Science.gov

Sample records for leaf elongation zone

  1. Assessment of Spatial Distribution of Growth in the Elongation Zone of Grass Leaf Blades 1

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Hans; Nelson, Curtis J.; Coutts, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Knowledge about the spatial distribution of growth is essential for understanding the leaf growth process. In grasses the elongation zone is located at the base of the leaf blade and is enclosed by sheaths of older leaves. Assessment of spatial growth distribution, therefore, necessitates use of a destructive method. We used a fine needle to make holes through bases of tillers at the location of the leaf elongation zone of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), then measured the displacement of the holes after a 6 or 24 h interval. Needle holes caused a 22 to 41% decrease in daily leaf elongation so experiments were conducted to investigate if the spatial distribution of growth in the elongation zone was altered. Leaf elongation rate was reduced similarly when needle holes were made within or above the zone where cell elongation occurs. Distribution of elongation within the zone was the same when estimated by displacement of needle holes or ink marks placed on the epidermis of the elongation zone after surrounding tissue had been removed. Making holes at different locations within the elongation zone did not differentially affect the relative contribution of the damaged or undamaged parts to leaf elongation. These findings demonstrate that needle holes or ink marks in paired leaves can be used to estimate the relative distribution of growth in the elongation zone of undamaged tall fescue leaf blades. PMID:16665672

  2. Leaf exsertion, leaf elongation, and leaf senescence in Eriophorum vaginatum and Carex Bigelowii

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, G.R.; Yandow, T.; Laundre, J.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the common sedges of arctic vegetation show a pattern of leaf production in which the exsertion and elongation of new leaves is more or less simultaneous with the senescence of old leaves. The present study was designed to increase our understanding of the variability sequential leaf production by arctic sedges, and to determine some of the controls on that variability. We did this in two ways: first, we compared the sequential patterns of leaf growth and senescence in E. vaginatum with those of Carex Bigelowii Torr. at two tussock tundra sites near Toolik Lake on the North Slope of Alaska. Second, we compared the responses of leaf growth in these species in control and fertilized plots and in two microenvironments thought to differ sharply in nutrient availability and total productivity. 29 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Roles of the fructans from leaf sheaths and from the elongating leaf bases in the regrowth following defoliation of Lolium perenne L.

    PubMed

    Morvan-Bertrand, A; Boucaud, J; Le Saos, J; Prud'homme, M P

    2001-05-01

    The study of carbohydrate metabolism in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Bravo) during the first 48 h of regrowth showed that fructans from elongating leaf bases were hydrolysed first whereas fructans in mature leaf sheaths were degraded only after a lag of 1.5 h. In elongating leaf bases, the decline in fructan content occurred not only in the differentiation zone (30-60 mm from the leaf base), but also in the growth zone. Unlike other soluble carbohydrates, the net deposition rate of fructose remained positive and even rose during the first day following defoliation. The activity of fructan exohydrolase (FEH; EC 3.2.1.80) was maximal in the differentiation zone before defoliation and increased in all segments, but peaked in the growth zone after defoliation. These data strongly indicate that fructans stored in the leaf growth zone were hydrolysed and recycled in that zone to sustain the refoliation immediately after defoliation. Despite the depletion of carbohydrates, leaves of defoliated plants elongated at a significantly higher rate than those of undefoliated plants, during the first 10 h of regrowth. This can be partly attributed to the transient increase in water and nitrate deposition rate. The results are discussed in relation to defoliation tolerance.

  4. Differential expression of alpha- and beta-expansin genes in the elongating leaf of Festuca pratensis.

    PubMed

    Reidy, B; McQueen-Mason, S; Nösberger, J; Fleming, A

    2001-07-01

    Grasses contain a number of genes encoding both alpha- and beta-expansins. These cell wall proteins are predicted to play a role in cell wall modifications, particularly during tissue elongation. We report here on the characterisation of five alpha- and three vegetative beta-expansins expressed in the leaf elongation zone (LEZ) of the forage grass, Festuca pratensis Huds. The expression of the predominant alpha-expansin (FpExp2) was localised to the vascular tissue, as was the beta-expansin FpExpB3. Expression of another beta-expansin (FpExpB2) was not localised to vascular tissue but was highly expressed in roots and initiating tillers. This is the first description of vegetative beta-expansin gene expression at the organ and tissue level and also the first evidence of differential expression between members of this gene family. In addition, an analysis of both alpha- and beta-expansin expression along the LEZ revealed no correlation with growth rate distribution, whereas we were able to identify a novel xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (FpXET1) whose expression profile closely mimicked leaf growth rate. These data suggest that alpha- and beta-expansin activities in the grass leaf are associated with tissue differentiation, that expansins involved in leaf growth may represent more minor components of the spectrum of expansin genes expressed in this tissue, and that XETs may be useful markers for the analysis of grass leaf growth.

  5. Leaf Length Tracker: a novel approach to analyse leaf elongation close to the thermal limit of growth in the field

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgessner, Norbert; Yates, Steven; Hiltpold, Maya; Walter, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Leaf growth in monocot crops such as wheat and barley largely follows the daily temperature course, particularly under cold but humid springtime field conditions. Knowledge of the temperature response of leaf extension, particularly variations close to the thermal limit of growth, helps define physiological growth constraints and breeding-related genotypic differences among cultivars. Here, we present a novel method, called ‘Leaf Length Tracker’ (LLT), suitable for measuring leaf elongation rates (LERs) of cereals and other grasses with high precision and high temporal resolution under field conditions. The method is based on image sequence analysis, using a marker tracking approach to calculate LERs. We applied the LLT to several varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), summer barley (Hordeum vulgare), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), grown in the field and in growth cabinets under controlled conditions. LLT is easy to use and we demonstrate its reliability and precision under changing weather conditions that include temperature, wind, and rain. We found that leaf growth stopped at a base temperature of 0°C for all studied species and we detected significant genotype-specific differences in LER with rising temperature. The data obtained were statistically robust and were reproducible in the tested environments. Using LLT, we were able to detect subtle differences (sub-millimeter) in leaf growth patterns. This method will allow the collection of leaf growth data in a wide range of future field experiments on different graminoid species or varieties under varying environmental or treatment conditions. PMID:26818912

  6. Is elongation-induced leaf emergence beneficial for submerged Rumex species?

    PubMed Central

    Pierik, R.; van Aken, J. M.; Voesenek, L. A. C. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant species from various taxa ‘escape’ from low oxygen conditions associated with submergence by a suite of traits collectively called the low oxygen escape syndrome (LOES). The expression of these traits is associated with costs and benefits. Thus far, remarkably few studies have dealt with the expected benefits of the LOES. Methods Young plants were fully submerged at initial depths of 450 mm (deep) or 150–240 mm (shallow). Rumex palustris leaf tips emerged from the shallow flooding within a few days, whereas a slight lowering of shallow flooding was required to expose R. acetosa leaf tips to the atmosphere. Shoot biomass and petiole porosity were measured for all species, and treatments and data from the deep and shallow submergence treatments were compared with non-flooded controls. Key Results R. palustris is characterized by submergence-induced enhanced petiole elongation. R. acetosa lacked this growth response. Upon leaf tip emergence, R. palustris increased its biomass, whereas R. acetosa did not. Furthermore, petiole porosity in R. palustris was twice as high as in R. acetosa. Conclusions Leaf emergence restores gas exchange between roots and the atmosphere in R. palustris. This occurs to a much lesser extent in R. acetosa and is attributable to its lower petiole porosity and therefore limited internal gas transport. Leaf emergence resulting from fast petiole elongation appears to benefit biomass accumulation if these plants contain sufficient aerenchyma in petioles and roots to facilitate internal gas exchange. PMID:18697756

  7. Rapid changes in leaf elongation, ABA and water status during the recovery phase following application of water stress in two durum wheat varieties differing in drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Mahdid, Mohamed; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Ehlert, Christina; Simonneau, Thierry

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of Abscisic acid (ABA) in water potential and turgor variations as well as growth recovery during the first phase of a rapid water stress induced by PEG6000. Two wheat varieties (Triticum durum L.), MBB (more tolerant) and OZ (less productive under drought), were grown in aerated nutrient solutions. Leaf elongation kinetics of the growing leaf 3 was estimated using LVDT. Water potential was measured using a pressure chamber; osmotic potential was estimated from expressed sap of elongation zone, turgor pressure of the same zone of leaf three was estimated directly by pressure probe. Growth rapidly ceased for a period of about one hour after the addition of PEG, gradual recovery was then observed for about 2 h. A significant difference was found in the % recovery of Leaf Elongation Rate (LER) and ABA between the two varieties, leading to better water status in MBB compared to OZ. The results of this study showed the possible role of ABA on growth resumption by the increase of relative water content and turgor via osmotic adjustment during the stress period in the leaves, which indicates the importance of OA in the resumption of LER even in the short term under conditions of water deficit. Full recovery of turgor but not of LER at the end stress period suggested the possible effect on cell wall extensibility (hardening) even at short term resulting from the rapid accumulation of ABA.

  8. Non-hydraulic signals from maize roots in drying soil: inhibition of leaf elongation but not stomatal conductance.

    PubMed

    Saab, I N; Sharp, R E

    1989-11-01

    Conditions of soil drying and plant growth that lead to non-hydraulic inhibition of leaf elongation and stomatal conductance in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated using plants grown with their root systems divided between two containers. The soil in one container was allowed to dry while the other container was kept well-watered. Soil drying resulted in a maximum 35% inhibition of leaf elongation rate which occurred during the light hours, with no measurable decline in leaf water potential (ψw). Leaf area was 15% less than in control plants after 18 d of soil drying. The inhibition of elongation was observed only when the soil ψw declined to below that of the leaves and, thus, the drying soil no longer contributed to transpiration. However, midday root ψw in the dry container (-0.29 MPa) remained much higher than that of the surrounding soil (-1.0 MPa) after 15 d of drying, indicating that the roots in drying soil were rehydrated in the dark.To prove that the inhibition of leaf elongation was not caused by undetectable changes in leaf water status as a result of loss of half the watergathering capacity, one-half of the root system of control plants was excised. This treatment had no effect on leaf elongation or stomatal conductance. The inhibition of leaf elongation was also not explained by reductions in nutrient supply.Soil drying had no effect on stomatal conductance despite variations in the rate or extent of soild drying, light, humidity or nutrition. The results indicate that non-hydraulic inhibition of leaf elongation may act to conserve water as the soil dries before the occurrence of shoot water deficits. PMID:24201770

  9. Movement of endogenous calcium in the elongating zone of graviresponding roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Cameron, I. L.; Smith, N. K.

    1989-01-01

    Endogenous calcium (Ca) accumulates along the lower side of the elongating zone of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent. This accumulation of Ca correlates positively with the onset of gravicurvature, and occurs in the cytoplasm, cell walls and mucilage of epidermal cells. Corresponding changes in endogenous Ca do not occur in cortical cells of the elongating zone of intact roots. These results indicate that the calcium asymmetries associated with root gravicurvature occur in the outermost layers of the root.

  10. Polar transport of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Evans, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The movement of calcium across the elongation zone of gravistimulated primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) was measured using 45Ca2+. Radioactive calcium was applied to one side of the elongation zone about 4 mm back from the root tip and the distribution of radioactivity across the root in the region of application was determined using scintillation spectrometry. The movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone was non-polar in vertically oriented roots. In gravistimulated roots the movement of label was polarized with about twice as much label moving from top to bottom as from bottom to top. A variety of treatments which interfere with gravitropism was found to eliminate the polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. In maize cultivars which require light for gravitropic competency, dark grown roots exhibited neither gravitropism nor polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Upon illumination the roots developed but gravitropic competency and gravity-induced polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Similarly, roots of light-grown seedlings lost both gravitropic competency and 45Ca2+ transport polarity upon transfer to the dark. The results indicate a close correlation between calcium movement and gravitropism in primary roots in maize.

  11. The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, H; Evans, M L

    1993-08-01

    We used a video digitizer system to (a) measure changes in the pattern of longitudinal surface extension in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) upon application and withdrawal of auxin and (b) compare these patterns during gravitropism in control roots and roots pretreated with auxin. Special attention was paid to the distal elongation zone (DEZ), arbitrarily defined as the region between the meristem and the point within the elongation zone at which the rate of elongation reaches 0.3 of the peak rate. For roots in aqueous solution, the basal limit of the DEZ is about 2.5 mm behind the tip of the root cap. Auxin suppressed elongation throughout the elongation zone, but, after 1 to 3 h, elongation resumed, primarily as a result of induction of rapid elongation in the DEZ. Withdrawal of auxin during the period of strong inhibition resulted in exceptionally rapid elongation attributable to the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ plus recovery in the main elongation zone. Gravistimulation of auxin-inhibited roots induced rapid elongation in the DEZ along the top of the root. This resulted in rapid gravitropism even though the elongation rate of the root was zero before gravistimulation. The results indicate that cells of the DEZ differ from cells in the bulk of the elongation zone with respect to auxin sensitivity and that DEZ cells play an important role in gravitropism. PMID:11536543

  12. The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    We used a video digitizer system to (a) measure changes in the pattern of longitudinal surface extension in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) upon application and withdrawal of auxin and (b) compare these patterns during gravitropism in control roots and roots pretreated with auxin. Special attention was paid to the distal elongation zone (DEZ), arbitrarily defined as the region between the meristem and the point within the elongation zone at which the rate of elongation reaches 0.3 of the peak rate. For roots in aqueous solution, the basal limit of the DEZ is about 2.5 mm behind the tip of the root cap. Auxin suppressed elongation throughout the elongation zone, but, after 1 to 3 h, elongation resumed, primarily as a result of induction of rapid elongation in the DEZ. Withdrawal of auxin during the period of strong inhibition resulted in exceptionally rapid elongation attributable to the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ plus recovery in the main elongation zone. Gravistimulation of auxin-inhibited roots induced rapid elongation in the DEZ along the top of the root. This resulted in rapid gravitropism even though the elongation rate of the root was zero before gravistimulation. The results indicate that cells of the DEZ differ from cells in the bulk of the elongation zone with respect to auxin sensitivity and that DEZ cells play an important role in gravitropism.

  13. Aquaporin-Mediated Reduction in Maize Root Hydraulic Conductivity Impacts Cell Turgor and Leaf Elongation Even without Changing Transpiration1[W

    PubMed Central

    Ehlert, Christina; Maurel, Christophe; Tardieu, François; Simonneau, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Root hydraulic conductivity in plants (Lpr) exhibits large variations in response to abiotic stimuli. In this study, we investigated the impact of dynamic, aquaporin-mediated changes of Lpr on leaf growth, water potential, and water flux throughout the plant. For this, we manipulated Lpr by subjecting roots to four independent treatments, with aquaporin inhibitors applied either to transpiring maize (Zea mays) plants grown in hydroponics or to detopped root systems for estimation of Lpr. The treatments were acid load at pH 6.0 and 5.0 and hydrogen peroxide and anoxia applied for 1 to 2 h and subsequently reversed. First, we established that acid load affected cell hydraulic conductivity in maize root cortex. Lpr was reduced by all treatments by 31% to 63%, with half-times of about 15 min, and partly recovered when treatments were reversed. Cell turgor measured in the elongating zone of leaves decreased synchronously with Lpr, and leaf elongation rate closely followed these changes across all treatments in a dose-dependent manner. Leaf and xylem water potentials also followed changes in Lpr. Stomatal conductance and rates of transpiration and water uptake were not affected by Lpr reduction under low evaporative demand. Increased evaporative demand, when combined with acid load at pH 6.0, induced stomatal closure and amplified all other responses without altering their synchrony. Root pressurization reversed the impact of acid load or anoxia on leaf elongation rate and water potential, further indicating that changes in turgor mediated the response of leaf growth to reductions in Lpr. PMID:19369594

  14. Effects of Nitrogen on Mesophyll Cell Division and Epidermal Cell Elongation in Tall Fescue Leaf Blades 1

    PubMed Central

    MacAdam, Jennifer W.; Volenec, Jeffrey J.; Nelson, Curtis J.

    1989-01-01

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) in grasses is dependent on epidermal cell supply (number) and on rate and duration of epidermal cell elongation. Nitrogen (N) fertilization increases LER. Longitudinal sections from two genotypes of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), which differ by 50% in LER, were used to quantify the effects of N on the components of epidermal cell elongation and on mesophyll cell division. Rate and duration of epidermal cell elongation were determined by using a relationship between cell length and displacement velocity derived from the continuity equation. Rate of epidermal cell elongation was exponential. Relative rates of epidermal cell elongation increased by 9% with high N, even though high N increased LER by 89%. Duration of cell elongation was approximately 20 h longer in the high- than in the low-LER genotype regardless of N treatment. The percentage of mesophyll cells in division was greater in the high- than in the low-LER genotype. This increased with high N in both genotypes, indicating that LER increased with cell supply. Division of mesophyll cells adjacent to abaxial epidermal cells continued after epidermal cell division stopped, until epidermal cells had elongated to a mean length of 40 micrometers in the high-LER and a mean length of 50 micrometers in the low-LER genotype. The cell cycle length for mesophyll cells was calculated to be 12 to 13 hours. Nitrogen increased mesophyll cell number more than epidermal cell number: in both genotypes, the final number of mesophyll cells adjacent to each abaxial epidermal cell was 10 with low N and 14 with high N. A spatial model is used to describe three cell development processes relevant to leaf growth. It illustrates the overlap of mesophyll cell division and epidermal cell elongation, and the transition from epidermal cell elongation to secondary cell wall deposition. PMID:16666581

  15. The Interplay between Carbon Availability and Growth in Different Zones of the Growing Maize Leaf1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Arrivault, Stéphanie; Lohse, Marc A.; Feil, Regina; Krohn, Nicole; Encke, Beatrice; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Stitt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Plants assimilate carbon in their photosynthetic tissues in the light. However, carbon is required during the night and in nonphotosynthetic organs. It is therefore essential that plants manage their carbon resources spatially and temporally and coordinate growth with carbon availability. In growing maize (Zea mays) leaf blades, a defined developmental gradient facilitates analyses in the cell division, elongation, and mature zones. We investigated the responses of the metabolome and transcriptome and polysome loading, as a qualitative proxy for protein synthesis, at dusk, dawn, and 6, 14, and 24 h into an extended night, and tracked whole-leaf elongation over this time course. Starch and sugars are depleted by dawn in the mature zone, but only after an extension of the night in the elongation and division zones. Sucrose (Suc) recovers partially between 14 and 24 h into the extended night in the growth zones, but not the mature zone. The global metabolome and transcriptome track these zone-specific changes in Suc. Leaf elongation and polysome loading in the growth zones also remain high at dawn, decrease between 6 and 14 h into the extended night, and then partially recover, indicating that growth processes are determined by local carbon status. The level of Suc-signaling metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate, and the trehalose-6-phosphate:Suc ratio are much higher in growth than mature zones at dusk and dawn but fall in the extended night. Candidate genes were identified by searching for transcripts that show characteristic temporal response patterns or contrasting responses to carbon starvation in growth and mature zones. PMID:27582314

  16. Silencing SlELP2L, a tomato Elongator complex protein 2-like gene, inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf, sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingku; Li, Yali; Chen, Guoping; Ren, Lijun; Xie, Qiaoli; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

    2015-01-09

    The multi-subunit complex Elongator interacts with elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and is thought to facilitate transcription through histone acetylation. Elongator is highly conserved in eukaryotes, yet has multiple kingdom-specific functions in diverse organisms. Recent genetic studies performed in Arabidopsis have demonstrated that Elongator functions in plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, little is known about its roles in other plant species. Here, we study the function of an Elongator complex protein 2-like gene in tomato, here designated as SlELP2L, through RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Silencing SlELP2L in tomato inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf and sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit with reduced GA and IAA contents in leaves, and increased chlorophyll accumulation in pericarps. Gene expression analysis indicated that SlELP2L-silenced plants had reduced transcript levels of ethylene- and ripening-related genes during fruit ripening with slightly decreased carotenoid content in fruits, while the expression of DNA methyltransferase genes was up-regulated, indicating that SlELP2L may modulate DNA methylation in tomato. Besides, silencing SlELP2L increases ABA sensitivity in inhibiting seedling growth. These results suggest that SlELP2L plays important roles in regulating plant growth and development, as well as in response to ABA in tomato.

  17. Organelle sedimentation in gravitropic roots of Limnobium is restricted to the elongation zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.; Kim, D.; Stein, B.

    1994-01-01

    Roots of the aquatic angiosperm Limnobium spongia (Bosc) Steud. were evaluated by light and electron microscopy to determine the distribution of organelle sedimentation towards gravity. Roots of Limnobium are strongly gravitropic. The rootcap consists of only two layers of cells. Although small amyloplasts are present in the central cap cells, no sedimentation of any organelle, including amyloplasts, was found. In contrast, both amyloplasts and nuclei sediment consistently and completely in cells of the elongation zone. Sedimentation occurs in one cell layer of the cortex just outside the endodermis. Sedimentation of both amyloplasts and nuclei begins in cells that are in their initial stages of elongation and persists at least to the level of the root where root hairs emerge. This is the first modern report of the presence of sedimentation away from, but not in, the rootcap. It shows that sedimentation in the rootcap is not necessary for gravitropic sensing in at least one angiosperm. If amyloplast sedimentation is responsible for gravitropic sensing, then the site of sensing in Limnobium roots is the elongation zone and not the rootcap. These data do not necessarily conflict with the hypothesis that sensing occurs in the cap in other roots, since Limnobium roots are exceptional in rootcap origin and structure, as well as in the distribution of organelle sedimentation. Similarly, if nuclear sedimentation is involved in gravitropic sensing, then nuclear mass would function in addition to, not instead of, that of amyloplasts.

  18. The Regulation of Growth in the Distal Elongation Zone of Maize Roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    The major goals of the proposed research were 1. To develop specialized software for automated whole surface root expansion analysis and to develop technology for controlled placement of surface electrodes for analysis of relationships between root growth and root pH and electrophysiological properties. 2. To measure surface pH patterns and determine the possible role of proton flux in gravitropic sensing or response, and 3. To determine the role of auxin transport in establishment of patterns of proton flux and electrical gradients during the gravitropic response of roots with special emphasis on the role of the distal elongation zone in the early phases of the gravitropic response.

  19. Analysis of changes in relative elemental growth rate patterns in the elongation zone of Arabidopsis roots upon gravistimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Although Arabidopsis is an important system for studying root physiology, the localized growth patterns of its roots have not been well defined, particularly during tropic responses. In order to characterize growth rate profiles along the apex of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh (ecotype Columbia) we applied small charcoal particles to the root surface and analyzed their displacement during growth using an automated video digitizer system with custom software for tracking the markers. When growing vertically, the maximum elongation rate occurred 481 +/- 50 microns back from the extreme tip of the root (tip of root cap), and the elongation zone extended back to 912 +/- 137 microns. The distal elongation zone (DEZ) has previously been described as the apical region of the elongation zone in which the relative elemental growth rate (REGR) is < or = 30% of the peak rate in the central elongation zone. By this definition, our data indicate that the basal limit of the DEZ was located 248 +/- 30 microns from the root tip. However, after gravistimulation, the growth patterns of the root changed. Within the first hour of graviresponse, the basal limit of the DEZ and the position of peak REGR shifted apically on the upper flank of the root. This was due to a combination of increased growth in the DEZ and growth inhibition in the central elongation zone. On the lower flank, the basal limit of the DEZ shifted basipetally as the REGR decreased. These factors set up the gradient of growth rate across the root, which drives curvature.

  20. Cytoplasmic calcium levels in protoplasts from the cap and elongation zone of maize roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, H. G.; Evans, M. L.; Johnson, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium has been implicated as a key component in the signal transduction process of root gravitropism. We measured cytoplasmic free calcium in protoplasts isolated from the elongation zone and cap of primary roots of light-grown, vertically oriented seedlings of Zea mays L. Protoplasts were loaded with the penta-potassium salts of fura-2 and indo-1 by incubation in acidic solutions of these calcium indicators. Loading increased with decreasing pH but the pH dependence was stronger for indo-1 than for fura-2. In the case of fura-2, loading was enhanced only at the lowest pH (4.5) tested. Dyes loaded in this manner were distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm as indicated by fluorescence patterns. As an alternative method of loading, protoplasts were incubated with the acetoxymethylesters of fura-2 and indo-1. Protoplasts loaded by this method exhibited fluorescence both in the cytoplasm and in association with various organelles. Cytoplasmic calcium levels measured using spectrofluorometry, were found to be 160 +/- 40 nM and 257 +/- 27 nM, respectively, in populations of protoplasts from the root cap and elongation zone. Cytoplasmic free calcium did not increase upon addition of calcium to the incubation medium, indicating that the passive permeability to calcium was low.

  1. Gibberellin-Regulation and Genetic Variations in Leaf Elongation for Tall Fescue in Association with Differential Gene Expression Controlling Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Merewitz, Emily; Xu, Jichen; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) is an important factor controlling plant growth and productivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in LER for a fast-growing (‘K-31’), and a dwarf cultivar (‘Bonsai’) of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and gibberellic acid (GA) regulation of LER were associated with differential expression of cell-expansion genes. Plants were treated with GA3, trinexapac-ethyl (TE) (GA inhibitor), or water (untreated control) in a hydroponic system. LER of ‘K-31’ was 63% greater than that of ‘Bonsai’, which corresponded with 32% higher endogenous GA4 content in leaf and greater cell elongation and production rates under the untreated control condition. Exogenous application of GA3 significantly enhanced LER while TE treatment inhibited leaf elongation due to GA3-stimulation or TE-inhibition of cell elongation and production rate in leaves for both cultivars. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that three α-expansins, one β-expansin, and three xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) genes were associated with GA-stimulation of leaf elongation, of which, the differential expression of EXPA4 and EXPA7 was related to the genotypic variation in LER of two cultivars. Those differentially-expressed expansin and XET genes could play major roles in genetic variation and GA-regulated leaf elongation in tall fescue. PMID:27457585

  2. Gibberellin-Regulation and Genetic Variations in Leaf Elongation for Tall Fescue in Association with Differential Gene Expression Controlling Cell Expansion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Merewitz, Emily; Xu, Jichen; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) is an important factor controlling plant growth and productivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in LER for a fast-growing ('K-31'), and a dwarf cultivar ('Bonsai') of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and gibberellic acid (GA) regulation of LER were associated with differential expression of cell-expansion genes. Plants were treated with GA3, trinexapac-ethyl (TE) (GA inhibitor), or water (untreated control) in a hydroponic system. LER of 'K-31' was 63% greater than that of 'Bonsai', which corresponded with 32% higher endogenous GA4 content in leaf and greater cell elongation and production rates under the untreated control condition. Exogenous application of GA3 significantly enhanced LER while TE treatment inhibited leaf elongation due to GA3-stimulation or TE-inhibition of cell elongation and production rate in leaves for both cultivars. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that three α-expansins, one β-expansin, and three xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) genes were associated with GA-stimulation of leaf elongation, of which, the differential expression of EXPA4 and EXPA7 was related to the genotypic variation in LER of two cultivars. Those differentially-expressed expansin and XET genes could play major roles in genetic variation and GA-regulated leaf elongation in tall fescue. PMID:27457585

  3. Distribution of electrolytes in cells of the tomato root elongation zone during a gravitropic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymchuk, Dmytro

    It is known that gravitropic response of etiolated seedlings is accompanied with asymmetrical distribution of auxins. The higher amount of auxins in the tissues of the lower sides of gravistimulated organs induces cell elongation in shoots and inhibits cell elongation in roots. In spite on the progress in understanding of the auxin-mediated effects on plant growth and development, there is no a complete conception concerning of gravitropic response mechanism. This investigation aims to determine whether the growth response of tomato seedlings on reorientation to the horizontal induces alterations in distribution of electrolytes in cells of the main root elongation zone, the site where induction of the curvature takes place. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Rio Grande) seedlings were grown on agar surface in 10 cm Petri dishes. The gravitropic response of seedlings was evaluated by the angle of gravitropic curvature after the roots were reoriented 90° from the vertical. Root segments of several mm basipetal to the root tip were fixed in liquid nitrogen, freeze-substituted with Lowicril K11M at -35° C. Sections 100 and 1000 nm thick were cut using LKB Ultrotome V, collected by dry method and analyzed in the 6060 LA SEM at accelerating voltage 15 kV. Using different modes of X-ray microanalysis (X-ray map, - line and -point analysis), distribution of the physiologically relevant ions (Na, P, K, Ca) in cells of surface layers of the upper and lower root sides were investigated. The peculiarities in localization of the electrolytes in different subcellular compartments as well as distribution in the direction between upper and lower sides of the root curvature are discussed.

  4. Elongation growth of the leaf sheath base of Avena sativa seedlings: regulation by hormones and sucrose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    The leaf sheath base of the seedling of Avena sativa was characterized for growth response to hormones and sucrose. Six day old plants, raised under a 10:14 hr light:dark cycle, were excised at the coleoptilar node and 1 cm above the node for treatment. The growth of the leaf sheath base was promoted by gibberellic acid (GA3) and this response was dose dependent. The lag to response initiation was approximately 4 hr. Growth with or without GA3 (10 micromoles) was transient, diminishing appreciably after 48 hr. The addition of 10 mM sucrose greatly prolonged growth; the effect of GA3 and sucrose was additive. Neither indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) nor the cytokinin N6-benzyladenine (BA), alone or in combination, promoted the growth of leaf sheath bases. However, both significantly inhibited the action of GA3. The inhibitory effect of IAA was dose dependent and was not affected by the addition of BA or sucrose. These results indicate that the growth of leaf sheath bases of Avena sativa is promoted specifically by gibberellin, that this action depends on the availability of carbohydrates from outside of the leaf sheath base, and that the promotional effect of GA3 can be modified by either auxins or cytokinins.

  5. Drought Induces Distinct Growth Response, Protection, and Recovery Mechanisms in the Maize Leaf Growth Zone1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Avramova, Viktoriya; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Fotschki, Bartosz; Casadevall, Romina; Vergauwen, Lucia; Knapen, Dries; Taleisnik, Edith; Guisez, Yves; Asard, Han; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Drought is the most important crop yield-limiting factor, and detailed knowledge of its impact on plant growth regulation is crucial. The maize (Zea mays) leaf growth zone offers unique possibilities for studying the spatiotemporal regulation of developmental processes by transcriptional analyses and methods that require more material, such as metabolite and enzyme activity measurements. By means of a kinematic analysis, we show that drought inhibits maize leaf growth by inhibiting cell division in the meristem and cell expansion in the elongation zone. Through a microarray study, we observed the down-regulation of 32 of the 54 cell cycle genes, providing a basis for the inhibited cell division. We also found evidence for an up-regulation of the photosynthetic machinery and the antioxidant and redox systems. This was confirmed by increased chlorophyll content in mature cells and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolite levels across the growth zone, respectively. We demonstrate the functional significance of the identified transcriptional reprogramming by showing that increasing the antioxidant capacity in the proliferation zone, by overexpression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) iron-superoxide dismutase gene, increases leaf growth rate by stimulating cell division. We also show that the increased photosynthetic capacity leads to enhanced photosynthesis upon rewatering, facilitating the often-observed growth compensation. PMID:26297138

  6. Pinot noir wine volatile and anthocyanin composition under different levels of vine fruit zone leaf removal.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui; Skinkis, Patricia A; Qian, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of fruit zone leaf removal on volatile and anthocyanin compositions of Pinot noir wine were investigated over two growing seasons. Wine volatiles were analyzed by multiple techniques, including headspace solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS), headspace-GC-FID (HS-GC-FID) and stir bar sorptive extraction-GC-MS (SBSE-GC-MS). Fruit zone leaf removal affected the concentration of many grape-derived volatile compounds such as terpene alcohols and C13-norisoprenoids in wine, although the degree of impact depended on the vintage year and severity of leaf removal. Fruit zone leaf removal resulted in greater concentrations of linalool, α-terpineol and β-damascenone but had no impact on other terpene alcohols or β-ionone. Fruit zone leaf removal had no consistent impact on C6 alcohols, volatile phenols, lactones, fermentation-derived alcohols, acids, or most esters. Fruit zone leaf removal increased anthocyanins in final wine.

  7. A hydraulic model is compatible with rapid changes in leaf elongation under fluctuating evaporative demand and soil water status.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Cecilio F; Bosio, Mickael; Parent, Boris; Jeanguenin, Linda; Chaumont, François; Tardieu, François

    2014-04-01

    Plants are constantly facing rapid changes in evaporative demand and soil water content, which affect their water status and growth. In apparent contradiction to a hydraulic hypothesis, leaf elongation rate (LER) declined in the morning and recovered upon soil rehydration considerably quicker than transpiration rate and leaf water potential (typical half-times of 30 min versus 1-2 h). The morning decline of LER began at very low light and transpiration and closely followed the stomatal opening of leaves receiving direct light, which represent a small fraction of leaf area. A simulation model in maize (Zea mays) suggests that these findings are still compatible with a hydraulic hypothesis. The small water flux linked to stomatal aperture would be sufficient to decrease water potentials of the xylem and growing tissues, thereby causing a rapid decline of simulated LER, while the simulated water potential of mature tissues declines more slowly due to a high hydraulic capacitance. The model also captured growth patterns in the evening or upon soil rehydration. Changes in plant hydraulic conductance partly counteracted those of transpiration. Root hydraulic conductivity increased continuously in the morning, consistent with the transcript abundance of Zea maize Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Protein aquaporins. Transgenic lines underproducing abscisic acid, with lower hydraulic conductivity and higher stomatal conductance, had a LER declining more rapidly than wild-type plants. Whole-genome transcriptome and phosphoproteome analyses suggested that the hydraulic processes proposed here might be associated with other rapidly occurring mechanisms. Overall, the mechanisms and model presented here may be an essential component of drought tolerance in naturally fluctuating evaporative demand and soil moisture.

  8. Lyme disease and relapsing fever Borrelia elongate through zones of peptidoglycan synthesis that mark division sites of daughter cells.

    PubMed

    Jutras, Brandon Lyon; Scott, Molly; Parry, Bradley; Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2016-08-16

    Agents that cause Lyme disease, relapsing fever, leptospirosis, and syphilis belong to the phylum Spirochaetae-a unique lineage of bacteria most known for their long, spiral morphology. Despite the relevance to human health, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of spirochete growth. Here, using quantitative microscopy to track peptidoglycan cell-wall synthesis, we found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi displays a complex pattern of growth. B. burgdorferi elongates from discrete zones that are both spatially and temporally regulated. In addition, some peptidoglycan incorporation occurs along the cell body, with the notable exception of a large region at the poles. Newborn cells inherit a highly active zone of peptidoglycan synthesis at midcell that contributes to elongation for most of the cell cycle. Concomitant with the initiation of nucleoid separation and cell constriction, second and third zones of elongation are established at the 1/4 and 3/4 cellular positions, marking future sites of division for the subsequent generation. Positioning of elongation zones along the cell is robust to cell length variations and is relatively precise over long distances (>30 µm), suggesting that cells ‟sense" relative, as opposed to absolute, cell length to establish zones of peptidoglycan synthesis. The transition from one to three zones of peptidoglycan growth during the cell cycle is also observed in relapsing fever Borrelia. However, this mode of growth does not extend to representative species from other spirochetal genera, suggesting that this distinctive growth mode represents an evolutionary divide in the spirochete phylum. PMID:27506799

  9. Leaf protein concentrate as food supplement from arid zone plants.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Mala

    2010-06-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas where prevalence of droughts and famines is a recurring feature, forest cover can in general make valuable contributions to food security and provide income to the rural poor. Protein and calorie malnutrition is widespread in these areas leading to high child mortality rate. Plant species can play an important role in overcoming this by being used as a source of leaf protein concentrate (LPC), a highly nutritious food. LPC should be considered seriously as it can serve as an additional protein source in the case of non-ruminants and man, especially in drought prone areas. The use of LPC in developing countries as an alternative protein source to fishmeal in broiler diet holds tremendous promise as it can substantially lower high cost of fishmeal and eventually the acute shortage of animal protein supply. Potential tropical plants for LPC production have been evaluated and selected for further research by United States Department of Agriculture. The present study was aimed to determine the potential of arid zone plants for preparation of LPC. Extraction characteristics of the several plant species have been studied and the quality of LPC prepared from them was investigated. Different fractions, chloroplastic and cytoplasmic proteins, were analyzed for their crude protein contents. Analysis of LPC shows considerable differences in their protein contents, which was found to range from 13.7 to 88.9%. Based on this, Achyranthes aspera and Tephrosia purpurea were found to be the best suited plants for LPC preparation.

  10. Diurnal Growth of Tall Fescue Leaf Blades 1

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Hans; Nelson, Curtis J.

    1988-01-01

    Tall fescue leaf blades elongate at near constant rates during most of the light and dark periods of the diurnal cycle, with the dark rate being higher by 60 to 65%. Our objective was to determine relationships among diurnal rates of leaf elongation, deposition of water and deposition of dry matter (DM) into the elongation zone. Two separate experiments were conducted, both with a 15-hour photoperiod and constant 21°C at the growth zone. Increased rates of leaf elongation in darkness were due to proportionally increased rates of elongation of 4-millimeter segments of the elongation zone. Length of the total elongation zone was 30 millimeters in both light and darkness. The spatial distribution of water contents in the elongation zone varied little during the diurnal cycle. Thus, dark stimulation of leaf elongation rate (+65%) and of water deposition (+77%) into elongation zones were similar. Water content per unit leaf length increased by 50% between the basal and distal limits of the elongation zone, indicating that tissue also grew in the lateral and vertical dimensions. Longitudinal growth of tissue, however, allowed 5 to 7 times more water deposition into the elongation zone than growth in cross-sectional area. This relationship was similar in light and darkness. In both light and darkness net rates of DM deposition (microgram per millimeter leaf length per hour) increased from the zone of cell division towards the region of most active elongation, 10 to 15 millimeters from the ligule, then decreased towards the distal end of the elongation zone. Net DM deposition rates (microgram per hour) integrated over the 30-millimeter elongation zone were similar during light and darkness. Thus, DM in the elongation zone was diluted during darkness as a result of increased water deposition. Net DM deposition rates at and above the distal end of the elongation zone were clearly positive during the light, but were close to zero or negative in darkness. Thus, DM deposition

  11. Multi-omics analysis identifies genes mediating the extension of cell walls in the Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation zone

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael H.; Holman, Tara J.; Sørensen, Iben; Cancho-Sanchez, Ester; Wells, Darren M.; Swarup, Ranjan; Knox, J. Paul; Willats, William G. T.; Ubeda-Tomás, Susana; Holdsworth, Michael; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Vissenberg, Kris; Hodgman, T. Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Plant cell wall composition is important for regulating growth rates, especially in roots. However, neither analyses of cell wall composition nor transcriptomes on their own can comprehensively reveal which genes and processes are mediating growth and cell elongation rates. This study reveals the benefits of carrying out multiple analyses in combination. Sections of roots from five anatomically and functionally defined zones in Arabidopsis thaliana were prepared and divided into three biological replicates. We used glycan microarrays and antibodies to identify the major classes of glycans and glycoproteins present in the cell walls of these sections, and identified the expected decrease in pectin and increase in xylan from the meristematic zone (MS), through the rapid and late elongation zones (REZ, LEZ) to the maturation zone and the rest of the root, including the emerging lateral roots. Other compositional changes included extensin and xyloglucan levels peaking in the REZ and increasing levels of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGP) epitopes from the MS to the LEZ, which remained high through the subsequent mature zones. Immuno-staining using the same antibodies identified the tissue and (sub)cellular localization of many epitopes. Extensins were localized in epidermal and cortex cell walls, while AGP glycans were specific to different tissues from root-hair cells to the stele. The transcriptome analysis found several gene families peaking in the REZ. These included a large family of peroxidases (which produce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) needed for cell expansion), and three xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase genes (XTH17, XTH18, and XTH19). The significance of the latter may be related to a role in breaking and re-joining xyloglucan cross-bridges between cellulose microfibrils, a process which is required for wall expansion. Knockdowns of these XTHs resulted in shorter root lengths, confirming a role of the corresponding proteins in root extension

  12. Pinot noir wine volatile and anthocyanin composition under different levels of vine fruit zone leaf removal.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui; Skinkis, Patricia A; Qian, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of fruit zone leaf removal on volatile and anthocyanin compositions of Pinot noir wine were investigated over two growing seasons. Wine volatiles were analyzed by multiple techniques, including headspace solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS), headspace-GC-FID (HS-GC-FID) and stir bar sorptive extraction-GC-MS (SBSE-GC-MS). Fruit zone leaf removal affected the concentration of many grape-derived volatile compounds such as terpene alcohols and C13-norisoprenoids in wine, although the degree of impact depended on the vintage year and severity of leaf removal. Fruit zone leaf removal resulted in greater concentrations of linalool, α-terpineol and β-damascenone but had no impact on other terpene alcohols or β-ionone. Fruit zone leaf removal had no consistent impact on C6 alcohols, volatile phenols, lactones, fermentation-derived alcohols, acids, or most esters. Fruit zone leaf removal increased anthocyanins in final wine. PMID:27507532

  13. Plasticity as a plastic response: how submergence-induced leaf elongation in Rumex palustris depends on light and nutrient availability in its early life stage.

    PubMed

    Huber, Heidrun; Chen, Xin; Hendriks, Marloes; Keijsers, Danny; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald; Poorter, Hendrik; de Kroon, Hans; Visser, Eric J W

    2012-04-01

    Plants may experience different environmental cues throughout their development which interact in determining their phenotype. This paper tests the hypothesis that environmental conditions experienced early during ontogeny affect the phenotypic response to subsequent environmental cues. This hypothesis was tested by exposing different accessions of Rumex palustris to different light and nutrient conditions, followed by subsequent complete submergence. Final leaf length and submergence-induced plasticity were affected by the environmental conditions experienced at early developmental stages. In developmentally older leaves, submergence-induced elongation was lower in plants previously subjected to high-light conditions. Submergence-induced elongation of developmentally younger leaves, however, was larger when pregrown in high light. High-light and low-nutrient conditions led to an increase of nonstructural carbohydrates in the plants. There was a positive correlation between submergence-induced leaf elongation and carbohydrate concentration and content in roots and shoots, but not with root and shoot biomass before submergence. These results show that conditions experienced by young plants modulate the responses to subsequent environmental conditions, in both magnitude and direction. Internal resource status interacts with cues perceived at different developmental stages in determining plastic responses to the environment.

  14. [Relationships among leaf traits and their expression in different vegetation zones in Yanhe River basin, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ru; Wen, Zhong-ming; Wang, Hong-xia; Qi, De-hui

    2015-12-01

    This article selected zonal plant communities as the research objects in different vegetation zones in Yanhe River basin. We measured six leaf traits of the dominant species and main accompanying species in each community, and then analyzed the relationships and their changes along with environmental gradients between these traits in order to understand the plant adaptation strategies to the environment changes. The results showed that the specific leaf area was significantly negatively correlated to leaf tissue density, area-based leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and significantly positively correlated to mass-based leaf phosphorus concentration. Both the scaling relationships among these traits and plant life strategies were different among the three vegetation zones, the scaling-dependent relationship between leaf tissue density and specific leaf area was stronger in steppe and forest-steppe zones than in forest zone, but the correlations among area-based leaf nitrogen/phosphorus concentrations and specific leaf area and leaf tissue density were more significant in forest zone than in steppe zone. In the arid grassland and forest-steppe zone, plants give priority to defensive and stress resistance strategies, and in relatively moist nutrient-rich forest zone, plants give priority to fast growth and resource optimization allocation strategies. PMID:27111998

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Short Fiber Mutant Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) Reveals Critical Genes and Key Pathways in Cotton Fiber Elongation and Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenhua; Fang, Lei; Xiang, Dan; Hu, Yan; Feng, Hao; Chang, Lijing; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2015-01-01

    For efficient spinning and superior fabric production, long fiber length is a desired trait for cotton production. To unveil the molecular basis of the cotton fiber length regulation, a short fiber mutant, Ligon lintless-1 (Li1), is selected to compare with its corresponding wild type (WT). Li1 is a monogenic dominant cotton mutant causing extremely short fibers (<6mm) on mature seeds with visible pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth and development. In this research, we compared the transcriptome of fiber bearing ovules at 1 DPA, 3 DPA, 8 DPA and leaf between Li1 mutant and WT. A total of 7,852 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in ovules and leaves, which mainly participated in sugar, secondary metabolite and lipid metabolism pathways based on KEGG analysis. The common DEGs at 1 DPA and 3 DPA were involved in the responses to endogenous stimulus, signal transduction and long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. For 3 DPA, 8 DPA and leaf, the common DEGs were involved in the responses to auxin and receptor kinases related pathway. Further analysis showed that 37 genes involved in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis were suppressed in Li1 mutant during fiber fast elongation development. Most of the DEGs involved in cell wall metabolism, such cellulose synthase, expansin family, and glycosyl hydrolase were differentially expressed at 3 DPA and 8 DPA. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of fiber elongation, and offer novel genes as potential objects for fiber length improvement. PMID:26600249

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Short Fiber Mutant Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) Reveals Critical Genes and Key Pathways in Cotton Fiber Elongation and Leaf Development.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenhua; Fang, Lei; Xiang, Dan; Hu, Yan; Feng, Hao; Chang, Lijing; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2015-01-01

    For efficient spinning and superior fabric production, long fiber length is a desired trait for cotton production. To unveil the molecular basis of the cotton fiber length regulation, a short fiber mutant, Ligon lintless-1 (Li1), is selected to compare with its corresponding wild type (WT). Li1 is a monogenic dominant cotton mutant causing extremely short fibers (<6mm) on mature seeds with visible pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth and development. In this research, we compared the transcriptome of fiber bearing ovules at 1 DPA, 3 DPA, 8 DPA and leaf between Li1 mutant and WT. A total of 7,852 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in ovules and leaves, which mainly participated in sugar, secondary metabolite and lipid metabolism pathways based on KEGG analysis. The common DEGs at 1 DPA and 3 DPA were involved in the responses to endogenous stimulus, signal transduction and long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. For 3 DPA, 8 DPA and leaf, the common DEGs were involved in the responses to auxin and receptor kinases related pathway. Further analysis showed that 37 genes involved in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis were suppressed in Li1 mutant during fiber fast elongation development. Most of the DEGs involved in cell wall metabolism, such cellulose synthase, expansin family, and glycosyl hydrolase were differentially expressed at 3 DPA and 8 DPA. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of fiber elongation, and offer novel genes as potential objects for fiber length improvement.

  17. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase action is high in the root elongation zone and in the trichoblasts of all vascular plants from Selaginella to Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Vissenberg, K; Van Sandt, V; Fry, S C; Verbelen, J-P

    2003-01-01

    The endotransglucosylase action of the enzyme xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) was localized in the roots of diverse vascular plants: club-mosses (lycopodiophytes), ferns, gymnosperms, monocots, and dicots. High action was always found in the epidermis cell wall of the elongation zone and in trichoblasts in the differentiation zone. Clearly XTH and its action in root development evolved before the evolutionary divergence of ferns and seed plants and also of the lycopodiophytes and euphyllophytes.

  18. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase action is high in the root elongation zone and in the trichoblasts of all vascular plants from Selaginella to Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Vissenberg, K; Van Sandt, V; Fry, S C; Verbelen, J-P

    2003-01-01

    The endotransglucosylase action of the enzyme xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) was localized in the roots of diverse vascular plants: club-mosses (lycopodiophytes), ferns, gymnosperms, monocots, and dicots. High action was always found in the epidermis cell wall of the elongation zone and in trichoblasts in the differentiation zone. Clearly XTH and its action in root development evolved before the evolutionary divergence of ferns and seed plants and also of the lycopodiophytes and euphyllophytes. PMID:12493861

  19. Differential expression profiles and pathways of genes in sugarcane leaf at elongation stage in response to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changning; Nong, Qian; Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Liang, Qiang; Xie, Jinlan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Yijie; Wang, Weizan; Yang, Litao; Li, Yangrui

    2016-01-01

    Water stress causes considerable yield losses in sugarcane. To investigate differentially expressed genes under water stress, a pot experiment was performed with the sugarcane variety GT21 at three water-deficit levels (mild, moderate, and severe) during the elongation stage and gene expression was analyzed using microarray technology. Physiological parameters of sugarcane showed significant alterations in response to drought stress. Based on the expression profile of 15,593 sugarcane genes, 1,501 (9.6%) genes were differentially expressed under different water-level treatments; 821 genes were upregulated and 680 genes were downregulated. A gene similarity analysis showed that approximately 62.6% of the differentially expressed genes shared homology with functional proteins. In a Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, 901 differentially expressed genes were assigned to 36 GO categories. Moreover, 325 differentially expressed genes were classified into 101 pathway categories involved in various processes, such as the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, ribosomes, carbon metabolism, etc. In addition, some unannotated genes were detected; these may provide a basis for studies of water-deficit tolerance. The reliability of the observed expression patterns was confirmed by RT-PCR. The results of this study may help identify useful genes for improving drought tolerance in sugarcane. PMID:27170459

  20. Control of climate and litter quality on leaf litter decomposition in different climatic zones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Climate and initial litter quality are the major factors influencing decomposition rates on large scales. We established a comprehensive database of terrestrial leaf litter decomposition, including 785 datasets, to examine the relationship between climate and litter quality and evaluate the factors controlling decomposition on a global scale, the arid and semi-arid (AS) zone, the humid middle and humid low (HL) latitude zones. Initial litter nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration only increased with mean annual temperature (MAT) in the AS zone and decreased with mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the HL zone. Compared with nutrient content, MAT imposed less effect on initial litter lignin content than MAP. MAT were the most important decomposition driving factors on a global scale as well as in different climatic zones. MAP only significantly affected decomposition constants in AS zone. Although litter quality parameters also showed significant influence on decomposition, their importance was less than the climatic factors. Besides, different litter quality parameters exerted significant influence on decomposition in different climatic zones. Our results emphasized that climate consistently exerted important effects on decomposition constants across different climatic zones.

  1. Cell Wall Proteome in the Maize Primary Root Elongation Zone. I. Extraction and Identification of Water-Soluble and Lightly Ionically Bound Proteins1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinming; Chen, Sixue; Alvarez, Sophie; Asirvatham, Victor S.; Schachtman, Daniel P.; Wu, Yajun; Sharp, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Cell wall proteins (CWPs) play important roles in various processes, including cell elongation. However, relatively little is known about the composition of CWPs in growing regions. We are using a proteomics approach to gain a comprehensive understanding of the identity of CWPs in the maize (Zea mays) primary root elongation zone. As the first step, we examined the effectiveness of a vacuum infiltration-centrifugation technique for extracting water-soluble and loosely ionically bound (fraction 1) CWPs from the root elongation zone. The purity of the CWP extract was evaluated by comparing with total soluble proteins extracted from homogenized tissue. Several lines of evidence indicated that the vacuum infiltration-centrifugation technique effectively enriched for CWPs. Protein identification revealed that 84% of the CWPs were different from the total soluble proteins. About 40% of the fraction 1 CWPs had traditional signal peptides and 33% were predicted to be nonclassical secretory proteins, whereas only 3% and 11%, respectively, of the total soluble proteins were in these categories. Many of the CWPs have previously been shown to be involved in cell wall metabolism and cell elongation. In addition, maize has type II cell walls, and several of the CWPs identified in this study have not been identified in previous cell wall proteomics studies that have focused only on type I walls. These proteins include endo-1,3;1,4-β-d-glucanase and α-l-arabinofuranosidase, which act on the major polysaccharides only or mainly present in type II cell walls. PMID:16377746

  2. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric; Gaschak, Sergey; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas; Maksimenko, Andrey; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2016-08-15

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22-15μGyh(-1)) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2-29μGyh(-1)) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150μGyh(-1). This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes. PMID:27110974

  3. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric; Gaschak, Sergey; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas; Maksimenko, Andrey; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2016-08-15

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22-15μGyh(-1)) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2-29μGyh(-1)) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150μGyh(-1). This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes.

  4. The locations and amounts of endogenous ions and elements in the cap and elongating zone of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays L.: an electron-probe EDS study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Cameron, I. L.; Hunter, K. E.; Olmos, D.; Smith, N. K.

    1987-01-01

    We used quantitative electron-probe energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis to localize endogenous Na, Cl, K, P, S, Mg and Ca in cryofixed and freeze-dried cryosections of the cap (i.e. the putative site of graviperception) and elongating zone (i.e. site of gravicurvature) of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays. Ca, Na, Cl, K and Mg accumulate along the lower side of caps of horizontally oriented roots. The most dramatic asymmetries of these ions occur in the apoplast, especially the mucilage. We could not detect any significant differences in the concentrations of these ions in the central cytoplasm of columella cells along the upper and lower sides of caps of horizontally-oriented roots. However, the increased amounts of Na, Cl, K and Mg in the longitudinal walls of columella cells along the lower side of the cap suggest that these ions may move down through the columella tissue of horizontally-oriented roots. Ca also accumulates (largely in the mucilage) along the lower side of the elongating zone of horizontally-oriented roots, while Na, P, Cl and K tend to accumulate along the upper side of the elongating zone. Of these ions, only K increases in concentration in the cytoplasm and longitudinal walls of cortical cells in the upper vs lower sides of the elongating zone. These results indicate that (1) gravity-induced asymmetries of ions differ significantly in the cap and elongating zone of graviresponding roots, (2) Ca accumulates along the lower side of the cap and elongating zone of graviresponding roots, (3) increased growth of the upper side of the elongating zone of horizontally-oriented roots correlates positively with increased amounts of K in the cytoplasm and longitudinal walls of cortical cells, and (4) the apoplast (especially the mucilage) may be an important component of the pathway via which ions move in graviresponding rots of Zea mays. These results are discussed relative to mechanisms for graviperception and gravicurvature of roots.

  5. Functional traits drive the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition among multiple arid-zone species

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xu; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Guo-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Ye, Xue-Hua; Cornwell, William K.; Prinzing, Andreas; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.

    2015-01-01

    In arid zones, strong solar radiation has important consequences for ecosystem processes. To better understand carbon and nutrient dynamics, it is important to know the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition of different arid-zone species. Here we investigated: (1) whether such contribution varies among plant species at given irradiance regime, (2) whether interspecific variation in such contribution correlates with interspecific variation in the decomposition rate under shade; and (3) whether this correlation can be explained by leaf traits. We conducted a factorial experiment to determine the effects of solar radiation and environmental moisture for the mass loss and the decomposition constant k-values of 13 species litters collected in Northern China. The contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition varied significantly among species. Solar radiation accelerated decomposition in particular in the species that already decompose quickly under shade. Functional traits, notably specific leaf area, might predict the interspecific variation in that contribution. Our results provide the first empirical evidence for how the effect of solar radiation on decomposition varies among multiple species. Thus, the effect of solar radiation on the carbon flux between biosphere and atmosphere may depend on the species composition of the vegetation. PMID:26282711

  6. Functional traits drive the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition among multiple arid-zone species.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xu; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Guo-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Ye, Xue-Hua; Cornwell, William K; Prinzing, Andreas; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2015-01-01

    In arid zones, strong solar radiation has important consequences for ecosystem processes. To better understand carbon and nutrient dynamics, it is important to know the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition of different arid-zone species. Here we investigated: (1) whether such contribution varies among plant species at given irradiance regime, (2) whether interspecific variation in such contribution correlates with interspecific variation in the decomposition rate under shade; and (3) whether this correlation can be explained by leaf traits. We conducted a factorial experiment to determine the effects of solar radiation and environmental moisture for the mass loss and the decomposition constant k-values of 13 species litters collected in Northern China. The contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition varied significantly among species. Solar radiation accelerated decomposition in particular in the species that already decompose quickly under shade. Functional traits, notably specific leaf area, might predict the interspecific variation in that contribution. Our results provide the first empirical evidence for how the effect of solar radiation on decomposition varies among multiple species. Thus, the effect of solar radiation on the carbon flux between biosphere and atmosphere may depend on the species composition of the vegetation. PMID:26282711

  7. Functional traits drive the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition among multiple arid-zone species.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xu; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Guo-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Ye, Xue-Hua; Cornwell, William K; Prinzing, Andreas; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2015-08-18

    In arid zones, strong solar radiation has important consequences for ecosystem processes. To better understand carbon and nutrient dynamics, it is important to know the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition of different arid-zone species. Here we investigated: (1) whether such contribution varies among plant species at given irradiance regime, (2) whether interspecific variation in such contribution correlates with interspecific variation in the decomposition rate under shade; and (3) whether this correlation can be explained by leaf traits. We conducted a factorial experiment to determine the effects of solar radiation and environmental moisture for the mass loss and the decomposition constant k-values of 13 species litters collected in Northern China. The contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition varied significantly among species. Solar radiation accelerated decomposition in particular in the species that already decompose quickly under shade. Functional traits, notably specific leaf area, might predict the interspecific variation in that contribution. Our results provide the first empirical evidence for how the effect of solar radiation on decomposition varies among multiple species. Thus, the effect of solar radiation on the carbon flux between biosphere and atmosphere may depend on the species composition of the vegetation.

  8. Responses of Leaf-level Carbon Assimilation and Transpiration to Root-zone Water Potential Changes in a Subtropical Tree Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicheng, Z.; Guan, H.; Han, G.; Zhang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetic carbon assimilation in terrestrial ecosystems significantly contributes to global carbon balance in the atmosphere. While vegetation photosynthesizes to fix CO2, it simultaneously transpires H2O. These two interdependent processes are regulated by leaf stomata which are sensitive to environmental conditions (such as root zone soil moisture). Knowledge of the responses of leaf-level transpiration and carbon assimilation to a change of root-zone soil moisture condition is important to understand how these processes influence water balance and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, and to understand the capacity of trees to cope with future climate changes.We will present the results of a one-year observational study on a subtropical evergreen broadleaf tree species (Osmanthus fragrans) in the central south China. The observations were carried out on two 8-year Osmanthus fragrans trees in a plantation site from 1 Sep, 2012 to 31 Aug, 2013. A portable infrared gas exchange analyzer (Li-6400, Li-COR, Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska, USA) was used to measure leaf photosynthesis and leaf transpiration on clear days. Root zone soil water potential was estimated from predawn stem water potential using stem psychrometers (ICT, Australia). Sap flow and micrometeorological data were also collected. The results show that the average leaf carbon assimilation rate at light saturation decreases quickly with the root zone water potential from 0 to -1 MPa, and slowly after the root zone water potential falls below -1 MPa. The average leaf transpiration at light saturation shows a similar pattern. Leaf-level water use efficiency increases slowly with a decrease of root-zone water potential from 0 to -1 MPa, and keeps constant when the root zone gets drier. This relationship provides a potential to estimate whole-tree carbon assimilation from sap flow measurements. Leaf assimilation rates at light saturation in early morning vs. root-zone water potential for Osmanthus

  9. Cell Wall Proteome in the Maize Primary Root Elongation Zone. II. Region-Specific Changes in Water Soluble and Lightly Ionically Bound Proteins under Water Deficit1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinming; Alvarez, Sophie; Marsh, Ellen L.; LeNoble, Mary E.; Cho, In-Jeong; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Chen, Sixue; Nguyen, Henry T.; Wu, Yajun; Schachtman, Daniel P.; Sharp, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work on the adaptation of maize (Zea mays) primary roots to water deficit showed that cell elongation is maintained preferentially toward the apex, and that this response involves modification of cell wall extension properties. To gain a comprehensive understanding of how cell wall protein (CWP) composition changes in association with the differential growth responses to water deficit in different regions of the elongation zone, a proteomics approach was used to examine water soluble and loosely ionically bound CWPs. The results revealed major and predominantly region-specific changes in protein profiles between well-watered and water-stressed roots. In total, 152 water deficit-responsive proteins were identified and categorized into five groups based on their potential function in the cell wall: reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, defense and detoxification, hydrolases, carbohydrate metabolism, and other/unknown. The results indicate that stress-induced changes in CWPs involve multiple processes that are likely to regulate the response of cell elongation. In particular, the changes in protein abundance related to ROS metabolism predicted an increase in apoplastic ROS production in the apical region of the elongation zone of water-stressed roots. This was verified by quantification of hydrogen peroxide content in extracted apoplastic fluid and by in situ imaging of apoplastic ROS levels. This response could contribute directly to the enhancement of wall loosening in this region. This large-scale proteomic analysis provides novel insights into the complexity of mechanisms that regulate root growth under water deficit conditions and highlights the spatial differences in CWP composition in the root elongation zone. PMID:17951457

  10. Progressive inhibition by water deficit of cell wall extensibility and growth along the elongation zone of maize roots is related to increased lignin metabolism and progressive stelar accumulation of wall phenolics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ling; Linker, Raphael; Gepstein, Shimon; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Ryoichi; Neumann, Peter M

    2006-02-01

    Water deficit caused by addition of polyethylene glycol 6000 at -0.5 MPa water potential to well-aerated nutrient solution for 48 h inhibited the elongation of maize (Zea mays) seedling primary roots. Segmental growth rates in the root elongation zone were maintained 0 to 3 mm behind the tip, but in comparison with well-watered control roots, progressive growth inhibition was initiated by water deficit as expanding cells crossed the region 3 to 9 mm behind the tip. The mechanical extensibility of the cell walls was also progressively inhibited. We investigated the possible involvement in root growth inhibition by water deficit of alterations in metabolism and accumulation of wall-linked phenolic substances. Water deficit increased expression in the root elongation zone of transcripts of two genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase 1 and 2, after only 1 h, i.e. before decreases in wall extensibility. Further increases in transcript expression and increased lignin staining were detected after 48 h. Progressive stress-induced increases in wall-linked phenolics at 3 to 6 and 6 to 9 mm behind the root tip were detected by comparing Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-fluorescence images of isolated cell walls from water deficit and control roots. Increased UV fluorescence and lignin staining colocated to vascular tissues in the stele. Longitudinal bisection of the elongation zone resulted in inward curvature, suggesting that inner, stelar tissues were also rate limiting for root growth. We suggest that spatially localized changes in wall-phenolic metabolism are involved in the progressive inhibition of wall extensibility and root growth and may facilitate root acclimation to drying environments.

  11. Testing the 'hybrid susceptibility' and 'phenological sink' hypotheses using the P. balsamifera - P. deltoides hybrid zone and septoria leaf spot [Septoria musiva].

    PubMed

    LeBoldus, Jared M; Isabel, Nathalie; Floate, Kevin D; Blenis, Peter; Thomas, Barb R

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid genotypes that arise between plant species frequently have increased susceptibility to arthropod pests and fungal pathogens. This pattern has been attributed to the breakdown of plant defenses ('Hybrid susceptibility' hypothesis) and (or) to extended periods of susceptibility attributed to plant phenologies in zones of species overlap and (or) hybridization ('phenological sink' hypothesis). We examined these hypotheses by assessing the susceptibility of parental and hybrid Populus host genotypes to a leaf spot disease caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria musiva. For this purpose, 214 genotypes were obtained from morphologically pure zones of P. balsamifera and P. deltoides, and from an intervening zone of overlap and hybridization on the drainage of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Genotypes were identified as P. balsamifera, P. deltoides, or hybrid using a suite of 27 species-specific SNP markers. Initially the genetic structure of the hybrid zone was characterized with 27.7% of trees classified as admixed individuals. To test the hybrid susceptibility hypothesis, a subset of 52 genotypes was inoculated with four isolates of S. musiva. Levels of susceptibility were P. balsamifera > F1 hybrid > P. deltoides. A further 53 genotypes were grown in a common garden to assess the effect of genotype on variation in leaf phenology. Leaf phenology was more variable within the category of hybrid genotypes than within categories of either parental species. Leaf phenology was also more variable for the category of trees originating in the hybrid (P. balsamifera - P. deltoides [hybrid and parental genotypes combined]) zone than in adjacent pure zones of the parental species. The results from the inoculation experiment support the hybrid intermediacy hypothesis. The results from the common garden experiment support the 'phenological sink' hypothesis. These findings have greatly increased our understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of fungal pathogens in plant

  12. Testing the ‘Hybrid Susceptibility’ and ‘Phenological Sink’ Hypotheses Using the P. balsamifera – P. deltoides Hybrid Zone and Septoria Leaf Spot [Septoria musiva

    PubMed Central

    LeBoldus, Jared M.; Isabel, Nathalie; Floate, Kevin D.; Blenis, Peter; Thomas, Barb R.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid genotypes that arise between plant species frequently have increased susceptibility to arthropod pests and fungal pathogens. This pattern has been attributed to the breakdown of plant defenses (‘Hybrid susceptibility’ hypothesis) and (or) to extended periods of susceptibility attributed to plant phenologies in zones of species overlap and (or) hybridization (‘phenological sink’ hypothesis). We examined these hypotheses by assessing the susceptibility of parental and hybrid Populus host genotypes to a leaf spot disease caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria musiva. For this purpose, 214 genotypes were obtained from morphologically pure zones of P. balsamifera and P. deltoides, and from an intervening zone of overlap and hybridization on the drainage of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Genotypes were identified as P. balsamifera, P. deltoides, or hybrid using a suite of 27 species-specific SNP markers. Initially the genetic structure of the hybrid zone was characterized with 27.7% of trees classified as admixed individuals. To test the hybrid susceptibility hypothesis, a subset of 52 genotypes was inoculated with four isolates of S. musiva. Levels of susceptibility were P. balsamifera > F1 hybrid > P. deltoides. A further 53 genotypes were grown in a common garden to assess the effect of genotype on variation in leaf phenology. Leaf phenology was more variable within the category of hybrid genotypes than within categories of either parental species. Leaf phenology was also more variable for the category of trees originating in the hybrid (P. balsamifera – P. deltoides [hybrid and parental genotypes combined]) zone than in adjacent pure zones of the parental species. The results from the inoculation experiment support the hybrid intermediacy hypothesis. The results from the common garden experiment support the ‘phenological sink’ hypothesis. These findings have greatly increased our understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of fungal

  13. Reactive oxygen species regulate leaf pulvinus abscission zone cell separation in response to water-deficit stress in cassava

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wenbin; Wang, Gan; Li, Yayun; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Peng; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plant resists water-deficit stress by shedding leaves leading to adaptive water-deficit condition. Transcriptomic, physiological, cellular, molecular, metabolic, and transgenic methods were used to study the mechanism of cassava abscission zone (AZ) cell separation under water-deficit stress. Microscopic observation indicated that AZ cell separation initiated at the later stages during water-deficit stress. Transcriptome profiling of AZ suggested that differential expression genes of AZ under stress mainly participate in reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway. The key genes involved in hydrogen peroxide biosynthesis and metabolism showed significantly higher expression levels in AZ than non-separating tissues adjacent to the AZ under stress. Significantly higher levels of hydrogen peroxide correlated with hydrogen peroxide biosynthesis related genes and AZ cell separation was detected by microscopic observation, colorimetric detection and GC-MS analyses under stress. Co-overexpression of the ROS-scavenging proteins SOD and CAT1 in cassava decreased the levels of hydrogen peroxide in AZ under water-deficit stress. The cell separation of the pulvinus AZ also delayed in co-overexpression of the ROS-scavenging proteins SOD and CAT1 plants both in vitro and at the plant level. Together, the results indicated that ROS play an important regulatory role in the process of cassava leaf abscission under water-deficit stress. PMID:26899473

  14. Reactive oxygen species regulate leaf pulvinus abscission zone cell separation in response to water-deficit stress in cassava.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenbin; Wang, Gan; Li, Yayun; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Peng; Peng, Ming

    2016-02-22

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plant resists water-deficit stress by shedding leaves leading to adaptive water-deficit condition. Transcriptomic, physiological, cellular, molecular, metabolic, and transgenic methods were used to study the mechanism of cassava abscission zone (AZ) cell separation under water-deficit stress. Microscopic observation indicated that AZ cell separation initiated at the later stages during water-deficit stress. Transcriptome profiling of AZ suggested that differential expression genes of AZ under stress mainly participate in reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway. The key genes involved in hydrogen peroxide biosynthesis and metabolism showed significantly higher expression levels in AZ than non-separating tissues adjacent to the AZ under stress. Significantly higher levels of hydrogen peroxide correlated with hydrogen peroxide biosynthesis related genes and AZ cell separation was detected by microscopic observation, colorimetric detection and GC-MS analyses under stress. Co-overexpression of the ROS-scavenging proteins SOD and CAT1 in cassava decreased the levels of hydrogen peroxide in AZ under water-deficit stress. The cell separation of the pulvinus AZ also delayed in co-overexpression of the ROS-scavenging proteins SOD and CAT1 plants both in vitro and at the plant level. Together, the results indicated that ROS play an important regulatory role in the process of cassava leaf abscission under water-deficit stress.

  15. Testing Earth System Model Assumptions of Photosynthetic Parameters with in situ Leaf Measurements from a Temperate Zone Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, S. J.; Thomas, R. Q.; Wilkening, J. V.; Curtis, P.; Sharkey, T. D.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Estimates of global land CO2 uptake vary widely across Earth system models. This uncertainty around model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes may result from differences in how models parameterize and scale photosynthesis from the leaf-to-global level. To test model assumptions about photosynthesis, we derive rates of maximum carboxylation (Vc,max), electron transport (J), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU) from in situ leaf measurements from a forest representative of the Great Lakes region. Leaf-level gas exchange measurements were collected across a temperature range from sun and shade leaves of canopy-dominant tree species typically grouped into the same plant functional type. We evaluate the influence of short-term increases in leaf temperature, nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), species, and leaf light environment on Vc,max, J, and TPU by testing contrasting model equations that isolate the influence of these factors on these rate-limiting steps in leaf photosynthesis. Results indicate that patterns in Vc,max are best explained by a model that includes temperature and Narea. However, J varied with species and leaf light environment in addition to temperature. TPU also varied with leaf light environment and possibly with temperature. These variations in J and TPU with species or between sun and shade leaves suggest that plant traits outside of Narea are needed to explain patterns in J and TPU. This study provides in situ evidence on how Vc,max, J, and TPU vary within a forest canopy and highlight how leaf responses to changes in climate, forest species composition, and canopy structure may alter forest CO2 uptake.

  16. Effect of Apoplastic Solutes on Water Potential in Elongating Sugarcane Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Meinzer, Frederick C.; Moore, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    Solute concentration in the apoplast of growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) leaves was measured using one direct and several indirect methods. The osmotic potential of apoplast solution collected directly by centrifugation of noninfiltrated tissue segments ranged from −0.25 megapascal in mature tissue to −0.35 megapascal in tissue just outside the elongation zone. The presence of these solutes in the apoplast manifested itself as a tissue water potential equal to the apoplast osmotic potential. Since the tissue was not elongating, the measurements were not influenced by growth-induced water uptake and no significant tension was detected with the pressure chamber. Further evidence for a significant apoplast solute concentration was obtained from pressure exudation experiments and comparison of methods for estimating tissue apoplast water fraction. For elongating leaf tissue the centrifugation method could not be used to obtain direct measurements of apoplast solute concentration. However, several other observations suggested that the apoplast water potential of −0.35 to −0.45 megapascal in elongating tissue had a significant osmotic component and small, but significant tension component. Results of experiments in which exudate was collected from pressurized tissue segments of different ages suggested that a tissue age-dependent dynamic equilibrium existed between intra- and extracellular solutes. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16666002

  17. Synthesis of Elongated Microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the factors that influence the effectiveness of self-healing in functional materials is the amount of liquid healing agents that can be delivered to the damaged area. The use of hollow tubes or fibers and the more sophisticated micro-vascular networks has been proposed as a way to increase the amount of healing agents that can be released when damage is inflicted. Although these systems might be effective in some specific applications, they are not practical for coatings applications. One possible practical way to increase the healing efficiency is to use microcapsules with high-aspect-ratios, or elongated microcapsules. It is understood that elongated microcapsules will be more efficient because they can release more healing agent than a spherical microcapsule when a crack is initiated in the coating. Although the potential advantage of using elongated microcapsules for self healing applications is clear, it is very difficult to make elongated microcapsules from an emulsion system because spherical microcapsules are normally formed due to the interfacial tension between the dispersed phase and the continuous phase. This paper describes the two methods that have been developed by the authors to synthesize elongated microcapsules. The first method involves the use of an emulsion with intermediate stability and the second involves the application of mechanical shear conditions to the emulsion.

  18. Carbon Isotope Composition of Nighttime Leaf-Respired CO2 in the Agricultural-Pastoral Zone of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Haiying; Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Chen, Shiping; Ma, Jian-Ying; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the carbon isotope signature of leaf dark-respired CO2 (δ13CR) within a single night is a widely observed phenomenon. However, it is unclear whether there are plant functional type differences with regard to the amplitude of the nighttime variation in δ13CR. These differences, if present, would be important for interpreting the short-term variations in the stable carbon signature of ecosystem respiration and the partitioning of carbon fluxes. To assess the plant functional type differences relating to the magnitude of the nighttime variation in δ13CR and the respiratory apparent fractionation, we measured the δ13CR, the leaf gas exchange, and the δ13C of the respiratory substrates of 22 species present in the agricultural-pastoral zone of the Songnen Plain, northeast China. The species studied were grouped into C3 and C4 plants, trees, grasses, and herbs. A significant nocturnal shift in δ13CR was detected in 20 of the studied species, with the magnitude of the shift ranging from 1‰ to 5.8‰. The magnitude of the nighttime variation in δ13CR was strongly correlated with the daytime cumulative carbon assimilation, which suggests that variation in δ13CR were influenced, to some extent, by changes in the contribution of malate decarboxylation to total respiratory CO2 flux. There were no differences in the magnitude of the nighttime variation in δ13CR between the C3 and C4 plants, as well as among the woody plants, herbs and graminoids. Leaf respired CO2 was enriched in 13C compared to biomass, soluble carbohydrates and lipids; however the magnitude of enrichment differed between 8 pm and 4 am, which were mainly caused by the changes in δ13CR. We also detected the plant functional type differences in respiratory apparent fractionation relative to biomass at 4 am, which suggests that caution should be exercised when using the δ13C of bulk leaf material as a proxy for the δ13C of leaf-respired CO2. PMID:26356083

  19. Physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to partial root-zone drying: ABA signalling, leaf gas exchange, and water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fulai; Shahnazari, Ali; Andersen, Mathias N; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jensen, Christian R

    2006-01-01

    The physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Folva) to partial root-zone drying (PRD) were investigated in potted plants in a greenhouse (GH) and in plants grown in the field under an automatic rain-out-shelter. In the GH, irrigation was applied daily to the whole root system (FI), or to one-half of the root system while the other half was dried, for 9 d. In the field, the plants were drip irrigated either to the whole root system near field capacity (FI) or using 70% water of FI to one side of the roots, and shifted to the other side every 5-10 d (PRD). PRD plants had a similar midday leaf water potential to that of FI, whereas in the GH their root water potential (Psi(r)) was significantly lowered after 5 d. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) was more sensitive to PRD than photosynthesis (A) particularly in the field, leading to greater intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) (i.e. A/g(s)) in PRD than in FI plants on several days. In PRD, the xylem sap abscisic acid concentration ([ABA](xylem)) increased exponentially with decreasing Psi(r); and the relative [ABA](xylem) (PRD/FI) increased exponentially as the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) in the drying side decreased. In the field, the leaf area index was slightly less in PRD than in FI treatment, while tuber biomass was similar for the two treatments. Compared with FI, PRD treatment saved 30% water and increased crop water use efficiency (WUE) by 59%. Restrictions on leaf area expansion and g(s) by PRD-induced ABA signals might have contributed to reduced water use and increased WUE.

  20. The up-regulation of elongation factors in the barley leaf and the down-regulation of nucleosome assembly genes in the crown are both associated with the expression of frost tolerance.

    PubMed

    Janská, Anna; Aprile, Alessio; Cattivelli, Luigi; Zámečník, Jiří; de Bellis, Luigi; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2014-09-01

    We report a series of microarray-based leaf and crown transcriptome comparisons involving three barley cultivars (cvs. Luxor, Igri and Atlas 68) which express differing degrees of frost tolerance. The transcripts were obtained following the exposure of seedlings to low (above and below zero) temperatures, aiming to identify those genes and signalling/metabolic pathways which are associated with frost tolerance. Both the leaves and the crowns responded to low temperature by the up-regulation of a suite of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes, most of which have already been recognized as components of the plant low temperature response. The inter-cultivar comparison indicated that genes involved in maintaining the leaf's capacity to synthesize protein and to retain chloroplast activity were important for the expression of frost tolerance. In the crown, the repression of genes associated with nucleosome assembly and transposon regulation were the most relevant transcriptional changes associated with frost tolerance, highlighting the role of gene repression in the cold acclimation response.

  1. Elongated Microcapsules and Their Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M. (Inventor); Li, Wenyan N. (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Perusich, Stephen A. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Williams, Martha K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Elongated microcapsules, such as elongated hydrophobic-core and hydrophilic-core microcapsules, may be formed by pulse stirring an emulsion or shearing an emulsion between two surfaces moving at different velocities. The elongated microcapsules may be dispersed in a coating formulation, such as paint.

  2. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice

    PubMed Central

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1 + 3 + 12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. Deepwater rice obtained the ability for rapid internode elongation to avoid drowning and adapt to flooded condition. How does it regulate internode elongation? Using both physiological and genetic approach, this paper shows that the plant hormone, gibberellin (GA) regulates internode elongation. PMID:24891164

  3. Root apex transition zone as oscillatory zone.

    PubMed

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone.

  4. Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

  5. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  6. Nitrogen stress affects the turnover and size of nitrogen pools supplying leaf growth in a grass.

    PubMed

    Lehmeier, Christoph Andreas; Wild, Melanie; Schnyder, Hans

    2013-08-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) stress on the pool system supplying currently assimilated and (re)mobilized N for leaf growth of a grass was explored by dynamic ¹⁵N labeling, assessment of total and labeled N import into leaf growth zones, and compartmental analysis of the label import data. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) plants, grown with low or high levels of N fertilization, were labeled with ¹⁵NO₃⁻/¹⁴NO₃⁻ from 2 h to more than 20 d. In both treatments, the tracer time course in N imported into the growth zones fitted a two-pool model (r² > 0.99). This consisted of a "substrate pool," which received N from current uptake and supplied the growth zone, and a recycling/mobilizing "store," which exchanged with the substrate pool. N deficiency halved the leaf elongation rate, decreased N import into the growth zone, lengthened the delay between tracer uptake and its arrival in the growth zone (2.2 h versus 0.9 h), slowed the turnover of the substrate pool (half-life of 3.2 h versus 0.6 h), and increased its size (12.4 μg versus 5.9 μg). The store contained the equivalent of approximately 10 times (low N) and approximately five times (high N) the total daily N import into the growth zone. Its turnover agreed with that of protein turnover. Remarkably, the relative contribution of mobilization to leaf growth was large and similar (approximately 45%) in both treatments. We conclude that turnover and size of the substrate pool are related to the sink strength of the growth zone, whereas the contribution of the store is influenced by partitioning between sinks.

  7. [CYTOSKELETON ORIENTATION IN THE EPIDERMAL CELLS OF ROOTS FORMED DE NOVO ON LEAF EXPLANTS UNDER CLINOROTATION].

    PubMed

    Bulavin, I V

    2016-01-01

    Root anatomy, cytoskeleton orientation and cell wall thickness in cells of the roots formed de novo in vitro under clinorotation (simulated microgravity) were investigated. Structure of the embryonic roots and of the roots formed de novo in cambium cells of the leaf petiole explants was shown to be similar. Root cell differentiation in vitro under clinorotation did not differ from that in control. Changes of tubulin microtubules' orientation in the epidermis of the distal elongation zone were observed under clinorotation that seems to be associated with specific physiological properties of the cells. Under clinorotation, the tendency of cell wall thinning was detected in the root cells formed in vitro.

  8. Xylem tension affects growth-induced water potential and daily elongation of maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Tang, An-Ching; Boyer, John S

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal rates of leaf elongation vary in maize (Zea mays L.) and are characterized by a decline each afternoon. The cause of the afternoon decline was investigated. When the atmospheric environment was held constant in a controlled environment, and water and nutrients were adequately supplied to the soil or the roots in solution, the decline persisted and indicated that the cause was internal. Inside the plants, xylem fluxes of water and solutes were essentially constant during the day. However, the forces moving these components changed. Tensions rose in the xylem, and gradients of growth-induced water potentials decreased in the surrounding growing tissues of the leaf. These potentials, measured with isopiestic thermocouple psychrometry, changed because the roots became less conductive to water as the day progressed. The increased tensions were reversed by applying pressure to the soil/root system, which rehydrated the leaf. Afternoon elongation immediately recovered to rapid morning rates. The rapid morning rates did not respond to soil/root pressurization. It was concluded that increased xylem tension in the afternoon diminished the gradients in growth-induced water potential and thus inhibited elongation. Because increased tensions cause a similar but larger inhibition of elongation if maize dehydrates, these hydraulics are crucial for shaping the growth-induced water potential and thus the rates of leaf elongation in maize over the entire spectrum of water availability.

  9. Xylem tension affects growth-induced water potential and daily elongation of maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Tang, An-Ching; Boyer, John S

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal rates of leaf elongation vary in maize (Zea mays L.) and are characterized by a decline each afternoon. The cause of the afternoon decline was investigated. When the atmospheric environment was held constant in a controlled environment, and water and nutrients were adequately supplied to the soil or the roots in solution, the decline persisted and indicated that the cause was internal. Inside the plants, xylem fluxes of water and solutes were essentially constant during the day. However, the forces moving these components changed. Tensions rose in the xylem, and gradients of growth-induced water potentials decreased in the surrounding growing tissues of the leaf. These potentials, measured with isopiestic thermocouple psychrometry, changed because the roots became less conductive to water as the day progressed. The increased tensions were reversed by applying pressure to the soil/root system, which rehydrated the leaf. Afternoon elongation immediately recovered to rapid morning rates. The rapid morning rates did not respond to soil/root pressurization. It was concluded that increased xylem tension in the afternoon diminished the gradients in growth-induced water potential and thus inhibited elongation. Because increased tensions cause a similar but larger inhibition of elongation if maize dehydrates, these hydraulics are crucial for shaping the growth-induced water potential and thus the rates of leaf elongation in maize over the entire spectrum of water availability. PMID:18349050

  10. Controlled laser production of elongated articles from particulates

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Raymond D.; Lewis, Gary K.; Milewski, John O.

    2002-01-01

    It has been discovered that wires and small diameter rods can be produced using laser deposition technology in a novel way. An elongated article such as a wire or rod is constructed by melting and depositing particulate material into a deposition zone which has been designed to yield the desired article shape and dimensions. The article is withdrawn from the deposition zone as it is formed, thus enabling formation of the article in a continuous process. Alternatively, the deposition zone is moved along any of numerous deposition paths away from the article being formed.

  11. LeafJ: an ImageJ plugin for semi-automated leaf shape measurement.

    PubMed

    Maloof, Julin N; Nozue, Kazunari; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Palmer, Christine M

    2013-01-21

    High throughput phenotyping (phenomics) is a powerful tool for linking genes to their functions (see review and recent examples). Leaves are the primary photosynthetic organ, and their size and shape vary developmentally and environmentally within a plant. For these reasons studies on leaf morphology require measurement of multiple parameters from numerous leaves, which is best done by semi-automated phenomics tools. Canopy shade is an important environmental cue that affects plant architecture and life history; the suite of responses is collectively called the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Among SAS responses, shade induced leaf petiole elongation and changes in blade area are particularly useful as indices. To date, leaf shape programs (e.g. SHAPE, LAMINA, LeafAnalyzer, LEAFPROCESSOR) can measure leaf outlines and categorize leaf shapes, but can not output petiole length. Lack of large-scale measurement systems of leaf petioles has inhibited phenomics approaches to SAS research. In this paper, we describe a newly developed ImageJ plugin, called LeafJ, which can rapidly measure petiole length and leaf blade parameters of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. For the occasional leaf that required manual correction of the petiole/leaf blade boundary we used a touch-screen tablet. Further, leaf cell shape and leaf cell numbers are important determinants of leaf size. Separate from LeafJ we also present a protocol for using a touch-screen tablet for measuring cell shape, area, and size. Our leaf trait measurement system is not limited to shade-avoidance research and will accelerate leaf phenotyping of many mutants and screening plants by leaf phenotyping.

  12. Water relations and leaf expansion: importance of time scale.

    PubMed

    Munns, R; Passioura, J B; Guo, J; Chazen, O; Cramer, G R

    2000-09-01

    The role of leaf water relations in controlling cell expansion in leaves of water-stressed maize and barley depends on time scale. Sudden changes in leaf water status, induced by sudden changes in humidity, light and soil salinity, greatly affect leaf elongation rate, but often only transiently. With sufficiently large changes in salinity, leaf elongation rates are persistently reduced. When plants are kept fully turgid throughout such sudden environmental changes, by placing their roots in a pressure chamber and raising the pressure so that the leaf xylem sap is maintained at atmospheric pressure, both the transient and persistent changes in leaf elongation rate disappear. All these responses show that water relations are responsible for the sudden changes in leaf elongation rate resulting from sudden changes in water stress and putative root signals play no part. However, at a time scale of days, pressurization fails to maintain high rates of leaf elongation of plants in either saline or drying soil, indicating that root signals are overriding water relations effects. In both saline and drying soil, pressurization does raise the growth rate during the light period, but a subsequent decrease during the dark results in no net effect on leaf growth over a 24 h period. When transpirational demand is very high, however, growth-promoting effects of pressurization during the light period outweigh any reductions in the dark, resulting in a net increase in growth of pressurized plants over 24 h. Thus leaf water status can limit leaf expansion rates during periods of high transpiration despite the control exercised by hormonal effects on a 24 h basis. PMID:11006301

  13. Hack's Law: Sinuosity, convexity, elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemin, James H.

    2000-11-01

    Hack's law, an empirical, power law relationship between drainage basin area and the length of the main stream channel, has long been taken to imply that drainage basins become more elongate (relatively longer and narrower) with increasing basin size. A study of the geometry of 38 basins from three distinct geomorphic settings shows that this geometric interpretation of Hack's law is only occasionally true: Even though Hack's power law relationship holds between basin area and main channel length, these basins do not necessarily become more elongate with increasing size. Rather, Hack's law is an expression of a balance between changes in basin shape and changes in channel planform geometry. For the basins in this study, changes in channel sinuosity play the most important role in this balance; changes in basin shape are far less regular. Local conditions appear to determine the partitioning of importance between changes in basin shape and channel sinuosity.

  14. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  15. Vegetative growth and cluster development in Shiraz grapevines subjected to partial root-zone cooling.

    PubMed

    Rogiers, Suzy Y; Clarke, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity in root-zone temperature both vertically and horizontally may contribute to the uneven vegetative and reproductive growth often observed across vineyards. An experiment was designed to assess whether the warmed half of a grapevine root zone could compensate for the cooled half in terms of vegetative growth and reproductive development. We divided the root system of potted Shiraz grapevines bilaterally and applied either a cool or a warm treatment to each half from budburst to fruit set. Shoot growth and inflorescence development were monitored over the season. Simultaneous cooling and warming of parts of the root system decreased shoot elongation, leaf emergence and leaf expansion below that of plants with a fully warmed root zone, but not to the same extent as those with a fully cooled root zone. Inflorescence rachis length, flower number and berry number after fertilization were smaller only in those vines exposed to fully cooled root zones. After terminating the treatments, berry enlargement and the onset of veraison were slowed in those vines that had been exposed to complete or partial root-zone cooling. Grapevines exposed to partial root-zone cooling were thus delayed in vegetative and reproductive development, but the inhibition was greater in those plants whose entire root system had been cooled.

  16. Venus - A Large Elongated Caldera 'Sacajawea Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image reveals Sacajawea Patera, a large, elongate caldera located in Western Ishtar Terra on the smooth plateau of Lakshmi Planum. The image is centered at 64.5 degrees North latitude and 337 degrees East longitude. It is approximately 420 kilometers (252 miles) wide at the base. Sacajawea is a depression approximately 1-2 kilometers (0.6-1.2 miles) deep and 120 x 215 kilometers (74 x 133 miles) in diameter; it is elongate in a southwest-northeast direction. The depression is bounded by a zone of circumferential curvilinear structures interpreted to be graben and fault scarps. These structures are spaced 0.5-4 kilometers (0.3-2.5 miles) apart, are 0.6-4.0 kilometers (0.4-2.5 miles) in width and up to 100 kilometers (62 miles) in length. Extending up to approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) in length from the southeast of the patera is a system of linear structures thought to represent a flanking rift zone along which the lateral injection and eruption of magma may have occurred. A shield edifice 12 kilometers (7 miles) in diameter with a prominent central pit lies along the trend of one of these features. The impact crater Zlata, approximately 6 kilometers (4 miles) in diameter is located within the zone of graben to the northwest of the patera. Few flow features are observed in association with Sacajawea, possibly due to age and state of degradation of the flows. Mottled bright deposits 4-20 kilometers (2.5-12 miles) in width are located near the periphery and in the center of the patera floor within local topographic lows. Diffuse patches of dark material approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) in width are observed southwest of the patera, superposed on portions of the surrounding graben. The formation of Sacajawea is thought to be related to the drainage and collapse of a large magma chamber. Gravitational relaxation may have caused the resultant caldera to sag, producing the numerous faults and graben that circumscribe the patera. Regions of

  17. Leaf physiognomy and climate: A multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. M.; Taylor, S. E.

    1980-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that leaf physiognomy is representative of the local or microclimate conditions under which plants grow. The physiognomy of leaf samples from Oregon, Michigan, Missouri, Tennessee, and the Panama Canal Zone has been related to the microclimate using Walter diagrams and Thornthwaite water-budget data. A technique to aid paleoclimatologists in identifying the nature of the microclimate from leaf physiognomy utilizes statistical procedures to classify leaf samples into one of six microclimate regimes based on leaf physiognomy information available from fossilized samples.

  18. Limitation of Cell Elongation in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves Through Mechanical and Tissue-Hydraulic Properties.

    PubMed

    Touati, Mostefa; Knipfer, Thorsten; Visnovitz, Tamás; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Fricke, Wieland

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanical and hydraulic limitation of growth in leaf epidermal cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to agents which affect cellular water (mercuric chloride, HgCl(2)) and potassium (cesium chloride, CsCl; tetraethylammonium, TEA) transport, pump activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and wall acidification (fusicoccin, FC). Cell turgor (P) was measured with the cell pressure probe, and cell osmotic pressure (π) was analyzed through picoliter osmometry of single-cell extracts. A wall extensibility coefficient (M) and tissue hydraulic conductance coefficient (L) were derived using the Lockhart equation. There was a significant positive linear relationship between relative elemental growth rate and P, which fit all treatments, with an overall apparent yield threshold of 0.368 MPa. Differences in growth between treatments could be explained through differences in P. A comparison of L and M showed that growth in all except the FC treatment was co-limited through hydraulic and mechanical properties, though to various extents. This was accompanied by significant (0.17-0.24 MPa) differences in water potential (ΔΨ) between xylem and epidermal cells in the leaf elongation zone. In contrast, FC-treated leaves showed ΔΨ close to zero and a 10-fold increase in L.

  19. METHOD OF FORMING ELONGATED COMPACTS

    DOEpatents

    Larson, H.F.

    1959-05-01

    A powder compacting procedure and apparatus which produces elongated compacts of Be is described. The powdered metal is placed in a thin metal tube which is chemically compatible to lubricant, powder, atmosphere, and die material and will undergo a high degree of plastic deformation and have intermediate hardness. The tube is capped and placed in the die, and punches are applied to the ends. During the compacting stroke the powder seizes the tube and a thickening and shortening of the tube occurs. The tube is easily removed from the die, split, and peeled from the compact. (T.R.H.)

  20. Whole population cell analysis of a landmark-rich mammalian epithelium reveals multiple elongation mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Andrew D.; Brock, Lara J.; Cobourne, Martyn T.; Green, Jeremy B. A.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue elongation is a fundamental component of developing and regenerating systems. Although localised proliferation is an important mechanism for tissue elongation, potentially important contributions of other elongation mechanisms, specifically cell shape change, orientated cell division and cell rearrangement, are rarely considered or quantified, particularly in mammalian systems. Their quantification, together with proliferation, provides a rigorous framework for the analysis of elongation. The mammalian palatal epithelium is a landmark-rich tissue, marked by regularly spaced ridges (rugae), making it an excellent model in which to analyse the contributions of cellular processes to directional tissue growth. We captured confocal stacks of entire fixed mouse palate epithelia throughout the mid-gestation growth period, labelled with membrane, nuclear and cell proliferation markers and segmented all cells (up to ∼20,000 per palate), allowing the quantification of cell shape and proliferation. Using the rugae as landmarks, these measures revealed that the so-called growth zone is a region of proliferation that is intermittently elevated at ruga initiation. The distribution of oriented cell division suggests that it is not a driver of tissue elongation, whereas cell shape analysis revealed that both elongation of cells leaving the growth zone and apico-basal cell rearrangements do contribute significantly to directional growth. Quantitative comparison of elongation processes indicated that proliferation contributes most to elongation at the growth zone, but cell shape change and rearrangement contribute as much as 40% of total elongation. We have demonstrated the utility of an approach to analysing the cellular mechanisms underlying tissue elongation in mammalian tissues. It should be broadly applied to higher-resolution analysis of links between genotypes and malformation phenotypes. PMID:24173805

  1. Structure and Elongation of fine Ladies’ Hosiery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozo, M.; Vrljicak, Z.

    2016-07-01

    On a sock-knitting machine with diameter of cylindrical needle bed 100 mm (4e") that knitted with 400 needles, samples of fine women's hosiery were made from four PA filament yarns in counts 20 dtex f 20, 30 dtex f 34, 40 dtex f 40 and 60 dtex f 60. Each type of yarns was used to make hosiery samples with four loop sinking depths of unit values in a computer program 400, 550, 700 and 850. For all the samples, parameters of yarn structure were analyzed and elongation properties of knitted fabric were measured. During the elongation of knitted fabric, areas of knitted fabric elasticity, beginning of permanent deformation and elongation at break were measured. Elongation of knitted fabric in the wale direction, i.e. transverse hosiery elongation and elongation of knitted fabric in the course direction, or longitudinal direction of hosiery were measured. Yarn fineness and loop sinking depth significantly influence the elongation properties of hosiery.

  2. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

  3. Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Scott, T K; Suge, H

    1992-01-01

    Ca2+ has been proposed to mediate inhibition of root elongation. However, exogenous Ca2+ at 10 or 20 millimolar, applied directly to the root cap, significantly stimulated root elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, Ca2+ at 1 to 20 millimolar, applied unilaterally to the caps of Alaska pea roots, caused root curvature away from the Ca2+ source, which was caused by an acceleration of elongation growth on the convex side (Ca2+ side) of the roots. Roots of an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, responded to a greater extent. Roots of Merit and Silver Queen corn also responded to Ca2+ in similar ways but required a higher Ca2+ concentration than that of pea roots. Roots of all other cultivars tested (additional four cultivars of pea and one of corn) curved away from the unilateral Ca2+ source as well. The Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature was substantially enhanced by light. A Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, at 20 micromolar or abscisic acid at 0.1 to 100 micromolar partially substituted for the light effect and enhanced the Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature in the dark. Unilateral application of Ca2+ to the elongation zone of intact roots or to the cut end of detipped roots caused either no curvature or very slight curvature toward the Ca2+. Thus, Ca2+ action on root elongation differs depending on its site of application. The stimulatory action of Ca2+ may involve an elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in root cap cells and may partipate in root tropisms. PMID:11537880

  4. Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Scott, T. K.; Suge, H.

    1992-01-01

    Ca2+ has been proposed to mediate inhibition of root elongation. However, exogenous Ca2+ at 10 or 20 millimolar, applied directly to the root cap, significantly stimulated root elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, Ca2+ at 1 to 20 millimolar, applied unilaterally to the caps of Alaska pea roots, caused root curvature away from the Ca2+ source, which was caused by an acceleration of elongation growth on the convex side (Ca2+ side) of the roots. Roots of an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, responded to a greater extent. Roots of Merit and Silver Queen corn also responded to Ca2+ in similar ways but required a higher Ca2+ concentration than that of pea roots. Roots of all other cultivars tested (additional four cultivars of pea and one of corn) curved away from the unilateral Ca2+ source as well. The Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature was substantially enhanced by light. A Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, at 20 micromolar or abscisic acid at 0.1 to 100 micromolar partially substituted for the light effect and enhanced the Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature in the dark. Unilateral application of Ca2+ to the elongation zone of intact roots or to the cut end of detipped roots caused either no curvature or very slight curvature toward the Ca2+. Thus, Ca2+ action on root elongation differs depending on its site of application. The stimulatory action of Ca2+ may involve an elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in root cap cells and may partipate in root tropisms.

  5. Correlations between changes in electrical parameters and changes in cell elongation rates in gravistimulated roots.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, H; Evans, M L

    1994-01-01

    The earliest changes in growth rate following the gravistimulation of roots occur in a special group of cells between the meristem and the elongating region of the root. This zone is called the postmitotic isodiametric growth (PIG) zone and consists of cells which have ceased dividing and are expanding isodiametrically. Upon gravistimulation cells along the upper side of the PIG zone begin elongating rapidly and this accounts for much of the early growth asymmetry. There is rapid (< 30 s) hyperpolarization of cells on the upper side of the PIG zone as well as rapid uptake of potassium from the stele. We propose that there is a relationship between the rate of hydrogen ion efflux and the extent of membrane hyperpolarization in the PIG zone and that such changes in potential are an early indication of impending changes in growth performance. Although the development of auxin asymmetry in the cap and its transmission to the elongating region is considered to be the controlling factor in root gravitropism, auxin asymmetry in the cap develops only after 30 min, about the same as the lag before initiation of curvature. Although this dilemma may be partly resolved by the location of the PIG zone close to the cap, alternative explanations such as gravi-detection by the PIG zone or very rapid (electrical?) signal transmission from the cap to the PIG zone need to be considered. PMID:11537910

  6. The Effects of High Steady State Auxin Levels on Root Cell Elongation in Brachypodium.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Villalobos, David; Díaz-Moreno, Sara M; van der Schuren, Alja; Tamaki, Takayuki; Kang, Yeon Hee; Gujas, Bojan; Novak, Ondrej; Jaspert, Nina; Li, Zhenni; Wolf, Sebastian; Oecking, Claudia; Ljung, Karin; Bulone, Vincent; Hardtke, Christian S

    2016-05-01

    The long-standing Acid Growth Theory of plant cell elongation posits that auxin promotes cell elongation by stimulating cell wall acidification and thus expansin action. To date, the paucity of pertinent genetic materials has precluded thorough analysis of the importance of this concept in roots. The recent isolation of mutants of the model grass species Brachypodium distachyon with dramatically enhanced root cell elongation due to increased cellular auxin levels has allowed us to address this question. We found that the primary transcriptomic effect associated with elevated steady state auxin concentration in elongating root cells is upregulation of cell wall remodeling factors, notably expansins, while plant hormone signaling pathways maintain remarkable homeostasis. These changes are specifically accompanied by reduced cell wall arabinogalactan complexity but not by increased proton excretion. On the contrary, we observed a tendency for decreased rather than increased proton extrusion from root elongation zones with higher cellular auxin levels. Moreover, similar to Brachypodium, root cell elongation is, in general, robustly buffered against external pH fluctuation in Arabidopsis thaliana However, forced acidification through artificial proton pump activation inhibits root cell elongation. Thus, the interplay between auxin, proton pump activation, and expansin action may be more flexible in roots than in shoots. PMID:27169463

  7. The Effects of High Steady State Auxin Levels on Root Cell Elongation in Brachypodium[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Villalobos, David; Tamaki, Takayuki; Gujas, Bojan; Jaspert, Nina; Oecking, Claudia; Bulone, Vincent; Hardtke, Christian S.

    2016-01-01

    The long-standing Acid Growth Theory of plant cell elongation posits that auxin promotes cell elongation by stimulating cell wall acidification and thus expansin action. To date, the paucity of pertinent genetic materials has precluded thorough analysis of the importance of this concept in roots. The recent isolation of mutants of the model grass species Brachypodium distachyon with dramatically enhanced root cell elongation due to increased cellular auxin levels has allowed us to address this question. We found that the primary transcriptomic effect associated with elevated steady state auxin concentration in elongating root cells is upregulation of cell wall remodeling factors, notably expansins, while plant hormone signaling pathways maintain remarkable homeostasis. These changes are specifically accompanied by reduced cell wall arabinogalactan complexity but not by increased proton excretion. On the contrary, we observed a tendency for decreased rather than increased proton extrusion from root elongation zones with higher cellular auxin levels. Moreover, similar to Brachypodium, root cell elongation is, in general, robustly buffered against external pH fluctuation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, forced acidification through artificial proton pump activation inhibits root cell elongation. Thus, the interplay between auxin, proton pump activation, and expansin action may be more flexible in roots than in shoots. PMID:27169463

  8. Elongated Deposits in Southern Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, J. W.

    2012-03-01

    In the Elysium Planitia region, deposits have elongated elevations that resemble terrestrial drumlins or yardangs. Drumlins and drumlin clusters are glacial landforms that have been extensively studied. In contrast, Yardangs are formed by wind.

  9. Mutual interdependence of splicing and transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Świeżewski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    Transcription and splicing are intrinsically linked, as splicing needs a pre-mRNA substrate to commence. The more nuanced view is that the rate of transcription contributes to splicing regulation. On the other hand there is accumulating evidence that splicing has an active role in controlling transcription elongation by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We briefly review those mechanisms and propose a unifying model where splicing controls transcription elongation to provide an optimal timing for successive rounds of splicing.

  10. Visualization of large elongated DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinyong; Kim, Yongkyun; Lee, Seonghyun; Jo, Kyubong

    2015-09-01

    Long and linear DNA molecules are the mainstream single-molecule analytes for a variety of biochemical analysis within microfluidic devices, including functionalized surfaces and nanostructures. However, for biochemical analysis, large DNA molecules have to be unraveled, elongated, and visualized to obtain biochemical and genomic information. To date, elongated DNA molecules have been exploited in the development of a number of genome analysis systems as well as for the study of polymer physics due to the advantage of direct visualization of single DNA molecule. Moreover, each single DNA molecule provides individual information, which makes it useful for stochastic event analysis. Therefore, numerous studies of enzymatic random motions have been performed on a large elongated DNA molecule. In this review, we introduce mechanisms to elongate DNA molecules using microfluidics and nanostructures in the beginning. Secondly, we discuss how elongated DNA molecules have been utilized to obtain biochemical and genomic information by direct visualization of DNA molecules. Finally, we reviewed the approaches used to study the interaction of proteins and large DNA molecules. Although DNA-protein interactions have been investigated for many decades, it is noticeable that there have been significant achievements for the last five years. Therefore, we focus mainly on recent developments for monitoring enzymatic activity on large elongated DNA molecules.

  11. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  12. Antibacterial activity on Citrullus colocynthis Leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    gowri, S. Shyamala; Priyavardhini, S.; Vasantha, K.; Umadevi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the antibacterial activities of the leaf extract of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. The results revealed that the crude acetone extract exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zones of inhibition measuring 14.0mm. The chloroform leaf extract exhibited no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the chloroform extract was 4.0mm for Escherichia coli. PMID:22557336

  13. Synergistic action of auxin and ethylene on root elongation inhibition is caused by a reduction of epidermal cell length

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, M Victoria; Lloret, Pedro G; Salguero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auxin and ethylene have been largely reported to reduce root elongation in maize primary root. However the effects of auxin are greater than those caused by ethylene. Although auxin stimulates ethylene biosynthesis through the specific increase of ACC synthase, the auxin inhibitory effect on root elongation is not mediated by the auxin-induced increase of ethylene production. Recently it has been demonstrated that root inhibition by the application of the synthetic auxin NAA (1-naphtalenacetic acid) is increased if combined with the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid) when both compounds are applied at very low concentrations. Root elongation is basically the result of two processes: a) cell divisions in the meristem where meristematic cells continuously generate new cells and b) subsequently polarized growth by elongation along the root axis as cells leave the meristem and enter the root elongation zone. Our results indicate that exogenous auxin reduced both root elongation and epidermal cell length. In a different way, ethylene at very low concentrations only inhibited root elongation without affecting significantly epidermal cell length. However, these concentrations of ethylene increased the inhibitory effect of auxin on root elongation and cell length. Consequently the results support the hypothesis that ethylene acts synergistically with auxin in the regulation of root elongation and that inhibition by both hormones is due, at least partially, to the reduction of cell length in the epidermal layer. PMID:24598313

  14. Synergistic action of auxin and ethylene on root elongation inhibition is caused by a reduction of epidermal cell length.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, M Victoria; Lloret, Pedro G; Salguero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auxin and ethylene have been largely reported to reduce root elongation in maize primary root. However the effects of auxin are greater than those caused by ethylene. Although auxin stimulates ethylene biosynthesis through the specific increase of ACC synthase, the auxin inhibitory effect on root elongation is not mediated by the auxin-induced increase of ethylene production. Recently it has been demonstrated that root inhibition by the application of the synthetic auxin NAA (1-naphtalenacetic acid) is increased if combined with the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid) when both compounds are applied at very low concentrations.   Root elongation is basically the result of two processes: a) cell divisions in the meristem where meristematic cells continuously generate new cells and b) subsequently polarized growth by elongation along the root axis as cells leave the meristem and enter the root elongation zone. Our results indicate that exogenous auxin reduced both root elongation and epidermal cell length. In a different way, ethylene at very low concentrations only inhibited root elongation without affecting significantly epidermal cell length. However, these concentrations of ethylene increased the inhibitory effect of auxin on root elongation and cell length. Consequently the results support the hypothesis that ethylene acts synergistically with auxin in the regulation of root elongation and that inhibition by both hormones is due, at least partially, to the reduction of cell length in the epidermal layer.

  15. [Influence of perennial flooding and drought on growth restoration of Acorus calamus in water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Gao, Xiang; Ding, Wu-quan; Zhu, Qi-hong; Ou, Yuan; Liu, Yu

    2012-08-01

    Acorus calamus L. is a common kind of wetland plant species in the Three Gorges Reservoir. In this study, we investigated the influence of perennial flooding on growth restoration of A. calamus in the lightless conditions and the drought stress on this plant species' growth after flooding. Our research provided the scientific basis for the selection of candidate species for vegetations restoration in water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir. A. calamus plants were exposed to waters in the lightless conditions in September 2009 and September 2010 respectively and taken away from the waters and grew in natural conditions in the following March, April and May (named as S1, S2, S3). All plants in the control, S1 and S2 groups were challenged with drought stress in May for 20 days. During the experiment, the plant number and leaf number were recorded regularly, as well as leaf length and leaf width. The results showed that flooding restrained the germination of the plants with much less plant in flooding groups than the control, and the plant germination rate had inverse relation to the flooding time. Flooding promoted formation and elongation of the leaves in S1 and S2 groups, which showed higher leaf growth parameters, such as leaf length, leaf number, total leaf length of one plant and total leaf length of all plants than the control. However, all of these growth parameters in S3 group had significantly lower values compared to the control. The survival rate of the plants after flooding decreased significantly with longer flooding time. Besides, the leaf length and leaf width in S1 and S2 groups increased significantly but with decreased leaf number. Additionally, all growth parameters (leaf length, leaf width, leaf number, total leaf number, total leaf length of one plant, total leaf length of all plants) in S3 group decreased remarkably. Furthermore, drought decreased the values of all growth parameters and the plant number in the control, S1 and

  16. Bacterial Cellulose-Binding Domain Modulates in Vitro Elongation of Different Plant Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Shpigel, Etai; Roiz, Levava; Goren, Raphael; Shoseyov, Oded

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant cellulose-binding domain (CBD) derived from the cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium cellulovorans was found to modulate the elongation of different plant cells in vitro. In peach (Prunus persica L.) pollen tubes, maximum elongation was observed at 50 μg mL−1 CBD. Pollen tube staining with calcofluor showed a loss of crystallinity in the tip zone of CBD-treated pollen tubes. At low concentrations CBD enhanced elongation of Arabidopsis roots. At high concentrations CBD dramatically inhibited root elongation in a dose-responsive manner. Maximum effect on root hair elongation was at 100 μg mL−1, whereas root elongation was inhibited at that concentration. CBD was found to compete with xyloglucan for binding to cellulose when CBD was added first to the cellulose, before the addition of xyloglucan. When Acetobacter xylinum L. was used as a model system, CBD was found to increase the rate of cellulose synthase in a dose-responsive manner, up to 5-fold compared with the control. Electron microscopy examination of the cellulose ribbons produced by A. xylinum showed that CBD treatment resulted in a splayed ribbon composed of separate fibrillar subunits, compared with a thin, uniform ribbon in the control. PMID:9701575

  17. Reorientation of elongated particles at density interfaces.

    PubMed

    Doostmohammadi, A; Ardekani, A M

    2014-09-01

    Density interfaces in the water column are ubiquitously found in oceans and lakes. Interaction of settling particles with pycnoclines plays a pivotal function in nutrient transport between ocean layers and settling rates of marine particles. We perform direct numerical simulations of an elongated particle settling through a density interface and scrutinize the role of stratification on the settling dynamics. It is found that the presence of the density interface tends to turn the long axis of an elongated particle parallel to the settling direction, which is dramatically different from its counterpart in a homogeneous fluid. Although broadside-on settling of the elongated particle is enhanced upon approaching the interface, the long axis rotates toward the settling direction as the particle passes through the interface. We quantify turning couples due to stratification effects, which counteract the pressure-induced torques due to the fluid inertia. A similar behavior is observed for different initial orientations of the particle. It is shown that the reorientation of an elongated particle occurs in both sharp and linear density stratifications. PMID:25314535

  18. Interplay between DNA supercoiling and transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling has been shown to be an important regulator of transcription that is broadly present in the cell. Here we review experimental work which shows that RNA polymerase is a powerful torsional motor that can alter DNA topology and structure, and DNA supercoiling in turn directly affects transcription elongation.

  19. The short-term growth response to salt of the developing barley leaf.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Wieland; Akhiyarova, Gulya; Wei, Wenxue; Alexandersson, Erik; Miller, Anthony; Kjellbom, Per Ola; Richardson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Schreiber, Lukas; Veselov, Dima; Kudoyarova, Guzel; Volkov, Vadim

    2006-01-01

    Recent results concerning the short-term growth response to salinity of the developing barley leaf are reviewed. Plants were grown hydroponically and the growth response of leaf 3 was studied between 10 min and 5 d following addition of 100 mM NaCl to the root medium. The aim of the experiments was to relate changes in variables that are likely to affect cell elongation to changes in leaf growth. Changes in hormone content (ABA, cytokinins), water and solute relationships (osmolality, turgor, water potential, solute concentrations), gene expression (water channel), cuticle deposition, membrane potential, and transpiration were followed, while leaf elongation velocity was monitored. Leaf elongation decreased close to zero within seconds following addition of NaCl. Between 20 and 30 min after exposure to salt, elongation velocity recovered rather abruptly, to about 46% of the pre-stress level, and remained at the reduced rate for the following 5 d, when it reached about 70% of the level in non-stressed plants. Biophysical and physiological analyses led to three major conclusions. (i) The immediate reduction and sudden recovery in elongation velocity is due to changes in the water potential gradient between leaf xylem and peripheral elongating cells. Changes in transpiration, ABA and cytokinin content, water channel expression, and plasma membrane potential are involved in this response. (ii) Significant solute accumulation, which aids growth recovery, is detectable from 1 h onwards; growing and non-growing leaf regions and mesophyll and epidermis differ in their solute response. (iii) Cuticular wax density is not affected by short-term exposure to salt; transpirational changes are due to stomatal control.

  20. The short-term growth response to salt of the developing barley leaf.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Wieland; Akhiyarova, Gulya; Wei, Wenxue; Alexandersson, Erik; Miller, Anthony; Kjellbom, Per Ola; Richardson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Schreiber, Lukas; Veselov, Dima; Kudoyarova, Guzel; Volkov, Vadim

    2006-01-01

    Recent results concerning the short-term growth response to salinity of the developing barley leaf are reviewed. Plants were grown hydroponically and the growth response of leaf 3 was studied between 10 min and 5 d following addition of 100 mM NaCl to the root medium. The aim of the experiments was to relate changes in variables that are likely to affect cell elongation to changes in leaf growth. Changes in hormone content (ABA, cytokinins), water and solute relationships (osmolality, turgor, water potential, solute concentrations), gene expression (water channel), cuticle deposition, membrane potential, and transpiration were followed, while leaf elongation velocity was monitored. Leaf elongation decreased close to zero within seconds following addition of NaCl. Between 20 and 30 min after exposure to salt, elongation velocity recovered rather abruptly, to about 46% of the pre-stress level, and remained at the reduced rate for the following 5 d, when it reached about 70% of the level in non-stressed plants. Biophysical and physiological analyses led to three major conclusions. (i) The immediate reduction and sudden recovery in elongation velocity is due to changes in the water potential gradient between leaf xylem and peripheral elongating cells. Changes in transpiration, ABA and cytokinin content, water channel expression, and plasma membrane potential are involved in this response. (ii) Significant solute accumulation, which aids growth recovery, is detectable from 1 h onwards; growing and non-growing leaf regions and mesophyll and epidermis differ in their solute response. (iii) Cuticular wax density is not affected by short-term exposure to salt; transpirational changes are due to stomatal control. PMID:16513814

  1. Antimicrobial effect of Pistacia atlantica leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Ali Roozegar, Mohamad; Azizi Jalilian, Farid; Reza Havasian, Mohamad; Panahi, Jafar; Pakzad, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of the mastic tree (Pistacia atlantica) under in vitro conditions has been reported. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the effect of the plant leaf extract (aqueous) on bacterial load in mouth and saliva. The leaf of the Pistacia atlantica plant was collected and cleaned, dried at 40⁰c and then powdered. The extraction was carried out using the maceration method in vacuum with the rotary evaporator device. Bacterial inhibition (Streptococcus species) by the leaf extract was studied using the disc diffusion and embedding sink diffusion methods. The values of MIC and MBC were determined. The collected data was further analyzed using t-test and repeated measure statistical tests. The disc diffusion technique showed a significant inhibitory effect for Pistacia atlantica leaf extract on S. mutans (ATCC 35668) and S. mitis (ATCC 49456) with inhibition zones of 19 and 25 millimeters, respectively. This is for the highest leaf extract concentration used in this study (p<0.01). The values of MIC and MBC for S.mutans was 60, 90 μg/ml and for S. mitis was 75, 110 μg/ml (p<0.01 significance). The leaf extract has no significant effect on S. salivarius (ATCC 13419). Thus, the antimicrobial properties of the aqueous leaf extract from Pistacia atlantica is demonstrated in this study. PMID:27212840

  2. Antimicrobial effect of Pistacia atlantica leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Ali Roozegar, Mohamad; Azizi Jalilian, Farid; Reza Havasian, Mohamad; Panahi, Jafar; Pakzad, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of the mastic tree (Pistacia atlantica) under in vitro conditions has been reported. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the effect of the plant leaf extract (aqueous) on bacterial load in mouth and saliva. The leaf of the Pistacia atlantica plant was collected and cleaned, dried at 40⁰c and then powdered. The extraction was carried out using the maceration method in vacuum with the rotary evaporator device. Bacterial inhibition (Streptococcus species) by the leaf extract was studied using the disc diffusion and embedding sink diffusion methods. The values of MIC and MBC were determined. The collected data was further analyzed using t-test and repeated measure statistical tests. The disc diffusion technique showed a significant inhibitory effect for Pistacia atlantica leaf extract on S. mutans (ATCC 35668) and S. mitis (ATCC 49456) with inhibition zones of 19 and 25 millimeters, respectively. This is for the highest leaf extract concentration used in this study (p<0.01). The values of MIC and MBC for S.mutans was 60, 90 μg/ml and for S. mitis was 75, 110 μg/ml (p<0.01 significance). The leaf extract has no significant effect on S. salivarius (ATCC 13419). Thus, the antimicrobial properties of the aqueous leaf extract from Pistacia atlantica is demonstrated in this study. PMID:27212840

  3. Mechanism of amyloid-β fibril elongation.

    PubMed

    Gurry, Thomas; Stultz, Collin M

    2014-11-11

    Amyloid-β is an intrinsically disordered protein that forms fibrils in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. To explore factors that affect the process of fibril growth, we computed the free energy associated with disordered amyloid-β monomers being added to growing amyloid fibrils using extensive molecular dynamics simulations coupled with umbrella sampling. We find that the mechanisms of Aβ40 and Aβ42 fibril elongation have many features in common, including the formation of an obligate on-pathway β-hairpin intermediate that hydrogen bonds to the fibril core. In addition, our data lead to new hypotheses for how fibrils may serve as secondary nucleation sites that can catalyze the formation of soluble oligomers, a finding in agreement with recent experimental observations. These data provide a detailed mechanistic description of amyloid-β fibril elongation and a structural link between the disordered free monomer and the growth of amyloid fibrils and soluble oligomers.

  4. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  5. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    SciTech Connect

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de; Wagner, Manfred H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de

    2014-05-15

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  6. Leaf seal for gas turbine stator shrouds and a nozzle band

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Sexton, Brendan Francis

    2002-01-01

    A leaf seal assembly is secured to the trailing edge of a shroud segment for sealing between the shroud segment and the leading edge side wall of a nozzle outer band. The leaf seal includes a circumferentially elongated seal plate biased by a pair of spring clips disposed in a groove along the trailing edge of the shroud segment to maintain the seal plate in engagement with the flange on the leading edge side wall of the nozzle outer band. The leaf seal plate and spring clips receive pins tack-welded to the shroud segment to secure the leaf seal assembly in place.

  7. From boron carbide to glass: Absorption of an elongated high-speed projectile in brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumyantsev, B. V.

    2016-09-01

    Penetration into boron carbide of an elongated high-speed projectile in the form of a copper jet produced by an explosion of a cumulative charge is studied. The efficiency of absorption of a copper jet in different brittle materials for evaluating their protective ability is compared. Conditions for the absence of the influence of the lateral unloading wave on the penetration zone, which provide the minimum penetration depth, are determined.

  8. Dimerization of elongator protein 1 is essential for Elongator complex assembly

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huisha; Lin, Zhijie; Li, Fengzhi; Diao, Wentao; Dong, Chunming; Zhou, Hao; Xie, Xingqiao; Wang, Zheng; Shen, Yuequan; Long, Jiafu

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex, which is composed of six subunits elongator protein 1 (Elp1 to -6), plays vital roles in gene regulation. The molecular hallmark of familial dysautonomia (FD) is the splicing mutation of Elp1 [also known as IκB kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP)] in the nervous system that is believed to be the primary cause of the devastating symptoms of this disease. Here, we demonstrate that disease-related mutations in Elp1 affect Elongator assembly, and we have determined the structure of the C-terminal portion of human Elp1 (Elp1-CT), which is sufficient for full-length Elp1 dimerization, as well as the structure of the cognate dimerization domain of yeast Elp1 (yElp1-DD). Our study reveals that the formation of the Elp1 dimer contributes to its stability in vitro and in vivo and is required for the assembly of both the human and yeast Elongator complexes. Functional studies suggest that Elp1 dimerization is essential for yeast viability. Collectively, our results identify the evolutionarily conserved dimerization domain of Elp1 and suggest that the pathological mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of Elp1 mutation-related disease may result from impaired Elongator activities. PMID:26261306

  9. Growth-limiting proteins in maize coleoptiles and the auxin-brassinosteroid hypothesis of mesocotyl elongation.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The shoot of grass coleoptiles consists of the mesocotyl, the node, and the coleoptile (with enclosed primary leaf). Since the 1930s, it is known that auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), produced in the tip of the coleoptile, is the central regulator of turgor-driven organ growth. Fifty years ago, it was discovered that antibiotics that suppress protein biosynthesis, such as cycloheximide, inhibit auxin (IAA)-induced cell elongation in excised sections of coleoptiles and stems. Based on such inhibitor studies, the concept of "growth-limiting proteins (GLPs)" emerged that was subsequently elaborated and modified. Here, we summarize the history of this idea with reference to IAA-mediated shoot elongation in maize (Zea mays) seedlings and recent studies on the molecular mechanism underlying auxin action in Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition, the analysis of light-induced inhibition of shoot elongation in intact corn seedlings is discussed. We propose a concept to account for the GLP-mediated epidermal wall-loosening process in coleoptile segments and present a more general model of growth regulation in intact maize seedlings. Quantitative proteomic and genomic studies led to a refinement of the classic "GLP concept" to explain phytohormone-mediated cell elongation at the molecular level (i.e., the recently proposed theory of a "central growth regulation network," CGRN). Novel data show that mesocotyl elongation not only depends on auxin but also on brassinosteroids (BRs). However, the biochemical key processes that regulate the IAA/BR-mediated loosening of the expansion-limiting epidermal wall(s) have not yet been elucidated. PMID:25772679

  10. Growth-limiting proteins in maize coleoptiles and the auxin-brassinosteroid hypothesis of mesocotyl elongation.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The shoot of grass coleoptiles consists of the mesocotyl, the node, and the coleoptile (with enclosed primary leaf). Since the 1930s, it is known that auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), produced in the tip of the coleoptile, is the central regulator of turgor-driven organ growth. Fifty years ago, it was discovered that antibiotics that suppress protein biosynthesis, such as cycloheximide, inhibit auxin (IAA)-induced cell elongation in excised sections of coleoptiles and stems. Based on such inhibitor studies, the concept of "growth-limiting proteins (GLPs)" emerged that was subsequently elaborated and modified. Here, we summarize the history of this idea with reference to IAA-mediated shoot elongation in maize (Zea mays) seedlings and recent studies on the molecular mechanism underlying auxin action in Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition, the analysis of light-induced inhibition of shoot elongation in intact corn seedlings is discussed. We propose a concept to account for the GLP-mediated epidermal wall-loosening process in coleoptile segments and present a more general model of growth regulation in intact maize seedlings. Quantitative proteomic and genomic studies led to a refinement of the classic "GLP concept" to explain phytohormone-mediated cell elongation at the molecular level (i.e., the recently proposed theory of a "central growth regulation network," CGRN). Novel data show that mesocotyl elongation not only depends on auxin but also on brassinosteroids (BRs). However, the biochemical key processes that regulate the IAA/BR-mediated loosening of the expansion-limiting epidermal wall(s) have not yet been elucidated.

  11. Stiff mutant genes of phycomyces affect turgor pressure and wall mechanical properties to regulate elongation growth rate.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Joseph K E; Munoz, Cindy M; Blakley, Scott E; Truong, Jason T; Ortega, Elena L

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth is paramount to all living organisms. In plants, algae and fungi, regulation of expansive growth of cells is required for development and morphogenesis. Also, many sensory responses of stage IVb sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus are produced by regulating elongation growth rate (growth responses) and differential elongation growth rate (tropic responses). "Stiff" mutant sporangiophores exhibit diminished tropic responses and are found to be defective in at least five genes; madD, E, F, G, and J. Prior experimental research suggests that the defective genes affect growth regulation, but this was not verified. All the growth of the single-celled stalk of the stage IVb sporangiophore occurs in a short region termed the "growth zone." Prior experimental and theoretical research indicates that elongation growth rate of the stage IVb sporangiophore can be regulated by controlling the cell wall mechanical properties within the growth zone and the magnitude of the turgor pressure. A quantitative biophysical model for elongation growth rate is required to elucidate the relationship between wall mechanical properties and turgor pressure during growth regulation. In this study, it is hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the wall within the growth zone of stiff mutant sporangiophores are different compared to wild type (WT). A biophysical equation for elongation growth rate is derived for fungal and plant cells with a growth zone. Two strains of stiff mutants are studied, C149 madD120 (-) and C216 geo- (-). Experimental results demonstrate that turgor pressure is larger but irreversible wall deformation rates within the growth zone and growth zone length are smaller for stiff mutant sporangiophores compared to WT. These findings can explain the diminished tropic responses of the stiff mutant sporangiophores. It is speculated that the defective genes affect the amount of wall-building material delivered to the inner cell wall.

  12. Cell division versus cell elongation: the control of radicle elongation during thermoinhibition of Tagetes minuta achenes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicky J; Hills, Paul N; van Staden, Johannes

    2007-12-01

    Endogenous embryo factors, which act mainly in the radicle, prevent germination in Tagetes minuta at high temperatures. These factors act to prevent cell elongation, which is critical for radicle protrusion under optimal conditions. Once the radicle has emerged both cell elongation and cell division are required for post-germination growth. Germination can be induced at high temperatures by fusicoccin, which rapidly stimulates cell elongation. In addition, priming seeds at 25 degrees C on polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and mannitol could also induce germination on water at 36 degrees C, indicating that priming prevents radicle protrusion at a point subsequent to the point of control in thermoinhibited achenes. Flow cytometry studies revealed that DNA synthesis occurs during thermoinhibition and the inhibition of DNA synthesis during this process inhibits subsequent germination on water under optimal conditions, suggesting a protective role for DNA synthesis in thermoinhibited achenes of T. minuta.

  13. Scattering from polymer networks under elongational strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svaneborg, C.; Grest, G. S.; Everaers, R.

    2005-12-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations are used to sample the single-chain form factor of labelled sub-chains in model polymer networks under elongational strain. We observe very similar results for randomly cross-linked and for randomly end-linked networks with the same average strand length and see no indication of lozenge-like scattering patterns reported for some experimental systems. Our data analysis shows that a recent variant of the tube model quantitatively describes scattering in the Guinier regime as well as the macroscopic elastic properties. The observed failure of the theory outside the Guinier regime is shown to be due to non-Gaussian pair-distance distributions.

  14. Scattering from polymer networks under elongational strain.

    SciTech Connect

    Grest, Gary Stephen; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf

    2005-06-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations are used to sample the single-chain form factor of labelled sub-chains in model polymer networks under elongational strain. We observe very similar results for randomly cross-linked and for randomly end-linked networks with the same average strand length and see no indication of lozenge-like scattering patterns reported for some experimental systems. Our data analysis shows that a recent variant of the tube model quantitatively describes scattering in the Guinier regime as well as the macroscopic elastic properties. The observed failure of the theory outside the Guinier regime is shown to be due to non-Gaussian pair-distance distributions.

  15. Rapid Changes in Cell Wall Yielding of Elongating Begonia argenteo-guttata L. Leaves in Response to Changes in Plant Water Status 1

    PubMed Central

    Serpe, Marcelo D.; Matthews, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Elongation and epidermal cell turgor (P) of Begonia argenteoguttata L. leaves were simultaneously measured to determine the wall-yielding behavior of growing leaf cells in response to changes in plant water status. Rapid changes in plant water status were imposed by irrigating the rooting media with solutions of −0.20 and −0.30 MPa mannitol. These treatments caused decreases in P of 0.09 and 0.17 MPa, respectively. The decreases in P were complete within 10 min, and P did not change thereafter. Following treatments, leaf elongation was nil for periods of 25 to 38 min. Subsequently, elongation recovered to steady rates that were 45 or 75% lower than in the well-watered controls. Leaves of plants that were pretreated with −0.30 MPa of mannitol and rewatered showed an increase in P of 0.19 MPa, which was complete within 15 min; P did not change thereafter. Rewatering caused a several-fold increase in leaf elongation rates, which subsequently declined while P was increasing, to reach steady rates similar to that of the controls. Several estimates of elastic deformation indicated that most of the elongation responses to altered P were due to changes in irreversible deformation. The results showed that the initial effects of changes in P on leaf elongation were partially compensated for by changes in the cell wall-yielding properties. We conclude that linear relationships between P and adjusted growth rates are not necessarily indicative of constant wall-yielding properties. Instead, these relationships may reflect the effect of P on wall-loosening processes. PMID:16653208

  16. Genetic variability of oxalate oxidase activity and elongation in water-stressed primary roots of diverse maize and rice lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work on maize primary roots under water stress showed that cell elongation is maintained in the apical region of the growth zone but progressively inhibited further from the apex. In association with these responses, several proteins related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, part...

  17. Nonlinear deformations of microcapsules in elongation flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, Julien; de Loubens, Clément; Boedec, Gwenn; Georgelin, Marc; Leonetti, Marc; Soft Matter; Biophysics Group Team

    2014-11-01

    Soft microcapsules are drops bounded by a thin elastic shell made of cross-linked proteins. They have numerous applications for drug delivery in bioengineering, pharmaceutics and medicine, where their mechanical stability and their dynamics under flow are crucial. They can also be used as red blood cells models. Here, we investigate the mechanical behaviour of microcapsules made of albumine in strong elongational flow, up to a stretching of 180% just before breaking. The set-up allows us to visualize the deformed shape in the two perpendicular main fields of view, to manage high capillary number and to manipulate soft microcapsules. The steady-state shape of a capsule in the planar elongational flow is non-axisymmetric. In each cross section, the shape is an ellipse but with different small axis which vary in opposite sense with the stretching. Whatever the degree of cross-linking and the size of the capsules, the deformations followed the same master-curve. Comparisons between numerical predictions and experimental results permit to conclude unambiguously that the more properly strain-energy model of membrane is the generalized Hooke model.

  18. The INDETERMINATE DOMAIN Protein BROAD LEAF1 Limits Barley Leaf Width by Restricting Lateral Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jöst, Moritz; Hensel, Götz; Kappel, Christian; Druka, Arnis; Sicard, Adrien; Hohmann, Uwe; Beier, Sebastian; Himmelbach, Axel; Waugh, Robbie; Kumlehn, Jochen; Stein, Nils; Lenhard, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Variation in the size, shape, and positioning of leaves as the major photosynthetic organs strongly impacts crop yield, and optimizing these aspects is a central aim of cereal breeding [1, 2]. Leaf growth in grasses is driven by cell proliferation and cell expansion in a basal growth zone [3]. Although several factors influencing final leaf size and shape have been identified from rice and maize [4-14], what limits grass leaf growth in the longitudinal or transverse directions during leaf development remains poorly understood. To identify factors involved in this process, we characterized the barley mutant broad leaf1 (blf1). Mutants form wider but slightly shorter leaves due to changes in the numbers of longitudinal cell files and of cells along the leaf length. These differences arise during primordia outgrowth because of more cell divisions in the width direction increasing the number of cell files. Positional cloning, analysis of independent alleles, and transgenic complementation confirm that BLF1 encodes a presumed transcriptional regulator of the INDETERMINATE DOMAIN family. In contrast to loss-of-function mutants, moderate overexpression of BLF1 decreases leaf width below wild-type levels. A functional BLF1-vYFP fusion protein expressed from the endogenous promoter shows a dynamic expression pattern in the shoot apical meristem and young leaf primordia. Thus, we propose that the BLF1 gene regulates barley leaf size by restricting cell proliferation in the leaf-width direction. Given the agronomic importance of canopy traits in cereals, identifying functionally different BLF1 alleles promises to allow for the generation of optimized cereal ideotypes. PMID:26996502

  19. Trade studies of plasma elongation for next-step tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, J.D.; Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-09-01

    The effect of elongation on minimum-cost devices is investigated for elongations ranging from 2 to 3. The analysis, carried out with the TETRA tokamak systems code, includes the effects of elongation on both physics (plasma beta limit) and engineering (poloidal field coil currents) issues. When ignition is required, the minimum cost occurs for elongations from 2.3 to 2.9, depending on the plasma energy confinement scaling used. Scalings that include favorable plasma current dependence and/or degradation with fusion power tend to have minimum cost at higher elongation (2.5-2.9); scalings that depend primarily on size result in lower elongation (/approximately/2.3) for minimum cost. For design concepts that include steady-state current-driven operation, minimum cost occurs at an elongation of 2.3. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Downstream effectors of light- and phytochrome-dependent regulation of hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sookyung; Warnasooriya, Sankalpi N; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2013-04-01

    Arabidopsis, like most plants, exhibits tissue-specific, light-dependent growth responses. Cotyledon and leaf growth and the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments are promoted by light, whereas hypocotyl growth is inhibited. The identification and characterization of distinct phytochrome-dependent molecular effectors that are associated with these divergent tissue-specific, light-dependent growth responses are limited. To identify phytochrome-dependent factors that impact the photoregulation of hypocotyl length, we conducted comparative gene expression studies using Arabidopsis lines exhibiting distinct patterns of phytochrome chromophore inactivation and associated disparate hypocotyl elongation responses under far-red (FR) light. A large number of genes was misregulated in plants lacking mesophyll-specific phytochromes relative to constitutively-deficient phytochrome lines. We identified and characterized genes whose expression is impacted by light and by phyA and phyB that have roles in the photoregulation of hypocotyl length. We characterized the functions of several identified target genes by phenotyping of T-DNA mutants. Among these genes is a previously uncharacterized LHE (LIGHT-INDUCED HYPOCOTYL ELONGATION) gene, which we show impacts light- and phytochrome-mediated regulation of hypocotyl elongation under red (R) and FR illumination. We describe a new approach for identifying genes involved in light- and phytochrome-dependent, tissue-specific growth regulation and confirmed the roles of three such genes in the phytochrome-dependent photoregulation of hypocotyl length.

  1. Physiological and ultrastructural analysis of elongating mitotic spindles reactivated in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a simple procedure for isolating mitotic spindles from the diatom Stephanopyxis turris and have shown that they undergo anaphase spindle elongation in vitro upon addition of ATP. The isolated central spindle is a barrel-shaped structure with a prominent zone of microtubule overlap. After ATP addition greater than 75% of the spindle population undergoes distinct structural rearrangements: the spindles on average are longer and the two half-spindles are separated by a distinct gap traversed by only a small number of microtubules, the phase-dense material in the overlap zone is gone, and the peripheral microtubule arrays have depolymerized. At the ultrastructural level, we examined serial cross-sections of spindles after 1-, 5-, and 10-min incubations in reactivation medium. Microtubule depolymerization distal to the poles is confirmed by the increased number of incomplete, i.e., c-microtubule profiles specifically located in the region of overlap. After 10 min we see areas of reduced microtubule number which correspond to the gaps seen in the light microscope and an overall reduction in the number of half-spindle microtubules to about one-third the original number. The changes in spindle structure are highly specific for ATP, are dose-dependent, and do not occur with nonhydrolyzable nucleotide analogues. Spindle elongation and gap formation are blocked by 10 microM vanadate, equimolar mixtures of ATP and AMPPNP, and by sulfhydryl reagents. This process is not affected by nocodazole, erythro-9-[3-(2-hydroxynonyl)]adenine, cytochalasin D, and phalloidin. In the presence of taxol, the extent of spindle elongation is increased; however, distinct gaps still form between the two half- spindles. These results show that the response of isolated spindles to ATP is a complex process consisting of several discrete steps including initiation events, spindle elongation mechanochemistry, controlled central spindle microtubule plus-end depolymerization, and loss

  2. Potential flow about elongated bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1936-01-01

    This report presents a method of solving the problem of axial and transverse potential flows around arbitrary elongated bodies of revolution. The solutions of Laplace's equation for the velocity potentials of the axial and transverse flows, the system of coordinates being an elliptic one in a meridian plane, are given. The theory is applied to a body of revolution obtained from a symmetrical Joukowsky profile, a shape resembling an airship hull. The pressure distribution and the transverse-force distribution are calculated and serve as examples of the procedure to be followed in the case of an actual airship. A section on the determination of inertia coefficients is also included in which the validity of some earlier work is questioned.

  3. Low temperature viscosity in elongated ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcón, T.; Pérez-Madrid, A.; Rubí, J. M.

    1997-12-01

    We have studied the relaxation and transport properties of a ferrofluid in an elongational flow. These properties are influenced by the bistable nature of the potential energy. Bistability comes from the irrotational character of the flow together with the symmetry of the dipoles. Additionally, the presence of a constant magnetic field destroys the symmetry of the potential energy magnetizing the system. We have shown that at a moderate temperature, compared to the height of the energy barrier, the viscosity decreases with respect to the value it would have if the potential were stable. This phenomenon is known as the "negative viscosity" effect. Thermal motion induces jumps of the magnetic moment between the two stable states of the system leading to the aforementioned lowered dissipation effect.

  4. Elongate and Radial Hummocky Tracts in Southern Sweden - Evidence for Extensive Subglacial Drainage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Gustaf; Johnson, Mark D.

    2016-04-01

    Complete understanding of glacial melt-water processes is crucial for a profound view on former and contemporary ice sheets. Investigating sediments and landforms below ice sheets is complicated; however, formerly glaciated regions are easily accessible. For over a century, the hummocky characteristics of the South Swedish Uplands (SSU) have been recognized, and several explanations have been proposed since. Most of these studies describe hummocks shown to be products of a stagnant ice environment. The arrival of detailed elevation models (LiDAR) has revealed this landscape in an unprecedented detail. We have made an inventory of glacial landforms on detailed DEMs covering SSU, and can present a more diverse view of the hummocky tracts. In the field we have investigated the sedimentology and stratigraphy in machine dug sections. It is possible to manually distinguish at least four different hummocky tracts: I) Ribbed moraine, II) Dead ice moraine, III) An enigmatic landform type with a fish scale pattern, and IV) Hummocky tracts in elongate zones. This abstract will focus on the last type (IV). The four most striking morphological characteristics are: First, there are distinct elongate zones of hummocks with a radial pattern with distinct borders to the surrounding lineated till plains. Second, the hummocky zones in some places show an anastamosing pattern. Third, in analyzing these elongate zones, it is clear that they do not follow regional lows but instead runs over highlands. Fourth, in these zones there are localities with eskers superposed on hummocks. Sedimentological excavations yield a compact sandy silty till. Fabric measurements are not very strong; however, they are sub-parallel to lineations on nearby upland till surfaces. Taken together, these observations can possibly explain the elongate hummocky zones invoking processes of subglacial meltwater eroding hummocks in the bottom of tunnel valleys. A large amount of subglacial meltwater is controversial

  5. Control of cell proliferation and elongation by miR396.

    PubMed

    Ercoli, María Florencia; Rojas, Arantxa M L; Debernardi, Juan Manuel; Palatnik, Javier F; Rodriguez, Ramiro E

    2016-06-01

    The combinatory effects of cell proliferation and cell elongation determines the rate at which organs growth. In the root meristematic zone cells both divide and expand, while post-mitotic cells in the elongation zone only expands until they reach their final size. The transcription factors of the GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) class promote cell proliferation in various plant organs. Their expression is restricted to cells with a high proliferative capacity, yet strong downregulation of the GRF activity compromise the plant survival. Part of expression pattern of the GRFs is ensured by the post-transcriptional repression mediated by the conserved microRNA miR396. Here we show the quantitative effects in root growth caused by GRF depletion in a series of transgenic lines with different miR396 levels. We show that high miRNA levels affect cell elongation and proliferation in roots. Detailed analysis suggests that cell proliferation is restricted due to a reduction in cell cycle speed that might result from defects in the accumulation of mitotic cyclins. The results provide insights into the participation of the miRNA-GRF regulatory network in root development. PMID:27172373

  6. Impact of plant shoot architecture on leaf cooling: a coupled heat and mass transfer model.

    PubMed

    Bridge, L J; Franklin, K A; Homer, M E

    2013-08-01

    Plants display a range of striking architectural adaptations when grown at elevated temperatures. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, these include elongation of petioles, and increased petiole and leaf angles from the soil surface. The potential physiological significance of these architectural changes remains speculative. We address this issue computationally by formulating a mathematical model and performing numerical simulations, testing the hypothesis that elongated and elevated plant configurations may reflect a leaf-cooling strategy. This sets in place a new basic model of plant water use and interaction with the surrounding air, which couples heat and mass transfer within a plant to water vapour diffusion in the air, using a transpiration term that depends on saturation, temperature and vapour concentration. A two-dimensional, multi-petiole shoot geometry is considered, with added leaf-blade shape detail. Our simulations show that increased petiole length and angle generally result in enhanced transpiration rates and reduced leaf temperatures in well-watered conditions. Furthermore, our computations also reveal plant configurations for which elongation may result in decreased transpiration rate owing to decreased leaf liquid saturation. We offer further qualitative and quantitative insights into the role of architectural parameters as key determinants of leaf-cooling capacity.

  7. Impact of plant shoot architecture on leaf cooling: a coupled heat and mass transfer model

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, L. J.; Franklin, K. A.; Homer, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Plants display a range of striking architectural adaptations when grown at elevated temperatures. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, these include elongation of petioles, and increased petiole and leaf angles from the soil surface. The potential physiological significance of these architectural changes remains speculative. We address this issue computationally by formulating a mathematical model and performing numerical simulations, testing the hypothesis that elongated and elevated plant configurations may reflect a leaf-cooling strategy. This sets in place a new basic model of plant water use and interaction with the surrounding air, which couples heat and mass transfer within a plant to water vapour diffusion in the air, using a transpiration term that depends on saturation, temperature and vapour concentration. A two-dimensional, multi-petiole shoot geometry is considered, with added leaf-blade shape detail. Our simulations show that increased petiole length and angle generally result in enhanced transpiration rates and reduced leaf temperatures in well-watered conditions. Furthermore, our computations also reveal plant configurations for which elongation may result in decreased transpiration rate owing to decreased leaf liquid saturation. We offer further qualitative and quantitative insights into the role of architectural parameters as key determinants of leaf-cooling capacity. PMID:23720538

  8. Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in elongating cortical cells of mung bean roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in primary roots of 2-day-old mung bean (Vigna mungo L. cv. black matpe) seedlings were investigated using glass microelectrodes held by 3-dimensional hydraulic micro-drives. The electrodes were inserted into outer cortical cells within the elongation zone. Intracellular potentials, angle of root orientation with respect to gravity, and position within the root of the impaled cortical cell were measured simultaneously. Gravistimulation caused intracellular potential changes in cortical cells of the elongation zone. When the roots were oriented vertically, the intracellular potentials of the outer cortical cells (2 mm behind the root apex) were approximately - 115 mV. When the roots were placed horizontally cortical cells on the upper side hyperpolarized to - 154 mV within 30 s while cortical cells on the lower side depolarized to about - 62 mV. This electrical asymmetry did not occur in cells of the maturation zone. Because attempts to insert the electrode into cells of the root cap were unsuccessful, these cells were not measured. The hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the upper side was greatly reduced upon application of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of respiratory energy coupling. When stimulated roots were returned to the vertical, the degree of hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the previous upper side decreased within 30 s and approached that of cortical cells in non-stimulated roots. This cycle of hyperpolarization/loss of hyperpolarization was repeatable at least ten times by alternately turning the root from the vertical to the horizontal and back again. The very short (<30 s) lag period of these electrical changes indicates that they may result from stimulus-perception and transduction within the elongation zone rather than from transmission of a signal from the root cap.

  9. Boron deficiency inhibits root cell elongation via an ethylene/auxin/ROS-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J; Martín-Rejano, Esperanza M; Herrera-Rodríguez, M Begoña; Navarro-Gochicoa, M Teresa; Rexach, Jesús; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2015-07-01

    One of the earliest symptoms of boron (B) deficiency is the inhibition of root elongation which can reasonably be attributed to the damaging effects of B deprivation on cell wall integrity. It is shown here that exposure of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to B deficiency for 4h led to a drastic inhibition of root cell length in the transition between the elongation and differentiation zones. To investigate the possible mediation of ethylene, auxin, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the effect of B deficiency on root cell elongation, B deficiency was applied together with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, a chemical inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis), silver ions (Ag(+), an antagonist of ethylene perception), α-(phenylethyl-2-oxo)-indoleacetic acid (PEO-IAA, a synthetic antagonist of TIR1 receptor function), and diphenylene iodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of ROS production). Interestingly, all these chemicals partially or fully restored cell elongation in B-deficient roots. To further explore the possible role of ethylene and auxin in the inhibition of root cell elongation under B deficiency, a genetic approach was performed by using Arabidopsis mutants defective in the ethylene (ein2-1) or auxin (eir1-4 and aux1-22) response. Root cell elongation in these mutants was less sensitive to B-deficient treatment than that in wild-type plants. Altogether, these results demonstrated that a signalling pathway involving ethylene, auxin, and ROS participates in the reduction of root cell elongation when Arabidopsis seedlings are subjected to B deficiency. A similar signalling process has been described to reduce root elongation rapidly under various types of cell wall stress which supports the idea that this signalling pathway is triggered by the impaired cell wall integrity caused by B deficiency.

  10. Boron deficiency inhibits root cell elongation via an ethylene/auxin/ROS-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J.; Martín-Rejano, Esperanza M.; Herrera-Rodríguez, M. Begoña; Navarro-Gochicoa, M. Teresa; Rexach, Jesús; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    One of the earliest symptoms of boron (B) deficiency is the inhibition of root elongation which can reasonably be attributed to the damaging effects of B deprivation on cell wall integrity. It is shown here that exposure of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to B deficiency for 4h led to a drastic inhibition of root cell length in the transition between the elongation and differentiation zones. To investigate the possible mediation of ethylene, auxin, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the effect of B deficiency on root cell elongation, B deficiency was applied together with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, a chemical inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis), silver ions (Ag+, an antagonist of ethylene perception), α-(phenylethyl-2‐oxo)‐indoleacetic acid (PEO-IAA, a synthetic antagonist of TIR1 receptor function), and diphenylene iodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of ROS production). Interestingly, all these chemicals partially or fully restored cell elongation in B-deficient roots. To further explore the possible role of ethylene and auxin in the inhibition of root cell elongation under B deficiency, a genetic approach was performed by using Arabidopsis mutants defective in the ethylene (ein2‐1) or auxin (eir1-4 and aux1-22) response. Root cell elongation in these mutants was less sensitive to B-deficient treatment than that in wild-type plants. Altogether, these results demonstrated that a signalling pathway involving ethylene, auxin, and ROS participates in the reduction of root cell elongation when Arabidopsis seedlings are subjected to B deficiency. A similar signalling process has been described to reduce root elongation rapidly under various types of cell wall stress which supports the idea that this signalling pathway is triggered by the impaired cell wall integrity caused by B deficiency. PMID:25922480

  11. Ethylene Upregulates Auxin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Seedlings to Enhance Inhibition of Root Cell Elongation[W

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Ranjan; Perry, Paula; Hagenbeek, Dik; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Sandberg, Göran; Bhalerao, Rishikesh; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2007-01-01

    Ethylene represents an important regulatory signal for root development. Genetic studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have demonstrated that ethylene inhibition of root growth involves another hormone signal, auxin. This study investigated why auxin was required by ethylene to regulate root growth. We initially observed that ethylene positively controls auxin biosynthesis in the root apex. We subsequently demonstrated that ethylene-regulated root growth is dependent on (1) the transport of auxin from the root apex via the lateral root cap and (2) auxin responses occurring in multiple elongation zone tissues. Detailed growth studies revealed that the ability of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to inhibit root cell elongation was significantly enhanced in the presence of auxin. We conclude that by upregulating auxin biosynthesis, ethylene facilitates its ability to inhibit root cell expansion. PMID:17630275

  12. Lignification in rapidly elongating internodes of deep water rice as a limiting factor in growth

    SciTech Connect

    Sauter, M.; Kende, H. )

    1990-05-01

    Internodes of deep water rice are induced to elongate rapidly by partial submergence, or by treatment with ethylene or gibberellin. This growth response is based, in part, on enhanced cell elongation and an increase in the size of the internodal growing zone. For this to occur, processes that limit growth, e.g. lignification, must be delayed. We examined the activity and distribution of two enzymes of the lignin biosynthetic pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and coniferylalcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) in rapidly growing and control internodes. CAD activity decreased in the rapidly growing region of submerged or gibberellin-treated internodes to about 25% of the activity found in air-grown control internodes. No comparable change in CAD activity was observed in the older, non-growing portions of the internodes. PAL activity changed in similar fashion upon induction of rapid growth.

  13. Conditions for bubble elongation in cold ice-sheet ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, R.B.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Highly elongated bubbles are sometimes observed in ice-sheet ice. Elongation is favored by rapid ice deformation, and opposed by diffusive processes. We use simple models to show that vapor transport dominates diffusion except possibly very close to the melting point, and that latent-heat effects are insignificant. Elongation is favored by larger bubbles at pore close-off, but is nearly independent of bubble compression below close-off. The simple presence of highly elongated bubbles indicates only that a critical ice-strain rate has been exceeded for significant time, and provides no information on possible disruption of stratigraphic continuity by ice deformation.

  14. Shaping organs by a wingless-int/Notch/nonmuscle myosin module which orients feather bud elongation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ang; Chen, Meng; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Wu, Ping; Nie, Qing; Widelitz, Randall; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2013-01-01

    How organs are shaped to specific forms is a fundamental issue in developmental biology. To address this question, we used the repetitive, periodic pattern of feather morphogenesis on chicken skin as a model. Avian feathers within a single tract extend from dome-shaped primordia to thin conical structures with a common axis of orientation. From a systems biology perspective, the process is precise and robust. Using tissue transplantation assays, we demonstrate that a “zone of polarizing activity,” localized in the posterior feather bud, is necessary and sufficient to mediate the directional elongation. This region contains a spatially well-defined nuclear β-catenin zone, which is induced by wingless-int (Wnt)7a protein diffusing in from posterior bud epithelium. Misexpressing nuclear β-catenin randomizes feather polarity. This dermal nuclear β-catenin zone, surrounded by Notch1 positive dermal cells, induces Jagged1. Inhibition of Notch signaling disrupts the spatial configuration of the nuclear β-catenin zone and leads to randomized feather polarity. Mathematical modeling predicts that lateral inhibition, mediated by Notch signaling, functions to reduce Wnt7a gradient variations and fluctuations to form the sharp boundary observed for the dermal β-catenin zone. This zone is also enriched for nonmuscle myosin IIB. Suppressing nonmuscle myosin IIB disrupts directional cell rearrangements and abolishes feather bud elongation. These data suggest that a unique molecular module involving chemical–mechanical coupling converts a pliable chemical gradient to a precise domain, ready for subsequent mechanical action, thus defining the position, boundary, and duration of localized morphogenetic activity that molds the shape of growing organs. PMID:23576731

  15. Ethylene Inhibits Root Elongation during Alkaline Stress through AUXIN1 and Associated Changes in Auxin Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Xu, Heng-Hao; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Soil alkalinity causes major reductions in yield and quality of crops worldwide. The plant root is the first organ sensing soil alkalinity, which results in shorter primary roots. However, the mechanism underlying alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that alkaline conditions inhibit primary root elongation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings by reducing cell division potential in the meristem zones and that ethylene signaling affects this process. The ethylene perception antagonist silver (Ag(+)) alleviated the inhibition of root elongation by alkaline stress. Moreover, the ethylene signaling mutants ethylene response1-3 (etr1-3), ethylene insensitive2 (ein2), and ein3-1 showed less reduction in root length under alkaline conditions, indicating a reduced sensitivity to alkalinity. Ethylene biosynthesis also was found to play a role in alkaline stress-mediated root inhibition; the ethylene overproducer1-1 mutant, which overproduces ethylene because of increased stability of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASE5, was hypersensitive to alkaline stress. In addition, the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor cobalt (Co(2+)) suppressed alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. We further found that alkaline stress caused an increase in auxin levels by promoting expression of auxin biosynthesis-related genes, but the increase in auxin levels was reduced in the roots of the etr1-3 and ein3-1 mutants and in Ag(+)/Co(2+)-treated wild-type plants. Additional genetic and physiological data showed that AUXIN1 (AUX1) was involved in alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. Taken together, our results reveal that ethylene modulates alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root growth by increasing auxin accumulation by stimulating the expression of AUX1 and auxin biosynthesis-related genes.

  16. Ethylene Inhibits Root Elongation during Alkaline Stress through AUXIN1 and Associated Changes in Auxin Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Xu, Heng-Hao; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Soil alkalinity causes major reductions in yield and quality of crops worldwide. The plant root is the first organ sensing soil alkalinity, which results in shorter primary roots. However, the mechanism underlying alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that alkaline conditions inhibit primary root elongation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings by reducing cell division potential in the meristem zones and that ethylene signaling affects this process. The ethylene perception antagonist silver (Ag(+)) alleviated the inhibition of root elongation by alkaline stress. Moreover, the ethylene signaling mutants ethylene response1-3 (etr1-3), ethylene insensitive2 (ein2), and ein3-1 showed less reduction in root length under alkaline conditions, indicating a reduced sensitivity to alkalinity. Ethylene biosynthesis also was found to play a role in alkaline stress-mediated root inhibition; the ethylene overproducer1-1 mutant, which overproduces ethylene because of increased stability of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASE5, was hypersensitive to alkaline stress. In addition, the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor cobalt (Co(2+)) suppressed alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. We further found that alkaline stress caused an increase in auxin levels by promoting expression of auxin biosynthesis-related genes, but the increase in auxin levels was reduced in the roots of the etr1-3 and ein3-1 mutants and in Ag(+)/Co(2+)-treated wild-type plants. Additional genetic and physiological data showed that AUXIN1 (AUX1) was involved in alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. Taken together, our results reveal that ethylene modulates alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root growth by increasing auxin accumulation by stimulating the expression of AUX1 and auxin biosynthesis-related genes. PMID:26109425

  17. [Influence of photosynthetic parameters on leaf longevity].

    PubMed

    Vasfilov, S P

    2015-01-01

    Higher plants show a wide range of leaf lifespan (LL) variability. LL is calculated as a sum of functional LL(f) (corresponding to the time of active photosynthesis and CO2 accumulation in the leaf) and nonfunctional LL(n) (the time of photosynthetic activity absence). For evergreen species of boreal zones, LL(n) corresponds to the period of winter rest. Photosynthetic potential of leaf (PPL), interpreted as the maximum possible amount of CO2 that can be fixed during its life, can be estimated on the basis of maximum photosynthesis rate (P(a)) dynamics during LL(f); the maximum (P(a max)) being achieved in mature leaf. Photosynthetic potential depends on LL(f) more strongly than on P(a max). The PPL/LL(f) ratio is indicative of the rate of PPL realization over leaf lifespan. As LL(f) shows strong positive correlation with LL, the latter parameter can also characterize the rate of PPL realization. Long LL(f) in evergreen species provides higher PPL, which is advantageous by comparison with deciduous ones. In evergreen species, the PPL itself is realized slower than in deciduous ones. The increase in LL(f) and LL is accompanied by the increase in leaf constructional cost (LCC(a)) as well as the decrease in photosynthesis rate. At that, photosynthesis rate per unit of dry weight (P(m)) decreases much faster than that per unit of leaf area (P(a)). Apparently, when considering dry leaf weight, the apoplast share seems to be much higher in long-living leaves of evergreen species than in short-living leaves of deciduous species. The leaf payback (LP) may be stabilized by unidirectional shifts in PPL and LCC(a). Species with short/long LL(f) and high/low PPL realization rate are typical for early/late succession stages and for habitats with the environmental conditions favorable/adverse for photosynthesis and growth. If the conditions for photosynthesis and growth are favorable, high PPL realization rate provides advantage in competition. The PPL realization rate is

  18. Emerging brain morphologies from axonal elongation

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Maria A.; Miller, Kyle E.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the characteristic morphology of our brain remains a challenging, yet important task in human evolution, developmental biology, and neurosciences. Mathematical modeling shapes our understanding of cortical folding and provides functional relations between cortical wavelength, thickness, and stiffness. Yet, current mathematical models are phenomenologically isotropic and typically predict non-physiological, periodic folding patterns. Here we establish a mechanistic model for cortical folding, in which macroscopic changes in white matter volume are a natural consequence of microscopic axonal growth. To calibrate our model, we consult axon elongation experiments in chick sensory neurons. We demonstrate that a single parameter, the axonal growth rate, explains a wide variety of in vitro conditions including immediate axonal thinning and gradual thickness restoration. We embed our axonal growth model into a continuum model for brain development using axonal orientation distributions motivated by diffusion spectrum imaging. Our simulations suggest that white matter anisotropy - as an emergent property from directional axonal growth - intrinsically induces symmetry breaking, and predicts more physiological, less regular morphologies with regionally varying gyral wavelengths and sulcal depths. Mechanistic modeling of brain development could establish valuable relationships between brain connectivity, brain anatomy, and brain function. PMID:25824370

  19. Glycoproteome of Elongating Cotton Fiber Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saravanan; Kumar, Krishan; Pandey, Pankaj; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Padmalatha, Kethireddy Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2013-01-01

    Cotton ovule epidermal cell differentiation into long fibers primarily depends on wall-oriented processes such as loosening, elongation, remodeling, and maturation. Such processes are governed by cell wall bound structural proteins and interacting carbohydrate active enzymes. Glycosylation plays a major role in the structural, functional, and localization aspects of the cell wall and extracellular destined proteins. Elucidating the glycoproteome of fiber cells would reflect its wall composition as well as compartmental requirement, which must be system specific. Following complementary proteomic approaches, we have identified 334 unique proteins comprising structural and regulatory families. Glycopeptide-based enrichment followed by deglycosylation with PNGase F and A revealed 92 unique peptides containing 106 formerly N-linked glycosylated sites from 67 unique proteins. Our results showed that structural proteins like arabinogalactans and carbohydrate active enzymes were relatively more abundant and showed stage- and isoform-specific expression patterns in the differentiating fiber cell. Furthermore, our data also revealed the presence of heterogeneous and novel forms of structural and regulatory glycoproteins. Comparative analysis with other plant glycoproteomes highlighted the unique composition of the fiber glycoproteome. The present study provides the first insight into the identity, abundance, diversity, and composition of the glycoproteome within single celled cotton fibers. The elucidated composition also indirectly provides clues about unicellular compartmental requirements underlying single cell differentiation. PMID:24019148

  20. Nonlocal order in elongated dipolar gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhman, J.; Dalla Torre, E. G.; Huber, S. D.; Altman, E.

    2012-03-01

    Dipolar particles in an elongated trap are expected to undergo a quantum phase transition from a linear to a zigzag structure with decreasing transverse confinement. We derive the low-energy effective theory of the transition showing that in the presence of quantum fluctuations the zigzag phase can be characterized by a long-ranged string order, while the local Ising correlations decay as a power law. This is also confirmed using density matrix renormalization group calculations on a microscopic model. The nonlocal order in the bulk gives rise to zero energy states localized at the interface between the ordered and disordered phases. Such an interface naturally arises when the particles are subject to a weak harmonic confinement along the tube axis. We compute the signature of the edge states in the single-particle tunneling spectra pointing to differences between a system with bosonic versus fermionic particles. Finally we assess the magnitude of the relevant quantum fluctuations in realistic systems of dipolar particles, including ultracold polar molecules as well as alkali atoms weakly dressed by a Rydberg excitation.

  1. First Report of Fusarium subglutinans Causing Leaf Spot Disease on Cymbidium Orchids in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyung-Sook; Park, Jong-Han; Back, Chang-Gi; Park, Mi-Jeong

    2015-09-01

    In 2006~2010, leaf spot symptoms, that is, small, yellow spots that turned into dark brown-to-black lesions surrounded by a yellow halo, were observed on Cymbidium spp. in Gongju, Taean, and Gapyeong in Korea. A Fusarium species was continuously isolated from symptomatic leaves; in pathogenicity testing, isolates caused leaf spot symptoms consisting of sunken, dark brown lesions similar to the original ones. The causal pathogen was identified as Fusarium subglutinans based on morphological and translation elongation factor 1-alpha sequence analyses. This is the first report of F. subglutinans as the cause of leaf spot disease in Cymbidium spp. in Korea.

  2. The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, Wenjang; Geiger, D.R. )

    1990-05-01

    The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying {sup 14}C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves.

  3. Leaf growth is conformal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I.; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-10-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  4. Leaf growth is conformal.

    PubMed

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-01-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour. PMID:27597439

  5. Light-Induced Indeterminacy Alters Shade-Avoiding Tomato Leaf Morphology1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, Daniel H.; Kumar, Ravi; Ranjan, Aashish; Pelletier, Julie M.; Townsley, Brad T.; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Martinez, Ciera C.; Zumstein, Kristina; Harada, John J.; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima R.

    2015-01-01

    Plants sense the foliar shade of competitors and alter their developmental programs through the shade-avoidance response. Internode and petiole elongation, and changes in overall leaf area and leaf mass per area, are the stereotypical architectural responses to foliar shade in the shoot. However, changes in leaf shape and complexity in response to shade remain incompletely, and qualitatively, described. Using a meta-analysis of more than 18,000 previously published leaflet outlines, we demonstrate that shade avoidance alters leaf shape in domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and wild relatives. The effects of shade avoidance on leaf shape are subtle with respect to individual traits but are combinatorially strong. We then seek to describe the developmental origins of shade-induced changes in leaf shape by swapping plants between light treatments. Leaf size is light responsive late into development, but patterning events, such as stomatal index, are irrevocably specified earlier. Observing that shade induces increases in shoot apical meristem size, we then describe gene expression changes in early leaf primordia and the meristem using laser microdissection. We find that in leaf primordia, shade avoidance is not mediated through canonical pathways described in mature organs but rather through the expression of KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX and other indeterminacy genes, altering known developmental pathways responsible for patterning leaf shape. We also demonstrate that shade-induced changes in leaf primordium gene expression largely do not overlap with those found in successively initiated leaf primordia, providing evidence against classic hypotheses that shaded leaf morphology results from the prolonged production of juvenile leaf types. PMID:26381315

  6. Blastocyst Elongation, Trophoblastic Differentiation and Embryonic Pattern Formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular basis behind elongation and concomitant gastrulation in ungulates that occurs during pre-implantation is still poorly understood. In-depth transcriptome analysis of the elongating porcine conceptus at specific stages has demonstrated that protein synthesis, protein trafficking, cell g...

  7. Conceptus elongation in cattle: genes, models and questions.

    PubMed

    Hue, Isabelle; Degrelle, Séverine Aude; Turenne, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    In ruminants, more than 30% of the embryonic loss observed after artificial insemination has an early origin that is coincident with the marked elongation of the conceptus that occurs before implantation. During this developmental phase, physiological interactions are established between the conceptus and the uterus which are essential for the establishment of pregnancy and the elongation process. Our molecular knowledge of elongating conceptuses in cattle has long been focused on its analysis in view of its interactions with the uterus with the elongating stages being defined, like the uterus stages, by days post insemination or conception. The gene clusters reported so far indicate important pathways, some being shared by the non-elongating conceptuses of other mammals. However, to identify the key components of the elongation process - that could be specific to ungulates - new models are needed. Somatic nuclear transfer could be one of them as it provides complementary insights on differentiation beyond the blastocyst stage. Nonetheless, other models are necessary to convert gene lists or networks in elongating phenotypes. This review partly summarizes information on these topics, but data on the impact of the uterus on the elongation process or on the differentiation of the embryonic tissues are reviewed elsewhere. PMID:22921267

  8. Function of calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 of Arabidopsis thaliana in plant stem elongation and vascular development.

    PubMed

    Matschi, Susanne; Werner, Sören; Schulze, Waltraud X; Legen, Julia; Hilger, Hartmut H; Romeis, Tina

    2013-03-01

    After a period of vegetative growth, plants undergo a developmental switch to the reproductive phase, inducing the transition to bolting, elongation of the inflorescence and flowering. We have identified calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 from Arabidopsis thaliana as a regulatory component that controls stem elongation and vascular development. In two independent mutant alleles of cpk28, a reduction of stem elongation, accompanied by shorter leaf petioles and enhanced anthocyanin levels, is observed upon the transition to the generative phase. Anatomical analysis revealed an altered vascular pattern characterised by fewer xylem tracheary elements but at the same time increased lignification and secondary growth. Coincident with these morphological changes, cpk28 mutants showed altered expression of NAC transcriptional regulators NST1 and NST3 as well as of GA3ox1, a key regulator of gibberellic acid homeostasis. In vitro protein kinase activity of CPK28 is strictly calcium-dependent. Furthermore, CPK28 is phosphorylated in vivo at several sites. Site-specific amino acid substitutions at these phosphorylation sites resulted in reduced in vitro activity. However, when introduced into a cpk28 mutant background, wild-type and phosphorylation site variants, but not kinase-inactive variants of CPK28 complemented the morphological and developmental defects. Our data identify CPK28 as a developmentally controlled regulator for coordinated stem elongation and secondary growth.

  9. Formation of elongated galaxies with low masses at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel; Dekel, Avishai

    2015-10-01

    We report the identification of elongated (triaxial or prolate) galaxies in cosmological simulations at z ≃ 2. These are preferentially low-mass galaxies (M* ≤ 109.5 M⊙), residing in dark matter (DM) haloes with strongly elongated inner parts, a common feature of high-redshift DM haloes in the Λ cold dark matter cosmology. Feedback slows formation of stars at the centres of these haloes, so that a dominant and prolate DM distribution gives rise to galaxies elongated along the DM major axis. As galaxies grow in stellar mass, stars dominate the total mass within the galaxy half-mass radius, making stars and DM rounder and more oblate. A large population of elongated galaxies produces a very asymmetric distribution of projected axis ratios, as observed in high-z galaxy surveys. This indicates that the majority of the galaxies at high redshifts are not discs or spheroids but rather galaxies with elongated morphologies.

  10. Sequence-dependent elongation dynamics on macrolide-bound ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Magnus; Chen, Jin; Tsai, Albert; Kornberg, Guy; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2014-06-12

    The traditional view of macrolide antibiotics as plugs inside the ribosomal nascent peptide exit tunnel (NPET) has lately been challenged in favor of a more complex, heterogeneous mechanism, where drug-peptide interactions determine the fate of a translating ribosome. To investigate these highly dynamic processes, we applied single-molecule tracking of elongating ribosomes during inhibition of elongation by erythromycin of several nascent chains, including ErmCL and H-NS, which were shown to be, respectively, sensitive and resistant to erythromycin. Peptide sequence-specific changes were observed in translation elongation dynamics in the presence of a macrolide-obstructed NPET. Elongation rates were not severely inhibited in general by the presence of the drug; instead, stalls or pauses were observed as abrupt events. The dynamic pathways of nascent-chain-dependent elongation pausing in the presence of macrolides determine the fate of the translating ribosome stalling or readthrough.

  11. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase regulates the cold stress response by slowing translation elongation.

    PubMed

    Knight, John R P; Bastide, Amandine; Roobol, Anne; Roobol, Jo; Jackson, Thomas J; Utami, Wahyu; Barrett, David A; Smales, C Mark; Willis, Anne E

    2015-01-15

    Cells respond to external stress conditions by controlling gene expression, a process which occurs rapidly via post-transcriptional regulation at the level of protein synthesis. Global control of translation is mediated by modification of translation factors to allow reprogramming of the translatome and synthesis of specific proteins that are required for stress protection or initiation of apoptosis. In the present study, we have investigated how global protein synthesis rates are regulated upon mild cooling. We demonstrate that although there are changes to the factors that control initiation, including phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) on the α-subunit, the reduction in the global translation rate is mediated by regulation of elongation via phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) by its specific kinase, eEF2K (eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase). The AMP/ATP ratio increases following cooling, consistent with a reduction in metabolic rates, giving rise to activation of AMPK (5'-AMP-activated protein kinase), which is upstream of eEF2K. However, our data show that the major trigger for activation of eEF2K upon mild cooling is the release of Ca2+ ions from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and, importantly, that it is possible to restore protein synthesis rates in cooled cells by inhibition of this pathway at multiple points. As cooling has both therapeutic and industrial applications, our data provide important new insights into how the cellular responses to this stress are regulated, opening up new possibilities to modulate these responses for medical or industrial use at physiological or cooler temperatures.

  12. The involvement of expansins in response to water stress during leaf development in wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shan; Han, Yang-yang; Chen, Yanhui; Kong, Xiangzhu; Wang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Expansins are cell wall proteins that are generally considered to be the key regulator of cell wall extension during plant growth. In this study, we used two different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to demonstrate that expansins are involved in wheat leaf growth and response to water stress, by regulating the expansin activity and cell wall susceptibility to expansins. Expansin activity was associated with the relative elongation rate of leaves during leaf development, suggesting their involvement in leaf elongation. Moreover, cell wall extension characteristics and expansin gene transcription were closely involved in the leaf cell elongation region. Water stress restrains leaf growth, but the growth rate of leaves was changed after rehydration, which is consistent with the response of expansin activity to water stress. Meanwhile, increased cell wall susceptibility to expansin by water deficit played an important role in maintaining cell wall extension. Furthermore, the expansin activity in drought-resistant cultivar HF9703 was always higher than that in drought-sensitive cultivar 921842 under water stress condition, which may be correlated with the higher expansin gene expression in HF9703 versus 921842. These data provide evidence for a role of expansins in the growth and response of wheat leaves to water stress.

  13. Nanosecond plasma-mediated electrosurgery with elongated electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankov, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    Progress in interventional medicine is associated with the development of more delicate and less invasive surgical procedures, which requires more precise and less traumatic, yet affordable, surgical instruments. Previously we reported on the development of the pulsed electron avalanche knife for dissection of soft tissue in liquid media using the 100 ns plasma-mediated electric discharges applied via a 25 μm disk microelectrode. Cavitation bubbles accompanying explosive vaporization of the liquid medium in front of such a pointed electrode produced a series of craters that did not always merge into a continuous cut. In addition, this approach of surface ablation provided a limited depth of cutting. Application of an elongated electrode capable of cutting with its edge rather than just with its pointed apex faces a problem of nonuniformity of the electric field on a nonspherical electrode. In this article we explore dynamics of the plasma-mediated nanosecond discharges in liquid medium in positive and negative polarities and describe the geometry of an electrode that provides a sufficiently uniform electric field along an extended edge of a surgical probe. A highly enhanced and uniform electric field was obtained on very sharp (2.5 μm) exposed edges of a planar electrode insulated on its flat sides. Uniform ionization and simultaneous vaporization was obtained along the whole edge of such a blade with 100 ns pulses at 4-6 kV. A continuous cutting rate of 1 mm/s in the retina and in soft membranes was achieved at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz. The collateral damage zone at the edges of incision did not exceed 80 μm. Negative polarity was found advantageous due to the lower rate of electrode erosion and due to better spatial confinement of the plasma-mediated discharge in liquid.

  14. Nanoscale segregation of actin nucleation and elongation factors determines dendritic spine protrusion

    PubMed Central

    Chazeau, Anaël; Mehidi, Amine; Nair, Deepak; Gautier, Jérémie J; Leduc, Cécile; Chamma, Ingrid; Kage, Frieda; Kechkar, Adel; Thoumine, Olivier; Rottner, Klemens; Choquet, Daniel; Gautreau, Alexis; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Giannone, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    Actin dynamics drive morphological remodeling of neuronal dendritic spines and changes in synaptic transmission. Yet, the spatiotemporal coordination of actin regulators in spines is unknown. Using single protein tracking and super-resolution imaging, we revealed the nanoscale organization and dynamics of branched F-actin regulators in spines. Branched F-actin nucleation occurs at the PSD vicinity, while elongation occurs at the tip of finger-like protrusions. This spatial segregation differs from lamellipodia where both branched F-actin nucleation and elongation occur at protrusion tips. The PSD is a persistent confinement zone for IRSp53 and the WAVE complex, an activator of the Arp2/3 complex. In contrast, filament elongators like VASP and formin-like protein-2 move outwards from the PSD with protrusion tips. Accordingly, Arp2/3 complexes associated with F-actin are immobile and surround the PSD. Arp2/3 and Rac1 GTPase converge to the PSD, respectively, by cytosolic and free-diffusion on the membrane. Enhanced Rac1 activation and Shank3 over-expression, both associated with spine enlargement, induce delocalization of the WAVE complex from the PSD. Thus, the specific localization of branched F-actin regulators in spines might be reorganized during spine morphological remodeling often associated with synaptic plasticity. PMID:25293574

  15. [The roles of microtubule in internodal cell elongation (Nitellopsis obtusa)].

    PubMed

    Yu, Rong; Yuan, Ming; Zhu, Guo Li; Wang, Xue Chen

    2004-04-01

    The relationship between cell elongation and microtubules (MTs) was investigated in characean internodal cells (Nitellops obtusa). First, we examined the immunofluorescent localization of MTs in different living stages under confocal laser scanning microscope. In young, rapidly elongating cells, MTs were predominantly transverse to the long axis of the cell. As the relative growth rate fell, transverse MTs gradually decreased, and in non-growing cells, longitudinally oriented cortical MTs became most pronounced. Moreover, cells in different living stages responded to the treatment of oryzalin (microtubule-disrupting agent) differently, young active internodal cells seemed to be more sensitive. After 40 min incubation of 10 micromol/L oryzalin, nearly all cortical MTs in the elongating cells depolymerized. However, in the old, non-growing cells, some MT fragments still remained after 3 h treatment of oryzalin. Second, we measured the cell growth rates with and without the treatment of oryzalin. In young growing cells treated with 10 micromol/L oryzalin, the elongation rates were inhibited obviously. When the oryzalin was removed, the elongation rates could be recovered to some extent. Interestingly, a time-gap existed between microtubule disassembly (40 min) and cessation of cell elongation (100 min). Our data confirmed the evidence that MTs are involved in cell elongation.

  16. Elastocaloric effect dependence on pre-elongation in natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongjian; Sebald, Gael; Guyomar, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    In the context of solid-state-cooling, the elastocaloric effect offers a very large controlled entropy change based in low-cost polymers, especially natural rubber which is environmentally friendly. However, large elastocaloric activity requires large elongation (>5), which makes this material impractical for cooling systems due to the large change in sample's area. By performing a pre-elongation, area change is limited, and β = - ∂ γ / ∂ λ (where γ is the specific entropy and λ is the elongation) is larger. The highest β value is obtained when pre-elongation is right before (at the "eve") the onset of the strain-induced crystallization, which is also interpreted in the view of molecular conformation. Experimental results obtained on a natural rubber sample showed an adiabatic temperature change of 4.3 °C for pre-elongation of 4 with further elongation of 4 (true strain change of 69%). Furthermore, the entropy exhibits a quasi-linear dependence on elongation, and the β value is found to be 6400 J K-1 m-3.

  17. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  18. Analysis of perspective elongation for sodium laser guide star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Tianjiang; Zhou, Wenchao; Yan, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optical systems become an established technique at telescope facilities with large apertures. At these aperture diameters, such as 8m class telescope facilities, the finite distance and vertical extend of an artificial excited guide star result in perspective elongation, which produces errors in wave-front reconstruction and could influence the performance of adaptive optical systems seriously. In this paper, we shall briefly introduce and explain the effect of the perspective elongation, and show some results of theoretical simulation and experiment. First of all, we analyzed how the perspective elongation of sodium LGS changes, and gave the results of simulation which indicated the relation between the perspective elongation and some related parameters. The aberration caused by the elongation was analyzed, and the possibility of aberration correction was discussed. Based on the results of the theoretical simulation, we designed an experiment to observe the perspective elongation. A transmitting and receiving system has been set up. The system consisted of a 300mJ sodium LGS laser, a telescope with an aperture diameter of 450mm, a beam expander with an aperture diameter of 200mm, a LGS detecting device, etc. Based on the pulsed laser and the mobile LGS projector, we operated the experiment at different distance between the telescope and the laser projector. A series of elongated images, corresponding the distance from 5m to 30m, was obtained. The analytic results of the image data agreed with the theoretical simulation. Based on the experimental data, we deduced the aberration of wave-front at 30m separation. According to theoretical simulation of the perspective elongation, the effects including the aberration of wave-front could be achieved, which had been partially verified in the experiment. We suggest that one could improve the reconstruction accuracy in a sodium or Rayleigh LGS adaptive optical system by eliminating the influence of

  19. Growth and development of Brassica genotypes differing in endogenous gibberellin content. I. Leaf and reproductive development.

    PubMed

    Zanewich, K P; Rood, S B; Williams, P H

    1990-08-01

    Leaf and reproductive development were compared in 3 rapid cycling Brassica rapa genotypes grown for 4 weeks under greenhouse conditions. The dwarf mutant, rosette (ros), is gibberellin (GA)-deficient, while the tall mutant, elongated internode (ein), has enhanced endogenous GA levels. Germination was delayed in ros and a selection of a more severe form of ros, named dormant (do), has even more retarded germination and some seeds entirely fail to germinate. Seeds of do and ros respond to exogenous GA, by rapid germination. The 3 genotypes, ros, normal and ein, displayed similar developmental sequences, although floral bud formation and subsequent floral development and anthesis were delayed in ros. Conversely, anthesis was slightly accelerated in ein. Individual leaf areas were reduced in both ros and ein relative to the normal genotype, but leaf numbers were similar in all 3 genotypes. Differences in leaf morphology (heterophylly) were also observed; the normal genotype and ein plants possessed uniform leaf shapes and relatively smooth leaf margins, although petiole length was increased in ein. The mutant ros had scalloped leaf margins and convoluted leaf blades in addition to shortened petioles. These phenotypes suggest a role for GA in the regulation of germination and reproductive and leaf development in Brassica.

  20. Control of Transcriptional Elongation by RNA Polymerase II: A Retrospective.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Kris; Bentley, David L

    2012-01-01

    The origins of our current understanding of control of transcription elongation lie in pioneering experiments that mapped RNA polymerase II on viral and cellular genes. These studies first uncovered the surprising excess of polymerase molecules that we now know to be situated at the at the 5' ends of most genes in multicellular organisms. The pileup of pol II near transcription start sites reflects a ubiquitous bottle-neck that limits elongation right at the start of the transcription elongation. Subsequent seminal work identified conserved protein factors that positively and negatively control the flux of polymerase through this bottle-neck, and make a major contribution to control of gene expression. PMID:22567377

  1. Pausing on Polyribosomes: Make Way for Elongation in Translational Control.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel D; Coller, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    Among the three phases of mRNA translation-initiation, elongation, and termination-initiation has traditionally been considered to be rate limiting and thus the focus of regulation. Emerging evidence, however, demonstrates that control of ribosome translocation (polypeptide elongation) can also be regulatory and indeed exerts a profound influence on development, neurologic disease, and cell stress. The correspondence of mRNA codon usage and the relative abundance of their cognate tRNAs is equally important for mediating the rate of polypeptide elongation. Here, we discuss recent results showing that ribosome pausing is a widely used mechanism for controlling translation and, as a result, biological transitions in health and disease.

  2. Chromatin modification by the RNA Polymerase II elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Tanny, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) involves the coordinated action of numerous regulatory factors. Among these are chromatin-modifying enzymes, which generate a stereotypic and conserved pattern of histone modifications along transcribed genes. This pattern implies a precise coordination between regulators of histone modification and the RNAP II elongation complex. Here I review the pathways and molecular events that regulate co-transcriptional histone modifications. Insight into these events will illuminate the assembly of functional RNAP II elongation complexes and how the chromatin landscape influences their composition and function. PMID:25494544

  3. Leaf hydraulic architecture correlates with regeneration irradiance in tropical rainforest trees.

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Tyree, Melvin T; Holbrook, N Michele

    2005-08-01

    The leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) is a major determinant of plant water transport capacity. Here, we measured K(leaf), and its basis in the resistances of leaf components, for fully illuminated leaves of five tree species that regenerate in deep shade, and five that regenerate in gaps or clearings, in Panamanian lowland tropical rainforest. We also determined coordination with stomatal characters and leaf mass per area. K(leaf) varied 10-fold across species, and was 3-fold higher in sun- than in shade-establishing species. On average, 12% of leaf hydraulic resistance (= 1/K(leaf)) was located in the petiole, 25% in the major veins, 25% in the minor veins, and 39% outside the xylem. Sun-establishing species had a higher proportion of leaf resistance in the xylem. Across species, component resistances correlated linearly with total leaf resistance. K(leaf) correlated tightly with indices of stomatal pore area, indicating a coordination of liquid- and vapor-phase conductances shifted relative to that of temperate woody species. Leaf hydraulic properties are integrally linked in the complex of traits that define differences in water use and carbon economy across habitats and vegetation zones.

  4. Damped leaf flexure hinge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong; Chen, Guisheng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Flexure-based mechanism like compliant actuation system embeds complex dynamics that will reduce the control bandwidth and limits their dynamic positioning precision. This paper presents a theoretical model of a leaf flexure hinge with damping layers using strain energy method and Kelvin damping model. The modified loss factor of the damped leaf flexure hinge is derived, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the damped leaf hinge is obtained, which could be used to improve the pseudo-rigid-model. The free vibration signals of the hinge in three different damping configurations are measured. The experimental modal analysis also is performed on the three kinds of damped leaf flexure hinges in order to evaluate their 1st order bending natural frequency and vibration-suppressing effects. The evaluation of modified loss factor model also is performed. The experimental results indicate that the constrained layer damping can enhance the structure damping of the hinge even if only single damping layer each side, the modified loss factor model can get good predicts of a damped leaf flexure hinge in the frequency range below 1st order natural frequency, and it is necessary that the dimensional parameters of the damping layers and basic layer of the hinge should be optimized for simplification at the mechanism's design stage.

  5. Damped leaf flexure hinge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Chen, Guisheng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Flexure-based mechanism like compliant actuation system embeds complex dynamics that will reduce the control bandwidth and limits their dynamic positioning precision. This paper presents a theoretical model of a leaf flexure hinge with damping layers using strain energy method and Kelvin damping model. The modified loss factor of the damped leaf flexure hinge is derived, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the damped leaf hinge is obtained, which could be used to improve the pseudo-rigid-model. The free vibration signals of the hinge in three different damping configurations are measured. The experimental modal analysis also is performed on the three kinds of damped leaf flexure hinges in order to evaluate their 1st order bending natural frequency and vibration-suppressing effects. The evaluation of modified loss factor model also is performed. The experimental results indicate that the constrained layer damping can enhance the structure damping of the hinge even if only single damping layer each side, the modified loss factor model can get good predicts of a damped leaf flexure hinge in the frequency range below 1st order natural frequency, and it is necessary that the dimensional parameters of the damping layers and basic layer of the hinge should be optimized for simplification at the mechanism's design stage. PMID:26026549

  6. Salt stress response triggers activation of the jasmonate signaling pathway leading to inhibition of cell elongation in Arabidopsis primary root.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Camilo E; Acevedo-Acevedo, Orlando; Miranda, Giovanna S; Vergara-Barros, Pablo; Holuigue, Loreto; Figueroa, Carlos R; Figueroa, Pablo M

    2016-07-01

    Salinity is a severe abiotic stress that affects irrigated croplands. Jasmonate (JA) is an essential hormone involved in plant defense against herbivory and in responses to abiotic stress. However, the relationship between the salt stress response and the JA pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana is not well understood at molecular and cellular levels. In this work we investigated the activation of JA signaling by NaCl and its effect on primary root growth. We found that JA-responsive JAZ genes were up-regulated by salt stress in a COI1-dependent manner in the roots. Using a JA-Ile sensor we demonstrated that activation of JA signaling by salt stress occurs in the meristematic zone and stele of the differentiation zone and that this activation was dependent on JAR1 and proteasome functions. Another finding is that the elongation zone (EZ) and its cortical cells were significantly longer in JA-related mutants (AOS, COI1, JAZ3 and MYC2/3/4 genes) compared with wild-type plants under salt stress, revealing the participation of the canonical JA signaling pathway. Noteworthy, osmotic stress - a component of salt stress - inhibited cell elongation in the EZ in a COI1-dependent manner. We propose that salt stress triggers activation of the JA signaling pathway followed by inhibition of cell elongation in the EZ. We have shown that salt-inhibited root growth partially involves the jasmonate signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. PMID:27217545

  7. Shear of ordinary and elongated granular mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Alexander; Kern, Matthew; Marschall, Theodore; Teitel, Stephen; Franklin, Scott

    2015-03-01

    We present an experimental and computational study of a mixture of discs and moderate aspect-ratio ellipses under two-dimensional annular planar Couette shear. Experimental particles are cut from acrylic sheet, are essentially incompressible, and constrained in the thin gap between two concentric cylinders. The annular radius of curvature is much larger than the particles, and so the experiment is quasi-2d and allows for arbitrarily large pure-shear strains. Synchronized video cameras and software identify all particles and track them as they move from the field of view of one camera to another. We are particularly interested in the global and local properties as the mixture ratio of discs to ellipses varies. Global quantities include average shear rate and distribution of particle species as functions of height, while locally we investigate the orientation of the ellipses and non-affine events that can be characterized as shear transformational zones or possess a quadrupole signature observed previously in systems of purely circular particles. Discrete Element Method simulations on mixtures of circles and spherocylinders extend the study to the dynamics of the force network and energy dissipated as the system evolves. Supported by NSF CBET #1243571 and PRF #51438-UR10.

  8. Direct Characterization of Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase I

    PubMed Central

    Ucuncuoglu, Suleyman; Engel, Krysta L.; Purohit, Prashant K.; Dunlap, David D.; Schneider, David A.

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcribes ribosomal DNA and is responsible for more than 60% of transcription in a growing cell. Despite this fundamental role that directly impacts cell growth and proliferation, the kinetics of transcription by Pol I are poorly understood. This study provides direct characterization of S. Cerevisiae Pol I transcription elongation using tethered particle microscopy (TPM). Pol I was shown to elongate at an average rate of approximately 20 nt/s. However, the maximum speed observed was, in average, about 60 nt/s, comparable to the rate calculated based on the in vivo number of active genes, the cell division rate and the number of engaged polymerases observed in EM images. Addition of RNA endonucleases to the TPM elongation assays enhanced processivity. Together, these data suggest that additional transcription factors contribute to efficient and processive transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I in vivo. PMID:27455049

  9. Direct Characterization of Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Ucuncuoglu, Suleyman; Engel, Krysta L; Purohit, Prashant K; Dunlap, David D; Schneider, David A; Finzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcribes ribosomal DNA and is responsible for more than 60% of transcription in a growing cell. Despite this fundamental role that directly impacts cell growth and proliferation, the kinetics of transcription by Pol I are poorly understood. This study provides direct characterization of S. Cerevisiae Pol I transcription elongation using tethered particle microscopy (TPM). Pol I was shown to elongate at an average rate of approximately 20 nt/s. However, the maximum speed observed was, in average, about 60 nt/s, comparable to the rate calculated based on the in vivo number of active genes, the cell division rate and the number of engaged polymerases observed in EM images. Addition of RNA endonucleases to the TPM elongation assays enhanced processivity. Together, these data suggest that additional transcription factors contribute to efficient and processive transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I in vivo. PMID:27455049

  10. Morphological and Chemical Mechanisms of Elongated Mineral Particle Toxicities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of our understanding regarding the mechanisms for induction of disease following inhalation of respirable elongated mineral particles (REMPs) is based on studies involving the biological effects of asbestos fibers. The factors governing the disease potential of an exposure i...

  11. Amyloid-Like Fibril Elongation Follows Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Milto, Katazyna; Botyriute, Akvile; Smirnovas, Vytautas

    2013-01-01

    A number of proteins can aggregate into amyloid-like fibrils. It was noted that fibril elongation has similarities to an enzymatic reaction, where monomers or oligomers would play a role of substrate and nuclei/fibrils would play a role of enzyme. The question is how similar these processes really are. We obtained experimental data on insulin amyloid-like fibril elongation at the conditions where other processes which may impact kinetics of fibril formation are minor and fitted it using Michaelis-Menten equation. The correlation of the fit is very good and repeatable. It speaks in favour of enzyme-like model of fibril elongation. In addition, obtained and values at different conditions may help in better understanding influence of environmental factors on the process of fibril elongation. PMID:23874721

  12. Prevalence of Elongated Styloid Process in a Central Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marçal; Morais, Sylvania De; Musis, Carlo Ralph De; Albuquerque, Paulo Artur Andrade De; Borges, Álvaro Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Eagle’s syndrome comprises a rare disorder caused by compression of an elongated or deformed styloid process or ossified/calcified stylohyoid ligament on neural and vascular structures. It is characterized by facial and neck pain and can be confused with a wide variety of facial neuralgias, oral and dental diseases and temporomandibular disorders. An imaging evaluation associated with a careful clinical examination, are mandatory in structuring a correct differential diagnosis and in the establishment of a proper therapeutic protocol. Aim To investigate the prevalence of the elongated styloid process in a Central Brazilian population and its relation to gender, age and side. Materials and Methods Digital panoramic radiographs of 736 patients (412 female and 324 male, with a mean age of 35.03 years) were consecutively selected from a private radiology clinic’s secondary database. The apparent length of the styloid process was measured from the point where the styloid left the tympanic plate to the tip of the process by two specialists in dental radiology, with the help of the measuring tools on the accompanying software. Styloid process measuring more than 30 mm was considered elongated. The statistical analysis included frequency distribution and cross tabulation. The data were analysed by using Chi-squared tests. The level of significance was set at 5% for all analyses. Results A total of 323 (43.89%) radiographic images were suggestive of elongated styloid process. No statistically significant difference was found between the genders, although a higher prevalence was noticed in female participants. Approximately, 31% of the elongated styloid process was observed in 18-53-year-old participants (p < 0.05). Two hundred and sixty seven styloid processes (36.28%) were elongated on both right and left sides. Conclusion The prevalence of elongated styloid process was high and no statistically significant correlation was found between the presence of

  13. The shape of a long leaf

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Haiyi; Mahadevan, L.

    2009-01-01

    Long leaves in terrestrial plants and their submarine counterparts, algal blades, have a typical, saddle-like midsurface and rippled edges. To understand the origin of these morphologies, we dissect leaves and differentially stretch foam ribbons to show that these shapes arise from a simple cause, the elastic relaxation via bending that follows either differential growth (in leaves) or differential stretching past the yield point (in ribbons). We quantify these different modalities in terms of a mathematical model for the shape of an initially flat elastic sheet with lateral gradients in longitudinal growth. By using a combination of scaling concepts, stability analysis, and numerical simulations, we map out the shape space for these growing ribbons and find that as the relative growth strain is increased, a long flat lamina deforms to a saddle shape and/or develops undulations that may lead to strongly localized ripples as the growth strain is localized to the edge of the leaf. Our theory delineates the geometric and growth control parameters that determine the shape space of finite laminae and thus allows for a comparative study of elongated leaf morphology. PMID:19966215

  14. Seasonal development of leaf area in a young, widely spaced Pinus radiata D. Don stand.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, David; Kelliher, Francis M.; Frampton, Chris M.; Godfrey, Martin J. S.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of needle elongation and needle death were made at two-week intervals during a year on 250 branch units spread throughout the crowns of six trees (three high-pruned, three low-pruned) in a widely spaced, 6- to 7-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in New Zealand. The trees were well supplied with nutrients and water. During the year, mean tree height increased by 1.2 m and the cross-sectional area of stem below the green crown (used to predict leaf area) for the average tree increased from 8.7 x 10(3) to 13.9 x 10(3) mm(2). The increase in stem cross-sectional area occurred throughout the year except for two months in early winter (May and June). Elongation of Age 0 needles began in Spring (October), continued through summer, and the mean date for 95% completion of elongation was in autumn (early May), approximately 200 days after elongation began. Mean maximum needle length in the canopy decreased with increasing branch order and was 136 and 94 mm for Order 1 and Order 3 units, respectively. Needle elongation was related to thermal time, using growing degree days with a base temperature of 6 degrees C. The mean maximum rate of needle elongation in the canopy was 0.11 m ( degrees C day)(-1) and this occurred in early summer (mid-December), 47 days after elogation started. Maximum needle length and the rate of elongation increased, and the time taken to reach 95% elongation decreased with increasing height in the canopy. A smaller autumn flush of needles started in summer (January) and the needles elongated linearly at a mean rate of 0.07 mm ( degrees C day)(-1) until the end of the growing season when temperatures fell below the base value. At the end of the year, the mean length of needles from the autumn flush was 66 mm. The density of needles did not change with height in the canopy and there were no significant changes seasonally. The mean density values for Age 1 and Age 0 needles were 336 and 286 kg m(-3), respectively. Dry weight per unit

  15. Ethylene-Induced Leaf Abscission in Cotton Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Suttle, Jeffrey C.; Hultstrand, Julie F.

    1991-01-01

    The speed of ethylene-induced leaf abscission in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv LG-102) seedlings is dependent on leaf position (i.e. physiological age). Fumigation of intact seedlings for 18 hours with 10 microliters per liter of ethylene resulted in 40% abscission of the still-expanding third true (3°) leaves but had no effect on the fully expanded first true (1°) leaves. After 42 hours of fumigation with 50 microliters per liter of ethylene, total abscission of the 3° leaves occurred while <50% abscission of the 1° leaves was observed. On a leaf basis, endogenous levels of free IAA in 1° leaves were approximately twice those of 3° leaves. Free IAA levels were reduced equally (approximately 55%) in both leaf types after 18 hours of ethylene (10 microliters per liter) treatment. Ethylene treatment of intact seedlings inhibited the basipetal movement of [14C]IAA in petiole segments isolated from both leaf types in a dose-dependent manner. The auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the rate and extent of ethylene-induced leaf abscission at both leaf positions but did not alter the relative pattern of abscission. Abscission-zone explants prepared from 3° leaves abscised faster than 1° leaf explants when exposed to ethylene. Ethyleneinduced abscission of 3° explants was not appreciably inhibited by exogenous IAA while 1° explants exhibited a pronounced and protracted inhibition. The synthetic auxins 2,4-D and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid completely inhibited ethylene-induced abscission of both 1° and 3° explants for 40 hours. It is proposed that the differential abscission response of cotton seedling leaves is primarily a result of the limited abscission-inhibiting effects of IAA in the abscission zone of the younger leaves. PMID:16667967

  16. Fatty acid elongation in yeast--biochemical characteristics of the enzyme system and isolation of elongation-defective mutants.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, F; Zajonc, D; Hühne, K; Hoja, U; Ekici, A; Greiner, E; Klein, H; Hofmann, J; Bessoule, J J; Sperling, P; Schweizer, E

    1998-03-15

    Elongation of long-chain fatty acids was investigated in yeast mutants lacking endogenous de novo fatty acid synthesis. In this background, in vitro fatty acid elongation was dependent strictly on the substrates malonyl-CoA, NADPH and a medium-chain or long-chain acyl-CoA primer of 10 or more carbon atoms. Maximal activity was observed with primers containing 12-14 carbon atoms, while shorter-chain-length acyl-CoA were almost (octanoyl-CoA) or completely (hexanoyl-CoA, acetyl-CoA) inactive. In particular, acetyl-CoA was inactive as a primer and as extender unit. The Michaelis constants for octanoyl-CoA (0.33 mM), decanoyl-CoA (0.83 mM) lauroyl-CoA (0.05 mM), myristoyl-CoA (0.4 mM) and palmitoyl-CoA (0.13 mM) were determined and were comparable for fatty acid synthesis and elongation. In contrast, the affinity of malonyl-CoA was 17-fold lower for elongation (Km = 0.13 mM) than for the fatty acid synthase (FAS) system. With increasing chain length of the primer (> or = 12:0), fatty acid elongation becomes increasingly sensitive to substrate inhibition. Due to the activation of endogenous fatty acids, ATP exhibits a stimulatory effect at suboptimal but not at saturating substrate concentrations. In the yeast cell homogenate, the specific activity of fatty acid elongation is about 10-20-fold lower than that of de novo fatty acid synthesis. The same elongation activity is observed in respiratory competent and in mitochondrially defective cells. The products of in vitro fatty acid elongation are fatty acids of 15-17 or 22-26 carbon atoms, depending on whether tridecanoyl-CoA or stearoyl-CoA is used as a primer. In vitro, the elongation products are converted in part, by alpha-oxidation, to their odd-chain-length lower homologues or are hydrolyzed to fatty acids. In contrast, no odd-chain-length elongation products or very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) shorter than 26:0 are observed in vivo. Hence, VLCFA synthesis exhibits a higher processivity in vivo than in the cell

  17. Studies on the mechanism of cell elongation in Blepharisma japonicum I. A physiological mechanism how light stimulation evokes cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Ishida, M; Shigenaka, Y; Taneda, K

    1989-10-27

    In a heterotrichous ciliate, Blepharisma japonicum, longitudinal elongation of the cell body is induced by light stimulation (1000 to 3000 lux). This light-induced response was inhibited under the existence of cyclic mononucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) antagonists such as papaverine (10(-4)M), theophylline (10(-3) M), dibutyril-cAMP (10(-4)M), 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (10(-4) M) and dibutyril-cGMP (10(-4) M). Microinjection of cyclic mononucleotides, especially cGMP, inhibited cell elongation. These observations suggest that the cell elongation was mediated by intracellular cyclic mononucleotide. K(+) specific ionophore valinomycin (10(-8)-10(-7) M) enhanced light-induced cell elongation. This effect of valinomycin became more remarkable when valinomycin coexisted with PDE antagonists, while it was diminished under high K+ conditions. Moreover, the K(+) channel blockers tetraethylammonium (TEA) and CsCl inhibited cell elongation. These observations suggest that the cell elongation is also mediated by K(+) hyperpolarization, and that this electrical change is probably elicited after the intracellular concentration of cyclic mononucleotide decreased.

  18. Ethylene regulates fast apoplastic acidification and expansin A transcription during submergence-induced petiole elongation in Rumex palustris.

    PubMed

    Vreeburg, Robert A M; Benschop, Joris J; Peeters, Anton J M; Colmer, Timothy D; Ammerlaan, Ankie H M; Staal, Marten; Elzenga, Theo M; Staals, Raymond H J; Darley, Catherine P; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J

    2005-08-01

    The semi-aquatic dicot Rumex palustris responds to complete submergence by enhanced elongation of young petioles. This elongation of petiole cells brings leaf blades above the water surface, thus reinstating gas exchange with the atmosphere and increasing survival in flood-prone environments. We already know that an enhanced internal level of the gaseous hormone ethylene is the primary signal for underwater escape in R. palustris. Further downstream, concentration changes in abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA) and auxin are required to gain fast cell elongation under water. A prerequisite for cell elongation in general is cell wall loosening mediated by proteins such as expansins. Expansin genes might, therefore, be important target genes in submergence-induced and plant hormone-mediated petiole elongation. To test this hypothesis we have studied the identity, kinetics and regulation of expansin A mRNA abundance and protein activity, as well as examined pH changes in cell walls associated with this adaptive growth. We found a novel role of ethylene in triggering two processes affecting cell wall loosening during submergence-induced petiole elongation. First, ethylene was shown to promote fast net H(+) extrusion, leading to apoplastic acidification. Secondly, ethylene upregulates one expansin A gene (RpEXPA1), as measured with real-time RT-PCR, out of a group of 13 R. palustris expansin A genes tested. Furthermore, a significant accumulation of expansin proteins belonging to the same size class as RpEXPA1, as well as a strong increase in expansin activity, were apparent within 4-6 h of submergence. Regulation of RpEXPA1 transcript levels depends on ethylene action and not on GA and ABA, demonstrating that ethylene evokes at least three, parallel operating pathways that, when integrated at the whole petiole level, lead to coordinated underwater elongation. The first pathway involves ethylene-modulated changes in ABA and GA, these acting on as yet unknown downstream

  19. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  20. Bacterial leaf spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

  1. Comparative leaf development in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2014-02-01

    Recent accumulation of our knowledge on basic leaf development mechanisms in model angiosperm species has allowed us to pursue evolutionary development (evo/devo) studies of various kinds of leaf development. As a result, unexpected findings and clues have been unearthed aiding our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the diversity of leaf morphology, although the covered remain limited. In this review, we highlight recent findings of diversified leaf development in angiosperms.

  2. Root-to-shoot signalling when soil moisture is heterogeneous: increasing the proportion of root biomass in drying soil inhibits leaf growth and increases leaf abscisic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vertedor, Ana Isabel; Dodd, Ian C

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether root-to-shoot signalling of soil moisture heterogeneity depended on root distribution, wild-type (WT) and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient (Az34) barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants were grown in split pots into which different numbers of seminal roots were inserted. After establishment, all plants received the same irrigation volumes, with one pot watered (w) and the other allowed to dry the soil (d), imposing three treatments (1 d: 3 w, 2 d: 2 w, 3 d: 1 w) that differed in the number of seminal roots exposed to drying soil. Root distribution did not affect leaf water relations and had no sustained effect on plant evapotranspiration (ET). In both genotypes, leaf elongation was less and leaf ABA concentrations were higher in plants with more roots in drying soil, with leaf ABA concentrations and water potentials 30% and 0.2 MPa higher, respectively, in WT plants. Whole-pot soil drying increased xylem ABA concentrations, but maximum values obtained when leaf growth had virtually ceased (100 nm in Az34, 330 nm in WT) had minimal effects (<40% leaf growth inhibition) when xylem supplied to detached shoots. Although ABA may not regulate leaf growth in vivo, genetic variation in foliar ABA concentration in the field may indicate different root distributions between upper (drier) and lower (wetter) soil layers.

  3. Root-to-shoot signalling when soil moisture is heterogeneous: increasing the proportion of root biomass in drying soil inhibits leaf growth and increases leaf abscisic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vertedor, Ana Isabel; Dodd, Ian C

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether root-to-shoot signalling of soil moisture heterogeneity depended on root distribution, wild-type (WT) and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient (Az34) barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants were grown in split pots into which different numbers of seminal roots were inserted. After establishment, all plants received the same irrigation volumes, with one pot watered (w) and the other allowed to dry the soil (d), imposing three treatments (1 d: 3 w, 2 d: 2 w, 3 d: 1 w) that differed in the number of seminal roots exposed to drying soil. Root distribution did not affect leaf water relations and had no sustained effect on plant evapotranspiration (ET). In both genotypes, leaf elongation was less and leaf ABA concentrations were higher in plants with more roots in drying soil, with leaf ABA concentrations and water potentials 30% and 0.2 MPa higher, respectively, in WT plants. Whole-pot soil drying increased xylem ABA concentrations, but maximum values obtained when leaf growth had virtually ceased (100 nm in Az34, 330 nm in WT) had minimal effects (<40% leaf growth inhibition) when xylem supplied to detached shoots. Although ABA may not regulate leaf growth in vivo, genetic variation in foliar ABA concentration in the field may indicate different root distributions between upper (drier) and lower (wetter) soil layers. PMID:21410712

  4. The busiest of all ribosomal assistants: elongation factor Tu.

    PubMed

    Kavaliauskas, Darius; Nissen, Poul; Knudsen, Charlotte R

    2012-04-01

    During translation, the nucleic acid language employed by genes is translated into the amino acid language used by proteins. The translator is the ribosome, while the dictionary employed is known as the genetic code. The genetic information is presented to the ribosome in the form of a mRNA, and tRNAs connect the two languages. Translation takes place in three steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. After a protein has been synthesized, the components of the translation apparatus are recycled. During each phase of translation, the ribosome collaborates with specific translation factors, which secure a proper balance between speed and fidelity. Notably, initiation, termination, and ribosomal recycling occur only once per protein produced during normal translation, while the elongation step is repeated a large number of times, corresponding to the number of amino acids constituting the protein of interest. In bacteria, elongation factor Tu plays a central role during the selection of the correct amino acids throughout the elongation phase of translation. Elongation factor Tu is the main subject of this review. PMID:22409271

  5. CEP120 interacts with CPAP and positively regulates centriole elongation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Nan; Wu, Chien-Ting; Lin, Yu-Chih; Hsu, Wen-Bin; Tang, Chieh-Ju C; Chang, Ching-Wen; Tang, Tang K

    2013-07-22

    Centriole duplication begins with the formation of a single procentriole next to a preexisting centriole. CPAP (centrosomal protein 4.1-associated protein) was previously reported to participate in centriole elongation. Here, we show that CEP120 is a cell cycle-regulated protein that directly interacts with CPAP and is required for centriole duplication. CEP120 levels increased gradually from early S to G2/M and decreased significantly after mitosis. Forced overexpression of either CEP120 or CPAP not only induced the assembly of overly long centrioles but also produced atypical supernumerary centrioles that grew from these long centrioles. Depletion of CEP120 inhibited CPAP-induced centriole elongation and vice versa, implying that these proteins work together to regulate centriole elongation. Furthermore, CEP120 was found to contain an N-terminal microtubule-binding domain, a C-terminal dimerization domain, and a centriolar localization domain. Overexpression of a microtubule binding-defective CEP120-K76A mutant significantly suppressed the formation of elongated centrioles. Together, our results indicate that CEP120 is a CPAP-interacting protein that positively regulates centriole elongation.

  6. An Integrated Approach Reveals Regulatory Controls on Bacterial Translation Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Arvind R.; Zid, Brian M.; O’Shea, Erin K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ribosomes elongate at a non-uniform rate during translation. Theoretical models and experiments disagree on the in vivo determinants of elongation rate and the mechanism by which elongation rate affects protein levels. To resolve this conflict, we measured transcriptome-wide ribosome occupancy under multiple conditions and used it to formulate a whole-cell model of translation in E. coli. Our model predicts that elongation rates at most codons during nutrient-rich growth are not limited by the intracellular concentrations of aminoacyl-tRNAs. However, elongation pausing during starvation for single amino acids is highly sensitive to the kinetics of tRNA aminoacylation. We further show that translation abortion upon pausing accounts for the observed ribosome occupancy along mRNAs during starvation. Abortion reduces global protein synthesis, but it enhances the translation of a subset of mRNAs. These results suggest a regulatory role for aminoacylation and abortion during stress, and our study provides an experimentally-constrained framework for modeling translation. PMID:25416955

  7. Insights on the development, kinetics, and variation of photoinhibition using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of a chilled, variegated leaf.

    PubMed

    Hogewoning, Sander W; Harbinson, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    The effect of chilling on photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was studied in the variegated leaves of Calathea makoyana, in order to gain insight into the causes of chilling-induced photoinhibition. Additionally, a relationship was revealed between (chilling) stress and variation in photosynthesis. Chilling treatments (5 degrees C and 10 degrees C) were performed for different durations (1-7 d) under a moderate irradiance (120 micromol m-2 s-1). The individual leaves were divided into a shaded zone and two illuminated, chilled zones. The leaf tip and sometimes the leaf base were not chilled. Measurements of the dark-adapted Fv/Fm were made on the different leaf zones at the end of the chilling treatment, and then for several days thereafter to monitor recovery. Chilling up to 7 d in the dark did not affect PSII efficiency and visual appearance, whereas chilling in the light caused severe photoinhibition, sometimes followed by leaf necrosis. Photoinhibition increased with the duration of the chilling period, whereas, remarkably, chilling temperature had no effect. In the unchilled leaf tip, photoinhibition also occurred, whereas in the unchilled leaf base it did not. Whatever the leaf zone, photoinhibition became permanent if the mean value dropped below 0.4, although chlorosis and necrosis were associated solely with chilled illuminated tissue. Starch accumulated in the unchilled leaf tip, in contrast to the adjacent chilled irradiated zone. This suggests that photoinhibition was due to a secondary effect in the unchilled leaf tip (sink limitation), whereas it was a direct effect of chilling and irradiance in the chilled illuminated zones. The PSII efficiency and its coefficient of variation showed a unique negative linearity across all leaf zones and different tissue types. The slope of this curve was steeper for chilled leaves than it was for healthy, non-stressed leaves, suggesting that the coefficient of variation may be an important tool for assessing stress in

  8. Insights on the development, kinetics, and variation of photoinhibition using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of a chilled, variegated leaf.

    PubMed

    Hogewoning, Sander W; Harbinson, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    The effect of chilling on photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was studied in the variegated leaves of Calathea makoyana, in order to gain insight into the causes of chilling-induced photoinhibition. Additionally, a relationship was revealed between (chilling) stress and variation in photosynthesis. Chilling treatments (5 degrees C and 10 degrees C) were performed for different durations (1-7 d) under a moderate irradiance (120 micromol m-2 s-1). The individual leaves were divided into a shaded zone and two illuminated, chilled zones. The leaf tip and sometimes the leaf base were not chilled. Measurements of the dark-adapted Fv/Fm were made on the different leaf zones at the end of the chilling treatment, and then for several days thereafter to monitor recovery. Chilling up to 7 d in the dark did not affect PSII efficiency and visual appearance, whereas chilling in the light caused severe photoinhibition, sometimes followed by leaf necrosis. Photoinhibition increased with the duration of the chilling period, whereas, remarkably, chilling temperature had no effect. In the unchilled leaf tip, photoinhibition also occurred, whereas in the unchilled leaf base it did not. Whatever the leaf zone, photoinhibition became permanent if the mean value dropped below 0.4, although chlorosis and necrosis were associated solely with chilled illuminated tissue. Starch accumulated in the unchilled leaf tip, in contrast to the adjacent chilled irradiated zone. This suggests that photoinhibition was due to a secondary effect in the unchilled leaf tip (sink limitation), whereas it was a direct effect of chilling and irradiance in the chilled illuminated zones. The PSII efficiency and its coefficient of variation showed a unique negative linearity across all leaf zones and different tissue types. The slope of this curve was steeper for chilled leaves than it was for healthy, non-stressed leaves, suggesting that the coefficient of variation may be an important tool for assessing stress in

  9. Three Cases of Elongated Mandibular Coronoid Process with Different Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Ilguy, Mehmet; Kursoglu, Pinar; Ilguy, Dilhan

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal elongation of the mandibular coronoid process is rare and its etiology is not yet elucidated. The aim of this report is to demonstrate and discuss the relationship between elongated mandibular coronoid process and limitation of mouth opening with cone beam computed tomography. Although the clinical characteristic of elongation of the coronoid process is mandibular limitation, in this report, one case had problem with mouth opening. Axial scans revealed that the distance between the coronoid process and the inner face of the frontal part of the zygomatic bone may cause limitation in mouth opening. In conclusion, instead of the length, the distance between the coronoid process and the inner face of the frontal part of the zygomatic bone may be the actual reason for limitation of mouth opening. This may prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:24693298

  10. Wnt5a is essential for intestinal elongation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, Sara; Yamaguchi, Terry P.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Summary Morphogenesis of the mammalian small intestine entails extensive elongation and folding of the primitive gut into a tightly coiled digestive tube. Surprisingly, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate the morphological aspects of small intestine formation. Here, we demonstrate that Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt family of secreted proteins, is essential for the development and elongation of the small intestine from the midgut region. We found that the small intestine in mice lacking Wnt5a was dramatically shortened and duplicated, forming a bifurcated lumen instead of a single tube. In addition, cell proliferation was reduced and re-intercalation of post-mitotic cells into the elongating gut tube epithelium was disrupted. Thus, our study demonstrates that Wnt5a functions as a critical regulator of midgut formation and morphogenesis in mammals. PMID:19100728

  11. An Elongated Tetrakaidecahedron Model for Open-Celled Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2007-01-01

    A micro-mechanics model for non-isotropic, open-celled foams is developed using an elongated tetrakaidecahedron (Kelvin model) as the repeating unit cell. The micro-mechanics model employs an elongated Kelvin model geometry which is more general than that employed by previous authors. Assuming the cell edges possess axial and bending rigidity, the mechanics of deformation of the elongated tetrakaidecahedron lead to a set of equations for the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and strength of the foam in the principal material directions. These equations are written as a function of the cell edge lengths and cross-section properties, the inclination angle and the strength and stiffness of the solid material. The model is applied to predict the strength and stiffness of several polymeric foams. Good agreement is observed between the model results and the experimental measurements.

  12. Elongate summit calderas as Neogene paleostress indicators in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulsen, T.S.; Wilson, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    The orientations and ages of elongate summit calderas on major polygenetic volcanoes were compiled to document Miocene to Pleistocene Sh (minimum horizontal stress) directions on the western and northern flanks of the West Antarctic rift system. Miocene to Pleistocene summit calderas along the western Ross Sea show relatively consistent ENE long axis trends, which are at a high angle to the Transantarctic Mountain Front and parallel to the N77ºE Sh direction at Cape Roberts. The elongation directions of many Miocene to Pleistocene summit calderas in Marie Byrd Land parallel the alignment of polygenetic volcanoes in which they occur, except several Pleistocene calderas with consistent NNE to NE trends. The overall pattern of elongate calderas in Marie Byrd Land is probably due to a combination of structurally controlled orientations and regional stress fields in which Sh is oriented NNE to NE at a moderate to high angle to the trace of the West Antarctic rift system.

  13. A ratchet mechanism of transcription elongation and its control.

    PubMed

    Bar-Nahum, Gil; Epshtein, Vitaly; Ruckenstein, Andrei E; Rafikov, Ruslan; Mustaev, Arkady; Nudler, Evgeny

    2005-01-28

    RNA chain elongation is a highly processive and accurate process that is finely regulated by numerous intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Here we describe a general mechanism that governs RNA polymerase (RNAP) movement and response to regulatory inputs such as pauses, terminators, and elongation factors. We show that E.coli RNAP moves by a complex Brownian ratchet mechanism, which acts prior to phosphodiester bond formation. The incoming substrate and the flexible F bridge domain of the catalytic center serve as two separate ratchet devices that function in concert to drive forward translocation. The adjacent G loop domain controls F bridge motion, thus keeping the proper balance between productive and inactive states of the elongation complex. This balance is critical for cell viability since it determines the rate, processivity, and fidelity of transcription.

  14. Bilateral elongated mandibular coronoid process in an Anatolian skull

    PubMed Central

    Çorumlu, Ufuk; Demir, Mehmet Tevfik; Pirzirenli, Mennan Ece

    2016-01-01

    Elongation or hyperplasia of coronoid process of mandible is rare condition characterized by abnormal bone development which cause malocclusion and the limited mouth opening. In this study, in an Anatolian skull, a case of bilateral elongation of mandibular coronoid process was presented. Levandoski panographic analysis was performed on the panoramic radiographie to determine the hyperplasia of the coronoid process. The right condylar process was exactly hyperplastic. The measurements of Kr-Go/Cd-Go were 95.10 mm/79.03 mm on right side and 97.53 mm/87.80 mm on left side. The ratio of Kr-Go/Cd-Go on the right side was 1.20. Elongated coronoid process is one of the factors cause mandibular hypomobility, it as reported here might lead to limited mouth opening. The knowledge of this variation or abnormality can be useful for the radiologist and surgeons and prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:27722017

  15. Break-induced replication and recombinational telomere elongation in yeast.

    PubMed

    McEachern, Michael J; Haber, James E

    2006-01-01

    When a telomere becomes unprotected or if only one end of a chromosomal double-strand break succeeds in recombining with a template sequence, DNA can be repaired by a recombination-dependent DNA replication process termed break-induced replication (BIR). In budding yeasts, there are two BIR pathways, one dependent on the Rad51 recombinase protein and one Rad51 independent; these two repair processes lead to different types of survivors in cells lacking the telomerase enzyme that is required for normal telomere maintenance. Recombination at telomeres is triggered by either excessive telomere shortening or disruptions in the function of telomere-binding proteins. Telomere elongation by BIR appears to often occur through a "roll and spread" mechanism. In this process, a telomeric circle produced by recombination at a dysfunctional telomere acts as a template for a rolling circle BIR event to form an elongated telomere. Additional BIR events can then copy the elongated sequence to all other telomeres.

  16. River Elongation as a Proxy for Lateral Channel Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    Lateral channel movement is a process that is tightly linked to both channel hydraulics and sediment transport, strongly influences floodplain ecology, and also has great relevance for banktop property owners. The correlation between channel migration rate and channel curvature usually causes meandering river channels to elongate as they migrate laterally. Over the long term, the increase in sinuosity is compensated by a rapid decrease in sinuosity where and when river bends shorten through cutoff processes. However, the elongation for most meander bends in systems free to migrate across wide floodplains often occurs relatively uniformly throughout the system. Consequently, the rate of elongation of individual river bends, integrated across a river reach, offers a simple mechanism for characterizing the reach’s lateral activity. Spatial series of accumulated elongation can also be used to delineate reaches with similar properties. We use aerial imagery pairs to compare rates of lateral channel centerline shifting with channel centerline elongation for reaches many bends long along eight different rivers with widths ranging from 12 to 584 m. Except where bends translate downstream without changing form, elongation rates are closely linked to lateral shifting. In several cases, a change in elongation rate corresponds closely with a change in channel width, discharge, and/or bed material. For reaches free to migrate across a wide, unconfined floodplain and where lateral migration measurements are likely of high quality, the average ratio between the reach average migration rate normalized by channel width and the rate of sinuosity increase (excluding bends that experienced a cutoff between imagery dates) is approximately 5.6. Since elongation rate measurements can be made accurately even from photos that are poorly aligned, the relationship between sinuosity increase and lateral migration potentially provides a means of bypassing time-consuming georeferencing

  17. Rotation in Free Fall of Rectangular Wings of Elongated Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupleich, Paul

    1949-01-01

    The present report of Mr. Dupleich is the summary of a very extensive experimental study of the well-known mechanical phenomenon: the rotation in free fall (* air, for instance) of more or less elongated rectangles cut out of paper or pasteboard. This phenomenon, the conditions for existence of which depend chiefly on the elongated of the small plate and its weight per unit area, is essentially an aerodynamic phenomenon and as such, raises questions of a certain interest to our department.We believe that the modern concepts of the mechanics of fluids do not have the range attributed to them.

  18. Actin nucleation and elongation factors: mechanisms and interplay.

    PubMed

    Chesarone, Melissa A; Goode, Bruce L

    2009-02-01

    Cells require actin nucleators to catalyze the de novo assembly of filaments and actin elongation factors to control the rate and extent of polymerization. Nucleation and elongation factors identified to date include Arp2/3 complex, formins, Ena/VASP, and newcomers Spire, Cobl, and Lmod. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding their activities and mechanisms and new evidence for their cooperation and interaction in vivo. Earlier models had suggested that different nucleators function independently to assemble distinct actin arrays. However, more recent observations indicate that the construction of most cellular actin networks depends on the activities of multiple actin assembly-promoting factors working in concert.

  19. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  20. Expression of TWISTED DWARF1 lacking its in-plane membrane anchor leads to increased cell elongation and hypermorphic growth.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Aurélien; Wang, Bangjun; Zwiewka, Marta; Pollmann, Stephan; Schenck, Daniel; Lüthen, Hartwig; Schulz, Alexander; Friml, Jiri; Geisler, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth is achieved predominantly by cellular elongation, which is thought to be controlled on several levels by apoplastic auxin. Auxin export into the apoplast is achieved by plasma membrane efflux catalysts of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) and ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily B/phosphor-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP) classes; the latter were shown to depend on interaction with the FKBP42, TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). Here by using a transgenic approach in combination with phenotypical, biochemical and cell biological analyses we demonstrate the importance of a putative C-terminal in-plane membrane anchor of TWD1 in the regulation of ABCB-mediated auxin transport. In contrast with dwarfed twd1 loss-of-function alleles, TWD1 gain-of-function lines that lack a putative in-plane membrane anchor (HA-TWD1-Ct ) show hypermorphic plant architecture, characterized by enhanced stem length and leaf surface but reduced shoot branching. Greater hypocotyl length is the result of enhanced cell elongation that correlates with reduced polar auxin transport capacity for HA-TWD1-Ct . As a consequence, HA-TWD1-Ct displays higher hypocotyl auxin accumulation, which is shown to result in elevated auxin-induced cell elongation rates. Our data highlight the importance of C-terminal membrane anchoring for TWD1 action, which is required for specific regulation of ABCB-mediated auxin transport. These data support a model in which TWD1 controls lateral ABCB1-mediated export into the apoplast, which is required for auxin-mediated cell elongation.

  1. Vertex-element models for anisotropic growth of elongated plant organs

    PubMed Central

    Fozard, John A.; Lucas, Mikaël; King, John R.; Jensen, Oliver E.

    2013-01-01

    New tools are required to address the challenge of relating plant hormone levels, hormone responses, wall biochemistry and wall mechanical properties to organ-scale growth. Current vertex-based models (applied in other contexts) can be unsuitable for simulating the growth of elongated organs such as roots because of the large aspect ratio of the cells, and these models fail to capture the mechanical properties of cell walls in sufficient detail. We describe a vertex-element model which resolves individual cells and includes anisotropic non-linear viscoelastic mechanical properties of cell walls and cell division whilst still being computationally efficient. We show that detailed consideration of the cell walls in the plane of a 2D simulation is necessary when cells have large aspect ratio, such as those in the root elongation zone of Arabidopsis thaliana, in order to avoid anomalous transverse swelling. We explore how differences in the mechanical properties of cells across an organ can result in bending and how cellulose microfibril orientation affects macroscale growth. We also demonstrate that the model can be used to simulate growth on realistic geometries, for example that of the primary root apex, using moderate computational resources. The model shows how macroscopic root shape can be sensitive to fine-scale cellular geometries. PMID:23847638

  2. Transcription termination factor rho prefers catalytically active elongation complexes for releasing RNA.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Dipak; Chalissery, Jisha; Sen, Ranjan

    2008-07-18

    RNA polymerase pauses at different DNA sequences during transcription elongation, and this pausing is associated with distinct conformational state(s) of the elongation complex (EC). Transcription termination by the termination factor Rho, an RNA-dependent molecular motor, requires pausing of the EC in the termination zone of Rho-dependent terminators. We hypothesized that the conformational state(s) of the EC associated with this pausing would influence the action of Rho. Analyses of the pausing behavior of the EC at the termination points of two well known Rho-dependent terminators revealed that Rho prefers actively transcribing complexes for termination. RNA release kinetics from stalled ECs showed that the rate of RNA release by Rho was reduced if the EC was irreversibly backtracked, if its RNA exit channel was modified by an RNA hairpin, or the bridge helix/trigger loop movement in its active site was perturbed. These defects were overcome significantly by enhancing the rate of ATP hydrolysis either by increasing the concentration of ATP or by using a Rho mutant with higher ATPase activity. We propose that the force generated from ATP hydrolysis of Rho is the key factor in dislodging the EC through its molecular motor action, and this process is facilitated when the EC is in a catalytically competent state, undergoing rapid "Brownian ratchet" motion.

  3. Posterior elongation in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii involves stem cells molecularly related to primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Gazave, Eve; Béhague, Julien; Laplane, Lucie; Guillou, Aurélien; Préau, Laetitia; Demilly, Adrien; Balavoine, Guillaume; Vervoort, Michel

    2013-10-01

    Like most bilaterian animals, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii generates the majority of its body axis in an anterior to posterior temporal progression with new segments added sequentially. This process relies on a posterior subterminal proliferative body region, known as the "segment addition zone" (SAZ). We explored some of the molecular and cellular aspects of posterior elongation in Platynereis, in particular to test the hypothesis that the SAZ contains a specific set of stem cells dedicated to posterior elongation. We cloned and characterized the developmental expression patterns of orthologs of 17 genes known to be involved in the formation, behavior, or maintenance of stem cells in other metazoan models. These genes encode RNA-binding proteins (e.g., tudor, musashi, pumilio) or transcription factors (e.g., myc, id, runx) widely conserved in eumetazoans. Most of these genes are expressed both in the migrating primordial germ cells and in overlapping ring-like patterns in the SAZ, similar to some previously analyzed genes (piwi, vasa). The SAZ patterns are coincident with the expression of proliferation markers cyclin B and PCNA. EdU pulse and chase experiments suggest that new segments are produced through many rounds of divisions from small populations of teloblast-like posterior stem cells. The shared molecular signature between primordial germ cells and posterior stem cells in Platynereis thus corresponds to an ancestral "stemness" program. PMID:23891818

  4. Leaf gas films, underwater photosynthesis and plant species distributions in a flood gradient.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Anders; Visser, Eric J W; Colmer, Timothy D; Brodersen, Klaus P; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Pedersen, Ole

    2016-07-01

    Traits for survival during flooding of terrestrial plants include stimulation or inhibition of shoot elongation, aerenchyma formation and efficient gas exchange. Leaf gas films form on superhydrophobic cuticles during submergence and enhance underwater gas exchange. The main hypothesis tested was that the presence of leaf gas films influences the distribution of plant species along a natural flood gradient. We conducted laboratory experiments and field observations on species distributed along a natural flood gradient. We measured presence or absence of leaf gas films and specific leaf area of 95 species. We also measured, gas film retention time during submergence and underwater net photosynthesis and dark respiration of 25 target species. The presence of a leaf gas film was inversely correlated to flood frequency and duration and reached a maximum value of 80% of the species in the rarely flooded locations. This relationship was primarily driven by grasses that all, independently of their field location along the flood gradient, possess gas films when submerged. Although the present study and earlier experiments have shown that leaf gas films enhance gas exchange of submerged plants, the ability of species to form leaf gas films did not show the hypothesized relationship with species composition along the flood gradient.

  5. Leaf gas films, underwater photosynthesis and plant species distributions in a flood gradient.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Anders; Visser, Eric J W; Colmer, Timothy D; Brodersen, Klaus P; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Pedersen, Ole

    2016-07-01

    Traits for survival during flooding of terrestrial plants include stimulation or inhibition of shoot elongation, aerenchyma formation and efficient gas exchange. Leaf gas films form on superhydrophobic cuticles during submergence and enhance underwater gas exchange. The main hypothesis tested was that the presence of leaf gas films influences the distribution of plant species along a natural flood gradient. We conducted laboratory experiments and field observations on species distributed along a natural flood gradient. We measured presence or absence of leaf gas films and specific leaf area of 95 species. We also measured, gas film retention time during submergence and underwater net photosynthesis and dark respiration of 25 target species. The presence of a leaf gas film was inversely correlated to flood frequency and duration and reached a maximum value of 80% of the species in the rarely flooded locations. This relationship was primarily driven by grasses that all, independently of their field location along the flood gradient, possess gas films when submerged. Although the present study and earlier experiments have shown that leaf gas films enhance gas exchange of submerged plants, the ability of species to form leaf gas films did not show the hypothesized relationship with species composition along the flood gradient. PMID:26846194

  6. Ethylene Inhibits Root Elongation during Alkaline Stress through AUXIN1 and Associated Changes in Auxin Accumulation1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Xu, Heng-Hao; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Soil alkalinity causes major reductions in yield and quality of crops worldwide. The plant root is the first organ sensing soil alkalinity, which results in shorter primary roots. However, the mechanism underlying alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that alkaline conditions inhibit primary root elongation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings by reducing cell division potential in the meristem zones and that ethylene signaling affects this process. The ethylene perception antagonist silver (Ag+) alleviated the inhibition of root elongation by alkaline stress. Moreover, the ethylene signaling mutants ethylene response1-3 (etr1-3), ethylene insensitive2 (ein2), and ein3-1 showed less reduction in root length under alkaline conditions, indicating a reduced sensitivity to alkalinity. Ethylene biosynthesis also was found to play a role in alkaline stress-mediated root inhibition; the ethylene overproducer1-1 mutant, which overproduces ethylene because of increased stability of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASE5, was hypersensitive to alkaline stress. In addition, the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor cobalt (Co2+) suppressed alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. We further found that alkaline stress caused an increase in auxin levels by promoting expression of auxin biosynthesis-related genes, but the increase in auxin levels was reduced in the roots of the etr1-3 and ein3-1 mutants and in Ag+/Co2+-treated wild-type plants. Additional genetic and physiological data showed that AUXIN1 (AUX1) was involved in alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. Taken together, our results reveal that ethylene modulates alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root growth by increasing auxin accumulation by stimulating the expression of AUX1 and auxin biosynthesis-related genes. PMID:26109425

  7. Molecular development of the mid-stage elongating cotton fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is one of the leading natural textile fibers and is the leading value added crop in the USA. The annual business revenue from the cotton industry exceeds $120 billion. The growth of the cotton fiber is divided into four unique, yet overlapping stages; initiation, elongation, secondary w...

  8. FtsZ-Dependent Elongation of a Coccoid Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana R.; Hsin, Jen; Król, Ewa; Tavares, Andreia C.; Flores, Pierre; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Ng, Natalie; Dajkovic, Alex; Brun, Yves V.; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Roemer, Terry; Carballido-Lopez, Rut; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A mechanistic understanding of the determination and maintenance of the simplest bacterial cell shape, a sphere, remains elusive compared with that of more complex shapes. Cocci seem to lack a dedicated elongation machinery, and a spherical shape has been considered an evolutionary dead-end morphology, as a transition from a spherical to a rod-like shape has never been observed in bacteria. Here we show that a Staphylococcus aureus mutant (M5) expressing the ftsZG193D allele exhibits elongated cells. Molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro studies indicate that FtsZG193D filaments are more twisted and shorter than wild-type filaments. In vivo, M5 cell wall deposition is initiated asymmetrically, only on one side of the cell, and progresses into a helical pattern rather than into a constricting ring as in wild-type cells. This helical pattern of wall insertion leads to elongation, as in rod-shaped cells. Thus, structural flexibility of FtsZ filaments can result in an FtsZ-dependent mechanism for generating elongated cells from cocci. PMID:27601570

  9. Fiber elongation-dependent aquaporin expression in different cotton cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber length is an important component to measure cotton yield potential. Many research efforts have focused on development of cotton cultivars with higher fiber quality and yield potential. It is known that genetic diversity exists for fiber elongation. Understanding the genetic and molecular mecha...

  10. Quantitative regulation of FLC via coordinated transcriptional initiation and elongation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhe; Ietswaart, Robert; Liu, Fuquan; Yang, Hongchun; Howard, Martin; Dean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The basis of quantitative regulation of gene expression is still poorly understood. In Arabidopsis thaliana, quantitative variation in expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) influences the timing of flowering. In ambient temperatures, FLC expression is quantitatively modulated by a chromatin silencing mechanism involving alternative polyadenylation of antisense transcripts. Investigation of this mechanism unexpectedly showed that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy changes at FLC did not reflect RNA fold changes. Mathematical modeling of these transcriptional dynamics predicted a tight coordination of transcriptional initiation and elongation. This prediction was validated by detailed measurements of total and chromatin-bound FLC intronic RNA, a methodology appropriate for analyzing elongation rate changes in a range of organisms. Transcription initiation was found to vary ∼25-fold with elongation rate varying ∼8- to 12-fold. Premature sense transcript termination contributed very little to expression differences. This quantitative variation in transcription was coincident with variation in H3K36me3 and H3K4me2 over the FLC gene body. We propose different chromatin states coordinately influence transcriptional initiation and elongation rates and that this coordination is likely to be a general feature of quantitative gene regulation in a chromatin context. PMID:26699513

  11. STRIP BEING REDUCED IN CROSSSECTION AND ELONGATED ON RUNOUT LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STRIP BEING REDUCED IN CROSS-SECTION AND ELONGATED ON RUN-OUT LINE OF #43 HOT MILL. MECHANICAL TRANSFER HAS MOVED INTO POSITION OVER FURNACE DISCHARGE LINE (L) TO RETRIEVE ANOTHER CAKE. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  12. Quadratic elongation: A quantitative measure of distortion in coordination polyhedra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Gibbs, G.V.; Ribbe, P.H.

    1971-01-01

    Quadratic elongation and the variance of bond angles are linearly correlated for distorted octahedral and tetrahedral coordination complexes, both of which show variations in bond length and bond angle. The quadratic elonga tion is dimensionless, giving a quantitative measure of polyhedral distortion which is independent of the effective size of the polyhedron.

  13. Collisional diffusion in toroidal plasmas with elongation and triangularity

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Haines, M. G.

    2007-05-15

    Collisional diffusion is analyzed for plasma tokamaks with different ellipticities and triangularities. Improved nonlinear equations for the families of magnetic surfaces are used here. Dimensionless average velocities are calculated as a function of the inductive electric field, elongation, triangularity, and Shafranov shift. Confinement has been found to depend significantly on triangularity.

  14. Binary asteroid population. 3. Secondary rotations and elongations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, P.; Scheirich, P.; Kušnirák, P.; Hornoch, K.; Galád, A.; Naidu, S. P.; Pray, D. P.; Világi, J.; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Cooney, W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Gaftonyuk, N.; Pollock, J.; Husárik, M.; Chiorny, V.; Stephens, R. D.; Durkee, R.; Reddy, V.; Dyvig, R.; Vraštil, J.; Žižka, J.; Mottola, S.; Hellmich, S.; Oey, J.; Benishek, V.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Higgins, D.; Ries, J.; Marchis, F.; Baek, M.; Macomber, B.; Inasaridze, R.; Kvaratskhelia, O.; Ayvazian, V.; Rumyantsev, V.; Masi, G.; Colas, F.; Lecacheux, J.; Montaigut, R.; Leroy, A.; Brown, P.; Krzeminski, Z.; Molotov, I.; Reichart, D.; Haislip, J.; LaCluyze, A.

    2016-03-01

    We collected data on rotations and elongations of 46 secondaries of binary and triple systems among near-Earth, Mars-crossing and small main belt asteroids. 24 were found or are strongly suspected to be synchronous (in 1:1 spin-orbit resonance), and the other 22, generally on more distant and/or eccentric orbits, were found or are suggested to have asynchronous rotations. For 18 of the synchronous secondaries, we constrained their librational angles, finding that their long axes pointed to within 20° of the primary on most epochs. The observed anti-correlation of secondary synchroneity with orbital eccentricity and the limited librational angles agree with the theories by Ćuk and Nesvorný (Ćuk, M., Nesvorný, D. [2010]. Icarus 207, 732-743) and Naidu and Margot (Naidu, S.P., Margot, J.-L. [2015]. Astron. J. 149, 80). A reason for the asynchronous secondaries being on wider orbits than synchronous ones may be longer tidal circularization time scales at larger semi-major axes. The asynchronous secondaries show relatively fast spins; their rotation periods are typically < 10 h. An intriguing observation is a paucity of chaotic secondary rotations; with an exception of (35107) 1991 VH, the secondary rotations are single-periodic with no signs of chaotic rotation and their periods are constant on timescales from weeks to years. The secondary equatorial elongations show an upper limit of a2 /b2 ∼ 1.5 . The lack of synchronous secondaries with greater elongations appears consistent, considering uncertainties of the axis ratio estimates, with the theory by Ćuk and Nesvorný that predicts large regions of chaotic rotation in the phase space for a2 /b2 ≳√{ 2 } . Alternatively, secondaries may not form or stay very elongated in gravitational (tidal) field of the primary. It could be due to the secondary fission mechanism suggested by Jacobson and Scheeres (Jacobson, S.A., Scheeres, D.J. [2011]. Icarus 214, 161-178), as its efficiency is correlated with the

  15. Effects of current-year and previous-year PPFDs on shoot gross morphology and leaf properties in Fagus japonica.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kyoko; Ishida, Atsushi; Uemura, Akira; Matsumoto, Yoosuke; Terashima, Ichiro

    1998-07-01

    We investigated how shoot gross morphology and leaf properties are determined in Fagus japonica Maxim., a deciduous species with flush-type shoot phenology, in which all leaves are produced in a single flush at the start of each season. We examined relationships between current-year shoot properties and local light environment in a 14-m tall beech tree growing in a deciduous forest. Leaf number (LN), total leaf area (TLA), and total leaf length (SL) of the current-year shoot increased with increasing photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). Leaf thickness, dry mass per leaf area and nitrogen content on a leaf area basis increased, whereas the chlorophyll/N ratio decreased with increasing PPFD. To separate the effects of current-year PPFD from those of previous year(s), we artificially shaded a part of the uppermost leaf tier. Reciprocal transfers of beech seedlings between controlled PPFD regimes were also made. Characteristics of shoot gross morphology such as LN, TLA and SL were largely determined by the PPFD of the previous year. The exception was the length of the longest "long shoots" with many leaves, in which elongation appeared to be influenced by both previous-year and current-year PPFD. In contrast, leaf properties were determined by current-year PPFD. The ecological implications of our findings are discussed.

  16. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; Hoorn, Frans A. van der

    2009-10-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  17. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    proteins that regarded as the main tool for capturing light of plants, implying stem photosynthesis plays a key role during culm elongation due to the unavailability of its leaf. By real-time quantitative PCR, the expression level of 6 unigenes was detected. The results showed the expression level of all genes accorded with the transcriptome data, which confirm the reliability of the transcriptome data. As we know, this is the first study underline the D. sinicus transcriptome, which will deepen the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of culm development. The results may help variety improvement and resource utilization of bamboos. PMID:27304219

  18. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World’s Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    proteins that regarded as the main tool for capturing light of plants, implying stem photosynthesis plays a key role during culm elongation due to the unavailability of its leaf. By real-time quantitative PCR, the expression level of 6 unigenes was detected. The results showed the expression level of all genes accorded with the transcriptome data, which confirm the reliability of the transcriptome data. As we know, this is the first study underline the D. sinicus transcriptome, which will deepen the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of culm development. The results may help variety improvement and resource utilization of bamboos. PMID:27304219

  19. Leaf Dynamics of Panicum maximum under Future Climatic Changes.

    PubMed

    Britto de Assis Prado, Carlos Henrique; Haik Guedes de Camargo-Bortolin, Lívia; Castro, Érique; Martinez, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Panicum maximum Jacq. 'Mombaça' (C4) was grown in field conditions with sufficient water and nutrients to examine the effects of warming and elevated CO2 concentrations during the winter. Plants were exposed to either the ambient temperature and regular atmospheric CO2 (Control); elevated CO2 (600 ppm, eC); canopy warming (+2°C above regular canopy temperature, eT); or elevated CO2 and canopy warming (eC+eT). The temperatures and CO2 in the field were controlled by temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) and mini free-air CO2 enrichment (miniFACE) facilities. The most green, expanding, and expanded leaves and the highest leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaves day(-1)) and leaf elongation rate (LER, cm day(-1)) were observed under eT. Leaf area and leaf biomass were higher in the eT and eC+eT treatments. The higher LER and LAR without significant differences in the number of senescent leaves could explain why tillers had higher foliage area and leaf biomass in the eT treatment. The eC treatment had the lowest LER and the fewest expanded and green leaves, similar to Control. The inhibitory effect of eC on foliage development in winter was indicated by the fewer green, expanded, and expanding leaves under eC+eT than eT. The stimulatory and inhibitory effects of the eT and eC treatments, respectively, on foliage raised and lowered, respectively, the foliar nitrogen concentration. The inhibition of foliage by eC was confirmed by the eC treatment having the lowest leaf/stem biomass ratio and by the change in leaf biomass-area relationships from linear or exponential growth to rectangular hyperbolic growth under eC. Besides, eC+eT had a synergist effect, speeding up leaf maturation. Therefore, with sufficient water and nutrients in winter, the inhibitory effect of elevated CO2 on foliage could be partially offset by elevated temperatures and relatively high P. maximum foliage production could be achieved under future climatic change. PMID:26894932

  20. Leaf Dynamics of Panicum maximum under Future Climatic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Britto de Assis Prado, Carlos Henrique; Haik Guedes de Camargo-Bortolin, Lívia; Castro, Érique; Martinez, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Panicum maximum Jacq. ‘Mombaça’ (C4) was grown in field conditions with sufficient water and nutrients to examine the effects of warming and elevated CO2 concentrations during the winter. Plants were exposed to either the ambient temperature and regular atmospheric CO2 (Control); elevated CO2 (600 ppm, eC); canopy warming (+2°C above regular canopy temperature, eT); or elevated CO2 and canopy warming (eC+eT). The temperatures and CO2 in the field were controlled by temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) and mini free-air CO2 enrichment (miniFACE) facilities. The most green, expanding, and expanded leaves and the highest leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaves day-1) and leaf elongation rate (LER, cm day-1) were observed under eT. Leaf area and leaf biomass were higher in the eT and eC+eT treatments. The higher LER and LAR without significant differences in the number of senescent leaves could explain why tillers had higher foliage area and leaf biomass in the eT treatment. The eC treatment had the lowest LER and the fewest expanded and green leaves, similar to Control. The inhibitory effect of eC on foliage development in winter was indicated by the fewer green, expanded, and expanding leaves under eC+eT than eT. The stimulatory and inhibitory effects of the eT and eC treatments, respectively, on foliage raised and lowered, respectively, the foliar nitrogen concentration. The inhibition of foliage by eC was confirmed by the eC treatment having the lowest leaf/stem biomass ratio and by the change in leaf biomass-area relationships from linear or exponential growth to rectangular hyperbolic growth under eC. Besides, eC+eT had a synergist effect, speeding up leaf maturation. Therefore, with sufficient water and nutrients in winter, the inhibitory effect of elevated CO2 on foliage could be partially offset by elevated temperatures and relatively high P. maximum foliage production could be achieved under future climatic change. PMID:26894932

  1. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  2. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  3. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  4. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  5. Differential Responsiveness of Cortical Microtubule Orientation to Suppression of Cell Expansion among the Developmental Zones of Arabidopsis thaliana Root Apex

    PubMed Central

    Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Daras, Gerasimos; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Rigas, Stamatis

    2013-01-01

    Τhe bidirectional relationship between cortical microtubule orientation and cell wall structure has been extensively studied in elongating cells. Nevertheless, the possible interplay between microtubules and cell wall elements in meristematic cells still remains elusive. Herein, the impact of cellulose synthesis inhibition and suppressed cell elongation on cortical microtubule orientation was assessed throughout the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex by whole-mount tubulin immunolabeling and confocal microscopy. Apart from the wild-type, thanatos and pom2-4 mutants of Cellulose SynthaseA3 and Cellulose Synthase Interacting1, respectively, were studied. Pharmacological and mechanical approaches inhibiting cell expansion were also applied. Cortical microtubules of untreated wild-type roots were predominantly transverse in the meristematic, transition and elongation root zones. Cellulose-deficient mutants, chemical inhibition of cell expansion, or growth in soil resulted in microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone, wherein cell length was significantly decreased. Combinatorial genetic and chemical suppression of cell expansion extended microtubule reorientation to the transition zone. According to the results, transverse cortical microtubule orientation is established in the meristematic root zone, persisting upon inhibition of cell expansion. Microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone could be attributed to conditional suppression of cell elongation. The differential responsiveness of microtubule orientation to genetic and environmental cues is most likely associated with distinct biophysical traits of the cells among each developmental root zone. PMID:24324790

  6. Differential responsiveness of cortical microtubule orientation to suppression of cell expansion among the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex.

    PubMed

    Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Daras, Gerasimos; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Rigas, Stamatis

    2013-01-01

    Τhe bidirectional relationship between cortical microtubule orientation and cell wall structure has been extensively studied in elongating cells. Nevertheless, the possible interplay between microtubules and cell wall elements in meristematic cells still remains elusive. Herein, the impact of cellulose synthesis inhibition and suppressed cell elongation on cortical microtubule orientation was assessed throughout the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex by whole-mount tubulin immunolabeling and confocal microscopy. Apart from the wild-type, thanatos and pom2-4 mutants of Cellulose SynthaseA3 and Cellulose Synthase Interacting1, respectively, were studied. Pharmacological and mechanical approaches inhibiting cell expansion were also applied. Cortical microtubules of untreated wild-type roots were predominantly transverse in the meristematic, transition and elongation root zones. Cellulose-deficient mutants, chemical inhibition of cell expansion, or growth in soil resulted in microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone, wherein cell length was significantly decreased. Combinatorial genetic and chemical suppression of cell expansion extended microtubule reorientation to the transition zone. According to the results, transverse cortical microtubule orientation is established in the meristematic root zone, persisting upon inhibition of cell expansion. Microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone could be attributed to conditional suppression of cell elongation. The differential responsiveness of microtubule orientation to genetic and environmental cues is most likely associated with distinct biophysical traits of the cells among each developmental root zone. PMID:24324790

  7. The control of tomato fruit elongation orchestrated by sun, ovate and fs8.1 in a wild relative of tomato.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Clevenger, Josh P; Sun, Liang; Visa, Sofia; Kamiya, Yuji; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Blakeslee, Joshua; van der Knaap, Esther

    2015-09-01

    Within the cultivated tomato germplasm, sun, ovate and fs8.1 are the three predominant QTLs controlling fruit elongation. Although SUN and OVATE have been cloned, their role in plant growth and development are not well understood. To compare and contrast the effects of the three QTLs in a homogeneous background, we developed near isogenic lines (NILs) in the wild species Solanum pimpinellifolium LA1589 background. We carried out detailed morphological characterization of reproductive and vegetative organs in the single, double and triple NILs and determined the epistatic interactions of the three loci affecting fruit shape. The phenotypic evaluations demonstrated that the three loci regulate unique aspects of ovary and fruit elongation and in different temporal manners. The strongest effect on organ shape was caused by sun. In addition to fruit shape, sun also affected leaf and sepal elongation and stem thickness. The synergistic interaction between sun and ovate or fs8.1 suggested that the pathways involving SUN, OVATE and the gene(s) underlying fs8.1 may converge at a common node. The results of an extensive profiling analysis suggested that the degree of fruit elongation was not related to the accumulation of any of the classical hormones. PMID:26259178

  8. The control of tomato fruit elongation orchestrated by sun, ovate and fs8.1 in a wild relative of tomato.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Clevenger, Josh P; Sun, Liang; Visa, Sofia; Kamiya, Yuji; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Blakeslee, Joshua; van der Knaap, Esther

    2015-09-01

    Within the cultivated tomato germplasm, sun, ovate and fs8.1 are the three predominant QTLs controlling fruit elongation. Although SUN and OVATE have been cloned, their role in plant growth and development are not well understood. To compare and contrast the effects of the three QTLs in a homogeneous background, we developed near isogenic lines (NILs) in the wild species Solanum pimpinellifolium LA1589 background. We carried out detailed morphological characterization of reproductive and vegetative organs in the single, double and triple NILs and determined the epistatic interactions of the three loci affecting fruit shape. The phenotypic evaluations demonstrated that the three loci regulate unique aspects of ovary and fruit elongation and in different temporal manners. The strongest effect on organ shape was caused by sun. In addition to fruit shape, sun also affected leaf and sepal elongation and stem thickness. The synergistic interaction between sun and ovate or fs8.1 suggested that the pathways involving SUN, OVATE and the gene(s) underlying fs8.1 may converge at a common node. The results of an extensive profiling analysis suggested that the degree of fruit elongation was not related to the accumulation of any of the classical hormones.

  9. Are source and sink strengths genetically linked in maize plants subjected to water deficit? A QTL study of the responses of leaf growth and of Anthesis-Silking Interval to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Welcker, C; Boussuge, B; Bencivenni, C; Ribaut, J-M; Tardieu, F

    2007-01-01

    Leaf growth and Anthesis-Silking Interval (ASI) are the main determinants of source and sink strengths of maize via their relations with light interception and yield, respectively. They depend on the abilities of leaves and silks to expand under fluctuating environmental conditions, so the possibility is raised that they may have a partly common genetic determinism. This possibility was tested in a mapping population which segregates for ASI. Maximum leaf elongation rate per unit thermal time (parameter a) and the slopes of its responses to evaporative demand and soil water status (parameters b and c) were measured in greenhouse and growth chamber experiments, in two series of 120 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) studied in 2004 and 2005 with 33 RILs in common both years. ASI was measured in three and five fields under well-watered conditions and water deficit, respectively. For each RIL, the maximum elongation rate per unit thermal time was reproducible over several experiments in well-watered plants. It was accounted for by five QTLs, among which three co-localized with QTLs of ASI of well-watered plants. The alleles conferring high leaf elongation rate conferred a low ASI (high silk elongation rate). The responses of leaf elongation rate to evaporative demand and to predawn leaf water potential were linear, allowing each RIL to be characterized by the slopes of these response curves. These slopes had three QTLs in common with ASI of plants under water deficit. The allele for leaf growth maintenance was, in all cases, that for shorter ASI (maintained silk elongation rate). By contrast, other regions influencing ASI had no influence on leaf growth. These results may have profound consequences for modelling the genotype x environment interaction and for designing drought-tolerant ideotypes.

  10. Quantifying elongation rhythm during full-length protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Gabriel; Chen, Chunlai; Kaur, Jaskiran; Cui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Haibo; Asahara, Haruichi; Chong, Shaorong; Smilansky, Zeev; Goldman, Yale E; Cooperman, Barry S

    2013-07-31

    Pauses regulate the rhythm of ribosomal protein synthesis. Mutations disrupting even minor pauses can give rise to improperly formed proteins and human disease. Such minor pauses are difficult to characterize by ensemble methods, but can be readily examined by single-molecule (sm) approaches. Here we use smFRET to carry out real-time monitoring of the expression of a full-length protein, the green fluorescent protein variant Emerald GFP. We demonstrate significant correlations between measured elongation rates and codon and isoacceptor tRNA usage, and provide a quantitative estimate of the effect on elongation rate of replacing a codon recognizing an abundant tRNA with a synonymous codon cognate to a rarer tRNA. Our results suggest that tRNA selection plays an important general role in modulating the rates and rhythms of protein synthesis, potentially influencing simultaneous co-translational processes such as folding and chemical modification. PMID:23822614

  11. Catalytic effects of elongation factor Ts on polypeptide synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ruusala, Tarmo; Ehrenberg, Måns; Kurland, Charles G.

    1982-01-01

    The kinetic parameters which characterize the interaction between elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts) have been determined in a poly(uridylic acid)-primed translation system. The EF-Ts catalyzed release of GDP from EF-Tu was measured independently in a nucleotide exchange assay. We conclude that the rate-limiting step for the EF-Tu cycle in protein synthesis in the absence of EF-Ts is the release of GDP. By adding EF-Ts the time of this step is reduced from 90 s to 30 ms. Half maximal rate is obtained at an EF-Ts concentration of 2.5 x 10−6 M. PMID:16453409

  12. Elongated solid electrolyte cell configurations and flexible connections therefor

    DOEpatents

    Reichner, Philip

    1989-01-01

    A flexible, high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cell stack configuration is made, comprising a plurality of flattened, elongated, connected cell combinations 1, each cell combination containing an interior electrode 2 having a top surface and a plurality of interior gas feed conduits 3, through its axial length, electrolyte 5 contacting the interior electrode and exterior electrode 8 contacting electrolyte, where a major portion of the air electrode top surface 7 is covered by interconnection material 6, and where each cell has at least one axially elongated, electronically conductive, flexible, porous, metal fiber felt material 9 in electronic connection with the air electrode 2 through contact with a major portion of the interconnection material 6, the metal fiber felt being effective as a shock absorbent body between the cells.

  13. Mapping the Escherichia coli transcription elongation complex with exonuclease III

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaokun; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Summary RNA polymerase interactions with the nucleic acids control every step of the transcription cycle. These contacts mediate RNA polymerase recruitment to promoters; induce pausing during RNA chain synthesis, and control transcription termination. These interactions are dissected using footprinting assays, in which a bound protein protects nucleic acids from the digestion by nucleases or modification by chemical probes. Exonuclease III is frequently employed to study protein-DNA interactions owing to relatively simple procedures and low background. Exonuclease III has been used to determine RNA polymerase position in transcription initiation and elongation complexes and to infer the translocation register of the enzyme. In this chapter, we describe probing the location and the conformation of transcription elongation complexes formed by walking of the RNA polymerase along an immobilized template. PMID:25665555

  14. DNA sequencing by synthesis based on elongation delay detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manturov, Alexey O.; Grigoryev, Anton V.

    2015-03-01

    The one of most important problem in modern genetics, biology and medicine is determination of the primary nucleotide sequence of the DNA of living organisms (DNA sequencing). This paper describes the label-free DNA sequencing approach, based on the observation of a discrete dynamics of DNA sequence elongation phase. The proposed DNA sequencing principle are studied by numerical simulation. The numerical model for proposed label-free DNA sequencing approach is based on a cellular automaton, which can simulate the elongation stage (growth of DNA strands) and dynamics of nucleotides incorporation to rising DNA strand. The estimates for number of copied DNA sequences for required probability of nucleotide incorporation event detection and correct DNA sequence determination was obtained. The proposed approach can be applied at all known DNA sequencing devices with "sequencing by synthesis" principle of operation.

  15. Noise regulation and symmetry breaking during vertebrate body elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emonet, Thierry; Das, Dipjyoti; Holley, Scott A.

    Elongation of the vertebrate body axis is driven by collective cell migration and cell proliferation at the posteriorly advancing embryonic tailbud. Within the Zebrafish tailbud an ordered stream of cells symmetrically bifurcates to form the left and right halves of the presomitic mesoderm. Maintaining bilateral symmetry during this process is critical to avoid catastrophic spine deformation. Using direct comparison between experimental data and a simple model of cell migration we identified the dynamic regulation of the noise in the direction of motion of individual cells as a critical factor in maintaining symmetric cell flow. Genetic perturbations that reduced noise led to body axis deformation whereas an increase in noise led to retarded elongation as predicted by our model.

  16. Elongated solid electrolyte cell configurations and flexible connections therefor

    DOEpatents

    Reichner, P.

    1989-10-17

    A flexible, high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cell stack configuration is made, comprising a plurality of flattened, elongated, connected cell combinations, each cell combination containing an interior electrode having a top surface and a plurality of interior gas feed conduits, through its axial length, electrolyte contacting the interior electrode and exterior electrode contacting electrolyte, where a major portion of the air electrode top surface is covered by interconnection material, and where each cell has at least one axially elongated, electronically conductive, flexible, porous, metal fiber felt material in electronic connection with the air electrode through contact with a major portion of the interconnection material, the metal fiber felt being effective as a shock absorbent body between the cells. 4 figs.

  17. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres.

  18. New Insights on Plant Cell Elongation: A Role for Acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Fornaciari, Silvia; Barozzi, Fabrizio; Piro, Gabriella; Arru, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses we produced protoplasts from tomato elongating hypocotyls and followed the endocytotic marker, FM4-64, internalization in response to treatments. Tomato protoplasts were observed during auxin and acetylcholine treatments after transient expression of chimerical markers of volume-control related compartments such as vacuoles. Here we describe the contribution of auxin and acetylcholine to LeEXPA2 expression regulation and we support the hypothesis that a possible subcellular target of acetylcholine signal is the vesicular transport, shedding some light on the characterization of this small molecule as local mediator in the plant physiological response. PMID:24642879

  19. New insights on plant cell elongation: a role for acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Fornaciari, Silvia; Barozzi, Fabrizio; Piro, Gabriella; Arru, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses we produced protoplasts from tomato elongating hypocotyls and followed the endocytotic marker, FM4-64, internalization in response to treatments. Tomato protoplasts were observed during auxin and acetylcholine treatments after transient expression of chimerical markers of volume-control related compartments such as vacuoles. Here we describe the contribution of auxin and acetylcholine to LeEXPA2 expression regulation and we support the hypothesis that a possible subcellular target of acetylcholine signal is the vesicular transport, shedding some light on the characterization of this small molecule as local mediator in the plant physiological response. PMID:24642879

  20. Neuroprotective Copper Bis(thiosemicarbazonato) Complexes Promote Neurite Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Bica, Laura; Liddell, Jeffrey R.; Donnelly, Paul S.; Duncan, Clare; Caragounis, Aphrodite; Volitakis, Irene; Paterson, Brett M.; Cappai, Roberto; Grubman, Alexandra; Camakaris, James; Crouch, Peter J.; White, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal biometal homeostasis is a central feature of many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and motor neuron disease. Recent studies have shown that metal complexing compounds behaving as ionophores such as clioquinol and PBT2 have robust therapeutic activity in animal models of neurodegenerative disease; however, the mechanism of neuroprotective action remains unclear. These neuroprotective or neurogenerative processes may be related to the delivery or redistribution of biometals, such as copper and zinc, by metal ionophores. To investigate this further, we examined the effect of the bis(thiosemicarbazonato)-copper complex, CuII(gtsm) on neuritogenesis and neurite elongation (neurogenerative outcomes) in PC12 neuronal-related cultures. We found that CuII(gtsm) induced robust neurite elongation in PC12 cells when delivered at concentrations of 25 or 50 nM overnight. Analogous effects were observed with an alternative copper bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complex, CuII(atsm), but at a higher concentration. Induction of neurite elongation by CuII(gtsm) was restricted to neurites within the length range of 75–99 µm with a 2.3-fold increase in numbers of neurites in this length range with 50 nM CuII(gtsm) treatment. The mechanism of neurogenerative action was investigated and revealed that CuII(gtsm) inhibited cellular phosphatase activity. Treatment of cultures with 5 nM FK506 (calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor) resulted in analogous elongation of neurites compared to 50 nM CuII(gtsm), suggesting a potential link between CuII(gtsm)-mediated phosphatase inhibition and neurogenerative outcomes. PMID:24587210

  1. Clamped-filament elongation model for actin-based motors.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Richard B; Purich, Daniel L

    2002-01-01

    Although actin-based motility drives cell crawling and intracellular locomotion of organelles and certain pathogens, the underlying mechanism of force generation remains a mystery. Recent experiments demonstrated that Listeria exhibit episodes of 5.4-nm stepwise motion corresponding to the periodicity of the actin filament subunits, and extremely small positional fluctuations during the intermittent pauses [S. C. Kuo and J. L. McGrath. 2000. Nature. 407:1026-1029]. These findings suggest that motile bacteria remain firmly bound to actin filament ends as they elongate, a behavior that appears to rule out previous models for actin-based motility. We propose and analyze a new mechanochemical model (called the "Lock, Load & Fire" mechanism) for force generation by means of affinity-modulated, clamped-filament elongation. During the locking step, the filament's terminal ATP-containing subunit binds tightly to a clamp situated on the surface of a motile object; in the loading step, actin.ATP monomer(s) bind to the filament end, an event that triggers the firing step, wherein ATP hydrolysis on the clamped subunit attenuates the filament's affinity for the clamp. This last step initiates translocation of the new ATP-containing terminus to the clamp, whereupon another cycle begins anew. This model explains how surface-tethered filaments can grow while exerting flexural or tensile force on the motile surface. Moreover, stochastic simulations of the model reproduce the signature motions of Listeria. This elongation motor, which we term actoclampin, exploits actin's intrinsic ATPase activity to provide a simple, high-fidelity enzymatic reaction cycle for force production that does not require elongating filaments to dissociate from the motile surface. This mechanism may operate whenever actin polymerization is called upon to generate the forces that drive cell crawling or intracellular organelle motility. PMID:11806905

  2. [Nana gene--a regulator of cell division and elongation of stem cells in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh].

    PubMed

    Ezhova, T A; Soldatova, O P; Skliarova, O A

    2002-01-01

    The dominant nana (na) mutation localized to the upper arm of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 blocks cell proliferation in apical meristem (AM) of the flower-bearing stem at its early development and suppresses the subsequent elongation of its internode cells. The na mutation reduces the sensitivity of cells of the flower-bearing stem to gibberellin (GA) and paclobutrazole (PBZ) and prevents resting and immature seeds from restoring the germinating ability in response to exogenous GA. On the other hand, exogenous GA and PBZ affects the onset of flowering, hypocotyl length, and leaf color; i.e., the na mutant displays a distortion of only several, rather than all, GA-dependent processes. Based on the results obtained, the product of the NA gene was assumed to play a role in the negative regulation of GA signaling and to act later than the products of the known GAI and SPY genes. PMID:11852796

  3. Root-Zone Salinity Alters Raffinose Oligosaccharide Metabolism and Transport in Coleus.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, G. A.; Wilson, C.; Madore, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure of variegated coleus (Coleus blumei Benth.) plants to a saline root-zone environment (60 mM NaCl:12 mM CaCl2) resulted in a significant decline in elongation growth rate over the 30-d experimental period. During the initial 5 to 10 d of exposure, mature source leaves showed strongly diminished rates of photosynthesis, which gradually recovered to close to the control rates by the end of the experiment. In green leaf tissues, starch levels showed the same transient decline and recovery pattern. Low starch levels were accompanied by the appearance of several novel carbohydrates, including high-molecular-weight raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 5 to 8, and an O-methylated inositol (OMI). New enzyme activities, including galactan:galactan galactosyltransferase, for the synthesis of high-DP RFOs and myo-inositol 6-O-methyltransferase for O-methylation of myo-inositol, were induced by salinity stress. Phloem-sap analysis showed that in the stressed condition substantially more sucrose than RFO was exported, as was the OMI. In white sink tissues these phloem sugars were used to synthesize high-DP RFOs but not OMIs. In sink tissues galactan:galactan galactosyltransferase but not myo-inositol 6-O-methyltransferase was induced by salinity stress. Models reflecting the changes in carbohydrate metabolism in source and sink tissues in response to salinity stress are presented. PMID:12223871

  4. Functional interplay between PPM1G and the transcription elongation machinery

    PubMed Central

    Gudipaty, Swapna Aravind; D’Orso, Iván

    2016-01-01

    Transcription elongation is a critical regulatory step in the gene expression cycle. One key regulator of the switch between transcription initiation and elongation is the P-TEFb kinase, which phosphorylates RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and several negative elongation factors to relieve the elongation block at paused promoters to facilitate productive elongation. Here, we highlight recent findings signifying the role of the PPM1G/PP2Cγ phosphatase in activating and maintaining the active transcription elongation state by regulating the availability of P-TEFb and blocking its assembly into the catalytic inactive 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complex. PMID:27088130

  5. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process.

  6. Single-Plane Magnetically Focused Elongated Small Field Proton Beams.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Grant A; Slater, James M; Wroe, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    We previously performed Monte Carlo simulations of magnetically focused proton beams shaped by a single quadrapole magnet and thereby created narrow elongated beams with superior dose delivery characteristics (compared to collimated beams) suitable for targets of similar geometry. The present study seeks to experimentally validate these simulations using a focusing magnet consisting of 24 segments of samarium cobalt permanent magnetic material adhered into a hollow cylinder. Proton beams with properties relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications were delivered through the magnet to a water tank containing a diode detector or radiochromic film. Dose profiles were analyzed and compared with analogous Monte Carlo simulations. The focused beams produced elongated beam spots with high elliptical symmetry, indicative of magnet quality. Experimental data showed good agreement with simulations, affirming the utility of Monte Carlo simulations as a tool to model the inherent complexity of a magnetic focusing system. Compared to target-matched unfocused simulations, focused beams showed larger peak to entrance ratios (26% to 38%) and focused simulations showed a two-fold increase in beam delivery efficiency. These advantages can be attributed to the magnetic acceleration of protons in the transverse plane that tends to counteract the particle outscatter that leads to degradation of peak to entrance performance in small field proton beams. Our results have important clinical implications and suggest rare earth focusing magnet assemblies are feasible and could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering enhanced dose to narrow elongated targets (eg, in and around the spinal cord) in less time compared to collimated beams.

  7. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, D J; Sovonick-Dunford, S A

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process. PMID:11537446

  8. Elongation fracture of metals containing pre-introduced secondary defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, K.; Ono, K.; Iseki, M.; Kiritani, M.

    2002-01-01

    High-speed, high-strain tensile deformation of thin foils of fcc metals has recently been found to result in the formation of an anomalously high density of small vacancy clusters, probably in the absence of dislocations. In the present study, deformation of secondary-defect-pre-introduced pure Al is performed, at strain rates ranging from 10(-4) to 10(5)/s and a deformation temperature of - 196 or 25 degreesC. Microstructures in the deformed regions are examined by transmission electron microscopy. Vacancy-type dislocation loops and voids are eliminated by the deformation. He-bubbles are observed to elongate under a tensile stress, mainly in the absence of dislocations. Rows of bubbles oriented close to directions of elongation are found, and might result from extreme elongation and division of bubbles. The bubble rows are parallel to particular crystallographic directions, either (001) or (112). This indicates that displacement of atoms during high-speed, high-strain tensile deformation progresses while conforming with the nature of a crystal, even in the absence of dislocations.

  9. Ethylene-promoted Elongation: an Adaptation to Submergence Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Background A sizeable minority of taxa is successful in areas prone to submergence. Many such plants elongate with increased vigour when underwater. This helps to restore contact with the aerial environment by shortening the duration of inundation. Poorly adapted species are usually incapable of this underwater escape. Scope Evidence implicating ethylene as the principal factor initiating fast underwater elongation by leaves or stems is evaluated comprehensively along with its interactions with other hormones and gases. These interactions make up a sequence of events that link the perception of submergence to a prompt acceleration of extension. The review encompasses whole plant physiology, cell biology and molecular genetics. It includes assessments of how submergence threatens plant life and of the extent to which the submergence escape demonstrably improves the likelihood of survival. Conclusions Experimental testing over many years establishes ethylene-promoted underwater extension as one of the most convincing examples of hormone-mediated stress adaptation by plants. The research has utilized a wide range of species that includes numerous angiosperms, a fern and a liverwort. It has also benefited from detailed physiological and molecular studies of underwater elongation by rice (Oryza sativa) and the marsh dock (Rumex palustris). Despite complexities and interactions, the work reveals that the signal transduction pathway is initiated by the simple expediency of physical entrapment of ethylene within growing cells by a covering of water. PMID:17956854

  10. Leaf-inhabiting genera of the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales

    PubMed Central

    Sogonov, M.V.; Castlebury, L.A.; Rossman, A.Y.; Mejía, L.C.; White, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The Gnomoniaceae are characterised by ascomata that are generally immersed, solitary, without a stroma, or aggregated with a rudimentary stroma, in herbaceous plant material especially in leaves, twigs or stems, but also in bark or wood. The ascomata are black, soft-textured, thin-walled, and pseudoparenchymatous with one or more central or eccentric necks. The asci usually have a distinct apical ring. The Gnomoniaceae includes species having ascospores that are small, mostly less than 25 μm long, although some are longer, and range in septation from non-septate to one-septate, rarely multi-septate. Molecular studies of the Gnomoniaceae suggest that the traditional classification of genera based on characteristics of the ascomata such as position of the neck and ascospores such as septation have resulted in genera that are not monophyletic. In this paper the concepts of the leaf-inhabiting genera in the Gnomoniaceae are reevaluated using multiple genes, specifically nrLSU, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) for 64 isolates. ITS sequences were generated for 322 isolates. Six genera of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae are defined based on placement of their type species within the multigene phylogeny. The new monotypic genus Ambarignomonia is established for an unusual species, A. petiolorum. A key to 59 species of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae is presented and 22 species of Gnomoniaceae are described and illustrated. PMID:19287541

  11. Leaf Epicuticular Waxes of the Eceriferum Mutants in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Jenks, M. A.; Tuttle, H. A.; Eigenbrode, S. D.; Feldmann, K. A.

    1995-01-01

    Wild-type Arabidopsis leaf epicuticular wax (EW) occurs as a smooth layer over the epidermal surface, whereas stem EW has a crystalline microstructure. Wild-type EW load was more than 10-fold lower on leaves than on stems. Compared with the EW on wild-type stems, EW on wild-type leaves had a much higher proportion of their total EW load in the form of alkanes and 1-alcohols; a large reduction in secondary alcohols, ketones, and esters; and a chain-length distribution for major EW classes that was skewed toward longer lengths. The eceriferum (cer) mutations often differentially affected leaf and stem EW chemical compositions. For example, the cer2 mutant EW phenotype was expressed on the stem but not on the leaf. Compared to wild type, the amount of primary alcohols on cer9 mutants was reduced on leaves but elevated on stems, whereas an opposite differential effect for primary alcohols was observed on cer16 leaves and stems. Putative functions for CER gene products are discussed. The CER4 and CER6 gene products may be involved in fatty aldehyde reduction and C26 fatty acylcoenzyme A elongation, respectively. CER1, CER8, CER9, and CER16 gene products may be involved in EW substrate transfer. The CER3 gene product may be involved in release of fatty acids from elongase complexes. CER2 gene product may have regulatory functions. PMID:12228482

  12. CRMP4 and CRMP2 Interact to Coordinate Cytoskeleton Dynamics, Regulating Growth Cone Development and Axon Elongation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Minghui; Cha, Caihui; Ye, Yongheng; Zhang, Jifeng; Li, Sumei; Wu, Fengming; Gong, Sitang; Guo, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeleton dynamics are critical phenomena that underpin many fundamental cellular processes. Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are highly expressed in the developing nervous system, mediating growth cone guidance, neuronal polarity, and axonal elongation. However, whether and how CRMPs associate with microtubules and actin coordinated cytoskeletal dynamics remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that CRMP2 and CRMP4 interacted with tubulin and actin in vitro and colocalized with the cytoskeleton in the transition-zone in developing growth cones. CRMP2 and CRMP4 also interacted with one another coordinately to promote growth cone development and axonal elongation. Genetic silencing of CRMP2 enhanced, whereas overexpression of CRMP2 suppressed, the inhibitory effects of CRMP4 knockdown on axonal development. In addition, knockdown of CRMP2 or overexpression of truncated CRMP2 reversed the promoting effect of CRMP4. With the overexpression of truncated CRMP2 or CRMP4 lacking the cytoskeleton interaction domain, the promoting effect of CRMP was suppressed. These data suggest a model in which CRMP2 and CRMP4 form complexes to bridge microtubules and actin and thus work cooperatively to regulate growth cone development and axonal elongation.

  13. Effects of Transcription Elongation Rate and Xrn2 Exonuclease Activity on RNA Polymerase II Termination Suggest Widespread Kinetic Competition.

    PubMed

    Fong, Nova; Brannan, Kristopher; Erickson, Benjamin; Kim, Hyunmin; Cortazar, Michael A; Sheridan, Ryan M; Nguyen, Tram; Karp, Shai; Bentley, David L

    2015-10-15

    The torpedo model of transcription termination asserts that the exonuclease Xrn2 attacks the 5'PO4-end exposed by nascent RNA cleavage and chases down the RNA polymerase. We tested this mechanism using a dominant-negative human Xrn2 mutant and found that it delayed termination genome-wide. Xrn2 nuclease inactivation caused strong termination defects downstream of most poly(A) sites and modest delays at some histone and U snRNA genes, suggesting that the torpedo mechanism is not limited to poly(A) site-dependent termination. A central untested feature of the torpedo model is that there is kinetic competition between the exonuclease and the pol II elongation complex. Using pol II rate mutants, we found that slow transcription robustly shifts termination upstream, and fast elongation extends the zone of termination further downstream. These results suggest that kinetic competition between elongating pol II and the Xrn2 exonuclease is integral to termination of transcription on most human genes. PMID:26474067

  14. Modelling changes in leaf shape prior to phyllode acquisition in Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Céline; Heuret, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise changes in leaf shape prior to phyllode acquisition along the axes of Acacia mangium seedlings. The study area was located in North Lampung (South Sumatra, Indonesia), where these trees belong to a naturally regenerated stand. A total of 173 seedlings, less than three months old, were described node by node. Leaf shape and leaf length were recorded and the way in which one leaf type succeeded another was modelled using a hidden semi-Markov chain composed of seven states. The phyllotactical pattern was studied using another sample of forty 6-month-old seedlings. The results indicate (i) the existence of successive zones characterised by one or a combination of leaf types, and (ii) that phyllode acquisition seems to be accompanied by a change in the phyllotactical pattern. The concepts of juvenility and heteroblasty, as well as potential applications for taxonomy are discussed. PMID:18241805

  15. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Color Regulation Mechanism in Chimera Hosta "Gold Standard" Leaves.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinzheng; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Yuelu; Chen, Sixue; Guo, Hongliang; Shi, Lei; Dai, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Leaf color change of variegated leaves from chimera species is regulated by fine-tuned molecular mechanisms. Hosta "Gold Standard" is a typical chimera Hosta species with golden-green variegated leaves, which is an ideal material to investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf variegation. In this study, the margin and center regions of young and mature leaves from Hosta "Gold Standard", as well as the leaves from plants after excess nitrogen fertilization were studied using physiological and comparative proteomic approaches. We identified 31 differentially expressed proteins in various regions and development stages of variegated leaves. Some of them may be related to the leaf color regulation in Hosta "Gold Standard". For example, cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and chloroplastic elongation factor G (cpEF-G) were involved in pigment-related nitrogen synthesis as well as protein synthesis and processing. By integrating the proteomics data with physiological results, we revealed the metabolic patterns of nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, energy supply, as well as chloroplast protein synthesis, import and processing in various leaf regions at different development stages. Additionally, chloroplast-localized proteoforms involved in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and protein processing implied that post-translational modifications were crucial for leaf color regulation. These results provide new clues toward understanding the mechanisms of leaf color regulation in variegated leaves. PMID:27005614

  16. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Color Regulation Mechanism in Chimera Hosta “Gold Standard” Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinzheng; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Yuelu; Chen, Sixue; Guo, Hongliang; Shi, Lei; Dai, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Leaf color change of variegated leaves from chimera species is regulated by fine-tuned molecular mechanisms. Hosta “Gold Standard” is a typical chimera Hosta species with golden-green variegated leaves, which is an ideal material to investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf variegation. In this study, the margin and center regions of young and mature leaves from Hosta “Gold Standard”, as well as the leaves from plants after excess nitrogen fertilization were studied using physiological and comparative proteomic approaches. We identified 31 differentially expressed proteins in various regions and development stages of variegated leaves. Some of them may be related to the leaf color regulation in Hosta “Gold Standard”. For example, cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and chloroplastic elongation factor G (cpEF-G) were involved in pigment-related nitrogen synthesis as well as protein synthesis and processing. By integrating the proteomics data with physiological results, we revealed the metabolic patterns of nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, energy supply, as well as chloroplast protein synthesis, import and processing in various leaf regions at different development stages. Additionally, chloroplast-localized proteoforms involved in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and protein processing implied that post-translational modifications were crucial for leaf color regulation. These results provide new clues toward understanding the mechanisms of leaf color regulation in variegated leaves. PMID:27005614

  17. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Color Regulation Mechanism in Chimera Hosta "Gold Standard" Leaves.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinzheng; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Yuelu; Chen, Sixue; Guo, Hongliang; Shi, Lei; Dai, Shaojun

    2016-03-08

    Leaf color change of variegated leaves from chimera species is regulated by fine-tuned molecular mechanisms. Hosta "Gold Standard" is a typical chimera Hosta species with golden-green variegated leaves, which is an ideal material to investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf variegation. In this study, the margin and center regions of young and mature leaves from Hosta "Gold Standard", as well as the leaves from plants after excess nitrogen fertilization were studied using physiological and comparative proteomic approaches. We identified 31 differentially expressed proteins in various regions and development stages of variegated leaves. Some of them may be related to the leaf color regulation in Hosta "Gold Standard". For example, cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and chloroplastic elongation factor G (cpEF-G) were involved in pigment-related nitrogen synthesis as well as protein synthesis and processing. By integrating the proteomics data with physiological results, we revealed the metabolic patterns of nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, energy supply, as well as chloroplast protein synthesis, import and processing in various leaf regions at different development stages. Additionally, chloroplast-localized proteoforms involved in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and protein processing implied that post-translational modifications were crucial for leaf color regulation. These results provide new clues toward understanding the mechanisms of leaf color regulation in variegated leaves.

  18. Grain Size Dependence of Uniform Elongation in Single-Phase FCC/BCC Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiting; Shen, Yao; Ma, Jiawei; Zheng, Pengfei; Zhang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    We studied the dependence of uniform elongation on grain size in the range of submicron to millimeter for single-phase FCC/BCC metals by reviewing recent experimental results and applying crystal plasticity finite element method simulation. In the order of increasing grain size, uniform elongation can be divided into three stages, namely low elongation stage, nearly constant elongation stage, and decreased elongation with large scatters stage. Low elongation stage features a dramatic increase near the critical grain size at the end of the stage, which is primarily attributed to the emergence of dislocation cell size transition from ultrafine to mid-size grain. Other factors can be neglected due to their negligible influence on overall variation trend. In nearly constant elongation stage, uniform elongation remains unchanged at a high level in general. As grain size keeps growing, uniform elongation starts decreasing and becomes scattered upon a certain grain size, indicating the initiation of decreased elongation with large scatters stage. It is shown that the increase is not linear or smooth but rather sharp at the end of low elongation stage, leading to a wider range in nearly constant elongation stage. The grain size dependence of uniform elongation can serve as a guiding principle for designing small uniaxial tensile specimens for mechanical testing, where size effect matters in most cases.

  19. Grain Size Dependence of Uniform Elongation in Single-Phase FCC/BCC Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiting; Shen, Yao; Ma, Jiawei; Zheng, Pengfei; Zhang, Lei

    2016-09-01

    We studied the dependence of uniform elongation on grain size in the range of submicron to millimeter for single-phase FCC/BCC metals by reviewing recent experimental results and applying crystal plasticity finite element method simulation. In the order of increasing grain size, uniform elongation can be divided into three stages, namely low elongation stage, nearly constant elongation stage, and decreased elongation with large scatters stage. Low elongation stage features a dramatic increase near the critical grain size at the end of the stage, which is primarily attributed to the emergence of dislocation cell size transition from ultrafine to mid-size grain. Other factors can be neglected due to their negligible influence on overall variation trend. In nearly constant elongation stage, uniform elongation remains unchanged at a high level in general. As grain size keeps growing, uniform elongation starts decreasing and becomes scattered upon a certain grain size, indicating the initiation of decreased elongation with large scatters stage. It is shown that the increase is not linear or smooth but rather sharp at the end of low elongation stage, leading to a wider range in nearly constant elongation stage. The grain size dependence of uniform elongation can serve as a guiding principle for designing small uniaxial tensile specimens for mechanical testing, where size effect matters in most cases.

  20. Rice HOX12 Regulates Panicle Exsertion by Directly Modulating the Expression of ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shaopei; Fang, Jun; Xu, Fan; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are key endogenous regulators of plant growth. Previous work identified ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE1 (EUI1) as a GA-deactivating enzyme that plays an important role in panicle exsertion from the flag leaf sheath in rice (Oryza sativa). However, the mechanism that regulates EUI1 activity during development is still largely unexplored. In this study, we identified the dominant panicle enclosure mutant regulator of eui1 (ree1-D), whose phenotype is caused by the activation of the homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor HOX12. Diminished HOX12 expression by RNA interference enhanced panicle exsertion, mimicking the eui1 phenotype. HOX12 knockdown plants contain higher levels of the major biologically active GAs (such as GA1 and GA4) than the wild type. The expression of EUI1 is elevated in the ree1-D mutant but reduced in HOX12 knockdown plants. Interestingly, both HOX12 and EUI1 are predominantly expressed in panicles, where GA4 is highly accumulated. Yeast one-hybrid, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that HOX12 physically interacts with the EUI1 promoter both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, plants overexpressing HOX12 in the eui1 mutant background retained the elongated uppermost internode phenotype. These results indicate that HOX12 acts directly through EUI1 to regulate panicle exsertion in rice. PMID:26977084

  1. The East African decapod crab Neosarmatium meinerti (de Man) sweeps mangrove floors clean of leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Olafsson, Emil; Buchmayer, Susanne; Skov, Martin W

    2002-12-01

    Leaf litter removal by the abundant mangrove decapod crab Neosarmatium meinerti was studied in series of field and laboratory experiments in East Africa. In the high intertidal Avicennia marina zone crabs buried all leaves placed on the forest floor and consumed on average 67% of them within 2 hrs. High shore crabs in Kenya buried 4 g m(-2) leaf-litter in 1 hr, i.e. approx. twice the daily litter fall. In contrast, in the low shore Sonneratia alba zone, where typical leaf-eating crabs were absent, none of the offered leaves showed signs of herbivory. Leaf choice experiments in the laboratory showed that N. meinerti preferred some species to others. Leaf consumption per gram crab was higher in females than males. The laboratory studies also indicated that crabs could consume substantially more than the average daily litter fall. Video recordings documented frequent fights to gain or retain fallen leaves, suggesting strong competition for leaf litter. Earlier studies indicating that N. meinerti may sweep mangrove forest floors clean of leaf litter are confirmed. In high shore mangroves of East and South Africa where N. meinerti is common, energy flow appears unique: virtually all litter production is retained.

  2. The East African decapod crab Neosarmatium meinerti (de Man) sweeps mangrove floors clean of leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Olafsson, Emil; Buchmayer, Susanne; Skov, Martin W

    2002-12-01

    Leaf litter removal by the abundant mangrove decapod crab Neosarmatium meinerti was studied in series of field and laboratory experiments in East Africa. In the high intertidal Avicennia marina zone crabs buried all leaves placed on the forest floor and consumed on average 67% of them within 2 hrs. High shore crabs in Kenya buried 4 g m(-2) leaf-litter in 1 hr, i.e. approx. twice the daily litter fall. In contrast, in the low shore Sonneratia alba zone, where typical leaf-eating crabs were absent, none of the offered leaves showed signs of herbivory. Leaf choice experiments in the laboratory showed that N. meinerti preferred some species to others. Leaf consumption per gram crab was higher in females than males. The laboratory studies also indicated that crabs could consume substantially more than the average daily litter fall. Video recordings documented frequent fights to gain or retain fallen leaves, suggesting strong competition for leaf litter. Earlier studies indicating that N. meinerti may sweep mangrove forest floors clean of leaf litter are confirmed. In high shore mangroves of East and South Africa where N. meinerti is common, energy flow appears unique: virtually all litter production is retained. PMID:12572824

  3. Nitrogen deficiency inhibits leaf blade growth in Lolium perenne by increasing cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic growth rates.

    PubMed

    Kavanová, Monika; Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo; Schnyder, Hans

    2008-06-01

    Nitrogen deficiency severely inhibits leaf growth. This response was analysed at the cellular level by growing Lolium perenne L. under 7.5 mM (high) or 1 mM (low) nitrate supply, and performing a kinematic analysis to assess the effect of nitrogen status on cell proliferation and cell growth in the leaf blade epidermis. Low nitrogen supply reduced leaf elongation rate (LER) by 43% through a similar decrease in the cell production rate and final cell length. The former was entirely because of a decreased average cell division rate (0.023 versus 0.032 h(-1)) and thus longer cell cycle duration (30 versus 22 h). Nitrogen status did not affect the number of division cycles of the initial cell's progeny (5.7), and accordingly the meristematic cell number (53). Meristematic cell length was unaffected by nitrogen deficiency, implying that the division and mitotic growth rates were equally impaired. The shorter mature cell length arose from a considerably reduced post-mitotic growth rate (0.033 versus 0.049 h(-1)). But, nitrogen stress did not affect the position where elongation stopped, and increased cell elongation duration. In conclusion, nitrogen deficiency limited leaf growth by increasing the cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic elongation rates, delaying cell maturation.

  4. Leaf hydraulics II: vascularized tissues.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Fulton E; Holbrook, N Michele; Stroock, Abraham D

    2014-01-01

    Current models of leaf hydration employ an Ohm's law analogy of the leaf as an ideal capacitor, neglecting the resistance to flow between cells, or treat the leaf as a plane sheet with a source of water at fixed potential filling the mid-plane, neglecting the discrete placement of veins as well as their resistance. We develop a model of leaf hydration that considers the average conductance of the vascular network to a representative areole (region bounded by the vascular network), and represent the volume of tissue within the areole as a poroelastic composite of cells and air spaces. Solutions to the 3D flow problem are found by numerical simulation, and these results are then compared to 1D models with exact solutions for a range of leaf geometries, based on a survey of temperate woody plants. We then show that the hydration times given by these solutions are well approximated by a sum of the ideal capacitor and plane sheet times, representing the time for transport through the vasculature and tissue respectively. We then develop scaling factors relating this approximate solution to the 3D model, and examine the dependence of these scaling factors on leaf geometry. Finally, we apply a similar strategy to reduce the dimensions of the steady state problem, in the context of peristomatal transpiration, and consider the relation of transpirational gradients to equilibrium leaf water potential measurements.

  5. Relative Mesothelioma Potencies for Unregulated Respirable Elongated Mineral and Synthetic Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades uncertainties and contradictions have surrounded the issue of whether exposures to respirable elongated mineral and synthetic particles (REMPs and RESPs) present health risks such as those recognized for exposures to elongated asbestiform mineral particles from the fi...

  6. Studies on the mechanism of cell elongation in Blepharisma japonicum: 3. Cytoplasmic calcium ions may correlate to cell elongation in calmodulin-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ishida, M; Shigenaka, Y; Suzaki, T; Taneda, K

    1991-02-22

    Among many heterotrichous ciliates, Blepharisma japonicum especially demonstrates negative phototaxis in response to light stimulation, which is attributed to be caused by swimming acceleration accompanied by cell elongation and ciliary reversal. When Blepharisma cells were treated with 0.1 mM EGTA, cell elongation gradually decreased in its degree as the adaptation time lapsed. Calmodulin inhibitors such as W-7 (10(-5) M) and chlorpromazine (10(-5) M) inhibited cell elongation. These results suggest that a rise in cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration might cause cell elongation through the Ca-calmodulin system. On the other hand, Ca(2+)-channel blockers (La(3+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and verapamil) did not inhibit cell elongation. Ca2+ localization examined by calcium pyroantimonate cytochemistry suggests that Ca(2+) ions required for cell elongation might be supplied from the vacuoles located in the cortical region of the cell instead of Ca(2+) influx from the surrounding medium.

  7. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  8. Regulation of Compound Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Rujin

    2013-01-01

    Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or dissected leaves in model species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Cardamine hirsuta and Medicago truncatula, with an emphasis on recent discoveries in legumes. We also discuss progress in gene regulations and hormonal actions in compound leaf development. These studies facilitate our understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms and put forward a prospective in compound leaf studies. PMID:27135488

  9. NtSCP1 from tobacco is an extracellular serine carboxypeptidase III that has an impact on cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Delannoy, Mélanie; Navarre, Catherine; Boutry, Marc

    2012-03-01

    The leaf extracellular space contains several peptidases, most of which are of unknown function. We isolated cDNAs for two extracellular serine carboxypeptidase III genes from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), NtSCP1 and NtSCP2, belonging to a phylogenetic clade not yet functionally characterized in plants. NtSCP1 and NtSCP2 are orthologs derived from the two ancestors of tobacco. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that NtSCP1 and NtSCP2 are expressed in root, stem, leaf, and flower tissues. Expression analysis of the β-glucuronidase reporter gene fused to the NtSCP1 transcription promoter region confirmed this expression profile. Western blotting of NtSCP1 and expression of an NtSCP1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein showed that the protein is located in the extracellular space of tobacco leaves and culture cells. Purified His-tagged NtSCP1 had carboxypeptidase activity in vitro. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing NtSCP1 showed a reduced flower length due to a decrease in cell size. Etiolated seedlings of these transgenic plants had shorter hypocotyls. These data provide support for a role of an extracellular type III carboxypeptidase in the control of cell elongation.

  10. Transcription elongation and tissue-specific somatic CAG instability.

    PubMed

    Goula, Agathi-Vasiliki; Stys, Agnieszka; Chan, Jackson P K; Trottier, Yvon; Festenstein, Richard; Merienne, Karine

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of CAG/CTG repeats is responsible for many diseases, including Huntington's disease (HD) and myotonic dystrophy 1. CAG/CTG expansions are unstable in selective somatic tissues, which accelerates disease progression. The mechanisms underlying repeat instability are complex, and it remains unclear whether chromatin structure and/or transcription contribute to somatic CAG/CTG instability in vivo. To address these issues, we investigated the relationship between CAG instability, chromatin structure, and transcription at the HD locus using the R6/1 and R6/2 HD transgenic mouse lines. These mice express a similar transgene, albeit integrated at a different site, and recapitulate HD tissue-specific instability. We show that instability rates are increased in R6/2 tissues as compared to R6/1 matched-samples. High transgene expression levels and chromatin accessibility correlated with the increased CAG instability of R6/2 mice. Transgene mRNA and H3K4 trimethylation at the HD locus were increased, whereas H3K9 dimethylation was reduced in R6/2 tissues relative to R6/1 matched-tissues. However, the levels of transgene expression and these specific histone marks were similar in the striatum and cerebellum, two tissues showing very different CAG instability levels, irrespective of mouse line. Interestingly, the levels of elongating RNA Pol II at the HD locus, but not the initiating form of RNA Pol II, were tissue-specific and correlated with CAG instability levels. Similarly, H3K36 trimethylation, a mark associated with transcription elongation, was specifically increased at the HD locus in the striatum and not in the cerebellum. Together, our data support the view that transcription modulates somatic CAG instability in vivo. More specifically, our results suggest for the first time that transcription elongation is regulated in a tissue-dependent manner, contributing to tissue-selective CAG instability. PMID:23209427

  11. Morphological and Chemical Mechanisms of Elongated Mineral Particle Toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Aust, Ann E.; Cook, Philip M.; Dodson, Ronald F.

    2011-01-01

    Much of our understanding regarding the mechanisms for induction of disease following inhalation of respirable elongated mineral particles (REMP) is based on studies involving the biological effects of asbestos fibers. The factors governing the disease potential of an exposure include duration and frequency of exposures; tissue-specific dose over time; impacts on dose persistence from in vivo REMP dissolution, comminution, and clearance; individual susceptibility; and the mineral type and surface characteristics. The mechanisms associated with asbestos particle toxicity involve two facets for each particle's contribution: (1) the physical features of the inhaled REMP, which include width, length, aspect ratio, and effective surface area available for cell contact; and (2) the surface chemical composition and reactivity of the individual fiber/elongated particle. Studies in cell-free systems and with cultured cells suggest an important way in which REMP from asbestos damage cellular molecules or influence cellular processes. This may involve an unfortunate combination of the ability of REMP to chemically generate potentially damaging reactive oxygen species, through surface iron, and the interaction of the unique surfaces with cell membranes to trigger membrane receptor activation. Together these events appear to lead to a cascade of cellular events, including the production of damaging reactive nitrogen species, which may contribute to the disease process. Thus, there is a need to be more cognizant of the potential impact that the total surface area of REMP contributes to the generation of events resulting in pathological changes in biological systems. The information presented has applicability to inhaled dusts, in general, and specifically to respirable elongated mineral particles. PMID:21534085

  12. Tbx1 is Necessary for Palatal Elongation and Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Goudy, Steven; Law, Amy; Sanchez, Gabriela; Baldwin, H. Scott; Brown, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor TBX1 is a key mediator of developmental abnormalities associated with DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial Syndrome. Studies in mice have demonstrated that decreased dosage of Tbx1 results in defects in pharyngeal arch, cardiovascular, and craniofacial development. The role of Tbx1 in cardiac development has been intensely studied; however, its role in palatal development is poorly understood. By studying the Tbx1-/- mice we found defects during the critical points of palate elongation and elevation. The intrinsic palate defects in the Tbx1-/- mice were determined by measuring changes in palate shelf length, proliferation, apoptosis, expression of relevant growth factors, and in palate fusion assays. Tbx1-/- embryos exhibit cleft palate with failed palate elevation in 100% and abnormal palatal-oral fusions in 50%. In the Tbx1-/- mice the palate shelf length was reduced and tongue height was greater, demonstrating a physical impediment to palate elevation and apposition. In vitro palate fusion assays demonstrate that Tbx1-/- palate shelves are capable of fusion but a roller culture assay showed that the null palatal shelves were unable to elongate. Diminished hyaluronic acid production in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves may explain failed palate shelf elevation. In addition, cell proliferation and apoptosis were perturbed in Tbx1-/- palates. A sharp decrease of Fgf8 expression was detected in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves, suggesting that Fgf8 is dependent on Tbx1 in the palate. Fgf10 is also up-regulated in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves and tongue. These data demonstrate that Tbx1 is a critical transcription factor that guides palatal elongation and elevation and that Fgf8 expression in the palate is Tbx1-dependent. PMID:20214979

  13. Fruiting Branch K+ Level Affects Cotton Fiber Elongation Through Osmoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Chen, Binglin; Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fiber length. As one of the primary osmotica, K+ contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fiber elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fiber length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha-1) on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibers were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (Vmax) is the parameter that best reflects the change in fiber elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analyzed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K+ was the major osmotic factor affecting fiber length, and malate was likely facilitating K+ accumulation into fibers, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K+ absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fiber length in late season bolls. PMID:26834777

  14. Fruiting Branch K(+) Level Affects Cotton Fiber Elongation Through Osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Chen, Binglin; Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fiber length. As one of the primary osmotica, K(+) contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fiber elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fiber length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha(-1)) on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibers were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (V max) is the parameter that best reflects the change in fiber elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analyzed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K(+) was the major osmotic factor affecting fiber length, and malate was likely facilitating K(+) accumulation into fibers, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K(+) absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fiber length in late season bolls. PMID:26834777

  15. Effects of water deficit on radicle apex elongation and solute accumulation in Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Márquez, S; Conde-Martínez, V; Trejo, C; Delgado-Alvarado, A; Carballo, A; Suárez, R; Mascorro, J O; Trujillo, A R

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of water deficit on the elongation of radicles of maize seedlings and on the accumulation of solutes in the radicle apices of two maize varieties: VS-22 (tolerant) and AMCCG-2 (susceptible). Sections of radicle corresponding to the first 2 mm of the primary roots were marked with black ink, and the seedlings were allowed to grow for 24, 48, and 72 h in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes filled with vermiculite at three different water potentials (Ψ(w), -0.03, -1.0, and -1.5 MPa). The radicle elongation, sugar accumulation, and proline accumulation were determined after each of the growth periods specified above. The Ψ(w) of the substrate affected the dynamics of primary root elongation in both varieties. In particular, the lowest Ψ(w) (-1.5 MPa) inhibited root development by 72% and 90% for the VS-22 and AMCCG-2 varieties, respectively. The osmotic potential (Ψ(o)) was reduced substantially in both varieties to maintain root turgor; however, VS-22 had a higher root turgor (0.67 MPa) than AMCCG-2 (0.2 MPa). These results suggest that both varieties possess a capacity for osmotic adjustment. Sugar began to accumulate within the first 24 h of radicle apex growth. The sugar concentration was higher in VS-22 root apices compared to AMCCG-2, and the amount of sugar accumulation increased with a decrease in Ψ(w). Significant amounts of trehalose accumulated in VS-22 and AMCCG-2 (29.8 μmol/g fresh weight [FW] and 5.24 μmol/g FW, respectively). Starch accumulation in the root apices of these two maize varieties also differed significantly, with a lower level in VS-22. In both varieties, the proline concentration also increased as a consequence of the water deficit. At 72 h, the proline concentration in VS-22 (16.2 μmol/g FW) was almost 3 times greater than that in AMCCG-2 (5.19 μmol/g FW). Trehalose also showed a 3-fold increase in the tolerant variety. Accumulation of these solutes in the root growth zone may indicate an osmotic

  16. [Leaf anatomy of the mosaic ficus benjamina cv. Starlight and interaction of source and sink chimera components].

    PubMed

    Labunskaia, E A; Zhigalova, T V; Chub, V V

    2007-01-01

    Leaf anatomy was studied in the mosaic Ficus benjamina cv. Starlight and non-chimeric Ficus benjamina cv. Daniel. The number of chloroplasts in a white, chlorophyll-deficient tissue declines as compared to the green tissue. However, their functional activity is retained. The leaf of the mosaic F. benjamina contains two or, sometimes, three subepidermal layers. Mesophyll forms one layer in the green and white parts of leaf palisade and one white and one green layer in the transitional zone (edge). In the transitional zone, green spongy mesophyll is located between two white spongy layers and the proportion of photosynthesizing cells varies. In cv. Daniel, there are two subepidermal layers and one layer of columnar mesophyll cells. According to the morphometry data, the proportion of white zone in the leaf correlates with the leaf position in the whole shoot: the higher the branch order, the larger the proportion of white zone. The total leaf area depends also on its position in the shoot. No such correlation was found in non-chimeric F. benjamina cv. Daniel. In the mosaic chimera, the source-sink status appears to depend on the leaf position in the shoot. Experiments with individual shoots of the same order and elimination of all lateral shoots have shown that the proportion of white zone in new leaves on the shoot increases with the total area of green zone. Thus, the area of assimilating shoot surface affects the formation of leaves in the meristem. A hypothesis was put forward that the source-sink state affects the ratio of green and white parts in the leaf primordium. Products of photosynthesis (carbohydrates) are a possible metabolic signal affecting the meristem. It cannot be excluded as well that the hormonal state undergoes changes in the chimeric plant.

  17. Amorphous Zr-Based Foams with Aligned, Elongated Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Marie E.; Mathaudhu, Suveen N.; Hartwig, K. Ted; Dunand, David C.

    2010-07-01

    Interpenetrating phase composites are created by warm equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) of blended powders of amorphous Zr58.5Nb2.8Cu15.6Ni12.8Al10.3 (Vit106a) and a crystalline ductile metal (Cu, Ni, or W). Subsequent dissolution of the continuous metallic phase results in amorphous Vit106a foams with ~40 pct aligned, elongated pores. The extent of Vit106a powder densification in the composites improves with the strength of the crystalline metallic powder, from low for Cu to high for W, with a concomitant improvement in foam compressive strength, ductility, and energy absorption.

  18. Elongated optical bottle beams generated by composite binary axicons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfirev, A. P.; Skidanov, R. V.

    2016-04-01

    We provide analytical, numerical and experimental study of the possibility of forming elongated optical bottle beams (OBBs) using composite binary phase axicons. In this case, the OBB is generated by the superposition of Bessel beams in the near-field region on the axicon. To generate the OBB experimentally, we utilized a spatial light modulator. The experimental results are qualitatively consistent with the results of numerical simulations performed using Fresnel transform. Such type of optical trap can be applied in many applications of microbiology, micromechanics and meteorology to manipulate micro- and nanoobjects in liquid or gaseous medium.

  19. Reduction of laser spot elongation in adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Ribak, Erez N; Ragazzoni, Roberto

    2004-06-15

    Adaptive optics systems measure the wave front to be corrected by use of a reference source, a star, or a laser beacon. Such laser guide stars are a few kilometers long, and when observed near the edges of large telescopes they appear elongated. This limits their utility significantly. However, with more sophisticated launch optics their shape and length can be controlled. We propose to string around the rim of a telescope a number of small telescopes that will add laser beams in the scattering medium to create a compact spot. The method could also be adapted for ocular adaptive optics.

  20. Familial Occurrence of Enteric Muco-Submucosal Elongated Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kenji; Okamoto, Takeshi; Imamura, Noriatsu; Ishii, Naoki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We report 2 cases of enteric muco-submucosal elongated polyps (EMSEPs) that presented with gastrointestinal bleeding. The 2 patients are siblings. They both had a history of percutaneous coronary intervention for coronary artery disease and were on dual antiplatelet therapy. They underwent endoscopic resection of the polyps, which displayed identical endoscopic and histological features compatible with EMSEP. This is the first report of familial occurrence of EMSEP, suggesting possible genetic involvement. It is also important to note that the use of antiplatelet agents appears to be a predisposing factor for gastrointestinal bleeding from EMSEP. PMID:27807549

  1. Probable origin of the Livingston Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, Watson H.

    1991-09-01

    Most faulting in the Coastal Plain is high angle and generally normal, but the faults in the Livingston Fault Zone are all medium-angle reverse, forming a series of parallel horsts and grabens. Parallel to the fault zone are a number of phenomena all leading to the conclusion that the faults result from the solution of a late Cretaceous salt anticline by fresh groundwater, which then migrated up to the Eutaw and perhaps Tuscaloosa aquifers, causing an anomalous elongated area of highly saline water. The origin of the Livingston Fault Zone and the association of salt water in underlying aquifers is of particular importance at this time in relation to environmental concerns associated with hazardous waste management in the area.

  2. Distinct palisade tissue development processes promoted by leaf autonomous signalling and long-distance signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Munekage, Yuri Nakajima; Inoue, Shio; Yoneda, Yuki; Yokota, Akiho

    2015-06-01

    Plants develop palisade tissue consisting of cylindrical mesophyll cells located at the adaxial side of leaves in response to high light. To understand high light signalling in palisade tissue development, we investigated leaf autonomous and long-distance signal responses of palisade tissue development using Arabidopsis thaliana. Illumination of a developing leaf with high light induced cell height elongation, whereas illumination of mature leaves with high light increased cell density and suppressed cell width expansion in palisade tissue of new leaves. Examination using phototropin1 phototropin2 showed that blue light signalling mediated by phototropins was involved in cell height elongation of the leaf autonomous response rather than the cell density increase induced by long-distance signalling. Hydrogen peroxide treatment induced cylindrical palisade tissue cell formation in both a leaf autonomous and long-distance manner, suggesting involvement of oxidative signals. Although constitutive expression of transcription factors involved in systemic-acquired acclimation to excess light, ZAT10 and ZAT12, induced cylindrical palisade tissue cell formation, knockout of these genes did not affect cylindrical palisade tissue cell formation. We conclude that two distinct signalling pathways - leaf autonomous signalling mostly dependent on blue light signalling and long-distance signalling from mature leaves that sense high light and oxidative stress - control palisade tissue development in A. thaliana.

  3. Hormonal Regulation of Leaf Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, William P.

    1968-01-01

    A review is given of the progress made during the last 6 years in elucidating the nature, locus of action, and transport properties of the endogenous hormones that control leaf abscission. PMID:16657014

  4. Experiments in Whole Leaf Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, J. C.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Described is a simple experimental system, which uses radioactive carbon dioxide to study whole leaf photosynthesis under a variety of conditions. Other experiments and simple apparatus for the experiments are also described. (Author/RH)

  5. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  10. A general method for calculating the optimal leaf longevity from the viewpoint of carbon economy.

    PubMed

    Seki, Motohide; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Takada, Takenori

    2015-09-01

    According to the viewpoint of the optimal strategy theory, a tree is expected to shed its leaves when they no longer contribute to maximisation of net carbon gain. Several theoretical models have been proposed in which a tree was assumed to strategically shed an old deteriorated leaf to develop a new leaf. We mathematically refined an index used in a previous theoretical model [Kikuzawa (Am Nat 138:1250-1263, 1991)] so that the index is exactly proportional to a tree's lifelong net carbon gain. We also incorporated a tree's strategy that determines the timing of leaf expansion, and examined three kinds of strategies. Specifically, we assumed that a new leaf is expanded (1) immediately after shedding of an old leaf, (2) only at the beginning of spring, or (3) immediately after shedding of an old leaf if the shedding occurs during a non-winter season and at the beginning of spring otherwise. We derived a measure of optimal leaf longevity maximising the value of an appropriate index reflecting total net carbon gain and show that use of this index yielded results that are qualitatively consistent with empirical records. The model predicted that expanding a new leaf at the beginning of spring than immediately after shedding usually yields higher carbon gain, and combined strategy of the immediate replacement and the spring flushing earned the highest gain. In addition, our numerical analyses suggested that multiple flushing seen in a few species of subtropical zones can be explained in terms of carbon economy. PMID:25246078

  11. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Michelle; Sigmon, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm(2) leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf

  12. What determines a leaf's shape?

    PubMed

    Dkhar, Jeremy; Pareek, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    The independent origin and evolution of leaves as small, simple microphylls or larger, more complex megaphylls in plants has shaped and influenced the natural composition of the environment. Significant contributions have come from megaphyllous leaves, characterized usually as flat, thin lamina entrenched with photosynthetic organelles and stomata, which serve as the basis of primary productivity. During the course of evolution, the megaphylls have attained complexity not only in size or venation patterns but also in shape. This has fascinated scientists worldwide, and research has progressed tremendously in understanding the concept of leaf shape determination. Here, we review these studies and discuss the various factors that contributed towards shaping the leaf; initiated as a small bulge on the periphery of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) followed by asymmetric outgrowth, expansion and maturation until final shape is achieved. We found that the underlying factors governing these processes are inherently genetic: PIN1 and KNOX1 are indicators of leaf initiation, HD-ZIPIII, KANADI, and YABBY specify leaf outgrowth while ANGUSTIFOLIA3 and GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR5 control leaf expansion and maturation; besides, recent research has identified new players such as APUM23, known to specify leaf polarity. In addition to genetic control, environmental factors also play an important role during the final adjustment of leaf shape. This immense amount of information available will serve as the basis for studying and understanding innovative leaf morphologies viz. the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes which have evolved to provide additional support to the plant survival in its nutrient-deficient habitat. In hindsight, formation of the pitcher tube in Nepenthes might involve the recruitment of similar genetic mechanisms that occur during sympetaly in Petunia. PMID:25584185

  13. What determines a leaf's shape?

    PubMed

    Dkhar, Jeremy; Pareek, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    The independent origin and evolution of leaves as small, simple microphylls or larger, more complex megaphylls in plants has shaped and influenced the natural composition of the environment. Significant contributions have come from megaphyllous leaves, characterized usually as flat, thin lamina entrenched with photosynthetic organelles and stomata, which serve as the basis of primary productivity. During the course of evolution, the megaphylls have attained complexity not only in size or venation patterns but also in shape. This has fascinated scientists worldwide, and research has progressed tremendously in understanding the concept of leaf shape determination. Here, we review these studies and discuss the various factors that contributed towards shaping the leaf; initiated as a small bulge on the periphery of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) followed by asymmetric outgrowth, expansion and maturation until final shape is achieved. We found that the underlying factors governing these processes are inherently genetic: PIN1 and KNOX1 are indicators of leaf initiation, HD-ZIPIII, KANADI, and YABBY specify leaf outgrowth while ANGUSTIFOLIA3 and GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR5 control leaf expansion and maturation; besides, recent research has identified new players such as APUM23, known to specify leaf polarity. In addition to genetic control, environmental factors also play an important role during the final adjustment of leaf shape. This immense amount of information available will serve as the basis for studying and understanding innovative leaf morphologies viz. the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes which have evolved to provide additional support to the plant survival in its nutrient-deficient habitat. In hindsight, formation of the pitcher tube in Nepenthes might involve the recruitment of similar genetic mechanisms that occur during sympetaly in Petunia.

  14. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Kevin A; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M; Dawson, Todd E; Franks, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem-leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO₂ concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO₂ concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO₂ on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem-leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO₂ assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand.

  15. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, Kevin A.; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M.; Dawson, Todd E.; Franks, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem–leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO2 concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO2 on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem–leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO2 assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  16. Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark Andrew; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Sprent, Janet I; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-04-12

    Using robust, pairwise comparisons and a global dataset, we show that nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass for nitrogen-fixing plants (N2FP; mainly legumes plus some actinorhizal species) in nonagricultural ecosystems is universally greater (43-100%) than that for other plants (OP). This difference is maintained across Koppen climate zones and growth forms and strongest in the wet tropics and within deciduous angiosperms. N2FP mostly show a similar advantage over OP in nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), even in arid climates, despite diazotrophy being sensitive to drought. We also show that, for most N2FP, carbon fixation by photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gs) are not related to Narea-in distinct challenge to current theories that place the leaf nitrogen-Asat relationship at the center of explanations of plant fitness and competitive ability. Among N2FP, only forbs displayed an Narea-gs relationship similar to that for OP, whereas intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi; Asat/gs) was positively related to Narea for woody N2FP. Enhanced foliar nitrogen (relative to OP) contributes strongly to other evolutionarily advantageous attributes of legumes, such as seed nitrogen and herbivore defense. These alternate explanations of clear differences in leaf N between N2FP and OP have significant implications (e.g., for global models of carbon fluxes based on relationships between leaf N and Asat). Combined, greater WUE and leaf nitrogen-in a variety of forms-enhance fitness and survival of genomes of N2FP, particularly in arid and semiarid climates.

  17. Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark Andrew; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Sprent, Janet I; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-04-12

    Using robust, pairwise comparisons and a global dataset, we show that nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass for nitrogen-fixing plants (N2FP; mainly legumes plus some actinorhizal species) in nonagricultural ecosystems is universally greater (43-100%) than that for other plants (OP). This difference is maintained across Koppen climate zones and growth forms and strongest in the wet tropics and within deciduous angiosperms. N2FP mostly show a similar advantage over OP in nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), even in arid climates, despite diazotrophy being sensitive to drought. We also show that, for most N2FP, carbon fixation by photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gs) are not related to Narea-in distinct challenge to current theories that place the leaf nitrogen-Asat relationship at the center of explanations of plant fitness and competitive ability. Among N2FP, only forbs displayed an Narea-gs relationship similar to that for OP, whereas intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi; Asat/gs) was positively related to Narea for woody N2FP. Enhanced foliar nitrogen (relative to OP) contributes strongly to other evolutionarily advantageous attributes of legumes, such as seed nitrogen and herbivore defense. These alternate explanations of clear differences in leaf N between N2FP and OP have significant implications (e.g., for global models of carbon fluxes based on relationships between leaf N and Asat). Combined, greater WUE and leaf nitrogen-in a variety of forms-enhance fitness and survival of genomes of N2FP, particularly in arid and semiarid climates. PMID:27035971

  18. Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Mark Andrew; Turnbull, Tarryn L.; Sprent, Janet I.; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Using robust, pairwise comparisons and a global dataset, we show that nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass for nitrogen-fixing plants (N2FP; mainly legumes plus some actinorhizal species) in nonagricultural ecosystems is universally greater (43–100%) than that for other plants (OP). This difference is maintained across Koppen climate zones and growth forms and strongest in the wet tropics and within deciduous angiosperms. N2FP mostly show a similar advantage over OP in nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), even in arid climates, despite diazotrophy being sensitive to drought. We also show that, for most N2FP, carbon fixation by photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gs) are not related to Narea—in distinct challenge to current theories that place the leaf nitrogen–Asat relationship at the center of explanations of plant fitness and competitive ability. Among N2FP, only forbs displayed an Narea–gs relationship similar to that for OP, whereas intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi; Asat/gs) was positively related to Narea for woody N2FP. Enhanced foliar nitrogen (relative to OP) contributes strongly to other evolutionarily advantageous attributes of legumes, such as seed nitrogen and herbivore defense. These alternate explanations of clear differences in leaf N between N2FP and OP have significant implications (e.g., for global models of carbon fluxes based on relationships between leaf N and Asat). Combined, greater WUE and leaf nitrogen—in a variety of forms—enhance fitness and survival of genomes of N2FP, particularly in arid and semiarid climates. PMID:27035971

  19. Cellular dynamics of the negative transcription elongation factor NELF

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Tetsu M.C.; Narita, Takashi; Komori, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Handa, Hiroshi

    2009-06-10

    Negative Elongation Factor (NELF) is a transcription factor discovered based on its biochemical activity to suppress transcription elongation, and has since been implicated in various diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancer. Besides its role in promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II during early stages of transcription, recently we found that it also plays important roles in the 3'-end processing of histone mRNA. Furthermore, NELF has been found to form a distinct subnuclear structure, which we named NELF bodies. These recent developments point to a wide range of potential functions for NELF, and, as most studies on NELF thus far had been carried out in vitro, here, we prepared a complete set of fusion protein constructs of NELF subunits and carried out a general cell biological study of the intracellular dynamics of NELF. Our data show that NELF subunits exhibit highly specific subcellular localizations, such as in NELF bodies or in midbodies, and some shuttle actively between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We further show that loss of NELF from cells can lead to enlarged and/or multiple nuclei. This work serves as a foundation and starting point for further cell biological investigations of NELF in the future.

  20. Chromosome end elongation by recombination in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, C W; Kobeski, F; Walter, M F; Biessmann, H

    1997-01-01

    One of the functions of telomeres is to counteract the terminal nucleotide loss associated with DNA replication. While the vast majority of eukaryotic organisms maintain their chromosome ends via telomerase, an enzyme system that generates short, tandem repeats on the ends of chromosomes, other mechanisms such as the transposition of retrotransposons or recombination can also be used in some species. Chromosome end regression and extension were studied in a medically important mosquito, the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, to determine how this dipteran insect maintains its chromosome ends. The insertion of a transgenic pUChsneo plasmid at the left end of chromosome 2 provided a unique marker for measuring the dynamics of the 2L telomere over a period of about 3 years. The terminal length was relatively uniform in the 1993 population with the chromosomes ending within the white gene sequence of the inserted transgene. Cloned terminal chromosome fragments did not end in short repeat sequences that could have been synthesized by telomerase. By late 1995, the chromosome ends had become heterogeneous: some had further shortened while other chromosomes had been elongated by regenerating part of the integrated pUChsneo plasmid. A model is presented for extension of the 2L chromosome by recombination between homologous 2L chromosome ends by using the partial plasmid duplication generated during its original integration. It is postulated that this mechanism is also important in wild-type telomere elongation. PMID:9271395

  1. The Brassica rapa elongated internode (EIN) gene encodes phytochrome B.

    PubMed

    Devlin, P F; Somers, D E; Quail, P H; Whitelam, G C

    1997-06-01

    The elongated internode (ein) mutation of Brassica rapa leads to a deficiency in immunochemically detectable phytochrome B. Molecular analysis of the PHYB gene from ein indicates a deletion in the flanking DNA 5' of the ATG start codon, which could interfere either with PHYB transcription or processing of the PHYB transcript. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms and inverse PCR fragments generated from the PHYB gene of wild-type and ein seedlings demonstrate the deletion to be 500 bp in length. Seedlings of heterozygote, EIN/ein, contain about 50% of the level of immunochemically detectable phytochrome B of equivalent wild-type EIN/EIN seedlings. Etiolated seedlings of EIN/ein show a responsiveness to red light almost intermediate between that of ein/ein and EIN/EIN homozygotes. Furthermore, whereas the ein/ein homozygote is poorly responsive to low red/far-red ratio light, the presence of one functional allele of EIN in the heterozygote confers an elongation response intermediate between that of the homozygotes EIN/EIN and ein/ein in these light conditions. The partial dominance of ein indicates a close relationship between phytochrome B level and phenotype.

  2. Electrostatics in the Ribosomal Tunnel Modulate Chain Elongation Rates

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianli; Deutsch, Carol

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Electrostatic potentials along the ribosomal exit tunnel are non-uniform and negative. The significance of electrostatics in the tunnel remains relatively uninvestigated, yet is likely to play a role in translation and secondary folding of nascent peptides. To probe the role of nascent peptide charges in ribosome function, we used a molecular tape measure that was engineered to contain different numbers of charged amino acids localized to known regions of the tunnel, and measured chain elongation rates. Positively-charged arginine or lysine sequences produce transient arrest (pausing) before the nascent peptide is fully elongated. The rate of conversion from transiently arrested to full-length nascent peptide is faster for peptides containing neutral or negatively-charged residues than for those containing positively-charged residues. We provide experimental evidence that extra-ribosomal mechanisms do not account for this charge-specific pausing. We conclude that pausing is due to charge-specific interactions between the tunnel and the nascent peptide. PMID:18822297

  3. Maintenance of Transcription-Translation Coupling by Elongation Factor P

    PubMed Central

    Elgamal, Sara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Under conditions of tight coupling between translation and transcription, the ribosome enables synthesis of full-length mRNAs by preventing both formation of intrinsic terminator hairpins and loading of the transcription termination factor Rho. While previous studies have focused on transcription factors, we investigated the role of Escherichia coli elongation factor P (EF-P), an elongation factor required for efficient translation of mRNAs containing consecutive proline codons, in maintaining coupled translation and transcription. In the absence of EF-P, the presence of Rho utilization (rut) sites led to an ~30-fold decrease in translation of polyproline-encoding mRNAs. Coexpression of the Rho inhibitor Psu fully restored translation. EF-P was also shown to inhibit premature termination during synthesis and translation of mRNAs encoding intrinsic terminators. The effects of EF-P loss on expression of polyproline mRNAs were augmented by a substitution in RNA polymerase that accelerates transcription. Analyses of previously reported ribosome profiling and global proteomic data identified several candidate gene clusters where EF-P could act to prevent premature transcription termination. In vivo probing allowed detection of some predicted premature termination products in the absence of EF-P. Our findings support a model in which EF-P maintains coupling of translation and transcription by decreasing ribosome stalling at polyproline motifs. Other regulators that facilitate ribosome translocation through roadblocks to prevent premature transcription termination upon uncoupling remain to be identified. PMID:27624127

  4. Application of an Elongated Kelvin Model to Space Shuttle Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2009-01-01

    The space shuttle foams are rigid closed-cell polyurethane foams. The two foams used most-extensively oil space shuttle external tank are BX-265 and NCFL4-124. Because of the foaming and rising process, the foam microstructures are elongated in the rise direction. As a result, these two foams exhibit a nonisotropic mechanical behavior. A detailed microstructural characterization of the two foams is presented. Key features of the foam cells are described and the average cell dimensions in the two foams are summarized. Experimental studies are also conducted to measure the room temperature mechanical response of the two foams in the two principal material directions (parallel to the rise and perpendicular to the rise). The measured elastic modulus, proportional limit stress, ultimate tensile strength, and Poisson's ratios are reported. The generalized elongated Kelvin foam model previously developed by the authors is reviewed and the equations which result from this model are summarized. Using the measured microstructural dimensions and the measured stiffness ratio, the foam tensile strength ratio and Poisson's ratios are predicted for both foams and are compared with the experimental data. The predicted tensile strength ratio is in close agreement with the measured strength ratio for both BX-265 and NCFI24-124. The comparison between the predicted Poisson's ratios and the measured values is not as favorable.

  5. Directed 3D cell alignment and elongation in microengineered hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Hug; Nichol, Jason W; Hutson, Ché B; Bae, Hojae; Sieminski, Alisha L; Cropek, Donald M; Akhyari, Payam; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2010-09-01

    Organized cellular alignment is critical to controlling tissue microarchitecture and biological function. Although a multitude of techniques have been described to control cellular alignment in 2D, recapitulating the cellular alignment of highly organized native tissues in 3D engineered tissues remains a challenge. While cellular alignment in engineered tissues can be induced through the use of external physical stimuli, there are few simple techniques for microscale control of cell behavior that are largely cell-driven. In this study we present a simple and direct method to control the alignment and elongation of fibroblasts, myoblasts, endothelial cells and cardiac stem cells encapsulated in microengineered 3D gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels, demonstrating that cells with the intrinsic potential to form aligned tissues in vivo will self-organize into functional tissues in vitro if confined in the appropriate 3D microarchitecture. The presented system may be used as an in vitro model for investigating cell and tissue morphogenesis in 3D, as well as for creating tissue constructs with microscale control of 3D cellular alignment and elongation, that could have great potential for the engineering of functional tissues with aligned cells and anisotropic function.

  6. Local auxin metabolism regulates environment-induced hypocotyl elongation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zuyu; Guo, Yongxia; Novák, Ondřej; Chen, William; Ljung, Karin; Noel, Joseph P; Chory, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of plants is their adaptability of size and form in response to widely fluctuating environments. The metabolism and redistribution of the phytohormone auxin play pivotal roles in establishing active auxin gradients and resulting cellular differentiation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cotyledons and leaves synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan through indole-3-pyruvic acid (3-IPA) in response to vegetational shade. This newly synthesized auxin moves to the hypocotyl where it induces elongation of hypocotyl cells. Here we show that loss of function of VAS2 (IAA-amido synthetase Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3).17) leads to increases in free IAA at the expense of IAA-Glu (IAA-glutamate) in the hypocotyl epidermis. This active IAA elicits shade- and high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation largely independently of 3-IPA-mediated IAA biosynthesis in cotyledons. Our results reveal an unexpected capacity of local auxin metabolism to modulate the homeostasis and spatial distribution of free auxin in specialized organs such as hypocotyls in response to shade and high temperature. PMID:27249562

  7. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  8. Local auxin metabolism regulates environment-induced hypocotyl elongation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zuyu; Guo, Yongxia; Novák, Ondřej; Chen, William; Ljung, Karin; Noel, Joseph P.; Chory, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of plants is their adaptability of size and form in response to widely fluctuating environments. The metabolism and redistribution of the phytohormone auxin play pivotal roles in establishing active auxin gradients and resulting cellular differentiation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cotyledons and leaves synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan through indole-3-pyruvic acid (3-IPA) in response to vegetational shade. This newly synthesized auxin moves to the hypocotyl where it induces elongation of hypocotyl cells. Here we show that loss of function of VAS2 (IAA-amido synthetase Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3).17) leads to increases in free IAA at the expense of IAA-Glu (IAA-glutamate) in the hypocotyl epidermis. This active IAA elicits shade- and high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation largely independently of 3-IPA-mediated IAA biosynthesis in cotyledons. Our results reveal an unexpected capacity of local auxin metabolism to modulate the homeostasis and spatial distribution of free auxin in specialized organs such as hypocotyls in response to shade and high temperature. PMID:27249562

  9. Study of Elongated Superbubble around CYG OB1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Nichols, Joy

    2004-01-01

    OB association superbubbles and supernova remnants are believed to be the primary sources of the hot component of the interstellar medium. Super- bubbles are also thought to "blow out" of the galactic plane and are thus the potential source of galactic coronal gas. Quantifying the energetics and accurately modeling the evolution of superbubbles is thus an important task in the understanding of the evolution of our Galaxy. The superbubble surrounding the Cyg OB1 association is an excellent example for study of the early stages of superbubble evolution. This superbubble, discovered in IRAS data, is an elongated structure 2 x 5 degrees (26 x 65 pc at distance=1.5 kpc), with at least 2 known supernova remnants believed to be associated with the superbubble. The elongated shape is more extended than can be explained by differential galactic rotation. A major problem in understanding the evolution of the Cyg OB1 superbubble is the discrepancy between the age of the superbubble and the derived age of the parent star association. The superbubble is believed to be no more than 1 Myr old, while the association is about 4-5 Myr old.

  10. Device for measuring hole elongation in a bolted joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichorek, Gregory R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A device to determine the operable failure mode of mechanically fastened lightweight composite joints by measuring the hole elongation of a bolted joint is disclosed. The double-lap joint test apparatus comprises a stud, a test specimen having a hole, two load transfer plates, and linear displacement measuring instruments. The test specimen is sandwiched between the two load transfer plates and clamped together with the stud. Spacer washers are placed between the test specimen and each load transfer plate to provide a known, controllable area for the determination of clamping forces around the hole of the specimen attributable to bolt torque. The spacer washers also provide a gap for the mounting of reference angles on each side of the test specimen. Under tensile loading, elongation of the hole of the test specimen causes the stud to move away from the reference angles. This displacement is measured by the voltage output of two linear displacement measuring instruments that are attached to the stud and remain in contact with the reference angles throughout the tensile loading. The present invention obviates previous problems in obtaining specimen deformation measurements by monitoring the reference angles to the test specimen and the linear displacement measuring instruments to the stud.

  11. Actin filament nucleation and elongation factors--structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The spontaneous and unregulated polymerization of actin filaments is inhibited in cells by actin monomer-binding proteins such as profilin and Tbeta4. Eukaryotic cells and certain pathogens use filament nucleators to stabilize actin polymerization nuclei, whose formation is rate-limiting. Known filament nucleators include the Arp2/3 complex and its large family of nucleation promoting factors (NPFs), formins, Spire, Cobl, VopL/VopF, TARP and Lmod. These molecules control the time and location for polymerization, and additionally influence the structures of the actin networks that they generate. Filament nucleators are generally unrelated, but with the exception of formins they all use the WASP-Homology 2 domain (WH2 or W), a small and versatile actin-binding motif, for interaction with actin. A common architecture, found in Spire, Cobl and VopL/VopF, consists of tandem W domains that bind three to four actin subunits to form a nucleus. Structural considerations suggest that NPFs-Arp2/3 complex can also be viewed as a specialized form of tandem W-based nucleator. Formins are unique in that they use the formin-homology 2 (FH2) domain for interaction with actin and promote not only nucleation, but also processive barbed end elongation. In contrast, the elongation function among W-based nucleators has been "outsourced" to a dedicated family of proteins, Eva/VASP, which are related to WASP-family NPFs.

  12. Elongation of discotic liquid crystal strands and lubricant effects.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Surjya Sarathi; Galerne, Yves

    2014-05-19

    After a short review on the physics of pulled threads and their mechanical properties, the paper reports and discusses the strand elongation of disordered columnar phases, hexagonal or lamella-columnar, of small molecules or polymers. The mechanical properties appear to be relevant to the length of the columns of molecules compared to the thread length, instead of the usual correlation length. If, taking the entanglement effect into account, the column length is short, the strand exhibits rather fluid-like properties that may even look nematic-like at the macroscopic scale. The Plateau-Rayleigh instability breaks the thread shortly thereafter. However, because the hydrodynamic objects are the columns instead of the molecules, the viscosity is anomalously large. The observations show that the strands in the columnar phases are made of filaments, or fibrils, which are bundles of columns of molecules. This explains the grooves and rings, which are observed on the antenna or bamboo-like strand profiles. On pulling a strand, the elongation stress eventually exceeds the plasticity threshold, thus breaking the columns and the filaments. As a result, cracks, more exactly, giant dislocations are formed. These change the strand thickness by steps of different birefringence colors. Interestingly, the addition of a solute may drastically change the effective viscosity of the columnar phase and its mechanical properties. Some solutes, such as alkanes, exhibit lubricant and detangling properties, whereas others such as triphenylene, are antilubricant. PMID:24302445

  13. Engineering the elongation factor Tu for efficient selenoprotein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Haruna, Ken-ichi; Alkazemi, Muhammad H.; Liu, Yuchen; Söll, Dieter; Englert, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Selenocysteine (Sec) is naturally co-translationally incorporated into proteins by recoding the UGA opal codon with a specialized elongation factor (SelB in bacteria) and an RNA structural signal (SECIS element). We have recently developed a SECIS-free selenoprotein synthesis system that site-specifically—using the UAG amber codon—inserts Sec depending on the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). Here, we describe the engineering of EF-Tu for improved selenoprotein synthesis. A Sec-specific selection system was established by expression of human protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (hAGT), in which the active site cysteine codon has been replaced by the UAG amber codon. The formed hAGT selenoprotein repairs the DNA damage caused by the methylating agent N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and thereby enables Escherichia coli to grow in the presence of this mutagen. An EF-Tu library was created in which codons specifying the amino acid binding pocket were randomized. Selection was carried out for enhanced Sec incorporation into hAGT; the resulting EF-Tu variants contained highly conserved amino acid changes within members of the library. The improved UTu-system with EF-Sel1 raises the efficiency of UAG-specific Sec incorporation to >90%, and also doubles the yield of selenoprotein production. PMID:25064855

  14. Leaf shape evolution has a similar genetic architecture in three edaphic specialists within the Mimulus guttatus species complex

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Kathleen G.; Rushton, Tullia; Greenlee, Anna B.; Toll, Katherine; Blackman, Benjamin K.; Willis, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The genetic basis of leaf shape has long interested botanists because leaf shape varies extensively across the plant kingdom and this variation is probably adaptive. However, knowledge of the genetic architecture of leaf shape variation in natural populations remains limited. This study examined the genetic architecture of leaf shape diversification among three edaphic specialists in the Mimulus guttatus species complex. Lobed and narrow leaves have evolved from the entire, round leaves of M. guttatus in M. laciniatus, M. nudatus and a polymorphic serpentine M. guttatus population (M2L). Methods Bulk segregant analysis and next-generation sequencing were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that underlie leaf shape in an M. laciniatus × M. guttatus F2 population. To determine whether the same QTLs contribute to leaf shape variation in M. nudatus and M2L, F2s from M. guttatus × M. nudatus and lobed M2L × unlobed M. guttatus crosses were genotyped at QTLs from the bulk segregant analysis. Key Results Narrow and lobed leaf shapes in M. laciniatus, M. nudatus and M. guttatus are controlled by overlapping genetic regions. Several promising leaf shape candidate genes were found under each QTL. Conclusions The evolution of divergent leaf shape has taken place multiple times in the M. guttatus species complex and is associated with the occupation of dry, rocky environments. The genetic architecture of elongated and lobed leaves is similar across three species in this group. This may indicate that parallel genetic evolution from standing variation or new mutations is responsible for the putatively adaptive leaf shape variation in Mimulus. PMID:26070644

  15. Modes of Action of ADP-Ribosylated Elongation Factor 2 in Inhibiting the Polypeptide Elongation Cycle: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kevin C.; Xie, Honglin; Cai, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EF2) leads to inhibition of protein synthesis, the mechanism by which ADP-ribosylated EF2 (ADPR•EF2) causes this inhibition remains controversial. Here, we applied modeling approaches to investigate the consequences of various modes of ADPR•EF2 inhibitory actions on the two coupled processes, the polypeptide chain elongation and ADP-ribosylation of EF2. Modeling of experimental data indicates that ADPR•EF2 fully blocks the late-phase translocation of tRNAs; but the impairment in the translocation upstream process, mainly the GTP-dependent factor binding with the pretranslocation ribosome and/or the guanine nucleotide exchange in EF2, is responsible for the overall inhibition kinetics. The reduced ADPR•EF2-ribosome association spares the ribosome to bind and shield native EF2 against toxin attack, thereby deferring the inhibition of protein synthesis inhibition and inactivation of EF2. Minimum association with the ribosome also keeps ADPR•EF2 in an accessible state for toxins to catalyze the reverse reaction when nicotinamide becomes available. Our work underscores the importance of unveiling the interactions between ADPR•EF2 and the ribosome, and argues against that toxins inhibit protein synthesis through converting native EF2 to a competitive inhibitor to actively disable the ribosome. PMID:23861744

  16. Cloning and Sequencing of the cDNA Encoding the Rubber Elongation Factor of Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Goyvaerts, Elisabeth; Dennis, Mark; Light, David; Chua, Nam-Hai

    1991-01-01

    In Hevea brasiliensis, the rubber particle in the laticiferous vessel is the site of rubber (cis-1-4-polyisoprene) biosynthesis. A 14 kilodalton protein, rubber elongation factor (REF), is associated with the rubber particle in a ratio of one REF to one rubber molecule (Dennis M, Henzel W, Bell J, Kohr W, Light D [1989] J Biol Chem 264: 18618-18628; Dennis M, Light D [1989] J Biol Chem 264: 18608-18617). To obtain more information concerning the function of REF and its synthesis and assembly in the rubber particle, we isolated cDNA clones encoding REF. We used antibodies to REF to screen a Hevea leaf γgt11 cDNA expression library and obtained several positive clones. Sequence analysis of the REF cDNA clones showed that the REF mRNA contains 121 nucleotides of 5′-nontranslated sequences and a 205 nucleotide 3′-nontranslated region. The open reading frame encodes the entire 14 kilodalton REF protein without any extra amino acids (Dennis M, Henzel W, Bell J, Kohr W, Light D [1989] J Biol Chem 264: 18618-18628). The REF cDNA was subcloned in pGEM-3Z/-4Z and expressed in vitro. The translation product is a 14 kilodalton protein that can be immunoprecipitated with antibodies to REF. Addition of microsomal membranes to the in vitro translation product did not alter the mobility of the REF protein. This, and the sequence data, indicate that REF is not made as a preprotein. Our results suggest that REF is synthesized on free polysomes in the laticifer cytoplasm and that assembly of the rubber particles is likely to occur in the cytosol. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668388

  17. The R3-MYB Gene GhCPC Negatively Regulates Cotton Fiber Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bingliang; Zhu, Yichao; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers are single-cell trichomes that arise from the outer epidermal layer of seed coat. Here, we isolated a R3-MYB gene GhCPC, identified by cDNA microarray analysis. The only conserved R3 motif and different expression between TM-1 and fuzzless-lintless mutants suggested that it might be a negative regulator in fiber development. Transgenic evidence showed that GhCPC overexpression not only delayed fiber initiation but also led to significant decreases in fiber length. Interestingly, Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed an interaction complex, in which GhCPC and GhTTG1/4 separately interacted with GhMYC1. In transgenic plants, Q-PCR analysis showed that GhHOX3 (GL2) and GhRDL1 were significantly down regulated in −1–5 DPA ovules and fibers. In addition, Yeast one-hybrid analysis demonstrated that GhMYC1 could bind to the E-box cis-elements and the promoter of GhHOX3. These results suggested that GhHOX3 (GL2) might be downstream gene of the regulatory complex. Also, overexpression of GhCPC in tobacco led to differential loss of pigmentation. Taken together, the results suggested that GhCPC might negatively regulate cotton fiber initiation and early elongation by a potential CPC-MYC1-TTG1/4 complex. Although the fibers were shorter in transgenic cotton lines than in the wild type, no significant difference was detected in stem or leaf trichomes, even in cotton mutants (five naked seed or fuzzless), suggesting that fiber and trichome development might be regulated by two sets of genes sharing a similar model. PMID:25646816

  18. Influence of the growth retardant tetcyclacis on cell division and cell elongation in plants and cell cultures of sunflower, soybean, and maize.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, K; Grossmann, K; Sauerbrey, E; Jung, J

    1985-03-01

    Taking tetcyclacis, a norbornenodiazentine derivative, as an example, the influence of a growth retardant on the shoot growth of sunflower, soybean, and maize seedlings grown and treated in hydroculture was investigated. In detail, the reduction in the length of various shoot sections {epicotyl, 1st internode, leaf blade) caused by the retardant was studied. At low concentrations of the retardant (\\lt10(-6) M) the shortening effects are substantially attributable to an influence on cell elongation, whereas cell division is inhibited as the concentration increases (τ10(-6) M). A comparison of the effects of tetcyclacis in cell suspension cultures of appropriate plant species showed that also in this system concentrations τ 10(-6) M inhibited cell division growth, i. e. there is comparability of plant/ cell culture regarding the retardant effect on cell division. In contrast to the intact plants, however, cell elongation appears to be of only subordinate importance for the growth of cell cultures, as it has been shown using parsley cell suspension cultures. It is discussed to what extent influencing the gibberellin or sterol biosynthesis by means of tetcyclacis provides an explanation for the concentration-dependent effect on the cell division and cell elongation processes. PMID:23196005

  19. Gain and loss of elongation factor genes in green algae

    PubMed Central

    Cocquyt, Ellen; Verbruggen, Heroen; Leliaert, Frederik; Zechman, Frederick W; Sabbe, Koen; De Clerck, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Background Two key genes of the translational apparatus, elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and elongation factor-like (EFL) have an almost mutually exclusive distribution in eukaryotes. In the green plant lineage, the Chlorophyta encode EFL except Acetabularia where EF-1α is found, and the Streptophyta possess EF-1α except Mesostigma, which has EFL. These results raise questions about evolutionary patterns of gain and loss of EF-1α and EFL. A previous study launched the hypothesis that EF-1α was the primitive state and that EFL was gained once in the ancestor of the green plants, followed by differential loss of EF-1α or EFL in the principal clades of the Viridiplantae. In order to gain more insight in the distribution of EF-1α and EFL in green plants and test this hypothesis we screened the presence of the genes in a large sample of green algae and analyzed their gain-loss dynamics in a maximum likelihood framework using continuous-time Markov models. Results Within the Chlorophyta, EF-1α is shown to be present in three ulvophycean orders (i.e., Dasycladales, Bryopsidales, Siphonocladales) and the genus Ignatius. Models describing gene gain-loss dynamics revealed that the presence of EF-1α, EFL or both genes along the backbone of the green plant phylogeny is highly uncertain due to sensitivity to branch lengths and lack of prior knowledge about ancestral states or rates of gene gain and loss. Model refinements based on insights gained from the EF-1α phylogeny reduce uncertainty but still imply several equally likely possibilities: a primitive EF-1α state with multiple independent EFL gains or coexistence of both genes in the ancestor of the Viridiplantae or Chlorophyta followed by differential loss of one or the other gene in the various lineages. Conclusion EF-1α is much more common among green algae than previously thought. The mutually exclusive distribution of EF-1α and EFL is confirmed in a large sample of green plants. Hypotheses about the gain

  20. Antibacterial activity of stem and leaf extract of Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn.

    PubMed Central

    Priyavardhini, S.; Gowri, S. Shyamala; Vasantha, K.; Umadevi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of chloroform extracts of stem and leaf of Kedrostis foetidissima (jacq.) cogn. (Cucurbitaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. The results revealed that the chloroform extract of stem presented the highest zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa others show significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557304

  1. In vitro direct shoot regeneration from proximal, middle and distal segment of Coleus forskohlii leaf explants.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gaurav; Sairam Reddy, P; Anoop Nair, N; Ramteke, P W; Bhattacharya, P S

    2010-04-01

    Coleus forskohlii is an endangered multipurpose medicinal plant that has widespread applications. In spite of this, there have been few attempts to propagate its cultivation in India. The present communication presents an in vitro rapid regeneration method using leaf explants of Coleus forskohlii through direct organogenesis. Leaf explants that were excised into three different segments i.e. proximal (P), middle (M) and distal (D) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with cytokinins. MS Media containing 5.0 mg L(-1) BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) promoted regeneration of multiple shoots through direct organogenesis from the leaf, which were further elongated on MS media augmented with 0.1 mg L-1 BAP and 0.1 mg L(-1) IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid), cytokinin and auxin combination. Regenerated and elongated shoots, when transferred to ose resulted in profuse rooting plants that were transferred to soil after acclimatization and maintained in a green house. The current protocol offers a direct, mass propagation method bypassing the callus phase of C. forskohlii and is suitable for conservation, large-scale commercial cultivation, and genetic transformation with agronomically desirable traits. PMID:23572969

  2. The fine structure of elongate gametocytes of Leucocytozoon ziemanni (Laveran).

    PubMed

    Kocan, A A; Kocan, K M

    1978-12-01

    In an effort to establish comparative data within the genus Leucocytozoon, elongate gametocytes of L. ziemanni from naturally infected great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were examined by electron microscopy. Micro- and macrogametocytes proved to be easily distinguishable at the electron microscopic level due to dramatic dimorphism at maturity and cytoplasmic and nuclear morphology. The parasite membrane architecture, number and type of cytoplasmic ribosomes of both micro- and macrogametocytes, presence and arrangement of osmiophilic bodies and electron dense spheres, mitochondrial morphology, endoplasmic reticulum cisternae morphology, mitochondria containing pocket infoldings of the nuclear membrane of the microgametocytes, and cytostome and food vacuole formation compare favorably with available information on L. simondi and L. smithi. Comparative variations exist only in that L. ziemanni gametocytes apparently lack compartmentalization of the cytoplasm by aligned unit membranes and parasite induced separations of the host cell nucleus as reported for L. simondi. PMID:105117

  3. Reconstruction of recurrent diaphragmatic eventration with an elongated polytetrafluoroethylene sheet

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Masaki; Sonobe, Makoto; Bando, Toru; Date, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 31-year old woman with recurrence of left diaphragmatic eventration 3 years after a previous surgery for this condition. At the initial occurrence, she had experienced dyspnoea on exercise and subsequently underwent laparoscopic plication of the diaphragm with an endo-stapler at a local hospital. Immediately after the operation, the diaphragm was torn and the intestine entered the thorax. Therefore, plication involving sewing was performed. Then, 3 years later, the patient again experienced dyspnoea and was diagnosed as having recurrence of left diaphragmatic eventration. Observation under thoracoscopy revealed that the centre of the left diaphragm was thin but not torn. We reconstructed the left diaphragm with an elongated polytetrafluoroethylene sheet on the naïve diaphragm. The patient was discharged from our hospital 5 days after surgery. Her respiratory function improved and she has not experienced recurrence. PMID:23644727

  4. Longitudinal domain wall formation in elongated assemblies of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Varón, Miriam; Beleggia, Marco; Jordanovic, Jelena; Schiøtz, Jakob; Kasama, Takeshi; Puntes, Victor F.; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Through evaporation of dense colloids of ferromagnetic ~13 nm ε-Co particles onto carbon substrates, anisotropic magnetic dipolar interactions can support formation of elongated particle structures with aggregate thicknesses of 100–400 nm and lengths of up to some hundred microns. Lorenz microscopy and electron holography reveal collective magnetic ordering in these structures. However, in contrast to continuous ferromagnetic thin films of comparable dimensions, domain walls appear preferentially as longitudinal, i.e., oriented parallel to the long axis of the nanoparticle assemblies. We explain this unusual domain structure as the result of dipolar interactions and shape anisotropy, in the absence of inter-particle exchange coupling. PMID:26416297

  5. Centrosome splitting during nuclear elongation in the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Callaini, G; Anselmi, F

    1988-10-01

    In the early Drosophila embryo, nuclear elongation occurs during cellularization of the syncytial blastoderm. This process is closely related to the presence of microtubular bundles forming a basket-like structure surrounding the nuclei. In immunofluorescence observations with antibodies against alpha-tubulin, the microtubules appear to radiate from two bright foci widely separated from each other. We used electron microscopy to show that these foci are true centrosomes constituted by daughter and parent centrioles orthogonally disposed and surrounded by pericentriolar electrondense material. The centrosomes may be observed in the apical region of the blastoderm cells from the beginning of cellularization until the reestablishment of the first postblastodermic mitosis, when they organize the spindle poles. Until this time the dimensions of the procentrioles remain unchanged. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to the known behavior of centrioles in the cell cycle.

  6. Content-Based Retrieval of Medical Images with Elongated Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Alexei Manso Correa; Teixeira, Christiano Augusto Caldas

    In this paper we propose a set of methods to describe, register and retrieve images of elongated structures from a database based on their shape content. Registration is performed based on an elastic matching algorithm that jointly takes into account the gross shape of the structure and the shape of its boundary, resulting in anatomically consistent deformations. The method determines a medial axis that represents the full extent of the structure with no branches. Discriminative anatomic features are computed from the results of registration and used as variables in a content-based image retrieval system. A case study on the morphology of the corpus callosum in the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome illustrates the effectiveness of the method and corroborates the hypothesis that retrieval systems may also act as knowledge discovery tools.

  7. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of the zodiacal light at 20-deg elongation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    The zodiacal light at 20-deg elongation and 10-deg inclination was observed by rocket ultraviolet spectrometers at 10-15-A resolution in the spectral range 1200-3200 A during an experiment designed to observe comet Kohoutek (1973 XII). The data were obtained above 180 km when scattered horizon light in the startracker caused a loss of tracking on the comet. Airglow emission due to NO and O(+), identified spectroscopically and by its variation with altitude, is significant between 1900 and 2500 A. Longward of 2600 A, the spectrum matches that of the sun, and the derived value of the color ratio, relative to the visible, is 0.90 + or - 0.20. At 1600 A, an upper limit on the zodiacal-light emission of 0.07 R per A or 7 hundred-millionths erg/s per sq cm/sterad per A is obtained.

  8. How to pattern a leaf.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, N; O'Connor, D; Moon, J; Lewis, M; Hake, S

    2012-01-01

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, and function, all leaves initiate in the same manner: from the flanks of a meristem. The maize leaf is useful for analysis of patterning due to the wealth of mutants and the distinct tissues along the proximal distal axis. The blade is distal, the sheath is proximal, and the ligule forms at the blade/sheath boundary. Establishment of this boundary involves the transcription factors LIGULELESS1 and LIGULELESS2 and the kinase LIGULELESS NARROW. The meristem-specific protein KNOTTED1 (KN1) binds and modulates the lg2 gene. Given the localization of KN1 at the proximal end of the leaf from the time of inception, we hypothesize that KN1 has a role in establishing the very proximal end of the leaf, whereas an auxin maximum guides the growing distal tip. PMID:23174765

  9. Elongational rheology and cohesive fracture of photo-oxidated LDPE

    SciTech Connect

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H. Wagner, Manfred H.

    2014-01-15

    It was found recently that low-density polyethylene (LDPE) samples with different degrees of photo-oxidation represent an interesting system to study the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture and the aspects of the cohesive rupture in elongational flow. Sheets of LDPE were subjected to photo-oxidation in the presence of air using a xenon lamp to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Characterisation methods included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solvent extraction method, and rheology in shear and uniaxial extensional flows. Linear viscoelasticity was increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by the carbonyl index, acid and aldehydes groups, and gel fraction. The molecular stress function model was used to quantify the experimental data, and the nonlinear model parameter β was found to be correlated with the gel content. The uniaxial data showed that the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture was shifted to lower elongational rates, the higher the gel content was. From 2 weeks photo-oxidation onwards, cohesive rupture occurred at every strain rate investigated. The true strain and true stress at cohesive fracture as well as the energy density applied to the sample up to fracture were analyzed. At low gel content, rupture was mainly determined by the melt fraction while at high gel content, rupture occurred predominantly in the gel structure. The strain at break was found to be independent of strain rate, contrary to the stress at break and the energy density. Thus, the true strain and not the stress at break or the energy density was found to be the relevant physical quantity to describe cohesive fracture behavior of photo-oxidated LDPE. The equilibrium modulus of the gel structures was correlated with the true strain at rupture. The stiffer the gel structure, the lower was the deformation tolerated before the sample breaks.

  10. Dendrosomatic Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Hippocampal Neurons Regulates Axon Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Petralia, Ronald S.; Ott, Carolyn; Wang, Ya-Xian; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and its signaling components in the neurons of the hippocampus raises a question about what role the Shh signaling pathway may play in these neurons. We show here that activation of the Shh signaling pathway stimulates axon elongation in rat hippocampal neurons. This Shh-induced effect depends on the pathway transducer Smoothened (Smo) and the transcription factor Gli1. The axon itself does not respond directly to Shh; instead, the Shh signal transduction originates from the somatodendritic region of the neurons and occurs in neurons with and without detectable primary cilia. Upon Shh stimulation, Smo localization to dendrites increases significantly. Shh pathway activation results in increased levels of profilin1 (Pfn1), an actin-binding protein. Mutations in Pfn1's actin-binding sites or reduction of Pfn1 eliminate the Shh-induced axon elongation. These findings indicate that Shh can regulate axon growth, which may be critical for development of hippocampal neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although numerous signaling mechanisms have been identified that act directly on axons to regulate their outgrowth, it is not known whether signals transduced in dendrites may also affect axon outgrowth. We describe here a transcellular signaling pathway in embryonic hippocampal neurons in which activation of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) receptors in dendrites stimulates axon growth. The pathway involves the dendritic-membrane-associated Shh signal transducer Smoothened (Smo) and the transcription factor Gli, which induces the expression of the gene encoding the actin-binding protein profilin 1. Our findings suggest scenarios in which stimulation of Shh in dendrites results in accelerated outgrowth of the axon, which therefore reaches its presumptive postsynaptic target cell more quickly. By this mechanism, Shh may play critical roles in the development of hippocampal neuronal circuits. PMID:26658865

  11. Effect of elongational flow on ferrofuids under a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, S; Do, Younghae; Lopez, J M

    2013-07-01

    To set up a mathematical model for the flow of complex magnetic fluids, noninteracting magnetic particles with a small volume or an even point size are typically assumed. Real ferrofluids, however, consist of a suspension of particles with a finite size in an almost ellipsoid shape as well as with particle-particle interactions that tend to form chains of various lengths. To come close to the realistic situation for ferrofluids, we investigate the effect of elongational flow incorporated by the symmetric part of the velocity gradient field tensor, which could be scaled by a so-called transport coefficient λ(2). Based on the hybrid finite-difference and Galerkin scheme, we study the flow of a ferrofluid in the gap between two concentric rotating cylinders subjected to either a transverse or an axial magnetic field with the transport coefficient. Under the influence of a transverse magnetic field with λ(2)=0, we show that basic state and centrifugal unstable flows are modified and are inherently three-dimensional helical flows that are either left-winding or right-winding in the sense of the azimuthal mode-2, which is in contrast to the generic cases. That is, classical modulated rotating waves rotate, but these flows do not. We find that under elongational flow (λ(2)≠0), the flow structure from basic state and centrifugal instability flows is modified and their azimuthal vorticity is linearly changed. In addition, we also show that the bifurcation threshold of the supercritical centrifugal unstable flows under a magnetic field depends linearly on the transport coefficient, but it does not affect the general stabilization effect of any magnetic field. PMID:23944545

  12. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  13. Arabidopsis COP1 and SPA genes are essential for plant elongation but not for acceleration of flowering time in response to a low red light to far-red light ratio.

    PubMed

    Rolauffs, Sebastian; Fackendahl, Petra; Sahm, Jan; Fiene, Gabriele; Hoecker, Ute

    2012-12-01

    Plants sense vegetative shade as a reduction in the ratio of red light to far-red light (R:FR). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) responds to a reduced R:FR with increased elongation of the hypocotyl and the leaf petioles as well as with an acceleration of flowering time. The repressor of light signaling, CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), has been shown previously to be essential for the shade-avoidance response in seedlings. Here, we have investigated the roles of COP1 and the COP1-interacting SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) proteins in seedling and adult facets of the shade-avoidance response. We show that COP1 and the four SPA genes are essential for hypocotyl and leaf petiole elongation in response to low R:FR, in a fashion that involves the COP1/SPA ubiquitination target LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1 but not ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5. In contrast, the acceleration of flowering in response to a low R:FR was normal in cop1 and spa mutants, thus demonstrating that the COP1/SPA complex is only required for elongation responses to vegetative shade and not for shade-induced early flowering. We further show that spa mutant seedlings fail to exhibit an increase in the transcript levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes YUCCA2 (YUC2), YUC8, and YUC9 in response to low R:FR, suggesting that an increase in auxin biosynthesis in vegetative shade requires SPA function. Consistent with this finding, expression of the auxin-response marker gene DR5::GUS did not increase in spa mutant seedlings exposed to low R:FR. We propose that COP1/SPA activity, via LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1, is required for shade-induced modulation of the auxin biosynthesis pathway and thereby enhances cell elongation in low R:FR.

  14. Analysis and significance of gravity-induced asymmetric growth in the grass leaf-sheath pulvinus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanandan, P.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    The negative gravitropic response in the grass leaf-sheath pulvinus is a consequence of cell elongation involving all cells except those of the uppermost region of the upper flank of an horizontally oriented pulvinus. The lowermost layer of cells elongate maximally, and the regions in between elongate to intermediate extents. The resulting curvatures of a responding pulvinus can be expressed mathematically by relating the angle of curvature (theta) to the original length (L0) and the maximal length of the lower surface (L1) and the diameter of the organ (D), using the equation, theta = (L1-L0)/D, where theta is in radians. The elongation response (S) of any individual cells within the pulvinus can be expressed by the equation, S = 0.5 - r cos theta, where r is the radius of the pulvinus and theta is in degrees. Microscopic measurement of cell lengths in different regions of the pulvinus supports the mathematical predictions. Indirect support is also obtained from the use of colchicine, coumarin, dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) and isopropyl N-chlorophenyl carbamate which exaggerate the inherent asymmetry during gravitropic response. Coumarin and DCBN also induce thickenings in the radial walls which appear first in the statenchyma, and later, in cells located towards the outer periphery of the pulvinus. The distribution patterns of these thickenings suggest that the asymmetric growth response of the pulvinus may be due to a differential and radial, centrifugal transport of growth promotors from the central statenchyma region.

  15. Leaf-associated fungal diversity in acidified streams: insights from combining traditional and molecular approaches.

    PubMed

    Clivot, Hugues; Cornut, Julien; Chauvet, Eric; Elger, Arnaud; Poupin, Pascal; Guérold, François; Pagnout, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    We combined microscopic and molecular methods to investigate fungal assemblages on alder leaf litter exposed in the benthic and hyporheic zones of five streams across a gradient of increasing acidification for 4 weeks. The results showed that acidification and elevated Al concentrations strongly depressed sporulating aquatic hyphomycetes diversity in both zones of streams, while fungal diversity assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) appeared unaffected. Clone library analyses revealed that fungal communities on leaves were dominated by members of Ascomycetes and to a lesser extent by Basidiomycetes and Chytridiomycetes. An important contribution of terrestrial fungi was observed in both zones of the most acidified stream and in the hyporheic zone of the reference circumneutral stream. The highest leaf breakdown rate was observed in the circumneutral stream and occurred in the presence of both the highest diversity of sporulating aquatic hyphomycetes and the highest contribution to clone libraries of sequences affiliated with aquatic hyphomycetes. Both methods underline the major role played by aquatic hyphomycetes in leaf decomposition process. Our findings also bring out new highlights on the identity of leaf-associated fungal communities and their responses to anthropogenic alteration of running water ecosystems.

  16. Transcription elongation regulator 1 (TCERG1) regulates competent RNA polymerase II-mediated elongation of HIV-1 transcription and facilitates efficient viral replication

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Control of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) release from pausing has been proposed as a checkpoint mechanism to ensure optimal RNAPII activity, especially in large, highly regulated genes. HIV-1 gene expression is highly regulated at the level of elongation, which includes transcriptional pausing that is mediated by both viral and cellular factors. Here, we present evidence for a specific role of the elongation-related factor TCERG1 in regulating the extent of HIV-1 elongation and viral replication in vivo. Results We show that TCERG1 depletion diminishes the basal and viral Tat-activated transcription from the HIV-1 LTR. In support of a role for an elongation mechanism in the transcriptional control of HIV-1, we found that TCERG1 modifies the levels of pre-mRNAs generated at distal regions of HIV-1. Most importantly, TCERG1 directly affects the elongation rate of RNAPII transcription in vivo. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that TCERG1 regulates HIV-1 transcription by increasing the rate of RNAPII elongation through the phosphorylation of serine 2 within the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNAPII and suggest a mechanism for the involvement of TCERG1 in relieving pausing. Finally, we show that TCERG1 is required for HIV-1 replication. Conclusions Our study reveals that TCERG1 regulates HIV-1 transcriptional elongation by increasing the elongation rate of RNAPII and phosphorylation of Ser 2 within the CTD. Based on our data, we propose a general mechanism for TCERG1 acting on genes that are regulated at the level of elongation by increasing the rate of RNAPII transcription through the phosphorylation of Ser2. In the case of HIV-1, our evidence provides the basis for further investigation of TCERG1 as a potential therapeutic target for the inhibition of HIV-1 replication PMID:24165037

  17. Biophysical control of leaf temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C.; Wright, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    In principle sunlit leaves can maintain their temperatures within a narrower range than ambient temperatures. This is an important and long-known (but now overlooked) prediction of energy balance theory. Net radiation at leaf surface in steady state (which is reached rapidly) must be equal to the combination of sensible and latent heat exchanges with surrounding air, the former being proportional to leaf-to-air temperature difference (ΔT), the latter to the transpiration rate. We present field measurements of ΔT which confirm the existence of a 'crossover temperature' in the 25-30˚C range for species in a tropical savanna and a tropical rainforest environment. This finding is consistent with a simple representation of transpiration as a function of net radiation and temperature (Priestley-Taylor relationship) assuming an entrainment factor (ω) somewhat greater than the canonical value of 0.26. The fact that leaves in tropical forests are typically cooler than surrounding air, often already by solar noon, is consistent with a recently published comparison of MODIS day-time land-surface temperatures with air temperatures. Theory further predicts a strong dependence of leaf size (which is inversely related to leaf boundary-layer conductance, and therefore to absolute magnitude of ΔT) on moisture availability. Theoretically, leaf size should be determined by either night-time constraints (risk of frost damage to active leaves) or day-time constraints (risk of heat stress damage),with the former likely to predominate - thereby restricting the occurrence of large leaves - at high latitudes. In low latitudes, daytime maximum leaf size is predicted to increase with temperature, provided that water is plentiful. If water is restricted, however, transpiration cannot proceed at the Priestley-Taylor rate, and it quickly becomes advantageous for plants to have small leaves, which do not heat up much above the temperature of their surroundings. The difference between leaf

  18. [The analysis of the causes of variability of the relationship between leaf dry mass and area in plants].

    PubMed

    Vasfilov, S P

    2011-01-01

    The lamina dry mass: area ratio (LMA - Leaf Mass per Area) is a quite variable trait. Leaf dry mass consists of symplast mass (a set of all leaf protoplasts) and apoplast mass (a set of all cell walls in a leaf). The ratio between symplast and apoplast masses is positively related to any functional trait of leaf calculated per unit of dry mass. The value of this ratio is defined by cells size and their number per unit of leaf area, number of mesophyll cells layers and their differentiation between palisade and spongy ones, and also by density of cells packing. The LMA value is defined by leaf thickness and density. The extent and direction of variability in both leaf traits define the extent and direction of variability in LMA. Negative correlation between leaf thickness and density reduces the level of LMA variability. As a consequence of this correlation the following pattern emerges: the thinner a leaf, the denser it is. Changes in the traits that define the LMA value take place both within a species under the influence of environmental factors and between species that differ in leaf structure and functions. Light is the most powerful environmental factor that influences the LMA, increase in illumination leading to increase in LMA. This effect occurs during leaf growth at the expense of structural changes associated with the reduction of symplast/apoplast mass ratio. Under conditions of intense illumination, LMA may increase due to accumulation of starch. With regard to the majority of leaf functions, the mass of starch may be ascribed to apoplast. Starch accumulation in leaves is observed also under conditions of elevated CO2 concentration in the air. Under high illumination, however, LMA increases also due to increased apoplast contribution to leaf dry mass. Scarce mineral nutrition leads to LMA increase due to lowering of growth zones demands for phothosyntates and, therefore, to increase in starch content of leaves. High level of mineral nutrition during

  19. Anisotropic Resist Reflow Process Simulation for 22 nm Elongated Contact Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon-Min; Kim, Dai-Gyoung; Hong, Joo-Yoo; An, Ilsin; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2008-06-01

    Pattern size decreases as circuit integration increases. Resistance increases as the cross section of a contact hole (CH) decreases. Thus, the use of an elongated CH is suggested as a method of solving this problem. It is too difficult to obtain a small CH and an elongated CH by optical proximity correction only. Even if double patterning can be used to improve the integration of line and space, it is not easy to apply it to form an elongated CH. We suggest the use of a resist reflow process method to form 22 nm elongated CHs from a large developed size pattern. We observed RRP behavior in elongated CHs by experiment and simulation, and applied optical proximity correction to compensate the bulk effect after the resist reflow process. As a result, we made uniform 22 nm elongated CHs.

  20. Genetic separation of phototropism from blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation on Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Liscum, E.; Young, J.C.; Hangarter, R.P. ); Poff, K.L. )

    1991-05-01

    Phototropism and inhibition of stem elongation occur in response to blue light-induced inhibition of cell elongation. However, phototropism is a low fluence response and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation is a high irradiance response. The authors have isolated several mutant lines of Arabidopsis which lack blue light-induced inhibition of hypocotyl elongation but retain normal phototropic functions. In addition, a mutant line which completely lacks the phototropic response retains normal blue light-induced inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. F1 progeny of crosses between these two mutant classes exhibited wild-type phototropism and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in response to blue light stimuli. In the F2 generation, one in sixteen seedlings were double mutants lacking both phototropism and blue light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition. These studies conclusively show that blue light-induced phototropism and hypocotyl growth inhibition function through genetically distinct signal transduction or response systems.

  1. Asian Eocene monsoons as revealed by leaf architectural signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, Robert A.; Yang, Jian; Herman, Alexei B.; Kodrul, Tatiana; Maslova, Natalia; Spicer, Teresa E. V.; Aleksandrova, Galina; Jin, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    The onset and development of the Asian monsoon systems is a topic that has attracted considerable research effort but proxy data limitations, coupled with a diversity of definitions and metrics characterizing monsoon phenomena, have generated much debate. Failure of geological proxies to yield metrics capable of distinguishing between rainfall seasonality induced by migrations of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) from that attributable to topographically modified seasonal pressure reversals has frustrated attempts to understand mechanisms underpinning monsoon development and dynamics. Here we circumvent the use of such single climate parameter metrics in favor of detecting directly the distinctive attributes of different monsoon regimes encoded in leaf fossils. Leaf form adapts to the prevailing climate, particularly under the extreme seasonal stresses imposed by monsoons, so it is likely that fossil leaves carry a unique signature of past monsoon regimes. Leaf form trait spectra obtained from fossils from Eocene basins in southern China were compared with those seen in modern leaves growing under known climate regimes. The fossil leaf trait spectra, including those derived from previously published fossil floras from northwestern India, were most similar to those found in vegetation exposed to the modern Indonesia-Australia Monsoon (I-AM), which is largely a product of seasonal migrations of the ITCZ. The presence of this distinctive leaf physiognomic signature suggests that although a monsoon climate existed in Eocene time across southern Asia the characteristics of the modern topographically-enhanced South Asia Monsoon had yet to develop. By the Eocene leaves in South Asia had become well adapted to an I-AM type regime across many taxa and points to the existence of a pervasive monsoon climate prior to the Eocene. No fossil trait spectra typical of exposure to the modern East Asia monsoon were seen, suggesting the effects of this system in southern

  2. Elongation Kinetics of Polyglutamine Peptide Fibrils: A Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Study

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Robert H.; Jacobson, Kurt H.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Murphy, Regina M.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally expanded polyglutamine domains in proteins are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease. Expansion of the polyglutamine (polyQ) domain facilitates aggregation of the affected protein, and several studies directly link aggregation to neurotoxicity. Studies of synthetic polyQ peptides have contributed substantially to our understanding of the mechanism of aggregation. In this report, polyQ fibrils were immobilized onto a sensor, and their elongation by polyQ peptides of various length and conformation was examined using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The rate of elongation increased as the peptide length increased from 8 to 24 glutamines (Q8, Q20, and Q24). Monomer conformation affected elongation rates: insertion of a β-turn template d-Pro-Gly in the center of the peptide increased elongation rates several-fold, while insertion of Pro-Pro dramatically slowed elongation. Dissipation measurements of the QCM-D provided qualitative information about mechanical properties of the elongating fibrils. These data showed clear differences in the characteristics of the elongating aggregates, depending on the specific identity of the associating polyQ peptide. Elongation rates were sensitive to the pH and ionic strength of the buffer. Comparison of QCM-D data with those obtained by optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy revealed that very little water was associated with the elongation of fibrils by the peptide containing d-Pro-Gly, but a significant amount of water was associated when the fibrils were elongated by Q20. Together, the data indicate that elongation of polyQ fibrils can occur without full consolidation to the fibril structure, resulting in variations to the aggregate structure during elongation. PMID:22459263

  3. Elongated styloid process in a temporomandibular disorder sample: prevalence and treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Zaki, H S; Greco, C M; Rudy, T E; Kubinski, J A

    1996-04-01

    An elongated styloid process is an anatomic anomaly present in 2% to 30% of adults; it is occasionally associated with pain. Its prevalence among patients with classic temporomandibular disorder pain symptoms is unknown. The effect of conservative treatment on patients who have symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and an elongated styloid process is also unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of the elongated styloid process in a sample of patients with temporomandibular disorders and to compare patients with and without the elongated styloid process on initial presenting signs and symptoms and treatment outcome. A total of 100 panoramic radiographs of patients with symptomatic temporomandibular disorders were examined to ascertain the presence or absence of an elongated styloid process. All patients participated in a conservative treatment program of biofeedback and stress management and a flat-plane intraoral appliance. Initial symptoms and treatment outcome of patients with and without an elongated styloid process were compared by use of multivariate analysis of variance on several oral-paraoral and psychosocial-behavioral methods. The prevalence of an elongated styloid process in this clinic sample of temporomandibular disorders was 27%. The patients with or without an elongated styloid process were not significantly different in pretreatment symptoms, and both groups exhibited substantial treatment gains. However, patients with an elongated styloid process showed significantly less improvement on unassisted mandibular opening without pain than did patients who did not have an elongated styloid process. This suggests that an elongated styloid process may place structural limitations on pain-free maximum mandibular opening. The results support conservative management of patients with symptoms of temporomandibular disorders when an elongated styloid process is present.

  4. Behavior of Leaf Meristems and Their Modification

    PubMed Central

    Ichihashi, Yasunori; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    A major source of diversity in flowering plant form is the extensive variability of leaf shape and size. Leaf formation is initiated by recruitment of a handful of cells flanking the shoot apical meristem (SAM) to develop into a complex three-dimensional structure. Leaf organogenesis depends on activities of several distinct meristems that are established and spatiotemporally differentiated after the initiation of leaf primordia. Here, we review recent findings in the gene regulatory networks that orchestrate leaf meristem activities in a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We then discuss recent key studies investigating the natural variation in leaf morphology to understand how the gene regulatory networks modulate leaf meristems to yield a substantial diversity of leaf forms during the course of evolution. PMID:26648955

  5. Spectral reflectance relationships to leaf water stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in leaf cover, relative water content of leaves, and leaf water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both leaf cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in leaf cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by leaf moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when leaf cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between leaf water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and leaf cover.

  6. An Innovative Way to Monitor Leaf Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnello, A.; Paredes, K.; Trinh, U.; Saleska, S. R.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Anthony John Garnello, Karina Paredes, Uyen Khanh Ho Trinh, Jin Wu, Scott Saleska Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Leaf age is an important characteristic for controlling plant functional performance and is associated with the changes of leaf physical, chemical, and physiological properties. Understanding how plant physiology changes over time will allow more accurate predictions of growth patterns, and a more comprehensive understanding of vegetative life histories. There still lacks an efficient technique in monitoring leaf age, tagging leaves is still the only way to accurately monitor leaf age. The goal of this study is to develop a multi-metric, accurate technique for better monitoring of leaf age. In order to acquire true leaf age records, 10 individual plant species were selected at the University of Arizona campus, and newly flushing leaves were tagged and monitored during the Monsoon season (from early June, 2013, to mid October, 2013). Every 2 weeks, 10 to 15 leaves in relative age order were harvested from each 1-meter branch to measure multiple key leaf metrics, including leaf thickness (via micrometer), fresh and dry weight, fresh and dry area (via ImageJ software), and leaf hyperspectral reflectance (via a handheld ASD Field Pro). Other leaf traits were also derived from our measurements, such as specific leaf area (SLA), leaf density (fresh weight/leaf volume), water percentage, and shrinkage ratio (1-dry area/fresh area). The hyperspectral version of vegetation index (a ratio derived from two spectral channels) was generated for each branch sample, by randomly selecting two channels from within the spectral domain of 350 nm to 2500 nm. The preliminary result documents three types of hyperspectral vegetation index (VI) which are highly related with leaf relative age order (R2>0.9). These include the sensitive spectral domains correlated with (a) leaf pigments (~550nm) and leaf physical

  7. Shear banding in titanium with controlled elongations at 10/sup 6//sec

    SciTech Connect

    Staudhammer, K.P.; Gray, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Adiabatic shear bands were obtained in titanium with controlled strains to 10.8%. Two types of shear bands were observed and characterized. In general the quantity and shear band width increased with increasing elongation. At elongations below /approximately/5% the shear bands were typically characteristic of shear bands observed at lower strain rates. Above 5% elongations many of the shear bands contained a boundary regime adjacent to the shear band and increased in width with increasing total elongation. This effect was attributed to the strain heat. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Actin filaments and microtubules play different roles during bristle elongation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tilney, L G; Connelly, P S; Vranich, K A; Shaw, M K; Guild, G M

    2000-04-01

    Developing bristles in Drosophila pupae contain 7-11 bundles of crosslinked actin filaments and a large population of microtubules. During bristle growth the rate of cell elongation increases with bristle length. Thin section EM shows that bundle size is correlated with the amount of cytoplasm at all points along the bristle. Thus, as the bristle elongates and tapers, fewer actin filaments are used. To ensure penetration of inhibitors we isolated thoraces and cultured them in vitro; bristles elongate at rates identical to bristles growing in situ. Interestingly, inhibitors of actin filament assembly (cytochalasin D and latrunculin A) dramatically curtailed bristle elongation while a filament stabilizer (jasplakinolide) accelerated elongation. In contrast, inhibitors of microtubule dynamics (nocodazole, vinblastine, colchicine and taxol) did not affect bristle elongation. Surprisingly, the bristle microtubules are stable and do not turn over. Furthermore, the density of microtubules decreases as the bristle elongates. These two facts coupled with calculations and kinetics of elongation and the fact that the microtubules are short indicate that the microtubules are assembled early in development and then transported distally as the bristle grows. We conclude that actin assembly is crucial for bristle cell elongation and that microtubules must furnish other functions such as to provide bulk to the bristle cytoplasm as well as playing a role in vesicle transport.

  9. Fitness consequences of natural variation in flooding-induced shoot elongation in Rumex palustris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Visser, Eric J W; de Kroon, Hans; Pierik, Ronald; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Huber, Heidrun

    2011-04-01

    • Plants can respond to their environment by morphological plasticity. Generally, the potential benefits of adaptive plastic responses are beyond doubt under predictable environmental changes. However, the net benefits may be less straightforward when plants encounter temporal stresses, such as flooding in river flood plains. • Here, we tested whether the balance of costs and benefits associated with flooding-induced shoot elongation depends on the flooding regime, by subjecting Rumex palustris plants with different elongation capacity to submergence of different frequency and duration. • Our results showed that reaching the surface by shoot elongation is associated with fitness benefits, as under less frequent, but longer, flooding episodes plants emerging above the floodwater had greater biomass production than plants that were kept below the surface. As we predicted, slow-elongating plants had clear advantages over fast-elongating ones if submergence was frequent but of short duration, indicating that elongation also incurs costs. • Our data suggest that high costs select for weak plasticity under frequent environmental change. In contrast to our predictions, however, fast-elongating plants did not have an overall advantage over slow-elongating plants when floods lasted longer. This indicates that the delicate balance between benefits and costs of flooding-induced elongation depends on the specific characteristics of the flooding regime.

  10. Micro- and Nanoscale Capacitors that Incorporate an Array of Conductive Elements Having Elongated Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Del Castillo, Linda Y. (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement micro- and nanoscale capacitors that incorporate a conductive element that conforms to the shape of an array elongated bodies. In one embodiment, a capacitor that incorporates a conductive element that conforms to the shape of an array of elongated bodies includes: a first conductive element that conforms to the shape of an array of elongated bodies; a second conductive element that conforms to the shape of an array of elongated bodies; and a dielectric material disposed in between the first conductive element and the second conductive element, and thereby physically separates them.

  11. Pleiohomeotic Interacts with the Core Transcription Elongation Factor Spt5 to Regulate Gene Expression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    The early elongation checkpoint regulated by Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) is a critical control point for the expression of many genes. Spt5 interacts directly with RNA polymerase II and has an essential role in establishing this checkpoint, and also for further transcript elongation. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila Spt5 interacts both physically and genetically with the Polycomb Group (PcG) protein Pleiohomeotic (Pho), and the majority of Pho binding sites overlap with Spt5 binding sites across the genome in S2 cells. Our results indicate that Pho can interact with Spt5 to regulate transcription elongation in a gene specific manner. PMID:23894613

  12. Application of an Elongated Kelvin Model to Space Shuttle Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2008-01-01

    Spray-on foam insulation is applied to the exterior of the Space Shuttle s External Tank to limit propellant boil-off and to prevent ice formation. The Space Shuttle foams are rigid closed-cell polyurethane foams. The two foams used most extensively on the Space Shuttle External Tank are BX-265 and NCFI24-124. Since the catastrophic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia, numerous studies have been conducted to mitigate the likelihood and the severity of foam shedding during the Shuttle s ascent to space. Due to the foaming and rising process, the foam microstructures are elongated in the rise direction. As a result, these two foams exhibit a non-isotropic mechanical behavior. In this paper, a detailed microstructural characterization of the two foams is presented. The key features of the foam cells are summarized and the average cell dimensions in the two foams are compared. Experimental studies to measure the room temperature mechanical response of the two foams in the two principal material directions (parallel to the rise and perpendicular to the rise) are also reported. The measured elastic modulus, proportional limit stress, ultimate tensile stress and the Poisson s ratios for the two foams are compared. The generalized elongated Kelvin foam model previously developed by the authors is reviewed and the equations which result from this model are presented. The resulting equations show that the ratio of the elastic modulus in the rise direction to that in the perpendicular-to-rise direction as well as the ratio of the strengths in the two material directions is only a function of the microstructural dimensions. Using the measured microstructural dimensions and the measured stiffness ratio, the foam tensile strength ratio and Poisson s ratios are predicted for both foams. The predicted tensile strength ratio is in close agreement with the measured strength ratios for both BX-265 and NCFI24-124. The comparison between the predicted Poisson s ratios and the measured

  13. The Molecular Mechanism of Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Clint D. J.; Ferguson, Scarlett B.; Giles, David H.; Wang, Qiantao; Wellmann, Rebecca M.; O'Brien, John P.; Warthaka, Mangalika; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Ren, Pengyu; Dalby, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K) impedes protein synthesis through phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2). It is subject to complex regulation by multiple upstream signaling pathways, through poorly described mechanisms. Precise integration of these signals is critical for eEF-2K to appropriately regulate protein translation rates. Here, an allosteric mechanism comprising two sequential conformations is described for eEF-2K activation. First, Ca2+/CaM binds eEF-2K with high affinity (Kd(CaM)app = 24 ± 5 nm) to enhance its ability to autophosphorylate Thr-348 in the regulatory loop (R-loop) by > 104-fold (kauto = 2.6 ± 0.3 s−1). Subsequent binding of phospho-Thr-348 to a conserved basic pocket in the kinase domain potentially drives a conformational transition of the R-loop, which is essential for efficient substrate phosphorylation. Ca2+/CaM binding activates autophosphorylated eEF-2K by allosterically enhancing kcatapp for peptide substrate phosphorylation by 103-fold. Thr-348 autophosphorylation results in a 25-fold increase in the specificity constant (kcatapp/Km(Pep-S)app), with equal contributions from kcatapp and Km(Pep-S)app, suggesting that peptide substrate binding is partly impeded in the unphosphorylated enzyme. In cells, Thr-348 autophosphorylation appears to control the catalytic output of active eEF-2K, contributing more than 5-fold to its ability to promote eEF-2 phosphorylation. Fundamentally, eEF-2K activation appears to be analogous to an amplifier, where output volume may be controlled by either toggling the power switch (switching on the kinase) or altering the volume control (modulating stability of the active R-loop conformation). Because upstream signaling events have the potential to modulate either allosteric step, this mechanism allows for exquisite control of eEF-2K output. PMID:25012662

  14. Analysis of Circadian Leaf Movements.

    PubMed

    Müller, Niels A; Jiménez-Gómez, José M

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular timekeeper that controls a wide variety of biological processes. In plants, clock outputs range from the molecular level, with rhythmic gene expression and metabolite content, to physiological processes such as stomatal conductance or leaf movements. Any of these outputs can be used as markers to monitor the state of the circadian clock. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, much of the current knowledge about the clock has been gained from time course experiments profiling expression of endogenous genes or reporter constructs regulated by the circadian clock. Since these methods require labor-intensive sample preparation or transformation, monitoring leaf movements is an interesting alternative, especially in non-model species and for natural variation studies. Technological improvements both in digital photography and image analysis allow cheap and easy monitoring of circadian leaf movements. In this chapter we present a protocol that uses an autonomous point and shoot camera and free software to monitor circadian leaf movements in tomato. PMID:26867616

  15. LEAF: A Microcomputer Program for Constructing the Tukey Stem and Leaf Graph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascale, Pietro J.; Smith, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a BASIC microcomputer program that constructs the Tukey (1977) stem and leaf graph. Options within the LEAF program include a modified stem and leaf where the stem is split and a parallel stem and leaf graph where two separate sets of data are displayed from a common stem. (Author)

  16. Regeneration of the active zone at the frog neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The active zone is a unique specialization of the presynaptic membrane and is believed to be the site of transmitter release. The formation of the active zone and the relationship of this process to transmitter release were studied at reinnervated neuromuscular junctions in the frog. At different times after a nerve crush, the cutaneous pectoris muscles were examined with intracellular recording recording and freeze- fracture electron microscopy. The P face of a normal active zone typically consists of two double rows of particles lined up in a continuous segment located opposite a junctional fold. In the initial stage of reinnervation, clusters of large intramembrane particles surrounding membrane elevations appeared on the P face of nerve terminals. Like normal active zones, these clusters were aligned with junctional folds. Vesicle openings, which indicate transmitter release, were seen at these primitive active zones, even though intramembrane particles were not yet organized into the normal pattern of two double rows. The length of active zones at this stage was only approximately 15% of normal. During the secondary stage, every junction was reinnervated and most active zones had begun to organize into the normal pattern with normal orientation. Unlike normal, there were often two or more discontinuous short segments of active zone aligned with the same junctional fold. The total length of active zone per junctional fold increased to one-third of normal, mainly because of the greater number of segments. In the third stage, the number of active zone segments per junctional fold showed almost no change when compared with the secondary stage. However, individual segments elongated and increased the total length of all active zone segments per junctional fold to about two-thirds of the normal length. The dynamic process culminated in the final stage, during which elongating active zones appeared to join together and the number of active zone segments per

  17. Seedling growth and biomass allocation in relation to leaf habit and shade tolerance among 10 temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    Modrzyński, Jerzy; Chmura, Daniel J; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Initial growth of germinated seeds is an important life history stage, critical for establishment and succession in forests. Important questions remain regarding the differences among species in early growth potential arising from shade tolerance. In addition, the role of leaf habit in shaping relationships underlying shade tolerance-related differences in seedling growth remains unresolved. In this study we examined variation in morphological and physiological traits among seedlings of 10 forest tree species of the European temperate zone varying in shade tolerance and leaf habit (broadleaved winter-deciduous species vs needle-leaved conifers) during a 10-week period. Seeds were germinated and grown in a controlled environment simulating an intermediate forest understory light environment to resolve species differences in initial growth and biomass allocation. In the high-resource experimental conditions during the study, seedlings increased biomass allocation to roots at the cost of leaf biomass independent of shade tolerance and leaf habit. Strong correlations between relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) indicate that physiology and biomass allocation were equally important determinants of RGR as plant structure and leaf morphology among these species. Our findings highlight the importance of seed mass- and seed size-related root morphology (specific root length-SRL) for shade tolerance during early ontogeny. Leaf and plant morphology (SLA, LAR) were more successful in explaining variation among species due to leaf habit than shade tolerance. In both broadleaves and conifers, shade-tolerant species had lower SRL and greater allocation of biomass to stems (stem mass fraction). Light-seeded shade-intolerant species with greater SRL had greater RGR in both leaf habit groups. However, the greatest plant mass was accumulated in the group of heavy-seeded shade

  18. Seedling growth and biomass allocation in relation to leaf habit and shade tolerance among 10 temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    Modrzyński, Jerzy; Chmura, Daniel J; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Initial growth of germinated seeds is an important life history stage, critical for establishment and succession in forests. Important questions remain regarding the differences among species in early growth potential arising from shade tolerance. In addition, the role of leaf habit in shaping relationships underlying shade tolerance-related differences in seedling growth remains unresolved. In this study we examined variation in morphological and physiological traits among seedlings of 10 forest tree species of the European temperate zone varying in shade tolerance and leaf habit (broadleaved winter-deciduous species vs needle-leaved conifers) during a 10-week period. Seeds were germinated and grown in a controlled environment simulating an intermediate forest understory light environment to resolve species differences in initial growth and biomass allocation. In the high-resource experimental conditions during the study, seedlings increased biomass allocation to roots at the cost of leaf biomass independent of shade tolerance and leaf habit. Strong correlations between relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) indicate that physiology and biomass allocation were equally important determinants of RGR as plant structure and leaf morphology among these species. Our findings highlight the importance of seed mass- and seed size-related root morphology (specific root length-SRL) for shade tolerance during early ontogeny. Leaf and plant morphology (SLA, LAR) were more successful in explaining variation among species due to leaf habit than shade tolerance. In both broadleaves and conifers, shade-tolerant species had lower SRL and greater allocation of biomass to stems (stem mass fraction). Light-seeded shade-intolerant species with greater SRL had greater RGR in both leaf habit groups. However, the greatest plant mass was accumulated in the group of heavy-seeded shade

  19. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from...

  2. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  7. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  12. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  14. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  1. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  3. Leaf colleters in Tontelea micrantha (Celastraceae, Salacioideae): ecological, morphological and structural aspects.

    PubMed

    Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Paiva, Elder Antônio Sousa

    2013-08-01

    The colleter secretion can be useful to protect plants of Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) biome during the long and pronounced dry season. This study describes the presence of colleters in Tontelea micrantha and represents the first record of these structures in Celastraceae. To investigate colleter structure and their secretory processes, young leaves were collected, fixed, and processed according to conventional techniques for light, and electron microscopy. Colleters were observed at the marginal teeth on the leaf. They produce mucilaginous secretions that spread over the leaf surface. After secretory phase, colleters abscise. The secretory epithelium is uniseriate and composed of elongated cells whose dense cytoplasm is rich in organelles. The ultrastructure of the secretory cells is compatible with the pectin-rich secretion. Observations of the young leaves surface revealed the presence of superficial hydrophilic secretion films that appeared to have the function of maintaining the water status of those organs. PMID:24018197

  4. Combining orthogonal polarization for elongated target detection with GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lualdi, Maurizio; Lombardi, Federico

    2014-10-01

    For an accurate imaging of ground penetrating radar data the polarization characteristics of the propagating electromagnetic (EM) wavefield and wave amplitude variations with antenna pattern orientation must be taken into account. For objects that show some directionality feature and cylindrical shape any misalignment between transmitter and target can strongly modify the polarization state of the backscattered wavefield, thus conditioning the detection capability of the system. Hints on the depolarization can be used to design the optimal GPR antenna survey to avoid omissions and pitfalls during data processing. This research addresses the issue of elongated target detection through a multi azimuth (or multi polarization) approach based on the combination of mutually orthogonal GPR data. Results from the analysis of the formal scattering problem demonstrate how this strategy can reach a scalar formulation of the scattering matrix and achieve a rotational invariant quantity. The effectiveness of the algorithm is then evaluated with a detailed field example showing results closely proximal to those obtained under the optimal alignment condition: detection is significantly improved and the risk of target missing is reduced.

  5. Chain elongation analog of resveratrol as potent cancer chemoprevention agent.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yan-Fei; Qiao, Hai-Xia; Xin, Long-Zuo; Ge, Li-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol is identified as a natural cancer chemoprevention agent. There has been a lot of interest in designing and developing resveratrol analogs with cancer chemoprevention activity superior to that of parent molecule and exploring their action mechanism in the past several decades. In this study, we have synthesized resveratrol analogs of compounds A-C via conjugated chain elongation based on isoprene unit retention strategy. Remarkably, cytotoxic activity analysis results indicated that compound B possesses the best proliferation inhibition activity for NCI-H460 cells in all the test compounds. Intriguingly, compound B displayed a higher cytotoxicity against human non-small cell lung cancer cells (NCI-H460) compared to normal human embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC-5). Afterward, flow cytometry analysis showed that compound B would induce cell apoptosis. We further researched the action mechanism. When NCI-H460 cells were incubated by compound B for 6 or 9 h, respectively, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was enhanced obviously. With elevation of intracellular ROS level, flow cytometry measurement verified mitochondrial transmembrane potential collapse, which was accompanied by the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2. More interestingly, compound B increased the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3, which induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, compound B arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. These are all to provide useful information for designing resveratrol-based chemoprevention agent and understanding the action mechanism. PMID:27160168

  6. Negative elongation factor controls energy homeostasis in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haihui; Qin, Kunhua; Guo, Zhanyong; Ma, Yonggang; April, Craig; Gao, Xiaoli; Andrews, Thomas G; Bokov, Alex; Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Yidong; Weintraub, Susan T; Fan, Jian-Bing; Wang, Degeng; Hu, Yanfen; Aune, Gregory J; Lindsey, Merry L; Li, Rong

    2014-04-10

    Negative elongation factor (NELF) is known to enforce promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), a pervasive phenomenon observed across multicellular genomes. However, the physiological impact of NELF on tissue homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we show that whole-body conditional deletion of the B subunit of NELF (NELF-B) in adult mice results in cardiomyopathy and impaired response to cardiac stress. Tissue-specific knockout of NELF-B confirms its cell-autonomous function in cardiomyocytes. NELF directly supports transcription of those genes encoding rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. NELF also shares extensively transcriptional target genes with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of energy metabolism in the myocardium. Mechanistically, NELF helps stabilize the transcription initiation complex at the metabolism-related genes. Our findings strongly indicate that NELF is part of the PPARα-mediated transcription regulatory network that maintains metabolic homeostasis in cardiomyocytes. PMID:24656816

  7. Elastic instabilities in planar elongational flow of monodisperse polymer solutions

    PubMed Central

    Haward, Simon J.; McKinley, Gareth H.; Shen, Amy Q.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate purely elastic flow instabilities in the almost ideal planar stagnation point elongational flow field generated by a microfluidic optimized-shape cross-slot extensional rheometer (OSCER). We use time-resolved flow velocimetry and full-field birefringence microscopy to study the behavior of a series of well-characterized viscoelastic polymer solutions under conditions of low fluid inertia and over a wide range of imposed deformation rates. At low deformation rates the flow is steady and symmetric and appears Newtonian-like, while at high deformation rates we observe the onset of a flow asymmetry resembling the purely elastic instabilities reported in standard-shaped cross-slot devices. However, for intermediate rates, we observe a new type of elastic instability characterized by a lateral displacement and time-dependent motion of the stagnation point. At the onset of this new instability, we evaluate a well-known dimensionless criterion M that predicts the onset of elastic instabilities based on geometric and rheological scaling parameters. The criterion yields maximum values of M which compare well with critical values of M for the onset of elastic instabilities in viscometric torsional flows. We conclude that the same mechanism of tension acting along curved streamlines governs the onset of elastic instabilities in both extensional (irrotational) and torsional (rotational) viscoelastic flows. PMID:27616181

  8. Mammalian elongation factor 4 regulates mitochondrial translation essential for spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanyan; Bai, Xiufeng; Zhang, Dejiu; Han, Chunsheng; Yuan, Jing; Liu, Wenbin; Cao, Xintao; Chen, Zilei; Shangguan, Fugen; Zhu, Zhenyuan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Elongation factor 4 (EF4) is a key quality-control factor in translation. Despite its high conservation throughout evolution, EF4 deletion in various organisms has not yielded a distinct phenotype. Here we report that genetic ablation of mitochondrial EF4 (mtEF4) in mice causes testis-specific dysfunction in oxidative phosphorylation, leading to male infertility. Deletion of mtEF4 accelerated mitochondrial translation at the cost of producing unstable proteins. Somatic tissues overcame this defect by activating mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR), thereby increasing rates of cytoplasmic translation to match rates of mitochondrial translation. However, in spermatogenic cells, the mTOR pathway was downregulated as part of the developmental program, and the resulting inability to compensate for accelerated mitochondrial translation caused cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. We detected the same phenotype and molecular defects in germline-specific mtEF4-knockout mice. Thus, our study demonstrates cross-talk between mtEF4-dependent quality control in mitochondria and cytoplasmic mTOR signaling.

  9. Delineating the glycoproteome of elongating cotton fiber cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saravanan; Pandey, Pankaj; Kumar, Krishan; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Padmalatha, Kethireddy Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2015-01-01

    The data presented here delineates the glycoproteome component in the elongating cotton fiber cells attained using complementary proteomic approaches followed by protein and N-linked glycosylation site identification (Kumar et al., 2013) [1]. Utilizing species specific protein sequence databases in proteomic approaches often leads to additional information that may not be obtained using cross-species databases. In this context we have reanalyzed our glycoproteome dataset with the Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium raimondii (version 2.0) and Gossypium hirsutum protein databases that has led to the identification of 21 N-linked glycosylation sites and 18 unique glycoproteins that were not reported in our previous study. The 1D PAGE and solution based glycoprotein identification data is publicly available at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (Vizcaíno et al., 2013) [2] using the dataset identifier PXD000178 and the 2D PAGE based protein identification and glycopeptide approach based N-linked glycosylation site identification data is available at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (Vizcaíno et al., 2013) [2] using the dataset identifier PXD002849. PMID:26693171

  10. Movement of elongation factor G between compact and extended conformations.

    PubMed

    Salsi, Enea; Farah, Elie; Netter, Zoe; Dann, Jillian; Ermolenko, Dmitri N

    2015-01-30

    Previous structural studies suggested that ribosomal translocation is accompanied by large interdomain rearrangements of elongation factor G (EF-G). Here, we follow the movement of domain IV of EF-G relative to domain II of EF-G using ensemble and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer. Our results indicate that ribosome-free EF-G predominantly adopts a compact conformation that can also, albeit infrequently, transition into a more extended conformation in which domain IV moves away from domain II. By contrast, ribosome-bound EF-G predominantly adopts an extended conformation regardless of whether it is interacting with pretranslocation ribosomes or with posttranslocation ribosomes. Our data suggest that ribosome-bound EF-G may also occasionally sample at least one more compact conformation. GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by EF-G does not affect the relative stability of the observed conformations in ribosome-free and ribosome-bound EF-G. Our data support a model suggesting that, upon binding to a pretranslocation ribosome, EF-G moves from a compact to a more extended conformation. This transition is not coupled to but likely precedes both GTP hydrolysis and mRNA/tRNA translocation.

  11. Movement of Elongation Factor G between Compact and Extended Conformations

    PubMed Central

    Salsi, Enea; Farah, Elie; Netter, Zoe; Dann, Jillian; Ermolenko, Dmitri N.

    2014-01-01

    Previous structural studies suggested that ribosomal translocation is accompanied by large interdomain rearrangements of elongation factor G (EF-G). Here, we follow the movement of domain IV of EF-G relative to domain II of EF-G using ensemble and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET). Our results indicate that ribosome-free EF-G predominantly adopts a compact conformation that can also, albeit infrequently, transition into a more extended conformation in which domain IV moves away from domain II. By contrast, ribosome-bound EF-G predominantly adopts an extended conformation regardless of whether it is interacting with pre- or posttranslocation ribosomes. Our data suggest that ribosome-bound EF-G may also occasionally sample at least one more compact conformation. GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by EF-G does not affect the relative stability of the observed conformations in ribosome-free and ribosome-bound EF-G. Our data support a model suggesting that, upon binding to a pretranslocation ribosome, EF-G moves from a compact to a more extended conformation. This transition is not coupled to, but likely precedes both GTP hydrolysis and mRNA/tRNA translocation. PMID:25463439

  12. Elastic instabilities in planar elongational flow of monodisperse polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haward, Simon J.; McKinley, Gareth H.; Shen, Amy Q.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate purely elastic flow instabilities in the almost ideal planar stagnation point elongational flow field generated by a microfluidic optimized-shape cross-slot extensional rheometer (OSCER). We use time-resolved flow velocimetry and full-field birefringence microscopy to study the behavior of a series of well-characterized viscoelastic polymer solutions under conditions of low fluid inertia and over a wide range of imposed deformation rates. At low deformation rates the flow is steady and symmetric and appears Newtonian-like, while at high deformation rates we observe the onset of a flow asymmetry resembling the purely elastic instabilities reported in standard-shaped cross-slot devices. However, for intermediate rates, we observe a new type of elastic instability characterized by a lateral displacement and time-dependent motion of the stagnation point. At the onset of this new instability, we evaluate a well-known dimensionless criterion M that predicts the onset of elastic instabilities based on geometric and rheological scaling parameters. The criterion yields maximum values of M which compare well with critical values of M for the onset of elastic instabilities in viscometric torsional flows. We conclude that the same mechanism of tension acting along curved streamlines governs the onset of elastic instabilities in both extensional (irrotational) and torsional (rotational) viscoelastic flows.

  13. Wind-wave transformations in an elongated bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliskan, Hande; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2008-08-01

    In order to determine wave transformations in an elongated bay, a numerical solution was used to interpret yearlong records of bottom pressure and wind velocity obtained at the mouth and head of Concepción Bay, on the Gulf of California side of the Baja California peninsula. Observed wind waves were predominantly produced by southeastward winds in the winter and north-northwestward winds in the summer. Typical mean wave periods at the bay entrance were between 3 and 5 s. In contrast, the waves at the head of the bay had predominant periods <3 s. The energetic long-period swell waves were dissipated somewhere in the bay as they were not observed at the head of the bay. This study centered in identifying the effects that caused swell waves to attenuate in the bay. The 'Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN)' model was used to determine the cause for such wave attenuation. Model results showed that swell waves were attenuated because of the combined effects of bottom friction, wave breaking, whitecapping, refraction and wave blocking by the coastline. Most of the attenuation (close to 90%), however, was caused by wave blocking owing to the change of coastline orientation of the bay. This wave blocking mechanism should therefore be explored further in embayments of complex coastline morphology.

  14. Architecture and RNA binding of the human negative elongation factor

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Seychelle M; Pöllmann, David; Caizzi, Livia; Hofmann, Katharina B; Rombaut, Pascaline; Zimniak, Tomasz; Herzog, Franz; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Transcription regulation in metazoans often involves promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase (Pol) II, which requires the 4-subunit negative elongation factor (NELF). Here we discern the functional architecture of human NELF through X-ray crystallography, protein crosslinking, biochemical assays, and RNA crosslinking in cells. We identify a NELF core subcomplex formed by conserved regions in subunits NELF-A and NELF-C, and resolve its crystal structure. The NELF-AC subcomplex binds single-stranded nucleic acids in vitro, and NELF-C associates with RNA in vivo. A positively charged face of NELF-AC is involved in RNA binding, whereas the opposite face of the NELF-AC subcomplex binds NELF-B. NELF-B is predicted to form a HEAT repeat fold, also binds RNA in vivo, and anchors the subunit NELF-E, which is confirmed to bind RNA in vivo. These results reveal the three-dimensional architecture and three RNA-binding faces of NELF. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14981.001 PMID:27282391

  15. Loss of Elongation Factor P Disrupts Bacterial Outer Membrane Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Hersch, Steven J.; Roy, Hervé; Wiggers, J. Brad; Leung, Andrea S.; Buranyi, Stephen; Xie, Jinglin Lucy; Dare, Kiley; Ibba, Michael; Navarre, William Wiley

    2012-01-01

    Elongation factor P (EF-P) is posttranslationally modified at a conserved lysyl residue by the coordinated action of two enzymes, PoxA and YjeK. We have previously established the importance of this modification in Salmonella stress resistance. Here we report that, like poxA and yjeK mutants, Salmonella strains lacking EF-P display increased susceptibility to hypoosmotic conditions, antibiotics, and detergents and enhanced resistance to the compound S-nitrosoglutathione. The susceptibility phenotypes are largely explained by the enhanced membrane permeability of the efp mutant, which exhibits increased uptake of the hydrophobic dye 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN). Analysis of the membrane proteomes of wild-type and efp mutant Salmonella strains reveals few changes, including the prominent overexpression of a single porin, KdgM, in the efp mutant outer membrane. Removal of KdgM in the efp mutant background ameliorates the detergent, antibiotic, and osmosensitivity phenotypes and restores wild-type permeability to NPN. Our data support a role for EF-P in the translational regulation of a limited number of proteins that, when perturbed, renders the cell susceptible to stress by the adventitious overexpression of an outer membrane porin. PMID:22081389

  16. Role of Tet proteins in enhancer activity and telomere elongation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Falong; Liu, Yuting; Jiang, Lan; Yamaguchi, Shinpei

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation at the C-5 position of cytosine (5mC) is one of the best-studied epigenetic modifications and plays important roles in diverse biological processes. Iterative oxidation of 5mC by the ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of proteins generates 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). 5fC and 5caC are selectively recognized and excised by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), leading to DNA demethylation. Functional characterization of Tet proteins has been complicated by the redundancy between the three family members. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we generated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) deficient for all three Tet proteins (Tet triple knockout [TKO]). Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) analysis revealed that Tet-mediated DNA demethylation mainly occurs at distally located enhancers and fine-tunes the transcription of genes associated with these regions. Functional characterization of Tet TKO ESCs revealed a role for Tet proteins in regulating the two-cell embryo (2C)-like state under ESC culture conditions. In addition, Tet TKO ESCs exhibited increased telomere–sister chromatid exchange and elongated telomeres. Collectively, our study reveals a role for Tet proteins in not only DNA demethylation at enhancers but also regulating the 2C-like state and telomere homeostasis. PMID:25223896

  17. Shear-induced alignment and dynamics of elongated granular particles.

    PubMed

    Börzsönyi, Tamás; Szabó, Balázs; Wegner, Sandra; Harth, Kirsten; Török, János; Somfai, Ellák; Bien, Tomasz; Stannarius, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    The alignment, ordering, and rotation of elongated granular particles was studied in shear flow. The time evolution of the orientation of a large number of particles was monitored in laboratory experiments by particle tracking using optical imaging and x-ray computed tomography. The experiments were complemented by discrete element simulations. The particles develop an orientational order. In the steady state the time- and ensemble-averaged direction of the main axis of the particles encloses a small angle with the streamlines. This shear alignment angle is independent of the applied shear rate, and it decreases with increasing grain aspect ratio. At the grain level the steady state is characterized by a net rotation of the particles, as dictated by the shear flow. The distribution of particle rotational velocities was measured both in the steady state and also during the initial transients. The average rotation speed of particles with their long axis perpendicular to the shear alignment angle is larger, while shear aligned particles rotate slower. The ratio of this fast/slow rotation increases with particle aspect ratio. During the initial transient starting from an unaligned initial condition, particles having an orientation just beyond the shear alignment angle rotate opposite to the direction dictated by the shear flow.

  18. Elastic instabilities in planar elongational flow of monodisperse polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Haward, Simon J; McKinley, Gareth H; Shen, Amy Q

    2016-01-01

    We investigate purely elastic flow instabilities in the almost ideal planar stagnation point elongational flow field generated by a microfluidic optimized-shape cross-slot extensional rheometer (OSCER). We use time-resolved flow velocimetry and full-field birefringence microscopy to study the behavior of a series of well-characterized viscoelastic polymer solutions under conditions of low fluid inertia and over a wide range of imposed deformation rates. At low deformation rates the flow is steady and symmetric and appears Newtonian-like, while at high deformation rates we observe the onset of a flow asymmetry resembling the purely elastic instabilities reported in standard-shaped cross-slot devices. However, for intermediate rates, we observe a new type of elastic instability characterized by a lateral displacement and time-dependent motion of the stagnation point. At the onset of this new instability, we evaluate a well-known dimensionless criterion M that predicts the onset of elastic instabilities based on geometric and rheological scaling parameters. The criterion yields maximum values of M which compare well with critical values of M for the onset of elastic instabilities in viscometric torsional flows. We conclude that the same mechanism of tension acting along curved streamlines governs the onset of elastic instabilities in both extensional (irrotational) and torsional (rotational) viscoelastic flows. PMID:27616181

  19. Elongated Silicon-Carbon Bonds at Graphene Edges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qu; Robertson, Alex W; He, Kuang; Gong, Chuncheng; Yoon, Euijoon; Kirkland, Angus I; Lee, Gun-Do; Warner, Jamie H

    2016-01-26

    We study the bond lengths of silicon (Si) atoms attached to both armchair and zigzag edges using aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy with monochromation of the electron beam. An in situ heating holder is used to perform imaging of samples at 800 °C in order to reduce chemical etching effects that cause rapid structure changes of graphene edges at room temperature under the electron beam. We provide detailed bond length measurements for Si atoms both attached to edges and also as near edge substitutional dopants. Edge reconstruction is also involved with the addition of Si dopants. Si atoms bonded to the edge of graphene are compared to substitutional dopants in the bulk lattice and reveal reduced out-of-plane distortion and bond elongation. An extended linear array of Si atoms at the edge is found to be energy-favorable due to inter-Si interactions. These results provide detailed structural information about the Si-C bonds in graphene, which may have importance in future catalytic and electronic applications.

  20. Comparison of half and full-leaf shape feature extraction for leaf classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainin, Mohd Shamrie; Ahmad, Faudziah; Alfred, Rayner

    2016-08-01

    Shape is the main information for leaf feature that most of the current literatures in leaf identification utilize the whole leaf for feature extraction and to be used in the leaf identification process. In this paper, study of half-leaf features extraction for leaf identification is carried out and the results are compared with the results obtained from the leaf identification based on a full-leaf features extraction. Identification and classification is based on shape features that are represented as cosines and sinus angles. Six single classifiers obtained from WEKA and seven ensemble methods are used to compare their performance accuracies over this data. The classifiers were trained using 65 leaves in order to classify 5 different species of preliminary collection of Malaysian medicinal plants. The result shows that half-leaf features extraction can be used for leaf identification without decreasing the predictive accuracy.

  1. NF-κB-repressing factor phosphorylation regulates transcription elongation via its interactions with 5'→3' exoribonuclease 2 and negative elongation factor.

    PubMed

    Rother, Sascha; Bartels, Myriam; Schweda, Aike Torben; Resch, Klaus; Pallua, Norbert; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    NF-κB-repressing factor (NKRF) inhibits transcription elongation by binding to specific sequences in target promoters. Stimuli such as IL-1 have been shown to overcome this inhibitory action and enable the resumption of transcription elongation machinery by an unknown mechanism. Using mass spectrometry and in vitro phosphorylation analyses, we demonstrate that NKRF is phosphorylated within 3 different domains in unstimulated HeLa cells. Phosphoamino acid mapping and mutation analysis of NKRF further suggest that only Ser phosphorylation within aa 421-429 is regulated by IL-1 stimulation. In copurification studies, aa 421-429 is required for interactions between NKRF, 5'→3' exoribonuclease 2 (XRN2) and the negative elongation factor (NELF)-E in HeLa cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments further show that IL-1 stimulation leads to decrease in NKRF aa 421-429 phosphorylation and dissociation of NELF-E and XRN2 by concomitant resumption of transcription elongation of a synthetic reporter or the endogenous NKRF target gene, IL-8. Together, NKRF phosphorylation modulates promoter-proximal transcription elongation of NF-κB/NKRF-regulated genes via direct interactions with elongation complex in response to specific stimuli.

  2. Mammary epithelial tubes elongate through MAPK-dependent coordination of cell migration.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Robert J; Neumann, Neil M; Ewald, Andrew J

    2016-03-15

    Mammary branching morphogenesis is regulated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). We sought to determine how these RTK signals alter proliferation and migration to accomplish tube elongation in mouse. Both behaviors occur but it has been difficult to determine their relative contribution to elongation in vivo, as mammary adipocytes scatter light and limit the depth of optical imaging. Accordingly, we utilized 3D culture to study elongation in an experimentally accessible setting. We first used antibodies to localize RTK signals and discovered that phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK) was spatially enriched in cells near the front of elongating ducts, whereas phosphorylated AKT was ubiquitous. We next observed a gradient of cell migration speeds from rear to front of elongating ducts, with the front characterized by both high pERK and the fastest cells. Furthermore, cells within elongating ducts oriented both their protrusions and their migration in the direction of tube elongation. By contrast, cells within the organoid body were isotropically protrusive. We next tested the requirement for proliferation and migration. Early inhibition of proliferation blocked the creation of migratory cells, whereas late inhibition of proliferation did not block continued duct elongation. By contrast, pharmacological inhibition of either MEK or Rac1 signaling acutely blocked both cell migration and duct elongation. Finally, conditional induction of MEK activity was sufficient to induce collective cell migration and ductal elongation. Our data suggest a model for ductal elongation in which RTK-dependent proliferation creates motile cells with high pERK, the collective migration of which acutely requires both MEK and Rac1 signaling.

  3. Mammary epithelial tubes elongate through MAPK-dependent coordination of cell migration.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Robert J; Neumann, Neil M; Ewald, Andrew J

    2016-03-15

    Mammary branching morphogenesis is regulated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). We sought to determine how these RTK signals alter proliferation and migration to accomplish tube elongation in mouse. Both behaviors occur but it has been difficult to determine their relative contribution to elongation in vivo, as mammary adipocytes scatter light and limit the depth of optical imaging. Accordingly, we utilized 3D culture to study elongation in an experimentally accessible setting. We first used antibodies to localize RTK signals and discovered that phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK) was spatially enriched in cells near the front of elongating ducts, whereas phosphorylated AKT was ubiquitous. We next observed a gradient of cell migration speeds from rear to front of elongating ducts, with the front characterized by both high pERK and the fastest cells. Furthermore, cells within elongating ducts oriented both their protrusions and their migration in the direction of tube elongation. By contrast, cells within the organoid body were isotropically protrusive. We next tested the requirement for proliferation and migration. Early inhibition of proliferation blocked the creation of migratory cells, whereas late inhibition of proliferation did not block continued duct elongation. By contrast, pharmacological inhibition of either MEK or Rac1 signaling acutely blocked both cell migration and duct elongation. Finally, conditional induction of MEK activity was sufficient to induce collective cell migration and ductal elongation. Our data suggest a model for ductal elongation in which RTK-dependent proliferation creates motile cells with high pERK, the collective migration of which acutely requires both MEK and Rac1 signaling. PMID:26839364

  4. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  8. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  9. Short-term responses of leaf growth rate to water deficit scale up to whole-plant and crop levels: an integrated modelling approach in maize.

    PubMed

    Chenu, Karine; Chapman, Scott C; Hammer, Graeme L; McLean, Greg; Salah, Halim Ben Haj; Tardieu, François

    2008-03-01

    Physiological and genetic studies of leaf growth often focus on short-term responses, leaving a gap to whole-plant models that predict biomass accumulation, transpiration and yield at crop scale. To bridge this gap, we developed a model that combines an existing model of leaf 6 expansion in response to short-term environmental variations with a model coordinating the development of all leaves of a plant. The latter was based on: (1) rates of leaf initiation, appearance and end of elongation measured in field experiments; and (2) the hypothesis of an independence of the growth between leaves. The resulting whole-plant leaf model was integrated into the generic crop model APSIM which provided dynamic feedback of environmental conditions to the leaf model and allowed simulation of crop growth at canopy level. The model was tested in 12 field situations with contrasting temperature, evaporative demand and soil water status. In observed and simulated data, high evaporative demand reduced leaf area at the whole-plant level, and short water deficits affected only leaves developing during the stress, either visible or still hidden in the whorl. The model adequately simulated whole-plant profiles of leaf area with a single set of parameters that applied to the same hybrid in all experiments. It was also suitable to predict biomass accumulation and yield of a similar hybrid grown in different conditions. This model extends to field conditions existing knowledge of the environmental controls of leaf elongation, and can be used to simulate how their genetic controls flow through to yield. PMID:18088328

  10. Genetic separation of phototropism and blue light inhibition of stem elongation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liscum, E.; Young, J. C.; Poff, K. L.; Hangarter, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light-induced regulation of cell elongation is a component of the signal response pathway for both phototropic curvature and inhibition of stem elongation in higher plants. To determine if blue light regulates cell elongation in these responses through shared or discrete pathways, phototropism and hypocotyl elongation were investigated in several blue light response mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, the blu mutants that lack blue light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation were found to exhibit a normal phototropic response. In contrast, a phototropic null mutant (JK218) and a mutant that has a 20- to 30-fold shift in the fluence dependence for first positive phototropism (JK224) showed normal inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in blue light. F1 progeny of crosses between the blu mutants and JK218 showed normal phototropism and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, and approximately 1 in 16 F2 progeny were double mutants lacking both responses. Thus, blue light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and phototropism operate through at least some genetically distinct components.

  11. Genetic separation of phototropism and blue light inhibition of stem elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Liscum, E; Young, J C; Poff, K L; Hangarter, R P

    1992-01-01

    Blue light-induced regulation of cell elongation is a component of the signal response pathway for both phototropic curvature and inhibition of stem elongation in higher plants. To determine if blue light regulates cell elongation in these responses through shared or discrete pathways, phototropism and hypocotyl elongation were investigated in several blue light response mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, the blu mutants that lack blue light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation were found to exhibit a normal phototropic response. In contrast, a phototropic null mutant (JK218) and a mutant that has a 20- to 30-fold shift in the fluence dependence for first positive phototropism (JK224) showed normal inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in blue light. F1 progeny of crosses between the blu mutants and JK218 showed normal phototropism and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, and approximately 1 in 16 F2 progeny were double mutants lacking both responses. Thus, blue light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and phototropism operate through at least some genetically distinct components. Images Figure 1 PMID:11538049

  12. Stipe cell wall architecture varies with the stipe elongation of the mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xin; Liu, Zhonghua; Zhou, Yajun; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Wenming; Yuan, Sheng

    2015-10-01

    A large amount of granular protrusions overlie the outer cell wall surfaces in both elongating and non-elongating stipe regions but overlie the inner cell wall surfaces only in non-elongating stipe regions. Removal of granular protrusions using alkali, amorphous materials overlying on both the inner and outer cell wall surfaces were explored in the non-elongating stipe regions. β-1,3-Glucanase treatment not only removed above those granular protrusions and underlying amorphous materials on the wall surfaces but also removed wall matrices embedding chitin microfibrils on the cell walls of most stipe regions, except for the outer cell wall surfaces of the non-elongating stipe regions where most of the wall matrices remained. The chitin microfibrils were closely and transversely arranged on both the inner and outer cell wall surfaces in the elongating apical stipe region, whereas they were loosely and transversely arranged on the inner cell wall surfaces and further became sparser and even randomly arranged on the outer cell wall surface in the non-elongating stipe regions. We propose that the surface deposition of granular protrusions and amorphous materials and the change of microfibril architecture and wall matrices may cause loss of wall plasticity and cessation of stipe elongation.

  13. SHORT HYPOCOTYL 1 encodes a SMARCA3-like chromatin remodeling factor regulating elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the mechanisms and control of hypocotyl elongation is important for greenhouse vegetable crop production. In this study, we identified SHORT HYPOCOTYL1 (SH1) in cucumber which regulates low-dosage ultraviolet B (LDUVB)-dependent hypocotyl elongation by recruiting the cucumber UVR8 sign...

  14. Gene expression profile analysis of Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) mutant reveals important genes and pathways in cotton leaf and fiber development.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingquan; Jiang, Yurong; Cao, Yuefen; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Zhou, Wei; Rong, Junkang

    2014-02-10

    Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic dominant mutant of Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) with a phenotype of impaired vegetative growth and short lint fibers. Despite years of research involving genetic mapping and gene expression profile analysis of Li1 mutant ovule tissues, the gene remains uncloned and the underlying pathway of cotton fiber elongation is still unclear. In this study, we report the whole genome-level deep-sequencing analysis of leaf tissues of the Li1 mutant. Differentially expressed genes in leaf tissues of mutant versus wild-type (WT) plants are identified, and the underlying pathways and potential genes that control leaf and fiber development are inferred. The results show that transcription factors AS2, YABBY5, and KANDI-like are significantly differentially expressed in mutant tissues compared with WT ones. Interestingly, several fiber development-related genes are found in the downregulated gene list of the mutant leaf transcriptome. These genes include heat shock protein family, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell wall synthesis, energy, H2O2 metabolism-related genes, and WRKY transcription factors. This finding suggests that the genes are involved in leaf morphology determination and fiber elongation. The expression data are also compared with the previously published microarray data of Li1 ovule tissues. Comparative analysis of the ovule transcriptomes of Li1 and WT reveals that a number of pathways important for fiber elongation are enriched in the downregulated gene list at different fiber development stages (0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dpa). Differentially expressed genes identified in both leaf and fiber samples are aligned with cotton whole genome sequences and combined with the genetic fine mapping results to identify a list of candidate genes for Li1.

  15. Hormonal regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium.

    PubMed

    Arrom, Laia; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2012-10-15

    In addition to floral senescence and longevity, the control of leaf senescence is a major factor determining the quality of several cut flowers, including Lilium, in the commercial market. To better understand the physiological process underlying leaf senescence in this species, we evaluated: (i) endogenous variation in the levels of phytohormones during leaf senescence, (ii) the effects of leaf darkening in senescence and associated changes in phytohormones, and (iii) the effects of spray applications of abscisic acid (ABA) and pyrabactin on leaf senescence. Results showed that while gibberellin 4 (GA(4)) and salicylic acid (SA) contents decreased, that of ABA increased during the progression of leaf senescence. However, dark-induced senescence increased ABA levels, but did not affect GA(4) and SA levels, which appeared to correlate more with changes in air temperature and/or photoperiod than with the induction of leaf senescence. Furthermore, spray applications of pyrabactin delayed the progression of leaf senescence in cut flowers. Thus, we conclude that (i) ABA plays a major role in the regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium, (ii) darkness promotes leaf senescence and increases ABA levels, and (iii) exogenous applications of pyrabactin inhibit leaf senescence in Lilium, therefore suggesting that it acts as an antagonist of ABA in senescing leaves of cut lily flowers. PMID:22854182

  16. Hormonal regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium.

    PubMed

    Arrom, Laia; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2012-10-15

    In addition to floral senescence and longevity, the control of leaf senescence is a major factor determining the quality of several cut flowers, including Lilium, in the commercial market. To better understand the physiological process underlying leaf senescence in this species, we evaluated: (i) endogenous variation in the levels of phytohormones during leaf senescence, (ii) the effects of leaf darkening in senescence and associated changes in phytohormones, and (iii) the effects of spray applications of abscisic acid (ABA) and pyrabactin on leaf senescence. Results showed that while gibberellin 4 (GA(4)) and salicylic acid (SA) contents decreased, that of ABA increased during the progression of leaf senescence. However, dark-induced senescence increased ABA levels, but did not affect GA(4) and SA levels, which appeared to correlate more with changes in air temperature and/or photoperiod than with the induction of leaf senescence. Furthermore, spray applications of pyrabactin delayed the progression of leaf senescence in cut flowers. Thus, we conclude that (i) ABA plays a major role in the regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium, (ii) darkness promotes leaf senescence and increases ABA levels, and (iii) exogenous applications of pyrabactin inhibit leaf senescence in Lilium, therefore suggesting that it acts as an antagonist of ABA in senescing leaves of cut lily flowers.

  17. Convergent intron gains in hymenopteran elongation factor-1α.

    PubMed

    Klopfstein, Seraina; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    The eukaryotic translation elongation factor-1α gene (eEF1A) has been used extensively in higher level phylogenetics of insects and other groups, despite being present in two or more copies in several taxa. Orthology assessment has relied heavily on the position of introns, but the basic assumption of low rates of intron loss and absence of convergent intron gains has not been tested thoroughly. Here, we study the evolution of eEF1A based on a broad sample of taxa in the insect order Hymenoptera. The gene is universally present in two copies - F1 and F2 - both of which apparently originated before the emergence of the order. An elevated ratio of non-synonymous versus synonymous substitutions and differences in rates of amino acid replacements between the copies suggest that they evolve independently, and phylogenetic methods clearly cluster the copies separately. The F2 copy appears to be ancient; it is orthologous with the copy known as F1 in Diptera, and is likely present in most insect orders. The hymenopteran F1 copy, which may or may not be unique to this order, apparently originated through retroposition and was originally intron free. During the evolution of the Hymenoptera, it has successively accumulated introns, at least three of which have appeared at the same position as introns in the F2 copy or in eEF1A copies in other insects. The sites of convergent intron gain are characterized by highly conserved nucleotides that strongly resemble specific intron-associated sequence motifs, so-called proto-splice sites. The significant rate of convergent intron gain renders intron-exon structure unreliable as an indicator of orthology in eEF1A, and probably also in other protein-coding genes.

  18. Microgravity experiments on a granular gas of elongated grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, K.; Trittel, T.; Kornek, U.; Höme, S.; Will, K.; Strachauer, U.; Stannarius, R.

    2013-06-01

    Granular gases represent well-suited systems to investigate statistical granular dynamics. The literature comprises numerous investigations of ensembles of spherical or irregularly shaped grains. Mainly computer models, analytical theories and experiments restricted to two dimensions were reported. In three-dimensions, the gaseous state can only be maintained by strong external excitation, e. g. vibrations or electro-magnetic fields, or in microgravity. A steady state, where the dynamics of a weakly disturbed granular gas are governed by particle-particle collisions, is hard to realize with spherical grains due to clustering. We present the first study of a granular gas of elongated cylinders in three dimensions. The mean free path is considerably reduced with respect to spheres at comparable filling fractions. The particles can be tracked in 3D over a sequence of frames. In a homogeneous steady state, we find non-Gaussian velocity distributions and a lack of equipartition of kinetic energy. We discuss the relations between energy input and vibrating plate accelerations. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editors, the PDF file of this article has been updated to amend some references present in the PDF file submitted to AIP Publishing. The references affected are listed here:[1] (c) K. Nichol and K. E. Daniels, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 018001 (2012); [11] (e) P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1993); [17] (b) K. Harth, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 144102 (2013).A LaTeX processing error resulted in changes to the authors reference formatting, which was not detected prior to publication. Due apologies are given to the authors for this oversight. The updated article PDF was published on 12 August 2013.

  19. Variation in chilling tolerance for photosynthesis and leaf extension growth among genotypes related to the C-4 grass Miscanthus xgiganteus

    SciTech Connect

    Glowacka, K; Adhikari, S; Peng, JH; Gifford, J; Juvik, JA; Long, SP; Sacks, EJ

    2014-09-08

    The goal of this study was to identify cold-tolerant genotypes within two species of Miscanthus related to the exceptionally chilling-tolerant C-4 biomass crop accession: M. xgiganteus 'Illinois' (Mxg) as well as in other Mxg genotypes. The ratio of leaf elongation at 10 degrees C/5 degrees C to that at 25 degrees C/25 degrees C was used to identify initially the 13 most promising Miscanthus genotypes out of 51 studied. Net leaf CO2 uptake (A(sat)) and the maximum operating efficiency of photosystem II (Phi(PSII)) were measured in warm conditions (25 degrees C/20 degrees C), and then during and following a chilling treatment of 10 degrees C/5 degrees C for 11 d. Accessions of M. sacchariflorus (Msa) showed the smallest decline in leaf elongation on transfer to chilling conditions and did not differ significantly from Mxg, indicating greater chilling tolerance than diploid M. sinensis (Msi). Msa also showed the smallest reductions in A(sat) and Phi(PSII), and greater chilling-tolerant photosynthesis than Msi, and three other forms of Mxg, including new triploid accessions and a hexaploid Mxg 'Illinois'. Tetraploid Msa 'PF30153' collected in Gifu Prefecture in Honshu, Japan did not differ significantly from Mxg 'Illinois' in leaf elongation and photosynthesis at low temperature, but was significantly superior to all other forms of Mxg tested. The results suggested that the exceptional chilling tolerance of Mxg 'Illinois' cannot be explained simply by the hybrid vigour of this intraspecific allotriploid. Selection of chilling-tolerant accessions from both of Mxg's parental species, Msi and Msa, would be advisable for breeding new highly chilling-tolerant Mxg genotypes.

  20. The interaction between bacterial transcription factors and RNA polymerase during the transition from initiation to elongation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Lewis, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    There are three stages of transcription: initiation, elongation and termination, and traditionally there has been a clear distinction between the stages. The specificity factor sigma is completely released from bacterial RNA polymerase after initiation, and then recycled for another round of transcription. Elongation factors then associate with the polymerase followed by termination factors (where necessary). These factors dissociate prior to initiation of a new round of transcription. However, there is growing evidence suggesting that sigma factors can be retained in the elongation complex. The structure of bacterial RNAP in complex with an essential elongation factor NusA has recently been published, which suggested rather than competing for the major σ binding site, NusA binds to a discrete region on RNAP. A model was proposed to help explain the way in which both factors could be associated with RNAP during the transition from transcription initiation to elongation.

  1. Actin and myosin inhibitors block elongation of kinetochore fibre stubs in metaphase crane-fly spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Forer, A; Spurck, T; Pickett-Heaps, J D

    2007-01-01

    We used an ultraviolet microbeam to cut individual kinetochore spindle fibres in metaphase crane-fly spermatocytes. We then followed the growth of the "kinetochore stubs", the remnants of kinetochore fibres that remain attached to kinetochores. Kinetochore stubs elongate with constant velocity by adding tubulin subunits at the kinetochore, and thus elongation is related to tubulin flux in the kinetochore microtubules. Stub elongation was blocked by cytochalasin D and latrunculin A, actin inhibitors, and by butanedione monoxime, a myosin inhibitor. We conclude that actin and myosin are involved in generating elongation and thus in producing tubulin flux in kinetochore microtubules. We suggest that actin and myosin act in concert with a spindle matrix to propel kinetochore fibres poleward, thereby causing stub elongation and generating anaphase chromosome movement in nonirradiated cells. PMID:18094930

  2. Germination and root elongation bioassays in six different plant species for testing Ni contamination in soil.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Conti, Federica D; Gardi, Ciro; Menta, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    In vitro short-term chronic phytotoxicity germination and root elongation test were applied to test the effects of nickel (Ni) in seed germination and root elongation in six plants species: Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae), Lepidium sativum and Brassica nigra (Brassicaceae), Trifolium alexandrinum and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae), Phacelia tanacetifolia (Boraginaceae). A naturally Ni rich soil was used to compare the results obtained. Unlike root elongation, germination was not affected by Ni in any of the six species tested. EC50 values, calculated on the root elongation, showed that Ni toxicity decreases in the following order: P. tanacetifolia > B. nigra > C. sativus > L. sativum > M. sativa > T. alexandrinum. The test conducted using soil elutriate revealed a significantly lower effect in both seed germination and root elongation when compared to the results obtained using untreated soil. Conversely, the test performed on soil confirmed the high sensitivity of C. sativus, P. tanacetifolia and L. sativum to Ni. PMID:24288040

  3. Restricted cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls is associated with a reduced average pectin esterification level

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Paul; McCann, Maureen C; Roberts, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Background Cell elongation is mainly limited by the extensibility of the cell wall. Dicotyledonous primary (growing) cell walls contain cellulose, xyloglucan, pectin and proteins, but little is known about how each polymer class contributes to the cell wall mechanical properties that control extensibility. Results We present evidence that the degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DE%) limits cell growth, and that a minimum level of about 60% DE is required for normal cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. When the average DE% falls below this level, as in two gibberellic acid (GA) mutants ga1-3 and gai, and plants expressing pectin methyl-esterase (PME1) from Aspergillus aculeatus, then hypocotyl elongation is reduced. Conclusion Low average levels of pectin DE% are associated with reduced cell elongation, implicating PMEs, the enzymes that regulate DE%, in the cell elongation process and in responses to GA. At high average DE% other components of the cell wall limit GA-induced growth. PMID:17572910

  4. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits – Vcmax and Jmax – to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-01-01

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between Vcmax and Jmax and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between Vcmax and Jmax and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of Vcmax and Jmax with leaf N, P, and SLA. Vcmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of Vcmax to leaf N. Jmax was strongly related to Vcmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm−2), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm−2 nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of Jmax to Vcmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting. PMID:25473475

  5. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits - V cmax and J max - to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study.

    PubMed

    Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-08-01

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (J max). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between V cmax and J max and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between V cmax and J max and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of V cmax and J max with leaf N, P, and SLA. V cmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of V cmax to leaf N. J max was strongly related to V cmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm(-2)), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm(-2) nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of J max to V cmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting.

  6. Synthesis and optical property characterization of elongated AuPt and Pt@Au metal nanoframes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangji; Jang, Hee-Jeong; Jang, Ho Young; Hong, Soonchang; Moh, Sang Hyun; Park, Sungho

    2016-02-01

    We report a facile method to synthesize elongated nanoframes consisting of Pt and Au in solution. Pentagonal Au nanorods served as templates and successfully led to an elongated AuPt nanoframe after etching the core Au. Subsequently, the coating of Au around Pt ridges resulted in Pt@Au metal nanoframes. The resulting elongated nanostructure exhibited 5 well-defined ridges continuously connected along the long axis. During the shape evolution from pure Au nanorods to elongated Pt@Au metal nanoframes, their corresponding localized surface plasmon resonance bands were monitored. Especially, unique surface plasmon features were observed for elongated Pt@Au nanoframes where the short-axis oscillation of surface free electrons is strongly coupled but the long-axis oscillation is not coupled among the ridges.We report a facile method to synthesize elongated nanoframes consisting of Pt and Au in solution. Pentagonal Au nanorods served as templates and successfully led to an elongated AuPt nanoframe after etching the core Au. Subsequently, the coating of Au around Pt ridges resulted in Pt@Au metal nanoframes. The resulting elongated nanostructure exhibited 5 well-defined ridges continuously connected along the long axis. During the shape evolution from pure Au nanorods to elongated Pt@Au metal nanoframes, their corresponding localized surface plasmon resonance bands were monitored. Especially, unique surface plasmon features were observed for elongated Pt@Au nanoframes where the short-axis oscillation of surface free electrons is strongly coupled but the long-axis oscillation is not coupled among the ridges. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08200e

  7. Altitudinal Variation in Leaf Nitrogen Concentration on the Eastern Slope of Mount Gongga on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Weiqi; Wang, Guoan; Han, Wenxuan

    2012-01-01

    Mount Gongga spans 6500 m in elevation and has intact and continuous vertical vegetation belts, ranging from subtropical evergreen broad-leaved vegetation to an alpine frigid sparse grass and desert zone. Investigating the altitudinal trends in leaf nitrogen (N) on Mount Gongga can increase our understanding of the global biogeography of foliar N. In this study, 460 leaf samples from mosses, ferns, and seed plants were collected along an altitudinal gradient on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga, and the variation in leaf N concentration (mass basis) with elevation was analyzed. There are considerable differences in leaf N between mosses and ferns, mosses and seed plants, C4 and C3 plants, and evergreen and deciduous woody plants. The general altitudial pattern of leaf N in Mount Gongga plants was that leaf N kept increasing until an elevation of about 2200 m above sea level, with a corresponding mean annual temperature (MAT) of 8.5°C, and then decreased with increasing elevation. However, the evergreen woody plants displayed a decline trend in leaf N across the altitude gradient. Our findings provide an insight into the altitudinal variation in leaf N. PMID:23028570

  8. Effects of Leaf Litter Species Diversity on Decomposition in a Forested Watershed in the Southern Appalachians, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kominoski, J. S.; Ball, B. A.; Pringle, C. M.; Hunter, M. D.; Coleman, D. C.

    2005-05-01

    Decomposition of leaf litter influences nutrient cycling and energy flow in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Diversity of decomposing leaves in streams is a function of riparian plant composition and temporal and spatial heterogeneity. Leaf species have different decay rates, and leaf litter input to streams varies seasonally. Leaves with decreased lignin, lower phenolics, and lower C:N:P typically exhibit faster rates of decay and are more bioaccessible. Our collaborative project at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina, compares leaf litter decomposition in a stream and riparian zone. We selected four leaf litter species representing a gradient of resource qualities and decay rates to develop a 2 x 2 factorial design with 15 species combinations. We examined effects of species diversity and time on leaf litter decay rate (k), phytochemistry, and microbial and macroinvertebrate colonization. Results for in-stream leaf litter indicate a positive, non-additive effect of species diversity on k. AFDM remaining of mixed and single species packs was unpredictable. Defense (e.g., phenolics) and structural (e.g., fiber) compounds varied in single and mixed species packs throughout decay; however, leaf packs with Rhododendron maximum had significantly less associated fungal biomass than all other single and mixed species packs (p < .0001).

  9. Altitudinal variation in leaf nitrogen concentration on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga on the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weiqi; Wang, Guoan; Han, Wenxuan

    2012-01-01

    Mount Gongga spans 6500 m in elevation and has intact and continuous vertical vegetation belts, ranging from subtropical evergreen broad-leaved vegetation to an alpine frigid sparse grass and desert zone. Investigating the altitudinal trends in leaf nitrogen (N) on Mount Gongga can increase our understanding of the global biogeography of foliar N. In this study, 460 leaf samples from mosses, ferns, and seed plants were collected along an altitudinal gradient on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga, and the variation in leaf N concentration (mass basis) with elevation was analyzed. There are considerable differences in leaf N between mosses and ferns, mosses and seed plants, C(4) and C(3) plants, and evergreen and deciduous woody plants. The general altitudial pattern of leaf N in Mount Gongga plants was that leaf N kept increasing until an elevation of about 2200 m above sea level, with a corresponding mean annual temperature (MAT) of 8.5°C, and then decreased with increasing elevation. However, the evergreen woody plants displayed a decline trend in leaf N across the altitude gradient. Our findings provide an insight into the altitudinal variation in leaf N.

  10. Leaf Senescence by Magnesium Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tanoi, Keitaro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium ions (Mg2+) are the second most abundant cations in living plant cells, and they are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, and nucleic acid synthesis. Low availability of Mg2+ in an agricultural field leads to a decrease in yield, which follows the appearance of Mg-deficient symptoms such as chlorosis, necrotic spots on the leaves, and droop. During the last decade, a variety of physiological and molecular responses to Mg2+ deficiency that potentially link to leaf senescence have been recognized, allowing us to reconsider the mechanisms of Mg2+ deficiency. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the physiological responses to Mg2+ deficiency including a decline in transpiration, accumulation of sugars and starch in source leaves, change in redox states, increased oxidative stress, metabolite alterations, and a decline in photosynthetic activity. In addition, we refer to the molecular responses that are thought to be related to leaf senescence. With these current data, we give an overview of leaf senescence induced by Mg deficiency. PMID:27135350

  11. Yeasts colonizing the leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sláviková, Elena; Vadkertiová, Renata; Vránová, Dana

    2007-08-01

    The yeasts were isolated from the leaf surfaces of ten species of trees. The study site was a forest park (Zelezná Studnicka) of the Small Carpathians mountain range. One hundred and thirty seven yeast strains belonging to 13 genera were isolated from 320 samples of leaves and needles. Seventeen yeast species were isolated, but only seven occurred regularly: Aureobasidium pullulans, Cryptococcus laurentii, Pichia anomala, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Saccharomyces sp., Lachancea thermotolerans, and Rhodotorula glutinis. The remaining species were isolated from the leaves and needles of three or less tree species. A. pullulans, Cr. laurentii, and P. anomala were the most frequently found species and they occurred on leaves and needles of all ten tree species. Saccharomyces sp. occurred in leaf samples collected from eight kinds of trees. M. pulcherrima and L. thermotolerans were found in samples collected from six species of trees. Both these species occurred almost always on the leaves of deciduous trees. Rh. glutinis was the most frequently isolated carotenoids producing species. We have found out that the ascomycetous and basidiomycetous species were present in the leaf samples in approximately equal frequency, contrary to the soil samples taken from this forest park, where the ascomycetous species were found rarely.

  12. Vadose zone microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results in the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.

  13. The Influence of Leaf Angle and Leaf Surface Characteristics on the Process of Rainfall Interception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, C.; Ginebra, R.; Webb, R.

    2015-12-01

    Individual choice in plant selection for household landscaping influences differences in runoff from urban watersheds because the variation in plant canopy architecture results in rainfall interception differences. Understanding the variables that influence rainfall interception and understanding the mechanism of rainfall interception are important concepts for sustainable watershed management. The broad objective of this study was to explore the influence of leaf hydrophobicity, water droplet retention, and leaf angle on the mechanism and process of rainfall interception and raindrop impaction on leaf surfaces of common tree species from the semi-arid regions of the western United States. Leaf hydrophobicity is determined by the cohesive forces of the water molecules among themselves and the adhesive forces that result from the molecular interactions between the water droplet and the leaf surface. Water droplet retention is a measure of how easily a water droplet drains off a leaf surface. The specific hypotheses examined were 1) larger raindrops falling on leaf surfaces will deflect the leaf to an angle greater than the water droplet retention angle; 2) an increased leaf angle, whether from natural position or deflection due to droplet impact and retention, reduces interception from raindrop impaction on hydrophobic and hydrophilic leaf surfaces; and 3) increased droplet size and frequency decrease rainfall interception more significantly in the hydrophilic case. These hypotheses were addressed in a laboratory experiment by 1) measuring leaf hydrophobicity and water droplet retention using a goniometer with a tilting base; 2) measuring leaf traits such as leaf area, leaf surface roughness, trichome density, and specific storage capacity; 3) examining raindrop splash on leaf surfaces with varying leaf hydrophobicity, water droplet retention, and leaf angle with a raindrop generator and high-speed video camera; and 4) modeling the impact of raindrop splash on leaf

  14. Simultaneous measurement of genome-wide transcription elongation speeds and rates of RNA polymerase II transition into active elongation with 4sUDRB-seq.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Gilad; Voichek, Yoav; Rabani, Michal; Benjamin, Sima; Gilad, Shlomit; Amit, Ido; Oren, Moshe

    2015-04-01

    4sUDRB-seq separately measures, on a genomic scale, the distinct contributions of transcription elongation speed and rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transition into active elongation (TAE) to the overall mRNA production rate. It uses reversible inhibition of transcription elongation with 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), combined with a pulse of 4-thiouridine (4sU), to tag newly transcribed RNA. After DRB removal, cells are collected at several time points, and tagged RNA is biotinylated, captured on streptavidin beads and sequenced. 4sUDRB-seq enables the comparison of elongation speeds between different developmental stages or different cell types, and it allows the impact of specific transcription factors on transcription elongation speed versus TAE to be studied. RNA preparation takes ∼4 d to complete, with deep sequencing requiring an additional ∼4-11 d plus 1-3 d for bioinformatics analysis. The experimental protocol requires basic molecular biology skills, whereas data analysis requires knowledge in bioinformatics, particularly MATLAB and the Linux environment.

  15. Leaf drop affects herbivory in oaks.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Ian S; Karban, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Leaf phenology is important to herbivores, but the timing and extent of leaf drop has not played an important role in our understanding of herbivore interactions with deciduous plants. Using phylogenetic general least squares regression, we compared the phenology of leaves of 55 oak species in a common garden with the abundance of leaf miners on those trees. Mine abundance was highest on trees with an intermediate leaf retention index, i.e. trees that lost most, but not all, of their leaves for 2-3 months. The leaves of more evergreen species were more heavily sclerotized, and sclerotized leaves accumulated fewer mines in the summer. Leaves of more deciduous species also accumulated fewer mines in the summer, and this was consistent with the idea that trees reduce overwintering herbivores by shedding leaves. Trees with a later leaf set and slower leaf maturation accumulated fewer herbivores. We propose that both leaf drop and early leaf phenology strongly affect herbivore abundance and select for differences in plant defense. Leaf drop may allow trees to dispose of their herbivores so that the herbivores must recolonize in spring, but trees with the longest leaf retention also have the greatest direct defenses against herbivores.

  16. Leaf drop affects herbivory in oaks.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Ian S; Karban, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Leaf phenology is important to herbivores, but the timing and extent of leaf drop has not played an important role in our understanding of herbivore interactions with deciduous plants. Using phylogenetic general least squares regression, we compared the phenology of leaves of 55 oak species in a common garden with the abundance of leaf miners on those trees. Mine abundance was highest on trees with an intermediate leaf retention index, i.e. trees that lost most, but not all, of their leaves for 2-3 months. The leaves of more evergreen species were more heavily sclerotized, and sclerotized leaves accumulated fewer mines in the summer. Leaves of more deciduous species also accumulated fewer mines in the summer, and this was consistent with the idea that trees reduce overwintering herbivores by shedding leaves. Trees with a later leaf set and slower leaf maturation accumulated fewer herbivores. We propose that both leaf drop and early leaf phenology strongly affect herbivore abundance and select for differences in plant defense. Leaf drop may allow trees to dispose of their herbivores so that the herbivores must recolonize in spring, but trees with the longest leaf retention also have the greatest direct defenses against herbivores. PMID:23774946

  17. Roothairless5, which functions in maize (Zea mays L.) root hair initiation and elongation encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Josefine; Liu, Sanzhen; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Tang, Ho Man; Li, Delin; Li, Li; Meeley, Robert B; Sakai, Hajime; Bruce, Wesley; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Root hairs are instrumental for nutrient uptake in monocot cereals. The maize (Zea mays L.) roothairless5 (rth5) mutant displays defects in root hair initiation and elongation manifested by a reduced density and length of root hairs. Map-based cloning revealed that the rth5 gene encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase. RNA-Seq, in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the rth5 gene displays preferential expression in root hairs but also accumulates to low levels in other tissues. Immunolocalization detected RTH5 proteins in the epidermis of the elongation and differentiation zone of primary roots. Because superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels are reduced in the tips of growing rth5 mutant root hairs as compared with wild-type, and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be involved in tip growth, we hypothesize that the RTH5 protein is responsible for establishing the high levels of ROS in the tips of growing root hairs required for elongation. Consistent with this hypothesis, a comparative RNA-Seq analysis of 6-day-old rth5 versus wild-type primary roots revealed significant over-representation of only two gene ontology (GO) classes related to the biological functions (i.e. oxidation/reduction and carbohydrate metabolism) among 893 differentially expressed genes (FDR <5%). Within these two classes the subgroups 'response to oxidative stress' and 'cellulose biosynthesis' were most prominently represented.

  18. Cell wall pectic (1-->4)-beta-d-galactan marks the acceleration of cell elongation in the Arabidopsis seedling root meristem.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Lesley; Steele-King, Clare G; Jordan, Emillie; Knox, J Paul

    2003-02-01

    Here we demonstrate that the pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I-associated LM5 (1-->4)-beta-d-galactan epitope occurs in a restricted manner at the root surface of intact Arabidopsis seedlings. The root surface occurrence of (1-->4)-beta-d-galactan marks the transition zone at or near the onset of rapid cell elongation and the epitope is similarly restricted in occurrence in epidermal, cortical and endodermal cell walls. The extent of surface (1-->4)-beta-d-galactan occurrence is reduced in response to genetic mutations (stp-1, ctr-1) and hormone applications that reduce root cell elongation. In contrast, the application of the arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) binding beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent (betaGlcY) that disrupts cell elongation results in the persistence of (1-->4)-beta-d-galactan at the root surface and in epidermal, cortical and endodermal cell walls. This latter observation indicates that modulation of pectic (1-->4)-beta-d-galactan may be an event downstream of AGP function during cell expansion in the Arabidopsis seedling root. PMID:12581303

  19. Saltwater upconing zone of influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovovic, Danica; Werner, Adrian D.; de Louw, Perry G. B.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we define and characterize the saltwater upconing zone of influence (SUZI). The SUZI is the region around a pumping well within which significant rise in the saltwater-freshwater interface occurs. While the zone of influence of a pumping well can be clearly defined in terms of hydraulics (e.g., drawdown), the SUZI has not been recognised and characterised, despite its importance for groundwater decision-making in coastal regions. We explore the SUZI under various conditions and compare common methods of investigation using both axisymmetric (1D and 2D vertical cross-section) and 3D simulations of saltwater upconing at the field scale, based on a combination of numerical and analytical approaches. The SUZI was found to be dependent on the relative magnitudes of pumping, regional flow, distance of the well from the coast, and position of the well above the interface, as expected. The three-dimensional coastal setting simulations revealed an asymmetric shape of the lateral extent of the SUZI, which is largest in the direction parallel to the coast. This occurs because the ocean and the inland extent of the seawater wedge limit the propagation of the SUZI perpendicular to the coast. Predictions of the SUZI using the Ghyben-Herzberg approximation, including cases where sloping interfaces occur (i.e., in contrast to the artificiality of horizontal interfaces used in axisymmetric approaches), provide reasonable first approximations of the SUZI. Numerical modelling of dispersive upconing in the 3D inclined interface case is influenced by practical limits to the model domain size and grid resolution. For example, the no-flow boundary condition at 1500 m from the pumping well elongates the SUZI in the direction parallel to the coast. This study extends previous concepts of well interference, which have previously been based on hydraulics only, by introducing the SUZI and characterising its extent, with consideration given to differences in commonly adopted

  20. Multicellular genesis of leaf primordium was demonstrated via chimaeric transgenic plant of maize (Zea mays L.) regenerated from Type II calli.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zi-Qin; Huang, Xuan; Feng, Chao; Tian, Na; Xu, Dan; Feng, Shu-Zhen

    2010-10-01

    Type-II embryonic calli were induced from immature embryos of maize (Zea mays L.) genotype YD and bombarded with beta-glucuronidase gene. Bombarded calli were proliferated on normal N6 medium for 2 weeks at 26°C in the dark and selected on N6 medium containing 1 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 5 mg/l phosphinothricin (PPT) but without casamino acids and proline under the same conditions for 14 days. Regeneration was carried out on hormone-free MS medium containing 5 mg/l phosphinothricin at 26°C under 3000 lux illumination. Plants over 8 cm were transplanted into soil and sprayed with 250 mg/l phosphinothricin when two new leaves appeared. Except normal transgenic plants, chimaeric transgenics also were regenerated in the present work. The expression pattern of beta-glucuronidase gene in leaves of chimaeric transgenic plant revealed that more than one cell formed leaf primordium at the initial stage, and filial cells stemed from each cell in leaf primordium arranged in a row longitudinally from leaf base to leaf apex. There was a clear boundary as a straight line between the area formed by transformed cells and the area formed by normal cells. A hypothesis was put forward that the primitive cells in leaf primordium divided in a longitudinal style, resulted in leaf elongation, then the filial cells divided transversally and synchronously toward the outside to broaden the leaf.

  1. Abscisic Acid Regulates Root Elongation Through the Activities of Auxin and Ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Thole, Julie M.; Beisner, Erin R.; Liu, James; Venkova, Savina V.; Strader, Lucia C.

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, including inhibition of root elongation and seed germination. We performed an ABA resistance screen to identify factors required for ABA response in root elongation inhibition. We identified two classes of Arabidopsis thaliana AR mutants that displayed ABA-resistant root elongation: those that displayed resistance to ABA in both root elongation and seed germination and those that displayed resistance to ABA in root elongation but not in seed germination. We used PCR-based genotyping to identify a mutation in ABA INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2), positional information to identify mutations in AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), and whole genome sequencing to identify mutations in AUX1, AUXIN RESISTANT4 (AXR4), and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE ROOT1/PIN-FORMED2 (EIR1/PIN2). Identification of auxin and ethylene response mutants among our isolates suggested that auxin and ethylene responsiveness were required for ABA inhibition of root elongation. To further our understanding of auxin/ethylene/ABA crosstalk, we examined ABA responsiveness of double mutants of ethylene overproducer1 (eto1) or ein2 combined with auxin-resistant mutants and found that auxin and ethylene likely operate in a linear pathway to affect ABA-responsive inhibition of root elongation, whereas these two hormones likely act independently to affect ABA-responsive inhibition of seed germination. PMID:24836325

  2. Molecular mechanism of Ena/VASP-mediated actin-filament elongation.

    PubMed

    Breitsprecher, Dennis; Kiesewetter, Antje K; Linkner, Joern; Vinzenz, Marlene; Stradal, Theresia E B; Small, John Victor; Curth, Ute; Dickinson, Richard B; Faix, Jan

    2011-02-01

    Ena/VASP proteins are implicated in a variety of fundamental cellular processes including axon guidance and cell migration. In vitro, they enhance elongation of actin filaments, but at rates differing in nearly an order of magnitude according to species, raising questions about the molecular determinants of rate control. Chimeras from fast and slow elongating VASP proteins were generated and their ability to promote actin polymerization and to bind G-actin was assessed. By in vitro TIRF microscopy as well as thermodynamic and kinetic analyses, we show that the velocity of VASP-mediated filament elongation depends on G-actin recruitment by the WASP homology 2 motif. Comparison of the experimentally observed elongation rates with a quantitative mathematical model moreover revealed that Ena/VASP-mediated filament elongation displays a saturation dependence on the actin monomer concentration, implying that Ena/VASP proteins, independent of species, are fully saturated with actin in vivo and generally act as potent filament elongators. Moreover, our data showed that spontaneous addition of monomers does not occur during processive VASP-mediated filament elongation on surfaces, suggesting that most filament formation in cells is actively controlled.

  3. Gibberellin Substitution for the Requirement of the Cotyledons in Stem Elongation in Pisum sativum Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Shininger, T L

    1972-03-01

    The removal of the cotyledons from 8-day-old light-grown Pisum sativum cv. Alaska seedlings caused a reduction in the rate of stem elongation to 50% of the intact control value. Gibberellic acid restored the stem elongation rate of decotylized plants to the level of the intact controls. The effect of decotylization was to lower both the rate of node formation and the rate of internode elongation. The steady state rate of internode elongation was reduced to 50% of the control rate by decotylization. Applied gibberellic acid did not restore the normal rate of node formation nor the lag in internode elongation caused by decotylization, but gibberellic acid did restore the normal steady state rate of internode elongation. Analysis of variance demonstrated an interaction between the cotyledons and applied gibberellic acid. 2-Isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-methyl phenyl-1-piperidine carboxylate methyl chloride inhibited internode elongation to the same extent in both intact and decotylized plants. The results indicate that the cotyledons are an effective source of gibberellin for the young pea seedling. PMID:16657957

  4. HIV-1 Tat protein promotes formation of more-processive elongation complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, R A; Sharp, P A

    1991-01-01

    The Tat protein of HIV-1 trans-activates transcription in vitro in a cell-free extract of HeLa nuclei. Quantitative analysis of the efficiency of elongation revealed that a majority of the elongation complexes generated by the HIV-1 promoter were not highly processive and terminated within the first 500 nucleotides. Tat trans-activation of transcription from the HIV-1 promoter resulted from an increase in processive character of the elongation complexes. More specifically, the analysis suggests that there exist two classes of elongation complexes initiating from the HIV promoter: a less-processive form and a more-processive form. Addition of purified Tat protein was found to increase the abundance of the more-processive class of elongation complex. The purine nucleoside analog, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) inhibits transcription in this reaction by decreasing the efficiency of elongation. Surprisingly, stimulation of transcription elongation by Tat was preferentially inhibited by the addition of DRB. Images PMID:1756726

  5. Product Diversity Linked to Substrate Usage in Chain Elongation by Mixed-Culture Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Coma, Marta; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Roume, Hugo; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-06-21

    Acetate and ethanol can be converted to caproic acid by microorganisms through reverse β-oxidation. There is limited insight into the versatility of chain elongation in view of different starting substrates, including even- and odd-carbon carboxylates and alcohols other than ethanol. Thermodynamic analyses show that most elongation pathways are energetically feasible. Through incubations of microbial communities with different substrate-pair combinations, we established that ethanol and propanol were both highly suitable for chain elongation. As an electron acceptor, acetate, propionate, and butyrate readily elongated with ethanol, whereas an adaptation period was necessary for formate. Isobutyrate and longer-chained fatty acids above butyrate were not elongated. The microbial communities converged, and consistent enrichment of Clostridium spp. was observed, independent of the supplied alcohol or carboxylate, with a strain related to Clostridium kluyveri dominating the enrichments. Community analysis also showed phylotypes related to Bacteroidaceae and Microbacteriaceae families in all tests that are capable of converting the base substrates to useful intermediates. These organisms were mainly enriched with methanol or formate. Our overall conclusion is thus that multiple substrates can be used for chain elongation and that this process is carried out by highly similar organisms for direct chain elongation irrespective of the substrate. PMID:27162101

  6. Abscisic acid regulates root elongation through the activities of auxin and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Thole, Julie M; Beisner, Erin R; Liu, James; Venkova, Savina V; Strader, Lucia C

    2014-05-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, including inhibition of root elongation and seed germination. We performed an ABA resistance screen to identify factors required for ABA response in root elongation inhibition. We identified two classes of Arabidopsis thaliana AR mutants that displayed ABA-resistant root elongation: those that displayed resistance to ABA in both root elongation and seed germination and those that displayed resistance to ABA in root elongation but not in seed germination. We used PCR-based genotyping to identify a mutation in ABA INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2), positional information to identify mutations in AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), and whole genome sequencing to identify mutations in AUX1, AUXIN RESISTANT4 (AXR4), and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE ROOT1/PIN-FORMED2 (EIR1/PIN2). Identification of auxin and ethylene response mutants among our isolates suggested that auxin and ethylene responsiveness were required for ABA inhibition of root elongation. To further our understanding of auxin/ethylene/ABA crosstalk, we examined ABA responsiveness of double mutants of ethylene overproducer1 (eto1) or ein2 combined with auxin-resistant mutants and found that auxin and ethylene likely operate in a linear pathway to affect ABA-responsive inhibition of root elongation, whereas these two hormones likely act independently to affect ABA-responsive inhibition of seed germination.

  7. Model of elongation of short DNA sequence by thermophilic DNA polymerase under isothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tomohiro; Liang, Xingguo; Asanuma, Hiroyuki

    2012-10-01

    Short DNA sequences, especially those that are repetitive or palindromic, can be used as the seeds for synthesis of long DNA by some DNA polymerases in an unusual manner. Although several elongation mechanisms have been proposed, there is no well-established model that explains highly efficient elongation under isothermal conditions. In the present study, we analyzed the elongation of nonrepetitive sequences with distinct hairpins at each end. These DNAs were elongated efficiently under isothermal conditions by thermophilic Vent (exo(-)) DNA polymerase, and the products were longer than 10 kb within 10 min of the reaction. A 20-nucleotide DNA with only one hairpin was also elongated. Sequence analysis revealed that the long products are mainly tandem repeats of the short seed sequences. The thermal melting temperatures of the products were much higher than the reaction temperature, indicating that most DNAs form duplexes during the reaction. Accordingly, a terminal hairpin formation and self-priming extension model was proposed in detail, and the efficient elongation was explained. Formation of the hairpin at the 5' end plays an important role during the elongation.

  8. The MAL protein is crucial for proper membrane condensation at the ciliary base, which is required for primary cilium elongation.

    PubMed

    Reales, Elena; Bernabé-Rubio, Miguel; Casares-Arias, Javier; Rentero, Carles; Fernández-Barrera, Jaime; Rangel, Laura; Correas, Isabel; Enrich, Carlos; Andrés, Germán; Alonso, Miguel A

    2015-06-15

    The base of the primary cilium contains a zone of condensed membranes whose importance is not known. Here, we have studied the involvement of MAL, a tetraspanning protein that exclusively partitions into condensed membrane fractions, in the condensation of membranes at the ciliary base and investigated the importance of these membranes in primary cilium formation. We show that MAL accumulates at the ciliary base of epithelial MDCK cells. Knockdown of MAL expression resulted in a drastic reduction in the condensation of membranes at the ciliary base, the percentage of ciliated cells and the length of the cilia, but did not affect the docking of the centrosome to the plasma membrane or produce missorting of proteins to the pericentriolar zone or to the membrane of the remaining cilia. Rab8 (for which there are two isoforms, Rab8A and Rab8b), IFT88 and IFT20, which are important components of the machinery of ciliary growth, were recruited normally to the ciliary base of MAL-knockdown cells but were unable to elongate the primary cilium correctly. MAL, therefore, is crucial for the proper condensation of membranes at the ciliary base, which is required for efficient primary cilium extension.

  9. Leaf P increase outpaces leaf N in an Inner Mongolia grassland over 27 years.

    PubMed

    Mi, Zhaorong; Huang, Yuanyuan; Gan, Huijie; Zhou, Wenjia; Flynn, Dan F B; He, Jin-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have been intensively explored in short-term experiments, but rarely at longer timescales. Here, we investigated leaf N : P stoichiometry over a 27-year interval in an Inner Mongolia grassland by comparing leaf N : P concentration of 2006 with that of 1979. Across 80 species, both leaf N and P increased, but the increase in leaf N lagged behind that of leaf P, leading to a significant decrease in the N : P ratio. These changes in leaf N : P stoichiometry varied among functional groups. For leaf N, grasses increased, woody species tended to increase, whereas forbs showed no change. Unlike leaf N, leaf P of grasses and forbs increased, whereas woody species showed no change. Such changes may reflect N deposition and P release induced by soil acidification over the past decades. The interannual effect of precipitation may somewhat have reduced the soil available N, leading to the more modest increase of leaf N than of leaf P. Thus, leaf N : P stoichiometry significantly responded to long-term environmental changes in this temperate steppe, but different functional groups responded differently. Our results indicate that conclusions of plant stoichiometry under short-term N fertilization should be treated with caution when extrapolating to longer timescales.

  10. Evolution and Allometry of Calcaneal Elongation in Living and Extinct Primates

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Doug M.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Gladman, Justin T.; Bloch, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Specialized acrobatic leaping has been recognized as a key adaptive trait tied to the origin and subsequent radiation of euprimates based on its observed frequency in extant primates and inferred frequency in extinct early euprimates. Hypothesized skeletal correlates include elongated tarsal elements, which would be expected to aid leaping by allowing for increased rates and durations of propulsive acceleration at takeoff. Alternatively, authors of a recent study argued that pronounced distal calcaneal elongation of euprimates (compared to other mammalian taxa) was related primarily to specialized pedal grasping. Testing for correlations between calcaneal elongation and leaping versus grasping is complicated by body size differences and associated allometric affects. We re-assess allometric constraints on, and the functional significance of, calcaneal elongation using phylogenetic comparative methods, and present an evolutionary hypothesis for the evolution of calcaneal elongation in primates using a Bayesian approach to ancestral state reconstruction (ASR). Results show that among all primates, logged ratios of distal calcaneal length to total calcaneal length are inversely correlated with logged body mass proxies derived from the area of the calcaneal facet for the cuboid. Results from phylogenetic ANOVA on residuals from this allometric line suggest that deviations are explained by degree of leaping specialization in prosimians, but not anthropoids. Results from ASR suggest that non-allometric increases in calcaneal elongation began in the primate stem lineage and continued independently in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Anthropoid and lorisid lineages show stasis and decreasing elongation, respectively. Initial increases in calcaneal elongation in primate evolution may be related to either development of hallucal-grasping or a combination of grasping and more specialized leaping behaviors. As has been previously suggested, subsequent increases in calcaneal

  11. A novel tomato mutant, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit1 (Slelf1), exhibits an elongated fruit shape caused by increased cell layers in the proximal region of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Chusreeaeom, Katarut; Ariizumi, Tohru; Asamizu, Erika; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Genes controlling fruit morphology offer important insights into patterns and mechanisms determining organ shape and size. In cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a variety of fruit shapes are displayed, including round-, bell pepper-, pear-, and elongate-shaped forms. In this study, we characterized a tomato mutant possessing elongated fruit morphology by histologically analyzing its fruit structure and genetically analyzing and mapping the genetic locus. The mutant line, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit 1 (Slelf1), was selected in a previous study from an ethylmethane sulfonate-mutagenized population generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf and rapid-growth variety. Histological analysis of the Slelf1 mutant revealed dramatically increased elongation of ovary and fruit. Until 6 days before flowering, ovaries were round and they began to elongate afterward. We also determined pericarp thickness and the number of cell layers in three designated fruit regions. We found that mesocarp thickness, as well as the number of cell layers, was increased in the proximal region of immature green fruits, making this the key sector of fruit elongation. Using 262 F2 individuals derived from a cross between Slelf1 and the cultivar Ailsa Craig, we constructed a genetic map, simple sequence repeat (SSR), cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS), and derived CAPS (dCAPS) markers and mapped to the 12 tomato chromosomes. Genetic mapping placed the candidate gene locus within a 0.2 Mbp interval on the long arm of chromosome 8 and was likely different from previously known loci affecting fruit shape. PMID:24519535

  12. Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

  13. Leaf expansion and development of photosynthetic capacity and pigments in Liquidambar Styraciflua (Hamamelidaceae)-effects of UV-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dillenburg, L.R.; Sullivan, J.H.; Teramura, A.H.

    1995-07-01

    In order to perform their functions as photosynthetic organs, leaves must cope with excess heat and potentially damaging ultraviolet radiation. Possible increases in the UV-B portion of the solar spectrum may place an additional burden on leaves, and this could be particularly important for young expanding leaves with poorly developed UV-B defense mechanisms. We evaluated the effects of supplemental UV-B radiation on leaf expansion and the development of photosynthetic capacity and pigments in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) seedlings. Seedlings were grown in the field under either ambient or ambient plus 3 or 5.0 kJ of biologically effective supplemental UV-B radiation. Although final leaf size was unaffected, the rate of leaf elongation and accumulation of leaf area was slower in leaves exposed to the lower supplemental UV-B irradiance. In contrast, chlorophyll accumulation and the development of photosynthetic capacity was more rapid in plants exposed to the higher, compared to the lower supplemental UV-B irradiance. The accumulation of anthocyanins and other putative flavonoids or UV-absorbing compounds was scarcely affected by exposure to supplemental UV-B radiation. These results suggest that the UV-B portion of the solar spectrum may, in the absence of gross affects on biomass, exert subtle influences on leaf ontogeny and the development of photosynthetic pigments and capacity in sweetgum. 44 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Cell models of Blepharisma: Ca(2+)-dependent modification of ciliary movement and cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, T; Watanabe, Y; Kuriu, T; Arita, T; Taneda, K; Ishida, M; Suzaki, T; Shigenaka, Y

    1991-11-29

    Ionic mechanisms were examined with reference to modification of swimming velocity and cell elongation in Triton-extracted cell models of Blepharisma. The extracted cells swam forward at Ca(2+) concentrations below 10(-6) M. The forward swimming velocity of the cell models increased with a decreased Ca(2+) concentration in the surrounding medium. At Ca(2+) concentrations above 10(-6) M, the models swam backward or rotated. The elongation of the models occurred at Ca(2+) concentrations below 10(-7) M. Results suggest that swimming velocity, cell elongation and contraction of intact cells may be regulated by intracellular Ca(2+) concentration.

  15. Transient Proliferation of Proanthocyanidin-Accumulating Cells on the Epidermal Apex Contributes to Highly Aluminum-Resistant Root Elongation in Camphor Tree1[W

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Hiroki; Endo, Izuki; Hara, Yukari; Matsushima, Yuki; Tange, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a harmful element that rapidly inhibits the elongation of plant roots in acidic soils. The release of organic anions explains Al resistance in annual crops, but the mechanisms that are responsible for superior Al resistance in some woody plants remain unclear. We examined cell properties at the surface layer of the root apex in the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) to understand its high Al resistance mechanism. Exposure to 500 μm Al for 8 d, more than 20-fold higher concentration and longer duration than what soybean (Glycine max) can tolerate, only reduced root elongation in the camphor tree to 64% of the control despite the slight induction of citrate release. In addition, Al content in the root apices was maintained at low levels. Histochemical profiling revealed that proanthocyanidin (PA)-accumulating cells were present at the adjacent outer layer of epidermis cells at the root apex, having distinctive zones for cell division and the early phase of cell expansion. Then the PA cells were gradually detached off the root, leaving thin debris behind, and the root surface was replaced with the elongating epidermis cells at the 3- to 4-mm region behind the tip. Al did not affect the proliferation of PA cells or epidermis cells, except for the delay in the start of expansion and the accelerated detachment of the former. In soybean roots, the innermost lateral root cap cells were absent in both PA accumulation and active cell division and failed to protect the epidermal cell expansion at 25 μm Al. These results suggest that transient proliferation and detachment of PA cells may facilitate the expansion of epidermis cells away from Al during root elongation in camphor tree. PMID:21045123

  16. Classification and quantification of leaf curvature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongyuan; Jia, Liguo; Mao, Yanfei; He, Yuke

    2010-01-01

    Various mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in polarity, cell division, and auxin response are characterized by certain types of leaf curvature. However, comparison of curvature for clarification of gene function can be difficult without a quantitative measurement of curvature. Here, a novel method for classification and quantification of leaf curvature is reported. Twenty-two mutant alleles from Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic lines deficient in leaf flatness were selected. The mutants were classified according to the direction, axis, position, and extent of leaf curvature. Based on a global measure of whole leaves and a local measure of four regions in the leaves, the curvature index (CI) was proposed to quantify the leaf curvature. The CI values accounted for the direction, axis, position, and extent of leaf curvature in all of the Arabidopsis mutants grown in growth chambers. Comparison of CI values between mutants reveals the spatial and temporal variations of leaf curvature, indicating the strength of the mutant alleles and the activities of the corresponding genes. Using the curvature indices, the extent of curvature in a complicated genetic background becomes quantitative and comparable, thus providing a useful tool for defining the genetic components of leaf development and to breed new varieties with leaf curvature desirable for the efficient capture of sunlight for photosynthesis and high yields. PMID:20400533

  17. Compound leaf development in model plant species.

    PubMed

    Bar, Maya; Ori, Naomi

    2015-02-01

    Plant leaves develop in accordance with a common basic program, which is flexibly adjusted to the species, developmental stage and environment. Two key stages of leaf development are morphogenesis and differentiation. In the case of compound leaves, the morphogenesis stage is prolonged as compared to simple leaves, allowing for the initiation of leaflets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how plant hormones and transcriptional regulators modulate compound leaf development, yielding a substantial diversity of leaf forms, focusing on four model compound leaf organisms: cardamine (Cardamine hirsuta), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), medicago (Medicago truncatula) and pea (Pisum sativum).

  18. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  19. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  20. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  1. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  2. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  3. 7 CFR 28.464 - Leaf Grade 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 4. 28.464 Section 28.464 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.464 Leaf Grade 4. Leaf Grade 4 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  4. 7 CFR 28.461 - Leaf Grade 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 1. 28.461 Section 28.461 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.461 Leaf Grade 1. Leaf Grade 1 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  5. 7 CFR 28.466 - Leaf Grade 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 6. 28.466 Section 28.466 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.466 Leaf Grade 6. Leaf Grade 6 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  6. 7 CFR 28.465 - Leaf Grade 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 5. 28.465 Section 28.465 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.465 Leaf Grade 5. Leaf Grade 5 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  7. 7 CFR 28.462 - Leaf Grade 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 2. 28.462 Section 28.462 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.462 Leaf Grade 2. Leaf Grade 2 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  8. 7 CFR 28.463 - Leaf Grade 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 3. 28.463 Section 28.463 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.463 Leaf Grade 3. Leaf Grade 3 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  9. 7 CFR 28.467 - Leaf Grade 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 7. 28.467 Section 28.467 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.467 Leaf Grade 7. Leaf Grade 7 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  10. Zone Refining by Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    System developed for studying use of laser beam for zone-refining semiconductors and metals. Specimen scanned with focused CO2 laser beam in such way that thin zone of molten material moves along specimen sweeps impurities with it. Zone-melting system comprises microcomputer, laser, electromechanical and optical components for beam control, vacuum chamber that holds specimen, and sensor for determining specimen temperature.

  11. Growth dynamics of eelgrass, Zostera marina, in the intertidal zone of Seomjin Estuary, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong Bae; Lee, Won-Chan; Lee, Kun-Seop; Park, Jung-Im

    2013-09-01

    To examine the growth dynamics of eelgrass, Zostera marina, in the intertidal zone of Seomjin Estuary, Korea, we surveyed environmental factors such as water temperature, underwater irradiance, tidal exposure, and nutrient concentrations in the water column and sediment pore water in relation to the shoot density, biomass, morphological characteristics, and growth of Z. marina inhabiting the upper and lower intertidal zones. The survey was conducted monthly from January 2003 to December 2004. The water temperature of the two areas displayed seasonal fluctuations. Underwater irradiance was significantly higher in the upper intertidal zone than in the lower intertidal zone. Tidal exposure was also markedly longer in the upper intertidal zone than in the lower intertidal zone, whereas tidal exposure was highest in the spring and lowest in the summer in both areas. Water column NH4 + and sediment pore water NO3 -+NO2 - concentrations were significantly higher in the upper intertidal zone than the lower intertidal zone. The eelgrass shoot density, biomass, morphology, and leaf productivity were significantly higher in the lower intertidal zone than in the upper intertidal zone. Both areas displayed a clear seasonal variation depending on changes in water temperature. However, leaf turnover time was significantly shorter in the upper intertidal zone than in the lower intertidal zone, with a higher turnover rate in the upper intertidal zone. Compared to the seagrasses in the lower intertidal zone, those in the upper intertidal zone showed more effective adaptations to the stress of long tidal exposure through downsizing and increased turnover time. These results suggest that tidal exposure, coupled with desiccation stress, can be a limiting factor for seagrass growth in the intertidal zone, along with underwater irradiance, water temperature, and nutrient availability.

  12. Elongator, a conserved complex required for wobble uridine modifications in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Karlsborn, Tony; Tükenmez, Hasan; Mahmud, A K M Firoj; Xu, Fu; Xu, Hao; Byström, Anders S

    2014-01-01

    Elongator is a 6 subunit protein complex highly conserved in eukaryotes. The role of this complex has been controversial as the pleiotropic phenotypes of Elongator mutants have implicated the complex in several cellular processes. However, in yeast there is convincing evidence that the primary and probably only role of this complex is in formation of the 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5) and 5-carbamoylmethyl (ncm5) side chains on uridines at wobble position in tRNA. In this review we summarize the cellular processes that have been linked to the Elongator complex and discuss its role in tRNA modification and regulation of translation. We also describe additional gene products essential for formation of ncm5 and mcm5 side chains at U34 and their influence on Elongator activity. PMID:25607684

  13. Repression of In Vivo Synthesis of the Mitochondrial Elongation Factors T and G in Saccharomyces fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Richter, D.

    1973-01-01

    In vivo synthesis of the mitochondrial elongation factors T and G in the yeast Saccharomyces fragilis can be repressed. Enzymatic activity assays and immunochemical titration methods reveal that cells grown in the presence of 8% glucose or in the absence of oxygen contain relatively lower amounts of mitochondrial elongation factors than cells grown in the presence of lactate. In contrast, in vivo production of the cytoplasmic elongation factors 1 and 2 does not respond to such a change of extracellular conditions. The rate of growth does not affect the level of the mitochondrial elongation factors. Production of both enzymes is almost constant during logarithmic growth, but decreases when the stationary phase is reached. Chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of mitochondrial protein synthesis, does not block but, rather, seems to enhance the in vivo synthesis of mitochondrial T or G. PMID:4717524

  14. FGF8 coordinates tissue elongation and cell epithelialization during early kidney tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Atsuta, Yuji; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    When a tubular structure forms during early embryogenesis, tubular elongation and lumen formation (epithelialization) proceed simultaneously in a spatiotemporally coordinated manner. We here demonstrate, using the Wolffian duct (WD) of early chicken embryos, that this coordination is regulated by the expression of FGF8, which shifts posteriorly during body axis elongation. FGF8 acts as a chemoattractant on the leader cells of the elongating WD and prevents them from epithelialization, whereas static (‘rear’) cells that receive progressively less FGF8 undergo epithelialization to form a lumen. Thus, FGF8 acts as a binary switch that distinguishes tubular elongation from lumen formation. The posteriorly shifting FGF8 is also known to regulate somite segmentation, suggesting that multiple types of tissue morphogenesis are coordinately regulated by macroscopic changes in body growth. PMID:26130757

  15. Suppression of vertical instability in elongated current-carrying plasmas by applying stellarator rotational transform

    SciTech Connect

    ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Pandya, M. D.; Traverso, P.

    2014-05-15

    The passive stability of vertically elongated current-carrying toroidal plasmas has been investigated in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid, a stellarator/tokamak hybrid device. In this experiment, the fractional transform f, defined as the ratio of the imposed external rotational transform from stellarator coils to the total rotational transform, was varied from 0.04 to 0.50, and the elongation κ was varied from 1.4 to 2.2. Plasmas that were vertically unstable were evidenced by motion of the plasma in the vertical direction. Vertical drifts are measured with a set of poloidal field pickup coils. A three chord horizontally viewing interferometer and a soft X-ray diode array confirmed the drifts. Plasmas with low fractional transform and high elongation are the most susceptible to vertical instability, consistent with analytic predictions that the vertical mode in elongated plasmas can be stabilized by the poloidal field of a relatively weak stellarator equilibrium.

  16. Quantitative structure - mesothelioma Potency Model Optimization for Complex Mixtures of Elongated Particles in Rat Pleura

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer potencies of mineral and synthetic elongated particle (EP) mixtures, including fibers from asbestos, are influenced by changes in fiber dose composition, bioavailability and biodurability in combination with relevant cytotoxic dose-response relationships. A unique and com...

  17. Suppression of vertical instability in elongated current-carrying plasmas by applying stellarator rotational transforma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Pandya, M. D.; Traverso, P.

    2014-05-01

    The passive stability of vertically elongated current-carrying toroidal plasmas has been investigated in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid, a stellarator/tokamak hybrid device. In this experiment, the fractional transform f, defined as the ratio of the imposed external rotational transform from stellarator coils to the total rotational transform, was varied from 0.04 to 0.50, and the elongation κ was varied from 1.4 to 2.2. Plasmas that were vertically unstable were evidenced by motion of the plasma in the vertical direction. Vertical drifts are measured with a set of poloidal field pickup coils. A three chord horizontally viewing interferometer and a soft X-ray diode array confirmed the drifts. Plasmas with low fractional transform and high elongation are the most susceptible to vertical instability, consistent with analytic predictions that the vertical mode in elongated plasmas can be stabilized by the poloidal field of a relatively weak stellarator equilibrium.

  18. Rapid elongation of arteries and veins in rats with a tissue expander.

    PubMed

    Stark, G B; Hong, C; Futrell, J W

    1987-10-01

    The saphenous arteries and veins of 40 rats were elongated with 20-cc tissue expanders underlying the leg adductor muscles. The mean rate of successful elongation of the vessels was 84 +/- 47 percent SD, with a maximum gain of 140 percent. The fastest mean elongation velocity reached 45 percent per day. Thrombosis occurred only with stretching velocities of more than 10 percent per day, which seemed to be a safe margin. Distribution of the volume into many intervals was safer than infrequent high-volume injections. Histology showed no reduction in vessel wall diameter or loss intimal integrity. Subendothelial cellular proliferation was an indicator of this rapid regeneration. Microvascular anastomoses performed in elongated arteries and veins had the same patency rate (90 percent) as in controls.

  19. NtSCP1 from Tobacco Is an Extracellular Serine Carboxypeptidase III That Has an Impact on Cell Elongation1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Delannoy, Mélanie; Navarre, Catherine; Boutry, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The leaf extracellular space contains several peptidases, most of which are of unknown function. We isolated cDNAs for two extracellular serine carboxypeptidase III genes from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), NtSCP1 and NtSCP2, belonging to a phylogenetic clade not yet functionally characterized in plants. NtSCP1 and NtSCP2 are orthologs derived from the two ancestors of tobacco. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that NtSCP1 and NtSCP2 are expressed in root, stem, leaf, and flower tissues. Expression analysis of the β-glucuronidase reporter gene fused to the NtSCP1 transcription promoter region confirmed this expression profile. Western blotting of NtSCP1 and expression of an NtSCP1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein showed that the protein is located in the extracellular space of tobacco leaves and culture cells. Purified His-tagged NtSCP1 had carboxypeptidase activity in vitro. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing NtSCP1 showed a reduced flower length due to a decrease in cell size. Etiolated seedlings of these transgenic plants had shorter hypocotyls. These data provide support for a role of an extracellular type III carboxypeptidase in the control of cell elongation. PMID:22214816

  20. Wind-induced leaf transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Chu, Chia-Ren; Hsieh, Cheng-I.; Palmroth, Sari; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2015-12-01

    While the significance of leaf transpiration (fe) on carbon and water cycling is rarely disputed, conflicting evidence has been reported on how increasing mean wind speed (U) impacts fe from leaves. Here, conditions promoting enhancement or suppression of fe with increasing U for a wide range of environmental conditions are explored numerically using leaf-level gas exchange theories that combine a stomatal conductance model based on optimal water use strategies (maximizing the 'net' carbon gain at a given fe), energy balance considerations, and biochemical demand for CO2. The analysis showed monotonic increases in fe with increasing U at low light levels. However, a decline in modeled fe with increasing U were predicted at high light levels but only in certain instances. The dominant mechanism explaining this decline in modeled fe with increasing U is a shift from evaporative cooling to surface heating at high light levels. New and published sap flow measurements for potted Pachira macrocarpa and Messerschmidia argentea plants conducted in a wind tunnel across a wide range of U (2 - 8 m s-1) and two different soil moisture conditions were also employed to assess how fe varies with increasing U. The radiative forcing imposed in the wind tunnel was only restricted to the lower end of expected field conditions. At this low light regime, the findings from the wind tunnel experiments were consistent with the predicted trends.

  1. Transcription elongation. Heterogeneous tracking of RNA polymerase and its biological implications.

    PubMed

    Imashimizu, Masahiko; Shimamoto, Nobuo; Oshima, Taku; Kashlev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of transcription elongation via pausing of RNA polymerase has multiple physiological roles. The pausing mechanism depends on the sequence heterogeneity of the DNA being transcribed, as well as on certain interactions of polymerase with specific DNA sequences. In order to describe the mechanism of regulation, we introduce the concept of heterogeneity into the previously proposed alternative models of elongation, power stroke and Brownian ratchet. We also discuss molecular origins and physiological significances of the heterogeneity.

  2. Elongation and gene expression in bovine cloned embryos transferred to temporary recipients.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alvarez, Lleretny; Cox, José; Navarrete, Felipe; Valdés, Cristián; Zamorano, Teresa; Einspanier, Ralf; Castro, Fidel Ovidio

    2009-11-01

    SummaryElongated embryos provide a unique source of information about trophoblastic differentiation, gene expression and maternal-embryonic interactions; however they are difficult and costly to obtain, especially elongated cloned embryos. One alternative is their production in heterologous temporary recipients such as sheep and goats. We aimed to produce elongated bovine cloned embryos using heterologous transfer to temporary recipients. Day-7 cloned cattle blastocysts were transferred to the uteri of ewes and goats and recovered as elongated structures at day 17. We evaluated elongation, length, presence of embryonic disc and expression of several important genes for embryonic development. We also produced homologous (cloned cattle embryos transferred into cattle uteri). Cloned bovine blastocysts were able to proceed with preimplantation development through elongation with high efficiency despite the species to which they were transferred. In qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR experiments we found differences in the pattern of gene expression among embryos recovered from different species. Sox2, Nanog and FGF-4 were markedly deregulated. No previous reports about the expression pattern of the studied genes had been published for elongated bovine cloned embryos produced in intermediate recipients, furthermore, the pattern of expression of Nanog, Oct4, Eomes, Cdx2, IFN-tau, Dicer, FGF-4 and Sox2 shown here are novel for elongated cloned bovine embryos created by hand-made cloning. Our data confirmed that sheep and goats can be used as temporary recipients. This model could serve as a basis for further research on gene expression and cellular changes during bovine peri-implantation development.

  3. Shear Modulus for Nonisotropic, Open-Celled Foams Using a General Elongated Kelvin Foam Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2008-01-01

    An equation for the shear modulus for nonisotropic, open-celled foams in the plane transverse to the elongation (rise) direction is derived using an elongated Kelvin foam model with the most general geometric description. The shear modulus was found to be a function of the unit cell dimensions, the solid material properties, and the cell edge cross-section properties. The shear modulus equation reduces to the relation derived by others for isotropic foams when the unit cell is equiaxed.

  4. Magnetic-field-induced grain elongation in a medium carbon steel during its austenitic decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.D.; Esling, C.; Muller, J.; He, C.S.; Zhao, X.; Zuo, L.

    2005-11-21

    A 12-T magnetic field was applied during the austenitic decomposition in a medium plain carbon steel at a slow cooling rate. The magnetic field applied promotes proeutectoid ferrite grains to grow along the field direction and results in an elongated grain microstructure. The grain elongation is the result of the opposing contributions from the atomic dipolar interaction energy of Fe atoms and the interfacial energy.

  5. Soil strength and macropore volume limit root elongation rates in many UK agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Tracy A.; Hallett, Paul D.; Binnie, Kirsty; Young, Mark W.; Squire, Geoffrey R.; Hawes, Cathy; Bengough, A. Glyn

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Simple indicators of crop and cultivar performance across a range of soil types and management are needed for designing and testing sustainable cropping practices. This paper determined the extent to which soil chemical and physical properties, particularly soil strength and pore-size distribution influences root elongation in a wide range of agricultural top soils, using a seedling-based indicator. Methods Intact soil cores were sampled from the topsoil of 59 agricultural fields in Scotland, representing a wide geographic spread, range of textures and management practices. Water release characteristics, dry bulk density and needle penetrometer resistance were measured on three cores from each field. Soil samples from the same locations were sieved, analysed for chemical characteristics, and packed to dry bulk density of 1·0 g cm−3 to minimize physical constraints. Root elongation rates were determined for barley seedlings planted in both intact field and packed soil cores at a water content close to field capacity (–20 kPa matric potential). Key Results Root elongation in field soil was typically less than half of that in packed soils. Penetrometer resistance was typically between 1 and 3 MPa for field soils, indicating the soils were relatively hard, despite their moderately wet condition (compared with <0·2 MPa for packed soil). Root elongation was strongly linked to differences in physical rather than chemical properties. In field soil root elongation was related most closely to the volume of soil pores between 60 µm and 300 µm equivalent diameter, as estimated from water-release characteristics, accounting for 65·7 % of the variation in the elongation rates. Conclusions Root elongation rate in the majority of field soils was slower than half of the unimpeded (packed) rate. Such major reductions in root elongation rates will decrease rooting volumes and limit crop growth in soils where nutrients and water are scarce. PMID:22684682

  6. Abscisic acid suppresses hypocotyl elongation by dephosphorylating plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuki; Takahashi, Koji; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2014-04-01

    Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is thought to mediate hypocotyl elongation, which is induced by the phytohormone auxin through the phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of H(+)-ATPase. However, regulation of the H(+)-ATPase during hypocotyl elongation by other signals has not been elucidated. Hypocotyl elongation in etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana was suppressed by the H(+)-ATPase inhibitors vanadate and erythrosine B, and was significantly reduced in aha2-5, which is a knockout mutant of the major H(+)-ATPase isoform in etiolated seedlings. Application of the phytohormone ABA to etiolated seedlings suppressed hypocotyl elongation within 30 min at the half-inhibitory concentration (4.2 µM), and induced dephosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of H(+)-ATPase without affecting the amount of H(+)-ATPase. Interestingly, an ABA-insensitive mutant, abi1-1, did not show ABA inhibition of hypocotyl elongation or ABA-induced dephosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase. This indicates that ABI1, which is an early ABA signaling component through the ABA receptor PYR/PYL/RCARs (pyrabactin resistance/pyrabactin resistance 1-like/regulatory component of ABA receptor), is involved in these responses. In addition, we found that the fungal toxin fusiccocin (FC), an H(+)-ATPase activator, induced hypocotyl elongation and phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of H(+)-ATPase, and that FC-induced hypocotyl elongation and phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase were significantly suppressed by ABA. Taken together, these results indicate that ABA has an antagonistic effect on hypocotyl elongation through, at least in part, dephosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase in etiolated seedlings.

  7. Auxin is a long-range signal that acts independently of ethylene signaling on leaf abscission in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xu; Zimmermann, Jorma; Polle, Andrea; Fischer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Timing of leaf abscission is an important trait for biomass production and seasonal acclimation in deciduous trees. The signaling leading to organ separation, from the external cue (decreasing photoperiod) to ethylene-regulated hydrolysis of the middle lamellae in the abscission zone, is only poorly understood. Data from annual species indicate that the formation of an auxin gradient spanning the abscission zone regulates the timing of abscission. We established an experimental system in Populus to induce leaf shedding synchronously under controlled greenhouse conditions in order to test the function of auxin in leaf abscission. Here, we show that exogenous auxin delayed abscission of dark-induced leaves over short and long distances and that a new auxin response maximum preceded the formation of an abscission zone. Several auxin transporters were down-regulated during abscission and inhibition of polar auxin transport delayed leaf shedding. Ethylene signaling was not involved in the regulation of these auxin transporters and in the formation of an abscission zone, but was required for the expression of hydrolytic enzymes associated with cell separation. Since exogenous auxin delayed abscission in absence of ethylene signaling auxin likely acts independently of ethylene signaling on cell separation. PMID:26322071

  8. Auxin is a long-range signal that acts independently of ethylene signaling on leaf abscission in Populus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xu; Zimmermann, Jorma; Polle, Andrea; Fischer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Timing of leaf abscission is an important trait for biomass production and seasonal acclimation in deciduous trees. The signaling leading to organ separation, from the external cue (decreasing photoperiod) to ethylene-regulated hydrolysis of the middle lamellae in the abscission zone, is only poorly understood. Data from annual species indicate that the formation of an auxin gradient spanning the abscission zone regulates the timing of abscission. We established an experimental system in Populus to induce leaf shedding synchronously under controlled greenhouse conditions in order to test the function of auxin in leaf abscission. Here, we show that exogenous auxin delayed abscission of dark-induced leaves over short and long distances and that a new auxin response maximum preceded the formation of an abscission zone. Several auxin transporters were down-regulated during abscission and inhibition of polar auxin transport delayed leaf shedding. Ethylene signaling was not involved in the regulation of these auxin transporters and in the formation of an abscission zone, but was required for the expression of hydrolytic enzymes associated with cell separation. Since exogenous auxin delayed abscission in absence of ethylene signaling auxin likely acts independently of ethylene signaling on cell separation.

  9. Contribution of cell elongation to the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mi Young; Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2011-01-18

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacterium of clinical importance, forms more robust biofilm during anaerobic respiration, a mode of growth presumed to occur in abnormally thickened mucus layer lining the cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airway. However, molecular basis behind this anaerobiosis-triggered robust biofilm formation is not clearly defined yet. Here, we identified a morphological change naturally accompanied by anaerobic respiration in P. aeruginosa and investigated its effect on the biofilm formation in vitro. A standard laboratory strain, PAO1 was highly elongated during anaerobic respiration compared with bacteria grown aerobically. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that cell elongation likely occurred as a consequence of defective cell division. Cell elongation was dependent on the presence of nitrite reductase (NIR) that reduces nitrite (NO(2) (-)) to nitric oxide (NO) and was repressed in PAO1 in the presence of carboxy-PTIO, a NO antagonist, demonstrating that cell elongation involves a process to respond to NO, a spontaneous byproduct of the anaerobic respiration. Importantly, the non-elongated NIR-deficient mutant failed to form biofilm, while a mutant of nitrate reductase (NAR) and wild type PAO1, both of which were highly elongated, formed robust biofilm. Taken together, our data reveal a role of previously undescribed cell biological event in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and suggest NIR as a key player involved in such process.

  10. Unilateral nephrectomy elongates primary cilia in the remaining kidney via reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Jun; Jang, Hee-Seong; Kim, Jee In; Lipschutz, Joshua H; Park, Kwon Moo

    2016-02-29

    The length of primary cilia is associated with normal cell and organ function. In the kidney, the change of functional cilia length/mass is associated with various diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, polycystic kidney disease, and congenital solitary kidney. Here, we investigate whether renal mass reduction affects primary cilia length and function. To induce renal mass reduction, mice were subjected to unilateral nephrectomy (UNx). UNx increased kidney weight and superoxide formation in the remaining kidney. Primary cilia were elongated in proximal tubule cells, collecting duct cells and parietal cells of the remaining kidney. Mn(III) Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), an antioxidant, reduced superoxide formation in UNx-mice and prevented the elongation of primary cilia. UNx increased the expression of phosphorylated ERK, p21, and exocyst complex members Sec8 and Sec10, in the remaining kidney, and these increases were prevented by MnTMPyP. In MDCK, a kidney tubular epithelial cell line, cells, low concentrations of H2O2 treatment elongated primary cilia. This H2O2-induced elongation of primary cilia was also prevented by MnTMPyP treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that kidney compensation, induced by a reduction of renal mass, results in primary cilia elongation, and this elongation is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  11. Unilateral nephrectomy elongates primary cilia in the remaining kidney via reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Jun; Jang, Hee-Seong; Kim, Jee In; Lipschutz, Joshua H.; Park, Kwon Moo

    2016-01-01

    The length of primary cilia is associated with normal cell and organ function. In the kidney, the change of functional cilia length/mass is associated with various diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, polycystic kidney disease, and congenital solitary kidney. Here, we investigate whether renal mass reduction affects primary cilia length and function. To induce renal mass reduction, mice were subjected to unilateral nephrectomy (UNx). UNx increased kidney weight and superoxide formation in the remaining kidney. Primary cilia were elongated in proximal tubule cells, collecting duct cells and parietal cells of the remaining kidney. Mn(III) Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), an antioxidant, reduced superoxide formation in UNx-mice and prevented the elongation of primary cilia. UNx increased the expression of phosphorylated ERK, p21, and exocyst complex members Sec8 and Sec10, in the remaining kidney, and these increases were prevented by MnTMPyP. In MDCK, a kidney tubular epithelial cell line, cells, low concentrations of H2O2 treatment elongated primary cilia. This H2O2-induced elongation of primary cilia was also prevented by MnTMPyP treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that kidney compensation, induced by a reduction of renal mass, results in primary cilia elongation, and this elongation is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:26923764

  12. Engineering of methionine chain elongation part of glucoraphanin pathway in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Nadia; Crocoll, Christoph; Erik Olsen, Carl; Ann Halkier, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    The methionine-derived glucosinolate glucoraphanin is associated with the health-promoting properties of broccoli. This has developed a strong interest in producing this compound in high amounts from a microbial source. Glucoraphanin synthesis starts with a five-gene chain elongation pathway that converts methionine to dihomo-methionine, which is subsequently converted to glucoraphanin by the seven-gene glucosinolate core structure pathway. As dihomo-methionine is the precursor amino acid for glucoraphanin production, a first challenge is to establish an expression system for production of dihomo-methionine. In planta, the methionine chain elongation enzymes are physically separated within the cell with the first enzyme in the cytosol while the rest are located in the chloroplast. A de-compartmentalization approach was applied to produce dihomo-methionine by expression of the respective plant genes in Escherichia coli cytosol. Introduction of two plasmids encoding the methionine chain elongation pathway into E. coli resulted in production of 25mgL(-1) of dihomo-methionine. In addition to chain-elongated methionine products, side-products from chain elongation of leucine were produced. Methionine supplementation enhanced dihomo-methionine production to 57mgL(-1), while keeping a steady level of the chain-elongated leucine products. Engineering of the de-compartmentalized pathway of dihomo-methionine in E. coli cytosol provides an important first step for microbial production of the health-promoting glucoraphanin.

  13. “Referred Visual Sensations”: Rapid perceptual elongation after visual cortical deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Baker, Chris I.; Liu, Yicong; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Visual perceptual distortion (i.e., elongation) has been demonstrated in a single case study after several months of cortical deprivation following a stroke. Here we asked whether similar perceptual elongation can be observed in healthy participants following deprivation, and—crucially—how soon after deprivation this elongation occurs. To answer this question, we patched one eye, thus non-invasively and reversibly depriving bottom-up input to the region of primary visual cortex (V1) corresponding to the blind spot (BS) in the unpatched eye, and tested whether and how quickly elongation occurs after the onset of deprivation. Within seconds of eye patching, participants perceived rectangles adjacent to the BS to be elongated toward the BS. We attribute this perceptual elongation to rapid receptive field expansion within the deprived V1 cortex as reported in electrophysiological studies following retinal lesions, and refer to it as “referred visual sensations” (RVS). This RVS is too fast to be the result of structural changes in the cortex (e.g., the growth of new connections), instead implicating unmasking of pre-existing connections as the underlying neural mechanism. These findings may shed light on other reported perceptual distortions, as well as the phenomena of “filling-in”. PMID:19605633

  14. Real-Time Laser Guide Star Elongation and Uplink Turbulence in the Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Andrew; Myers, Richard; Morris, Tim; Basden, Alastair; Bharmal, Nazim

    2013-12-01

    The effects of Laser Guide Star spot elongation and uplink turbulence on Adaptive Optics performance must be considered when designing an AO system for use on an Extremely Large Telescope. The former is the effect of atmospheric turbulence on a LGS as it travels up to excite the mesospheric sodium layer, resulting in unknown tip/tilt modes and laser plume shape and the latter the effect of the sodium layer's finite thickness, degrading Shack Hartmann wave front sensor performance through elongated spots. DRAGON is an AO test bench under construction in Durham, which can explore these effects in real time through the use of a novel LGS emulator, where a laser is projected through a realistic turbulence simulator into a cell filled with a water solution of fluorescent dye. The resulting plume provides a 3-D light source analogous to a sodium LGS. The turbulence simulator consists of 4 rotating phase screens, which can be independently translated in height. We present here first results from DRAGON, comparing wave-front sensing accuracy when the LGS is emulated by (a) the 3-D fluorescent cell (uplink turbulence and elongation), (b) a thin florescent film (uplink turbulence, no elongation), (c) the 3-D cell back illuminated (no uplink turbulence, elongation) and (d) a back illuminated thin fluorescent film (no uplink turbulence, no elongation).

  15. Dynamic spatial patterns of leaf traits affect total respiration on the crown scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Hongxuan; Han, Fengsen; Li, Yuanzheng; Hu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of leaf traits caused conflicting conclusions and great estimating errors of total carbon budget on crown scales. However, there is no effective method to quantitatively describe and study heterogeneous patterns of crowns yet. In this study, dynamic spatial patterns of typical ecological factors on crown scales were investigated during two sky conditions, and CEZs (crown ecological zones) method was developed for spatial crown zoning, within which leaf traits were statistically unchanged. The influencing factors on hourly and spatial variations of leaf dark respiration (Rd) were analysed, and total crown respiration (Rt) was estimated based on patterns of CEZs. The results showed that dynamic spatial patterns of air temperature and light intensity changed significantly by CEZs in special periods and positions, but not continuously. The contributions of influencing factors on variations of Rd changed with crown depth and sky conditions, and total contributions of leaf structural and chemical traits were higher during sunny days than ecological factors, but lower during cloudy days. The estimated errors of Rt may be obviously reduced with CEZs. These results provided some references for scaling from leaves to crown, and technical foundations for expanding lab-control experiments to open field ones. PMID:27225586

  16. Dynamic spatial patterns of leaf traits affect total respiration on the crown scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Hongxuan; Han, Fengsen; Li, Yuanzheng; Hu, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of leaf traits caused conflicting conclusions and great estimating errors of total carbon budget on crown scales. However, there is no effective method to quantitatively describe and study heterogeneous patterns of crowns yet. In this study, dynamic spatial patterns of typical ecological factors on crown scales were investigated during two sky conditions, and CEZs (crown ecological zones) method was developed for spatial crown zoning, within which leaf traits were statistically unchanged. The influencing factors on hourly and spatial variations of leaf dark respiration (Rd) were analysed, and total crown respiration (Rt) was estimated based on patterns of CEZs. The results showed that dynamic spatial patterns of air temperature and light intensity changed significantly by CEZs in special periods and positions, but not continuously. The contributions of influencing factors on variations of Rd changed with crown depth and sky conditions, and total contributions of leaf structural and chemical traits were higher during sunny days than ecological factors, but lower during cloudy days. The estimated errors of Rt may be obviously reduced with CEZs. These results provided some references for scaling from leaves to crown, and technical foundations for expanding lab-control experiments to open field ones.

  17. Dynamic spatial patterns of leaf traits affect total respiration on the crown scale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Hongxuan; Han, Fengsen; Li, Yuanzheng; Hu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of leaf traits caused conflicting conclusions and great estimating errors of total carbon budget on crown scales. However, there is no effective method to quantitatively describe and study heterogeneous patterns of crowns yet. In this study, dynamic spatial patterns of typical ecological factors on crown scales were investigated during two sky conditions, and CEZs (crown ecological zones) method was developed for spatial crown zoning, within which leaf traits were statistically unchanged. The influencing factors on hourly and spatial variations of leaf dark respiration (Rd) were analysed, and total crown respiration (Rt) was estimated based on patterns of CEZs. The results showed that dynamic spatial patterns of air temperature and light intensity changed significantly by CEZs in special periods and positions, but not continuously. The contributions of influencing factors on variations of Rd changed with crown depth and sky conditions, and total contributions of leaf structural and chemical traits were higher during sunny days than ecological factors, but lower during cloudy days. The estimated errors of Rt may be obviously reduced with CEZs. These results provided some references for scaling from leaves to crown, and technical foundations for expanding lab-control experiments to open field ones. PMID:27225586

  18. “Breath figures” on leaf surfaces—formation and effects of microscopic leaf wetness

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    “Microscopic leaf wetness” means minute amounts of persistent liquid water on leaf surfaces which are invisible to the naked eye. The water is mainly maintained by transpired water vapor condensing onto the leaf surface and to attached leaf surface particles. With an estimated average thickness of less than 1 μm, microscopic leaf wetness is about two orders of magnitude thinner than morning dewfall. The most important physical processes which reduce the saturation vapor pressure and promote condensation are cuticular absorption and the deliquescence of hygroscopic leaf surface particles. Deliquescent salts form highly concentrated solutions. Depending on the type and concentration of the dissolved ions, the physicochemical properties of microscopic leaf wetness can be considerably different from those of pure water. Microscopic leaf wetness can form continuous thin layers on hydrophobic leaf surfaces and in specific cases can act similar to surfactants, enabling a strong potential influence on the foliar exchange of ions. Microscopic leaf wetness can also enhance the dissolution, the emission, and the reaction of specific atmospheric trace gases e.g., ammonia, SO2, or ozone, leading to a strong potential role for microscopic leaf wetness in plant/atmosphere interaction. Due to its difficult detection, there is little knowledge about the occurrence and the properties of microscopic leaf wetness. However, based on the existing evidence and on physicochemical reasoning it can be hypothesized that microscopic leaf wetness occurs on almost any plant worldwide and often permanently, and that it significantly influences the exchange processes of the leaf surface with its neighboring compartments, i.e., the plant interior and the atmosphere. The omission of microscopic water in general leaf wetness concepts has caused far-reaching, misleading conclusions in the past. PMID:24167510

  19. "Breath figures" on leaf surfaces-formation and effects of microscopic leaf wetness.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    "Microscopic leaf wetness" means minute amounts of persistent liquid water on leaf surfaces which are invisible to the naked eye. The water is mainly maintained by transpired water vapor condensing onto the leaf surface and to attached leaf surface particles. With an estimated average thickness of less than 1 μm, microscopic leaf wetness is about two orders of magnitude thinner than morning dewfall. The most important physical processes which reduce the saturation vapor pressure and promote condensation are cuticular absorption and the deliquescence of hygroscopic leaf surface particles. Deliquescent salts form highly concentrated solutions. Depending on the type and concentration of the dissolved ions, the physicochemical properties of microscopic leaf wetness can be considerably different from those of pure water. Microscopic leaf wetness can form continuous thin layers on hydrophobic leaf surfaces and in specific cases can act similar to surfactants, enabling a strong potential influence on the foliar exchange of ions. Microscopic leaf wetness can also enhance the dissolution, the emission, and the reaction of specific atmospheric trace gases e.g., ammonia, SO2, or ozone, leading to a strong potential role for microscopic leaf wetness in plant/atmosphere interaction. Due to its difficult detection, there is little knowledge about the occurrence and the properties of microscopic leaf wetness. However, based on the existing evidence and on physicochemical reasoning it can be hypothesized that microscopic leaf wetness occurs on almost any plant worldwide and often permanently, and that it significantly influences the exchange processes of the leaf surface with its neighboring compartments, i.e., the plant interior and the atmosphere. The omission of microscopic water in general leaf wetness concepts has caused far-reaching, misleading conclusions in the past.

  20. Leaf Histology--Two Modern Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods for examining leaf structure are presented; both methods involve use of "superglue." The first method uses the glue to form a thin, permanent, direct replica of a leaf surface on a microscope slide. The second method uses the glue to examine the three-dimensional structure of spongy mesophyll. (JN)