was shown. High-chill cultivars would be submitted in mild conditions to heterogeneous rehydration capacities linked to insufficient chill fulfillment and excessive forcing linked to high temperatures. This would favor bud competitions and consequently excessive flowering durations and weak flowering. Low chilling requirements in apple and almond would conversely confer biological capacities to tolerate superficial dormancy and abrupt transition from endordormancy to ecodormancy without important heterogeneous rehydration states within buds. It may also assume that low-chill cultivars can also tolerate high temperatures during ecodormancy as well as extended flowering durations.

  19. DNA barcoding to identify leaf preference of leafcutting bees

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Leafcutting bees (Megachile: Megachilidae) cut leaves from various trees, shrubs, wildflowers and grasses to partition and encase brood cells in hollow plant stems, decaying logs or in the ground. The identification of preferred plant species via morphological characters of the leaf fragments is challenging and direct observation of bees cutting leaves from certain plant species are difficult. As such, data are poor on leaf preference of leafcutting bees. In this study, I use DNA barcoding of the rcbL and ITS2 regions to identify and compare leaf preference of three Megachile bee species widespread in Toronto, Canada. Nests were opened and one leaf piece from one cell per nest of the native M. pugnata Say (N=45 leaf pieces), and the introduced M. rotundata Fabricius (N=64) and M. centuncularis (L.) (N=65) were analysed. From 174 individual DNA sequences, 54 plant species were identified. Preference by M. rotundata was most diverse (36 leaf species, H′=3.08, phylogenetic diversity (pd)=2.97), followed by M. centuncularis (23 species, H′=2.38, pd=1.51) then M. pugnata (18 species, H′=1.87, pd=1.22). Cluster analysis revealed significant overlap in leaf choice of M. rotundata and M. centuncularis. There was no significant preference for native leaves, and only M. centuncularis showed preference for leaves of woody plants over perennials. Interestingly, antimicrobial properties were present in all but six plants collected; all these were exotic plants and none were collected by the native bee, M. pugnata. These missing details in interpreting what bees need offers valuable information for conservation by accounting for necessary (and potentially limiting) nesting materials. PMID:27069650

  20. Leaf phosphorus influences the photosynthesis-nitrogen relation: a cross-biome analysis of 314 species.

    PubMed

    Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek; Wright, Ian J

    2009-05-01

    The ecophysiological linkage of leaf phosphorus (P) to photosynthetic capacity (A (max)) and to the A (max)-nitrogen relation remains poorly understood. To address this issue we compiled published and unpublished field data for mass-based A (max), nitrogen (N) and P (n = 517 observations) from 314 species at 42 sites in 14 countries. Data were from four biomes: arctic, cold temperate, subtropical (including Mediterranean), and tropical. We asked whether plants with low P levels have low A (max), a shallower slope of the A (max)-N relationship, and whether these patterns have a geographic signature. On average, leaf P was substantially lower in the two warmer than in the two colder biomes, with the reverse true for N:P ratios. The evidence indicates that the response of A (max) to leaf N is constrained by low leaf P. Using a full factorial model for all data, A (max) was related to leaf N, but not to leaf P on its own, with a significant leaf N x leaf P interaction indicating that the response of A (max) to N increased with increasing leaf P. This was also found in analyses using one value per species per site, or by comparing only angiosperms or only woody plants. Additionally, the slope of the A (max)-N relationship was higher in the colder arctic and temperate than warmer tropical and subtropical biomes. Sorting data into low, medium, and high leaf P groupings also showed that the A (max)-N slope increases with leaf P. These analyses support claims that in P-limited ecosystems the A (max)-N relationship may be constrained by low P, and are consistent with laboratory studies that show P-deficient plants have limited ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration, a likely mechanism for the P influence upon the A (max)-N relation.

  1. Specialised emission pattern of leaf trace in a late Permian (253 million-years old) conifer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hai-Bo; Feng, Zhuo; Yang, Ji-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Jia-Jia; He, Xiao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Leaf traces are important structures in higher plants that connect leaves and the stem vascular system. The anatomy and emission pattern of leaf traces are well studied in extant vascular plants, but remain poorly understood in fossil lineages. We quantitatively analysed the leaf traces in the late Permian conifer Ningxiaites specialis from Northwest China based on serial sections through pith, primary and secondary xylems. A complete leaf traces emission pattern of a conifer is presented for the first time from the late Palaeozoic. Three to five monarch leaf traces are grouped in clusters, arranged in a helical phyllotaxis. The leaf traces in each cluster can be divided into upper, middle and lower portions, and initiate at the pith periphery and cross the wood horizontally. The upper leaf trace increases its diameter during the first growth increment and then diminishes completely, which indicates leaf abscission at the end of the first year. The middle trace immediately bifurcates once or twice to form two or three vascular bundles. The lower trace persists as a single bundle during its entire length. The intricate leaf trace dynamics indicates this fossil plant had a novel evolutionary habit by promoting photosynthetic capability for the matured plant. PMID:26198410

  2. Specialised emission pattern of leaf trace in a late Permian (253 million-years old) conifer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Bo; Feng, Zhuo; Yang, Ji-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Jia-Jia; He, Xiao-Yuan

    2015-07-22

    Leaf traces are important structures in higher plants that connect leaves and the stem vascular system. The anatomy and emission pattern of leaf traces are well studied in extant vascular plants, but remain poorly understood in fossil lineages. We quantitatively analysed the leaf traces in the late Permian conifer Ningxiaites specialis from Northwest China based on serial sections through pith, primary and secondary xylems. A complete leaf traces emission pattern of a conifer is presented for the first time from the late Palaeozoic. Three to five monarch leaf traces are grouped in clusters, arranged in a helical phyllotaxis. The leaf traces in each cluster can be divided into upper, middle and lower portions, and initiate at the pith periphery and cross the wood horizontally. The upper leaf trace increases its diameter during the first growth increment and then diminishes completely, which indicates leaf abscission at the end of the first year. The middle trace immediately bifurcates once or twice to form two or three vascular bundles. The lower trace persists as a single bundle during its entire length. The intricate leaf trace dynamics indicates this fossil plant had a novel evolutionary habit by promoting photosynthetic capability for the matured plant.

  3. Chilling and heat requirements for leaf unfolding in European beech and sessile oak populations at the southern limit of their distribution range.

    PubMed

    Dantec, Cécile F; Vitasse, Yann; Bonhomme, Marc; Louvet, Jean-Marc; Kremer, Antoine; Delzon, Sylvain

    2014-11-01

    With global warming, an advance in spring leaf phenology has been reported worldwide. However, it is difficult to forecast phenology for a given species, due to a lack of knowledge about chilling requirements. We quantified chilling and heat requirements for leaf unfolding in two European tree species and investigated their relative contributions to phenological variations between and within populations. We used an extensive database containing information about the leaf phenology of 14 oak and 10 beech populations monitored over elevation gradients since 2005. In parallel, we studied the various bud dormancy phases, in controlled conditions, by regularly sampling low- and high-elevation populations during fall and winter. Oak was 2.3 times more sensitive to temperature for leaf unfolding over the elevation gradient and had a lower chilling requirement for dormancy release than beech. We found that chilling is currently insufficient for the full release of dormancy, for both species, at the lowest elevations in the area studied. Genetic variation in leaf unfolding timing between and within oak populations was probably due to differences in heat requirement rather than differences in chilling requirement. Our results demonstrate the importance of chilling for leaf unfolding in forest trees and indicate that the advance in leaf unfolding phenology with increasing temperature will probably be less pronounced than forecasted. This highlights the urgent need to determine experimentally the interactions between chilling and heat requirements in forest tree species, to improve our understanding and modeling of changes in phenological timing under global warming.

  4. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin.

  5. Local adaptations and climate change: converging sensitivity of bud break in black spruce provenances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Species with transcontinental distribution or spread over wide geographical regions develop populations with growth traits genetically adapted to the local climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotypic sensitivity of bud break, a strong adaptive trait, to a changing environment. Six phenological phases of bud break were monitored daily on black spruce [ Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings submitted to different temperatures (12, 16 and 20 °C) and photoperiods (14, 18 and 22 h). Six provenances were tested in growth chambers, produced from seeds collected along the whole latitudinal range of the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 13.3 days on average and occurred earlier in seedlings from colder sites. The annual temperature of the sites suitably tracked the clinal variation among ecotypes, providing a clear biological explanation for the environmental signal driving the adaptive divergence of populations to the local climate. Increasing temperature induced an earlier bud break according to a non-linear pattern with greater advancements observed between 12 and 16 °C. Photoperiod was significant, but sensitivity analysis indicated that its effect on bud break was marginal with respect to temperature. No interaction of provenance × treatment was observed, demonstrating an ecotypic convergence of the responses to both factors. Changes in the growing conditions could substantially modify the synchronization between bud phenology and climate, thus exposing the developing meristems of black spruce to frost damage. However, similar advancements of bud break could be expected in the different ecotypes subjected to warmer temperatures or longer day lengths.

  6. Prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Che, Keying; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Xiao; Pang, Zhaofei; Ni, Yang; Zhang, Tiehong; Du, Jiajun; Shen, Hongchang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a highly aggressive cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Histopathological evaluation pertaining to invasiveness is likely to provide additional information in relation to patient outcome. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides generated from 296 gastric adenocarcinoma patients with full clinical and pathological and follow-up information were systematically reviewed. The patients were grouped on the basis of tumor budding, single cell invasion, large cell invasion, mitotic count, and fibrosis. The association between histopathological parameters, different classification systems, and overall survival (OS) was statistically analyzed. Results Among the 296 cases that were analyzed, high-grade tumor budding was observed in 49.0% (145) of them. Single cell invasion and large cell invasion were observed in 62.8% (186) and 16.9% (50) of the cases, respectively. Following univariate analysis, patients with high-grade tumor budding had shorter OS than those with low-grade tumor budding (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.260, P<0.001). Similarly, the OS of patients with single cell invasion and large cell invasion was reduced (single cell invasion, HR: 3.553, P<0.001; large cell invasion, HR: 2.466, P<0.001). Following multivariate analysis, tumor budding and single cell invasion were observed to be independent risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma (P<0.05). According to the Lauren classification, patients with intestinal-type adenocarcinoma had better outcomes than those with diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (HR: 2.563, P<0.001). Conclusion Tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma are associated with an unfavorable prognosis. PMID:28255247

  7. Development of flower buds in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) from late autumn to early spring.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Tuan, Pham Anh; Katsumi-Horigane, Akemi; Bai, Songling; Ito, Akiko; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ono, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2015-06-01

    We periodically investigated the lateral flower bud morphology of 1-year shoots of 'Kosui' pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) in terms of dormancy progression, using magnetic resonance imaging. The size of flower buds did not change significantly during endodormancy, but rapid enlargement took place at the end of the ecodormancy stage. To gain insight into the physiological status during this period, we analyzed gene expression related to cell cycle-, cell expansion- and water channel-related genes, namely cyclin (CYC), expansin (EXPA), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP) and plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP). Constant but low expression of pear cyclin genes (PpCYCD3s) was observed in the transition phase from endodormancy to ecodormancy. The expression levels of PpCYCD3s were consistent with few changes in flower bud size, but up-regulated before the sprouting stage. In contrast, the expression of pear expansin and water channel-related genes (PpEXPA2, PpPIP2A, PpPIP2B, PpIδTIP1A and PpIδTIP1B) were low until onset of the rapid enlargement stage of flower buds. However, expression of these genes rapidly increased during sprouting along with a gradual increase of free water content in the floral primordia of buds. Taken together, these results suggest that flower bud size tends to stay constant until the endodormancy phase transition. Rapid enlargement of flower buds observed in March is partly due to the enhancement of the cell cycle. Then, sprouting takes place concomitant with the increase in cell expansion and free water movement.

  8. Macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns of leaf herbivory across vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Martin M; Davies, T Jonathan; Thomsen, Christina J M; Johnson, Marc T J

    2014-07-22

    The consumption of plants by animals underlies important evolutionary and ecological processes in nature. Arthropod herbivory evolved approximately 415 Ma and the ensuing coevolution between plants and herbivores is credited with generating much of the macroscopic diversity on the Earth. In contemporary ecosystems, herbivory provides the major conduit of energy from primary producers to consumers. Here, we show that when averaged across all major lineages of vascular plants, herbivores consume 5.3% of the leaf tissue produced annually by plants, whereas previous estimates are up to 3.8× higher. This result suggests that for many plant species, leaf herbivory may play a smaller role in energy and nutrient flow than currently thought. Comparative analyses of a diverse global sample of 1058 species across 2085 populations reveal that models of stabilizing selection best describe rates of leaf consumption, and that rates vary substantially within and among major plant lineages. A key determinant of this variation is plant growth form, where woody plant species experience 64% higher leaf herbivory than non-woody plants. Higher leaf herbivory in woody species supports a key prediction of the plant apparency theory. Our study provides insight into how a long history of coevolution has shaped the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and herbivores.

  9. Macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns of leaf herbivory across vascular plants

    PubMed Central

    Turcotte, Martin M.; Davies, T. Jonathan; Thomsen, Christina J. M.; Johnson, Marc T. J.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of plants by animals underlies important evolutionary and ecological processes in nature. Arthropod herbivory evolved approximately 415 Ma and the ensuing coevolution between plants and herbivores is credited with generating much of the macroscopic diversity on the Earth. In contemporary ecosystems, herbivory provides the major conduit of energy from primary producers to consumers. Here, we show that when averaged across all major lineages of vascular plants, herbivores consume 5.3% of the leaf tissue produced annually by plants, whereas previous estimates are up to 3.8× higher. This result suggests that for many plant species, leaf herbivory may play a smaller role in energy and nutrient flow than currently thought. Comparative analyses of a diverse global sample of 1058 species across 2085 populations reveal that models of stabilizing selection best describe rates of leaf consumption, and that rates vary substantially within and among major plant lineages. A key determinant of this variation is plant growth form, where woody plant species experience 64% higher leaf herbivory than non-woody plants. Higher leaf herbivory in woody species supports a key prediction of the plant apparency theory. Our study provides insight into how a long history of coevolution has shaped the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and herbivores. PMID:24870043

  10. The spindle position checkpoint: how to deal with spindle misalignment during asymmetric cell division in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Fraschini, Roberta; Venturetti, Marianna; Chiroli, Elena; Piatti, Simonetta

    2008-06-01

    During asymmetric cell division, spindle positioning is critical to ensure the unequal segregation of polarity factors and generate daughter cells with different sizes or fates. In budding yeast the boundary between mother and daughter cell resides at the bud neck, where cytokinesis takes place at the end of the cell cycle. Since budding and bud neck formation occur much earlier than bipolar spindle formation, spindle positioning is a finely regulated process. A surveillance device called the SPOC (spindle position checkpoint) oversees this process and delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the spindle is properly oriented along the division axis, thus ensuring genome stability.

  11. Yap1, transcription regulator in the Hippo signaling pathway, is required for Xenopus limb bud regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Tamura, Koji; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2014-04-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway is conserved from insects to mammals and is important for multiple processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and tissue homeostasis. Hippo signaling is also crucial for regeneration, including intercalary regeneration, of the whole body in the flatworm and of the leg in the cricket. However, its role in vertebrate epimorphic regeneration is unknown. Therefore, to identify principles of regeneration that are conserved among bilaterians, we investigated the role of Hippo signaling in the limb bud regeneration of an anuran amphibian, Xenopus laevis. We found that a transcription factor, Yap1, an important downstream effector of Hippo signaling, is upregulated in the regenerating limb bud. To evaluate Yap1׳s function in limb bud regeneration, we made transgenic animals that expressed a dominant-negative form of Yap under a heat-shock promoter. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of Yap in tadpoles reduced cell proliferation, induced ectopic apoptosis, perturbed the expression domains of limb-patterning genes including hoxa13, hoxa11, and shh in the regenerating limb bud. Transient expression of a dominant-negative Yap in transgenic tadpoles also caused limb bud regeneration defects, and reduced intercalary regeneration. These results indicate that Yap1 has a crucial role in controlling the limb regenerative capacity in Xenopus, and suggest that the involvement of Hippo signaling in regeneration is conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates. This finding provides molecular evidence that common principles underlie regeneration across phyla, and may contribute to the development of new therapies in regenerative medicine.

  12. Arenavirus budding resulting from viral-protein-associated cell membrane curvature.

    PubMed

    Schley, David; Whittaker, Robert J; Neuman, Benjamin W

    2013-09-06

    Viral replication occurs within cells, with release (and onward infection) primarily achieved through two alternative mechanisms: lysis, in which virions emerge as the infected cell dies and bursts open; or budding, in which virions emerge gradually from a still living cell by appropriating a small part of the cell membrane. Virus budding is a poorly understood process that challenges current models of vesicle formation. Here, a plausible mechanism for arenavirus budding is presented, building on recent evidence that viral proteins embed in the inner lipid layer of the cell membrane. Experimental results confirm that viral protein is associated with increased membrane curvature, whereas a mathematical model is used to show that localized increases in curvature alone are sufficient to generate viral buds. The magnitude of the protein-induced curvature is calculated from the size of the amphipathic region hypothetically removed from the inner membrane as a result of translation, with a change in membrane stiffness estimated from observed differences in virion deformation as a result of protein depletion. Numerical results are based on experimental data and estimates for three arenaviruses, but the mechanisms described are more broadly applicable. The hypothesized mechanism is shown to be sufficient to generate spontaneous budding that matches well both qualitatively and quantitatively with experimental observations.

  13. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  14. Arenavirus budding resulting from viral-protein-associated cell membrane curvature

    PubMed Central

    Schley, David; Whittaker, Robert J.; Neuman, Benjamin W.

    2013-01-01

    Viral replication occurs within cells, with release (and onward infection) primarily achieved through two alternative mechanisms: lysis, in which virions emerge as the infected cell dies and bursts open; or budding, in which virions emerge gradually from a still living cell by appropriating a small part of the cell membrane. Virus budding is a poorly understood process that challenges current models of vesicle formation. Here, a plausible mechanism for arenavirus budding is presented, building on recent evidence that viral proteins embed in the inner lipid layer of the cell membrane. Experimental results confirm that viral protein is associated with increased membrane curvature, whereas a mathematical model is used to show that localized increases in curvature alone are sufficient to generate viral buds. The magnitude of the protein-induced curvature is calculated from the size of the amphipathic region hypothetically removed from the inner membrane as a result of translation, with a change in membrane stiffness estimated from observed differences in virion deformation as a result of protein depletion. Numerical results are based on experimental data and estimates for three arenaviruses, but the mechanisms described are more broadly applicable. The hypothesized mechanism is shown to be sufficient to generate spontaneous budding that matches well both qualitatively and quantitatively with experimental observations. PMID:23864502

  15. Cytoskeletal impairment during isoamyl alcohol-induced cell elongation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Wakae; Kinpara, Satoko; Kitahara, Nozomi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Ogita, Akira; Tanaka, Toshio; Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Isoamyl alcohol (IAA) induces pseudohyphae including cell elongation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Detailed regulation of microtubules and actin in developmental transition during cell elongation is poorly understood. Here, we show that although IAA did not affect the intracellular actin level, it reduced the levels of both α- and β-tubulins. In budding yeast, cytoplasmic microtubules are linked to actin via complexes consisting of at least Kar9, Bim1, and Myo2, and reach from the spindle pole body to the cortical attachment site at the bud tip. However, IAA did not affect migration of Myo2 to the bud tip and kept Kar9 in the interior portion of the cell. In addition, bud elongation was observed in Kar9-overexpressing cells in the absence of IAA. These results indicate that impairment of the link between cytoplasmic microtubules and actin is possibly involved in the lowered interaction of Myo2 with Kar9. Our study might explain the reason for delayed cell cycle during IAA-induced cell elongation. PMID:27507042

  16. Coordinated Spindle Assembly and Orientation Requires Clb5p-Dependent Kinase in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Marisa; Clarke, Duncan J.; Maddox, Paul; Salmon, E.D.; Bloom, Kerry; Reed, Steven I.

    2000-01-01

    The orientation of the mitotic spindle along a polarity axis is critical in asymmetric cell divisions. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, loss of the S-phase B-type cyclin Clb5p under conditions of limited cyclin-dependent kinase activity (cdc28-4 clb5Δ cells) causes a spindle positioning defect that results in an undivided nucleus entering the bud. Based on time-lapse digital imaging microscopy of microtubules labeled with green fluorescent protein fusions to either tubulin or dynein, we observed that the asymmetric behavior of the spindle pole bodies during spindle assembly was lost in the cdc28-4 clb5Δ cells. As soon as a spindle formed, both poles were equally likely to interact with the bud cell cortex. Persistent dynamic interactions with the bud ultimately led to spindle translocation across the bud neck. Thus, the mutant failed to assign one spindle pole body the task of organizing astral microtubules towards the mother cell. Our data suggest that Clb5p-associated kinase is required to confer mother-bound behavior to one pole in order to establish correct spindle polarity. In contrast, B-type cyclins, Clb3p and Clb4p, though partially redundant with Clb5p for an early role in spindle morphogenesis, preferentially promote spindle assembly. PMID:10662771

  17. Antibiofilm and Antioxidant Activity of Propolis and Bud Poplar Resins versus Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Stefania; Piccioni, Miranda; Pagiotti, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common biofilm-forming bacterial pathogen implicated in lung, skin, and systemic infections. Biofilms are majorly associated with chronic lung infection, which is the most severe complication in cystic fibrosis patients characterized by drug-resistant biofilms in the bronchial mucus with zones, where reactive oxygen species concentration is increased mainly due to neutrophil activity. Aim of this work is to verify the anti-Pseudomonas property of propolis or bud poplar resins extracts. The antimicrobial activity of propolis and bud poplar resins extracts was determined by MIC and biofilm quantification. Moreover, we tested the antioxidant activity by DPPH and neutrophil oxidative burst assays. In the end, both propolis and bud poplar resins extracts were able to inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and to influence both swimming and swarming motility. Moreover, the extracts could inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production by human PBMC and showed both direct and indirect antioxidant activity. This work is the first to demonstrate that propolis and bud poplar resins extracts can influence biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa contrasting the inflammation and the oxidation state typical of chronic infection suggesting that propolis or bud poplar resins can be used along with antibiotic as adjuvant in the therapy against P. aeruginosa infections related to biofilm. PMID:28127379

  18. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids.

  19. Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control.

  20. Study of budding yeast colony formation and its characterizations by using circular granular cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprianti, D.; Haryanto, F.; Purqon, A.; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-03-01

    Budding yeast can exhibit colony formation in solid substrate. The colony of pathogenic budding yeast can colonize various surfaces of the human body and medical devices. Furthermore, it can form biofilm that resists drug effective therapy. The formation of the colony is affected by the interaction between cells and with its growth media. The cell budding pattern holds an important role in colony expansion. To study this colony growth, the molecular dynamic method was chosen to simulate the interaction between budding yeast cells. Every cell was modelled by circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. Cohesion force, contact force, and Stokes force govern this model to mimic the interaction between cells and with the growth substrate. Characterization was determined by the maximum (L max) and minimum (L min) distances between two cells within the colony and whether two lines that connect the two cells in the maximum and minimum distances intersect each other. Therefore, it can be recognized the colony shape in circular, oval, and irregular shapes. Simulation resulted that colony formation are mostly in oval shape with little branch. It also shows that greater cohesion strength obtains more compact colony formation.

  1. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model for aging research: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gershon, H; Gershon, D

    2000-12-01

    In this review we discuss the yeast as a paradigm for the study of aging. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can proliferate in both haploid and diploid states, has been used extensively in aging research. The budding yeast divides asymmetrically to form a 'mother' cell and a bud. Two major approaches, 'budding life span' and 'stationary phase' have been used to determine 'senescence' and 'life span' in yeast. Discrepancies observed in metabolic behavior and longevity between cells studied by these two systems raise questions of how 'life span' in yeast is defined and measured. Added to this variability in experimental approach and results is the variety of yeast strains with different genetic make up used as 'wild type' and experimental organisms. Another problematic genetic point in the published studies on yeast is the use of both diploid and haploid strains. We discuss the inherent, advantageous attributes that make the yeast an attractive choice for modern biological research as well as certain pitfalls in the choice of this model for the study of aging. The significance of the purported roles of the Sir2 gene, histone deacetylases, gene silencing, rDNA circles and stress genes in determination of yeast 'life span' and aging is evaluated. The relationship between cultivation conditions and longevity are assessed. Discrepancies between the yeast and mammalian systems with regard to aging are pointed out. We discuss unresolved problems concerning the suitability of the budding yeast for the study of basic aging phenomena.

  2. Biphasic effect of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on reproductive physiology of male mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, R K; Singh, S K

    2016-11-01

    The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) have been used for the treatment of male sexual disorders in indigenous medicines of Indian subcontinent. Therefore to evaluate the efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum on the male reproductive health, chronic oral exposure of aqueous extract of flower buds of Syzygium in three doses (15 mg, 30 mg and 60 mg kg(-1) BW) were studied for a single spermatogenic cycle (35 days) in Parkes (P) strain mice. Lower dose (15 mg) of Syzygium aromaticum flower buds increased serum testosterone level and testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activities and improved sperm motility, sperm morphology, secretory activity of epididymis and seminal vesicle, and number of litters per female. On the other hand, higher doses (30 and 60 mg) of the treatment adversely affected above parameters. Further, higher doses of the extract also had adverse effects on daily sperm production, 1C cell population and on histology of testis. In conclusion, Syzygium aromaticum flower buds extract exhibits biphasic effect on reproductive physiology of male mice. Lower dose of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud extract is androgenic in nature and may have a viable future as an indigenous sexual rejuvenator, while higher doses adversely affected functional physiology of reproductive organs.

  3. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions.

  4. Two active states of the Ras-related Bud1/Rsr1 protein bind to different effectors to determine yeast cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hay-Oak; Bi, Erfei; Pringle, John R.; Herskowitz, Ira

    1997-01-01

    Cells of budding yeast organize their cytoskeleton in a highly polarized manner during vegetative growth. Selection of a site for polarization requires a group of proteins including a Ras-like GTPase, Bud1, and its regulators. Another group of proteins, which includes a Rho-like GTPase (Cdc42), its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Cdc24), and Bem1, is necessary for organization of the actin cytoskeleton and for cell polarization. We have proposed previously that the Bud1 protein, through its GTPase cycle, determines the localization of one or more of the cell polarity proteins to the bud site. Herein we demonstrate that Bud1 directly interacts with Cdc24 and Bem1: Bud1 in its GTP-bound form associates preferentially with Cdc24, whereas the GDP-bound form of Bud1 associates with Bem1. We also present subcellular fractionation data for Bud1 that is consistent with the idea that Bud1 can travel between the site for budding on the plasma membrane and the cytosol. We propose that Bud1 can exist in two active states for association with different partners and that the switch from Bud1–GTP to Bud1–GDP provides a regulatory device for ordered assembly of a macromolecular complex at the bud site. PMID:9114012

  5. Functional relationships of leafing intensity to plant height, growth form and leaf habit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, En-Rong; Milla, Rubén; Aarssen, Lonnie W.; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Leafing intensity, i.e. the number of leaves per unit of stem volume or mass, is a common developmental correlate of leaf size. However, the ecological significance and the functional implications of variation in leafing intensity, other than its relation to leaf size, are unknown. Here, we explore its relationships with plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit to test a series of corollaries derived from the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. Volume-based leafing intensities and plant heights were recorded for 109 woody species from the subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests of eastern China. In addition, we compiled leafing intensity data from published literature, and combined it with our data to form a 398 species dataset, to test for differences of leafing intensity between plant growth forms (i.e. herbaceous and woody) and leaf habits (i.e. deciduous and evergreens). Leafing intensity was negatively correlated with plant height and individual leaf mass. Volume-based leafing intensities were significantly higher in herbaceous species than in woody species, and also higher in deciduous than in evergreen woody species. In conclusion, leafing intensity relates strongly to plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit in directions generally in accordance to the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. These results can be interpreted in terms of the evolution of adaptive strategies involving response to herbivory, competitive ability for light and reproductive economy.

  6. Characterization of Flower-Bud Transcriptome and Development of Genic SSR Markers in Asian Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Daike; Huang, Xiu; Xu, Yuxian; Mo, Haibo; Liu, Yanbo; Meng, Jing; Zhang, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Asian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) is the national flower of India, Vietnam, and one of the top ten traditional Chinese flowers. Although lotus is highly valued for its ornamental, economic and cultural uses, genomic information, particularly the expressed sequence based (genic) markers is limited. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing provides large amounts of transcriptome data for promoting gene discovery and development of molecular markers. Results In this study, 68,593 unigenes were assembled from 1.34 million 454 GS-FLX sequence reads of a mixed flower-bud cDNA pool derived from three accessions of N. nucifera. A total of 5,226 SSR loci were identified, and 3,059 primer pairs were designed for marker development. Di-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant type identified with a frequency of 65.2%, followed by tri- (31.7%), tetra- (2.1%), penta- (0.5%) and hexa-nucleotide repeats (0.5%). A total of 575 primer pairs were synthesized, of which 514 (89.4%) yielded PCR amplification products. In eight Nelumbo accessions, 109 markers were polymorphic. They were used to genotype a sample of 44 accessions representing diverse wild and cultivated genotypes of Nelumbo. The number of alleles per locus varied from 2 to 9 alleles and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.6 to 0.9. We performed genetic diversity analysis using 109 polymorphic markers. A UPGMA dendrogram was constructed based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficients revealing distinct clusters among the 44 accessions. Conclusions Deep transcriptome sequencing of lotus flower buds developed 3,059 genic SSRs, making a significant addition to the existing SSR markers in lotus. Among them, 109 polymorphic markers were successfully validated in 44 accessions of Nelumbo. This comprehensive set of genic SSR markers developed in our study will facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, construction of linkage maps, gene mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding for

  7. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction. PMID:26534983

  8. Malformation of gynoecia impedes fertilisation in bud-flowering Calluna vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Behrend, A; Borchert, T; Müller, A; Tänzer, J; Hohe, A

    2013-01-01

    In Calluna vulgaris, a common bedding plant during autumn in the northern hemisphere, the bud-blooming mutation of flower morphology is of high economic importance. Breeding of new bud-blooming cultivars suffers from poor seed set in some of the desirable bud-flowering crossing partners. In the current study, fertilisation and seed development in genotypes with good or poor seed set were monitored in detail in order to examine pre- and post-zygotic cross breeding incompatibilities. Whereas no distinct differences were detected in seed development, pollen tube growth was impeded in the pistils of genotypes characterised by poor seed set. Detailed microscopic analysis revealed malformations of the gynoecia due to imperfect fusion of carpels. Hence, a pre-zygotic mechanism hindering pollen tube growth due to malformation of gynoecia was deduced. An interaction of putative candidate genes involved in malformation of gynoecia with floral organ identity genes controlling the flower architecture is discussed.

  9. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Linda A

    2015-11-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction.

  10. Ferrite-Cored Solenoidal Induction Coil Sensor for BUD (MM-1667)

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, F.; Becker, A.; Conti, U.; Gasperikova, E.

    2011-06-15

    We have designed and lab tested a new ferrite cored induction coil sensor for measuring the secondary fields from metallic UXO with the BUD system. The objective was to replace the 5-inch diameter air-cored coils in the BUD system with smaller sensors that would allow the placement of multiple sensors in the smaller package of the new BUD hand-held system. A ferrite-cored solenoidal coil of length L can easily be made to have sensitivity and noise level roughly the same as an air-cored coil of a diameter on the same order as L. A ferrite-cored solenoidal coil can easily have a feedback configuration to achieve critical damping. The feedback configuration leads to a very stable response. Feedback ferrite-cored solenoidal coils show very little interaction as long as they are separated by one half their length.

  11. Acaricidal activities of clove bud oil and red thyme oil using microencapsulation against HDMs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Ran; Sharma, Suraj

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a safer microcapsule loaded with clove bud oil and red thyme oil to reduce the population of house dust mites (HDMs). Gelatin-based microcapsules 4-85 µm in size were created, with agitation speed and type of oil playing a critical role in governing their size. Microcapsules made up of single spherical units less than 30 µm in diameter remained separate on the fibre, whereas larger microcapsules of over 30 µm ruptured or aggregated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that microcapsules containing red thyme oil showed a more consistent range of oil loading, from 50 to 80%, than microcapsules containing clove bud oil, which ranged from 30 to 80% (more deviated). Mortality tests on Dermatophagoides farinae conducted on fabric with attached microcapsules showed that clove bud oil, containing a more phenolic monoterpenoid (eugenol), was more effective at reducing the live HDMs (94% mortality).

  12. Inhibitory effect of flowering and early fruit growth on leaf photosynthesis in mango.

    PubMed

    Urban, L; Lu, P; Thibaud, R

    2004-04-01

    Carbohydrate and nitrogen contents, chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange were measured in leaves from both vegetative and reproductive terminal shoots of 12-year-old flowering mango trees. Reproductive shoot leaves were close to swelling floral buds, inflorescences or panicles bearing set fruits. Leaves close to inflorescences had lower rates of mitochondrial respiration (Rd) and net photosynthesis (Anet), and lower stomatal conductance (gs) and quantum efficiency of photosystem II under actinic light than vegetative shoot leaves. Leaf nitrogen concentration, which decreased from the beginning until the end of flowering, was lower in leaves close to inflorescences than in vegetative shoot leaves. However, these differences and changes were counterbalanced by an increase in leaf mass-to-area ratio so that leaf nitrogen per unit leaf area (Na) remained nearly constant during the whole flowering period, except in leaves close to panicles bearing set fruits. Net CO2 assimilation rate simulated by a biochemical model of leaf photosynthesis (Urban et al. 2003) was much higher than Anet measured at an ambient CO2 partial pressure (Ca) of either 36 or 70 Pa. The overestimation of Anet was more pronounced in leaves close to inflorescences, to panicles bearing set fruits and to reversing inflorescences (characterized by the appearance of leaves in terminal positions on inflorescences) than in vegetative shoot leaves. It is concluded that low Anet in leaves close to inflorescences was probably due neither to changes in Na nor to a decrease in Rubisco activity induced by low gs, but rather to a decrease in electron flow in photosystem II. This decrease was not directly associated with higher starch or soluble sugar contents.

  13. Active suppression of a leaf meristem orchestrates determinate leaf growth

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, John Paul; Furumizu, Chihiro; Efroni, Idan; Eshed, Yuval; Bowman, John L

    2016-01-01

    Leaves are flat determinate organs derived from indeterminate shoot apical meristems. The presence of a specific leaf meristem is debated, as anatomical features typical of meristems are not present in leaves. Here we demonstrate that multiple NGATHA (NGA) and CINCINNATA-class-TCP (CIN-TCP) transcription factors act redundantly, shortly after leaf initiation, to gradually restrict the activity of a leaf meristem in Arabidopsis thaliana to marginal and basal domains, and that their absence confers persistent marginal growth to leaves, cotyledons and floral organs. Following primordia initiation, the restriction of the broadly acting leaf meristem to the margins is mediated by the juxtaposition of adaxial and abaxial domains and maintained by WOX homeobox transcription factors, whereas other marginal elaboration genes are dispensable for its maintenance. This genetic framework parallels the morphogenetic program of shoot apical meristems and may represent a relic of an ancestral shoot system from which seed plant leaves evolved. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15023.001 PMID:27710768

  14. Rapid Phytochrome-mediated Changes in Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate Content of Etiolated Bean Buds.

    PubMed

    White, J M; Pike, C S

    1974-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of red and far red irradiation on ATP metabolism in etiolated bean buds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney). Compared to dark controls, red irradiated buds show an initial decline in ATP content at 15 seconds following a 5-minute irradiation. ATP content then rapidly rises to a peak at 1 minute, and then slowly returns to the baseline. The 1-minute promotion of ATP content is red/far red reversible. Acetylcholine does not appear to mimic red light in this system; it causes a marked decrease in ATP content.

  15. Organogenesis during budding and lophophoral morphology of Hislopia malayensis Annandale, 1916 (Bryozoa, Ctenostomata)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bryozoans represent a large lophotrochozoan phylum with controversially discussed phylogenetic position and in group relationships. Developmental processes during the budding of bryozoans are in need for revision. Just recently a study on a phylactolaemate bryozoan gave a comprehensive basis for further comparisons among bryozoans. The aim of this study is to gain more insight into developmental patterns during polypide formation in the budding process of bryozoans. Particular focus is laid upon the lophophore, also its condition in adults. For this purpose we studied organogenesis during budding and lophophoral morphology of the ctenostome bryozoan Hislopia malayensis. Results Polypide buds develop on the frontal side of the developing cystid as proliferation of the epidermal and peritoneal layer. Early buds develop a lumen bordered by the inner budding layer resulting in the shape of a two-layered sac or vesicle. The hind- and midgut anlagen are first to develop as outpocketing of the prospective anal area. These grow towards the prospective mouth area where a comparatively small invagination marks the formation of the foregut. In between the prospective mouth and anus the ganglion develops as an invagination protruding in between the developing gut loop. Lophophore development starts with two lateral ridges which form tentacles very early. At the lophophoral base, intertentacular pits, previously unknown for ctenostomes, develop. The ganglion develops a circum-oral nerve ring from which the tentacle nerves branch off in adult zooids. Tentacles are innervated by medio-frontal nerves arising directly from the nerve ring, and medio-frontal and abfrontal nerves which originate both from an intertentacular fork. Conclusions We are able to show distinct similarities among bryozoans in the formation of the different organ systems: a two-layered vesicle-like early bud, the ganglion forming as an invagination of the epidermal layer in between the prospective

  16. Managing a massacre: savagery, civility, and gender in Moro Province in the wake of Bud Dajo.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the delicate ideological maneuverings that shaped American colonial constructions of savagery, civility, and gender in the wake of the Bud Dajo massacre in the Philippines's Muslim south in 1906. It looks particularly at shifting notions of femininity and masculinity as these related to episodes of violence and colonial control. The article concludes that, while the Bud Dajo massacre was a terrible black mark on the American military's record in Mindanao and Sulu, colonial officials ultimately used the event to positively affirm existing discourses of power and justification, which helped to sustain and guide military rule in the Muslim south for another seven years.

  17. Pulmonary metastatic microangiopathy of colon cancer presenting as a "tree in bud" pattern.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, S; Weynand, B; Coche, E

    2008-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of a "tree in bud" pattern of vascular origin caused by colon cancer metastases. A 60-year-old man presented for routine follow-up of a colon tumour resected surgically 15 years previously. Clinical examination, laboratory tests, including carcino-embryonic antigen and inflammatory parameters, and chest radiograph were normal. Multislice CT of the lungs revealed the presence of several "tree in bud" opacities. The connection to the pulmonary arteries was well depicted by reformatted maximal intensity projection images. Biopsy of some of the nodules was characterized by mucinous material and neoplastic cells within the small vessels, consistent with metastases from the known colon adenocarcinoma.

  18. Project BudBurst - Meeting the Needs of Climate Change Educators and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.

    2015-12-01

    It is challenging for many to get a sense of what climate change means as long periods of time are involved - like decades - which can be difficult to grasp. However, there are a number of citizen science based projects, including NEON's Project BudBurst, that provide the opportunity for both learning about climate change and advancing scientific knowledge. In this presentation, we will share lessons learned from Project BudBurst. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events and to increase climate literacy. Project BudBurst is important from an educational perspective, but also because it enables scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. It was important to better understand if and how Project BudBurst is meeting its goals. Specifically, does participation by non-experts advance scientific knowledge? Does participation advance educational goals and outcomes? Is participation an effective approach to advance/enhance science education in both formal and informal settings? Critical examination of Project BudBurst supports advancement of scientific knowledge and realization of educational objectives. Citizen science collected observations and measurements are being used by scientists as evidenced by the increase of such data in scientific publication. In addition, we found that there is a significant increase in educators utilizing citizen science as part of their instruction. Part of this increase is due to the resources and professional development materials available to educators. Working with partners also demonstrated that the needs of both science and

  19. Leaf carbon assimilation and molecular phylogeny in Cattleya species (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Andrade-Souza, V; Almeida, A-A F; Corrêa, R X; Costa, M A; Mielke, M S; Gomes, F P

    2009-08-11

    We examined leaf CO(2) assimilation and how it varied among species within the orchid genus Cattleya. Measurements of CO(2) assimilation and maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm) were made for mature leaves of nine species using a portable system for photosynthesis measurement and a portable fluorometer. Leaf area was measured with an area meter, and the specific leaf mass was determined. DNA of nine Cattleya species and two species of Hadrolaelia was extracted using the CTAB protocol. Each sample was amplified and sequenced using primers for the trnL gene. The phylogenetic analyses, using neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods, retrieved a group that included Cattleya and Hadrolaelia species, in which the unifoliate species were separated from the bifoliates. The topologies of the two cladograms showed some similarities. However, C. guttata (bifoliate) was placed in the unifoliate clade in the neighbor-joining tree, while C. warneri (unifoliate) was not placed in this clade in the maximum parsimony tree. Most Cattleya species keep the leaf stomata closed from 6 am to 4 pm. We suggest that C. elongata, C. tigrina and C. tenuis have C(3)-crassulacean acid metabolism since they open their stomata around 12 am. The Fv/Fm values remained relatively constant during the measurements of CO(2) assimilation. The same was observed for the specific leaf mass values, although great variations were found in the leaf area values. When the species were grouped using molecular data in the neighbor-joining analysis, no relation was observed with CO(2) assimilation.

  20. Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel; Ryser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Several theories exist about the role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. To elucidate factors contributing to variation in autumn leaf anthocyanin contents among individual trees, we analysed anthocyanins and other leaf traits in 27 individuals of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) over two growing seasons in the context of timing of leaf senescence. Red maple usually turns bright red in the autumn, but there is considerable variation among the trees. Leaf autumn anthocyanin contents were consistent between the two years of investigation. Autumn anthocyanin content strongly correlated with degree of chlorophyll degradation mid to late September, early senescing leaves having the highest concentrations of anthocyanins. It also correlated positively with leaf summer chlorophyll content and dry matter content, and negatively with specific leaf area. Time of leaf senescence and anthocyanin contents correlated with soil pH and with canopy openness. We conclude that the importance of anthocyanins in protection of leaf processes during senescence depends on the time of senescence. Rather than prolonging the growing season by enabling a delayed senescence, autumn anthocyanins in red maple in Ontario are important when senescence happens early, possibly due to the higher irradiance and greater danger of oxidative damage early in the season. PMID:27135339

  1. Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rachel; Ryser, Peter

    2015-08-05

    Several theories exist about the role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. To elucidate factors contributing to variation in autumn leaf anthocyanin contents among individual trees, we analysed anthocyanins and other leaf traits in 27 individuals of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) over two growing seasons in the context of timing of leaf senescence. Red maple usually turns bright red in the autumn, but there is considerable variation among the trees. Leaf autumn anthocyanin contents were consistent between the two years of investigation. Autumn anthocyanin content strongly correlated with degree of chlorophyll degradation mid to late September, early senescing leaves having the highest concentrations of anthocyanins. It also correlated positively with leaf summer chlorophyll content and dry matter content, and negatively with specific leaf area. Time of leaf senescence and anthocyanin contents correlated with soil pH and with canopy openness. We conclude that the importance of anthocyanins in protection of leaf processes during senescence depends on the time of senescence. Rather than prolonging the growing season by enabling a delayed senescence, autumn anthocyanins in red maple in Ontario are important when senescence happens early, possibly due to the higher irradiance and greater danger of oxidative damage early in the season.

  2. A general method for calculating the optimal leaf longevity from the viewpoint of carbon economy.

    PubMed

    Seki, Motohide; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Takada, Takenori

    2015-09-01

    According to the viewpoint of the optimal strategy theory, a tree is expected to shed its leaves when they no longer contribute to maximisation of net carbon gain. Several theoretical models have been proposed in which a tree was assumed to strategically shed an old deteriorated leaf to develop a new leaf. We mathematically refined an index used in a previous theoretical model [Kikuzawa (Am Nat 138:1250-1263, 1991)] so that the index is exactly proportional to a tree's lifelong net carbon gain. We also incorporated a tree's strategy that determines the timing of leaf expansion, and examined three kinds of strategies. Specifically, we assumed that a new leaf is expanded (1) immediately after shedding of an old leaf, (2) only at the beginning of spring, or (3) immediately after shedding of an old leaf if the shedding occurs during a non-winter season and at the beginning of spring otherwise. We derived a measure of optimal leaf longevity maximising the value of an appropriate index reflecting total net carbon gain and show that use of this index yielded results that are qualitatively consistent with empirical records. The model predicted that expanding a new leaf at the beginning of spring than immediately after shedding usually yields higher carbon gain, and combined strategy of the immediate replacement and the spring flushing earned the highest gain. In addition, our numerical analyses suggested that multiple flushing seen in a few species of subtropical zones can be explained in terms of carbon economy.

  3. Modeling development and quantitative trait mapping reveal independent genetic modules for leaf size and shape.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert L; Leong, Wen Fung; Brock, Marcus T; Markelz, R J Cody; Covington, Michael F; Devisetty, Upendra K; Edwards, Christine E; Maloof, Julin; Welch, Stephen; Weinig, Cynthia

    2015-10-01

    Improved predictions of fitness and yield may be obtained by characterizing the genetic controls and environmental dependencies of organismal ontogeny. Elucidating the shape of growth curves may reveal novel genetic controls that single-time-point (STP) analyses do not because, in theory, infinite numbers of growth curves can result in the same final measurement. We measured leaf lengths and widths in Brassica rapa recombinant inbred lines (RILs) throughout ontogeny. We modeled leaf growth and allometry as function valued traits (FVT), and examined genetic correlations between these traits and aspects of phenology, physiology, circadian rhythms and fitness. We used RNA-seq to construct a SNP linkage map and mapped trait quantitative trait loci (QTL). We found genetic trade-offs between leaf size and growth rate FVT and uncovered differences in genotypic and QTL correlations involving FVT vs STPs. We identified leaf shape (allometry) as a genetic module independent of length and width and identified selection on FVT parameters of development. Leaf shape is associated with venation features that affect desiccation resistance. The genetic independence of leaf shape from other leaf traits may therefore enable crop optimization in leaf shape without negative effects on traits such as size, growth rate, duration or gas exchange.

  4. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rising atmospheric [CO2], ca, is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have reported that stomata regulate leaf gas-exchange around “set points” that include a constant leaf internal [CO2], ci, a constant drawdown in CO2 (ca - ci), and a constant ci/ca. Because these set points can result in drastically different consequences for leaf gas-exchange, it will be essential for the accuracy of Earth systems models that generalizable patterns in leaf gas-exchange responses to ca be identified if any do exist. We hypothesized that the concept of optimal stomatal behavior, exemplified by woody plants shifting along a continuum of these set point strategies, would provide a unifying framework for understanding leaf gas-exchange responses to ca. We analyzed studies reporting C stable isotope ratio (δ13C) or photosynthetic discrimination (∆13C) from woody plant taxa that grew across ca spanning at least 100 ppm for each species investigated. From these data we calculated ci, and in combination with known or estimated ca, leaf gas-exchange regulation strategies were assessed. Overall, our analyses does not support the hypothesis that trees are canalized towards any of the proposed set points, particularly so for a constant ci. Rather, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that stomatal optimization regulates leaf gas

  5. Behavior of Leaf Meristems and Their Modification

    PubMed Central

    Ichihashi, Yasunori; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    A major source of diversity in flowering plant form is the extensive variability of leaf shape and size. Leaf formation is initiated by recruitment of a handful of cells flanking the shoot apical meristem (SAM) to develop into a complex three-dimensional structure. Leaf organogenesis depends on activities of several distinct meristems that are established and spatiotemporally differentiated after the initiation of leaf primordia. Here, we review recent findings in the gene regulatory networks that orchestrate leaf meristem activities in a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We then discuss recent key studies investigating the natural variation in leaf morphology to understand how the gene regulatory networks modulate leaf meristems to yield a substantial diversity of leaf forms during the course of evolution. PMID:26648955

  6. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, § 29.2351.)...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, § 29.2351.)...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, § 29.2351.)...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, § 29.2351.)...

  10. Spectral reflectance relationships to leaf water stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in leaf cover, relative water content of leaves, and leaf water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both leaf cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in leaf cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by leaf moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when leaf cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between leaf water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and leaf cover.

  11. The role of budABC on 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol production from glycerol in Klebsiella pneumoniae CICIM B0057.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinyao; Ji, Guangjian; Zong, Hong; Zhuge, Bin

    2016-11-01

    1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) is an important compound from which many others can be synthesized. 2,3-butanediol (BDO) is the key by-product in the biosynthesis of 1,3-PD from glycerol, but it impedes its downstream purification. In Klebsiella, the budA, budB and budC genes encode enzymes that are responsible for the synthesis of BDO. In this study, 3 individual antisense RNAs were designed to repress the expression and hence activity of BudA-C. Compared with the parent strains, the activities of BudB and BudC were reduced by 60.5% and 70.5%, respectively, and the mRNA level of budA was reduced by 70%. Decreased BudC activity had no effect on cell growth or carbon distribution. However, reduced BudA and BudB activity decreased the BDO concentration by 35% and led to a 10% increase in the yield of 1,3-PD. This result suggests the activities of BudA and BudB could be key factors in the production of BDO from glycerol in Klebsiella. This study provides a deeper understanding of the role of budABC in glycerol metabolism in Klebsiella.

  12. First Report of Fusarium subglutinans Causing Leaf Spot Disease on Cymbidium Orchids in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyung-Sook; Park, Jong-Han; Back, Chang-Gi; Park, Mi-Jeong

    2015-09-01

    In 2006~2010, leaf spot symptoms, that is, small, yellow spots that turned into dark brown-to-black lesions surrounded by a yellow halo, were observed on Cymbidium spp. in Gongju, Taean, and Gapyeong in Korea. A Fusarium species was continuously isolated from symptomatic leaves; in pathogenicity testing, isolates caused leaf spot symptoms consisting of sunken, dark brown lesions similar to the original ones. The causal pathogen was identified as Fusarium subglutinans based on morphological and translation elongation factor 1-alpha sequence analyses. This is the first report of F. subglutinans as the cause of leaf spot disease in Cymbidium spp. in Korea.

  13. First Report of Fusarium subglutinans Causing Leaf Spot Disease on Cymbidium Orchids in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyung-Sook; Park, Jong-Han; Back, Chang-Gi

    2015-01-01

    In 2006~2010, leaf spot symptoms, that is, small, yellow spots that turned into dark brown-to-black lesions surrounded by a yellow halo, were observed on Cymbidium spp. in Gongju, Taean, and Gapyeong in Korea. A Fusarium species was continuously isolated from symptomatic leaves; in pathogenicity testing, isolates caused leaf spot symptoms consisting of sunken, dark brown lesions similar to the original ones. The causal pathogen was identified as Fusarium subglutinans based on morphological and translation elongation factor 1-alpha sequence analyses. This is the first report of F. subglutinans as the cause of leaf spot disease in Cymbidium spp. in Korea. PMID:26539053

  14. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition from flower and leaf of Magnolia kwangsiensis Figlar & Noot.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Fei; Ren, Fan; Liu, Xiong-Min; Lai, Fang; Ma, Li

    2016-07-01

    The essential oils from Magnolia kwangsiensis Figlar & Noot. were obtained using hydrodistillation, and analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 31, 27 and 26 constituents were identified in the oils from male flower, female flower and leaf of M. kwangsiensis, and they comprised 99.2, 98.5 and 96.2% of the oils, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in the oils and accounted for 48.3% of male flower oil, 54.0% of female flower oil and 44.6% of leaf oil. The compositions of flower oils were quite similar but with different content, and were different from those of leaf oil.

  15. Detection of Intracellular Bacteria in the Buds of Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Laukkanen, Hanna; Pospiech, Helmut; Myllylä, Raili; Hohtola, Anja

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial isolates were obtained from pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tissue cultures and identified as Methylobacterium extorquens and Pseudomonas synxantha. The existence of bacteria in pine buds was investigated by 16S rRNA in situ hybridization. Bacteria inhabited the buds of every tree examined, primarily colonizing the cells of scale primordia and resin ducts. PMID:10877808

  16. Changes in the Expression of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes during Three Phases of Bud Dormancy in Leafy Spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy. In this study, relationships among genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined after paradormancy release (growth induction) by d...

  17. A septin from the filamentous fungus A. nidulans induces atypical pseudohyphae in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septins were first discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae where they form a scaffold that organizes the bud site and are a component of the morphogenesis checkpoint that coordinates budding with mitosis. Five of the seven S. cerevisiae septins (Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12 and Shs1) colocalize as a rin...

  18. Decreased miR-320a promotes invasion and metastasis of tumor budding cells in tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zehang; Hou, Jinson; Liu, Xiqiang; Wu, Yue; Liu, Haichao; Huang, Hongzhang

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the specific miRNA profile of tumor budding cells and investigate the potential role of miR-320a in invasion and metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). We collected tumor budding cells and paired central tumor samples from five TSCC specimens with laser capture microdissection and examined the specimens using a miRNA microarray. The specific miRNA signature of tumor budding cells was identified. We found that miR-320a was dramatically decreased in tumor budding cells. Knockdown of miR-320a significantly enhanced migration and invasion of TSCC cell lines. Suz12 was shown to be a direct target of miR-320a. Similar results were also observed in nude mouse models. Multivariate analysis indicated that miR-320a was an independent prognostic factor. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that decreased miR-320a and high intensity of tumor budding were correlated with poor survival rate, especially in the subgroup with high-intensity tumor budding and low expression of miR-320a. We concluded that decreased expression of miR-320a could promote invasion and metastasis of tumor budding cells by targeting Suz12 in TSCC. A combination of tumor budding and miR-320a may serve as an index to identify an aggressive sub-population of TSCC cells with high metastatic potential. PMID:27582550

  19. Synchronisms between bud and cambium phenology in black spruce: early-flushing provenances exhibit early xylem formation.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Magali; Rossi, Sergio; Isabel, Nathalie

    2017-03-03

    Bud and cambial phenology represent the adaptation of species to the local environment that allows the growing season to be maximized while minimizing the risk of frost for the developing tissues. The temporal relationship between the apical and radial meristems can help in the understanding of tree growth as a whole process. The aim of this study was to compare cambial phenology in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) provenances classified as early and late bud flushing. The different phases of cambial phenology were assessed on wood microcores sampled weekly from April to October in 2014 and 2015 from 61 trees growing in a provenance trial in Quebec, Canada. Trees showing an early bud flush also exhibited early reactivation of xylem differentiation, although an average difference of 12 days for buds corresponded to small although significant differences of 4 days for xylem. Provenances with early bud flush had an early bud set and completed xylem formation earlier than late bud flush provenances. No significant difference in the period of xylem formation and total growth was observed between the flushing classes. Our results demonstrate that the ecotype differentiation of black spruce provenances represented by the phenological adaptation of buds to the local climate corresponds to specific growth dynamics of the xylem.

  20. Species-specific leaf volatile compounds of obligate Macaranga myrmecophytes and host-specific aggressiveness of symbiotic Crematogaster ants.

    PubMed

    Inui, Yoko; Itioka, Takao

    2007-11-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes harbor species-specific Crematogaster ants that defend host trees from herbivores. We examined ant aggressive behaviors when artificially damaged leaf pieces from another tree were offered to four sympatric species of obligate Macaranga myrmecophytes. The ants showed aggressive behavior in response to leaf pieces regardless of the leaf species; however, aggressiveness was higher when conspecific leaf pieces were offered than when nonhost species were offered. Thus, ants can recognize leaf damage and distinguish among damaged leaf species. Chemical analyses of volatile compounds emitted from damaged leaves that may induce ant defense showed that the composition of the minor compounds differed among the four Macaranga species, although there were many compounds in common.

  1. Variations of leaf N and P concentrations in shrubland biomes across northern China: phylogeny, climate, and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xian; Chi, Xiulian; Ji, Chengjun; Liu, Hongyan; Ma, Wenhong; Mohhammat, Anwar; Shi, Zhaoyong; Wang, Xiangping; Yu, Shunli; Yue, Ming; Tang, Zhiyao

    2016-08-01

    Concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are two key traits of plants for ecosystem functioning and dynamics. Foliar stoichiometry varies remarkably among life forms. However, previous studies have focused on the stoichiometric patterns of trees and grasses, leaving a significant knowledge gap for shrubs. In this study, we explored the intraspecific and interspecific variations of leaf N and P concentrations in response to the changes in climate, soil property, and evolutionary history. We analysed 1486 samples composed of 163 shrub species from 361 shrubland sites in northern China encompassing 46.1° (86.7-132.8° E) in longitude and 19.8° (32.6-52.4° N) in latitude. Leaf N concentrations decreased with precipitation, while leaf P concentrations decreased with temperature and increased with precipitation and soil total P concentrations. Both leaf N and P concentrations were phylogenetically conserved, but leaf P concentrations were less conserved than leaf N concentrations. At the community level, climate explained more interspecific variation of leaf nutrient concentrations, while soil nutrients explained most of the intraspecific variation. These results suggested that leaf N and P concentrations responded to climate, soil, and phylogeny in different ways. Climate influenced the community chemical traits through the shift in species composition, whereas soil directly influenced the community chemical traits. New patterns were discovered using our observations on specific regions and vegetation types, which improved our knowledge of broad biogeographic patterns of leaf chemical traits.

  2. Leaf water (18) O and (2) H enrichment along vertical canopy profiles in a broadleaved and a conifer forest tree.

    PubMed

    Bögelein, Rebekka; Thomas, Frank M; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing meteorological and plant-mediated drivers of leaf water isotopic enrichment is prerequisite for ecological interpretations of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in plant tissue. We measured input and leaf water δ(2) H and δ(18) O as well as micrometeorological and leaf morpho-physiological variables along a vertical gradient in a mature angiosperm (European beech) and gymnosperm (Douglas fir) tree. We used these variables and different enrichment models to quantify the influence of Péclet and non-steady state effects and of the biophysical drivers on leaf water enrichment. The two-pool model accurately described the diurnal variation of leaf water enrichment. The estimated unenriched water fraction was linked to leaf dry matter content across the canopy heights. Non-steady state effects and reduced stomatal conductance caused a higher enrichment of Douglas fir compared to beech leaf water. A dynamic effect analyses revealed that the light-induced vertical gradients of stomatal conductance and leaf temperature outbalanced each other in their effects on evaporative enrichment. We conclude that neither vertical canopy gradients nor the Péclet effect is important for estimates and interpretation of isotopic leaf water enrichment in hypostomatous trees. Contrarily, species-specific non-steady state effects and leaf temperatures as well as the water vapour isotope composition need careful consideration.

  3. Dehydration and osmotic adjustment in apple stem tissue during winter as it relates to the frost resistance of buds.

    PubMed

    Pramsohler, Manuel; Neuner, Gilbert

    2013-08-01

    In deciduous trees, measurement of stem water potential can be difficult during the leafless period in winter. By using thermocouple psychrometry, osmotic water potentials (Ψo; actual Ψo: Ψo(act); Ψo at full saturation: Ψo(sat)) of expressed sap of bark and bud tissue were measured in order to test if the severity of winter desiccation in apple stems could be sufficiently assessed with Ψo. Water potentials were related to frost resistance and freezing behaviour of buds. The determination of Ψo reliably allowed winter desiccation and osmotic adjustments in apple stem tissue to be assessed. In winter in bark tissue, a pronounced decrease in Ψo(act) and Ψo(sat) was found. Decreased Ψo(sat) indicates active osmotic adjustment in the bark as observed earlier in the leaves of evergreen woody plants. In terminal bud meristems, no significant osmotic adjustments occurred and dehydration during winter was much less. Osmotic water potentials, Ψo(act) and Ψo(sat), of bud tissue were always less negative than in the bark. To prevent water movement and dehydration of the bud tissue via this osmotic gradient, it must be compensated for either by a sufficiently high turgor pressure (Ψp) in bark tissue or by the isolation of the bud tissue from the bark during midwinter. During freezing of apple buds, freeze dehydration and extra-organ freezing could be demonstrated by significantly reduced Ψo(act) values of bud meristems that had been excised in the frozen state. Infrared video thermography was used to monitor freezing patterns in apple twigs. During extracellular freezing of intact and longitudinally dissected stems, infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) images showed that the bud meristem remains ice free. Even if cooled to temperatures below the frost-killing temperature, no freezing event could be detected in bud meristems during winter. In contrast, after bud break, terminal buds showed a second freezing at the frost-killing temperature that indicates

  4. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity....

  7. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by...

  8. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity....

  9. The yeast prefoldin-like URI-orthologue Bud27 associates with the RSC nucleosome remodeler and modulates transcription

    PubMed Central

    Mirón-García, María Carmen; Garrido-Godino, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Fernández, Verónica; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Cuevas-Bermúdez, Abel; Martín-Expósito, Manuel; Chávez, Sebastián; de la Cruz, Jesús; Navarro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Bud27, the yeast orthologue of human URI/RMP, is a member of the prefoldin-like family of ATP-independent molecular chaperones. It has recently been shown to mediate the assembly of the three RNA polymerases in an Rpb5-dependent manner. In this work, we present evidence of Bud27 modulating RNA pol II transcription elongation. We show that Bud27 associates with RNA pol II phosphorylated forms (CTD-Ser5P and CTD-Ser2P), and that its absence affects RNA pol II occupancy of transcribed genes. We also reveal that Bud27 associates in vivo with the Sth1 component of the chromatin remodeling complex RSC and mediates its association with RNA pol II. Our data suggest that Bud27, in addition of contributing to Rpb5 folding within the RNA polymerases, also participates in the correct assembly of other chromatin-associated protein complexes, such as RSC, thereby modulating their activity. PMID:25081216

  10. Comparison of half and full-leaf shape feature extraction for leaf classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainin, Mohd Shamrie; Ahmad, Faudziah; Alfred, Rayner

    2016-08-01

    Shape is the main information for leaf feature that most of the current literatures in leaf identification utilize the whole leaf for feature extraction and to be used in the leaf identification process. In this paper, study of half-leaf features extraction for leaf identification is carried out and the results are compared with the results obtained from the leaf identification based on a full-leaf features extraction. Identification and classification is based on shape features that are represented as cosines and sinus angles. Six single classifiers obtained from WEKA and seven ensemble methods are used to compare their performance accuracies over this data. The classifiers were trained using 65 leaves in order to classify 5 different species of preliminary collection of Malaysian medicinal plants. The result shows that half-leaf features extraction can be used for leaf identification without decreasing the predictive accuracy.

  11. Leaf movements and their relationship with the lunisolar gravitational force

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Observation of the diurnal ascent and descent of leaves of beans and other species, as well as experimental interventions into these movements, such as exposures to light at different times during the movement cycle, led to the concept of an endogenous ‘clock’ as a regulator of these oscillations. The physiological basis of leaf movement can be traced to processes that modulate cell volume in target tissues of the pulvinus and petiole. However, these elements of the leaf-movement process do not completely account for the rhythms that are generated following germination in constant light or dark conditions, or when plants are transferred to similar free-running conditions. Scope To develop a new perspective on the regulation of leaf-movement rhythms, many of the published time courses of leaf movements that provided evidence for the concept of the endogenous clock were analysed in conjunction with the contemporaneous time courses of the lunisolar tidal acceleration at the relevant experimental locations. This was made possible by application of the Etide program, which estimates, with high temporal resolution, local gravitational changes as a consequence of the diurnal variations of the lunisolar gravitational force due to the orbits and relative positions of Earth, Moon and Sun. In all cases, it was evident that a synchronism exists between the times of the turning points of both the lunisolar tide and of the leaftide when the direction of leaf movement changes. This finding of synchrony leads to the hypothesis that the lunisolar tide is a regulator of the leaftide, and that the rhythm of leaf movement is not necessarily of endogenous origin but is an expression of an exogenous lunisolar ‘clock’ impressed upon the leaf-movement apparatus. Conclusions Correlation between leaftide and Etide time courses holds for leaf movement rhythms in natural conditions of the greenhouse, in conditions of constant light or dark, under microgravity conditions of

  12. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C5L Low Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf Underripe, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C4F Fair Quality Medium-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1163 - Smoking Leaf (H Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil, strong color intensity... Quality Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil, moderate color... may be waste. H5F—Low Quality Orange Smoking Leaf Mellow, open leaf structure, medium body, lean...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C5L Low Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf Underripe, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C4F Fair Quality Medium-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C5L Low Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf Underripe, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C4F Fair Quality Medium-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C5L Low Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf Underripe, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C4F Fair Quality Medium-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C5L Low Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf Underripe, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C4F Fair Quality Medium-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  3. Leafing patterns and leaf traits of four evergreen shrubs in the Patagonian Monte, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanella, María Victoria; Bertiller, Mónica B.

    2009-11-01

    We assessed leafing patterns (rate, timing, and duration of leafing) and leaf traits (leaf longevity, leaf mass per area and leaf-chemistry) in four co-occurring evergreen shrubs of the genus Larrea and Chuquiraga (each having two species) in the arid Patagonian Monte of Argentina. We asked whether species with leaves well-defended against water shortage (high LMA, leaf longevity, and lignin concentration, and low N concentration) have lower leaf production, duration of the leafing period, and inter-annual variation of leafing than species with the opposite traits. We observed two distinctive leafing patterns each related to one genus. Chuquiraga species produced new leaves concentrated in a massive short leafing event (5-48 days) while new leaves of Larrea species emerged gradually (128-258 days). Observed leafing patterns were consistent with simultaneous and successive leafing types previously described for woody plants. The peak of leaf production occurred earlier in Chuquiraga species (mid September) than in Larrea species (mid October-late November). Moreover, Chuquiraga species displayed leaves with the longest leaf lifespan, while leaves of Larrea species had the lowest LMA and the highest N and soluble phenolics concentrations. We also observed that only the leaf production of Larrea species increased in humid years. We concluded that co-occurring evergreen species in the Patagonian Monte displayed different leafing patterns, which were associated with some relevant leaf traits acting as plant defenses against water stress and herbivores. Differences in leafing patterns could provide evidence of ecological differentiation among coexisting species of the same life form.

  4. Leaf area dynamics of conifer forests

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, H.; Oren, R.; Whitehead, D.; Kaufmann, M.R.

    1995-07-01

    Estimating the surface area of foliage supported by a coniferous forest canopy is critical for modeling its biological properties. Leaf area represents the surface area available for the interception of energy, the absorption of carbon dioxide, and the diffusion of water from the leaf to the atmosphere. The concept of leaf area is pertinent to the physiological and ecological dynamics of conifers at a wide range of spatial scales, from individual leaves to entire biomes. In fact, the leaf area of vegetation at a global level can be thought of as a carbon-absorbing, water-emitting membrane of variable thickness, which can have an important influence on the dynamics and chemistry of the Earth`s atmosphere over both the short and the long term. Unless otherwise specified, references to leaf area herein refer to projected leaf area, i.e., the vertical projection of needles placed on a flat plane. Total leaf surface area is generally from 2.0 to 3.14 times that of projected leaf area for conifers. It has recently been suggested that hemisurface leaf area, i.e., one-half of the total surface area of a leaf, a more useful basis for expressing leaf area than is projected area. This chapter is concerned with the dynamics of coniferous forest leaf area at different spatial and temporal scales. In the first part, we consider various hypotheses related to the control of leaf area development, ranging from simple allometric relations with tree size to more complex mechanistic models that consider the movement of water and nutrients to tree canopies. In the second part, we consider various aspects of leaf area dynamics at varying spatial and temporal scales, including responses to perturbation, seasonal dynamics, genetic variation in crown architecture, the responses to silvicultural treatments, the causes and consequences of senescence, and the direct measurement of coniferous leaf area at large spatial scales using remote sensing.

  5. Abscisic acid form, concentration, and application timing influence phenology and bud cold hardiness in Merlot grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) form, concentration and application timing on bud cold hardiness, phenology and fruiting performance on ‘Merlot’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were evaluated in a three year field trial with site locations in British Columbia Canada, Ontario Canada, Washington U.S. ...

  6. Woody tissue photosynthesis and its contribution to trunk growth and bud development in young plants.

    PubMed

    Saveyn, An; Steppe, Kathy; Ubierna, Nerea; Dawson, Todd E

    2010-11-01

    Stem photosynthesis can contribute significantly to woody plant carbon balance, particularly in times when leaves are absent or in 'open' crowns with sufficient light penetration. We explored the significance of woody tissue (stem) photosynthesis for the carbon income in three California native plant species via measurements of chlorophyll concentrations, radial stem growth, bud biomass and stable carbon isotope composition of sugars in different plant organs. Young plants of Prunus ilicifolia, Umbellularia californica and Arctostaphylos manzanita were measured and subjected to manipulations at two levels: trunk light exclusion (100 and 50%) and complete defoliation. We found that long-term light exclusion resulted in a reduction in chlorophyll concentration and radial growth, demonstrating that trunk assimilates contributed to trunk carbon income. In addition, bud biomass was lower in covered plants compared to uncovered plants. Excluding 100% of the ambient light from trunks on defoliated plants led to an enrichment in ¹³C of trunk phloem sugars. We attributed this effect to a reduction in photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination against ¹³C that in turn resulted in an enrichment in ¹³C of bud sugars. Taken together our results reveal that stem photosynthesis contributes to the total carbon income of all species including the buds in defoliated plants.

  7. Increase in ACC oxidase levels and activities during paradormancy release of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant hormone ethylene is known to affect various developmental processes including dormancy and growth. Yet, little information is available about ethylene’s role during paradormancy break in adventitious buds of leafy spurge. In this study, we examined changes in ethylene evolution and the eth...

  8. Dehydration and vernalization treatments identify overlapping molecular networks impacting endodormancy maintenance in leafy spurge crown buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds (UABs), which undergo well-defined phases of seasonal dormancy (para-, endo- and eco-dormancy). In this study, the effects of dehydration-stress on vegeta...

  9. Progress in cryopreservation of dormant winter buds of selected tree species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cryopreservation of germplasm, using dormant winter buds (DB) as source plant materials is economically favorable over tissue culture options (TC). Processing DB does not require aseptic conditions and involved cryopreservation procedures. Although, the DB cryopreservation method has been known f...

  10. Using "Bud World Party" Attendance to Predict Adolescent Alcohol Use and Beliefs about Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Rekve, Dag; Lindsay, Gordon B.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the association between attendance at the "Bud World Party," a family entertainment venue created by Anheuser-Busch for the 2002 Winter Olympics, and alcohol-related beliefs and current drinking behaviors for a group of 7th and 8th graders who attend a middle school in close proximity to the downtown Salt Lake City plaza where…

  11. Regularity in budding mode and resultant growth morphology of the azooxanthellate colonial scleractinian Tubastraea coccinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentoku, A.; Ezaki, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Scleractinia exhibit a variety of growth forms, whether zooxanthellate or azooxanthellate, according to factors that control asexual reproduction and ensuing coral growth. The azooxanthellate branching scleractinian Dendrophyllia arbuscula shows regular modes of budding in terms of the locations of budding sites, the orientations of directive septa, and the inclination angle of budding throughout colonial growth. This study reports that such regularities are also found in the apparently different growth form of the massive dendrophylliid Tubastraea coccinea, which shows the following growth features: (1) the offsets (lateral corallites) always occur near four primary septa, except the two directive primary septa, meaning that the lateral corallites do not appear in the sectors of the two directive septa; (2) the two directive septa in lateral corallites tend to be oriented subperpendicular to the growth direction of the parental corallites; (3) the lateral corallites grow approximately diagonally upwards; and (4) these regularities are seen in the axial and derived lateral corallites among all generations during colony growth. Large differences in growth form are found between the branching D. arbuscula and massive T. coccinea, irrespective of the presence of specific regularities. It is likely that subtle modifications of certain parameters (e.g., budding interval, branch length, corallite size, and inclination angle of lateral corallites) have a strong effect on the overall growth morphology. A precise understanding of such regularities, which occur regardless of generation or taxonomic position, would contribute to understanding the "shape-controlling mechanism" of corals, which are an archetypal modular organism.

  12. Reproductive effects of lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Raghav Kumar; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) have been used in indigenous medicines for the treatment of male sexual disorders in Indian subcontinent. Objective: To evaluate the effect of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on male reproduction, using Parkes (P) strain mice as animal model. Materials and Methods: Mice were orally administered lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in doses of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight for 35 days, and several male reproductive endpoints were evaluated. Results: Treatment with lower dose (15 mg) of Syzygium increased the motility of sperm and stimulated the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle, while higher doses (30 and 60 mg) had adverse effects on sperm dynamics of cauda epididymidis and on the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle. Libido was not affected in treated males; however, a significant decrease in litter in females sired by males treated with higher doses of Syzygium was recorded. Conclusion: Treatment with Syzygium aromaticum flower bud causes dose-dependent biphasic effect on male reproductive indices in P mice; lower dose of Syzygium appears stimulatory, while the higher doses have adverse effect on male reproduction. The results suggest that the lower dose of Syzygium may have androgenic effect, but further studies are needed to support this contention. PMID:23930041

  13. Cell size and budding during starvation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, G C

    1977-01-01

    When starved for nitrogen, cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced abnormally small cells. Nonetheless, during starvation, only cells of a size characteristic of growing cells were capable of initiating a bud. Even when growth was severely limited, some event(s) in G1 required growth to a critical size for completion. PMID:334753

  14. Buds of Parenting in Emerging Adult Males: What We Learned from Our Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine the precursors of parenting buds (representations regarding parenting before actual parenting) by following 60 men from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Quality of relationships with parents, and attachment representations (state of mind with respect to attachment and attachment styles) assessed in adolescence, contribute to…

  15. Evolution and development of budding by stem cells: ascidian