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Sample records for leaf nitrogen relationship

  1. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits – Vcmax and Jmax – to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-01-01

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between Vcmax and Jmax and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between Vcmax and Jmax and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of Vcmax and Jmax with leaf N, P, and SLA. Vcmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of Vcmax to leaf N. Jmax was strongly related to Vcmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm−2), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm−2 nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of Jmax to Vcmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting. PMID:25473475

  2. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits - V cmax and J max - to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study.

    PubMed

    Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-08-01

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (J max). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between V cmax and J max and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between V cmax and J max and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of V cmax and J max with leaf N, P, and SLA. V cmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of V cmax to leaf N. J max was strongly related to V cmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm(-2)), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm(-2) nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of J max to V cmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting.

  3. Relationship between Maximum Leaf Photosynthesis, Nitrogen Content and Specific Leaf Area in Balearic Endemic and Non‐endemic Mediterranean Species

    PubMed Central

    GULÍAS, JAVIER; FLEXAS, JAUME; MUS, MAURICI; CIFRE, JOSEP; LEFI, ELKADRI; MEDRANO, HIPÓLITO

    2003-01-01

    Gas exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen content and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured in situ on 73 C3 and five C4 plant species in Mallorca, west Mediterranean, to test whether species endemic to the Balearic Islands differed from widespread, non‐endemic Mediterranean species and crops in their leaf traits and trait inter‐relationships. Endemic species differed significantly from widespread species and crops in several parameters; in particular, photosynthetic capacity, on an area basis (A), was 20 % less in endemics than in non‐endemics. Similar differences between endemics and non‐endemics were found in parameters such as SLA and leaf nitrogen content per area (Na). Nevertheless, most of the observed differences were found only within the herbaceous deciduous species. These could be due to the fact that most of the non‐endemic species within this group have adapted to ruderal areas, while none of the endemics occupies this kind of habitat. All the species—including the crops—showed a positive, highly significant correlation between photosynthetic capacity on a mass basis (Am), leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis (Nm) and SLA. However, endemic species had a lower Am for any given SLA and Nm. Hypotheses are presented to explain these differences, and their possible role in reducing the distribution of many endemic Balearic species is discussed. PMID:12805082

  4. The photosynthesis - leaf nitrogen relationship at ambient and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew G. Peterson; J. Timothy Ball; Yiqi Luo; Christopher B. Field; Peter B. Reich; Peter S. Curtis; Kevin L. Griffin; Carla S Gunderson; Richard J. Norby; David T. Tissue; Manfred Forstreuter; Ana Rey; Christoph S. Vogel; CMEAL collaboration

    1998-09-25

    Estimation of leaf photosynthetic rate (A) from leaf nitrogen content (N) is both conceptually and numerically important in models of plant, ecosystem and biosphere responses to global change. The relationship between A and N has been studied extensively at ambient CO{sub 2} but much less at elevated CO{sub 2}. This study was designed to (1) assess whether the A-N relationship was more similar for species within than between community and vegetation types, and (2) examine how growth at elevated CO{sub 2} affects the A-N relationship. Data were obtained for 39 C{sub 3} species grown at ambient CO{sub 2} and 10 C{sub 3} species grown at ambient and elevated CO{sub 2}. A regression model was applied to each species as well as to species pooled within different community and vegetation types. Cluster analysis of the regression coefficients indicated that species measured at ambient CO{sub 2} did not separate into distinct groups matching community or vegetation type. Instead, most community and vegetation types shared the same general parameter space for regression coefficients. Growth at elevated CO{sub 2} increased photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency for pines and deciduous trees. When species were pooled by vegetation type, the A-N relationship for deciduous trees expressed on a leaf-mass bask was not altered by elevated CO{sub 2}, while the intercept increased for pines. When regression coefficients were averaged to give mean responses for different vegetation types, elevated CO{sub 2} increased the intercept and the slope for deciduous trees but increased only the intercept for pines. There were no statistical differences between the pines and deciduous trees for the effect of CO{sub 2}. Generalizations about the effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on the A-N relationship, and differences between pines and deciduous trees will be enhanced as more data become available.

  5. Relationship between photosynthesis and leaf nitrogen concentration in ambient and elevated [CO2] in white birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bing; Dang, Qing-Lai; Zhang, Shouren

    2007-06-01

    To study the effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) on relationships between nitrogen (N) nutrition and foliar gas exchange parameters, white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were exposed to one of five N-supply regimes (10, 80, 150, 220, 290 mg N l(-1)) in either ambient [CO2] (360 micromol mol(-1)) or elevated [CO2] (720 micromol mol(-1)) in environment-controlled greenhouses. Foliar gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured after 60 and 80 days of treatment. Photosynthesis showed a substantial down-regulation (up to 57%) in response to elevated [CO2] and the magnitude of the down-regulation generally decreased exponentially with increasing leaf N concentration. When measured at the growth [CO2], elevated [CO2] increased the overall rate of photosynthesis (P(n)) and instantaneous water-use efficiency (IWUE) by up to 69 and 236%, respectively, but decreased transpiration (E) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) in all N treatments. However, the degree of stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated [CO2] decreased as photosynthetic down-regulation increased from 60 days to 80 days of treatment. Elevated [CO2] significantly increased total photosynthetic electron transport in all N treatments at 60 days of treatment, but the effect was insignificant after 80 days of treatment. Both P(n) and IWUE generally increased with increasing leaf N concentration except at very high leaf N concentrations, where both P(n) and IWUE declined. The relationships of P(n) and IWUE with leaf N concentration were modeled with both a linear regression and a second-order polynomial function. Elevated [CO2] significantly and substantially increased the slope of the linear regression for IWUE, but had no significant effect on the slope for P(n). The optimal leaf N concentration for P(n) and IWUE derived from the polynomial function did not differ between the CO2 treatments when leaf N was expressed on a leaf area basis. However, the mass-based optimal leaf N

  6. Effect of nitrogen and water treatment on leaf chemistry in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense), and relationship to herbivory by flea beetles (Epitrix spp.) and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta).

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Martin L; Paulk, Eric; Cipollini, Donald F

    2002-12-01

    We studied the interaction between plants (horsenettle; Solanum carolinense) and herbivorous insects (flea beetles; Epitrix spp., and tobacco hornworm; Manduca sexta) by focusing on three questions: (1) Does variation in nitrogen availability affect leaf chemistry as predicted by the carbon-nutrient balance (CNB) hypothesis? (2) Does variation in plant treatment and leaf chemistry affect insect feeding? (3) Is there an interaction between the insect herbivores that is mediated by variation in leaf chemistry? For three successive years (1998-2001), we grew a set of clones of 10 maternal plants under two nitrogen treatments and two water treatments. For each plant in the summer of 2000, we assayed herbivory by hornworms in both indoor (detached leaf) and outdoor (attached leaf) assays, as well as ambient flea beetle damage. Estimates of leaf material consumed were made via analysis of digitized leaf images. We also assayed leaves for total protein, phenolic, and glycoalkaloid content, and for trypsin inhibitor, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase activity. Despite strong effects of nitrogen treatment on growth and reproduction, only total protein responded as predicted by CNB. Leaf phenolic levels were increased by nitrogen treatment, polyphenol oxidase activity was decreased, and other leaf parameters were unaffected. Neither hornworm nor flea beetle herbivory could be related to plant treatment or genotype or to variation in any of the six leaf chemical parameters. A negative relationship between flea beetle and hornworm herbivory was found, but was not apparently mediated by any of the measured leaf chemicals. Because leaf resistance was maintained in low nitrogen plants at the apparent expense of growth and reproduction, our results support the concept of a fitness cost of defense, as predicted by the optimal defense hypothesis.

  7. Leaf-level nitrogen use efficiency: definition and importance.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Tadaki

    2012-07-01

    Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) has been widely used to study the relationship between nitrogen uptake and dry mass production in the plant. As a subsystem of plant nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), I have defined leaf-level NUE as the surplus production (gross production minus leaf respiration) per unit amount of nitrogen allocated to the leaf, with factorization into leaf nitrogen productivity (NP) and mean residence time of leaf nitrogen (MRT). These concepts were applied to two herbaceous stands: a perennial Solidago altissima stand and an annual Amaranthus patulus stand. S. altissima had more than three times higher leaf NUE than A. patulus due to nearly three times longer MRT of leaf N. In both species, NUE and NP were higher at the leaf level than at the plant level, because most leaf N is involved directly in the photosynthetic activity and because leaf surplus production is higher than the plant net production. MRT was longer at the plant level. The more than twice as long MRT at the plant level as at the leaf level in S. altissima was due to a large contribution of nitrogen storage belowground in the winter in this species. Thus, comparisons between a perennial and an annual system and between plant- and leaf-level NUE with their components revealed the importance of N allocation, storage, recycling, and turnover of organs for leaf photosynthetic production and plant dry mass growth. PMID:22179330

  8. Spatial and seasonal variability of photosynthetic parameters and their relationship to leaf nitrogen in a deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kell B.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Hanson, Paul J.

    2000-05-01

    We used gas exchange techniques to estimate maximum rate of carboxylation (V(cmax)), a measure of photosynthetic capacity, in the understory and upper crown of a closed deciduous forest over two seasons. There was extensive variability in photosynthetic capacity as a result of vertical canopy position, species type, leaf age and drought. Photosynthetic capacity was greater in oaks than in maples and greater in the overstory than in the understory. Parameter V(cmax) was maximal early in the season but declined slowly throughout most of the summer, and then more rapidly during senescence. There was also an apparent decline during drought in some trees. Variability in V(cmax) as a result of species or vertical canopy gradients was described well by changes in leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(a)). However, temporal changes in V(cmax) were often poorly correlated with leaf nitrogen, especially in spring and summer and during drought. This poor correlation may be the result of a seasonally dependent fractional allocation of leaf nitrogen to Rubisco; however, we could not discount Rubisco inactivation, patchy stomatal closure or changes in mesophyll resistance. Consequently, when a single annual regression equation of V(cmax) versus N(a) was used for this site, there were substantial errors in the temporal patterns in V(cmax) that will inevitably result in modeling errors.

  9. Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark Andrew; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Sprent, Janet I; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-04-12

    Using robust, pairwise comparisons and a global dataset, we show that nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass for nitrogen-fixing plants (N2FP; mainly legumes plus some actinorhizal species) in nonagricultural ecosystems is universally greater (43-100%) than that for other plants (OP). This difference is maintained across Koppen climate zones and growth forms and strongest in the wet tropics and within deciduous angiosperms. N2FP mostly show a similar advantage over OP in nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), even in arid climates, despite diazotrophy being sensitive to drought. We also show that, for most N2FP, carbon fixation by photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gs) are not related to Narea-in distinct challenge to current theories that place the leaf nitrogen-Asat relationship at the center of explanations of plant fitness and competitive ability. Among N2FP, only forbs displayed an Narea-gs relationship similar to that for OP, whereas intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi; Asat/gs) was positively related to Narea for woody N2FP. Enhanced foliar nitrogen (relative to OP) contributes strongly to other evolutionarily advantageous attributes of legumes, such as seed nitrogen and herbivore defense. These alternate explanations of clear differences in leaf N between N2FP and OP have significant implications (e.g., for global models of carbon fluxes based on relationships between leaf N and Asat). Combined, greater WUE and leaf nitrogen-in a variety of forms-enhance fitness and survival of genomes of N2FP, particularly in arid and semiarid climates.

  10. Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark Andrew; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Sprent, Janet I; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-04-12

    Using robust, pairwise comparisons and a global dataset, we show that nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass for nitrogen-fixing plants (N2FP; mainly legumes plus some actinorhizal species) in nonagricultural ecosystems is universally greater (43-100%) than that for other plants (OP). This difference is maintained across Koppen climate zones and growth forms and strongest in the wet tropics and within deciduous angiosperms. N2FP mostly show a similar advantage over OP in nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), even in arid climates, despite diazotrophy being sensitive to drought. We also show that, for most N2FP, carbon fixation by photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gs) are not related to Narea-in distinct challenge to current theories that place the leaf nitrogen-Asat relationship at the center of explanations of plant fitness and competitive ability. Among N2FP, only forbs displayed an Narea-gs relationship similar to that for OP, whereas intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi; Asat/gs) was positively related to Narea for woody N2FP. Enhanced foliar nitrogen (relative to OP) contributes strongly to other evolutionarily advantageous attributes of legumes, such as seed nitrogen and herbivore defense. These alternate explanations of clear differences in leaf N between N2FP and OP have significant implications (e.g., for global models of carbon fluxes based on relationships between leaf N and Asat). Combined, greater WUE and leaf nitrogen-in a variety of forms-enhance fitness and survival of genomes of N2FP, particularly in arid and semiarid climates. PMID:27035971

  11. Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Mark Andrew; Turnbull, Tarryn L.; Sprent, Janet I.; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Using robust, pairwise comparisons and a global dataset, we show that nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass for nitrogen-fixing plants (N2FP; mainly legumes plus some actinorhizal species) in nonagricultural ecosystems is universally greater (43–100%) than that for other plants (OP). This difference is maintained across Koppen climate zones and growth forms and strongest in the wet tropics and within deciduous angiosperms. N2FP mostly show a similar advantage over OP in nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), even in arid climates, despite diazotrophy being sensitive to drought. We also show that, for most N2FP, carbon fixation by photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gs) are not related to Narea—in distinct challenge to current theories that place the leaf nitrogen–Asat relationship at the center of explanations of plant fitness and competitive ability. Among N2FP, only forbs displayed an Narea–gs relationship similar to that for OP, whereas intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi; Asat/gs) was positively related to Narea for woody N2FP. Enhanced foliar nitrogen (relative to OP) contributes strongly to other evolutionarily advantageous attributes of legumes, such as seed nitrogen and herbivore defense. These alternate explanations of clear differences in leaf N between N2FP and OP have significant implications (e.g., for global models of carbon fluxes based on relationships between leaf N and Asat). Combined, greater WUE and leaf nitrogen—in a variety of forms—enhance fitness and survival of genomes of N2FP, particularly in arid and semiarid climates. PMID:27035971

  12. Relationships between the leaf and fruit mineral compositions of Actinidia deliciosa var. Hayward according to nitrogen and potassium fertilization.

    PubMed

    Santoni, François; Paolini, Julien; Barboni, Toussaint; Costa, Jean

    2014-03-15

    The variations of the elements that are examined most frequently during foliar analysis were determined for kiwi as a function of different nitrogen and potassium fertilizer loads. The values recorded demonstrated the existence of a relation between the leaves and the fruit. Two groups of elements were identified that exhibited different responses. The first group comprised elements that, in leaves and fruits, presented a different evolution as a function of at least one of the fertilizers. This group included B, Cu, Fe, Na, and Zn. The second group comprised elements that, in both leaves and fruits, exhibited a comparable evolution as a function of both fertilizer types. This group included N, Ca, Mg, Mn, P, and K.

  13. Relationship between potassium fertilization and nitrogen metabolism in the leaf subtending the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll during the boll development stage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Yang, Jiashuo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Loka, Dimitra A; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    The nitrogen (N) metabolism of the leaf subtending the cotton boll (LSCB) was studied with two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (Simian 3, low-K tolerant; Siza 3, low-K sensitive) under three levels of potassium (K) fertilization (K0: 0 g K2O plant(-1), K1: 4.5 K2O plant(-1) and K2: 9.0 g K2O plant(-1)). The results showed that total dry matter increased by 13.1-27.4% and 11.2-18.5% under K supply for Simian 3 and Siza 3. Boll biomass and boll weight also increased significantly in K1 and K2 treatments. Leaf K content, leaf N content and nitrate (NO3(-)) content increased with increasing K rates, and leaf N content or NO3(-) content had a significant positive correlation with leaf K content. Free amino acid content increased in the K0 treatment for both cultivars, due to increased protein degradation caused by higher protease and peptidase activities, resulting in lower protein content in the K0 treatment. The critical leaf K content for free amino acid and soluble protein content were 14 mg g(-1) and 15 mg g(-1) in Simian 3, and 17 mg g(-1) and 18 mg g(-1) in Siza 3, respectively. Nitrate reductase (NR), glutamic-oxaloace transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities increased in the K1 and K2 treatments for both cultivars, while glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities increased under K supply treatments only for Siza 3, and were not affected in Simian 3, indicating that this was the primary difference in nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes activities for the two cultivars with different sensitivity to low-K. PMID:26874296

  14. Relationship between potassium fertilization and nitrogen metabolism in the leaf subtending the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll during the boll development stage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Yang, Jiashuo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Loka, Dimitra A; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    The nitrogen (N) metabolism of the leaf subtending the cotton boll (LSCB) was studied with two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (Simian 3, low-K tolerant; Siza 3, low-K sensitive) under three levels of potassium (K) fertilization (K0: 0 g K2O plant(-1), K1: 4.5 K2O plant(-1) and K2: 9.0 g K2O plant(-1)). The results showed that total dry matter increased by 13.1-27.4% and 11.2-18.5% under K supply for Simian 3 and Siza 3. Boll biomass and boll weight also increased significantly in K1 and K2 treatments. Leaf K content, leaf N content and nitrate (NO3(-)) content increased with increasing K rates, and leaf N content or NO3(-) content had a significant positive correlation with leaf K content. Free amino acid content increased in the K0 treatment for both cultivars, due to increased protein degradation caused by higher protease and peptidase activities, resulting in lower protein content in the K0 treatment. The critical leaf K content for free amino acid and soluble protein content were 14 mg g(-1) and 15 mg g(-1) in Simian 3, and 17 mg g(-1) and 18 mg g(-1) in Siza 3, respectively. Nitrate reductase (NR), glutamic-oxaloace transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities increased in the K1 and K2 treatments for both cultivars, while glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities increased under K supply treatments only for Siza 3, and were not affected in Simian 3, indicating that this was the primary difference in nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes activities for the two cultivars with different sensitivity to low-K.

  15. Generality of leaf trait relationships: A test across six biomes

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, P.B.; Ellsworth, D.S.; Walters, M.B.; Vose, J.M.; Gresham, C.; Volin, J.C.; Bowman, W.D. |

    1999-09-01

    Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here the authors address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity, net photosynthetic capacity (A{sub max}), leaf diffusive conductance (G{sub S}), specific leaf area (SLA), and nitrogen (N) status, for more than 100 species in six distinct biomes of the Americas. The six biomes were: alpine tundra-subalpine forest ecotone, cold temperate forest-prairie ecotone, montane cool temperate forest, desert shrubland, subtropical forest, and tropical rain forest. Despite large differences in climate and evolutionary history, in all biomes mass-based leaf N (N{sub mass}), SLA, G{sub S}, and A{sub max} were positively related to one another and decreased with increasing leaf life span. The relationships between pairs of leaf traits exhibited similar slopes among biomes, suggesting a predictable set of scaling relationships among key leaf morphological, chemical, and metabolic traits that are replicated globally among terrestrial ecosystems regardless of biome or vegetation type. However, the intercept (i.e., the overall elevation of regression lines) of relationships between pairs of leaf traits usually differed among biomes. With increasing aridity across sites, species had greater A{sub max} for a given level of G{sub S} and lower SLA for any given leaf life span. Using principal components analysis, most variation among species was explained by an axis related to mass-based leaf traits (A{sub max}, N, and SLA) while a second axis reflected climate, G{sub S}, and other area-based leaf traits.

  16. Wheat leaf photosynthesis loss due to leaf rust, with respect to lesion development and leaf nitrogen status.

    PubMed

    Robert, Corinne; Bancal, Marie-Odile; Ney, Bertrand; Lannou, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Soissons) plants grown under three different fertilisation treatments, we quantified the effect of leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) on flag leaf photosynthesis during the whole sporulation period. Bastiaans' model: Y = (1 - x)beta was used to characterize the relationship between relative leaf photosynthesis (Y) and disease severity (x). The evolution of the different types of symptoms induced by the pathogen (sporulating, chlorotic and necrosed tissues) was evaluated using image analysis. The beta-values varied from 2 to 11, 1.4-2, and 0.8-1 during the sporulation period, when considering the proportion of sporulating, sporulating + necrotic, and total diseased area, respectively. Leaf nitrogen (N) content did not change the effect of the disease on host photosynthesis. We concluded that leaf rust has no global effect on the photosynthesis of the symptomless parts of the leaves and that the large range in the quantification of leaf rust effect on the host, which is found in the literature, can be accounted for by considering the different symptom types. We discuss how our results could improve disease assessments and damage prediction in a wheat crop.

  17. Wheat Leaf Rust Uredospore Production on Adult Plants: Influence of Leaf Nitrogen Content and Septoria tritici Blotch.

    PubMed

    Robert, Corinne; Bancal, Marie-Odile; Lannou, Christian

    2004-07-01

    ABSTRACT Leaf rust uredospore production and lesion size were measured on flag leaves of adult wheat plants in a glasshouse for different lesion densities. We estimated the spore weight produced per square centimeter of infected leaf, per lesion, and per unit of sporulating area. Three levels of fertilization were applied to the plants to obtain different nitrogen content for the inoculated leaves. In a fourth treatment, we evaluated the effect of Septoria tritici blotch on leaf rust uredospore production. The nitrogen and carbon content of the spores was unaffected or marginally affected by lesion density, host leaf nitrogen content, or the presence of Mycosphaerella graminicola on the same leaf. In leaves with a low-nitrogen content, spore production per lesion was reduced, but lesion size was unaffected. A threshold effect of leaf nitrogen content in spore production was however, evident, since production was similar in the medium- and high-fertilizer treatments. In leaves inoculated with M. graminicola and Puccinia triticina, the rust lesions were smaller and produced fewer spores. The relationships among rust lesion density, lesion size, and uredospore production were fitted to a model. We determined that the density effect on spore production resulted mainly from a reduction in lesion size, the spore production per unit of sporulating surface being largely independent of lesion density. These results are consistent with those obtained previously on wheat seedlings. The main difference was that the sporulation period lasted longer in adult leaves.

  18. Interspecific vs intraspecific patterns in leaf nitrogen of forest trees across nitrogen availability gradients.

    PubMed

    Dybzinski, Ray; Farrior, Caroline E; Ollinger, Scott; Pacala, Stephen W

    2013-10-01

    Leaf nitrogen content (δ) coordinates with total canopy N and leaf area index (LAI) to maximize whole-crown carbon (C) gain, but the constraints and contributions of within-species plasticity to this phenomenon are poorly understood. Here, we introduce a game theoretic, physiologically based community model of height-structured competition between late-successional tree species. Species are constrained by an increasing, but saturating, relationship between photosynthesis and leaf N per unit leaf area. Higher saturating rates carry higher fixed costs. For a given whole-crown N content, a C gain-maximizing compromise exists between δ and LAI. With greater whole-crown N, both δ and LAI increase within species. However, a shift in community composition caused by reduced understory light at high soil N availability (which competitively favors species with low leaf costs and consequent low optimal δ) counteracts the within-species response, such that community-level δ changes little with soil N availability. These model predictions provide a new explanation for the changes in leaf N per mass observed in data from three dominant broadleaf species in temperate deciduous forests of New England. Attempts to understand large-scale patterns in vegetation often omit competitive interactions and intraspecific plasticity, but here both are essential to an understanding of ecosystem-level patterns.

  19. Interspecific vs intraspecific patterns in leaf nitrogen of forest trees across nitrogen availability gradients.

    PubMed

    Dybzinski, Ray; Farrior, Caroline E; Ollinger, Scott; Pacala, Stephen W

    2013-10-01

    Leaf nitrogen content (δ) coordinates with total canopy N and leaf area index (LAI) to maximize whole-crown carbon (C) gain, but the constraints and contributions of within-species plasticity to this phenomenon are poorly understood. Here, we introduce a game theoretic, physiologically based community model of height-structured competition between late-successional tree species. Species are constrained by an increasing, but saturating, relationship between photosynthesis and leaf N per unit leaf area. Higher saturating rates carry higher fixed costs. For a given whole-crown N content, a C gain-maximizing compromise exists between δ and LAI. With greater whole-crown N, both δ and LAI increase within species. However, a shift in community composition caused by reduced understory light at high soil N availability (which competitively favors species with low leaf costs and consequent low optimal δ) counteracts the within-species response, such that community-level δ changes little with soil N availability. These model predictions provide a new explanation for the changes in leaf N per mass observed in data from three dominant broadleaf species in temperate deciduous forests of New England. Attempts to understand large-scale patterns in vegetation often omit competitive interactions and intraspecific plasticity, but here both are essential to an understanding of ecosystem-level patterns. PMID:23738827

  20. Weak leaf photosynthesis and nutrient content relationships from tropical vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, T. F.; Ishida, F. Y.; Feldpaush, T.; Saiz, G.; Grace, J.; Meir, P.; Lloyd, J.

    2015-12-01

    Evergreen rain forests and savannas are the two major vegetations of tropical land ecosystems, in terms of land area, biomass, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles and rates of land use change. Mechanistically understanding ecosystem functioning on such ecosystems is still far from complete, but important for generation of future vegetation scenarios in response to global changes. Leaf photosynthetic rates is a key processes usually represented on land surface-atmosphere models, although data from tropical ecosystems is scarce, considering the high biodiversity they contain. As a shortcut, models usually recur to relationships between leaf nutrient concentration and photosynthetic rates. Such strategy is convenient, given the possibility of global datasets on leave nutrients derived from hyperspectral remote sensing data. Given the importance of Nitrogen on enzyme composition, this nutrient is usually used to infer photosynthetic capacity of leaves. Our experience, based on individual measurements on 1809 individual leaves from 428 species of trees and shrubs naturally occurring on tropical forests and savannas from South America, Africa and Australia, indicates that the relationship between leaf nitrogen and its assimilation capacity is weak. Therefore, leaf Nitrogen alone is a poor predictor of photosynthetic rates of tropical vegetation. Phosphorus concentrations from tropical soils are usually low and is often implied that this nutrient limits primary productivity of tropical vegetation. Still, phosphorus (or other nutrients) did not exerted large influence over photosynthetic capacity, although potassium influenced vegetation structure and function. Such results draw attention to the risks of applying universal nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships on biogeochemical models. Moreover, our data suggests that affiliation of plant species within phylogenetic hierarchy is an important aspect in understanding leaf trait variation. The lack of a strong single

  1. Nitrogen and Photosynthesis in the Flag Leaf of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Evans, J R

    1983-06-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Yecora 70) plants were grown with various concentrations of nitrate nitrogen available to the roots. Sampling of flag leaves began after they had reached full expansion and continued throughout senescence. Rates of gas exchange, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuP(2)) carboxylase activity, and the amounts of chlorophyll, soluble protein, nitrogen, and phosphorus were determined for each flag leaf. Rate of CO(2) assimilation was uniquely related to total leaf nitrogen irrespective of nutrient treatment, season, and leaf age. Assimilation rate increased with leaf nitrogen, but the slope of the relationship declined markedly when leaf nitrogen exceeded 125 millimoles nitrogen per square meter. Chlorophyll content and RuP(2) carboxylase activity were approximately proportional to leaf nitrogen content. As leaves aged, RuP(2) carboxylase activity and calculated Hill activity declined in parallel. With normal ambient partial pressure of CO(2), the intercellular partial pressure of CO(2) was always such that rate of assimilation appeared colimited by RuP(2) carboxylation and RuP(2) regeneration capacity.The initial slope of rate of CO(2) assimilation against intercellular partial pressure of CO(2) varied nonlinearly with carboxylase activity. It is suggested that this was due to a finite conductance to CO(2) diffusion in the wall and liquid phase which causes a drop in CO(2) partial pressure between the intercellular spaces and the site of carboxylation. A double reciprocal plot was used to obtain an estimate of the transfer conductance.

  2. Spatial distribution of leaf nitrogen and photosynthetic capacity within the foliage of individual trees: disentangling the effects of local light quality, leaf irradiance, and transpiration.

    PubMed

    Frak, Ela; Le Roux, Xavier; Millard, Peter; Adam, Boris; Dreyer, Erwin; Escuit, Cynthia; Sinoquet, Hervé; Vandame, Marc; Varlet-Grancher, Claude

    2002-11-01

    There is presently no consensus about the factor(s) driving photosynthetic acclimation and the intra-canopy distribution of leaf characteristics under natural conditions. The impact was tested of local (i) light quality (red/far red ratio), (ii) leaf irradiance (PPFD(i)), and (iii) transpiration rate (E) on total non-structural carbohydrates per leaf area (TNC(a)), TNC-free leaf mass-to-area ratio (LMA), total leaf nitrogen per leaf area (N(a)), photosynthetic capacity (maximum carboxylation rate and light-saturated electron transport rate), and leaf N partitioning between carboxylation and bioenergetics within the foliage of young walnut trees grown outdoors. Light environment (quantity and quality) was controlled by placing individual branches under neutral or green screens during spring growth, and air vapour pressure deficit (VPD) was prescribed and leaf transpiration and photosynthesis measured at branch level by a branch bag technique. Under similar levels of leaf irradiance, low air vapour pressure deficit decreased transpiration rate but did not influence leaf characteristics. Close linear relationships were detected between leaf irradiance and leaf N(a), LMA or photosynthetic capacity, and low R/FR ratio decreased leaf N(a), LMA and photosynthetic capacity. Irradiance and R/FR also influenced the partitioning of leaf nitrogen into carboxylation and electron light transport. Thus, local light level and quality are the major factors driving photosynthetic acclimation and intra-canopy distribution of leaf characteristics, whereas local transpiration rate is of less importance.

  3. Rigidity and Plasticity of Leaf Carbon and Nitrogen Systematics in California Oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, T.; Baldocchi, D.; Xu, L.

    2003-12-01

    Mapping photosynthesis from space requires an understanding of photosynthetic efficiency. Current data sets prescribe global maps of photosynthetic parameters and relate them to greenness. It is the seasonality of greenness, and not of photosynthetic efficiency itself, which is presumed to drive photosynthesis. In fact, both greenness and photosynthetic efficiency convolve to produce seasonality in photosynthesis. If the scientific community is to globally retrieve photosynthetic rates from space, it must take this seasonality into account. We examine the rigidity and plasticity of photosynthetic capacity, its correlation to leaf nitrogen, and other leaf properties across geographic gradients of precipitation, soil moisture, air temperature, relative humidity and other measurables. In particular, these measurements focus on different species of oaks: blue oak (Quercus douglasii), coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), black oak (Quercus velutina), and valley oak (Quercus lobata). Leaf chamber measurements with infrared gas analyzers and measurements of leaf specific mass, carbon isotope composition, and nitrogen content were performed in three Mediterranean ecosystems in California: Russell Reservation (coastal hills; oak woodland), Quail Ridge Reservation (near Lake Berryessa; Northern Coast Ranges; oak woodland), and Ione (Central Valley; oak savanna). Oaks of the same species adapted to more temperate microclimates such as shaded, north-facing slopes showed less pronounced seasonality in leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. The comparison of evergreen and deciduous oak species yields relationships among leaf life span, specific leaf mass, and photosynthetic capacity that are consistent with the results of Reich. Our results confirm that oaks exhibit plasticity in their adaptation to more and less extreme environments. These results also explain why the deciduous oaks are less successful than the evergreen oaks near the coast and more successful in the

  4. [Estimation of nitrogen concentration in cotton leaf based on canopy reflectance spectra].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Wu, Hua-Bing; Tian, Yong-Chao; Yao, Xia; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Zhi-Guo; Cao, Wei-Xing

    2007-10-01

    Through analyzing the relationships of nitrogen concentration in cotton leaf under different nitrogen supply levels with canopy multi-spectral reflectance and its derived ratio vegetation index (RVI, rholambda1/rholambda2), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, (rho(lambda1) - rho(lambda2))/(rho(lambda1)) + rho(lambda2)) and differential vegetation index (DVI, rho(lambda1) - rho(lambda2)), the sensitive wave bands and prediction functions of cotton leaf nitrogen concentration were worked out. The vegetation index composed of visible region (610, 660, 680 and 710 nm) and near infrared region (760, 810, 870, 950, 1 100 and 1 220 nm) had a higher correlation with the nitrogen concentration in cotton leaf, and the RVI composed of 950 nm and 710 nm could best predict the leaf nitrogen concentration. The validation with independent field experimental data indicated that RVI (950 nm and 710 nm) -based model was suitable for estimation of leaf nitrogen concentration of different cotton cultivars at their different growth stages. PMID:18163308

  5. Leaf phosphorus influences the photosynthesis-nitrogen relation: a cross-biome analysis of 314 species.

    PubMed

    Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek; Wright, Ian J

    2009-05-01

    The ecophysiological linkage of leaf phosphorus (P) to photosynthetic capacity (A (max)) and to the A (max)-nitrogen relation remains poorly understood. To address this issue we compiled published and unpublished field data for mass-based A (max), nitrogen (N) and P (n = 517 observations) from 314 species at 42 sites in 14 countries. Data were from four biomes: arctic, cold temperate, subtropical (including Mediterranean), and tropical. We asked whether plants with low P levels have low A (max), a shallower slope of the A (max)-N relationship, and whether these patterns have a geographic signature. On average, leaf P was substantially lower in the two warmer than in the two colder biomes, with the reverse true for N:P ratios. The evidence indicates that the response of A (max) to leaf N is constrained by low leaf P. Using a full factorial model for all data, A (max) was related to leaf N, but not to leaf P on its own, with a significant leaf N x leaf P interaction indicating that the response of A (max) to N increased with increasing leaf P. This was also found in analyses using one value per species per site, or by comparing only angiosperms or only woody plants. Additionally, the slope of the A (max)-N relationship was higher in the colder arctic and temperate than warmer tropical and subtropical biomes. Sorting data into low, medium, and high leaf P groupings also showed that the A (max)-N slope increases with leaf P. These analyses support claims that in P-limited ecosystems the A (max)-N relationship may be constrained by low P, and are consistent with laboratory studies that show P-deficient plants have limited ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration, a likely mechanism for the P influence upon the A (max)-N relation.

  6. Retrieving nitrogen isotopic signatures from fresh leaf reflectance spectra: disentangling δ(15)N from biochemical and structural leaf properties.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Christine; Große-Stoltenberg, André; Lauströ, Verena; Oldeland, Jens; Werner, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Linking remote sensing methodology to stable isotope ecology provides a promising approach to study ecological processes from small to large spatial scales. Here, we show that δ(15)N can be detected in fresh leaf reflectance spectra of field samples along a spatial gradient of increasing nitrogen input from an N2-fixing invasive species. However, in field data it is unclear whether δ(15)N directly influences leaf reflectance spectra or if the relationship is based on covariation between δ(15)N and foliar nitrogen content or other leaf properties. Using a (15)N-labeling approach, we experimentally varied δ(15)N independently of any other leaf properties in three plant species across different leaf developmental and physiological states. δ(15)N could successfully be modeled by means of partial least squares (PLSs) regressions, using leaf reflectance spectra as predictor variables. PLS models explained 53-73% of the variation in δ(15)N within species. Several wavelength regions important for predicting δ(15)N were consistent across species and could furthermore be related to known absorption features of N-containing molecular bonds. By eliminating covariation with other leaf properties as an explanation for the relationship between reflectance and δ(15)N, our results demonstrate that (15)N itself has an inherent effect on leaf reflectance spectra. Thus, our study substantiates the use of spectroscopic measurements to retrieve isotopic signatures for ecological studies and encourages future development. Furthermore, our results highlight the great potential of optical measurements for up-scaling isotope ecology to larger spatial scales.

  7. Retrieving nitrogen isotopic signatures from fresh leaf reflectance spectra: disentangling δ15N from biochemical and structural leaf properties

    PubMed Central

    Hellmann, Christine; Große-Stoltenberg, André; Lauströ, Verena; Oldeland, Jens; Werner, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Linking remote sensing methodology to stable isotope ecology provides a promising approach to study ecological processes from small to large spatial scales. Here, we show that δ15N can be detected in fresh leaf reflectance spectra of field samples along a spatial gradient of increasing nitrogen input from an N2-fixing invasive species. However, in field data it is unclear whether δ15N directly influences leaf reflectance spectra or if the relationship is based on covariation between δ15N and foliar nitrogen content or other leaf properties. Using a 15N-labeling approach, we experimentally varied δ15N independently of any other leaf properties in three plant species across different leaf developmental and physiological states. δ15N could successfully be modeled by means of partial least squares (PLSs) regressions, using leaf reflectance spectra as predictor variables. PLS models explained 53–73% of the variation in δ15N within species. Several wavelength regions important for predicting δ15N were consistent across species and could furthermore be related to known absorption features of N-containing molecular bonds. By eliminating covariation with other leaf properties as an explanation for the relationship between reflectance and δ15N, our results demonstrate that 15N itself has an inherent effect on leaf reflectance spectra. Thus, our study substantiates the use of spectroscopic measurements to retrieve isotopic signatures for ecological studies and encourages future development. Furthermore, our results highlight the great potential of optical measurements for up-scaling isotope ecology to larger spatial scales. PMID:25983740

  8. Linking ethylene to nitrogen-dependent leaf longevity of grass species in a temperate steppe

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Haiyan; Xu, Zhuwen; Zhang, Wenhao; Jiang, Lin; Huang, Jianhui; Chen, Shiping; Wang, Lixin; Han, Xingguo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf longevity is an important plant functional trait that often varies with soil nitrogen supply. Ethylene is a classical plant hormone involved in the control of senescence and abscission, but its role in nitrogen-dependent leaf longevity is largely unknown. Methods Pot and field experiments were performed to examine the effects of nitrogen addition on leaf longevity and ethylene production in two dominant plant species, Agropyron cristatum and Stipa krylovii, in a temperate steppe in northern China. Key Results Nitrogen addition increased leaf ethylene production and nitrogen concentration but shortened leaf longevity; the addition of cobalt chloride, an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, reduced leaf nitrogen concentration and increased leaf longevity. Path analysis indicated that nitrogen addition reduced leaf longevity mainly through altering leaf ethylene production. Conclusions These findings provide the first experimental evidence in support of the involvement of ethylene in nitrogen-induced decrease in leaf longevity. PMID:24136876

  9. Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments

    PubMed Central

    Cendrero-Mateo, M. Pilar; Moran, M. Susan; Papuga, Shirley A.; Thorp, K.R.; Alonso, L.; Moreno, J.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Rascher, U.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using active techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that active and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average scale. At the single-leaf scale, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of active and passive ChlF at the single-leaf scale are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management. PMID:26482242

  10. Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments.

    PubMed

    Cendrero-Mateo, M Pilar; Moran, M Susan; Papuga, Shirley A; Thorp, K R; Alonso, L; Moreno, J; Ponce-Campos, G; Rascher, U; Wang, G

    2016-01-01

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using active techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that active and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average scale. At the single-leaf scale, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of active and passive ChlF at the single-leaf scale are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management.

  11. Contribution of chloroplast biogenesis to carbon-nitrogen balance during early leaf development in rice.

    PubMed

    Kusumi, Kensuke; Hirotsuka, Shoko; Shimada, Hiroshi; Chono, Yoko; Matsuda, Osamu; Iba, Koh

    2010-07-01

    Chloroplast biogenesis is most significant during the changes in cellular organization associated with leaf development in higher plants. To examine the physiological relationship between developing chloroplasts and host leaf cells during early leaf development, we investigated changes in the carbon and nitrogen contents in leaves at the P4 developmental stage of rice, during which leaf blade structure is established and early events of chloroplast differentiation occur. During the P4 stage, carbon content on a dry mass basis remained constant, whereas the nitrogen content decreased by 30%. Among carbohydrates, sucrose and starch accumulated to high levels early in the P4 stage, and glucose, fructose and cellulose degradation increased during the mid-to-late P4 stage. In the chloroplast-deficient leaves of the virescent-1 mutant of rice, however, the carbon and nitrogen contents, as well as the C/N ratio during the P4 stage, were largely unaffected. These observations suggest that developing rice leaves function as sink organs at the P4 stage, and that chloroplast biogenesis and carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the leaf cell is regulated independently at this stage.

  12. Developmental changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism affect tea quality in different leaf position.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Xin; Yang, Wei-Jun; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Li, Xin; Han, Wen-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Leaf position represents a specific developmental stage that influences both photosynthesis and respiration. However, the precise relationships between photosynthesis and respiration in different leaf position that affect tea quality are largely unknown. Here, we show that the effective quantum yield of photosystem II [ΦPSⅡ] as well as total chlorophyll concentration (TChl) of tea leaves increased gradually with leaf maturity. Moreover, respiration rate (RR) together with total nitrogen concentration (TN) decreased persistently, but total carbon remained unchanged during leaf maturation. Analyses of major N-based organic compounds revealed that decrease in TN was attributed to a significant decrease in the concentration of caffeine and amino acids (AA) in mature leaves. Furthermore, soluble sugar (SS) decreased, but starch concentration increased with leaf maturity, indicating that source-sink relationship was altered during tea leaf development. Detailed correlation analysis showed that ΦPSⅡ was negatively correlated with RR, SS, starch, tea polyphenol (TP), total catechins and TN, but positively correlated with TChl; while RR was positively correlated with TN, SS, TP and caffeine, but negatively correlated with TChl and starch concentrations. Our results suggest that biosynthesis of chlorophyll, catechins and polyphenols is closely associated with photosynthesis and respiration in different leaf position that greatly influences the relationship between primary and secondary metabolism in tea plants. PMID:27380366

  13. Developmental changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism affect tea quality in different leaf position.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Xin; Yang, Wei-Jun; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Li, Xin; Han, Wen-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Leaf position represents a specific developmental stage that influences both photosynthesis and respiration. However, the precise relationships between photosynthesis and respiration in different leaf position that affect tea quality are largely unknown. Here, we show that the effective quantum yield of photosystem II [ΦPSⅡ] as well as total chlorophyll concentration (TChl) of tea leaves increased gradually with leaf maturity. Moreover, respiration rate (RR) together with total nitrogen concentration (TN) decreased persistently, but total carbon remained unchanged during leaf maturation. Analyses of major N-based organic compounds revealed that decrease in TN was attributed to a significant decrease in the concentration of caffeine and amino acids (AA) in mature leaves. Furthermore, soluble sugar (SS) decreased, but starch concentration increased with leaf maturity, indicating that source-sink relationship was altered during tea leaf development. Detailed correlation analysis showed that ΦPSⅡ was negatively correlated with RR, SS, starch, tea polyphenol (TP), total catechins and TN, but positively correlated with TChl; while RR was positively correlated with TN, SS, TP and caffeine, but negatively correlated with TChl and starch concentrations. Our results suggest that biosynthesis of chlorophyll, catechins and polyphenols is closely associated with photosynthesis and respiration in different leaf position that greatly influences the relationship between primary and secondary metabolism in tea plants.

  14. Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus of temperate desert plants in response to climate and soil nutrient availability.

    PubMed

    He, Mingzhu; Dijkstra, Feike A; Zhang, Ke; Li, Xinrong; Tan, Huijuan; Gao, Yanhong; Li, Gang

    2014-11-06

    In desert ecosystems, plant growth and nutrient uptake are restricted by availability of soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The effects of both climate and soil nutrient conditions on N and P concentrations among desert plant life forms (annual, perennial and shrub) remain unclear. We assessed leaf N and P levels of 54 desert plants and measured the corresponding soil N and P in shallow (0-10 cm), middle (10-40 cm) and deep soil layers (40-100 cm), at 52 sites in a temperate desert of northwest China. Leaf P and N:P ratios varied markedly among life forms. Leaf P was higher in annuals and perennials than in shrubs. Leaf N and P showed a negative relationship with mean annual temperature (MAT) and no relationship with mean annual precipitation (MAP), but a positive relationship with soil P. Leaf P of shrubs was positively related to soil P in the deep soil. Our study indicated that leaf N and P across the three life forms were influenced by soil P. Deep-rooted plants may enhance the availability of P in the surface soil facilitating growth of shallow-rooted life forms in this N and P limited system, but further research is warranted on this aspect.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations in leaf area index, specific leaf area and leaf nitrogen of two co-occurring savanna tree species.

    PubMed

    Simioni, Guillaume; Gignoux, Jacques; Le Roux, Xavier; Appé, Raphaëlle; Benest, Daniele

    2004-02-01

    Foliage growth, mass- and area-based leaf nitrogen concentrations (Nm and N a) and specific leaf area (SLA) were surveyed during a complete vegetation cycle for two co-occurring savanna tree species: Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel. ex G. Don) Benth. and Cussonia arborea A. Rich. The study was conducted in the natural reserve of Lamto, Ivory Coast, on isolated and clumped trees. Leaf flush occurred before the beginning of the rainy season. Maximum leaf area index (LAI), computed on a projected canopy basis for individual trees, was similar (mean of about 4) for both species. Seasonal courses of the ratio of actual to maximum LAI were similar for individuals of the same species, but differed between species. For C. febrifuga, clumped trees reached their maximum LAI before isolated trees. The LAI of C. arborea trees did not differ between clumped and isolated individuals, but maximum LAI was reached about 2 months later than for C. febrifuga. Leaf fall was associated with decreasing soil water content for C. arborea. For C. febrifuga, leaf fall started before the end of the rainy period and was independent of changes in soil water content. These features lead to a partial niche separation in time for light resource acquisition between the two species. Although Nm, N a and SLA decreased with time, SLA and N a decreased later in the vegetation cycle for C. arborea than for C. febrifuga. For both species, N a decreased and SLA increased with decreasing leaf irradiance within the canopy, although effects of light on leaf characteristics did not differ between isolated and clumped trees. Given relationships between N a and photosynthetic capacities previously reported for these species, our results show that C. arborea exhibits higher photosynthetic capacity than C. febrifuga during most of the vegetation cycle and at all irradiances. PMID:14676036

  16. Effects of Growth Temperature on the Responses of Ribulose-1,5-Biphosphate Carboxylase, Electron Transport Components, and Sucrose Synthesis Enzymes to Leaf Nitrogen in Rice, and Their Relationships to Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Makino, A.; Nakano, H.; Mae, T.

    1994-08-01

    Effects of growth temperature on the photosynthetic gas-exchange rates and their underlying biochemical properties were examined in young, fully expanded leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The plants were grown hydroponically under day/night temperature regimes of 18/15[deg]C, 23/18[deg]C, and 30/23[deg]C and all photosynthetic measurements were made at a leaf temperature of 25[deg]C and an irradiance of 1800 [mu]mol quanta m-2 s-1. Growth temperature affected the photosynthetic CO2 response curve. The relative ratio of the initial slope to the CO2-saturated photosynthesis increased with rising growth temperature. This was caused mainly by an increase in CO2-limited photosynthesis for a given leaf nitrogen content with rising growth temperature. However, there was no difference in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) content at any given leaf nitrogen content among temperature treatments. In addition, the activation state and catalytic turnover rate of Rubisco were not affected by growth temperature. The increase in CO2-limited photosynthesis with rising growth temperature was the result of an increase in the CO2 transfer conductance between the intercellular airspaces and the carboxylation sites. The amounts of total chlorophyll and light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein II increased for the same leaf nitrogen content with rising growth temperature, but the amounts of cytochrome f and coupling factor 1 and the activities of cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and sucrose-phosphate synthase were the same between plants grown at 23/18[deg]C and those grown at 30/23[deg]C. Similarly, CO2-saturated photosynthesis was not different for the same leaf nitrogen content between these treatments. For the 18/15[deg]C-grown plants, a slight decrease in the amounts of cytochrome f and coupling factor 1 and an increase in the activities of cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and sucrose-phosphate synthase were found, but these were not reflected in CO2-saturated

  17. Relating Leaf Nitrogen, Leaf Photosynthesis and Canopy CO2 Exchange in a Temperate Winter Barley Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, R.; Boegh, E.; Herbst, M.; Friborg, T.

    2012-12-01

    Net exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the soil-vegetation interface (NEE) is controlled by a wide range of biochemical and biophysical processes where leaf photosynthesis is often the most important. In mechanistically and physically based photosynthesis models (e.g. Farquhar et al. 1980) leaf nutrient status is a limiting factor for the photosynthetic capacity since it is implicitly incorporated through the parameters of maximum rate of carboxylation of CO2 (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). These are closely related to leaf nitrogen concentration (Na) and leaf chlorophyll content (Cab) and often show a characteristic seasonal dynamic. When simulating CO2 exchange, model outputs are sensitive to leaf photosynthetic capacity, which is labour consuming to verify through field measurements. A less time consuming method is to measure leaf "greenness" (SPAD), which is closely related to chlorophyll content and thus photosynthetic capacity. In the present study field measurements of leaf photosynthesis (LI-6400, LICOR Inc.), leaf reflectance (SPAD-502, Minolta), and LAI (LAI-2000, LICOR Inc.) were conducted on agricultural fields in Western Denmark during one growing season. The leaf photosynthesis measurements provided the basis for estimating photosynthetic capacity. SPAD measurements and LAI was measured with a higher spatial and temporal resolution. SPAD readings were calibrated against Cab and Na analyzed on leaf material in the laboratory and later correlated to photosynthetic capacity. These data were used to parameterize a coupled photosynthesis and stomatal model that was run for the growing season 2012 to estimate NEE. As a part of the hydrological observatory HOBE (hobe.dk), fluxes of greenhouse gasses are continuously measured by eddy covariance systems at three field sites in the Skjern River Catchment, Western Denmark, providing the basis for estimating the exchange of energy, water vapour, and CO2 on canopy scale. One of

  18. Spectral reflectance relationships to leaf water stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in leaf cover, relative water content of leaves, and leaf water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both leaf cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in leaf cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by leaf moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when leaf cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between leaf water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and leaf cover.

  19. Tight coupling of leaf area index to canopy nitrogen and phosphorus across heterogeneous tallgrass prairie communities.

    PubMed

    Klodd, Anne E; Nippert, Jesse B; Ratajczak, Zak; Waring, Hazel; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are limiting nutrients for many plant communities worldwide. Foliar N and P along with leaf area are among the most important controls on photosynthesis and hence productivity. However, foliar N and P are typically assessed as species level traits, whereas productivity is often measured at the community scale. Here, we compared the community-level traits of leaf area index (LAI) to total foliar nitrogen (TFN) and total foliar phosphorus (TFP) across nearly three orders of magnitude LAI in grazed and ungrazed tallgrass prairie in north-eastern Kansas, USA. LAI was strongly correlated with both TFN and TFP across communities, and also within plant functional types (grass, forb, woody, and sedge) and grazing treatments (bison or cattle, and ungrazed). Across almost the entire range of LAI values and contrasting communities, TFN:TFP ratios indicated co-limitation by N and P in almost all communities; this may further indicate a community scale trend of an optimal N and P allocation per unit leaf area for growth. Previously, results from the arctic showed similar tight relationships between LAI:TFN, suggesting N is supplied to canopies to maximize photosynthesis per unit leaf area. This tight coupling between LAI, N, and P in tallgrass prairie suggests a process of optimal allocation of N and P, wherein LAI remains similarly constrained by N and P despite differences in species composition, grazing, and canopy density. PMID:27561778

  20. Estimation of rice leaf nitrogen contents based on hyperspectral LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Lin; Gong, Wei; Shi, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Sun, Jia; Zhu, Bo; Song, Shalei

    2016-02-01

    Precision agriculture has become a global research hotspot in recent years. Thus, a technique for rapidly monitoring a farmland in a large scale and for accurately monitoring the growing status of crops needs to be established. In this paper, a novel technique, i.e., hyperspectral LIDAR (HL) which worked based on wide spectrum emission and a 32-channel detector was introduced, and its potential in vegetation detection was then evaluated. These spectra collected by HL were used to classify and derive the nitrogen contents of rice under four different nitrogen content levels with support vector machine (SVM) regression. Meanwhile the wavelength selection and channel correction method for achieving high spectral resolution were discussed briefly. The analysis results show that: (1) the reflectance intensity of the selected characteristic wavelengths of HL system has high correlation with different nitrogen contents levels of rice. (2) By increasing the number of wavelengths in calculation, the classification accuracy is greatly improved (from 54% with 4 wavelengths to 83% with 32 wavelengths) and so the regression coefficient r2 is (from 0.51 with 4 wavelengths to 0.75 with 32 wavelengths). (3) Support vector machine (SVM) is a useful regression method for rice leaf nitrogen contents retrieval. These analysis results can help farmers to make fertilization strategies more accurately. The receiving channels and characteristic wavelengths of HL system can be flexibly selected according to different requirements and thus this system will be applied in other fields, such as geologic exploration and environmental monitoring.

  1. An empirical model that uses light attenuation and plant nitrogen status to predict within-canopy nitrogen distribution and upscale photosynthesis from leaf to whole canopy

    PubMed Central

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Frak, Ela; Zaka, Serge; Prieto, Jorge; Lebon, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Modelling the spatial and temporal distribution of leaf nitrogen (N) is central to specify photosynthetic parameters and simulate canopy photosynthesis. Leaf photosynthetic parameters depend on both local light availability and whole-plant N status. The interaction between these two levels of integration has generally been modelled by assuming optimal canopy functioning, which is not supported by experiments. During this study, we examined how a set of empirical relationships with measurable parameters could be used instead to predict photosynthesis at the leaf and whole-canopy levels. The distribution of leaf N per unit area (Na) within the canopy was related to leaf light irradiance and to the nitrogen nutrition index (NNI), a whole-plant variable accounting for plant N status. Na was then used to determine the photosynthetic parameters of a leaf gas exchange model. The model was assessed on alfalfa canopies under contrasting N nutrition and with N2-fixing and non-fixing plants. Three experiments were carried out to parameterize the relationships between Na, leaf irradiance, NNI and photosynthetic parameters. An additional independent data set was used for model evaluation. The N distribution model showed that it was able to predict leaf N on the set of leaves tested. The Na at the top of the canopy appeared to be related linearly to the NNI, whereas the coefficient accounting for N allocation remained constant. Photosynthetic parameters were related linearly to Na irrespective of N nutrition and the N acquisition mode. Daily patterns of gas exchange were simulated accurately at the leaf scale. When integrated at the whole-canopy scale, the model predicted that raising N availability above an NNI of 1 did not result in increased net photosynthesis. Overall, the model proposed offered a solution for a dynamic coupling of leaf photosynthesis and canopy N distribution without requiring any optimal functioning hypothesis. PMID:26433705

  2. An empirical model that uses light attenuation and plant nitrogen status to predict within-canopy nitrogen distribution and upscale photosynthesis from leaf to whole canopy.

    PubMed

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Frak, Ela; Zaka, Serge; Prieto, Jorge; Lebon, Eric

    2015-10-03

    Modelling the spatial and temporal distribution of leaf nitrogen (N) is central to specify photosynthetic parameters and simulate canopy photosynthesis. Leaf photosynthetic parameters depend on both local light availability and whole-plant N status. The interaction between these two levels of integration has generally been modelled by assuming optimal canopy functioning, which is not supported by experiments. During this study, we examined how a set of empirical relationships with measurable parameters could be used instead to predict photosynthesis at the leaf and whole-canopy levels. The distribution of leaf N per unit area (Na) within the canopy was related to leaf light irradiance and to the nitrogen nutrition index (NNI), a whole-plant variable accounting for plant N status. Na was then used to determine the photosynthetic parameters of a leaf gas exchange model. The model was assessed on alfalfa canopies under contrasting N nutrition and with N2-fixing and non-fixing plants. Three experiments were carried out to parameterize the relationships between Na, leaf irradiance, NNI and photosynthetic parameters. An additional independent data set was used for model evaluation. The N distribution model showed that it was able to predict leaf N on the set of leaves tested. The Na at the top of the canopy appeared to be related linearly to the NNI, whereas the coefficient accounting for N allocation remained constant. Photosynthetic parameters were related linearly to Na irrespective of N nutrition and the N acquisition mode. Daily patterns of gas exchange were simulated accurately at the leaf scale. When integrated at the whole-canopy scale, the model predicted that raising N availability above an NNI of 1 did not result in increased net photosynthesis. Overall, the model proposed offered a solution for a dynamic coupling of leaf photosynthesis and canopy N distribution without requiring any optimal functioning hypothesis.

  3. [Relationships among leaf traits and their expression in different vegetation zones in Yanhe River basin, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ru; Wen, Zhong-ming; Wang, Hong-xia; Qi, De-hui

    2015-12-01

    This article selected zonal plant communities as the research objects in different vegetation zones in Yanhe River basin. We measured six leaf traits of the dominant species and main accompanying species in each community, and then analyzed the relationships and their changes along with environmental gradients between these traits in order to understand the plant adaptation strategies to the environment changes. The results showed that the specific leaf area was significantly negatively correlated to leaf tissue density, area-based leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and significantly positively correlated to mass-based leaf phosphorus concentration. Both the scaling relationships among these traits and plant life strategies were different among the three vegetation zones, the scaling-dependent relationship between leaf tissue density and specific leaf area was stronger in steppe and forest-steppe zones than in forest zone, but the correlations among area-based leaf nitrogen/phosphorus concentrations and specific leaf area and leaf tissue density were more significant in forest zone than in steppe zone. In the arid grassland and forest-steppe zone, plants give priority to defensive and stress resistance strategies, and in relatively moist nutrient-rich forest zone, plants give priority to fast growth and resource optimization allocation strategies. PMID:27111998

  4. BOREAS TE-9 PAR and Leaf Nitrogen Data for NSA Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Dang, Qinglai; Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-9 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. This data set describes the relationship between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels and foliage nitrogen in samples from six sites in the BOREAS Northern Study Area (NSA) collected during the three 1994 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). This information is useful for modeling the vertical distribution of carbon fixation for these different forest types in the boreal forest. The data were collected to quantify the relationship between PAR and leaf nitrogen of black spruce, jack pine, and aspen. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  5. Leaf reflectance-nitrogen-chlorophyll relations among three south Texas woody rangeland plant species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Everitt, J. H.; Escobar, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Annual variations in the nitrogen-chlorophyll leaf reflectance of hackberry, honey mesquite and live oak in south Texas, were compared. In spring, leaf reflectance at the 0.55 m wavelength and nitrogen (N) concentration was high but leaf chlorophyll (chl) concentrations were low. In summer, leaf reflectance and N-concentration were low but lead chl concentrations were high. Linear correlations for both spring and summer of leaf reflectance with N and chl concentration or deviations from linear regression were not statistically significant.

  6. Detecting leaf nitrogen content in wheat with canopy hyperspectrum under different soil backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, X.; Ren, H.; Cao, Z.; Tian, Y.; Cao, W.; Zhu, Y.; Cheng, T.

    2014-10-01

    Hyperspectral sensing techniques can be effective for rapid, non-destructive detecting of the nitrogen (N) status in crop plants; however, their accuracy is often affected by the soil background. Under different fractions of soil background, the canopy spectra and leaf nitrogen content (LNC) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were obtained from field experiments with different N rates and planting densities over 3 growing seasons. Five types of vegetation index (VIs: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), ratio vegetation index (RVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), optimize soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI), and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) were constructed based on three types of spectral information: (1) the original and the first derivative (FD) spectrum, (2) the spectrum adjusted with the vegetation coverage (FVcover), and (3) the pure spectrum extracted by a linear mixed model. Comprehensive relationships of above five types of VI with LNC were quantified for LNC detecting under different soil backgrounds. The results indicated that all five types of VI were significantly affected by the soil background, with R2 values of around 0.55 for LNC detecting, with the OSAVI (R514, R469)L=0.04 producing the best performance of all five indices. However, based on the FVcover, the coverage adjusted spectral index (CASI = NDVI(R513, R481)/(1 + FVcover) produced the higher R2 value of 0.62 and the lower RRMSE of 13%, and was less sensitive to the leaf area index (LAI), leaf dry weight (LDW), FVcover, and leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA). The results demonstrate that the newly developed CASI could improve the performance of LNC estimation under different soil backgrounds.

  7. Mycorrhizal Stimulation of Leaf Gas Exchange in Relation to Root Colonization, Shoot Size, Leaf Phosphorus and Nitrogen: A Quantitative Analysis of the Literature Using Meta-Regression.

    PubMed

    Augé, Robert M; Toler, Heather D; Saxton, Arnold M

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis often stimulates gas exchange rates of the host plant. This may relate to mycorrhizal effects on host nutrition and growth rate, or the influence may occur independently of these. Using meta-regression, we tested the strength of the relationship between AM-induced increases in gas exchange, and AM size and leaf mineral effects across the literature. With only a few exceptions, AM stimulation of carbon exchange rate (CER), stomatal conductance (g s), and transpiration rate (E) has been significantly associated with mycorrhizal stimulation of shoot dry weight, leaf phosphorus, leaf nitrogen:phosphorus ratio, and percent root colonization. The sizeable mycorrhizal stimulation of CER, by 49% over all studies, has been about twice as large as the mycorrhizal stimulation of g s and E (28 and 26%, respectively). CER has been over twice as sensitive as g s and four times as sensitive as E to mycorrhizal colonization rates. The AM-induced stimulation of CER increased by 19% with each AM-induced doubling of shoot size; the AM effect was about half as large for g s and E. The ratio of leaf N to leaf P has been more closely associated with mycorrhizal influence on leaf gas exchange than leaf P alone. The mycorrhizal influence on CER has declined markedly over the 35 years of published investigations. PMID:27524989

  8. Mycorrhizal Stimulation of Leaf Gas Exchange in Relation to Root Colonization, Shoot Size, Leaf Phosphorus and Nitrogen: A Quantitative Analysis of the Literature Using Meta-Regression

    PubMed Central

    Augé, Robert M.; Toler, Heather D.; Saxton, Arnold M.

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis often stimulates gas exchange rates of the host plant. This may relate to mycorrhizal effects on host nutrition and growth rate, or the influence may occur independently of these. Using meta-regression, we tested the strength of the relationship between AM-induced increases in gas exchange, and AM size and leaf mineral effects across the literature. With only a few exceptions, AM stimulation of carbon exchange rate (CER), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (E) has been significantly associated with mycorrhizal stimulation of shoot dry weight, leaf phosphorus, leaf nitrogen:phosphorus ratio, and percent root colonization. The sizeable mycorrhizal stimulation of CER, by 49% over all studies, has been about twice as large as the mycorrhizal stimulation of gs and E (28 and 26%, respectively). CER has been over twice as sensitive as gs and four times as sensitive as E to mycorrhizal colonization rates. The AM-induced stimulation of CER increased by 19% with each AM-induced doubling of shoot size; the AM effect was about half as large for gs and E. The ratio of leaf N to leaf P has been more closely associated with mycorrhizal influence on leaf gas exchange than leaf P alone. The mycorrhizal influence on CER has declined markedly over the 35 years of published investigations. PMID:27524989

  9. Estimation of leaf nitrogen and silicon using hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhele, Tholang A.; Ahmed, Fethi B.

    2010-11-01

    The potential to estimate the nutrient status in important agricultural crops such as maize and sugarcane is of significant interest. In South African sugarcane agriculture, just like in global ecosystem, the estimation of Nitrogen (N) and Silicon (Si) is very important. These nutrients are one of the factors influencing the prevalence of the stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Therefore, the researchers aim at estimating leaf N and Si concentration as well as their ratio in sugarcane using hyperspectral remote sensing (spectroradiometry) for monitoring E. saccharina. A hand-held Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) Field Spec® 3 spectroradiometer was used to take leaf spectral measurements of sugarcane plants from a potted-plant trial taking place under shade house conditions. In this trial, nitrogen and silicon nutrient applications as well as varieties used were known. In addition, watering regimes and artificial infestation of E. saccharina were carefully controlled. The study results indicate that the Red-edge Index (R740/R720) is linearly related to N concentration (R2 = 0.81, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0.103) for N37 with the highest correlation coefficient. For Si, the index (R750-R560)/(R750+R560) was linearly related to Si concentration (R2 = 0.53, RMSE = 0.118) for N25. Finally, the N:Si ratio was linearly correlated to the index (R1075-R730)/(R1075+R730) (R2 = 0.67, RMSE = 1.508) for N37, hence this index can be used for early detection of E. saccharina damage or for identifying sugarcane that is prone to attack by E. saccharina. It was concluded that hyperspectral remote sensing has potential for use in estimating the N:Si ratio and E. saccharina potential infestations can be monitored rapidly and nondestructively in sugarcane under controlled conditions. It is recommended that an advanced study be conducted in field conditions using airborne and/or spaceborne hyperspectral sensors.

  10. Remote estimation of nitrogen and chlorophyll contents in maize at leaf and canopy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, M.; Gitelson, A.; Schepers, J.; Ferguson, R.; Peng, Y.; Shanahan, J.; Rundquist, D.

    2013-12-01

    Leaf and canopy nitrogen (N) status relates strongly to leaf and canopy chlorophyll (Chl) content. Remote sensing is a tool that has the potential to assess N content at leaf, plant, field, regional and global scales. In this study, remote sensing techniques were applied to estimate N and Chl contents of irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) fertilized at five N rates. Leaf N and Chl contents were determined using the red-edge chlorophyll index with R2 of 0.74 and 0.94, respectively. Results showed that at the canopy level, Chl and N contents can be accurately retrieved using green and red-edge Chl indices using near infrared (780-800 nm) and either green (540-560 nm) or red-edge (730-750 nm) spectral bands. Spectral bands that were found optimal for Chl and N estimations coincide well with the red-edge band of the MSI sensor onboard the near future Sentinel-2 satellite. The coefficient of determination for the relationships between the red-edge chlorophyll index, simulated in Sentinel-2 bands, and Chl and N content was 0.90 and 0.87, respectively.

  11. Climatic Controls on Leaf Nitrogen Content and Implications for Biochemical Modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcherednichenko, I. A.; White, M.; Bastidas, L.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf nitrogen (N) content, expressed as percent total nitrogen per unit of leaf dry mass, is a widely used parameter in biochemical modeling, due mainly to its role as a potentially limiting factor for photosynthesis. The amount of nitrogen, however, does not occur in a fixed amount in every leaf, but rather varies continuously with the leaf life cycle, in constant response to soil-root-stem-leaf-climate interactions and demand for growth. Moreover, while broad data on leaf N has become available it is normally measured under ambient conditions with consequent difficulty for distinguishing between genetic and time specific environmental effects. In the present work we: 1) Investigate the theoretical variation of leaf mass, specific heat capacity and leaf thickness of full sun-expanded leaves as a regulatory mechanism to ensure thermal survival along with long-term climatic radiation/temperature gradient; and discuss nitrogen and carbon controls on leaf thickness. 2) Based on possible states of partition between nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous components of a leaf we further derive probability density functions (PDFs) of nitrogen and carbon content and assess the effect of water and nutrient uptake on the PDFs. 3) Translate the results to spatially explicit representation over the conterminous USA at 1 km spatial resolution by providing maximum potential values of leaf N of fully expanded leaf optimally suited for long term climatic averages values and soils conditions. Implications for potential presence of inherently slow/fast growing species are discussed along with suitability of results for use by biochemical models.

  12. Seasonal and interannual variability of photosynthetic capacity in relation to leaf nitrogen in a deciduous forest plantation in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Giacomo; Vicinelli, Elisa; Ponti, Francesca; Cantoni, Lucia; Magnani, Federico

    2005-03-01

    Gas exchange was measured in a forest plantation dominated by Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and Quercus robur L. in northern Italy, over three growing seasons that differed in water availability (2001, 2002 and 2003). The objectives were to: (1) determine variability in the photosynthetic parameters V(cmax) (maximum carboxylation capacity) and J(max) (maximum rate of electron transport) in relation to species, leaf ontogeny and drought; and (2) assess the potential of the photosynthesis-nitrogen relationship for estimating leaf photosynthetic capacity. Marked seasonal and interannual variability in photosynthetic capacity was observed, primarily caused by changes in leaf ontogeny and water stress. Relatively small differences were apparent between species. In the absence of water stress (year 2002), the seasonal patterns of V(cmax) and J(max) were characterized by a rapid increase during spring, a relatively steady state during summer and a rapid decline during autumn. In years with a moderate (year 2001) or a severe (year 2003) water stress, photosynthetic capacity decreased during the summer in proportion to drought intensity, without a parallel decline in leaf nitrogen content. The V(cmax)-nitrogen relationship was significantly affected by both leaf ontogeny and drought. As a consequence, the use of a single annual regression to predict V(cmax) from leaf nitrogen yielded good estimates only during the summer and in the absence of water stress. Irrespective of the mechanisms by which photosynthetic capacity is affected by water stress, its large seasonal and interannual variability is of great relevance for modeling the forest carbon cycle.

  13. Carbon/Nitrogen Imbalance Associated with Drought-Induced Leaf Senescence in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daoqian; Wang, Shiwen; Xiong, Binglin; Cao, Beibei; Deng, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress triggers mature leaf senescence, which supports plant survival and remobilization of nutrients; yet leaf senescence also critically decreases post-drought crop yield. Drought generally results in carbon/nitrogen imbalance, which is reflected in the increased carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio in mature leaves, and which has been shown to be involved in inducing leaf senescence under normal growth conditions. Yet the involvement of the carbon/nitrogen balance in regulation of drought-induced leaf senescence is unclear. To investigate the role of carbon/nitrogen balance in drought-induced senescence, sorghum seedlings were subjected to a gradual soil drought treatment. Leaf senescence symptoms and the C:N ratio, which was indicated by the ratio of non-structural carbohydrate to total N content, were monitored during drought progression. In this study, leaf senescence developed about 12 days after the start of drought treatment, as indicated by various senescence symptoms including decreasing photosynthesis, photosystem II photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm) and chlorophyll content, and by the differential expression of senescence marker genes. The C:N ratio was significantly enhanced 10 to 12 days into drought treatment. Leaf senescence occurred in the older (lower) leaves, which had higher C:N ratios, but not in the younger (upper) leaves, which had lower C:N ratios. In addition, a detached leaf assay was conducted to investigate the effect of carbon/nitrogen availability on drought-induced senescence. Exogenous application of excess sugar combined with limited nitrogen promoted drought-induced leaf senescence. Thus our results suggest that the carbon/nitrogen balance may be involved in the regulation of drought-induced leaf senescence. PMID:26317421

  14. Carbon/Nitrogen Imbalance Associated with Drought-Induced Leaf Senescence in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoqian; Wang, Shiwen; Xiong, Binglin; Cao, Beibei; Deng, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress triggers mature leaf senescence, which supports plant survival and remobilization of nutrients; yet leaf senescence also critically decreases post-drought crop yield. Drought generally results in carbon/nitrogen imbalance, which is reflected in the increased carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio in mature leaves, and which has been shown to be involved in inducing leaf senescence under normal growth conditions. Yet the involvement of the carbon/nitrogen balance in regulation of drought-induced leaf senescence is unclear. To investigate the role of carbon/nitrogen balance in drought-induced senescence, sorghum seedlings were subjected to a gradual soil drought treatment. Leaf senescence symptoms and the C:N ratio, which was indicated by the ratio of non-structural carbohydrate to total N content, were monitored during drought progression. In this study, leaf senescence developed about 12 days after the start of drought treatment, as indicated by various senescence symptoms including decreasing photosynthesis, photosystem II photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm) and chlorophyll content, and by the differential expression of senescence marker genes. The C:N ratio was significantly enhanced 10 to 12 days into drought treatment. Leaf senescence occurred in the older (lower) leaves, which had higher C:N ratios, but not in the younger (upper) leaves, which had lower C:N ratios. In addition, a detached leaf assay was conducted to investigate the effect of carbon/nitrogen availability on drought-induced senescence. Exogenous application of excess sugar combined with limited nitrogen promoted drought-induced leaf senescence. Thus our results suggest that the carbon/nitrogen balance may be involved in the regulation of drought-induced leaf senescence. PMID:26317421

  15. Nitrogen stress affects the turnover and size of nitrogen pools supplying leaf growth in a grass.

    PubMed

    Lehmeier, Christoph Andreas; Wild, Melanie; Schnyder, Hans

    2013-08-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) stress on the pool system supplying currently assimilated and (re)mobilized N for leaf growth of a grass was explored by dynamic ¹⁵N labeling, assessment of total and labeled N import into leaf growth zones, and compartmental analysis of the label import data. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) plants, grown with low or high levels of N fertilization, were labeled with ¹⁵NO₃⁻/¹⁴NO₃⁻ from 2 h to more than 20 d. In both treatments, the tracer time course in N imported into the growth zones fitted a two-pool model (r² > 0.99). This consisted of a "substrate pool," which received N from current uptake and supplied the growth zone, and a recycling/mobilizing "store," which exchanged with the substrate pool. N deficiency halved the leaf elongation rate, decreased N import into the growth zone, lengthened the delay between tracer uptake and its arrival in the growth zone (2.2 h versus 0.9 h), slowed the turnover of the substrate pool (half-life of 3.2 h versus 0.6 h), and increased its size (12.4 μg versus 5.9 μg). The store contained the equivalent of approximately 10 times (low N) and approximately five times (high N) the total daily N import into the growth zone. Its turnover agreed with that of protein turnover. Remarkably, the relative contribution of mobilization to leaf growth was large and similar (approximately 45%) in both treatments. We conclude that turnover and size of the substrate pool are related to the sink strength of the growth zone, whereas the contribution of the store is influenced by partitioning between sinks.

  16. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A; Anderson, Mark A; Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Chu, Fiona S T; Cleland, W Wallace; Weimer, Paul J; Currie, Cameron R

    2009-11-20

    Bacteria-mediated acquisition of atmospheric N2 serves as a critical source of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we reveal that symbiotic nitrogen fixation facilitates the cultivation of specialized fungal crops by leaf-cutter ants. By using acetylene reduction and stable isotope experiments, we demonstrated that N2 fixation occurred in the fungus gardens of eight leaf-cutter ant species and, further, that this fixed nitrogen was incorporated into ant biomass. Symbiotic N2-fixing bacteria were consistently isolated from the fungus gardens of 80 leaf-cutter ant colonies collected in Argentina, Costa Rica, and Panama. The discovery of N2 fixation within the leaf-cutter ant-microbe symbiosis reveals a previously unrecognized nitrogen source in neotropical ecosystems.

  17. Correlation between relative growth rate and specific leaf area requires associations of specific leaf area with nitrogen absorption rate of roots.

    PubMed

    Osone, Yoko; Ishida, Atsushi; Tateno, Masaki

    2008-07-01

    Close correlations between specific leaf area (SLA) and relative growth rate (RGR) have been reported in many studies. However, theoretically, SLA by itself has small net positive effect on RGR because any increase in SLA inevitably causes a decrease in area-based leaf nitrogen concentration (LNCa), another RGR component. It was hypothesized that, for a correlation between SLA and RGR, SLA needs to be associated with specific nitrogen absorption rate of roots (SAR), which counteracts the negative effect of SLA on LNCa. Five trees and six herbs were grown under optimal conditions and relationships between SAR and RGR components were analyzed using a model based on balanced growth hypothesis. SLA varied 1.9-fold between species. Simulations predicted that, if SAR is not associated with SLA, this variation in SLA would cause a47% decrease in LNCa along the SLA gradient, leading to a marginal net positive effect on RGR. In reality, SAR was positively related to SLA, showing a 3.9-fold variation, which largely compensated for the negative effect of SLA on LNCa. Consequently, LNCa values were almost constant across species and a positive SLA-RGR relationship was achieved. These results highlight the importance of leaf-root interactions in understanding interspecific differences in RGR.

  18. Diurnal variation in leaf extension of Salix viminalis at two nitrogen supply rates.

    PubMed

    Stadenberg, I; McDonald, A J; Palmer, S

    1994-10-01

    To investigate how nitrogen supply might affect the biophysical factors controlling diurnal variation in leaf extension, pot-grown Salix viminalis L. were supplied with nitrogen at a low relative addition rate of 0.05 g N g(-1) N day(-1) (low N) or were given free access to all nutrients (high N). Leaf extension, turgor pressure, turgor after stress relaxation and the plastic extensibility of leaf tissue were determined for growing leaves every 4 h during two days of clear skies in August. Plants in the high-N treatment had a significantly higher relative growth rate, dry weight, shoot/root ratio, leaf nitrogen concentration, total leaf area, final area of single leaves and epidermal cell size than plants in the low-N treatment. The periodicity of leaf extension was similar in both treatments with high values during the afternoon and early evening, and negligible values during the night and in the early morning. The maximum rate of leaf extension was higher in high-N than in low-N plants. Leaf water potential and leaf osmotic potential decreased in the morning and increased in the afternoon with highest values during the night. Calculated values of turgor pressure showed no consistent diurnal trend and did not correlate with the rate of leaf extension. There was no consistent difference in turgor between treatments. Turgor after stress relaxation varied diurnally. The difference between turgors before and after stress relaxation also varied diurnally and was largely in phase with the diurnal pattern of leaf extension. These data are consistent with either a causal role for growth turgor (difference between turgors before and after stress relaxation) in the regulation of cell expansion, or a diurnal variation in turgors after relaxation, attributable to different capacities for cell wall loosening at different times of day. Plastic extensibility of leaf tissue showed no diurnal pattern but consistently higher values were found in high-N than in low-N plants. We

  19. Evidence of a general 2/3-power law of scaling leaf nitrogen to phosphorus among major plant groups and biomes.

    PubMed

    Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek; Wright, Ian J; Niklas, Karl J; Hedin, Lars; Elser, James J

    2010-03-22

    Scaling relations among plant traits are both cause and consequence of processes at organ-to-ecosystem scales. The relationship between leaf nitrogen and phosphorus is of particular interest, as both elements are essential for plant metabolism; their limited availabilities often constrain plant growth, and general relations between the two have been documented. Herein, we use a comprehensive dataset of more than 9300 observations of approximately 2500 species from 70 countries to examine the scaling of leaf nitrogen to phosphorus within and across taxonomical groups and biomes. Power law exponents derived from log-log scaling relations were near 2/3 for all observations pooled, for angiosperms and gymnosperms globally, and for angiosperms grouped by biomes, major functional groups, orders or families. The uniform 2/3 scaling of leaf nitrogen to leaf phosphorus exists along a parallel continuum of rising nitrogen, phosphorus, specific leaf area, photosynthesis and growth, as predicted by stoichiometric theory which posits that plants with high growth rates require both high allocation of phosphorus-rich RNA and a high metabolic rate to support the energy demands of macromolecular synthesis. The generality of this finding supports the view that this stoichiometric scaling relationship and the mechanisms that underpin it are foundational components of the living world. Additionally, although abundant variance exists within broad constraints, these results also support the idea that surprisingly simple rules regulate leaf form and function in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:19906667

  20. Remote sensing of LAI, chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen pools of crop- and grasslands in five European landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boegh, E.; Houborg, R.; Bienkowski, J.; Braban, C. F.; Dalgaard, T.; van Dijk, N.; Dragosits, U.; Holmes, E.; Magliulo, V.; Schelde, K.; Di Tommasi, P.; Vitale, L.; Theobald, M. R.; Cellier, P.; Sutton, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    Leaf nitrogen and leaf surface area influence the exchange of gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and play a significant role in the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and water. The purpose of this study is to use field-based and satellite remote-sensing-based methods to assess leaf nitrogen pools in five diverse European agricultural landscapes located in Denmark, Scotland (United Kingdom), Poland, the Netherlands and Italy. REGFLEC (REGularized canopy reFLECtance) is an advanced image-based inverse canopy radiative transfer modelling system which has shown proficiency for regional mapping of leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll (CHLl) using remote sensing data. In this study, high spatial resolution (10-20 m) remote sensing images acquired from the multispectral sensors aboard the SPOT (Satellite For Observation of Earth) satellites were used to assess the capability of REGFLEC for mapping spatial variations in LAI, CHLland the relation to leaf nitrogen (Nl) data in five diverse European agricultural landscapes. REGFLEC is based on physical laws and includes an automatic model parameterization scheme which makes the tool independent of field data for model calibration. In this study, REGFLEC performance was evaluated using LAI measurements and non-destructive measurements (using a SPAD meter) of leaf-scale CHLl and Nl concentrations in 93 fields representing crop- and grasslands of the five landscapes. Furthermore, empirical relationships between field measurements (LAI, CHLl and Nl and five spectral vegetation indices (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, the Simple Ratio, the Enhanced Vegetation Index-2, the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and the green chlorophyll index) were used to assess field data coherence and to serve as a comparison basis for assessing REGFLEC model performance. The field measurements showed strong vertical CHLl gradient profiles in 26% of fields which affected REGFLEC performance as well

  1. Carbon and nitrogen balance of leaf-eating sesarmid crabs ( Neoepisesarma versicolor) offered different food sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik

    2005-10-01

    Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits

  2. Optimal nitrogen distribution within a leaf canopy under direct and diffuse light.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Kouki

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen distribution within a leaf canopy is an important determinant of canopy carbon gain. Previous theoretical studies have predicted that canopy photosynthesis is maximized when the amount of photosynthetic nitrogen is proportionally allocated to the absorbed light. However, most of such studies used a simple Beer's law for light extinction to calculate optimal distribution, and it is not known whether this holds true when direct and diffuse light are considered together. Here, using an analytical solution and model simulations, optimal nitrogen distribution is shown to be very different between models using Beer's law and direct-diffuse light. The presented results demonstrate that optimal nitrogen distribution under direct-diffuse light is steeper than that under diffuse light only. The whole-canopy carbon gain is considerably increased by optimizing nitrogen distribution compared with that in actual canopies in which nitrogen distribution is not optimized. This suggests that optimization of nitrogen distribution can be an effective target trait for improving plant productivity.

  3. A global assessment of forest surface albedo and its relationships with climate and atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Stefano; Magnani, Federico; Nolè, Angelo; Van Noije, Twan; Borghetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present a global assessment of the relationships between the short-wave surface albedo of forests, derived from the MODIS satellite instrument product at 0.5° spatial resolution, with simulated atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates (Ndep ), and climatic variables (mean annual temperature Tm and total annual precipitation P), compiled at the same spatial resolution. The analysis was performed on the following five forest plant functional types (PFTs): evergreen needle-leaf forests (ENF); evergreen broad-leaf forests (EBF); deciduous needle-leaf forests (DNF); deciduous broad-leaf forests (DBF); and mixed-forests (MF). Generalized additive models (GAMs) were applied in the exploratory analysis to assess the functional nature of short-wave surface albedo relations to environmental variables. The analysis showed evident correlations of albedo with environmental predictors when data were pooled across PFTs: Tm and Ndep displayed a positive relationship with forest albedo, while a negative relationship was detected with P. These correlations are primarily due to surface albedo differences between conifer and broad-leaf species, and different species geographical distributions. However, the analysis performed within individual PFTs, strengthened by attempts to select 'pure' pixels in terms of species composition, showed significant correlations with annual precipitation and nitrogen deposition, pointing toward the potential effect of environmental variables on forest surface albedo at the ecosystem level. Overall, our global assessment emphasizes the importance of elucidating the ecological mechanisms that link environmental conditions and forest canopy properties for an improved parameterization of surface albedo in climate models. PMID:25044609

  4. A global assessment of forest surface albedo and its relationships with climate and atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Stefano; Magnani, Federico; Nolè, Angelo; Van Noije, Twan; Borghetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present a global assessment of the relationships between the short-wave surface albedo of forests, derived from the MODIS satellite instrument product at 0.5° spatial resolution, with simulated atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates (Ndep ), and climatic variables (mean annual temperature Tm and total annual precipitation P), compiled at the same spatial resolution. The analysis was performed on the following five forest plant functional types (PFTs): evergreen needle-leaf forests (ENF); evergreen broad-leaf forests (EBF); deciduous needle-leaf forests (DNF); deciduous broad-leaf forests (DBF); and mixed-forests (MF). Generalized additive models (GAMs) were applied in the exploratory analysis to assess the functional nature of short-wave surface albedo relations to environmental variables. The analysis showed evident correlations of albedo with environmental predictors when data were pooled across PFTs: Tm and Ndep displayed a positive relationship with forest albedo, while a negative relationship was detected with P. These correlations are primarily due to surface albedo differences between conifer and broad-leaf species, and different species geographical distributions. However, the analysis performed within individual PFTs, strengthened by attempts to select 'pure' pixels in terms of species composition, showed significant correlations with annual precipitation and nitrogen deposition, pointing toward the potential effect of environmental variables on forest surface albedo at the ecosystem level. Overall, our global assessment emphasizes the importance of elucidating the ecological mechanisms that link environmental conditions and forest canopy properties for an improved parameterization of surface albedo in climate models.

  5. [Effects of water stress and nitrogen fertilization on peanut root morphological development and leaf physiological activities].

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Zhang, Zhi-meng; Dai, Liang-xiang; Ci, Dun-wei; Qin, Fei-fei; Song, Wen-wu; Liu, Meng-juan; Fu, Xiao

    2015-02-01

    Taking 'Huayu 22' peanut as test material, effect of soil water content and nitrogen fertilization on the leaf physiological activities and root morphological characteristics of peanut plants were analyzed. Two levels of soil water condition were: (1) well-watered condition and (2) moderate water stress, and three levels of nitrogen were: (1) none nitrogen (N0), (2) moderate nitrogen (N1, 90 kg · hm(-2)) and (3) high nitrogen (N2, 180 kg · hm(-2)). The results showed that N1 significantly increased the peanut yield under two water conditions, but showed no significant effect on harvest index compared with N0. Under water stress condition, N1 had no significant effects on total root biomass and total root length, but the total root surface area was remarkably increased. The nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the root length and root surface area in 20-40 cm soil layer, and N2 significantly increased the root biomass and root surface area in the soil layer below 40 cm. The application of nitrogen remarkably increased CAT and POD activities in leaf, while MDA content was decreased with the increase of nitrogen level. Under well-watered condition, the root biomass, root length and root surface area in the soil layer below 40 cm and total root surface area were significantly reduced by nitrogen application, however, only N1 could increase leaf protective enzyme activities. Correlation analysis showed that the root length in 20-40 cm soil layer and SOD, CAT, POD activities in leaf were highly significantly related with peanut yield. PMID:26094460

  6. [Effects of water stress and nitrogen fertilization on peanut root morphological development and leaf physiological activities].

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Zhang, Zhi-meng; Dai, Liang-xiang; Ci, Dun-wei; Qin, Fei-fei; Song, Wen-wu; Liu, Meng-juan; Fu, Xiao

    2015-02-01

    Taking 'Huayu 22' peanut as test material, effect of soil water content and nitrogen fertilization on the leaf physiological activities and root morphological characteristics of peanut plants were analyzed. Two levels of soil water condition were: (1) well-watered condition and (2) moderate water stress, and three levels of nitrogen were: (1) none nitrogen (N0), (2) moderate nitrogen (N1, 90 kg · hm(-2)) and (3) high nitrogen (N2, 180 kg · hm(-2)). The results showed that N1 significantly increased the peanut yield under two water conditions, but showed no significant effect on harvest index compared with N0. Under water stress condition, N1 had no significant effects on total root biomass and total root length, but the total root surface area was remarkably increased. The nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the root length and root surface area in 20-40 cm soil layer, and N2 significantly increased the root biomass and root surface area in the soil layer below 40 cm. The application of nitrogen remarkably increased CAT and POD activities in leaf, while MDA content was decreased with the increase of nitrogen level. Under well-watered condition, the root biomass, root length and root surface area in the soil layer below 40 cm and total root surface area were significantly reduced by nitrogen application, however, only N1 could increase leaf protective enzyme activities. Correlation analysis showed that the root length in 20-40 cm soil layer and SOD, CAT, POD activities in leaf were highly significantly related with peanut yield.

  7. Field Evidence for Optimal Acclimation of Leaf Nitrogen to Environmental Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C. C.; Evans, B. J.; Retalic, S. C.; Lowe, A. J.; Wright, I. J.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen per unit leaf area (Narea) is a key variable in plant functional ecology and biogeochemistry. We hypothesized that Narea should be sum of a structural component proportional to leaf mass per area (LMA) and a metabolic component, predicted by optimality considerations to be proportional to irradiance while decreasing with air-to-leaf carbon dioxide drawdown (ci:ca) and temperature. The significant partial environmental and LMA effects on Narea that are both qualitatively and quantitatively supported this hypothesis by using LMA, leaf δ13C and Narea measurements on transcontinental transect in Australia. Trait gradient analysis revealed ci:ca to be perfectly plastic, while species turnover contributed about half the variation in LMA and Narea, consistent with a strong contribution of species turnover to the variation of these traits with environment. These findings motivate a hybrid leaf-economics approach to the prediction of Narea in ecosystem models.

  8. Within-Leaf Nitrogen Allocation in Adaptation to Low Nitrogen Supply in Maize during Grain-Filling Stage

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xiaohuan; Chen, Qinwu; Chen, Fanjun; Yuan, Lixing; Mi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) plays a vital role in photosynthesis and crop productivity. Maize plants may be able to increase physiological N utilization efficiency (NUtE) under low-N stress by increasing photosynthetic rate (Pn) per unit leaf N, that is, photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE). In this study, we analyzed the relationship between PNUE and N allocation in maize ear-leaves during the grain-filling stage under low N (no N application) and high N (180 kg N ha-1) in a 2-year field experiment. Under low N, grain yield decreased while NUtE increased. Low-N treatment reduced the specific N content of ear leaves by 38% without significant influencing Pn, thereby increasing PNUE by 54%. Under low-N stress, maize plants tended to invest relatively more N into bioenergetics to sustain electron transport. In contrast, N allocated to chlorophyll and light-harvesting proteins was reduced to control excess electron production. Soluble proteins were reduced to shrink the N storage reservoir. We conclude that optimization of N allocation within leaves is a key adaptive mechanism to maximize Pn and crop productivity when N is limited during the grain-filling stage in maize under low-N conditions. PMID:27252716

  9. Scaling relationships among twig size, leaf size and leafing intensity in a successional series of subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Yan, En-Rong; Wang, Xi-Hua; Chang, Scott X; He, Fangliang

    2013-06-01

    Scaling relationships among twig size, leaf size and leafing intensity fundamentally influence the twig-leaf deployment pattern, a property that affects the architecture and functioning of plants. However, our understanding of how these relationships change within a species or between species as a function of forest succession is unclear. We determined log-log scaling relationships between twig cross-sectional area (twig size) and each of total and individual leaf area, and leafing intensity (the number of leaves per twig volume) for 78 woody species along a successional series in subtropical evergreen forests in eastern China. The series included four stages: secondary shrub (S1), young (S2), sub-climax (S3) and climax evergreen broadleaved forests (S4). The scaling slopes in each of the three relationships did not differ among the four stages. The y-intercept did not shift among the successional stages in the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and total leaf area; however, the y-intercept was greatest in S4, intermediate in S3 and lowest in S2 and S1 for the relationship between twig size and individual leaf area, while the opposite pattern was found for the twig size-leafing intensity relationship. This indicates that late successional trees have few but large leaves while early successional trees have more small leaves per unit twig size. For the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and total leaf area, there was no difference in the regression slope between recurrent (appear in more than one stages) and non-recurrent species (appear in only one stage) for each of the S1-S2, S2-S3 and S3-S4 pairs. A significant difference in the y-intercept was found in the S2-S3 pair only. In the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and individual leaf area, the regression slope between recurrent and non-recurrent species was homogeneous in the S1-S2 and S3-S4 pairs, but heterogeneous in the S2-S3 pair. We conclude that forest succession caused

  10. Scaling relationships among twig size, leaf size and leafing intensity in a successional series of subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Yan, En-Rong; Wang, Xi-Hua; Chang, Scott X; He, Fangliang

    2013-06-01

    Scaling relationships among twig size, leaf size and leafing intensity fundamentally influence the twig-leaf deployment pattern, a property that affects the architecture and functioning of plants. However, our understanding of how these relationships change within a species or between species as a function of forest succession is unclear. We determined log-log scaling relationships between twig cross-sectional area (twig size) and each of total and individual leaf area, and leafing intensity (the number of leaves per twig volume) for 78 woody species along a successional series in subtropical evergreen forests in eastern China. The series included four stages: secondary shrub (S1), young (S2), sub-climax (S3) and climax evergreen broadleaved forests (S4). The scaling slopes in each of the three relationships did not differ among the four stages. The y-intercept did not shift among the successional stages in the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and total leaf area; however, the y-intercept was greatest in S4, intermediate in S3 and lowest in S2 and S1 for the relationship between twig size and individual leaf area, while the opposite pattern was found for the twig size-leafing intensity relationship. This indicates that late successional trees have few but large leaves while early successional trees have more small leaves per unit twig size. For the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and total leaf area, there was no difference in the regression slope between recurrent (appear in more than one stages) and non-recurrent species (appear in only one stage) for each of the S1-S2, S2-S3 and S3-S4 pairs. A significant difference in the y-intercept was found in the S2-S3 pair only. In the relationship between twig cross-sectional area and individual leaf area, the regression slope between recurrent and non-recurrent species was homogeneous in the S1-S2 and S3-S4 pairs, but heterogeneous in the S2-S3 pair. We conclude that forest succession caused

  11. Examining leaf and canopy optical properties for the assessment of chlorophyll content to determine nitrogen management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, Michael R.

    Controlled application of agricultural nitrogen (N) has recently become a focus of remote sensing technology research. Escalating energy and fertilizer prices along with the potential of adverse environmental impacts have forced growers to consider technologies that deliver nutrients in a more effective way. Assessing leaf and canopy chlorophyll (chl) contents can provide an indirect measure that expresses the condition of the crop's environment. Nitrogen content at the scale of the leaf and the entire canopy will have a strong association to chl content at that same scale. Therefore, N stresses can be inferred through changes in chl content. Remote sensing is rapidly becoming recognized as a tool that has the potential to quickly assess chl content over a large area at both the leaf and canopy scale non-destructively. These studies examined the relationship of corn (Zea mays L.) leaf and canopy spectral response to chl and N content. The effects of N stress on leaf and canopy spectra, chl content, and N content were examined. Nitrogen stress will visibly present itself through the degradation of chl content. Chlorophyll content and N content continue to exhibit a strong relationship throughout the vegetative stages of growth for both measurement scales. As a result, instruments that measure chl content can also be used to estimate N content. A variety of spectral indices have been introduced for the purpose of quantifying plant status. A few of these indices were selected for these studies and evaluated for their ability to assess N stress. The indices selected were those that utilize the chl spectral reflective segments of the spectrum (green, and red edge). These regions show more promise than do the chl absorbance segments of the spectrum (blue, and red). Our results suggest that instrumentation that measures spectral reflectance holds promise for the assessment of chl and N stress at both the canopy and leaf level. The ability to non-destructively measure chl

  12. Induction of leaf senescence by low nitrogen nutrition in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Eloísa; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación

    2010-03-01

    Different parameters which vary during the leaf development in sunflower plants grown with nitrate (2 or 20 mM) for a 42-day period have been determined. The plants grown with 20 mM nitrate (N+) showed greater leaf area and specific leaf mass than the plants grown with 2 mM nitrate (N-). The total chlorophyll content decreased with leaf senescence, like the photosynthetic rate. This decline of photosynthetic activity was greater in plants grown with low nitrogen level (N-), showing more pronounced senescence symptoms than with high nitrogen (N+). In both treatments, soluble sugars increased with aging, while starch content decreased. A significant increase of hexose to sucrose ratio was observed at the beginning of senescence, and this raise was higher in N- plants than in N+ plants. These results show that sugar senescence regulation is dependent on nitrogen, supporting the hypothesis that leaf senescence is regulated by the C/N balance. In N+ and N- plants, ammonium and free amino acid concentrations were high in young leaves and decreased progressively in the senescent leaves. In both treatments, asparagine, and in a lower extent glutamine, increased after senescence start. The drop in the (Glu+Asp)/(Gln+Asn) ratio associated with the leaf development level suggests a greater nitrogen mobilization. Besides, the decline in this ratio occurred earlier and more rapidly in N- plants than in N+ plants, suggesting that the N- remobilization rate correlates with leaf senescence severity. In both N+ and N- plants, an important oxidative stress was generated in vivo during sunflower leaf senescence, as revealed by lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. In senescent leaves, the increase in hydrogen peroxide levels occurred in parallel with a decline in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In N+ plants, the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increased to reach their highest values at 28 days, and later decreased during senescence, whereas

  13. Stoichiometry of Root and Leaf Nitrogen and Phosphorus in a Dry Alpine Steppe on the Northern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaodan; Wu, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have been used widely in the ecological stoichiometry to understand nutrient limitation in plant. However,few studies have focused on the relationship between root nutrients and environmental factors. The main objective of this study was to clarify the pattern of root and leaf N and P concentrations and the relationships between plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations with climatic factors under low temperature conditions in the northern Tibetan Plateau of China. We conducted a systematic census of N and P concentrations, and the N∶P ratio in leaf and root for 139 plant samples, from 14 species and 7 families in a dry Stipa purpurea alpine steppe on the northern Tibetan Plateau of China. The results showed that the mean root N and P concentrations and the N∶P ratios across all species were 13.05 mg g−1, 0.60 mg g−1 and 23.40, respectively. The mean leaf N and P concentrations and the N∶P ratio were 23.20 mg g−1, 1.38 mg g−1, and 17.87, respectively. Compared to global plant nutrients concentrations, plants distributing in high altitude area have higher N concentrations and N∶P, but lower P concentrations, which could be used to explain normally-observed low growth rate of plant in the cold region. Plant N concentrations were unrelated to the mean annual temperature (MAT). The root and leaf P concentrations were negatively correlated with the MAT, but the N∶P ratios were positively correlated with the MAT. It is highly possible this region is not N limited, it is P limited, thus the temperature-biogeochemical hypothesis (TBH) can not be used to explain the relationship between plant N concentrations and MAT in alpine steppe. The results were valuable to understand the bio-geographic patterns of root and leaf nutrients traits and modeling ecosystem nutrient cycling in cold and dry environments. PMID:25299642

  14. [Characteristics of leaf carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry in relation to plant size of Machilus pauhoi].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei-lei; Zhong, Quan-lin; Cheng, Dong-liang; Zhang, Zhong-rui; Fei, Ling; Xu, Chao-bin; He, Li-zhong; Wang, Wei-jun

    2015-07-01

    To explore the effects of stand age on variation patterns of leaf C, N, P stoichiometric characteristics of Machilus pauhoi, two stands, i.e., 9 and 13 years old, were selected. The relationships between leaf nutrient contents (C, N and P) and diameters at breast height (DBH) of individual plants were analyzed. The data revealed that the individual variations of seedlings in M. pauhoi stands were strengthened with the stand development. The stand age had significant effects on leaf C, N, P contents and C:N ratio but not on C:P and N: P ratios. Specifically, the mean values of leaf C, N, P contents and N:P ratio in the 9-year-old stand were lower than those in the 13-year-old stand, whereas, inverse pattern of C:N and C:P ratios were found in the two stands. Furthermore, leaf N and P stoichiometry varied significantly within the stand. Specifically, leaf N and P contents, as well as their stoichiometric ratios, linearly correlated with DBH in the 9-year-old stand. On the contrary, leaf N and P stoichiometry showed quadratic correlation in 13-year-old stand (except leaf C:N which linearly correlated with DBH). Lastly, nutrient transfer rates of leaf N and P in the 9-year-old stand were higher than that in 13-year-old stand, and the discrepancies of leaf nutrient transfer strategy between growing and non-growing seasons were caused by the different growth phases and environmental conditions. PMID:26720927

  15. [Characteristics of leaf carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry in relation to plant size of Machilus pauhoi].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei-lei; Zhong, Quan-lin; Cheng, Dong-liang; Zhang, Zhong-rui; Fei, Ling; Xu, Chao-bin; He, Li-zhong; Wang, Wei-jun

    2015-07-01

    To explore the effects of stand age on variation patterns of leaf C, N, P stoichiometric characteristics of Machilus pauhoi, two stands, i.e., 9 and 13 years old, were selected. The relationships between leaf nutrient contents (C, N and P) and diameters at breast height (DBH) of individual plants were analyzed. The data revealed that the individual variations of seedlings in M. pauhoi stands were strengthened with the stand development. The stand age had significant effects on leaf C, N, P contents and C:N ratio but not on C:P and N: P ratios. Specifically, the mean values of leaf C, N, P contents and N:P ratio in the 9-year-old stand were lower than those in the 13-year-old stand, whereas, inverse pattern of C:N and C:P ratios were found in the two stands. Furthermore, leaf N and P stoichiometry varied significantly within the stand. Specifically, leaf N and P contents, as well as their stoichiometric ratios, linearly correlated with DBH in the 9-year-old stand. On the contrary, leaf N and P stoichiometry showed quadratic correlation in 13-year-old stand (except leaf C:N which linearly correlated with DBH). Lastly, nutrient transfer rates of leaf N and P in the 9-year-old stand were higher than that in 13-year-old stand, and the discrepancies of leaf nutrient transfer strategy between growing and non-growing seasons were caused by the different growth phases and environmental conditions.

  16. Overwintering evergreen oaks reverse typical relationships between leaf traits in a species spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Harayama, Hisanori; Ishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The leaf economics spectrum has given us a fundamental understanding of the species variations in leaf variables. Across plant species, tight correlations among leaf mass per area (LMA), mass-based nitrogen (Nm) and photosynthetic rate (Am) and leaf lifespan have been well known as trade-offs in leaf carbon economy. However, the regional or biome-level correlations may not be necessary to correspond with the global-scale analysis. Here, we show that almost all leaf variables in overwintering evergreen oaks in Japan were relatively well included within the evergreen-broadleaved trees in worldwide temperate forests, but Nm was more consistent with that in deciduous broadleaved trees. Contrary to the universal correlations, the correlation between Am and Nm among the evergreen oaks was negative and the correlation between Am and LMA disappeared. The unique performance was due to specific nitrogen allocation within leaves, i.e. the evergreen oaks with later leaf maturation had lower Nm but higher nitrogen allocation to photosynthetic enzymes within leaves, to enhance carbon gain against the delayed leaf maturation and the shortened photosynthetic period due to cold winters. Our data demonstrate that correlations between leaf variables in a local scale are occasionally different from averaged global-scale datasets, because of the constraints in each biome. PMID:27493781

  17. Overwintering evergreen oaks reverse typical relationships between leaf traits in a species spectrum.

    PubMed

    Harayama, Hisanori; Ishida, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The leaf economics spectrum has given us a fundamental understanding of the species variations in leaf variables. Across plant species, tight correlations among leaf mass per area (LMA), mass-based nitrogen (N m) and photosynthetic rate (A m) and leaf lifespan have been well known as trade-offs in leaf carbon economy. However, the regional or biome-level correlations may not be necessary to correspond with the global-scale analysis. Here, we show that almost all leaf variables in overwintering evergreen oaks in Japan were relatively well included within the evergreen-broadleaved trees in worldwide temperate forests, but N m was more consistent with that in deciduous broadleaved trees. Contrary to the universal correlations, the correlation between A m and N m among the evergreen oaks was negative and the correlation between A m and LMA disappeared. The unique performance was due to specific nitrogen allocation within leaves, i.e. the evergreen oaks with later leaf maturation had lower N m but higher nitrogen allocation to photosynthetic enzymes within leaves, to enhance carbon gain against the delayed leaf maturation and the shortened photosynthetic period due to cold winters. Our data demonstrate that correlations between leaf variables in a local scale are occasionally different from averaged global-scale datasets, because of the constraints in each biome.

  18. Overwintering evergreen oaks reverse typical relationships between leaf traits in a species spectrum.

    PubMed

    Harayama, Hisanori; Ishida, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The leaf economics spectrum has given us a fundamental understanding of the species variations in leaf variables. Across plant species, tight correlations among leaf mass per area (LMA), mass-based nitrogen (N m) and photosynthetic rate (A m) and leaf lifespan have been well known as trade-offs in leaf carbon economy. However, the regional or biome-level correlations may not be necessary to correspond with the global-scale analysis. Here, we show that almost all leaf variables in overwintering evergreen oaks in Japan were relatively well included within the evergreen-broadleaved trees in worldwide temperate forests, but N m was more consistent with that in deciduous broadleaved trees. Contrary to the universal correlations, the correlation between A m and N m among the evergreen oaks was negative and the correlation between A m and LMA disappeared. The unique performance was due to specific nitrogen allocation within leaves, i.e. the evergreen oaks with later leaf maturation had lower N m but higher nitrogen allocation to photosynthetic enzymes within leaves, to enhance carbon gain against the delayed leaf maturation and the shortened photosynthetic period due to cold winters. Our data demonstrate that correlations between leaf variables in a local scale are occasionally different from averaged global-scale datasets, because of the constraints in each biome. PMID:27493781

  19. Interspecific prediction of photosynthetic light response curves using specific leaf mass and leaf nitrogen content: effects of differences in soil fertility and growth irradiance

    PubMed Central

    Lachapelle, Pierre-Philippe; Shipley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous work has shown that the entire photosynthetic light response curve, based on both Mitscherlich and Michaelis–Menten functions, could be predicted in an interspecific context through allometric relations linking the parameters of these functions to two static leaf traits: leaf nitrogen (N) content and leaf mass per area (LMA). This paper describes to what extent these allometric relations are robust to changes in soil fertility and the growth irradiance of the plants. Methods Plants of 25 herbaceous species were grown under controlled conditions in factorial combinations of low/high soil fertility and low/high growth irradiance. Net photosynthetic rates per unit dry mass were measured at light intensities ranging from 0 to 700 µmol m−2 s−1 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Key Results The differing growth environments induced large changes in N, LMA and in each of the parameter estimates of the Mitscherlich and Michaelis–Menten functions. However, the differing growth environments induced only small (although significant) changes in the allometric relationships linking N and LMA to the parameters of the two functions. As a result, 88 % (Mitcherlich) and 89 % (Michaelis–Menten) of the observed net photosynthetic rates over the full range of light intensities (0–700 µmol m−2 s−1 PAR) and across all four growth environments could be predicted using only N and LMA using the same allometric relations. Conclusions These results suggest the possibility of predicting net photosynthetic rates in nature across species over the full range of light intensities using readily available data. PMID:22442344

  20. Contributing factors in foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen at leaf level.

    PubMed

    Wuyts, Karen; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Staelens, Jeroen; Wuytack, Tatiana; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Boeckx, Pascal; Samson, Roeland; Verheyen, Kris

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the influence of leaf traits, rainwater chemistry, and pedospheric nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the aqueous uptake of inorganic N by physiologically active tree leaves. Leaves of juvenile silver birch and European beech trees, supplied with NH₄NO₃ to the soil at rates from 0 to 200 kg N ha(-1)y(-1), were individually exposed to 100 μl of artificial rainwater containing (15)NH₄(+) or (15)NO₃(-) at two concentration levels for one hour. In the next vegetative period, the experiment was repeated with NH₄(+) at the highest concentration only. The N form and the N concentration in the applied rainwater and, to a lesser extent, the pedospheric N treatment and the leaf traits affected the aqueous foliar N uptake. The foliar uptake of NH₄(+) by birch increased when leaves were more wettable. High leaf N concentration and leaf mass per area enhanced the foliar N uptake, and NO₃(-) uptake in particular, by birch. Variation in the foliar N uptake by the beech trees could not be explained by the leaf traits considered. In the first experiment, N fertilisation stimulated the foliar N uptake in both species, which was on average 1.42-1.78 times higher at the highest soil N dose than at the zero dose. However, data variability was high and the effect was not appreciable in the second experiment. Our data suggest that next to rainwater chemistry (N form and concentration) also forest N status could play a role in the partitioning of N entering the ecosystem through the soil and the canopy. Models of canopy uptake of aqueous N at the leaf level should take account of leaf traits such as wettability and N concentration. PMID:25461099

  1. The Autophagic Degradation of Chloroplasts via Rubisco-Containing Bodies Is Specifically Linked to Leaf Carbon Status But Not Nitrogen Status in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Masanori; Wada, Shinya; Makino, Amane; Ishida, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular process facilitating the vacuolar degradation of cytoplasmic components and is important for nutrient recycling during starvation. We previously demonstrated that chloroplasts can be partially mobilized to the vacuole by autophagy via spherical bodies named Rubisco-containing bodies (RCBs). Although chloroplasts contain approximately 80% of total leaf nitrogen and represent a major carbon and nitrogen source for new growth, the relationship between leaf nutrient status and RCB production remains unclear. We examined the effects of nutrient factors on the appearance of RCBs in leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing stroma-targeted fluorescent proteins. In excised leaves, the appearance of RCBs was suppressed by the presence of metabolic sugars, which were added externally or were produced during photosynthesis in the light. The light-mediated suppression was relieved by the inhibition of photosynthesis. During a diurnal cycle, RCB production was suppressed in leaves excised at the end of the day with high starch content. Starchless mutants phosphoglucomutase and ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase1 produced a large number of RCBs, while starch-excess mutants starch-excess1 and maltose-excess1 produced fewer RCBs. In nitrogen-limited plants, as leaf carbohydrates were accumulated, RCB production was suppressed. We propose that there exists a close relationship between the degradation of chloroplast proteins via RCBs and leaf carbon but not nitrogen status in autophagy. We also found that the appearance of non-RCB-type autophagic bodies was not suppressed in the light and somewhat responded to nitrogen in excised leaves, unlike RCBs. These results imply that the degradation of chloroplast proteins via RCBs is specifically controlled in autophagy. PMID:20807997

  2. Difference in leaf water use efficiency/photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency of Bt-cotton and its conventional peer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ruqing; Sun, Shucun; Liu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    This study is to test the effects of Bt gene introduction on the foliar water/nitrogen use efficiency in cotton. We measured leaf stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate under light saturation condition at different stages of a conventional cultivar (zhongmian no. 16) and its counterpart Bt cultivar (zhongmian no. 30) that were cultured on three levels of fertilization, based on which leaf instantaneous water use efficiency was derived. Leaf nitrogen concentration was measured to calculate leaf photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, and leaf δ13C was used to characterize long term water use efficiency. Bt cultivar was found to have lower stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates, but higher instantaneous and long time water use efficiency. In addition, foliar nitrogen concentration was found to be higher but net photosynthetic rate was lower in the mature leaves of Bt cultivar, which led to lower photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. This might result from the significant decrease of photosynthetic rate due to the decrease of stomatal conductance. In conclusion, our findings show that the introduction of Bt gene should significantly increase foliar water use efficiency but decrease leaf nitrogen use efficiency in cotton under no selective pressure. PMID:27628897

  3. Difference in leaf water use efficiency/photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency of Bt-cotton and its conventional peer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruqing; Sun, Shucun; Liu, Biao

    2016-09-15

    This study is to test the effects of Bt gene introduction on the foliar water/nitrogen use efficiency in cotton. We measured leaf stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate under light saturation condition at different stages of a conventional cultivar (zhongmian no. 16) and its counterpart Bt cultivar (zhongmian no. 30) that were cultured on three levels of fertilization, based on which leaf instantaneous water use efficiency was derived. Leaf nitrogen concentration was measured to calculate leaf photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, and leaf δ(13)C was used to characterize long term water use efficiency. Bt cultivar was found to have lower stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates, but higher instantaneous and long time water use efficiency. In addition, foliar nitrogen concentration was found to be higher but net photosynthetic rate was lower in the mature leaves of Bt cultivar, which led to lower photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. This might result from the significant decrease of photosynthetic rate due to the decrease of stomatal conductance. In conclusion, our findings show that the introduction of Bt gene should significantly increase foliar water use efficiency but decrease leaf nitrogen use efficiency in cotton under no selective pressure.

  4. Difference in leaf water use efficiency/photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency of Bt-cotton and its conventional peer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruqing; Sun, Shucun; Liu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    This study is to test the effects of Bt gene introduction on the foliar water/nitrogen use efficiency in cotton. We measured leaf stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate under light saturation condition at different stages of a conventional cultivar (zhongmian no. 16) and its counterpart Bt cultivar (zhongmian no. 30) that were cultured on three levels of fertilization, based on which leaf instantaneous water use efficiency was derived. Leaf nitrogen concentration was measured to calculate leaf photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, and leaf δ(13)C was used to characterize long term water use efficiency. Bt cultivar was found to have lower stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates, but higher instantaneous and long time water use efficiency. In addition, foliar nitrogen concentration was found to be higher but net photosynthetic rate was lower in the mature leaves of Bt cultivar, which led to lower photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. This might result from the significant decrease of photosynthetic rate due to the decrease of stomatal conductance. In conclusion, our findings show that the introduction of Bt gene should significantly increase foliar water use efficiency but decrease leaf nitrogen use efficiency in cotton under no selective pressure. PMID:27628897

  5. Relationships between functional traits and inorganic nitrogen acquisition among eight contrasting European grass species

    PubMed Central

    Grassein, Fabrice; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Lavorel, Sandra; Bahn, Michael; Bardgett, Richard D.; Desclos-Theveniau, Marie; Laîné, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Leaf functional traits have been used as a basis to categoize plants across a range of resource-use specialization, from those that conserve available resources to those that exploit them. However, the extent to which the leaf functional traits used to define the resource-use strategies are related to root traits and are good indicators of the ability of the roots to take up nitrogen (N) are poorly known. This is an important question because interspecific differences in N uptake have been proposed as one mechanism by which species’ coexistence may be determined. This study therefore investigated the relationships between functional traits and N uptake ability for grass species across a range of conservative to exploitative resource-use strategies. Methods Root uptake of NH4+ and NO3–, and leaf and root functional traits were measured for eight grass species sampled at three grassland sites across Europe, in France, Austria and the UK. Species were grown in hydroponics to determine functional traits and kinetic uptake parameters (Imax and Km) under standardized conditions. Key Results Species with high specific leaf area (SLA) and shoot N content, and low leaf and root dry matter content (LDMC and RDMC, respectively), which are traits associated with the exploitative syndrome, had higher uptake and affinity for both N forms. No trade-off was observed in uptake between the two forms of N, and all species expressed a higher preference for NH4+. Conclusions The results support the use of leaf traits, and especially SLA and LDMC, as indicators of the N uptake ability across a broad range of grass species. The difficulties associated with assessing root properties are also highlighted, as root traits were only weakly correlated with leaf traits, and only RDMC and, to a lesser extent, root N content were related to leaf traits. PMID:25471096

  6. Nitrogen recycling and remobilization are differentially controlled by leaf senescence and development stage in Arabidopsis under low nitrogen nutrition.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Céline; Lemaître, Thomas; Christ, Aurélie; Azzopardi, Marianne; Kato, Yusuke; Sato, Fumihiko; Morot-Gaudry, Jean-François; Le Dily, Frédérik; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline

    2008-07-01

    Five recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), previously selected from the Bay-0 x Shahdara RIL population on the basis of differential leaf senescence phenotypes (from early senescing to late senescing) when cultivated under nitrogen (N)-limiting conditions, were analyzed to monitor metabolic markers related to N assimilation and N remobilization pathways. In each RIL, a decrease of total N, free amino acid, and soluble protein contents with leaf aging was observed. In parallel, the expression of markers for N remobilization such as cytosolic glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and CND41-like protease was increased. This increase occurred earlier and more rapidly in early-senescing lines than in late-senescing lines. We measured the partitioning of (15)N between sink and source leaves during the vegetative stage of development using (15)N tracing and showed that N remobilization from the source leaves to the sink leaves was more efficient in the early-senescing lines. The N remobilization rate was correlated with leaf senescence severity at the vegetative stage. Experiments of (15)N tracing at the reproductive stage showed, however, that the rate of N remobilization from the rosettes to the flowering organs and to the seeds was similar in early- and late-senescing lines. At the reproductive stage, N remobilization efficiency did not depend on senescence phenotypes but was related to the ratio between the biomasses of the sink and the source organs.

  7. The relationship between leaf water status, gas exchange, and spectral reflectance in cotton leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, William D.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of leaf spectral reflectance, the components of water potential, and leaf gas exchanges as a function of leaf water content were made to evaluate the use of NIR reflectance as an indicator of plant water status. Significant correlations were determined between spectral reflectance at 810 nm, 1665 nm, and 2210 nm and leaf relative water content, total water potential, and turgor pressure. However, the slopes of these relationships were relatively shallow and, when evaluated over the range of leaf water contents in which physiological activity occurs (e.g., photosynthesis), had lower r-squared values, and some relationships were not statistically significant. NIR reflectance varied primarily as a function of leaf water content, and not independently as a function of turgor pressure, which is a sensitive indicator of leaf water status. The limitations of this approach to measuring plant water stress are discussed.

  8. Leaf structure vs. nutrient relationships vary with soil conditions in temperate shrubs and trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Kull, Kalevi

    2003-09-01

    Often there are significant positive interspecific relationships between leaf area per unit dry mass (SLA) and foliar phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations ([P] and [N]). Most of these studies have been conducted on moderately acidic soils, and little is known of the generality of these relations as potentially affected by soil characteristics. We investigated foliage mineral composition in relation to leaf structure in a wooded meadow on calcareous alkaline soil, in a bog on strongly acidic soil, and in a flood plain on moderately acidic soil. Foliar nutrient contents and fertilization experiments indicated that foliage physiological activity was co-limited by both P and N availabilities in the wooded meadow, by P in the bog, and by N in the flood plain. In the wooded meadow and in the bog, there were positive relationships between SLA and P concentration ([P]), and no relationship between SLA and nitrogen concentration [N]. Given that the fraction of support tissues generally increases with decreasing SLA, the requirement for mineral nutrients is lower at low SLA. Thus, these contrasting relations between mineral nutrients and SLA suggest that P was distributed in a more "optimal" manner among the leaves with varying structure than N in P-limited communities. In the flood plain, SLA was positively related to both [P] and [N], possibly manifesting a strategy to cope with N limitations by enhancing N turnover, and accordingly, greater P requirement for nucleic acid formation in N-limited soils. Total variation in foliar structural and chemical characteristics was similar in all sites, and was mainly determined by variation among the species. Part of this variability was explained by life form and plant size. [P] was higher in trees than in shrubs, and [P] and P/N ratio increased with increasing total plant height, indicating that P nutrition was improved relative to N nutrition with increasing plant size. Since the capture of less mobile soil elements such as P is

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF NITROGEN LOAD-REPONSE RELATIONSHIPS FOR ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research program is currently underway to meet the United States Environmental Protection Agency's need to develop nutrient criteria for estuarine and coastal marine waters. This research is intended to develop nitrogen load-response relationships for submerged aquatic vegetati...

  10. Enhanced monsoon precipitation and nitrogen deposition affect leaf traits and photosynthesis differently in spring and summer in the desert shrub Larrea tridentata.

    PubMed

    Barker, D H; Vanier, C; Naumburg, E; Charlet, T N; Nielsen, K M; Newingham, B A; Smith, S D

    2006-01-01

    Leaf-level CO2 assimilation (A(area)) can largely be predicted from stomatal conductance (g(s)), leaf morphology (SLA) and nitrogen (N) content (N(area)) in species across biomes and functional groups. The effects of simulated global change scenarios, increased summer monsoon rain (+H2O), N deposition (+N) and the combination (+H2O +N), were hypothesized to affect leaf trait-photosynthesis relationships differently in the short- and long-term for the desert shrub Larrea tridentata. During the spring, +H2O and +H2O +N plants had lower A(area) and g(s), but similar shoot water potential (Psi(shoot)) compared with control and +N plants; differences in A(area) were attributed to lower leaf N(area) and g(s). During the summer, +H2O and +H2O +N plants displayed higher A(area) than control and +N plants, which was attributed to higher Psi(shoot), g(s) and SLA. Throughout the year, A(area) was strongly correlated with g(s) but weakly correlated with leaf N(area) and SLA. We concluded that increased summer monsoon had a stronger effect on the performance of Larrea than increased N deposition. In the short term, the +H2O and +H2O +N treatments were associated with increasing A(area) in summer, but also with low leaf N(area) and lower A(area) in the long term the following spring.

  11. Interrelated responses of tomato plants and the leaf miner Tuta absoluta to nitrogen supply.

    PubMed

    Larbat, R; Adamowicz, S; Robin, C; Han, P; Desneux, N; Le Bot, J

    2016-05-01

    Plant-insect interactions are strongly modified by environmental factors. This study evaluates the influence of nitrogen fertilisation on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Santa clara and the leafminer (Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Greenhouse-grown tomato plants were fed hydroponically on a complete nutrient solution containing either a high nitrogen concentration (HN) sustaining maximum growth or a low nitrogen concentration (LN) limiting plant growth. Insect-free plants were compared with plants attacked by T. absoluta. Seven and 14 days after artificial oviposition leading to efficacious hatching and larvae development, we measured total carbon, nitrogen and soluble protein as well as defence compounds (phenolics, glycoalkaloids, polyphenol oxidase activity) in the HN versus LN plants. Only in the HN treatment did T. absoluta infestation slightly impair leaf growth and induce polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in the foliage. Neither the concentration of phenolic compounds and proteins nor the distribution of nitrogen within the plant was affected by T. absoluta infestation. In contrast, LN nutrition impaired T. absoluta-induced PPO activity. It decreased protein and total nitrogen concentration of plant organs and enhanced the accumulation of constitutive phenolics and tomatine. Moreover, LN nutrition impaired T. absoluta development by notably decreasing pupal weight and lengthening the development period from egg to adult. Adjusting the level of nitrogen nutrition may thus be a means of altering the life cycle of T. absoluta. This study provides a comprehensive dataset concerning interrelated responses of tomato plants and T. absoluta to nitrogen nutrition. PMID:26661406

  12. Estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen content using continuum-removal spectroscopy analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yongjun; Li, Minzan; Zheng, Lihua; Sun, Hong

    2012-11-01

    In quantitative analysis of spectral data, noises and background interference always degrades the accuracy of spectral feature extraction. Continuum-removal analysis enables the isolation of absorption features of interest, thus increasing the coefficients of determination and facilitating the identification of more sensible absorption features. The purpose of this study was to test continuum-removal methodology with Visual-NIR spectral data of tomato leaf. Through analyzing the correlation between continuum-removal spectrum and nitrogen content, 15 characteristics parameters reflected changing tendency of nitrogen content were chosen, which is at 335, 405, 500, 520, 540, 550, 560, 580, 620, 640, 683, 704, 720, 736 and 770 nm. Finally, the variance inflation analysis and stepwise regression method was used to develop the prediction model of the nitrogen content of tomato leaf. The result showed that the predicted model, which used the values of continuum-removal spectrum at 335 and 720nm as input variables, had high predictive ability, with R2 of 0.755. The root mean square errors of prediction using a leave-one-out cross validation method were 0.513. These results suggest that the continuum-removal spectroscopy analysis has better potential to diagnose tomato growth in greenhouse.

  13. [Predicting nitrogen concentrations from hyperspectral reflectance at hyperspectral reflectance at leaf and canopy for rape].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Huang, Jing-Feng; Wang, Fu-Min; Liu, Zhan-Yu

    2008-02-01

    An experiment was designed to determine whether nitrogen concentrations could be predicted from reflectance (R) spectra of rape leaves in laboratory, and, if so, whether the predictive spectral features could be correlated with nitrogen concentration of simple canopies of rape. The best predictors for nitrogen in leaves appeared with first-difference transformations of R, and the bands selected were similar to those found in other studies. Shortwave infrared bands were best predictors for nitrogen. In the shortwave infrared region, however, the absolute differences in reflectance at critical bands were extremely small, and the bands of high correlation were narrow. High spectral and radiance resolution are required to resolve these differences accurately. Variability in canopy reflectance in shortwave infrared region was at least an order of magnitude beyond that necessary to detect signals from chemicals. The variability in first-difference R and log 1/R on canopy scales were related to the arrangement of trees with respect to direct solar radiation, instrument noise, leaf fluttering, and small change in atmospheric moisture. The first-difference of reflectance R based regressions prediction of nitrogen concentration at canopy level gets a good fitness.

  14. Wavelength Selection of Hyperspectral LIDAR Based on Feature Weighting for Estimation of Leaf Nitrogen Content in Rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Lin; Shi, Shuo; Gong, Wei; Yang, Jian; Sun, Jia; Mao, Feiyue

    2016-06-01

    Hyperspectral LiDAR (HSL) is a novel tool in the field of active remote sensing, which has been widely used in many domains because of its advantageous ability of spectrum-gained. Especially in the precise monitoring of nitrogen in green plants, the HSL plays a dispensable role. The exiting HSL system used for nitrogen status monitoring has a multi-channel detector, which can improve the spectral resolution and receiving range, but maybe result in data redundancy, difficulty in system integration and high cost as well. Thus, it is necessary and urgent to pick out the nitrogen-sensitive feature wavelengths among the spectral range. The present study, aiming at solving this problem, assigns a feature weighting to each centre wavelength of HSL system by using matrix coefficient analysis and divergence threshold. The feature weighting is a criterion to amend the centre wavelength of the detector to accommodate different purpose, especially the estimation of leaf nitrogen content (LNC) in rice. By this way, the wavelengths high-correlated to the LNC can be ranked in a descending order, which are used to estimate rice LNC sequentially. In this paper, a HSL system which works based on a wide spectrum emission and a 32-channel detector is conducted to collect the reflectance spectra of rice leaf. These spectra collected by HSL cover a range of 538 nm - 910 nm with a resolution of 12 nm. These 32 wavelengths are strong absorbed by chlorophyll in green plant among this range. The relationship between the rice LNC and reflectance-based spectra is modeled using partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVMs) based on calibration and validation datasets respectively. The results indicate that I) wavelength selection method of HSL based on feature weighting is effective to choose the nitrogen-sensitive wavelengths, which can also be co-adapted with the hardware of HSL system friendly. II) The chosen wavelength has a high correlation with rice LNC which can be

  15. Relationship between carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a subtropical soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianru; Sun, Yue; Zhang, Xinyu; Xu, Xingliang; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    In most soils, more than 90% nitrogen is bonded with carbon in organic forms. This indicates that carbon mineralization should be closely coupled with nitrogen mineralization, showing a positive correlation between carbon and nitrogen mineralization. To test this hypothesis above, we conducted an incubation using a subtropical soil for 10 days at 15 °C and 25 °C. 13C-labeled glucose and 15N-labeled ammonium or nitrate was used to separate CO2 and mineral N released from mineralization of soil organic matter and added glucose or inorganic nitrogen. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and four exoenzymes (i.e. β-1,4- Glucosaminidase, chitinase, acid phosphatase, β-1,4-N- acetyl glucosamine glycosidase) were also analyzed to detect change in microbial activities during the incubation. Our results showed that CO2 release decreased with increasing nitrogen mineralization rates. Temperature did not change this relationship between carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Although some changes in PLFA and the four exoenzymes were observed, these changes did not contribute to changes in carbon and nitrogen mineralization. These findings indicates that carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soil are more complicated than as previously expected. Future investigation should focus on why carbon and nitrogen mineralization are coupled in a negative correlation not in a positive correlation in many soils for a better understanding of carbon and nitrogen transformation during their mineralization.

  16. Twig-leaf size relationships in woody plants vary intraspecifically along a soil moisture gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Dong; Yan, En-Rong; Chang, Scott X.; Wang, Xi-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Tao; Shi, Qing-Ru

    2014-10-01

    Understanding scaling relationships between twig size and leaf size along environmental gradients is important for revealing strategies of plant biomass allocation with changing environmental constraints. However, it remains poorly understood how variations in the slope and y-intercept in the twig-leaf size relationship partition among individual, population and species levels across communities. Here, we determined the scaling relationships between twig cross-sectional area (twig size) and total leaf area per twig (leaf size) among individual, population and species levels along a soil moisture gradient in subtropical forests in eastern China. Twig and leaf tissues from 95 woody plant species were collected from three sites that form a soil moisture gradient: a wet site (W), a mesophytic site (M), and a dry site (D). The variance in scaling slope and y-intercept was partitioned among individual, population and species levels using a nested ANOVA. In addition, the change in the twig-leaf size relationship over the soil moisture gradient was determined for each of overlapping and turnover species. Twig size was positively related to leaf size across the three levels, with the variance partitioned at the individual level in scaling slope and y-intercept being 98 and 90%, respectively. Along the soil moisture gradient, the twig-leaf size relationship differed inter- and intraspecifically. At the species and population levels, there were homogeneous slopes but the y-intercept was W > M = D. In contrast, at the individual level, the regression slopes were heterogeneous among the three sites. More remarkably, the twig-leaf size relationships changed from negative allometry for overlapping species to isometry for turnover species. This study provides strong evidence for the twig-leaf size relationship to be intraspecific, particularly at the individual level. Our findings suggest that whether or not species have overlapping habitats is crucial for shaping the deployment

  17. Comparison of dwarf bamboos (Indocalamus sp.) leaf parameters to determine relationship between spatial density of plants and total leaf area per plant.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pei-Jian; Xu, Qiang; Sandhu, Hardev S; Gielis, Johan; Ding, Yu-Long; Li, Hua-Rong; Dong, Xiao-Bo

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between spatial density and size of plants is an important topic in plant ecology. The self-thinning rule suggests a -3/2 power between average biomass and density or a -1/2 power between stand yield and density. However, the self-thinning rule based on total leaf area per plant and density of plants has been neglected presumably because of the lack of a method that can accurately estimate the total leaf area per plant. We aimed to find the relationship between spatial density of plants and total leaf area per plant. We also attempted to provide a novel model for accurately describing the leaf shape of bamboos. We proposed a simplified Gielis equation with only two parameters to describe the leaf shape of bamboos one model parameter represented the overall ratio of leaf width to leaf length. Using this method, we compared some leaf parameters (leaf shape, number of leaves per plant, ratio of total leaf weight to aboveground weight per plant, and total leaf area per plant) of four bamboo species of genus Indocalamus Nakai (I. pedalis (Keng) P.C. Keng, I. pumilus Q.H. Dai and C.F. Keng, I. barbatus McClure, and I. victorialis P.C. Keng). We also explored the possible correlation between spatial density and total leaf area per plant using log-linear regression. We found that the simplified Gielis equation fit the leaf shape of four bamboo species very well. Although all these four species belonged to the same genus, there were still significant differences in leaf shape. Significant differences also existed in leaf area per plant, ratio of leaf weight to aboveground weight per plant, and leaf length. In addition, we found that the total leaf area per plant decreased with increased spatial density. Therefore, we directly demonstrated the self-thinning rule to improve light interception.

  18. Effects of Nitrogen on Mesophyll Cell Division and Epidermal Cell Elongation in Tall Fescue Leaf Blades 1

    PubMed Central

    MacAdam, Jennifer W.; Volenec, Jeffrey J.; Nelson, Curtis J.

    1989-01-01

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) in grasses is dependent on epidermal cell supply (number) and on rate and duration of epidermal cell elongation. Nitrogen (N) fertilization increases LER. Longitudinal sections from two genotypes of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), which differ by 50% in LER, were used to quantify the effects of N on the components of epidermal cell elongation and on mesophyll cell division. Rate and duration of epidermal cell elongation were determined by using a relationship between cell length and displacement velocity derived from the continuity equation. Rate of epidermal cell elongation was exponential. Relative rates of epidermal cell elongation increased by 9% with high N, even though high N increased LER by 89%. Duration of cell elongation was approximately 20 h longer in the high- than in the low-LER genotype regardless of N treatment. The percentage of mesophyll cells in division was greater in the high- than in the low-LER genotype. This increased with high N in both genotypes, indicating that LER increased with cell supply. Division of mesophyll cells adjacent to abaxial epidermal cells continued after epidermal cell division stopped, until epidermal cells had elongated to a mean length of 40 micrometers in the high-LER and a mean length of 50 micrometers in the low-LER genotype. The cell cycle length for mesophyll cells was calculated to be 12 to 13 hours. Nitrogen increased mesophyll cell number more than epidermal cell number: in both genotypes, the final number of mesophyll cells adjacent to each abaxial epidermal cell was 10 with low N and 14 with high N. A spatial model is used to describe three cell development processes relevant to leaf growth. It illustrates the overlap of mesophyll cell division and epidermal cell elongation, and the transition from epidermal cell elongation to secondary cell wall deposition. PMID:16666581

  19. Variations in leaf morphometry and nitrogen concentration in Betula pendula Roth., Corylus avellana L. and Lonicera xylosteum L.

    PubMed

    Kull, O; Niinemets, U

    1993-04-01

    Relations between leaf dry weight to leaf area (LWA), leaf nitrogen concentration and irradiance inside a natural canopy were studied in Betula pendula Roth., Corylus avellana L. and Lonicera xylosteum L. In all species, LWA increased with increasing irradiance. Relative variability in LWA was smaller in Betula pendula than in the other two species. In Corylus avellana, LWA also depended on total plant height. Foliar nitrogen concentration (on a dry weight basis) increased with increasing irradiance and LWA in Betula pendula, but decreased in the other two species. The interspecific variation in response to light availability and in nitrogen partitioning may be caused by different light demands or different life forms (trees versus shrubs), or both, of the species examined, and must be considered in contemporary canopy models. PMID:14969921

  20. Relationship between leaf temperature and photosynthetic ratio of cherry tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Atsushi; Ogura, Yasushi; Fujigaki, Motoharu; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Miwa, Masafumi

    2003-03-01

    We investigated the relations between leaf-air temperature and photosynthetic ratio of cherry trees in order to obtain the fundamental data for applying the biological information to the remote sensing system. Some branches of Prunus jamasakura were cut and put into the water pot prompt once per month from May to October 2001. We measured the surface temperature of ten leaves and photosynthetic ratio every five second for ten minutes every measurement air temperature condition at 20, 25, 30 and 35°C with 1000 PAR light intensity. Result as, there was recognized the small significantly relation between leaf temperature and photosynthetic ratio because leaf temperature is usually changed with air temperature. Although, there was recognized large significantly correlations between the difference of the leaf temperature and air temperature and photosynthetic ratio. It is thought that transpiring in healthy plants are active for absorption of water and it cause to drop the leaf temperature. This research showed that the health of cherry trees could be diagnosed for measurement of the difference of leaf and air temperature.

  1. Total belowground carbon flux in subalpine forests is related to leaf area index, soil nitrogen, and tree height

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berryman, Erin Michele; Ryan, Michael G.; Bradford, John B.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Birdsey, R.

    2016-01-01

    In forests, total belowground carbon (C) flux (TBCF) is a large component of the C budget and represents a critical pathway for delivery of plant C to soil. Reducing uncertainty around regional estimates of forest C cycling may be aided by incorporating knowledge of controls over soil respiration and TBCF. Photosynthesis, and presumably TBCF, declines with advancing tree size and age, and photosynthesis increases yet C partitioning to TBCF decreases in response to high soil fertility. We hypothesized that these causal relationships would result in predictable patterns of TBCF, and partitioning of C to TBCF, with natural variability in leaf area index (LAI), soil nitrogen (N), and tree height in subalpine forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA. Using three consecutive years of soil respiration data collected from 22 0.38-ha locations across three 1-km2 subalpine forested landscapes, we tested three hypotheses: (1) annual soil respiration and TBCF will show a hump-shaped relationship with LAI; (2) variability in TBCF unexplained by LAI will be related to soil nitrogen (N); and (3) partitioning of C to TBCF (relative to woody growth) will decline with increasing soil N and tree height. We found partial support for Hypothesis 1 and full support for Hypotheses 2 and 3. TBCF, but not soil respiration, was explained by LAI and soil N patterns (r2 = 0.49), and the ratio of annual TBCF to TBCF plus aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) was related to soil N and tree height (r2 = 0.72). Thus, forest C partitioning to TBCF can vary even within the same forest type and region, and approaches that assume a constant fraction of TBCF relative to ANPP may be missing some of this variability. These relationships can aid with estimates of forest soil respiration and TBCF across landscapes, using spatially explicit forest data such as national inventories or remotely sensed data products.

  2. Autoregulation of nodulation interferes with impacts of nitrogen fertilization levels on the leaf-associated bacterial community in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Seishi; Anda, Mizue; Inaba, Shoko; Eda, Shima; Sato, Shusei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tabata, Satoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Sato, Tadashi; Shinano, Takuro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2011-03-01

    The diversities leaf-associated bacteria on nonnodulated (Nod(-)), wild-type nodulated (Nod(+)), and hypernodulated (Nod(++)) soybeans were evaluated by clone library analyses of the 16S rRNA gene. To analyze the impact of nitrogen fertilization on the bacterial leaf community, soybeans were treated with standard nitrogen (SN) (15 kg N ha(-1)) or heavy nitrogen (HN) (615 kg N ha(-1)) fertilization. Under SN fertilization, the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria was significantly higher in Nod(-) and Nod(++) soybeans (82% to 96%) than in Nod(+) soybeans (54%). The community structure of leaf-associated bacteria in Nod(+) soybeans was almost unaffected by the levels of nitrogen fertilization. However, differences were visible in Nod(-) and Nod(++) soybeans. HN fertilization drastically decreased the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria in Nod(-) and Nod(++) soybeans (46% to 76%) and, conversely, increased those of Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in these mutant soybeans. In the Alphaproteobacteria, cluster analyses identified two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (Aurantimonas sp. and Methylobacterium sp.) that were especially sensitive to nodulation phenotypes under SN fertilization and to nitrogen fertilization levels. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection was not observed on the root tissues examined, presumably due to the rotation of paddy and upland fields. These results suggest that a subpopulation of leaf-associated bacteria in wild-type Nod(+) soybeans is controlled in similar ways through the systemic regulation of autoregulation of nodulation, which interferes with the impacts of N levels on the bacterial community of soybean leaves.

  3. Photosynthetic acclimation to high CO{sub 2} concentration varies with a plant`s capacity to adjust leaf thickness and nitrogen concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, D.A.; Luo, Y.; Ball, J.T.

    1995-06-01

    Photosynthetic capacities (A{sub max}) of plants grown at high CO{sub 2} concentrations can increase, decrease or remain unchanged depending on the species and growth conditions. Increases in A{sub max} are associated with increases in leaf nitrogen concentration and/or leaf thickness. Leaf nitrogen concentration invariably decreases during growth at high CO{sub 2} while leaf thickness often increases. A{sub max} will increase during growth in high CO{sub 2} if the increase in leaf thickness outweighs the decrease in leaf nitrogen concentration. We will present a model that predicts the photosynthetic acclimation response to CO{sub 2} concentration from changes in leaf nitrogen concentration and thickness. The model was also used to predict the acclimation response under various environmental conditions. It is assumed that plants have a limited range of potential adjustment in leaf nitrogen concentration and thickness. Plants already near these limits, such as sun plants with thick leaves or low nitrogen grown plants with low leaf nitrogen concentration, may have limited potential for further adjustment in response to high CO{sub 2}. We predict that growth in high CO{sub 2} will result in upregulation of A{sub max} in low light and high nutrient environments and downregulation and low nutrient environments.

  4. Regulation Effects of Water and Nitrogen on the Source-Sink Relationship in Potato during the Tuber Bulking Stage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenting; Xiong, Binglin; Wang, Shiwen; Deng, Xiping; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    The source-sink relationship determines crop yield, and it is largely regulated by water and nutrients in agricultural production. This has been widely investigated in cereals, but fewer studies have been conducted in root and tuber crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The objective of this study was to investigate the source-sink relationship in potato and the regulation of water and nitrogen on the source-sink relationship during the tuber bulking stage. A pot experiment using virus-free plantlets of the Atlantic potato cultivar was conducted, using three water levels (50%, 70% and 90% of field capacity) and three nitrogen levels (0, 0.2, 0.4 g N∙kg−1 soil). The results showed that, under all water and nitrogen levels, plant source capacity were small at the end of the experiment, since photosynthetic activity in leaves were low and non-structural reserves in underground stems were completely remobilized. While at this time, there were very big differences in maximum and minimum tuber number and tuber weight, indicating that the sink tuber still had a large potential capacity to take in assimilates. These results suggest that the source-supplied assimilates were not sufficient enough to meet the demands of sink growth. Thus, we concluded that, unlike cereals, potato yield is more likely to be source-limited than sink-limited during the tuber bulking stage. Water and nitrogen are two key factors in potato production management. Our results showed that water level, nitrogen level and the interaction between water and nitrogen influence potato yield mainly through affecting source capacity via the net photosynthetic rate, total leaf area and leaf life span. Well-watered, sufficient nitrogen and well-watered combined with sufficient nitrogen increased yield mainly by enhancing the source capacity. Therefore, this suggests that increasing source capacity is more crucial to improve potato yield. PMID:26752657

  5. Regulation Effects of Water and Nitrogen on the Source-Sink Relationship in Potato during the Tuber Bulking Stage.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenting; Xiong, Binglin; Wang, Shiwen; Deng, Xiping; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    The source-sink relationship determines crop yield, and it is largely regulated by water and nutrients in agricultural production. This has been widely investigated in cereals, but fewer studies have been conducted in root and tuber crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The objective of this study was to investigate the source-sink relationship in potato and the regulation of water and nitrogen on the source-sink relationship during the tuber bulking stage. A pot experiment using virus-free plantlets of the Atlantic potato cultivar was conducted, using three water levels (50%, 70% and 90% of field capacity) and three nitrogen levels (0, 0.2, 0.4 g N∙kg-1 soil). The results showed that, under all water and nitrogen levels, plant source capacity were small at the end of the experiment, since photosynthetic activity in leaves were low and non-structural reserves in underground stems were completely remobilized. While at this time, there were very big differences in maximum and minimum tuber number and tuber weight, indicating that the sink tuber still had a large potential capacity to take in assimilates. These results suggest that the source-supplied assimilates were not sufficient enough to meet the demands of sink growth. Thus, we concluded that, unlike cereals, potato yield is more likely to be source-limited than sink-limited during the tuber bulking stage. Water and nitrogen are two key factors in potato production management. Our results showed that water level, nitrogen level and the interaction between water and nitrogen influence potato yield mainly through affecting source capacity via the net photosynthetic rate, total leaf area and leaf life span. Well-watered, sufficient nitrogen and well-watered combined with sufficient nitrogen increased yield mainly by enhancing the source capacity. Therefore, this suggests that increasing source capacity is more crucial to improve potato yield.

  6. Regulation Effects of Water and Nitrogen on the Source-Sink Relationship in Potato during the Tuber Bulking Stage.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenting; Xiong, Binglin; Wang, Shiwen; Deng, Xiping; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    The source-sink relationship determines crop yield, and it is largely regulated by water and nutrients in agricultural production. This has been widely investigated in cereals, but fewer studies have been conducted in root and tuber crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The objective of this study was to investigate the source-sink relationship in potato and the regulation of water and nitrogen on the source-sink relationship during the tuber bulking stage. A pot experiment using virus-free plantlets of the Atlantic potato cultivar was conducted, using three water levels (50%, 70% and 90% of field capacity) and three nitrogen levels (0, 0.2, 0.4 g N∙kg-1 soil). The results showed that, under all water and nitrogen levels, plant source capacity were small at the end of the experiment, since photosynthetic activity in leaves were low and non-structural reserves in underground stems were completely remobilized. While at this time, there were very big differences in maximum and minimum tuber number and tuber weight, indicating that the sink tuber still had a large potential capacity to take in assimilates. These results suggest that the source-supplied assimilates were not sufficient enough to meet the demands of sink growth. Thus, we concluded that, unlike cereals, potato yield is more likely to be source-limited than sink-limited during the tuber bulking stage. Water and nitrogen are two key factors in potato production management. Our results showed that water level, nitrogen level and the interaction between water and nitrogen influence potato yield mainly through affecting source capacity via the net photosynthetic rate, total leaf area and leaf life span. Well-watered, sufficient nitrogen and well-watered combined with sufficient nitrogen increased yield mainly by enhancing the source capacity. Therefore, this suggests that increasing source capacity is more crucial to improve potato yield. PMID:26752657

  7. Leaf δ15N as a temporal integrator of nitrogen-cycling processes at the Mojave Desert FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonderegger, D.; Koyama, A.; Jin, V.; Billings, S. A.; Ogle, K.; Evans, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Ecosystem response to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in arid environments is regulated primarily by water, which may interact with nitrogen availability. Leaf nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N) can serve as an important indicator of changes in nitrogen dynamics by integrating changes in plant physiology and ecosystem biogeochemical processes. Because of this temporal integration, careful modeling of the antecedent conditions is necessary for understanding the processes driving variation in leaf δ15N. We measured leaf δ15N of Larrea tridentata (creosotebush) over the 10-year lifetime of the Nevada Desert Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Leaf δ15N exhibited two patterns. First, elevated atmospheric CO2 significantly increased Larrea leaf δ15N by approximately 2 to 3 % compared to plants exposed to ambient CO2 concentrations Second, plants in both CO2 treatments exhibited significant seasonal cycles in leaf δ15N, with higher values during the fall and winter seasons. We modeled leaf δ15N using a hierarchical Bayesian framework that incorporated soil moisture, temperature, and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) covariates in addition to a CO2 treatment effect and plot random effects. Antecedent moisture effects were modeled by using a combination of the previous season's aggregated conditions and a smoothly varying weighted average of the months or weeks directly preceding the observation. The time lag between the driving antecedent condition and the observed change in leaf δ15N indicates a significant and unobserved process mechanism. Preliminary results suggest a CO2 treatment interaction with the lag effect, indicating a treatment effect on the latent process.

  8. Leaf movements and their relationship with the lunisolar gravitational force

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Observation of the diurnal ascent and descent of leaves of beans and other species, as well as experimental interventions into these movements, such as exposures to light at different times during the movement cycle, led to the concept of an endogenous ‘clock’ as a regulator of these oscillations. The physiological basis of leaf movement can be traced to processes that modulate cell volume in target tissues of the pulvinus and petiole. However, these elements of the leaf-movement process do not completely account for the rhythms that are generated following germination in constant light or dark conditions, or when plants are transferred to similar free-running conditions. Scope To develop a new perspective on the regulation of leaf-movement rhythms, many of the published time courses of leaf movements that provided evidence for the concept of the endogenous clock were analysed in conjunction with the contemporaneous time courses of the lunisolar tidal acceleration at the relevant experimental locations. This was made possible by application of the Etide program, which estimates, with high temporal resolution, local gravitational changes as a consequence of the diurnal variations of the lunisolar gravitational force due to the orbits and relative positions of Earth, Moon and Sun. In all cases, it was evident that a synchronism exists between the times of the turning points of both the lunisolar tide and of the leaftide when the direction of leaf movement changes. This finding of synchrony leads to the hypothesis that the lunisolar tide is a regulator of the leaftide, and that the rhythm of leaf movement is not necessarily of endogenous origin but is an expression of an exogenous lunisolar ‘clock’ impressed upon the leaf-movement apparatus. Conclusions Correlation between leaftide and Etide time courses holds for leaf movement rhythms in natural conditions of the greenhouse, in conditions of constant light or dark, under microgravity conditions of

  9. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, A.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Arnoud Frumau, K. F.; Wu, J.; Pihlatie, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2013-02-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech), higher foliage longevity (fir) or both (boreal pine forest). In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re-translocation efficiency with the time needed for canopy renewal was deduced, showing that leaves which live longer re

  10. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness. PMID:25914696

  11. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.

  12. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE PAGES

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growthmore » analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.« less

  13. Altitudinal Variation in Leaf Nitrogen Concentration on the Eastern Slope of Mount Gongga on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Weiqi; Wang, Guoan; Han, Wenxuan

    2012-01-01

    Mount Gongga spans 6500 m in elevation and has intact and continuous vertical vegetation belts, ranging from subtropical evergreen broad-leaved vegetation to an alpine frigid sparse grass and desert zone. Investigating the altitudinal trends in leaf nitrogen (N) on Mount Gongga can increase our understanding of the global biogeography of foliar N. In this study, 460 leaf samples from mosses, ferns, and seed plants were collected along an altitudinal gradient on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga, and the variation in leaf N concentration (mass basis) with elevation was analyzed. There are considerable differences in leaf N between mosses and ferns, mosses and seed plants, C4 and C3 plants, and evergreen and deciduous woody plants. The general altitudial pattern of leaf N in Mount Gongga plants was that leaf N kept increasing until an elevation of about 2200 m above sea level, with a corresponding mean annual temperature (MAT) of 8.5°C, and then decreased with increasing elevation. However, the evergreen woody plants displayed a decline trend in leaf N across the altitude gradient. Our findings provide an insight into the altitudinal variation in leaf N. PMID:23028570

  14. Altitudinal variation in leaf nitrogen concentration on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga on the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weiqi; Wang, Guoan; Han, Wenxuan

    2012-01-01

    Mount Gongga spans 6500 m in elevation and has intact and continuous vertical vegetation belts, ranging from subtropical evergreen broad-leaved vegetation to an alpine frigid sparse grass and desert zone. Investigating the altitudinal trends in leaf nitrogen (N) on Mount Gongga can increase our understanding of the global biogeography of foliar N. In this study, 460 leaf samples from mosses, ferns, and seed plants were collected along an altitudinal gradient on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga, and the variation in leaf N concentration (mass basis) with elevation was analyzed. There are considerable differences in leaf N between mosses and ferns, mosses and seed plants, C(4) and C(3) plants, and evergreen and deciduous woody plants. The general altitudial pattern of leaf N in Mount Gongga plants was that leaf N kept increasing until an elevation of about 2200 m above sea level, with a corresponding mean annual temperature (MAT) of 8.5°C, and then decreased with increasing elevation. However, the evergreen woody plants displayed a decline trend in leaf N across the altitude gradient. Our findings provide an insight into the altitudinal variation in leaf N.

  15. Southern leaf blight disease severity is correlated with decreased maize leaf epiphytic bacterial species richness and the phyllosphere bacterial diversity decline is enhanced by nitrogen fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Manching, Heather C.; Balint-Kurti, Peter J.; Stapleton, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    Plant leaves are inhabited by a diverse group of microorganisms that are important contributors to optimal growth. Biotic and abiotic effects on plant growth are usually studied in controlled settings examining response to variation in single factors and in field settings with large numbers of variables. Multi-factor experiments with combinations of stresses bridge this gap, increasing our understanding of the genotype-environment-phenotype functional map for the host plant and the affiliated epiphytic community. The maize inbred B73 was exposed to single and combination abiotic and the biotic stress treatments: low nitrogen fertilizer and high levels of infection with southern leaf blight (causal agent Cochliobolus heterostrophus). Microbial epiphyte samples were collected at the vegetative early-season phase and species composition was determined using 16S ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Plant traits and level of southern leaf blight disease were measured late-season. Bacterial diversity was different among stress treatment groups (P < 0.001). Lower species richness—alpha diversity—was correlated with increased severity of southern leaf blight disease when disease pressure was high. Nitrogen fertilization intensified the decline in bacterial alpha diversity. While no single bacterial ribotype was consistently associated with disease severity, small sets of ribotypes were good predictors of disease levels. Difference in leaf bacterial-epiphyte diversity early in the season were correlated with plant disease severity, supporting further tests of microbial epiphyte-disease correlations for use in predicting disease progression. PMID:25177328

  16. Relationships between soybean shoot nitrogen components and soybean aphid populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defining the relationships between soybean (Glycine max [L.] merr.) shoot nitrogen (N) components and soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) populations will increase understanding of the biology of this important insect pest. In this 2-year field study, caged soybean plants were infested with so...

  17. Acclimation of Leaf Nitrogen to Vertical Light Gradient at Anthesis in Wheat Is a Whole-Plant Process That Scales with the Size of the Canopy1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Delphine; Allard, Vincent; Gaju, Oorbessy; Le Gouis, Jacques; Foulkes, M. John; Martre, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Vertical leaf nitrogen (N) gradient within a canopy is classically considered as a key adaptation to the local light environment that would tend to maximize canopy photosynthesis. We studied the vertical leaf N gradient with respect to the light gradient for wheat (Triticum aestivum) canopies with the aims of quantifying its modulation by crop N status and genetic variability and analyzing its ecophysiological determinants. The vertical distribution of leaf N and light was analyzed at anthesis for 16 cultivars grown in the field in two consecutive seasons under two levels of N. The N extinction coefficient with respect to light (b) varied with N supply and cultivar. Interestingly, a scaling relationship was observed between b and the size of the canopy for all the cultivars in the different environmental conditions. The scaling coefficient of the b-green area index relationship differed among cultivars, suggesting that cultivars could be more or less adapted to low-productivity environments. We conclude that the acclimation of the leaf N gradient to the light gradient is a whole-plant process that depends on canopy size. This study demonstrates that modeling leaf N distribution and canopy expansion based on the assumption that leaf N distribution parallels that of the light is inappropriate. We provide a robust relationship accounting for vertical leaf N gradient with respect to vertical light gradient as a function of canopy size. PMID:22984122

  18. Flood regime and leaf fall determine soil inorganic nitrogen dynamics in semiarid riparian forests.

    PubMed

    Shah, J J Follstad; Dahm, C N

    2008-04-01

    Flow regulation has reduced the exchange of water, energy, and materials between rivers and floodplains, caused declines in native plant populations, and advanced the spread of nonnative plants. Naturalized flow regimes are regarded as a means to restore degraded riparian areas. We examined the effects of flood regime (short [SIFI] vs. long [LIFI] inter-flood interval) on plant community and soil inorganic nitrogen (N) dynamics in riparian forests dominated by native Populus deltoides var. wislizenii Eckenwalder (Rio Grande cottonwood) and nonnative Tamarix chinensis Lour. (salt cedar) along the regulated middle Rio Grande of New Mexico. The frequency of inundation (every 2-3 years) at SIFI sites better reflected inundation patterns prior to the closure of an upstream dam relative to the frequency of inundation at LIFI sites (> or =10 years). Riparian inundation at SIFI sites varied from 7 to 45 days during the study period (April 2001-July 2004). SIFI vs. LIFI sites had higher soil moisture but greater groundwater table elevation fluctuation in response to flooding and drought. Rates of net N mineralization were consistently higher at LIFI vs. SIFI sites, and soil inorganic N concentrations were greatest at sites with elevated leaf-litter production. Sites with stable depth to ground water (approximately 1.5 m) supported the greatest leaf-litter production. Reduced leaf production at P. deltoides SIFI sites was attributed to drought-induced recession of ground water and prolonged inundation. We recommend that natural resource managers and restoration practitioners (1) utilize naturalized flows that help maintain riparian groundwater elevations between 1 and 3 m in reaches with mature P. deltoides or where P. deltoides revegetation is desired, (2) identify areas that naturally undergo long periods of inundation and consider restoring these areas to seasonal wetlands, and (3) use native xeric-adapted riparian plants to revegetate LIFI and SIFI sites where

  19. Flood regime and leaf fall determine soil inorganic nitrogen dynamics in semiarid riparian forests.

    PubMed

    Shah, J J Follstad; Dahm, C N

    2008-04-01

    Flow regulation has reduced the exchange of water, energy, and materials between rivers and floodplains, caused declines in native plant populations, and advanced the spread of nonnative plants. Naturalized flow regimes are regarded as a means to restore degraded riparian areas. We examined the effects of flood regime (short [SIFI] vs. long [LIFI] inter-flood interval) on plant community and soil inorganic nitrogen (N) dynamics in riparian forests dominated by native Populus deltoides var. wislizenii Eckenwalder (Rio Grande cottonwood) and nonnative Tamarix chinensis Lour. (salt cedar) along the regulated middle Rio Grande of New Mexico. The frequency of inundation (every 2-3 years) at SIFI sites better reflected inundation patterns prior to the closure of an upstream dam relative to the frequency of inundation at LIFI sites (> or =10 years). Riparian inundation at SIFI sites varied from 7 to 45 days during the study period (April 2001-July 2004). SIFI vs. LIFI sites had higher soil moisture but greater groundwater table elevation fluctuation in response to flooding and drought. Rates of net N mineralization were consistently higher at LIFI vs. SIFI sites, and soil inorganic N concentrations were greatest at sites with elevated leaf-litter production. Sites with stable depth to ground water (approximately 1.5 m) supported the greatest leaf-litter production. Reduced leaf production at P. deltoides SIFI sites was attributed to drought-induced recession of ground water and prolonged inundation. We recommend that natural resource managers and restoration practitioners (1) utilize naturalized flows that help maintain riparian groundwater elevations between 1 and 3 m in reaches with mature P. deltoides or where P. deltoides revegetation is desired, (2) identify areas that naturally undergo long periods of inundation and consider restoring these areas to seasonal wetlands, and (3) use native xeric-adapted riparian plants to revegetate LIFI and SIFI sites where

  20. Sixteen cytosolic glutamine synthetase genes identified in the Brassica napus L. genome are differentially regulated depending on nitrogen regimes and leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Orsel, Mathilde; Moison, Michaël; Clouet, Vanessa; Thomas, Justine; Leprince, Françoise; Canoy, Anne-Sophie; Just, Jérémy; Chalhoub, Boulos; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline

    2014-07-01

    A total of 16 BnaGLN1 genes coding for cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms (EC 6.3.1.2.) were found in the Brassica napus genome. The total number of BnaGLN1 genes, their phylogenetic relationships, and genetic locations are in agreement with the evolutionary history of Brassica species. Two BnaGLN1.1, two BnaGLN1.2, six BnaGLN1.3, four BnaGLN1.4, and two BnaGLN1.5 genes were found and named according to the standardized nomenclature for the Brassica genus. Gene expression showed conserved responses to nitrogen availability and leaf senescence among the Brassiceae tribe. The BnaGLN1.1 and BnaGLN1.4 families are overexpressed during leaf senescence and in response to nitrogen limitation. The BnaGLN1.2 family is up-regulated under high nitrogen regimes. The members of the BnaGLN1.3 family are not affected by nitrogen availability and are more expressed in stems than in leaves. Expression of the two BnaGLN1.5 genes is almost undetectable in vegetative tissues. Regulations arising from plant interactions with their environment (such as nitrogen resources), final architecture, and therefore sink-source relations in planta, seem to be globally conserved between Arabidopsis and B. napus. Similarities of the coding sequence (CDS) and protein sequences, expression profiles, response to nitrogen availability, and ageing suggest that the roles of the different GLN1 families have been conserved among the Brassiceae tribe. These findings are encouraging the transfer of knowledge from the Arabidopsis model plant to the B. napus crop plant. They are of special interest when considering the role of glutamine synthetase in crop yield and grain quality in maize and wheat.

  1. Sixteen cytosolic glutamine synthetase genes identified in the Brassica napus L. genome are differentially regulated depending on nitrogen regimes and leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Orsel, Mathilde; Moison, Michaël; Clouet, Vanessa; Thomas, Justine; Leprince, Françoise; Canoy, Anne-Sophie; Just, Jérémy; Chalhoub, Boulos; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline

    2014-07-01

    A total of 16 BnaGLN1 genes coding for cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms (EC 6.3.1.2.) were found in the Brassica napus genome. The total number of BnaGLN1 genes, their phylogenetic relationships, and genetic locations are in agreement with the evolutionary history of Brassica species. Two BnaGLN1.1, two BnaGLN1.2, six BnaGLN1.3, four BnaGLN1.4, and two BnaGLN1.5 genes were found and named according to the standardized nomenclature for the Brassica genus. Gene expression showed conserved responses to nitrogen availability and leaf senescence among the Brassiceae tribe. The BnaGLN1.1 and BnaGLN1.4 families are overexpressed during leaf senescence and in response to nitrogen limitation. The BnaGLN1.2 family is up-regulated under high nitrogen regimes. The members of the BnaGLN1.3 family are not affected by nitrogen availability and are more expressed in stems than in leaves. Expression of the two BnaGLN1.5 genes is almost undetectable in vegetative tissues. Regulations arising from plant interactions with their environment (such as nitrogen resources), final architecture, and therefore sink-source relations in planta, seem to be globally conserved between Arabidopsis and B. napus. Similarities of the coding sequence (CDS) and protein sequences, expression profiles, response to nitrogen availability, and ageing suggest that the roles of the different GLN1 families have been conserved among the Brassiceae tribe. These findings are encouraging the transfer of knowledge from the Arabidopsis model plant to the B. napus crop plant. They are of special interest when considering the role of glutamine synthetase in crop yield and grain quality in maize and wheat. PMID:24567494

  2. Building relationships between plant traits and leaf spectra to reduce uncertainty in terrestrial ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman-Cribbin, W.; Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Ely, K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite climate projections, there is uncertainty in how terrestrial ecosystems will respond to warming temperatures and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Earth system models are used to determine how ecosystems will respond in the future, but there is considerable variation in how plant traits are represented within these models. A potential approach to reducing uncertainty is the establishment of spectra-trait linkages among plant species. These relationships allow the accurate estimation of biochemical characteristics of plants from their shortwave spectral profiles. Remote sensing approaches can then be implemented to acquire spectral data and estimate plant traits over large spatial and temporal scales. This paper describes a greenhouse experiment conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory in which spectra-trait relationships were investigated for 8 different plant species. This research was designed to generate a broad gradient in plant traits, using a range of species grown in different sized pots with different soil type. Fertilizer was also applied in different amounts to generate variation in plant C and N status that will be reflected in the traits measured, as well as the spectra observed. Leaves were sampled at different developmental stages to increase variation. Spectra and plant traits were then measured and a partial least-squares regression (PLSR) modeling approach was used to establish spectra-trait relationships. Despite the variability in growing conditions and plant species, our PLSR models could be used to accurately estimate plant traits from spectral signatures, yielding model calibration R2 and root mean square error (RMSE) values, respectively, of 0.85 and 0.30 for percent nitrogen by mass (Nmass%), R2 0.78 and 0.75 for carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio, 0.87 and 2.39 for leaf mass area (LMA), and 0.76 R2 and 15.16 for water (H2O) content. This research forms the basis for establishing new and more comprehensive spectra

  3. Leaf litter dynamics and nitrous oxide emission in a Mediterranean riparian forest: implications for soil nitrogen dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bernal, S; Butturini, A; Nin, E; Sabater, F; Sabater, S

    2003-01-01

    Mediterranean riparian zones can experience severe drought periods that lead to low soil moisture content, which dramatically affects their performance as nitrate removal systems. In the Mediterranean riparian zone of this study, we determined that N2O emission was practically nil. To understand the role of forest floor processes in nitrogen retention of a Mediterranean riparian area, we studied leaf litter dynamics of two tree species, London planetree [Platanus x acerifolia (Aiton) Willd.] and alder [Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.], for two years, along with soil nitrogen mineralization rates. Annual leaf litter fall equaled 562.6 +/- 10.1 (standard error) g dry wt. m(-2), 68% of which was planetree and 32% of which was alder. The temporal distribution of litterfall showed a two-peak annual cycle, one occurring in midsummer, the other in autumn. Planetree provided the major input of organic nitrogen to the forest floor, and the amount of planetree leaves remaining on the forest floor was equivalent to approximately four years of stock. Leaf litter decomposition was three times higher for alder (decay coefficient [k] = 1.13 yr(-1)) than for planetree (k = 0.365 yr(-1)). Mineralization rates showed a seasonal pattern, with the maximum rate in summer (1.92 mg N kg(-1) d(-1)). Although the forest floor was an important sink for nitrogen due to planetree leaf accumulation, 7.5% of this leaf litter was scoured to the streambed by wind. This loss was irrelevant for alder leaves. Due to the litter quality, the forest floor of this Mediterranean riparian forest acts as a nitrogen sink. PMID:12549558

  4. Determination by near infrared microscopy of the nitrogen and carbon content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaf powder

    PubMed Central

    Lequeue, Gauthier; Draye, Xavier; Baeten, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared microscopy (NIRM) has been developed as a rapid technique to predict the chemical composition of foods, reduce analytical costs and time and ease sample preparation. In this study, NIRM has been evaluated as an alternative to classical chemical analysis to determine the nitrogen and carbon content of small samples of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaf powder. Near infrared spectra were obtained by NIRM for independent leaf samples collected on 216 plants grown under six different levels of nitrogen. From these, 30 calibration and 30 validation samples covering the spectral range of the whole set were selected and their nitrogen and carbon contents were determined by a reference method. The calibration model obtained for nitrogen content proved to be excellent, with a coefficient of determination in calibration (R2c) higher than 0.9 and a ratio of performance to deviation (RPDc) higher than 3. Statistical indicators of prediction using the validation set were also very high (R2p values > 0.90). However, the calibration model obtained for carbon content was much less satisfactory (R2c < 0.50). NIRM appears as a promising and suitable tool for a rapid, non-destructive and reliable determination of nitrogen content of tiny samples of tomato leaf powder. PMID:27634485

  5. Determination by near infrared microscopy of the nitrogen and carbon content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaf powder.

    PubMed

    Lequeue, Gauthier; Draye, Xavier; Baeten, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared microscopy (NIRM) has been developed as a rapid technique to predict the chemical composition of foods, reduce analytical costs and time and ease sample preparation. In this study, NIRM has been evaluated as an alternative to classical chemical analysis to determine the nitrogen and carbon content of small samples of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaf powder. Near infrared spectra were obtained by NIRM for independent leaf samples collected on 216 plants grown under six different levels of nitrogen. From these, 30 calibration and 30 validation samples covering the spectral range of the whole set were selected and their nitrogen and carbon contents were determined by a reference method. The calibration model obtained for nitrogen content proved to be excellent, with a coefficient of determination in calibration (R(2)c) higher than 0.9 and a ratio of performance to deviation (RPDc) higher than 3. Statistical indicators of prediction using the validation set were also very high (R(2)p values > 0.90). However, the calibration model obtained for carbon content was much less satisfactory (R(2)c < 0.50). NIRM appears as a promising and suitable tool for a rapid, non-destructive and reliable determination of nitrogen content of tiny samples of tomato leaf powder. PMID:27634485

  6. Relationship between leaf traits and fire-response strategies in shrub species of a mountainous region of south-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Vivian, Lyndsey M.; Cary, Geoffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Resprouting and seed recruitment are important ways in which plants respond to fire. However, the investments a plant makes into ensuring the success of post-fire resprouting or seedling recruitment can result in trade-offs that are manifested in a range of co-occurring morphological, life history and physiological traits. Relationships between fire-response strategies and other traits have been widely examined in fire-prone Mediterranean-type climates. In this paper, we aim to determine whether shrubs growing in a non-Mediterranean climate region exhibit relationships between their fire-response strategy and leaf traits. Methods Field surveys were used to classify species into fire-response types. We then compared specific leaf area, leaf dry-matter content, leaf width, leaf nitrogen and carbon to nitrogen ratios between (a) obligate seeders and all other resprouters, and (b) obligate seeders, facultative resprouters and obligate resprouters. Key Results Leaf traits only varied between fire-response types when we considered facultative resprouters as a separate group to obligate resprouters, as observed after a large landscape-scale fire. We found no differences between obligate seeders and obligate resprouters, nor between obligate seeders and resprouters considered as one group. Conclusions The results suggest that facultative resprouters may require a strategy of rapid resource acquisition and fast growth in order to compete with species that either resprout, or recruit from seed. However, the overall lack of difference between obligate seeders and obligate resprouters suggests that environmental factors are exerting similar effects on species' ecological strategies, irrespective of the constraints and trade-offs that may be associated with obligate seeding and obligate resprouting. These results highlight the limits to trait co-occurrences across different ecosystems and the difficulty in identifying global-scale relationships amongst

  7. Leaf yellowing and anthocyanin accumulation are two genetically independent strategies in response to nitrogen limitation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Céline; Saliba-Colombani, Vera; Loudet, Olivier; Belluomo, Pierre; Moreau, Laurence; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise; Morot-Gaudry, Jean-François; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline

    2006-01-01

    For the first time in Arabidopsis thaliana, this work proposes the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with leaf senescence and stress response symptoms such as yellowing and anthocyanin-associated redness. When Arabidopsis plants were cultivated under low nitrogen conditions, we observed that both yellowing of the old leaves of the rosette and whole rosette redness were promoted. Leaf yellowing is a senescence symptom related to chlorophyll breakdown. Redness is a symptom of anthocyanin accumulation related to whole plant ageing and nutrient limitation. In this work, Arabidopsis is used as a model system to dissect the genetic variation of these parameters by QTL mapping in the 415 recombinant inbred lines of the Bay-0xShahdara population. Fifteen new QTLs and two epistatic interactions were described in this study. The yellowing of the rosette, estimated by visual notation and image processing, was controlled by four and five QTLs, respectively. The visual estimation of redness allowed us to detect six QTLs among which the major one explained 33% of the total variation. Two main QTLs were confirmed in near-isogenic lines (heterogenous inbred family; HIF), thus confirming the relevance of the visual notation of these traits. Co-localizations between QTLs for leaf yellowing, redness and nitrogen use efficiency described in a previous publication indicate complex interconnected pathways involved in both nitrogen management and senescence- and stress-related processes. No co-localization between QTLs for leaf yellowing and redness has been found, suggesting that the two characters are genetically independent.

  8. Differences between winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in nitrogen starvation-induced leaf senescence are governed by leaf-inherent rather than root-derived signals.

    PubMed

    Koeslin-Findeklee, Fabian; Becker, Martin A; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter J

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) efficiency of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) line-cultivars (cvs.), defined as high grain yield under N limitation, has been primarily attributed to maintained N uptake during reproductive growth (N uptake efficiency) in combination with delayed senescence of the older leaves accompanied with maintained photosynthetic capacity (functional stay-green). However, it is not clear whether genotypic variation in N starvation-induced leaf senescence is due to leaf-inherent factors and/or governed by root-mediated signals. Therefore, the N-efficient and stay-green cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex were reciprocally grafted with the N-inefficient and early-senescing cvs. NPZ-2 and Capitol, respectively and grown in hydroponics. The senescence status of older leaves after 12 days of N starvation assessed by SPAD, photosynthesis and the expression of the senescence-specific cysteine protease gene SAG12-1 revealed that the stay-green phenotype of the cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex under N starvation was primarily under the control of leaf-inherent factors. The same four cultivars were submitted to N starvation for up to 12 days in a time-course experiment. The specific leaf contents of biologically active and inactive cytokinins (CKs) and the expression of genes involved in CK homeostasis revealed that under N starvation leaves of early-senescing cultivars were characterized by inactivation of biologically active CKs, whereas in stay-green cultivars synthesis, activation, binding of and response to biologically active CKs were favoured. These results suggest that the homeostasis of biologically active CKs was the predominant leaf-inherent factor for cultivar differences in N starvation-induced leaf senescence and thus N efficiency. PMID:25944925

  9. Differences between winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in nitrogen starvation-induced leaf senescence are governed by leaf-inherent rather than root-derived signals.

    PubMed

    Koeslin-Findeklee, Fabian; Becker, Martin A; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter J

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) efficiency of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) line-cultivars (cvs.), defined as high grain yield under N limitation, has been primarily attributed to maintained N uptake during reproductive growth (N uptake efficiency) in combination with delayed senescence of the older leaves accompanied with maintained photosynthetic capacity (functional stay-green). However, it is not clear whether genotypic variation in N starvation-induced leaf senescence is due to leaf-inherent factors and/or governed by root-mediated signals. Therefore, the N-efficient and stay-green cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex were reciprocally grafted with the N-inefficient and early-senescing cvs. NPZ-2 and Capitol, respectively and grown in hydroponics. The senescence status of older leaves after 12 days of N starvation assessed by SPAD, photosynthesis and the expression of the senescence-specific cysteine protease gene SAG12-1 revealed that the stay-green phenotype of the cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex under N starvation was primarily under the control of leaf-inherent factors. The same four cultivars were submitted to N starvation for up to 12 days in a time-course experiment. The specific leaf contents of biologically active and inactive cytokinins (CKs) and the expression of genes involved in CK homeostasis revealed that under N starvation leaves of early-senescing cultivars were characterized by inactivation of biologically active CKs, whereas in stay-green cultivars synthesis, activation, binding of and response to biologically active CKs were favoured. These results suggest that the homeostasis of biologically active CKs was the predominant leaf-inherent factor for cultivar differences in N starvation-induced leaf senescence and thus N efficiency.

  10. Differences between winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in nitrogen starvation-induced leaf senescence are governed by leaf-inherent rather than root-derived signals

    PubMed Central

    Koeslin-Findeklee, Fabian; Becker, Martin A.; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) efficiency of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) line-cultivars (cvs.), defined as high grain yield under N limitation, has been primarily attributed to maintained N uptake during reproductive growth (N uptake efficiency) in combination with delayed senescence of the older leaves accompanied with maintained photosynthetic capacity (functional stay-green). However, it is not clear whether genotypic variation in N starvation-induced leaf senescence is due to leaf-inherent factors and/or governed by root-mediated signals. Therefore, the N-efficient and stay-green cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex were reciprocally grafted with the N-inefficient and early-senescing cvs. NPZ-2 and Capitol, respectively and grown in hydroponics. The senescence status of older leaves after 12 days of N starvation assessed by SPAD, photosynthesis and the expression of the senescence-specific cysteine protease gene SAG12-1 revealed that the stay-green phenotype of the cvs. NPZ-1 and Apex under N starvation was primarily under the control of leaf-inherent factors. The same four cultivars were submitted to N starvation for up to 12 days in a time-course experiment. The specific leaf contents of biologically active and inactive cytokinins (CKs) and the expression of genes involved in CK homeostasis revealed that under N starvation leaves of early-senescing cultivars were characterized by inactivation of biologically active CKs, whereas in stay-green cultivars synthesis, activation, binding of and response to biologically active CKs were favoured. These results suggest that the homeostasis of biologically active CKs was the predominant leaf-inherent factor for cultivar differences in N starvation-induced leaf senescence and thus N efficiency. PMID:25944925

  11. Relationship between site-specific nitrogen concentrations in mosses and measured wet bulk atmospheric nitrogen deposition across Europe.

    PubMed

    Harmens, Harry; Schnyder, Elvira; Thöni, Lotti; Cooper, David M; Mills, Gina; Leblond, Sébastien; Mohr, Karsten; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Santamaria, Jesus; Skudnik, Mitja; Zechmeister, Harald G; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Hanus-Illnar, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    To assess the relationship between nitrogen concentrations in mosses and wet bulk nitrogen deposition or concentrations in precipitation, moss tissue and deposition were sampled within a distance of 1 km of each other in seven European countries. Relationships for various forms of nitrogen appeared to be asymptotic, with data for different countries being positioned at different locations along the asymptotic relationship and saturation occurring at a wet bulk nitrogen deposition of ca. 20 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). The asymptotic behaviour was more pronounced for ammonium-N than nitrate-N, with high ammonium deposition at German sites being most influential in providing evidence of the asymptotic behaviour. Within countries, relationships were only significant for Finland and Switzerland and were more or less linear. The results confirm previous relationships described for modelled total deposition. Nitrogen concentration in mosses can be applied to identify areas at risk of high nitrogen deposition at European scale.

  12. Differential Nitrogen Cycling in Semiarid Sub-Shrubs with Contrasting Leaf Habit

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Sara; Maestro, Melchor; Montserrat-Martí, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is, after water, the most limiting resource in semiarid ecosystems. However, knowledge on the N cycling ability of semiarid woody plants is still very rudimentary. This study analyzed the seasonal change in the N concentrations and pools of the leaves and woody organs of two species of semiarid sub-shrubs with contrasting leaf habit. The ability of both species to uptake, remobilize and recycle N, plus the main storage organ for N during summer drought were evaluated. We combined an observational approach in the field with experimental 15N labelling of adult individuals grown in sand culture. Seasonal patterns of N concentrations were different between species and organs and foliar N concentrations of the summer deciduous Lepidium subulatum were almost double those of the evergreen Linum suffruticosum. L. subulatum up took ca. 60% more external N than the evergreen and it also had a higher N resorption efficiency and proficiency. Contrastingly, L. suffruticosum relied more on internal N remobilization for shoot growth. Differently to temperate species, the evergreen stored N preferentially in the main stem and old trunks, while the summer deciduous stored it in the foliage and young stems. The higher ability of L. subulatum to uptake external N can be related to its ability to perform opportunistic growth and exploit the sporadic pulses of N typical of semiarid ecosystems. Such ability may also explain its high foliar N concentrations and its preferential storage of N in leaves and young stems. Finally, L. suffruticosum had a lower ability to recycle N during leaf senescence. These strategies contrast with those of evergreen and deciduous species from temperate and boreal areas, highlighting the need of further studies on semiarid and arid plants. PMID:24675650

  13. Differences in Leaf Flammability, Leaf Traits and Flammability-Trait Relationships between Native and Exotic Plant Species of Dry Sclerophyll Forest

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Brad R.; Hardstaff, Lyndle K.; Phillips, Megan L.

    2013-01-01

    The flammability of plant leaves influences the spread of fire through vegetation. Exotic plants invading native vegetation may increase the spread of bushfires if their leaves are more flammable than native leaves. We compared fresh-leaf and dry-leaf flammability (time to ignition) between 52 native and 27 exotic plant species inhabiting dry sclerophyll forest. We found that mean time to ignition was significantly faster in dry exotic leaves than in dry native leaves. There was no significant native-exotic difference in mean time to ignition for fresh leaves. The significantly higher fresh-leaf water content that was found in exotics, lost in the conversion from a fresh to dry state, suggests that leaf water provides an important buffering effect that leads to equivalent mean time to ignition in fresh exotic and native leaves. Exotic leaves were also significantly wider, longer and broader in area with significantly higher specific leaf area–but not thicker–than native leaves. We examined scaling relationships between leaf flammability and leaf size (leaf width, length, area, specific leaf area and thickness). While exotics occupied the comparatively larger and more flammable end of the leaf size-flammability spectrum in general, leaf flammability was significantly correlated with all measures of leaf size except leaf thickness in both native and exotic species such that larger leaves were faster to ignite. Our findings for increased flammability linked with larger leaf size in exotics demonstrate that exotic plant species have the potential to increase the spread of bushfires in dry sclerophyll forest. PMID:24260169

  14. Leaf photosynthesis and respiration of three bioenergy crops in relation to temperature and leaf nitrogen: how conserved are biochemical model parameters among crop species?

    PubMed

    Archontoulis, S V; Yin, X; Vos, J; Danalatos, N G; Struik, P C

    2012-01-01

    Given the need for parallel increases in food and energy production from crops in the context of global change, crop simulation models and data sets to feed these models with photosynthesis and respiration parameters are increasingly important. This study provides information on photosynthesis and respiration for three energy crops (sunflower, kenaf, and cynara), reviews relevant information for five other crops (wheat, barley, cotton, tobacco, and grape), and assesses how conserved photosynthesis parameters are among crops. Using large data sets and optimization techniques, the C(3) leaf photosynthesis model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (FvCB) and an empirical night respiration model for tested energy crops accounting for effects of temperature and leaf nitrogen were parameterized. Instead of the common approach of using information on net photosynthesis response to CO(2) at the stomatal cavity (A(n)-C(i)), the model was parameterized by analysing the photosynthesis response to incident light intensity (A(n)-I(inc)). Convincing evidence is provided that the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate or the maximum electron transport rate was very similar whether derived from A(n)-C(i) or from A(n)-I(inc) data sets. Parameters characterizing Rubisco limitation, electron transport limitation, the degree to which light inhibits leaf respiration, night respiration, and the minimum leaf nitrogen required for photosynthesis were then determined. Model predictions were validated against independent sets. Only a few FvCB parameters were conserved among crop species, thus species-specific FvCB model parameters are needed for crop modelling. Therefore, information from readily available but underexplored A(n)-I(inc) data should be re-analysed, thereby expanding the potential of combining classical photosynthetic data and the biochemical model.

  15. Adaptation of maize source leaf metabolism to stress related disturbances in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus balance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Abiotic stress causes disturbances in the cellular homeostasis. Re-adjustment of balance in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism therefore plays a central role in stress adaptation. However, it is currently unknown which parts of the primary cell metabolism follow common patterns under different stress conditions and which represent specific responses. Results To address these questions, changes in transcriptome, metabolome and ionome were analyzed in maize source leaves from plants suffering low temperature, low nitrogen (N) and low phosphorus (P) stress. The selection of maize as study object provided data directly from an important crop species and the so far underexplored C4 metabolism. Growth retardation was comparable under all tested stress conditions. The only primary metabolic pathway responding similar to all stresses was nitrate assimilation, which was down-regulated. The largest group of commonly regulated transcripts followed the expression pattern: down under low temperature and low N, but up under low P. Several members of this transcript cluster could be connected to P metabolism and correlated negatively to different phosphate concentration in the leaf tissue. Accumulation of starch under low temperature and low N stress, but decrease in starch levels under low P conditions indicated that only low P treated leaves suffered carbon starvation. Conclusions Maize employs very different strategies to manage N and P metabolism under stress. While nitrate assimilation was regulated depending on demand by growth processes, phosphate concentrations changed depending on availability, thus building up reserves under excess conditions. Carbon and energy metabolism of the C4 maize leaves were particularly sensitive to P starvation. PMID:23822863

  16. Leaf Trait-Environment Relationships in a Subtropical Broadleaved Forest in South-East China

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Böhnke, Martin; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Although trait analyses have become more important in community ecology, trait-environment correlations have rarely been studied along successional gradients. We asked which environmental variables had the strongest impact on intraspecific and interspecific trait variation in the community and which traits were most responsive to the environment. We established a series of plots in a secondary forest in the Chinese subtropics, stratified by successional stages that were defined by the time elapsed since the last logging activities. On a total of 27 plots all woody plants were recorded and a set of individuals of every species was analysed for leaf traits, resulting in a trait matrix of 26 leaf traits for 122 species. A Fourth Corner Analysis revealed that the mean values of many leaf traits were tightly related to the successional gradient. Most shifts in traits followed the leaf economics spectrum with decreasing specific leaf area and leaf nutrient contents with successional time. Beside succession, few additional environmental variables resulted in significant trait relationships, such as soil moisture and soil C and N content as well as topographical variables. Not all traits were related to the leaf economics spectrum, and thus, to the successional gradient, such as stomata size and density. By comparing different permutation models in the Fourth Corner Analysis, we found that the trait-environment link was based more on the association of species with the environment than of the communities with species traits. The strong species-environment association was brought about by a clear gradient in species composition along the succession series, while communities were not well differentiated in mean trait composition. In contrast, intraspecific trait variation did not show close environmental relationships. The study confirmed the role of environmental trait filtering in subtropical forests, with traits associated with the leaf economics spectrum being the most

  17. Leaf trait-environment relationships in a subtropical broadleaved forest in South-East China.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Böhnke, Martin; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Although trait analyses have become more important in community ecology, trait-environment correlations have rarely been studied along successional gradients. We asked which environmental variables had the strongest impact on intraspecific and interspecific trait variation in the community and which traits were most responsive to the environment. We established a series of plots in a secondary forest in the Chinese subtropics, stratified by successional stages that were defined by the time elapsed since the last logging activities. On a total of 27 plots all woody plants were recorded and a set of individuals of every species was analysed for leaf traits, resulting in a trait matrix of 26 leaf traits for 122 species. A Fourth Corner Analysis revealed that the mean values of many leaf traits were tightly related to the successional gradient. Most shifts in traits followed the leaf economics spectrum with decreasing specific leaf area and leaf nutrient contents with successional time. Beside succession, few additional environmental variables resulted in significant trait relationships, such as soil moisture and soil C and N content as well as topographical variables. Not all traits were related to the leaf economics spectrum, and thus, to the successional gradient, such as stomata size and density. By comparing different permutation models in the Fourth Corner Analysis, we found that the trait-environment link was based more on the association of species with the environment than of the communities with species traits. The strong species-environment association was brought about by a clear gradient in species composition along the succession series, while communities were not well differentiated in mean trait composition. In contrast, intraspecific trait variation did not show close environmental relationships. The study confirmed the role of environmental trait filtering in subtropical forests, with traits associated with the leaf economics spectrum being the most

  18. Leaf trait-environment relationships in a subtropical broadleaved forest in South-East China.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Böhnke, Martin; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Although trait analyses have become more important in community ecology, trait-environment correlations have rarely been studied along successional gradients. We asked which environmental variables had the strongest impact on intraspecific and interspecific trait variation in the community and which traits were most responsive to the environment. We established a series of plots in a secondary forest in the Chinese subtropics, stratified by successional stages that were defined by the time elapsed since the last logging activities. On a total of 27 plots all woody plants were recorded and a set of individuals of every species was analysed for leaf traits, resulting in a trait matrix of 26 leaf traits for 122 species. A Fourth Corner Analysis revealed that the mean values of many leaf traits were tightly related to the successional gradient. Most shifts in traits followed the leaf economics spectrum with decreasing specific leaf area and leaf nutrient contents with successional time. Beside succession, few additional environmental variables resulted in significant trait relationships, such as soil moisture and soil C and N content as well as topographical variables. Not all traits were related to the leaf economics spectrum, and thus, to the successional gradient, such as stomata size and density. By comparing different permutation models in the Fourth Corner Analysis, we found that the trait-environment link was based more on the association of species with the environment than of the communities with species traits. The strong species-environment association was brought about by a clear gradient in species composition along the succession series, while communities were not well differentiated in mean trait composition. In contrast, intraspecific trait variation did not show close environmental relationships. The study confirmed the role of environmental trait filtering in subtropical forests, with traits associated with the leaf economics spectrum being the most

  19. Analyzing the performance of fluorescence parameters in the monitoring of leaf nitrogen content of paddy rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Gong, Wei; Shi, Shuo; Du, Lin; Sun, Jia; Song, Shalei; Chen, Biwu; Zhang, Zhenbing

    2016-01-01

    Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) is a significant factor which can be utilized to monitor the status of paddy rice and it requires a reliable approach for fast and precise quantification. This investigation aims to quantitatively analyze the correlation between fluorescence parameters and LNC based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology. The fluorescence parameters exhibited a consistent positive linear correlation with LNC in different growing years (2014 and 2015) and different rice cultivars. The R(2) of the models varied from 0.6978 to 0.9045. Support vector machine (SVM) was then utilized to verify the feasibility of the fluorescence parameters for monitoring LNC. Comparison of the fluorescence parameters indicated that F740 is the most sensitive (the R(2) of linear regression analysis of the between predicted and measured values changed from 0.8475 to 0.9226, and REs ranged from 3.52% to 4.83%) to the changes in LNC among all fluorescence parameters. Experimental results demonstrated that fluorescence parameters based on LIF technology combined with SVM is a potential method for realizing real-time, non-destructive monitoring of paddy rice LNC, which can provide guidance for the decision-making of farmers in their N fertilization strategies. PMID:27350029

  20. Acromyrmex Leaf-Cutting Ants Have Simple Gut Microbiota with Nitrogen-Fixing Potential

    PubMed Central

    Zhukova, Mariya; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren J.; Schiøtt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Ants and termites have independently evolved obligate fungus-farming mutualisms, but their gardening procedures are fundamentally different, as the termites predigest their plant substrate whereas the ants deposit it directly on the fungus garden. Fungus-growing termites retained diverse gut microbiota, but bacterial gut communities in fungus-growing leaf-cutting ants have not been investigated, so it is unknown whether and how they are specialized on an exclusively fungal diet. Here we characterized the gut bacterial community of Panamanian Acromyrmex species, which are dominated by only four bacterial taxa: Wolbachia, Rhizobiales, and two Entomoplasmatales taxa. We show that the Entomoplasmatales can be both intracellular and extracellular across different gut tissues, Wolbachia is mainly but not exclusively intracellular, and the Rhizobiales species is strictly extracellular and confined to the gut lumen, where it forms biofilms along the hindgut cuticle supported by an adhesive matrix of polysaccharides. Tetracycline diets eliminated the Entomoplasmatales symbionts but hardly affected Wolbachia and only moderately reduced the Rhizobiales, suggesting that the latter are protected by the biofilm matrix. We show that the Rhizobiales symbiont produces bacterial NifH proteins that have been associated with the fixation of nitrogen, suggesting that these compartmentalized hindgut symbionts alleviate nutritional constraints emanating from an exclusive fungus garden diet reared on a substrate of leaves. PMID:26048932

  1. Acromyrmex Leaf-Cutting Ants Have Simple Gut Microbiota with Nitrogen-Fixing Potential.

    PubMed

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Zhukova, Mariya; Hansen, Lars H; Sørensen, Søren J; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2015-08-15

    Ants and termites have independently evolved obligate fungus-farming mutualisms, but their gardening procedures are fundamentally different, as the termites predigest their plant substrate whereas the ants deposit it directly on the fungus garden. Fungus-growing termites retained diverse gut microbiota, but bacterial gut communities in fungus-growing leaf-cutting ants have not been investigated, so it is unknown whether and how they are specialized on an exclusively fungal diet. Here we characterized the gut bacterial community of Panamanian Acromyrmex species, which are dominated by only four bacterial taxa: Wolbachia, Rhizobiales, and two Entomoplasmatales taxa. We show that the Entomoplasmatales can be both intracellular and extracellular across different gut tissues, Wolbachia is mainly but not exclusively intracellular, and the Rhizobiales species is strictly extracellular and confined to the gut lumen, where it forms biofilms along the hindgut cuticle supported by an adhesive matrix of polysaccharides. Tetracycline diets eliminated the Entomoplasmatales symbionts but hardly affected Wolbachia and only moderately reduced the Rhizobiales, suggesting that the latter are protected by the biofilm matrix. We show that the Rhizobiales symbiont produces bacterial NifH proteins that have been associated with the fixation of nitrogen, suggesting that these compartmentalized hindgut symbionts alleviate nutritional constraints emanating from an exclusive fungus garden diet reared on a substrate of leaves. PMID:26048932

  2. Analyzing the performance of fluorescence parameters in the monitoring of leaf nitrogen content of paddy rice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Gong, Wei; Shi, Shuo; Du, Lin; Sun, Jia; Song, Shalei; Chen, Biwu; Zhang, Zhenbing

    2016-01-01

    Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) is a significant factor which can be utilized to monitor the status of paddy rice and it requires a reliable approach for fast and precise quantification. This investigation aims to quantitatively analyze the correlation between fluorescence parameters and LNC based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology. The fluorescence parameters exhibited a consistent positive linear correlation with LNC in different growing years (2014 and 2015) and different rice cultivars. The R2 of the models varied from 0.6978 to 0.9045. Support vector machine (SVM) was then utilized to verify the feasibility of the fluorescence parameters for monitoring LNC. Comparison of the fluorescence parameters indicated that F740 is the most sensitive (the R2 of linear regression analysis of the between predicted and measured values changed from 0.8475 to 0.9226, and REs ranged from 3.52% to 4.83%) to the changes in LNC among all fluorescence parameters. Experimental results demonstrated that fluorescence parameters based on LIF technology combined with SVM is a potential method for realizing real-time, non-destructive monitoring of paddy rice LNC, which can provide guidance for the decision-making of farmers in their N fertilization strategies. PMID:27350029

  3. Acromyrmex Leaf-Cutting Ants Have Simple Gut Microbiota with Nitrogen-Fixing Potential.

    PubMed

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Zhukova, Mariya; Hansen, Lars H; Sørensen, Søren J; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2015-08-15

    Ants and termites have independently evolved obligate fungus-farming mutualisms, but their gardening procedures are fundamentally different, as the termites predigest their plant substrate whereas the ants deposit it directly on the fungus garden. Fungus-growing termites retained diverse gut microbiota, but bacterial gut communities in fungus-growing leaf-cutting ants have not been investigated, so it is unknown whether and how they are specialized on an exclusively fungal diet. Here we characterized the gut bacterial community of Panamanian Acromyrmex species, which are dominated by only four bacterial taxa: Wolbachia, Rhizobiales, and two Entomoplasmatales taxa. We show that the Entomoplasmatales can be both intracellular and extracellular across different gut tissues, Wolbachia is mainly but not exclusively intracellular, and the Rhizobiales species is strictly extracellular and confined to the gut lumen, where it forms biofilms along the hindgut cuticle supported by an adhesive matrix of polysaccharides. Tetracycline diets eliminated the Entomoplasmatales symbionts but hardly affected Wolbachia and only moderately reduced the Rhizobiales, suggesting that the latter are protected by the biofilm matrix. We show that the Rhizobiales symbiont produces bacterial NifH proteins that have been associated with the fixation of nitrogen, suggesting that these compartmentalized hindgut symbionts alleviate nutritional constraints emanating from an exclusive fungus garden diet reared on a substrate of leaves.

  4. Analyzing the performance of fluorescence parameters in the monitoring of leaf nitrogen content of paddy rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Gong, Wei; Shi, Shuo; Du, Lin; Sun, Jia; Song, Shalei; Chen, Biwu; Zhang, Zhenbing

    2016-06-01

    Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) is a significant factor which can be utilized to monitor the status of paddy rice and it requires a reliable approach for fast and precise quantification. This investigation aims to quantitatively analyze the correlation between fluorescence parameters and LNC based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology. The fluorescence parameters exhibited a consistent positive linear correlation with LNC in different growing years (2014 and 2015) and different rice cultivars. The R2 of the models varied from 0.6978 to 0.9045. Support vector machine (SVM) was then utilized to verify the feasibility of the fluorescence parameters for monitoring LNC. Comparison of the fluorescence parameters indicated that F740 is the most sensitive (the R2 of linear regression analysis of the between predicted and measured values changed from 0.8475 to 0.9226, and REs ranged from 3.52% to 4.83%) to the changes in LNC among all fluorescence parameters. Experimental results demonstrated that fluorescence parameters based on LIF technology combined with SVM is a potential method for realizing real-time, non-destructive monitoring of paddy rice LNC, which can provide guidance for the decision-making of farmers in their N fertilization strategies.

  5. Leaf economics spectrum-productivity relationships in intensively grazed pastures depend on dominant species identity.

    PubMed

    Mason, Norman W H; Orwin, Kate; Lambie, Suzanne; Woodward, Sharon L; McCready, Tiffany; Mudge, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Plant functional traits are thought to drive variation in primary productivity. However, there is a lack of work examining how dominant species identity affects trait-productivity relationships. The productivity of 12 pasture mixtures was determined in a 3-year field experiment. The mixtures were based on either the winter-active ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or winter-dormant tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Different mixtures were obtained by adding forb, legume, and grass species that differ in key leaf economics spectrum (LES) traits to the basic two-species dominant grass-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixtures. We tested for correlations between community-weighted mean (CWM) trait values, functional diversity, and productivity across all plots and within those based on either ryegrass or tall fescue. The winter-dormant forb species (chicory and plantain) had leaf traits consistent with high relative growth rates both per unit leaf area (high leaf thickness) and per unit leaf dry weight (low leaf dry matter content). Together, the two forb species achieved reasonable abundance when grown with either base grass (means of 36% and 53% of total biomass, respectively, with ryegrass tall fescue), but they competed much more strongly with tall fescue than with ryegrass. Consequently, they had a net negative impact on productivity when grown with tall fescue, and a net positive effect when grown with ryegrass. Strongly significant relationships between productivity and CWM values for LES traits were observed across ryegrass-based mixtures, but not across tall fescue-based mixtures. Functional diversity did not have a significant positive effect on productivity for any of the traits. The results show dominant species identity can strongly modify trait-productivity relationships in intensively grazed pastures. This was due to differences in the intensity of competition between dominant species and additional species, suggesting that resource-use complementarity is a

  6. Canopy cover and leaf area index relationships for wheat, triticale, and corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AquaCrop model requires canopy cover (CC) measurements to define crop growth and development. Some previously collected data sets that would be useful for calibrating and validating AquaCrop contain only leaf area index (LAI) data, but could be used if relationships were available relating LAI t...

  7. Evaluation of relationship between HVI estimated leaf grade and MDTA3 measured percent trash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between HIV leaf grade and mass of trash in a bale of cotton fibers. Data from lint samples collected during the 2005 ginning season from 11 different gins across the cotton belt were used for this evaluation. HVI and MDTA3 measurements w...

  8. Variation in foliar nitrogen and albedo in response to nitrogen fertilization and elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Wicklein, Haley F; Ollinger, Scott V; Martin, Mary E; Hollinger, David Y; Lepine, Lucie C; Day, Michelle C; Bartlett, Megan K; Richardson, Andrew D; Norby, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    Foliar nitrogen has been shown to be positively correlated with midsummer canopy albedo and canopy near infrared (NIR) reflectance over a broad range of plant functional types (e.g., forests, grasslands, and agricultural lands). To date, the mechanism(s) driving the nitrogen–albedo relationship have not been established, and it is unknown whether factors affecting nitrogen availability will also influence albedo. To address these questions, we examined variation in foliar nitrogen in relation to leaf spectral properties, leaf mass per unit area, and leaf water content for three deciduous species subjected to either nitrogen (Harvard Forest, MA, and Oak Ridge, TN) or CO(2) fertilization (Oak Ridge, TN). At Oak Ridge, we also obtained canopy reflectance data from the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) to examine whether canopy-level spectral responses were consistent with leaf-level results. At the leaf level, results showed no differences in reflectance or transmittance between CO(2) or nitrogen treatments, despite significant changes in foliar nitrogen. Contrary to our expectations, there was a significant, but negative, relationship between foliar nitrogen and leaf albedo, a relationship that held for both full spectrum leaf albedo as well as leaf albedo in the NIR region alone. In contrast, remote sensing data indicated an increase in canopy NIR reflectance with nitrogen fertilization. Collectively, these results suggest that altered nitrogen availability can affect canopy albedo, albeit by mechanisms that involve canopy-level processes rather than changes in leaf-level reflectance. PMID:22294028

  9. Variation in foliar nitrogen and albedo in response to nitrogen fertilization and elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Wicklein, Haley F; Ollinger, Scott V; Martin, Mary E; Hollinger, David Y; Lepine, Lucie C; Day, Michelle C; Bartlett, Megan K; Richardson, Andrew D; Norby, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    Foliar nitrogen has been shown to be positively correlated with midsummer canopy albedo and canopy near infrared (NIR) reflectance over a broad range of plant functional types (e.g., forests, grasslands, and agricultural lands). To date, the mechanism(s) driving the nitrogen–albedo relationship have not been established, and it is unknown whether factors affecting nitrogen availability will also influence albedo. To address these questions, we examined variation in foliar nitrogen in relation to leaf spectral properties, leaf mass per unit area, and leaf water content for three deciduous species subjected to either nitrogen (Harvard Forest, MA, and Oak Ridge, TN) or CO(2) fertilization (Oak Ridge, TN). At Oak Ridge, we also obtained canopy reflectance data from the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) to examine whether canopy-level spectral responses were consistent with leaf-level results. At the leaf level, results showed no differences in reflectance or transmittance between CO(2) or nitrogen treatments, despite significant changes in foliar nitrogen. Contrary to our expectations, there was a significant, but negative, relationship between foliar nitrogen and leaf albedo, a relationship that held for both full spectrum leaf albedo as well as leaf albedo in the NIR region alone. In contrast, remote sensing data indicated an increase in canopy NIR reflectance with nitrogen fertilization. Collectively, these results suggest that altered nitrogen availability can affect canopy albedo, albeit by mechanisms that involve canopy-level processes rather than changes in leaf-level reflectance.

  10. Abscisic acid and aldehyde oxidase activity in maize ear leaf and grain relative to post-flowering photosynthetic capacity and grain-filling rate under different water/nitrogen treatments.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shujun; Zhang, Zongzheng; Ning, Tangyuan; Ren, Shizhong; Su, Licheng; Li, Zengjia

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated changes in leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations and grain ABA concentrations in two maize cultivars and analyzed the following relationships under different water/nitrogen treatments: leaf ABA concentrations and photosynthetic parameters; leaf ABA concentrations and grain ABA concentrations; leaf/grain ABA concentrations and grain-filling parameters; and aldehyde oxidase (AO, EC 1.2.3.1) activities and ABA concentrations. The ear leaf average AO activities and ABA concentrations were lower in the controlled release urea treatments compared with the conventional urea treatments. The average AO activities in the grains were higher in the controlled release urea treatments, and the ABA concentrations were significantly increased at 11-30 DAF. The Pn and ABA concentrations in ear leaves were negatively correlated. And the Gmean were positively correlated with the grain ABA concentrations at 11-30 DAF and negatively correlated with the leaf ABA concentrations at 20 and 40-50 DAF. The grain ABA concentrations and leaf ABA concentrations were positively correlated. Thus, the Gmean were closely related to the AO activities and to the ear leaf and grain ABA concentrations. As compared to other treatments, the subsoiling and controlled release urea treatment promoted the uptake of water and nitrogen by maize, increased the photosynthetic capacity of the ear leaves, increased the grain-filling rate, and improved the movement of photosynthetic assimilates toward the developing grains. In the cultivar Z958, higher ABA concentrations in grains at 11-30 DAF and lower ABA concentrations in ear leaves during the late grain-filling stage, resulted in higher grain-filling rate and increased accumulation of photosynthetic products (relative to the cultivar D3). PMID:23770596

  11. Abscisic acid and aldehyde oxidase activity in maize ear leaf and grain relative to post-flowering photosynthetic capacity and grain-filling rate under different water/nitrogen treatments.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shujun; Zhang, Zongzheng; Ning, Tangyuan; Ren, Shizhong; Su, Licheng; Li, Zengjia

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated changes in leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations and grain ABA concentrations in two maize cultivars and analyzed the following relationships under different water/nitrogen treatments: leaf ABA concentrations and photosynthetic parameters; leaf ABA concentrations and grain ABA concentrations; leaf/grain ABA concentrations and grain-filling parameters; and aldehyde oxidase (AO, EC 1.2.3.1) activities and ABA concentrations. The ear leaf average AO activities and ABA concentrations were lower in the controlled release urea treatments compared with the conventional urea treatments. The average AO activities in the grains were higher in the controlled release urea treatments, and the ABA concentrations were significantly increased at 11-30 DAF. The Pn and ABA concentrations in ear leaves were negatively correlated. And the Gmean were positively correlated with the grain ABA concentrations at 11-30 DAF and negatively correlated with the leaf ABA concentrations at 20 and 40-50 DAF. The grain ABA concentrations and leaf ABA concentrations were positively correlated. Thus, the Gmean were closely related to the AO activities and to the ear leaf and grain ABA concentrations. As compared to other treatments, the subsoiling and controlled release urea treatment promoted the uptake of water and nitrogen by maize, increased the photosynthetic capacity of the ear leaves, increased the grain-filling rate, and improved the movement of photosynthetic assimilates toward the developing grains. In the cultivar Z958, higher ABA concentrations in grains at 11-30 DAF and lower ABA concentrations in ear leaves during the late grain-filling stage, resulted in higher grain-filling rate and increased accumulation of photosynthetic products (relative to the cultivar D3).

  12. The effect of a red leaf pigment on the relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Macler, Bruce A.; Plummer, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a leaf pigment - red amaranthin - on red edge and chlorophyll concentration is investigated in amaranth leaves by means of treatments with nitrate and salts. A near-linear relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration is observed for leaves with low amaranthin concentration, and no relationship is noted at high concentrations. The study demonstrates the limitation inherent in estimating chlorophyll concentration by using remotely sensed red edge.

  13. Relationship between pasture nutritive measurements and plasma urea nitrogen in lambs grazing silvopasture or open pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship of herbage energy content relative to crude protein (CP) is an important aspect in nitrogen use efficiency of grazing livestock. Plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) is an excellent indicator of animal nitrogen status, increasing when excessive nitrogen is available in the diet, and resultin...

  14. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and precipitation change on leaf nitrogen of dominant Stipa L. species.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yaohui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Jiang, Yanling; Wang, Hui; Xu, Zhenzhu; Song, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) serves as an important mineral element affecting plant productivity and nutritional quality. However, few studies have addressed the interactive effects of elevated CO2 and precipitation change on leaf N of dominant grassland genera such as Stipa L. This has restricted our understanding of the responses of grassland to climate change. We simulated the interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and varied precipitation on leaf N concentration (Nmass) of four Stipa species (Stipa baicalensis, Stipa bungeana, Stipa grandis, and Stipa breviflora; the most dominant species in arid and semiarid grassland) using open-top chambers (OTCs). The relationship between the Nmass of these four Stipa species and precipitation well fits a logarithmic function. The sensitivity of these four species to precipitation change was ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis > S. grandis. The Nmass of S. bungeana was the most sensitive to precipitation change, while S. grandis was the least sensitive among these Stipa species. Elevated CO2 exacerbated the effect of precipitation on Nmass. Nmass decreased under elevated CO2 due to growth dilution and a direct negative effect on N assimilation. Elevated CO2 reduced Nmass only in a certain precipitation range for S. baicalensis (163-343 mm), S. bungeana (164-355 mm), S. grandis (148-286 mm), and S. breviflora (130-316 mm); severe drought or excessive rainfall would be expected to result in a reduced impact of elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 affected the Nmass of S. grandis only in a narrow precipitation range. The effect of elevated CO2 reached a maximum when the amount of precipitation was 253, 260, 217, and 222 mm for S. baicalensis, S. bungeana, S. grandis, and S. breviflora, respectively. The Nmass of S. grandis was the least sensitive to elevated CO2. The Nmass of S. breviflora was more sensitive to elevated CO2 under a drought condition compared with the other Stipa species.

  15. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and precipitation change on leaf nitrogen of dominant Stipa L. species

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yaohui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Jiang, Yanling; Wang, Hui; Xu, Zhenzhu; Song, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) serves as an important mineral element affecting plant productivity and nutritional quality. However, few studies have addressed the interactive effects of elevated CO2 and precipitation change on leaf N of dominant grassland genera such as Stipa L. This has restricted our understanding of the responses of grassland to climate change. We simulated the interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and varied precipitation on leaf N concentration (Nmass) of four Stipa species (Stipa baicalensis, Stipa bungeana, Stipa grandis, and Stipa breviflora; the most dominant species in arid and semiarid grassland) using open-top chambers (OTCs). The relationship between the Nmass of these four Stipa species and precipitation well fits a logarithmic function. The sensitivity of these four species to precipitation change was ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis > S. grandis. The Nmass of S. bungeana was the most sensitive to precipitation change, while S. grandis was the least sensitive among these Stipa species. Elevated CO2 exacerbated the effect of precipitation on Nmass. Nmass decreased under elevated CO2 due to growth dilution and a direct negative effect on N assimilation. Elevated CO2 reduced Nmass only in a certain precipitation range for S. baicalensis (163–343 mm), S. bungeana (164–355 mm), S. grandis (148–286 mm), and S. breviflora (130–316 mm); severe drought or excessive rainfall would be expected to result in a reduced impact of elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 affected the Nmass of S. grandis only in a narrow precipitation range. The effect of elevated CO2 reached a maximum when the amount of precipitation was 253, 260, 217, and 222 mm for S. baicalensis, S. bungeana, S. grandis, and S. breviflora, respectively. The Nmass of S. grandis was the least sensitive to elevated CO2. The Nmass of S. breviflora was more sensitive to elevated CO2 under a drought condition compared with the other Stipa

  16. On the relationships between leaf-litter lignin and net primary productivity in tropical rain forests.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Kanehiro; Suzuki, Shizuo; Hori, Masato; Takyu, Masaaki; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Majalap-Lee, Noreen; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro

    2004-07-01

    We investigated if tropical rainforest trees produced more-lignified leaves in less productive environments using forests on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Our investigation was based on two earlier suggestions that slower litter decomposition occurs under less productive forests and that trees under resource limitation invest a large amount of carbon as lignin as a defense substance to minimize the loss from herbivores. When nine forests at different altitudes (700-3100 m) and soil conditions (derived from sedimentary or ultrabasic rocks) but with the same gentle relief position were compared, the concentrations of leaf-litter lignin were positively correlated with litterfall rates and leaf-litter nitrogen concentrations. These patterns would be reinforced in intact leaves if the effects of resorption at the time of leaf shedding were taken into account, because greater magnitude of resorption of mobile elements but not of lignin would occur in less productive environments (i.e. dilution of lignin in intact leaves). These results did not support earlier suggestions to explain the variation of leaf-litter lignin. Instead, we suggest that lower lignin contents are adaptive to recycle minerals without retarding decomposition in less productive environments.

  17. Gas exchange, leaf structure and nitrogen in contrasting successional tree species growing in open and understory sites during a drought.

    PubMed

    Abrams, M D; Mostoller, S A

    1995-06-01

    Seasonal ecophysiology, leaf structure and nitrogen were measured in saplings of early (Populus grandidentata Michx. and Prunus serotina J.F. Ehrh.), middle (Fraxinus americana L. and Carya tomentosa Nutt.) and late (Acer rubrum L. and Cornus florida L.) successional tree species during severe drought on adjacent open and understory sites in central Pennsylvania, USA. Area-based net photosynthesis (A) and leaf conductance to water vapor diffusion (g(wv)) varied by site and species and were highest in open growing plants and early successional species at both the open and understory sites. In response to the period of maximum drought, both sunfleck and sun leaves of the early successional species exhibited smaller decreases in A than leaves of the other species. Shaded understory leaves of all species were more susceptible to drought than sun leaves and had negative midday A values during the middle and later growing season. Shaded understory leaves also displayed a reduced photosynthetic light response during the peak drought period. Sun leaves were thicker and had a greater mass per area (LMA) and nitrogen (N) content than shaded leaves, and early and middle successional species had higher N contents and concentrations than late successional species. In both sunfleck and sun leaves, seasonal A was positively related to predawn leaf Psi, g(wv), LMA and N, and was negatively related to vapor pressure deficit, midday leaf Psi and internal CO(2). Although a significant amount of plasticity occurred in all species for most gas exchange and leaf structural parameters, middle successional species exhibited the largest degree of phenotypic plasticity between open and understory plants. PMID:14965944

  18. Xylem and Phloem Transport and the Functional Economy of Carbon and Nitrogen of a Legume Leaf 1

    PubMed Central

    Pate, John Stewart; Atkins, Craig Anthony

    1983-01-01

    Exchanges of CO2 and changes in content of C and N were studied over the life of a leaf of Lupinus albus L. These data were combined with measurements of C:N weight ratios of xylem (upper stem tracheal) and phloem (petiole) sap to determine net fluxes of C and N between leaf and plant. Phase 1 of leaf development (first 11 days, leaf to one-third area) showed increasing net import of C and N, with phloem contributing 61% of the imported C and 18% of the N. 14C feeding studies suggested the potential for simultaneous import and export through phloem over the period 9 to 12 days. Phase 2 (11-20 days, leaf attaining maximum area and net photosynthesis rate) exhibited net import through xylem and increasing export through phloem. Eighty-two% of xylem-delivered N was consumed in leaf growth, the remainder exported in phloem. Phase 3 (20-38 days) showed high but declining rates of photosynthesis, translocation, and net export of N. Phase 4 (38-66 days) exhibited substantial losses of N and declining photosynthesis and translocation of C. C:N ratio of xylem sap remained constant (2.3-2.6) during leaf life; petiole phloem sap C:N ratio varied from 25 to 135 over leaf development. The relationships between net photosynthesis and N import in xylem were: phase 1, 4.8 milligrams C per milligram N; phase 2, 24.7 milligrams C per milligram N; phase 3, 91.9 milligrams C per milligram N; and phase 4, 47.7 milligrams C per milligram N. PMID:16662916

  19. Overexpression of a NAC transcription factor delays leaf senescence and increases grain nitrogen concentration in wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Derkx, A P; Liu, D-C; Buchner, P; Hawkesford, M J

    2015-07-01

    Increasing the duration of leaf photosynthesis during grain filling using slow-senescing functional stay-green phenotypes is a possible route for increasing grain yields in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). However, delayed senescence may negatively affect nutrient remobilisation and hence reduce grain protein concentrations and grain quality. A novel NAC1-type transcription factor (hereafter TaNAC-S) was identified in wheat, with gene expression located primarily in leaf/sheath tissues, which decreased during post-anthesis leaf senescence. Expression of TaNAC-S in the second leaf correlated with delayed senescence in two doubled-haploid lines of an Avalon × Cadenza population (lines 112 and 181), which were distinct for leaf senescence. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaNAC-S resulted in delayed leaf senescence (stay-green phenotype). Grain yield, aboveground biomass, harvest index and total grain N content were unaffected, but NAC over-expressing lines had higher grain N concentrations at similar grain yields compared to non-transgenic controls. These results indicate that TaNAC-S is a negative regulator of leaf senescence, and that delayed leaf senescence may lead not only to increased grain yields but also to increased grain protein concentrations.

  20. [Inhibition of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth of Capsicum annu- um and the alleviation effect of nitrogen application].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hu, Ting-xing; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hong-ling; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Guang-liang; Chen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Effects of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth, physiological and phenological traits of Capsicum annuum, and modification of these effects by nitrogen application were investigated using a pot experiment. C. camphora leaf litter was applied at rate of 0, 25, 50 100 g per pot, resulting into four treatments, i.e., CK (the control), L25, L50, and L100. Nitrogen application was firstly performed on the 39th d of decomposition (3.0 g urea was added to each pot six times). Leaf area, plant height, basal diameter and biomass production of C. annuum were all inhibited sharply by exposure to the leaf litter, and the inhibition effect increased with the increasing leaf litter in terms of both the intensity and the stability. Treated with L25, budding number reduced by 88.7% averagely during 55th-75th d, and the rate of fructification plant decreased by 40% on the 96th d of decomposition, while neither buds nor fruits were observed when exposed to L50 and L100 at that time. Pigment contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) were impacted due to leaf litter addition, and malonaldehyde (MDA) was only markedly promoted by L100. Inhibition on growth and development of C. annuum caused by leaf litter decomposition could be alleviated by nitrogen application. Leaf area treated with leaf litter recovered to the control level on the 52nd d after nitrogen application, and similar results appeared on the 83rd d after nitrogen application for other growth traits. Budding and fructification status were also visibly improved.

  1. Remote sensing of LAI, chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen pools of crop- and grasslands in five European landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boegh, E.; Houborg, R.; Bienkowski, J.; Braban, C. F.; Dalgaard, T.; van Dijk, N.; Dragosits, U.; Holmes, E.; Magliulo, V.; Schelde, K.; Di Tommasi, P.; Vitale, L.; Theobald, M. R.; Cellier, P.; Sutton, M.

    2012-08-01

    Leaf nitrogen and leaf surface area influence the exchange of gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and they play a significant role in the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and water. Remote sensing data from satellites can be used to estimate leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll (CHLl) and leaf nitrogen density (Nl). However, methods are often developed using plot scale data and not verified over extended regions that represent a variety of soil spectral properties and canopy structures. In this paper, field measurements and high spatial resolution (10-20 m) remote sensing images acquired from the HRG and HRVIR sensors aboard the SPOT satellites were used to assess the predictability of LAI, CHLl and Nl. Five spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were used (the Normalized Difference Vegetation index, the Simple Ratio, the Enhanced Vegetation Index-2, the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and the green Chlorophyll Index) together with the image-based inverse canopy radiative transfer modelling system, REGFLEC (REGularized canopy reFLECtance). While the SVIs require field data for empirical model building, REGFLEC can be applied without calibration. Field data measured in 93 fields within crop- and grasslands of five European landscapes showed strong vertical CHLl gradient profiles in 20% of fields. This affected the predictability of SVIs and REGFLEC. However, selecting only homogeneous canopies with uniform CHLl distributions as reference data for statistical evaluation, significant (p < 0.05) predictions were achieved for all landscapes, by all methods. The best performance was achieved by REGFLEC for LAI (r2=0.7; rmse = 0.73), canopy chlorophyll content (r2=0.51; rmse = 439 mg m-2) and canopy nitrogen content (r2 = 0.53; rmse = 2.21 g m-2). Predictabilities of SVIs and REGFLEC simulations generally improved when constrained to single land use categories (wheat, maize, barley, grass) across the European landscapes, reflecting

  2. The relationship of milk urea nitrogen to urine nitrogen excretion in Holstein and Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, A J; St-Pierre, N R

    2001-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between urinary nitrogen excretion (UN, g/d) and milk urea nitrogen concentration (MUN, mg/dl) and whether the types of carbohydrates fed interacts with the dietary CP and the breed (size) of cows to affect this relationship. Eight multiparous cows (four Holstein and four Jersey) were fed four different diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of levels of crude protein (13 and 17%) and levels of neutral detergent fiber (30 and 40%). The experimental design was a split plot Latin square with breeds forming the main plots and diets forming the subplots. Experimental periods were 3 wk in length, with d 1 to 14 used for adjustment and d 15 to 19 used for a total collection of urine and feces. Crude protein concentrations had a significant effect on milk, milk fat and protein production, plasma urea N, MUN, and on N balance measurements (N intake, fecal and urinary N excretion, milk N production, N retention, apparent N digestibility, and N efficiency). Neutral detergent fiber levels had no effect on any production parameters or N balance measurements. The relationship between urinary N and MUN was linear over the range of MUN values observed and different for the two breeds. The breed effect on the UN-MUN relationship was no longer significant (P = 0.63) when body weight (BW) was included in the model. The optimal allometric coefficient for BW was 0.96 and was not different from 1.0. Therefore, the following equation is proposed to predict UN excretion based on MUN and BW: UN (g/d) = 0.0259 (+/- 0.0006) BW (kg) x MUN (mg/dl).

  3. Interannual variation in leaf photosynthetic capacity during summer in relation to nitrogen, leaf mass per area and climate within a Fagus crenata crown on Naeba Mountain, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iio, Atsuhiro; Yokoyama, Akira; Takano, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Tetsurou; Fukasawa, Hisakazu; Nose, Yachiho; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-09-01

    During the summers (July and August) of 2002-2005, we measured interannual variation in maximum carboxylation rate (V(cmax)) within a Fagus crenata Blume crown in relation to climate variables such as air temperature, daytime vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and daily photosynthetic photon flux, leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(a)) and leaf mass per unit area (LMA). Climatic conditions in the summers of 2002-2004 differed markedly, with warm and dry atmospheric conditions in 2002, cool, humid and cloudy conditions in 2003, and warm clear conditions in 2004. Conditions in summer 2005 were intermediate between those of summers 2002 and 2003, and similar to recent (8-year) means. In July, marked interannual variation in V(cmax) was mainly observed in leaves in the high-light environment (relative photon flux > 50%) within the crown. At the crown top, V(cmax) was about twofold higher in 2002 than in 2003, and V(cmax) values in 2004 and 2005 were intermediate between those in 2002 and 2003. In August, although interannual variation in V(cmax) among the years 2003, 2004 and 2005 was less, marked variation between 2002 and the other study years was evident. Multiple regression analysis of V(cmax) against the climate variables revealed that VPD of the previous 10-30 days had a significant influence on variability in V(cmax). Neither N(a), LMA nor leaf CO(2) conductance from the stomata to the carboxylation site explained the variability in V(cmax). Our results indicate that the long-term climatic response of V(cmax) should be considered when estimating forest carbon gain across the year.

  4. Nitrogen deficiency inhibits leaf blade growth in Lolium perenne by increasing cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic growth rates.

    PubMed

    Kavanová, Monika; Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo; Schnyder, Hans

    2008-06-01

    Nitrogen deficiency severely inhibits leaf growth. This response was analysed at the cellular level by growing Lolium perenne L. under 7.5 mM (high) or 1 mM (low) nitrate supply, and performing a kinematic analysis to assess the effect of nitrogen status on cell proliferation and cell growth in the leaf blade epidermis. Low nitrogen supply reduced leaf elongation rate (LER) by 43% through a similar decrease in the cell production rate and final cell length. The former was entirely because of a decreased average cell division rate (0.023 versus 0.032 h(-1)) and thus longer cell cycle duration (30 versus 22 h). Nitrogen status did not affect the number of division cycles of the initial cell's progeny (5.7), and accordingly the meristematic cell number (53). Meristematic cell length was unaffected by nitrogen deficiency, implying that the division and mitotic growth rates were equally impaired. The shorter mature cell length arose from a considerably reduced post-mitotic growth rate (0.033 versus 0.049 h(-1)). But, nitrogen stress did not affect the position where elongation stopped, and increased cell elongation duration. In conclusion, nitrogen deficiency limited leaf growth by increasing the cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic elongation rates, delaying cell maturation.

  5. Support for a photoprotective function of winter leaf reddening in nitrogen-deficient individuals of Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kaylyn L; Keidel, Timothy S; Pihl, Melissa C; Hughes, Nicole M

    2014-11-03

    Plants growing in high-light environments during winter often exhibit leaf reddening due to synthesis of anthocyanin pigments, which are thought to alleviate photooxidative stress associated with low-temperature photoinhibition through light attenuation and/or antioxidant activity. Seasonal high-light stress can be further exacerbated by a limited photosynthetic capacity, such as nitrogen-deficiency. In the present study, we test the following hypotheses using three populations of the semi-evergreen vine Lonicera japonica: (1) nitrogen deficiency corresponds with reduced photosynthetic capacity; (2) individuals with reduced photosynthetic capacity synthesize anthocyanin pigments in leaves during winter; and (3) anthocyanin pigments help alleviate high-light stress by attenuating green light. All populations featured co-occurring winter-green and winter-red leafed individuals on fully-exposed (high-light), south-facing slopes in the Piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Consistent with our hypotheses, red leaves consistently exhibited significantly lower foliar nitrogen than green leaves, as well as lower total chlorophyll, quantum yield efficiency, carboxylation efficiency, and photosynthesis at saturating irradiance (Asat). Light-response curves measured using ambient sunlight versus red-blue LED (i.e., lacking green wavelengths) demonstrated significantly reduced quantum yield efficiency and a higher light compensation point under sunlight relative to red-blue LED in red leaves, but not in green leaves, consistent with a (green) light-attenuating function of anthocyanin pigments. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that intraspecific anthocyanin synthesis corresponds with nitrogen deficiency and reduced photosynthetic capacity within populations, and support a light-attenuating function of anthocyanin pigments.

  6. Relationship between site-specific nitrogen concentrations in mosses and measured wet bulk atmospheric nitrogen deposition across Europe.

    PubMed

    Harmens, Harry; Schnyder, Elvira; Thöni, Lotti; Cooper, David M; Mills, Gina; Leblond, Sébastien; Mohr, Karsten; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Santamaria, Jesus; Skudnik, Mitja; Zechmeister, Harald G; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Hanus-Illnar, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    To assess the relationship between nitrogen concentrations in mosses and wet bulk nitrogen deposition or concentrations in precipitation, moss tissue and deposition were sampled within a distance of 1 km of each other in seven European countries. Relationships for various forms of nitrogen appeared to be asymptotic, with data for different countries being positioned at different locations along the asymptotic relationship and saturation occurring at a wet bulk nitrogen deposition of ca. 20 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). The asymptotic behaviour was more pronounced for ammonium-N than nitrate-N, with high ammonium deposition at German sites being most influential in providing evidence of the asymptotic behaviour. Within countries, relationships were only significant for Finland and Switzerland and were more or less linear. The results confirm previous relationships described for modelled total deposition. Nitrogen concentration in mosses can be applied to identify areas at risk of high nitrogen deposition at European scale. PMID:25094057

  7. Net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) into the Yangtze River basin and the relationship with riverine nitrogen export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Zheng, Yanling; Yin, Guoyu; Lin, Xianbiao; Li, Xiaofei; Zong, Haibo; Deng, Fengyu; Gao, Juan; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI, including atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogenous fertilizer use, net nitrogen import in food and feed, and agricultural nitrogen fixation) and the associated relationship with riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export in the Yangtze River basin during the 1980-2012 period. The total NANI in the Yangtze River basin has increased by more than twofold over the past three decades (3537.0 ± 615.3 to 8176.6 ± 1442.1 kg N km-2 yr-1). The application of chemical fertilizer was the largest component of NANI in the basin (51.1%), followed by net nitrogen import in food and feed (26.0%), atmospheric nitrogen deposition (13.2%), and agricultural nitrogen fixation (9.7%). A regression analysis showed that the riverine DIN export was strongly correlated with NANI and the annual water discharge (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.01). NANI in the Yangtze River basin was estimated to contribute 37-66% to the riverine DIN export. We also forecasted future variations in NANI and riverine DIN export for the years 2013 to 2030, based on possible future changes in human activities and the climate. This work provides a quantitative understanding of NANI in the Yangtze River basin and its effects on riverine DIN export and helps to develop integrated watershed nitrogen management strategies.

  8. Canopy position affects the relationships between leaf respiration and associated traits in a tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine Y; Xiang, Shuang; Liddell, Michael J; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-06-01

    We explored the impact of canopy position on leaf respiration (R) and associated traits in tree and shrub species growing in a lowland tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland, Australia. The range of traits quantified included: leaf R in darkness (RD) and in the light (RL; estimated using the Kok method); the temperature (T)-sensitivity of RD; light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat); leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA); and concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), soluble sugars and starch. We found that LMA, and area-based N, P, sugars and starch concentrations were all higher in sun-exposed/upper canopy leaves, compared with their shaded/lower canopy and deep-shade/understory counterparts; similarly, area-based rates of RD, RL and Asat (at 28 °C) were all higher in the upper canopy leaves, indicating higher metabolic capacity in the upper canopy. The extent to which light inhibited R did not differ significantly between upper and lower canopy leaves, with the overall average inhibition being 32% across both canopy levels. Log-log RD-Asat relationships differed between upper and lower canopy leaves, with upper canopy leaves exhibiting higher rates of RD for a given Asat (both on an area and mass basis), as well as higher mass-based rates of RD for a given [N] and [P]. Over the 25-45 °C range, the T-sensitivity of RD was similar in upper and lower canopy leaves, with both canopy positions exhibiting Q10 values near 2.0 (i.e., doubling for every 10 °C rise in T) and Tmax values near 60 °C (i.e., T where RD reached maximal values). Thus, while rates of RD at 28 °C decreased with increasing depth in the canopy, the T-dependence of RD remained constant; these findings have important implications for vegetation-climate models that seek to predict carbon fluxes between tropical lowland rainforests and the atmosphere.

  9. Leaching Test Relationships, Laboratory-to-Field Comparisons and Recommendations for Leaching Evaluation using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents examples of the relationships between the results of laboratory leaching tests, as defined by the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) or analogous international test methods, and leaching of constituents from a broad range of materials under di...

  10. Alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological traits but not chemical traits.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yan; Wang, Liang; Jin, Dongmei; Liu, Huiying; He, Jin-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    Leaves and fine roots are among the most important and dynamic components of terrestrial ecosystems. To what extent plants synchronize their resource capture strategies above- and belowground remains uncertain. Existing results of trait relationships between leaf and root showed great inconsistency, which may be partly due to the differences in abiotic environmental conditions such as climate and soil. Moreover, there is currently little evidence on whether and how the stringent environments of high-altitude alpine ecosystems alter the coordination between above- and belowground. Here we measured six sets of analogous traits for both leaves and fine roots of 139 species collected from Tibetan alpine grassland and Mongolian temperate grassland. N, P and N:P ratio of leaves and fine roots were positively correlated, independent of biogeographic regions, phylogenetic affiliation or climate. In contrast, leaves and fine roots seem to regulate morphological traits more independently. The specific leaf area (SLA)-specific root length (SRL) correlation shifted from negative at sites under low temperature to positive at warmer sites. The cold climate of alpine regions may impose different constraints on shoots and roots, selecting simultaneously for high SLA leaves for rapid C assimilation during the short growing season, but low SRL roots with high physical robustness to withstand soil freezing. In addition, there might be more community heterogeneity in cold soils, resulting in multidirectional strategies of root in resource acquisition. Thus our results demonstrated that alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological but not chemical traits.

  11. Effect of feeding garlic leaf on microbial nitrogen supply, kinetics of plasma phenylalanine, tyrosine and protein synthesis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, Md; Liang, Xi; Sekiguchi, Natsumi; Sano, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the feeding effects of garlic leaf on microbial N supply (MNS), turnover rates of plasma phenylalanine (PheTR) and tyrosine (TyrTR) and whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) in sheep. The sheep were fed either mixed hay (Hay-diet, as control) or hay plus garlic leaf diet (GL-diet, at a ratio of 9:1) in a crossover design each for a 21 day period. The isotope dilution method using [(2) H5 ]Phe and [(2) H2 ]Tyr was performed on the 21st day of each dietary treatment. Nitrogen intake remained similar between the diets and N absorption and N digestibility were higher (P<0.05) in the GL-diet than Hay-diet. Total purine derivatives excretion and MNS were greater (P<0.05) in the GL-diet than the Hay-diet. Plasma PheTR tended to be higher (P=0.06) during GL feeding and TyrTR did not differ between the diets. Further, WBPS tended to be greater (P=0.05) for the GL-diet compared with the Hay-diet. Hence, the present results suggest that garlic leaf may have positive effects on N metabolism by influencing MNS in sheep and could be used as a potential ruminant feed in the future.

  12. Leaf and soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability in a neotropical rain forest of nutrient-rich soil.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, José Luis

    2006-06-01

    The nitrogen and phosphorus supply in a lowland rain forest with a nutrient-rich soil was investigated by means of the leaf N/P quotient. It was hypothesised a high N and P supply to the forest ecosystem with a N and P rich soil. Total N and extractable P were determined in the surface (10 cm) soil of three plots of the forest. Total N was analysed by the Kjeldahl method, and P was extracted with HCI and NH4F. The leaf N/P quotient was evaluated from the senesced leaves of 11 dominant tree species from the mature forest. Samples of 5 g of freshly fallen leaves were collected from three trees of each species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid, and determined by photometry. Concentrations of total N (0.50%, n = 30) and extractable P (4.11 microg g(-1), n = 30) in the soil were high. As expected, P supply was sufficient, but contrary to expected, N supply was low (N/P = 11.8, n = 11).

  13. [Relationships of Syzygium jambos and Dracontomelon duperreanum leaf tannin concentration and leaf litter breakdown with the colonization of benthonic invertebrates].

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhao-Ying; Zhao, Ying; Tong, Xiao-Li

    2009-10-01

    An investigation was made on the dynamic changes of tannin concentration in Syzygium jambos and Dracontomelon duperreanum leaves over a 105-day period of leaf litter decomposition in a second-order stream in Longdong Reservoir, Guangzhou. The initial tannin concentration in S. jambos leaves (0.191 g x g(-1) DM) was higher than that in D. duperreanum leaves (0.057 g x g(-1) DM). In the first week of leaf litter decomposition, the tannin concentration in D. duperreanum and S. jambos leaves decreased by 45% and 22% respectively. 21 days after, the decline in tannin concentration slowed down, but the decomposition rate increased, with the leaves of D. duperreanum decomposed faster than those of S. jambos (k value was 0.038 d(-1) and 0.013 d(-1), respectively). The average density of benthonic invertebrate colonized on D. duperreanum leaves (287.9 ind x g(-1) leaf mass) was significantly higher than that on S. jambos leaves (26.2 ind x g(-1) leaf mass) (P < 0.05). A continual increase of benthonic invertebrate's abundance was observed during leaf litter decomposition, which could be attributed to the rapid decrease of leaf tannin concentration. The slower breakdown of S. jambos leaf litter was likely because of the high tannin concentration in S. jambos leaves, which inhibited benthonic invertebrate, especially the shredder's colonization.

  14. Characterization of Leaf Blade- and Leaf Sheath-Associated Bacterial Communities and Assessment of Their Responses to Environmental Changes in CO2, Temperature, and Nitrogen Levels under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Seishi; Tokida, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Usui, Yasuhiro; Okubo, Takashi; Tago, Kanako; Hayashi, Kentaro; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ono, Hiroshi; Tomita, Satoru; Hayatsu, Masahito; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    Rice shoot-associated bacterial communities at the panicle initiation stage were characterized and their responses to elevated surface water-soil temperature (ET), low nitrogen (LN), and free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) were assessed by clone library analyses of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinate analyses combining all sequence data for leaf blade- and leaf sheath-associated bacteria revealed that each bacterial community had a distinct structure, as supported by PC1 (61.5%), that was mainly attributed to the high abundance of Planctomycetes in leaf sheaths. Our results also indicated that the community structures of leaf blade-associated bacteria were more sensitive than those of leaf sheath-associated bacteria to the environmental factors examined. Among these environmental factors, LN strongly affected the community structures of leaf blade-associated bacteria by increasing the relative abundance of Bacilli. The most significant effect of FACE was also observed on leaf blade-associated bacteria under the LN condition, which was explained by decreases and increases in Agrobacterium and Pantoea, respectively. The community structures of leaf blade-associated bacteria under the combination of FACE and ET were more similar to those of the control than to those under ET or FACE. Thus, the combined effects of environmental factors need to be considered in order to realistically assess the effects of environmental changes on microbial community structures. PMID:25740174

  15. Responses of leaf nitrogen and mobile carbohydrates in different Quercus species/provenances to moderate climate changes.

    PubMed

    Li, M-H; Cherubini, P; Dobbertin, M; Arend, M; Xiao, W-F; Rigling, A

    2013-01-01

    Global warming and shortage of water have been evidenced in the recent past and are predicted for the future. Climate change will inevitably have considerable impact on plant physiology, growth, productivity and forest ecosystem functions. The present study determined the effects of simulated daytime air warming (+1 to 1.5 °C during the growing season), drought (-40% and -57% of mean precipitation of 728 mm during the 2007 and 2008 growing season, respectively) and their combination, on leaf nitrogen (N) and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) of two Quercus species (Q. robur and Q. petraea) and provenances (two provenances for each species) grown in two soil types in Switzerland across two treatment years, to test the hypothesis that leaf N and NSC in the more water-sensitive species (Q. robur) and provenances (originating from water-rich locations) will more strongly respond to global warming and water deficit, compared to those in the more drought-tolerant species (Q. petraea) or provenances. No species- and provenance-specific responses in leaf N and NSC to the climate treatment were found, indicating that the results failed to support our hypothesis. The between-species variation of leaf N and NSC concentrations mainly reflected differences in biology of the two species, and the between-provenance variation of N and NSC concentrations apparently mirrored the climate of their origins. Hence, we conclude that (i) the two Quercus species studied are somewhat insensitive, due to their distribution covering a wide geographical and climate range, to moderate climate change within Switzerland, and (ii) a moderate global warming of B1 scenario (IPCC 2007) will not, or at least less, negatively affect the N and carbon physiology in Q. robur and Q. petraea.

  16. Food preferences of mangrove crabs related to leaf nitrogen compounds in the Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhaus, Inga; Salewski, Tabea; Jennerjahn, Tim C.

    2011-05-01

    The large amounts of leaf litter produced by tropical mangrove forests serve as a major food source for the benthic fauna. The reasons for the preferential consumption of mangrove leaves by crabs are unclear as yet. We investigated the diet, food preferences and consumption rates of 8 dominant grapsoid crab species ( Perisesarma spp., Episesarma spp., Metopograpsus latifrons, and Metaplax elegans) in mangroves of Segara Anakan, Java, Indonesia, by means of stomach-content analysis and feeding experiments. Leaves from the five most abundant mangrove tree species ( Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia alba, Ceriops decandra, Rhizophora apiculata, and Sonneratia caseolaris) were analyzed for organic carbon, total nitrogen, δ 13C, δ 15N and amino acids and hexosamines. This study is the first that investigated crab food preferences related to the nitrogen compound composition of leaves. Our results show that Episesarma spp. and Perisesarma spp. are omnivorous crabs which mainly feed on detritus, mangrove litter and bark, and on a small amount of roots, algae and animal matter whereas M. elegans is a detritus feeder. In feeding experiments with green, yellow and brown leaves Perisesarma spp. and E. singaporense had the highest consumption rates for brown leaves of R. apiculata and S. caseolaris, and for green leaves of A. alba. Preferred leaves were characterized by a high amount and/or freshness of nitrogenous compounds and their biochemical composition was significantly different from that of disliked leaves (all leaves of A. corniculatum and C. decandra, green and yellow leaves of R. apiculata and S. caseolaris). The presence of the hexosamine galactosamine found only in brown leaves indicates that bacteria contribute to the amount of bioavailable nitrogen compounds. We infer that the nitrogen compound composition rather than the C/N ratio alone is a determinant for bioavailability of mangrove leaves and hence may partly explain the crabs' food preferences.

  17. Vertical Chlorophyll Canopy Structure Affects the Remote Sensing Based Predictability of LAI, Chlorophyll and Leaf Nitrogen in Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boegh, E.; Houborg, R.; Bienkowski, J.; Braban, C. F.; Dalgaard, T.; van Dijk, N.; Dragosits, U.; Holmes, E.; Magliulo, V.; Schelde, K.; Di Tommasi, P.; Vitale, L.; Theobald, M.; Cellier, P.; Sutton, M.

    2012-12-01

    Leaf nitrogen and leaf surface area influence the exchange of gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and they play a significant role in the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and water. Remote sensing can be used to estimate leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content (CHL) and leaf nitrogen (N), but methods are often developed using plot-scale data and not verified over extended regions characterized by variations in environmental boundary conditions (soil, atmosphere) and canopy structures. Estimation of N can be indirect due to its association with CHL, however N is also included in pigments such as carotenoids and anthocyanin which have different spectral signatures than CHL. Photosynthesis optimization theory suggests that plants will distribute their N resources in proportion to the light gradient within the canopy. Such vertical variation in CHL and N complicates the evaluation of remote sensing-based methods. Typically remote sensing studies measure CHL of the upper leaf, which is then multiplied by the green LAI to represent canopy chlorophyll content, or random sampling is used. In this study, field measurements and high spatial resolution (10-20 m) remote sensing images acquired from the HRG and HRVIR sensors aboard the SPOT satellites were used to assess the predictability of LAI, CHL and N in five European agricultural landscapes located in Denmark, Scotland (United Kingdom), Poland, The Netherlands and Italy . All satellite images were atmospherically using the 6SV1 model with atmospheric inputs estimated by MODIS and AIRS data. Five spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were calculated (the Normalized Difference Vegetation index, the Simple Ratio, the Enhanced Vegetation Index-2, the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and the green Chlorophyll Index), and an image-based inverse canopy radiative transfer modelling system, REGFLEC (REGularized canopy reFLECtance) was applied to each of the five European landscapes. While the

  18. A comparison between fertigation and granular fertilizer applications on yield and leaf nitrogen in red raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in 2011-2012 to compare the effects of applying N by fertigation or as granular fertilizer on yield and leaf N in ‘Meeker’ red raspberry. The planting was established in Apr. 2006 at site located in western Oregon. Plants were irrigated by drip or sprinklers and grown with or w...

  19. [Leaf water potential of spring wheat and field pea under different tillage patterns and its relationships with environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Ren-Zhi; Cai, Li-Qun

    2008-07-01

    Based on a long-term experiment, the leaf water potential of spring wheat and field pea, its relationships with environmental factors, and the diurnal variations of leaf relative water content and water saturation deficient under different tillage patterns were studied. The results showed that during whole growth period, field pea had an obviously higher leaf water potential than spring wheat, but the two crops had similar diurnal variation trend of their leaf water potential, i.e., the highest in early morning, followed by a descent, and a gradual ascent after the descent. For spring wheat, the maximum leaf water potential appeared at its jointing and heading stages, followed by at booting and flowering stages, and the minimum appeared at filling stage. For field pea, the maximum leaf water potential achieved at squaring stage, followed by at branching and flowering stages, and the minimum was at podding stage. The leaf relative water content of spring wheat was the highest at heading stage, followed by at jointing and flowering stages, and achieved the minimum at filling stage; while the water saturation deficient was just in adverse. With the growth of field pea, its leaf relative water content decreased, but leaf water saturation deficient increased. The leaf water potential of both spring wheat and field pea had significant correlations with environmental factors, including soil water content, air temperature, solar radiation, relative air humidity, and air water potential. Path analysis showed that the meteorological factor which had the strongest effect on the diurnal variation of spring wheat' s and field pea' s leaf water potential was air water potential and air temperature, respectively. Compared with conventional tillage, the protective tillage patterns no-till, no-till plus straw mulching, and conventional tillage plus straw returning increased the leaf water potential and relative water content of test crops, and the effect of no-till plus straw

  20. Effects of CO[sub 2] enrichment and nitrogen fertilization on leaf gas exchange and yield of field-grown sweet potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, D.R.; Strachan, R.; Alemayehu, M.; Huluka, G.; Moore, J.; Biswas, P.K. )

    1993-06-01

    Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) were grown in the field in open-top chambers at two levels of CO[sub 2] (ambient and 300 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] above ambient) and two levels of nitrogen fertilization. Leaf gas exchange rates were determined during midday hours under sunny conditions. CO[sub 2] enrichment led to an increase of 48% in net photosynthetic rates and to decreases of 15% and 29% in leaf transpiration and stomatal conductance. The nitrogen treatment had no significant effects on leaf gas exchange, The number of storage roots and total storage root fresh weight increased 33% and 38%, respectively, at elevated CO[sub 2]. There was a non-significant trend towards larger storage roots at high nitrogen levels. The lack of significant effects due to the nitrogen treatment (except for a positive effect on leaf size) may indicate that nitrogen was not limiting, Elemental analysis of plant and soil samples, currently in progress, will help clarify this situation.

  1. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEEN NITROGEN LOADING AND CONCENTRATIONS OF NITROGEN AND CHLOROPHYLL IN COASTAL EMBAYMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe results obtained with a simple model that uses loading rates of total nitrogen (TN), defined as dissolved inorganic nitrogen plus dissolved and particulate organic nitrogen, to calculate annually and spatially averaged concentrations of TN in coastal embayments. We al...

  2. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and leaf litter chemistry: Influences on microbial respiration and net nitrogen mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Randlett, D.L.; Zak, D.R.; Pregitzer, K.S.; Curtis, P.S.

    1996-09-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} has the potential to influence rates of C and N cycling in terrestrial ecosystems by altering plant litter chemistry and slowing rates of organic matter decomposition. We tested the hypothesis that the chemistry of leaf litter produced at elevated CO{sub 2} would slow C and N transformations in soil. Soils were amended with Populus leaf produced under two levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} (ambient and twice-ambient) and soil N availability (low and high). Kinetic parameters for microbial respiration and net N mineralization were determined on soil with and without litter during a 32-wk lab incubation. Product accumulation curves for CO{sub 2}-C and inorganic N were fit to a first order rate equation [y=A(1-e{sup -kt})] using nonlinear regression analyses. Although CO{sub 2} treatment affected soluble sugar concentration in leaf litter (ambient =120 g kg{sup -1}, elevated =130 g kg{sup -1}), it did not affect starch concentration or C/N ratio. Microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and leaf litter C/N ratio were affected by soil N availability but not by atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Net N mineralization was a linear function of time and was not significantly different for leaves grown at ambient (50 mg N kg{sup -1}) and elevated CO{sub 2} (35 mg N kg{sup -1}). Consequently, we found no evidence for the hypothesis that leaf litter produced at elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} will dampen the rates of C and N cycling in soil. 35 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a young mountain ash forest.

    PubMed

    Vertessy, R A; Benyon, R G; O'Sullivan, S K; Gribben, P R

    1995-09-01

    We examined relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a 15-year-old mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest containing silver wattle (Acacia dealbata Link.) as a suppressed overstory species and mountain hickory (Acacia frigescens J.H. Willis) as an understory species. Stem diameter explained 93% of the variation in leaf area, 96% of the variation in sapwood area and 88% of the variation in mean daily spring transpiration in 19 mountain ash trees. In seven silver wattle trees, stem diameter explained 87% of the variation in sapwood area but was a poor predictor of the other variables. When transpiration measurements from individual trees were scaled up to a plot basis, using stem diameter values for 164 mountain ash trees and 124 silver wattle trees, mean daily spring transpiration rates of the two species were 2.3 and 0.6 mm day(-1), respectively. The leaf area index of the plot was estimated directly by destructive sampling, and indirectly with an LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer and by hemispherical canopy photography. All three methods gave similar results. PMID:14965913

  4. Leaf δ15N as an indicator of arbuscular mycorrhizal nitrogen uptake in a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardegan, S. F.; Valadares, R.; Martinelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    cleared and stained according to Phillips and Hayman (1970), being scored for mycorrhizal colonization using the grid-line intersection method. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a post hoc Tukey HSD test to determine differences amongst compartments. Spearman correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the relationship between leaf δ15N and root colonization rates. Vegetation nitrogen concentration was around 22.5 g kg-1, being higher than those from litter and soil. Vegetation δ15N mean values were around -0.2 ‰, ranging from -1.6 to 2.0 ‰, being lower than those from the soils where they grow (mean values close to 3.0 ‰). Roots from all species were colonized, with the presence of typical AMF structures (hyphae, vesicles and arbuscules within root cortex). Root colonization rates ranged from less than 1 to about 55 %. In most cases, species with δ15N values had colonization rates exceeding 20 %. We observed an inverse relationship between the rate of root colonization and leaf δ15N of the species analyzed. These results suggest the importance of AMF symbiosis for nitrogen supply at such nutrient-limited coastal environments.

  5. Plant leaf and root N, P levels and their relationship to geographical and climate factors in a Chinese grassland transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are generally considered the two most limiting and essential elements for the function of plants and ecosystems. Ecological stoichiometry of plant N and P provides the dominant means for investigating plant nutrient, and it may provide insights for fields as diverse as global carbon modeling, global climate change, and macroecology. Here we measured N and P contents and their ratios for 132 leaf samples and 120 root samples collected at 132 sites along the 5000km long China Grassland Transect (CGT) that traverses the Inner Mongolian and Qinghai-Tibet Plateaus. The aim was to explore the patterns of leaf N, P and root N, P and their ratio (N/P) respectively in relation to variability in geography, temperature and precipitation, and also the patterns of the relative N and P contents in leaf and root (leaf N(P)/ root N(P)). Results show that: 1) with decreasing longitude and latitude, increasing altitude and mean annual precipitation, leaf N and P increased, N/P decreased. 2) root N increased with increasing longitude, latitude, mean annual temperature, root P only increased with longitude. The patterns of root N,P were not in accord with the patterns of leaf N, P. 3) leaf and root relative N and P increased with increasing latitude and decreasing altitude, and relative N content also increased with decreasing mean annual temperature and increasing mean annual precipitation. Leaf and root relative N and P content reflected the distribution characteristics of the elements in relation to variability in geographical and climate factors. When there was more precipitation, or lower temperature, more N would be distributed to root. Lastly, we speculated that the ratio of leaf and root relative N and relative P content should be a fixed value, and our study was 0.81±0.51.

  6. A functional characterisation of a wide range of cover crop species: growth and nitrogen acquisition rates, leaf traits and ecological strategies.

    PubMed

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Fort, Florian; Cruz, Pablo; Charles, Raphaël; Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Justes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cover crops can produce ecosystem services during the fallow period, as reducing nitrate leaching and producing green manure. Crop growth rate (CGR) and crop nitrogen acquisition rate (CNR) can be used as two indicators of the ability of cover crops to produce these services in agrosystems. We used leaf functional traits to characterise the growth strategies of 36 cover crops as an approach to assess their ability to grow and acquire N rapidly. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area (LA) and we evaluated their relevance to characterise CGR and CNR. Cover crop species were positioned along the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES), the SLA-LDMC plane, and the CSR triangle of plant strategies. LA was positively correlated with CGR and CNR, while LDMC was negatively correlated with CNR. All cover crops could be classified as resource-acquisitive species from their relative position on the LES and the SLA-LDMC plane. Most cover crops were located along the Competition/Ruderality axis in the CSR triangle. In particular, Brassicaceae species were classified as very competitive, which was consistent with their high CGR and CNR. Leaf functional traits, especially LA and LDMC, allowed to differentiate some cover crops strategies related to their ability to grow and acquire N. LDMC was lower and LNC was higher in cover crop than in wild species, pointing to an efficient acquisitive syndrome in the former, corresponding to the high resource availability found in agrosystems. Combining several leaf traits explained approximately half of the CGR and CNR variances, which might be considered insufficient to precisely characterise and rank cover crop species for agronomic purposes. We hypothesised that may be the consequence of domestication process, which has reduced the range of plant strategies and modified the leaf trait syndrome in cultivated species. PMID:25789485

  7. A functional characterisation of a wide range of cover crop species: growth and nitrogen acquisition rates, leaf traits and ecological strategies.

    PubMed

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Fort, Florian; Cruz, Pablo; Charles, Raphaël; Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Justes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cover crops can produce ecosystem services during the fallow period, as reducing nitrate leaching and producing green manure. Crop growth rate (CGR) and crop nitrogen acquisition rate (CNR) can be used as two indicators of the ability of cover crops to produce these services in agrosystems. We used leaf functional traits to characterise the growth strategies of 36 cover crops as an approach to assess their ability to grow and acquire N rapidly. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area (LA) and we evaluated their relevance to characterise CGR and CNR. Cover crop species were positioned along the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES), the SLA-LDMC plane, and the CSR triangle of plant strategies. LA was positively correlated with CGR and CNR, while LDMC was negatively correlated with CNR. All cover crops could be classified as resource-acquisitive species from their relative position on the LES and the SLA-LDMC plane. Most cover crops were located along the Competition/Ruderality axis in the CSR triangle. In particular, Brassicaceae species were classified as very competitive, which was consistent with their high CGR and CNR. Leaf functional traits, especially LA and LDMC, allowed to differentiate some cover crops strategies related to their ability to grow and acquire N. LDMC was lower and LNC was higher in cover crop than in wild species, pointing to an efficient acquisitive syndrome in the former, corresponding to the high resource availability found in agrosystems. Combining several leaf traits explained approximately half of the CGR and CNR variances, which might be considered insufficient to precisely characterise and rank cover crop species for agronomic purposes. We hypothesised that may be the consequence of domestication process, which has reduced the range of plant strategies and modified the leaf trait syndrome in cultivated species.

  8. A Functional Characterisation of a Wide Range of Cover Crop Species: Growth and Nitrogen Acquisition Rates, Leaf Traits and Ecological Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Fort, Florian; Cruz, Pablo; Charles, Raphaël; Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Justes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cover crops can produce ecosystem services during the fallow period, as reducing nitrate leaching and producing green manure. Crop growth rate (CGR) and crop nitrogen acquisition rate (CNR) can be used as two indicators of the ability of cover crops to produce these services in agrosystems. We used leaf functional traits to characterise the growth strategies of 36 cover crops as an approach to assess their ability to grow and acquire N rapidly. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area (LA) and we evaluated their relevance to characterise CGR and CNR. Cover crop species were positioned along the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES), the SLA-LDMC plane, and the CSR triangle of plant strategies. LA was positively correlated with CGR and CNR, while LDMC was negatively correlated with CNR. All cover crops could be classified as resource-acquisitive species from their relative position on the LES and the SLA-LDMC plane. Most cover crops were located along the Competition/Ruderality axis in the CSR triangle. In particular, Brassicaceae species were classified as very competitive, which was consistent with their high CGR and CNR. Leaf functional traits, especially LA and LDMC, allowed to differentiate some cover crops strategies related to their ability to grow and acquire N. LDMC was lower and LNC was higher in cover crop than in wild species, pointing to an efficient acquisitive syndrome in the former, corresponding to the high resource availability found in agrosystems. Combining several leaf traits explained approximately half of the CGR and CNR variances, which might be considered insufficient to precisely characterise and rank cover crop species for agronomic purposes. We hypothesised that may be the consequence of domestication process, which has reduced the range of plant strategies and modified the leaf trait syndrome in cultivated species. PMID:25789485

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of nitrogen starvation- and cultivar-specific leaf senescence in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Koeslin-Findeklee, Fabian; Rizi, Vajiheh Safavi; Becker, Martin A; Parra-Londono, Sebastian; Arif, Muhammad; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Kunze, Reinhard; Horst, Walter J

    2015-04-01

    High nitrogen (N) efficiency, characterized by high grain yield under N limitation, is an important agricultural trait in Brassica napus L. cultivars related to delayed senescence of older leaves during reproductive growth (a syndrome called stay-green). The aim of this study was thus to identify genes whose expression is specifically altered during N starvation-induced leaf senescence and that can be used as markers to distinguish cultivars at early stages of senescence prior to chlorophyll loss. To this end, the transcriptomes of leaves of two B. napus cultivars differing in stay-green characteristics and N efficiency were analyzed 4 days after the induction of senescence by either N starvation, leaf shading or detaching. In addition to N metabolism genes, N starvation mostly (and specifically) repressed genes related to photosynthesis, photorespiration and cell-wall structure, while genes related to mitochondrial electron transport and flavonoid biosynthesis were predominately up-regulated. A kinetic study over a period of 12 days with four B. napus cultivars differing in their stay-green characteristics confirmed the cultivar-specific regulation of six genes in agreement with their senescence behavior: the senescence regulator ANAC029, the anthocyanin synthesis-related genes ANS and DFR-like1, the ammonium transporter AMT1;4, the ureide transporter UPS5, and SPS1 involved in sucrose biosynthesis. The identified genes represent markers for the detection of cultivar-specific differences in N starvation-induced leaf senescence and can thus be employed as valuable tools in B. napus breeding.

  10. Leaf nitrogen productivity is the major factor behind the growth reduction induced by long-term salt stress.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Manuel; Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; Poorter, Hendrik; Simón, Maria Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth response to salinity on a scale of years has not been studied in terms of growth analysis. To gain insights into this topic, 2-year-old Mediterranean Fan Palm (Chamaerops humilis L.) and Mexican Fan Palm (Washingtonia robusta H. Wendl) seedlings, each with its own distinct plant morphology, were grown for 2 years in a peat soil and irrigated with water of 2 dS m(-1) (control) or 8 dS m(-1) (saline). Plants were harvested on seven occasions and the time trends in relative growth rate (RGR, the rate of increase of biomass per unit of biomass already existing) and its components were analysed. In the long term, salinity produced a slight reduction in the mean RGR, values in both species. In the short term, salinity caused a reduction in RGR. However, during the second year, plants irrigated with 8 dS m(-1) grew somewhat more quickly than the control plants, probably as a result of delay in the growth kinetics due to salinity. Regarding RGR components, leaf nitrogen productivity (the rate of biomass gain per unit leaf N and time) was the major factor causing the differences in RGR resulting from salinity. Washingtonia robusta showed a relatively high plasticity in plant morphology by increasing root and decreasing stem biomass allocation in the presence of salinity. However, the long-term response of W. robusta to salinity, based to a great extent, on this morphological plasticity, was less effective than that of C. humilis, which is based mainly on the contribution of leaf N to RGR values.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of nitrogen starvation- and cultivar-specific leaf senescence in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Koeslin-Findeklee, Fabian; Rizi, Vajiheh Safavi; Becker, Martin A; Parra-Londono, Sebastian; Arif, Muhammad; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Kunze, Reinhard; Horst, Walter J

    2015-04-01

    High nitrogen (N) efficiency, characterized by high grain yield under N limitation, is an important agricultural trait in Brassica napus L. cultivars related to delayed senescence of older leaves during reproductive growth (a syndrome called stay-green). The aim of this study was thus to identify genes whose expression is specifically altered during N starvation-induced leaf senescence and that can be used as markers to distinguish cultivars at early stages of senescence prior to chlorophyll loss. To this end, the transcriptomes of leaves of two B. napus cultivars differing in stay-green characteristics and N efficiency were analyzed 4 days after the induction of senescence by either N starvation, leaf shading or detaching. In addition to N metabolism genes, N starvation mostly (and specifically) repressed genes related to photosynthesis, photorespiration and cell-wall structure, while genes related to mitochondrial electron transport and flavonoid biosynthesis were predominately up-regulated. A kinetic study over a period of 12 days with four B. napus cultivars differing in their stay-green characteristics confirmed the cultivar-specific regulation of six genes in agreement with their senescence behavior: the senescence regulator ANAC029, the anthocyanin synthesis-related genes ANS and DFR-like1, the ammonium transporter AMT1;4, the ureide transporter UPS5, and SPS1 involved in sucrose biosynthesis. The identified genes represent markers for the detection of cultivar-specific differences in N starvation-induced leaf senescence and can thus be employed as valuable tools in B. napus breeding. PMID:25711825

  12. Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of 15N-labeled leaf, root, and twig litter in temperate coniferous forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Huysen, Tiff L.; Harmon, Mark E.; Perakis, Steven S.; Chen, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Litter nutrient dynamics contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems. We examined how site environment and initial substrate quality influence decomposition and nitrogen (N) dynamics of multiple litter types. A 2.5-year decomposition study was installed in the Oregon Coast Range and West Cascades using 15N-labeled litter from Acer macrophyllum, Picea sitchensis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Mass loss for leaf litter was similar between the two sites, while root and twig litter exhibited greater mass loss in the Coast Range. Mass loss was greatest from leaves and roots, and species differences in mass loss were more prominent in the Coast Range. All litter types and species mineralized N early in the decomposition process; only A. macrophyllum leaves exhibited a net N immobilization phase. There were no site differences with respect to litter N dynamics despite differences in site N availability, and litter N mineralization patterns were species-specific. For multiple litter × species combinations, the difference between gross and net N mineralization was significant, and gross mineralization was 7–20 % greater than net mineralization. The mineralization results suggest that initial litter chemistry may be an important driver of litter N dynamics. Our study demonstrates that greater amounts of N are cycling through these systems than may be quantified by only measuring net mineralization and challenges current leaf-based biogeochemical theory regarding patterns of N immobilization and mineralization.

  13. The seasonality of AVHRR data of temperate coniferous forests - Relationship with leaf area index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, Michael A.; Pierce, Lars L.; Running, Steven W.; Peterson, David L.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and coniferous forest leaf area index (LAI) over the western United States is examined. AVHRR data from the NOAA-9 satellite were acquired of the western U.S. from March 1986 to November 1987 and monthly maximum value composites of AVHRR NDVI were calculated for 19 coniferous forest stands in Oregon, Washington, Montana, and California. It is concluded that the relationships under investigation vary according to seasonal changes in surface reflectance based on key biotic and abiotic controls including phenological changes in LAI caused by seasonal temperature and precipitation variations, the proportions of surface cover types contributing to the overall reflectance, and effects resulting from large variations in the solar zenith angle.

  14. Nitrogen availability, local light regime and leaf rank effects on the amount and sources of N allocated within the foliage of young walnut (Juglans nigra x regia) trees.

    PubMed

    Frak, Ela; Le Roux, Xavier; Millard, Peter; Guillaumie, Sabine; Wendler, Renate

    2006-01-01

    Early season leaf growth depends largely on nitrogen (N) provided by remobilization from storage, and many studies have tested the effect of N availability to roots on the amount of N provided for new leaf development by remobilization. Although it is well known that the light regime experienced by a leaf influences the amount of N per unit leaf area (LA), the effect of the local light regime on the amount of N derived either directly from root uptake or from remobilization for early season leaf growth has never been tested at an intra- canopy scale. The objective of this study was to quantify the relative importance of (1) N availability to roots, (2) local light regime experienced by the foliage (at the shoot scale) and (3) leaf rank along the shoot, on the total amount of N allocated to leaves and on the proportions of N provided by remobilization and root uptake. To quantify the importance of N uptake and remobilization as sources of leaf N, potted hybrid walnut trees (Juglans nigra L. x regia L.) were grown outdoors in sand and fed with a labeled ((15)N) nutrient solution. By removing the apical bud, the trees were manipulated to produce only two shoots. The experimental design had two factors: (1) high (HN; 8 mol N m(-3)) and low (LN; 2 mol N m(-3)) N availability; and (2) high (HL; 90% of incident photosynthetically active photon flux (PPF)) and low (LL; 10% of incident PPF) light. Total leaf N per tree was unaffected by either N availability or irradiance. The HN treatment increased the amount of leaf N derived from root uptake at the whole-tree scale (typically around 8 and 2% in the HN and LN treatments, respectively). Nitrogen allocation within foliage of individual trees was controlled by the local light regime, which strongly affected individual leaf characteristics as leaf mass per unit LA and area- based amount of leaf (N(a)). Decreasing the light availability to a branch decreased the amount of N allocated to it, benefiting the less shaded branches

  15. Multiple leaf measurements improve effectiveness of the cholorophyll meter in drum wheat nitrogen management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple and rapid methods are needed to measure durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) nitrogen (N) status and make on-site N application decisions for increased crop yield and grain quality. Although chlorophyll meters (SPAD meters) have been widely tested for cereal crop N management, significant variatio...

  16. Estimating cotton nitrogen nutrition status using leaf greenness and ground cover information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessing nitrogen (N) status is important from economic and environmental standpoints. To date, many spectral indices to estimate cotton chlorophyll or N content have been purely developed using statistical analysis approach where they are often subject to site-specific problems. This study describ...

  17. Leaf Mass per Area (LMA) and Its Relationship with Leaf Structure and Anatomy in 34 Mediterranean Woody Species along a Water Availability Gradient

    PubMed Central

    de la Riva, Enrique G.; Olmo, Manuel; Poorter, Hendrik; Ubera, José Luis; Villar, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a morphological trait widely used as a good indicator of plant functioning (i.e. photosynthetic and respiratory rates, chemical composition, resistance to herbivory, etc.). The LMA can be broken down into the leaf density (LD) and leaf volume to area ratio (LVA or thickness), which in turn are determined by anatomical tissues and chemical composition. The aim of this study is to understand the anatomical and chemical characteristics related to LMA variation in species growing in the field along a water availability gradient. We determined LMA and its components (LD, LVA and anatomical tissues) for 34 Mediterranean (20 evergreen and 14 deciduous) woody species. Variation in LMA was due to variation in both LD and LVA. For both deciduous and evergreen species LVA variation was strongly and positively related with mesophyll volume per area (VA or thickness), but for evergreen species positive relationships of LVA with the VA of epidermis, vascular plus sclerenchyma tissues and air spaces were found as well. The leaf carbon concentration was positively related with mesophyll VA in deciduous species, and with VA of vascular plus sclerenchymatic tissues in evergreens. Species occurring at the sites with lower water availability were generally characterised by a high LMA and LD. PMID:26867213

  18. Leaf Mass per Area (LMA) and Its Relationship with Leaf Structure and Anatomy in 34 Mediterranean Woody Species along a Water Availability Gradient.

    PubMed

    de la Riva, Enrique G; Olmo, Manuel; Poorter, Hendrik; Ubera, José Luis; Villar, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a morphological trait widely used as a good indicator of plant functioning (i.e. photosynthetic and respiratory rates, chemical composition, resistance to herbivory, etc.). The LMA can be broken down into the leaf density (LD) and leaf volume to area ratio (LVA or thickness), which in turn are determined by anatomical tissues and chemical composition. The aim of this study is to understand the anatomical and chemical characteristics related to LMA variation in species growing in the field along a water availability gradient. We determined LMA and its components (LD, LVA and anatomical tissues) for 34 Mediterranean (20 evergreen and 14 deciduous) woody species. Variation in LMA was due to variation in both LD and LVA. For both deciduous and evergreen species LVA variation was strongly and positively related with mesophyll volume per area (VA or thickness), but for evergreen species positive relationships of LVA with the VA of epidermis, vascular plus sclerenchyma tissues and air spaces were found as well. The leaf carbon concentration was positively related with mesophyll VA in deciduous species, and with VA of vascular plus sclerenchymatic tissues in evergreens. Species occurring at the sites with lower water availability were generally characterised by a high LMA and LD. PMID:26867213

  19. Leaf Mass per Area (LMA) and Its Relationship with Leaf Structure and Anatomy in 34 Mediterranean Woody Species along a Water Availability Gradient.

    PubMed

    de la Riva, Enrique G; Olmo, Manuel; Poorter, Hendrik; Ubera, José Luis; Villar, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a morphological trait widely used as a good indicator of plant functioning (i.e. photosynthetic and respiratory rates, chemical composition, resistance to herbivory, etc.). The LMA can be broken down into the leaf density (LD) and leaf volume to area ratio (LVA or thickness), which in turn are determined by anatomical tissues and chemical composition. The aim of this study is to understand the anatomical and chemical characteristics related to LMA variation in species growing in the field along a water availability gradient. We determined LMA and its components (LD, LVA and anatomical tissues) for 34 Mediterranean (20 evergreen and 14 deciduous) woody species. Variation in LMA was due to variation in both LD and LVA. For both deciduous and evergreen species LVA variation was strongly and positively related with mesophyll volume per area (VA or thickness), but for evergreen species positive relationships of LVA with the VA of epidermis, vascular plus sclerenchyma tissues and air spaces were found as well. The leaf carbon concentration was positively related with mesophyll VA in deciduous species, and with VA of vascular plus sclerenchymatic tissues in evergreens. Species occurring at the sites with lower water availability were generally characterised by a high LMA and LD.

  20. Modification of yield and chlorophyll content in leaf lettuce by HPS radiation and nitrogen treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Cary A.; Leakakos, Tina; Ford, Tameria L.

    1991-01-01

    The potential of realizing high photosynthetic photon flux from radiation by high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp, alone or in combination with metal halide (MH) plus quartz iodide (QI) incandescent lamps, to support lettuce grow, with or without nitrogen supplement, was investigated. It was found that varying exposures to radiation from combined HPS, MH, and QI lamps influenced dry weight gain and photosynthetic pigment content of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings.

  1. Predicting apple tree leaf nitrogen content based on hyperspectral applying wavelet and wavelet packet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Lihua; Li, Minzan; Deng, Xiaolei; Sun, Hong

    2012-11-01

    The visible and NIR spectral reflectance were measured for apple leaves by using a spectrophotometer in fruit-bearing, fruit-falling and fruit-maturing period respectively, and the nitrogen content of each sample was measured in the lab. The analysis of correlation between nitrogen content of apple tree leaves and their hyperspectral data was conducted. Then the low frequency signal and high frequency noise reduction signal were extracted by using wavelet packet decomposition algorithm. At the same time, the original spectral reflectance was denoised taking advantage of the wavelet filtering technology. And then the principal components spectra were collected after PCA (Principal Component Analysis). It was known that the model built based on noise reduction principal components spectra reached higher accuracy than the other three ones in fruit-bearing period and physiological fruit-maturing period. Their calibration R2 reached 0.9529 and 0.9501, and validation R2 reached 0.7285 and 0.7303 respectively. While in the fruit-falling period the model based on low frequency principal components spectra reached the highest accuracy, and its calibration R2 reached 0.9921 and validation R2 reached 0.6234. The results showed that it was an effective way to improve ability of predicting apple tree nitrogen content based on hyperspectral analysis by using wavelet packet algorithm.

  2. On the global relationships between photosynthetic water-use efficiency, leaf mass per unit area and atmospheric demand in woody and herbaceous plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letts, M. G.; Fox, T. A.; Gulias, J.; Galmes, J.; Hikosaka, K.; Wright, I.; Flexas, J.; Awada, T.; Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J.; Tobita, H.

    2013-12-01

    A global dataset was compiled including woody and herbaceous C3 species from forest, Mediterranean and grassland-shrubland ecosystems, to elucidate the dependency of photosynthetic water-use efficiency on vapour pressure deficit (D) and leaf traits. Mean leaf mass per unit area (LMA) was lower and mass-based leaf nitrogen content (Nmass) was higher in herbaceous species. Higher mean stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E) and net CO2 assimilation rate under light saturating conditions (Amax) were observed in herbs, but photosynthetic and intrinsic water-use efficiencies (WUE = Amax/E and WUEi = Amax/gs) were lower than in woody plants. Woody species maintained stricter stomatal regulation of water loss at low D, resulting in a steeper positive and linear relationship between log D and log E. Herbaceous species possessed very high gs at low D, resulting in higher ratio of substomatal to atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ci/ca) and E, but lower WUE and WUEi than woody plants, despite higher Amax. The lower WUE and higher rates of gas exchange were most pronounced in herbs with low LMA and high Nmass. Photosynthetic water use also differed between species from grassland-shrubland and Mediterranean or forest environments. Water-use efficiency showed no relationship with either D or LMA in grassland-shrubland species, but showed a negative relationship with D in forest and chaparral. The distinct photosynthetic water-use of woody and herbaceous plants is consistent with the opportunistic growth strategy of herbs and the more conservative growth strategy of woody species. Further research is recommended to examine the implications of these functional group and ecosystem differences in the contexts of climate and atmospheric change.

  3. Carbon and Nitrogen Chemistry of Lodranites: Relationship to Acapulco?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, M. M.; Franchi, I. A.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-07-01

    Recent studies on the mineralogy, petrology, and oxygen isotopic composition of lodranites and acapulcoites indicate that these meteorites are probably derived from a common parent body, but experienced different degrees of partial melting [1,2]. Ar-Ar chronometry implies that lodranites were heated ca. 100 degrees C higher than acapulcoites, and cooled more slowly [3], however measurement of nitrogen and xenon in Acapulco [4,5] shows that volatiles are not equilibrated between different phases within the meteorite, hence its thermal history has been complex. The aim of this study is to determine the carbon and nitrogen chemistry of lodranites, for comparison with Acapulco, to indicate the effect that differing thermal histories might have had on the volatile inventories of these meteorites. The carbon chemistry of Acapulco has been described previously [6]. The meteorite contains ca. 400 ppm indigenous carbon, distributed between two major phases: graphite and carbides. Graphite has been identified petrographically in Acapulco [7], where it is intimately associated with metal. In contrast, both Lodran and MAC 88177 contain much lower quantities of indigenous carbon: approximately 100 ppm and 38 ppm respectively, released in decreasing amounts up to 1200 degrees C. In Lodran, delta^13C rises almost monotonically, from -25 per mil at 600 degrees C to -12 per mil at 1200 degrees C; total delta^13C is ca. -23 per mil. Neither meteorite shows evidence for the occurrence of graphite. Nitrogen released by pyrolysis of Acapulco totals ca. 2.8 ppm [4,5], and is resolvable into two components, with delta^15N ca. +10 per mil and -120 per mil [8]. The first component is, as yet, unidentified, but the second is believed to be associated with the metal fraction [8]. The procedure used herein, of several combustion steps below 500 degrees C to remove contaminants, followed by high resolution combustion up to 1200 degrees C, would also resolve discrete nitrogen-bearing components

  4. Horizontal and vertical variations in photosynthetic capacity in a Pinus densiflora crown in relation to leaf nitrogen allocation and acclimation to irradiance.

    PubMed

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Katahata, Shinichiro; Mukai, Yuzuru; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2003-08-01

    We measured horizontal and vertical gradients of light (rPPFD) along four first-order branches of a Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. crown, and compared variations in specific leaf area (SLA), needle nitrogen concentration (N), chlorophyll concentration (Chl) and photosynthetic capacity (i.e., maximum rate of carboxylation (V(cmax))) along the two axes. The horizontal gradient of rPPFD along first-order branches was similar in magnitude to the vertical gradient of rPPFD from the upper to the lower crown. None of the measured parameters (i.e., SLA, N, Chl and Vcmax) were strictly proportional to rPPFD, although they were more or less correlated with light when data obtained for all of the crown were pooled (r(2) = 0.31-0.80). The slope of rPPFD against N on an area basis (Narea) for a branch in the middle of the crown orientated northward was significantly greater than the slope for a similar branch orientated southward. Horizontal variations were unrelated to age effects because measurements were all on 1-year-old needles. We conclude that factors other than light (i.e., orientation) may influence N allocation within branches. There was considerably less variation in the relationship of Vcmax to Narea (r2 = 0.58) than in the relationship of Vcmax to rPPFD (r2 = 0.41). Fractional N distribution among components of the photosynthetic machinery was constant within the crown. Together with the relationships between rPPFD and N on a mass basis (r2 = 0.80) and SLA and Vcmax (r2 = 0.60), these findings suggest that most light acclimation in P. densiflora occurs through changes in needle morphology (e.g., SLA) during development.

  5. Anatomical basis of the change in leaf mass per area and nitrogen investment with relative irradiance within the canopy of eight temperate tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda, I.; Pardo, F.; Gil, L.; Pardos, J. A.

    2004-05-01

    Changes in leaf mass per area (LMA), nitrogen content on a mass-basis (N m) and on an area basis (N a) with relative irradiance were assessed in leaves of eight temperate species harvested at different depths in a canopy. Relative irradiance (GSF) at the points of leaf sampling was estimated by hemispheric photographs. There was a strong species-dependent positive relationship between LMA and GSF for all species. Shade-tolerant species such as Fagus sylvatica showed lower LMA for the same GSF than less tolerant species as Quercus pyrenaica or Quercus petraea. The only evergreen species in the study, Ilex aquifollium, had the highest LMA, independent of light environment, with minimum values much higher than the rest of the broad-leaved species studied. There was no relation between N m and GSF for most species studied and only a very weak relation for the relative shade-intolerant species Q. pyrenaica. Within each species, the pattern of N a investment with regard to GSF was linked mainly to LMA. At the same relative irradiance, differences in N a among species were conditioned both by the LMA-GSF relationship and by the species N m value. The lowest N m value was measured in I. aquifollium (14.3 ± 0.6 mg g -1); intermediate values in Crataegus monogyna (16.9 ± 0.6 mg g -1) and Prunus avium (19.1 ± 0.6 mg g -1) and higher values, all in a narrow range (21.3 ± 0.6 to 23 ± 0.6 mg g -1), were measured for the other five species. Changes in LMA with the relative irradiance were linked both to lamina thickness (LT) and to palisade/spongy parenchyma ratio (PP/SP). In the second case, the LMA changes may be related to an increase in lamina density as palisade parenchyma involves higher cell packing than spongy parenchyma. However, since PP/SP ratio showed a weak species-specific relationship with LMA, the increase in LT should be the main cause of LMA variation.

  6. Assessing the Metabolic Impact of Nitrogen Availability Using a Compartmentalized Maize Leaf Genome-Scale Model1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Margaret; Saha, Rajib; Amiour, Nardjis; Kumar, Akhil; Guillard, Lenaïg; Clément, Gilles; Miquel, Martine; Li, Zhenni; Mouille, Gregory; Lea, Peter J.; Hirel, Bertrand; Maranas, Costas D.

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is an important C4 plant due to its widespread use as a cereal and energy crop. A second-generation genome-scale metabolic model for the maize leaf was created to capture C4 carbon fixation and investigate nitrogen (N) assimilation by modeling the interactions between the bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. The model contains gene-protein-reaction relationships, elemental and charge-balanced reactions, and incorporates experimental evidence pertaining to the biomass composition, compartmentalization, and flux constraints. Condition-specific biomass descriptions were introduced that account for amino acids, fatty acids, soluble sugars, proteins, chlorophyll, lignocellulose, and nucleic acids as experimentally measured biomass constituents. Compartmentalization of the model is based on proteomic/transcriptomic data and literature evidence. With the incorporation of information from the MetaCrop and MaizeCyc databases, this updated model spans 5,824 genes, 8,525 reactions, and 9,153 metabolites, an increase of approximately 4 times the size of the earlier iRS1563 model. Transcriptomic and proteomic data have also been used to introduce regulatory constraints in the model to simulate an N-limited condition and mutants deficient in glutamine synthetase, gln1-3 and gln1-4. Model-predicted results achieved 90% accuracy when comparing the wild type grown under an N-complete condition with the wild type grown under an N-deficient condition. PMID:25248718

  7. The influence of leaf-atmosphere NH3(g ) exchange on the isotopic composition of nitrogen in plants and the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Berry, Joseph A

    2013-10-01

    The distribution of nitrogen isotopes in the biosphere has the potential to offer insights into the past, present and future of the nitrogen cycle, but it is challenging to unravel the processes controlling patterns of mixing and fractionation. We present a mathematical model describing a previously overlooked process: nitrogen isotope fractionation during leaf-atmosphere NH3(g ) exchange. The model predicts that when leaf-atmosphere exchange of NH3(g ) occurs in a closed system, the atmospheric reservoir of NH3(g ) equilibrates at a concentration equal to the ammonia compensation point and an isotopic composition 8.1‰ lighter than nitrogen in protein. In an open system, when atmospheric concentrations of NH3(g ) fall below or rise above the compensation point, protein can be isotopically enriched by net efflux of NH3(g ) or depleted by net uptake. Comparison of model output with existing measurements in the literature suggests that this process contributes to variation in the isotopic composition of nitrogen in plants as well as NH3(g ) in the atmosphere, and should be considered in future analyses of nitrogen isotope circulation. The matrix-based modelling approach that is introduced may be useful for quantifying isotope dynamics in other complex systems that can be described by first-order kinetics. PMID:23452149

  8. The influence of leaf-atmosphere NH3(g ) exchange on the isotopic composition of nitrogen in plants and the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Berry, Joseph A

    2013-10-01

    The distribution of nitrogen isotopes in the biosphere has the potential to offer insights into the past, present and future of the nitrogen cycle, but it is challenging to unravel the processes controlling patterns of mixing and fractionation. We present a mathematical model describing a previously overlooked process: nitrogen isotope fractionation during leaf-atmosphere NH3(g ) exchange. The model predicts that when leaf-atmosphere exchange of NH3(g ) occurs in a closed system, the atmospheric reservoir of NH3(g ) equilibrates at a concentration equal to the ammonia compensation point and an isotopic composition 8.1‰ lighter than nitrogen in protein. In an open system, when atmospheric concentrations of NH3(g ) fall below or rise above the compensation point, protein can be isotopically enriched by net efflux of NH3(g ) or depleted by net uptake. Comparison of model output with existing measurements in the literature suggests that this process contributes to variation in the isotopic composition of nitrogen in plants as well as NH3(g ) in the atmosphere, and should be considered in future analyses of nitrogen isotope circulation. The matrix-based modelling approach that is introduced may be useful for quantifying isotope dynamics in other complex systems that can be described by first-order kinetics.

  9. VARYING STABLE NITROGEN ISOTOPIC RATIOS OF DIFFERENT COASTAL MARSH PLANTS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH WASTEWATER NITROGEN AND LAND USE IN NEW ENGLAND, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable nitrogen isotopic ratios of coastal biota have been used as indicators of sources of anthropogenic nitrogen. In this study the relationships of the stable nitrogen isotopic ratios of salt marsh plants, Iva frutescens (L.), Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex Steud, Spar...

  10. In situ measurement of leaf chlorophyll concentration: analysis of the optical/absolute relationship.

    PubMed

    Parry, Christopher; Blonquist, J Mark; Bugbee, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    In situ optical meters are widely used to estimate leaf chlorophyll concentration, but non-uniform chlorophyll distribution causes optical measurements to vary widely among species for the same chlorophyll concentration. Over 30 studies have sought to quantify the in situ/in vitro (optical/absolute) relationship, but neither chlorophyll extraction nor measurement techniques for in vitro analysis have been consistent among studies. Here we: (1) review standard procedures for measurement of chlorophyll; (2) estimate the error associated with non-standard procedures; and (3) implement the most accurate methods to provide equations for conversion of optical to absolute chlorophyll for 22 species grown in multiple environments. Tests of five Minolta (model SPAD-502) and 25 Opti-Sciences (model CCM-200) meters, manufactured from 1992 to 2013, indicate that differences among replicate models are less than 5%. We thus developed equations for converting between units from these meter types. There was no significant effect of environment on the optical/absolute chlorophyll relationship. We derive the theoretical relationship between optical transmission ratios and absolute chlorophyll concentration and show how non-uniform distribution among species causes a variable, non-linear response. These results link in situ optical measurements with in vitro chlorophyll concentration and provide insight to strategies for radiation capture among diverse species.

  11. Relationships between NDVI and Leaf Area Index for spring and winter camelina in Northeastern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabro, Jay; Allen, Brett; long, Dan; Isbell, Terry; Gesch, Russ; Brown, Jack; Hatfield, Jerry; Archer, David; Oblath, Emily; Vigil, Merle; Kiniry, Jim

    2016-04-01

    To our knowledge no research has been reported on the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and leaf area index (LAI) in spring and winter camelina. Relationships between NDVI and LAI for winter camelina (Camelina sativa) "Joelle" and spring camelina "CO46" were determined and evaluated in a 3-yr field study conducted in Sidney Montana under dryland conditions. The NDVI and LAI were measured weekly throughout the growing season. The NDVI was continually measured at one sample per second across the whole plot using a Crop Circle ACS-470 active crop canopy sensor. The LAI was measured at two locations at 12 samples per plot using an AccuPar model LP-80 Ceptometer. Treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design in plots of 3 m×9 m. Temporal dynamics of NDVI and LAI in various growth stages of both spring and winter camelina were evaluated throughout 2013, 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Significant linear relationships between NDVI and LAI were obtained for both spring and winter camelina when all the measurements were pooled across three growing seasons. Coefficients of determination (R2) of linearity were 0.77 and 0.79 for spring and winter camelina, respectively.

  12. Effects of Salinity on Leaf Spectral Reflectance and Biochemical Parameters of Nitrogen Fixing Soybean Plants (Glycine max L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora D.; Kirova, Elisaveta B.; Yanev, Tony K.; Iliev, Ilko Ts.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of physiology and hyperspectral leaf reflectance were used to detect salinity stress in nitrogen fixing soybean plants. Seedlings were inoculated with suspension of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 273. Salinity was performed at the stage of 2nd-4th trifoliate expanded leaves by adding of NaCl in the nutrient solution of Helrigel in concentrations 40 mM and 80 mM. A comparative analysis was performed between the changes in the biochemical parameters - stress markers (phenols, proline, malondialdehyde, thiol groups), chlorophyll a and b, hydrogen peroxide, and leaf spectral reflectance in the spectral range 450-850 nm. The spectral measurements were carried out by an USB2000 spectrometer. The reflectance data of the control and treated plants in the red, green, red-edge and the near infrared ranges of the spectrum were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistically significant differences were found through the Student's t-criterion at the two NaCl concentrations in all of the ranges examined with the exception of the near infrared range at 40 mM NaCl concentration. Similar results were obtained through linear discriminant analysis. The tents of the phenols, malondialdehyde and chlorophyll a and b were found to decrease at both salinity treatments. In the spectral data this effect is manifested by decrease of the reflectance values in the green and red ranges. The contents of proline, hydrogen peroxide and thiol groups rose with the NaCl concentration increase. At 80 mM NaCl concentration the values of these markers showed a considerable increase giving evidence that the soybean plants were stressed in comparison with the control. This finding is in agreement with the results from the spectral reflectance analysis.

  13. Coastal nitrogen plumes and their relationship with seagrass distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Milena B.; Benger, Simon; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Gaylard, Sam; Bryars, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Urbanised coastlines are affected by cumulative impacts from a variety of anthropogenic stressors, but spatial information on the distribution of these stressors at the local scale is scarce, hindering the ability of managers to prioritise mitigation options. This work investigated the spatial footprint of land-based nitrogen discharges to a metropolitan coastline and assessed the potential role of this stressor alone on seagrass dynamics at the scale of the ecosystem. The macroalga Caulocystis cephalornithos was used as a time-integrative sampler of nitrogen in the water column over 202 sites monitored across an area of ˜800 km2. The stable isotopic signature of nitrogen in tissues (δ15N) was used to map plumes of anthropogenic origin. The surface area of these plumes was found to be proportional to nitrogen loads from land. The largest plume was associated with discharges from an industrialised estuary and a wastewater treatment plant, where a monthly nitrogen load in excess of 110 tonnes affected an area >80 km2. The location and size of the plumes changed with seasons as a result of wind forcing and rainfall/wastewater reuse. The location of the plumes was compared to published seagrass distribution obtained from video transects. Dense seagrass meadows only occurred in areas unimpacted by plumes throughout the year, mostly in shallow (<5 m) regions for Amphibolis antarctica, and deeper (5-10 m) for Posidonia sp., possibly as a result of this species higher tolerance of low light conditions. This higher tolerance might also explain why Posidonia sp. is observed to preferentially recolonise areas of previous loss in the region. While a decrease in the spatial footprint of nutrient plumes has created conditions for natural seagrass recolonisation in some areas, it did not halt seagrass loss in others, suggesting the influence of additional stressors such as wave dynamics and light attenuation due to turbid/coloured stormwater.

  14. Nitrogen-addition effects on leaf traits and photosynthetic carbon gain of boreal forest understory shrubs.

    PubMed

    Palmroth, Sari; Bach, Lisbet Holm; Nordin, Annika; Palmqvist, Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boreal coniferous forests are characterized by fairly open canopies where understory vegetation is an important component of ecosystem C and N cycling. We used an ecophysiological approach to study the effects of N additions on uptake and partitioning of C and N in two dominant understory shrubs: deciduous Vaccinium myrtillus in a Picea abies stand and evergreen Vaccinium vitis-idaea in a Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. N was added to these stands for 16 and 8 years, respectively, at rates of 0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). N addition at the highest rate increased foliar N and chlorophyll concentrations in both understory species. Canopy cover of P. abies also increased, decreasing light availability and leaf mass per area of V. myrtillus. Among leaves of either shrub, foliar N content did not explain variation in light-saturated CO2 exchange rates. Instead photosynthetic capacity varied with stomatal conductance possibly reflecting plant hydraulic properties and within-site variation in water availability. Moreover, likely due to increased shading under P. abies and due to water limitations in the sandy soil under P. sylvestris, individuals of the two shrubs did not increase their biomass or shift their allocation between above- and belowground parts in response to N additions. Altogether, our results indicate that the understory shrubs in these systems show little response to N additions in terms of photosynthetic physiology or growth and that changes in their performance are mostly associated with responses of the tree canopy.

  15. The relationship between Pepper mottle virus source leaf and spread of infection through the stem of Capsicum sp.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J F

    2002-09-01

    Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV) systemically infects Capsicum sp. in a typical source-to-sink manner with movement through the stem occurring in a predictable pattern. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the inoculated leaf as a source of inoculum and the spread of PepMoV infection through the stem. C. annuum 'Early Calwonder' plants were mechanically inoculated onto the first leaf with PepMoV and sets of 30 plants had their inoculated leaves removed each day from 1 through 7 days post-inoculation (dpi) with the inoculated leaves tested for infection by ELISA at the time of excision. Beginning at 2 dpi, PepMoV infection in the stem of plants with the inoculated leaf excised and plants of a nonexcision control treatment was determined using immuno-tissue blot analysis. PepMoV was detected in inoculated leaves beginning at 3 dpi with the percentage of infected leaves increasing each day through 7 dpi. PepMoV was first detected in the stem of inoculated plants of the 3 dpi excision treatment. The accumulation and extent of spread of infection in the stem was similar for plants that had their inoculated leaf removed at a time preceding detection by ELISA to plants in the nonexcision control treatment. These findings suggest that once virus is allowed to enter the stem from the inoculated leaf, subsequent spread of infection through the stem is a process independent from the source leaf.

  16. How universal is the relationship between remotely sensed vegetation indices and crop leaf area index? A global assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aims to assess the relationship between Leaf Area Index (LAI) and remotely sensed Vegetation Indices (VIs) for major crops, based on a globally explicit dataset of in situ LAI measurements over a significant set of locations. We used a total of 1394 LAI measurements from 29 sites spannin...

  17. Sites of Action of Elevated CO2 on Leaf Development in Rice: Discrimination between the Effects of Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Koichi; Konno, Masae; Miyazawa, Shin-Ichi; Miyao, Mitsue

    2014-01-01

    Elevated CO2 concentrations (eCO2) trigger various plant responses. Despite intensive studies of these responses, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In this work, we investigated when and how leaf physiology and anatomy are affected by eCO2 in rice plants. We analyzed the most recently fully expanded leaves that developed successively after transfer of the plant to eCO2. To discriminate between the effects of eCO2 and those of nitrogen deficiency, we used three different levels of N application. We found that a decline in the leaf soluble protein content (on a leaf area basis) at eCO2 was only observed under N deficiency. The length and width of the leaf blade were reduced by both eCO2 and N deficiency, whereas the blade thickness was increased by eCO2 but was not affected by N deficiency. The change in length by eCO2 became detectable in the secondly fully expanded leaf, and those in width and thickness in the thirdly fully expanded leaf, which were at the leaf developmental stages P4 and P3, respectively, at the onset of the eCO2 treatment. The decreased blade length at eCO2 was associated with a decrease in the epidermal cell number on the adaxial side and a reduction in cell length on the abaxial side. The decreased width resulted from decreased numbers of small vascular bundles and epidermal cell files. The increased thickness was ascribed mainly to enhanced development of bundle sheath extensions at the ridges of vascular bundles. These observations enable us to identify the sites of action of eCO2 on rice leaf development. PMID:24406628

  18. Investigating the Relationship Between Liquid Water and Leaf Area in Clonal Populus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Dar; Brown, K.; Green, R.; Ustin, S.; Hinckley, T.

    1998-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is one of the most commonly employed biophysical parameters used to characterize vegetation canopies and scale leaf physiological processes to larger scales. For example, LAI is a critical parameter used in regional scale estimates of evapotranspiration, photosynthesis, primary productivity, and carbon cycling (Running et al., 1989; Dorman and Sellers, 1989; Potter et al., 1993). LAI is typically estimated using ratio-based techniques, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI: e.g. Tucker 1979; Asrar et al., 1989; Sellers 1985, 1987). The physical basis behind this relationship depends on the high spectral contrast between scattered near-infrared (NIR) and absorbed red radiation in canopies. As the number of leaves present in a canopy increases over a unit area, NIR reflectance increases, while red reflectance decreases, resulting in an increase in the ratio. Through time series and image compositing, NDVI provides an additional temporal measure of how these parameters change, providing a means to monitor fluxes and productivity (Tucker et al., 1983). NDVI, while highly successful for agriculture and grassland ecosystems has been found to be less successful in evergreen chaparral and forested ecosystems (Badhwar et al., 1986; Gamon et al., 1993; Hall et al., 1995). Typically, the relationship between NDVI and LAI becomes progressively more asymptotic at LAI values above three (Sellers, 1985), although linear relationships have been observed in conifers at LAis as high as 13 (Spanner et al., 1990). In this paper, we explore an alternative approach for estimating LAI for remotely sensed data from AVIRIS based on estimates of canopy liquid water. Our primary objective is to test the hypothesis that the depth of the liquid water bands expressed in canopy reflectance spectra at 960, 1200, 1400 and 1900 nm increases with increasing LAI in canopies. This study builds from work by Roberts et al. (1997), in which liquid water was shown

  19. Spatiotemporal relationships between disease development and airborne inoculum in unmanaged and managed Botrytis leaf blight epidemics.

    PubMed

    Carisse, O; Savary, S; Willocquet, L

    2008-01-01

    Comparatively little quantitative information is available on both the spatial and temporal relationships that develop between airborne inoculum and disease intensity during the course of aerially spread epidemics. Botrytis leaf blight and Botrytis squamosa airborne inoculum were analyzed over space and time during 2 years (2002 and 2004) in a nonprotected experimental field, using a 6 x 8 lattice of quadrats of 10 x 10 m each. A similar experiment was conducted in 2004 and 2006 in a commercial field managed for Botrytis leaf blight using a 5 x 5 lattice of quadrats of 25 x 25 m each. Each quadrat was monitored weekly for lesion density (LD) and aerial conidium concentration (ACC). The adjustment of the Taylor's power law showed that heterogeneity in both LD and ACC generally increased with increasing mean. Unmanaged epidemics were characterized in either year, with aggregation indices derived from SADIE (Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices). For LD, the aggregation indices suggested a random pattern of disease early in the season, followed by an aggregated pattern in the second part of the epidemic. The index of aggregation for ACC in 2002 was significantly greater than 1 at only one date, while it was significantly greater than 1 at most sampling dates in 2004. In both years and for both variables, positive trends in partial autocorrelation were observed mainly for a spatial lag of 1. In 2002, the overall pattern of partial autocorrelations over sampling dates was similar for LD and ACC with no significant partial autocorrelation during the first part of the epidemic, followed by a period with significant positive autocorrelation, and again no autocorrelation on the last three sampling dates. In 2004, there was no significant positive autocorrelation for LD at most sampling dates while for ACC, there was a fluctuation between significant and non-significant positive correlation over sampling dates. There was a significant spatial correlation between ACC at given

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Chamaecyparis inferred from leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Ju; Lin, Chun-Ya; Cheng, Seng-Sung; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2011-06-01

    The species differentiation between Chamaecyparis formosensis, C. obtusa var. formosana, and C. obtusa, based on the composition of the leaf essential oils, was studied. The characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses showed remarkable differences between these three essential oils. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal-component analysis (PCA) distinguished three groups of essential oils. The C. formosensis oil was dominated by α-pinene while those isolated from C. obtusa var. formosana and C. obtusa were characterized by high levels of (-)-thujopsene and α-terpinyl acetate, respectively. Moreover, the phylogenetic relationships of the genus Chamaecyparis were in agreement with previous findings based on morphological and molecular evidence. In addition, the essential oils from C. obtusa var. formosana could be classified into three chemical types, according to their different characteristic main compounds (β-elemol, (-)-thujopsene, and cis-thujopsenal). The biochemical correlations between the major constituents of the Chamaecyparis species were examined and their relationship is discussed. PMID:21674781

  1. Relationship between leaflet nitrogen: Potassium ratio and yield of pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the relationship between foliar N:K ratio and nutmeat yield of ‘Desirable’ [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch] pecan. Regression analysis of linear and curvilinear relationships between leaflet N:K ratio and in-shell yield identified associations relevant to orchard nutrition...

  2. [Effects of nitrogen application and elevated atmospheric CO2 on electron transport and energy partitioning in flag leaf photosynthesis of wheat].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-cheng; Yu, Xian-feng; Ma, Yi-fan

    2011-03-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants were pot-cultured in open top chambers at the nitrogen application rate of 0 and 200 mg x kg(-1) soil and the atmospheric CO2 concentration of 400 and 760 micromol x mol(-1). Through the determination of flag leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate (Pn)-intercellar CO2 concentration (Ci) response curve, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters at heading stage, the photosynthetic electron transport rate and others were calculated, aimed to investigate the effects of nitrogen application and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on the photosynthetic energy partitioning in wheat flag leaves. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased the leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, compared with the ambient one, and the chlorophyll a/b ratio increased at the nitrogen application rate of 200 mg x kg(-1). With the application of nitrogen, no evident variations were observed in the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), maximal quantum yield under irradiance (Fv'/Fm') of PS II reaction center, photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (q(p)), and actual PS II efficiency under irradiance (phi(PS II) at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, and the total photosynthetic electron transport rate (J(F)) of PS II reaction center had no evident increase, though the non-photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (NPQ) decreased significantly. With no nitrogen application, the Fv'/Fm', psi(PS II), and NPQ at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased significantly, and the J(F) had a significant decrease though the Fv/Fm and q(p) did not vary remarkably. Nitrogen application increased the J(F) and photochemical electron transport rate (Jc); while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased the photorespiration electron transport rate (J0), Rubisco oxidation rate (V0), ratio of photorespiration to photochemical electron transport rate (J0/Jc) , and Rubisco oxidation/carboxylation rate (Vo/Vc), but

  3. Landscape Soil Respiration Fluxes are Related to Leaf Area Index, Stand Height and Density, and Soil Nitrogen in Rocky Mountain Subalpine Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, E.; Bradford, J. B.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Birdsey, R.; Ryan, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    There is a recent multi-agency push for accurate assessments of terrestrial carbon stocks and fluxes in the United States. Assessing the state of the carbon cycle in the US requires estimates of stocks and fluxes at large spatial scales. Such assessments are difficult, especially for soil respiration, which dominates ecosystem respiration and is notoriously highly variable over space and time. Here, we report three consecutive years of measurement of soil respiration fluxes in three 1 km2 subalpine forest landscapes: Fraser Experimental Forest (Colorado), Glacier Lakes Ecosystems Experimental Site ("GLEES", Wyoming), and Niwot Ridge (Colorado). Plots were established following the protocol of the US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program. Clusters of plots were distributed across the landscape in a 0.25 km grid pattern. From 2004 through 2006, measurements of soil respiration were made once monthly during the growing season and twice during snowpack coverage for each year. Annual cumulative soil respiration was 6.10 (+/- 0.21) Mg ha-1y-1 for Fraser, 6.55 (+/- 0.27) Mg ha-1y-1 for GLEES, and 6.97 (+/- 0.20) Mg ha-1y-1 for Niwot. Variability in annual cumulative soil respiration varied by less than 20% among the three subalpine forests, despite differences in terrain, climate, disturbance history and anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. We quantified the relationship between respiration fluxes and commonly-measured forest properties and found that soil respiration was nonlinearly related to leaf area index, peaking around 2.5 m2m-2 then slowly declining. Annual litterfall (FA) was subtracted from soil respiration (FR) to calculate total belowground carbon flux (TBCF), which declined with increasing tree height, density and soil nitrogen. This landscape analysis of soil respiration confirmed experimentally-derived principles governing carbon fluxes in forests: as trees age and get taller, and in high-fertility areas, carbon flux to roots declines

  4. Nitrogen and water availability interact to affect leaf stoichiometry in a semi-arid grassland.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Kong, De-Liang; Pan, Qing-Min; Simmons, Matthew E; Han, Xing-Guo

    2012-02-01

    The effects of global change factors on the stoichiometric composition of green and senesced plant tissues are critical determinants of ecosystem feedbacks to anthropogenic-driven global change. So far, little is known about species stoichiometric responses to these changes. We conducted a manipulative field experiment with nitrogen (N; 17.5 g m(-2) year(-1)) and water addition (180 mm per growing season) in a temperate steppe of northern China that is potentially highly vulnerable to global change. A unique and important outcome of our study is that water availability modulated plant nutritional and stoichiometric responses to increased N availability. N addition significantly reduced C:N ratios and increased N:P ratios but only under ambient water conditions. Under increased water supply, N addition had no effect on C:N ratios in green and senesced leaves and N:P ratios in senesced leaves, and significantly decreased C:P ratios in both green and senesced leaves and N:P ratios in green leaves. Stoichiometric ratios varied greatly among species. Our results suggest that N and water addition and species identity can affect stoichiometric ratios of both green and senesced tissues through direct and interactive means. Our findings highlight the importance of water availability in modulating stoichiometric responses of plants to potentially increased N availability in semi-arid grasslands.

  5. Water- and nitrogen-dependent alterations in the inheritance mode of transpiration efficiency in winter wheat at the leaf and whole-plant level.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Dominika; Górny, Andrzej G

    2012-11-01

    The effects of contrasting water and nitrogen (N) supply on the observed inheritance mode of transpiration efficiency (TE) at the flag-leaf and whole-season levels were examined in winter wheat. Major components of the photosynthetic capacity of leaves and the season-integrated efficiency of water use in vegetative and grain mass formation were evaluated in parental lines of various origins and their diallel F(2)-hybrids grown in a factorial experiment under different moisture and N status of the soil. A broad genetic variation was mainly found for the season-long TE measures. The variation range in the leaf photosynthetic indices was usually narrow, but tended to slightly enhance under water and N shortage. Genotype-treatment interaction effects were significant for most characters. No consistency between the leaf- and season-long TE measures was observed. Preponderance of additivity-dependent variance was mainly identified for the season-integrated TE and leaf CO(2) assimilation rate. Soil treatments exhibited considerable influence on the phenotypic expression of gene action for the residual leaf measures. The contribution of non-additive gene effects and degree of dominance tended to increase in water- and N-limited plants, especially for the leaf transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. The results indicate that promise exists to improve the season-integrated TE. However, selection for TE components should be prolonged for later hybrid generations to eliminate the masking of non-additive causes. Such evaluation among families grown under sub-optimal water and nitrogen supply seems to be the most promising strategy in winter wheat.

  6. Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are decoupled in five species-rich tropical-subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; McCormack, M Luke; Ma, Chengen; Kong, Deliang; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyong; Zeng, Hui; Niinemets, Ülo; Guo, Dali

    2015-09-01

    Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are critical to leaf photosynthesis, yet it is debated whether these two sets of traits vary in a fully coordinated manner or there is room for independent variation. Here, we tested the relationship between leaf economics traits, including leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf dry mass per area, and leaf hydraulic traits including stomatal density and vein density in five tropical-subtropical forests. Surprisingly, these two suites of traits were statistically decoupled. This decoupling suggests that independent trait dimensions exist within a leaf, with leaf economics dimension corresponding to light capture and tissue longevity, and the hydraulic dimension to water-use and leaf temperature maintenance. Clearly, leaf economics and hydraulic traits can vary independently, thus allowing for more possible plant trait combinations. Compared with a single trait dimension, multiple trait dimensions may better enable species adaptations to multifarious niche dimensions, promote diverse plant strategies and facilitate species coexistence.

  7. Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are decoupled in five species-rich tropical-subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; McCormack, M Luke; Ma, Chengen; Kong, Deliang; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyong; Zeng, Hui; Niinemets, Ülo; Guo, Dali

    2015-09-01

    Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are critical to leaf photosynthesis, yet it is debated whether these two sets of traits vary in a fully coordinated manner or there is room for independent variation. Here, we tested the relationship between leaf economics traits, including leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf dry mass per area, and leaf hydraulic traits including stomatal density and vein density in five tropical-subtropical forests. Surprisingly, these two suites of traits were statistically decoupled. This decoupling suggests that independent trait dimensions exist within a leaf, with leaf economics dimension corresponding to light capture and tissue longevity, and the hydraulic dimension to water-use and leaf temperature maintenance. Clearly, leaf economics and hydraulic traits can vary independently, thus allowing for more possible plant trait combinations. Compared with a single trait dimension, multiple trait dimensions may better enable species adaptations to multifarious niche dimensions, promote diverse plant strategies and facilitate species coexistence. PMID:26108338

  8. Intraspecific Relationships among Wood Density, Leaf Structural Traits and Environment in Four Co-Occurring Species of Nothofagus in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Sarah J.; Allen, Robert B.; Buxton, Rowan P.; Easdale, Tomás A.; Hurst, Jennifer M.; Morse, Christopher W.; Smissen, Rob D.; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant functional traits capture important variation in plant strategy and function. Recent literature has revealed that within-species variation in traits is greater than previously supposed. However, we still have a poor understanding of how intraspecific variation is coordinated among different traits, and how it is driven by environment. We quantified intraspecific variation in wood density and five leaf traits underpinning the leaf economics spectrum (leaf dry matter content, leaf mass per unit area, size, thickness and density) within and among four widespread Nothofagus tree species in southern New Zealand. We tested whether intraspecific relationships between wood density and leaf traits followed widely reported interspecific relationships, and whether variation in these traits was coordinated through shared responses to environmental factors. Sample sites varied widely in environmental variables, including soil fertility (25–900 mg kg–1 total P), precipitation (668–4875 mm yr–1), temperature (5.2–12.4 °C mean annual temperature) and latitude (41–46 °S). Leaf traits were strongly correlated with one another within species, but not with wood density. There was some evidence for a positive relationship between wood density and leaf tissue density and dry matter content, but no evidence that leaf mass or leaf size were correlated with wood density; this highlights that leaf mass per unit area cannot be used as a surrogate for component leaf traits such as tissue density. Trait variation was predicted by environmental factors, but not consistently among different traits; e.g., only leaf thickness and leaf density responded to the same environmental cues as wood density. We conclude that although intraspecific variation in wood density and leaf traits is strongly driven by environmental factors, these responses are not strongly coordinated among functional traits even across co-occurring, closely-related plant species. PMID:23527041

  9. The effects of cleared larch canopy and nitrogen supply on gas exchange and leaf traits in deciduous broad-leaved tree seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yoko; Koike, Takayoshi

    2009-12-01

    To understand the leaf-level responses of successional tree species to forest gap formation and nitrogen deposition, we performed canopy clearing and nitrogen-amendment treatments in larch plantations and investigated the changes in the light-use characteristics and the leaf structure of the invading deciduous broad-leaved tree seedlings. We hypothesized that the responses of the tree seedlings to clearing and nitrogen input would reflect specific traits in the shoot development that would be related to the species-specific successional characteristics. The gap phase species Magnolia hyporeuca Siebold et Zucc. and the mid-late successional tree species Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledeb. var. crispula (Blume) Ohashi., which grow in or near the forest gaps, had higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates (Psat), enhanced mesophyll surface area (Smes) and increased leaf mass per area (LMA) under both the clearing treatment and the clearing with nitrogen-amendment treatment. These two species therefore increased their Psat via an increase in Smes and LMA. The LMA values of the late successional tree species Prunus ssiori F. Schmidt and Carpinus cordata Blume, which grow in the forest understory, were enhanced by the clearing treatment. However, they displayed lesser responses to the clearing treatment under which there were no marked increases in Psat or Smes values in the second year. These results indicate distinct and varied responses to disturbance regimes among the four seral tree seedlings. The Psat value largely increased in line with the increase in Smes value during the second year in M. hyporeuca and Q. mongolica. The nitrogen supply accelerated the change in LMA and increased the Smes value in the leaves of Q. mongolica.

  10. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, A.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Arnoud Frumau, K. F.; Wu, J.; Pihlatie, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2012-07-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Mirb., Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Denmark, The Netherlands and Finland, respectively. This was done in order to obtain information about functional acclimation, tree internal N conservation and its relevance for both ecosystem internal N cycling and foliar N exchange with the atmosphere. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal variability in beech trees than in the coniferous canopies. The concentrations of N and chlorophyll in the beech leaves were synchronized with the seasonal course of solar radiation implying close physiological acclimation, which was not observed in the coniferous needles. During phases of intensive N metabolism in the beech leaves, the NH4+ concentration rose considerably. This was compensated for by a strong pH decrease resulting in relatively low Γ values (ratio between tissue NH4+ and H+). The Γ values in the coniferous were even smaller than in beech, indicating low probability of NH3 emissions from the foliage to the atmosphere as an N conserving mechanism. The reduction in foliage N content during senescence was interpreted as N re-translocation from the senescing leaves into the rest of the trees. The N re-translocation efficiency (ηr) ranged from 37 to 70% and decreased with the time necessary for full renewal of the canopy foliage. Comparison with literature data from in total 23 tree species showed a general tendency for ηr to on average be reduced by 8% per year the canopy stays longer, i.e. with each additional year it takes for canopy renewal. The boreal pine site returned the lowest amount of N via foliage litter to the soil, while the temperate Douglas fir stand which had the largest peak canopy N content and the lowestηr returned the highest amount of N to the soil. These results

  11. MULTISCALE RELATIONSHIPS OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS AND NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been numerous papers reporting relationships between watershed andlandscape characteristics and chemnical, physical,m and biological attributes of streams (see summary in Lee et al. 2001). Some of these studies have shown strong linkages between stream and near-site ...

  12. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  13. Nitrogen Limited Red and Green Leaf Lettuce Accumulate Flavonoid Glycosides, Caffeic Acid Derivatives, and Sucrose while Losing Chlorophylls, Β-Carotene and Xanthophylls.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Urlić, Branimir; Jukić Špika, Maja; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Krumbein, Angelika; Baldermann, Susanne; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Perica, Slavko; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of nitrogen application in crop production is desirable for ecological and health-related reasons. Interestingly, nitrogen deficiency can lead to enhanced concentrations of polyphenols in plants. The reason for this is still under discussion. The plants' response to low nitrogen concentration can interact with other factors, for example radiation intensity. We cultivated red and green leaf lettuce hydroponically in a Mediterranean greenhouse, supplying three different levels of nitrogen (12 mM, 3 mM, 0.75 mM), either in full or reduced (-50%) radiation intensity. In both red and green lettuce, we found clear effects of the nitrogen treatments on growth characteristics, phenolic and photosynthetic compounds, nitrogen, nitrate and carbon concentration of the plants. Interestingly, the concentrations of all main flavonoid glycosides, caffeic acid derivatives, and sucrose increased with decreasing nitrogen concentration, whereas those of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, lactucaxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin decreased. The constitutive concentrations of polyphenols were lower in the green cultivar, but their relative increase was more pronounced than in the red cultivar. The constitutive concentrations of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin were similar in red and green lettuce and with decreasing nitrogen concentration they declined to a similar extent in both cultivars. We only detected little influence of the radiation treatments, e.g. on anthocyanin concentration, and hardly any interaction between radiation and nitrogen concentration. Our results imply a greater physiological plasticity of green compared to the red lettuce regarding its phenolic compounds. They support the photoprotection theory regarding anthocyanins as well as the theory that the deamination activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase drives phenylpropanoid synthesis.

  14. Nitrogen Limited Red and Green Leaf Lettuce Accumulate Flavonoid Glycosides, Caffeic Acid Derivatives, and Sucrose while Losing Chlorophylls, Β-Carotene and Xanthophylls.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Urlić, Branimir; Jukić Špika, Maja; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Krumbein, Angelika; Baldermann, Susanne; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Perica, Slavko; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of nitrogen application in crop production is desirable for ecological and health-related reasons. Interestingly, nitrogen deficiency can lead to enhanced concentrations of polyphenols in plants. The reason for this is still under discussion. The plants' response to low nitrogen concentration can interact with other factors, for example radiation intensity. We cultivated red and green leaf lettuce hydroponically in a Mediterranean greenhouse, supplying three different levels of nitrogen (12 mM, 3 mM, 0.75 mM), either in full or reduced (-50%) radiation intensity. In both red and green lettuce, we found clear effects of the nitrogen treatments on growth characteristics, phenolic and photosynthetic compounds, nitrogen, nitrate and carbon concentration of the plants. Interestingly, the concentrations of all main flavonoid glycosides, caffeic acid derivatives, and sucrose increased with decreasing nitrogen concentration, whereas those of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, lactucaxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin decreased. The constitutive concentrations of polyphenols were lower in the green cultivar, but their relative increase was more pronounced than in the red cultivar. The constitutive concentrations of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin were similar in red and green lettuce and with decreasing nitrogen concentration they declined to a similar extent in both cultivars. We only detected little influence of the radiation treatments, e.g. on anthocyanin concentration, and hardly any interaction between radiation and nitrogen concentration. Our results imply a greater physiological plasticity of green compared to the red lettuce regarding its phenolic compounds. They support the photoprotection theory regarding anthocyanins as well as the theory that the deamination activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase drives phenylpropanoid synthesis. PMID:26569488

  15. Nitrogen Limited Red and Green Leaf Lettuce Accumulate Flavonoid Glycosides, Caffeic Acid Derivatives, and Sucrose while Losing Chlorophylls, Β-Carotene and Xanthophylls

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christine; Urlić, Branimir; Jukić Špika, Maja; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Krumbein, Angelika; Baldermann, Susanne; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Perica, Slavko; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of nitrogen application in crop production is desirable for ecological and health-related reasons. Interestingly, nitrogen deficiency can lead to enhanced concentrations of polyphenols in plants. The reason for this is still under discussion. The plants’ response to low nitrogen concentration can interact with other factors, for example radiation intensity. We cultivated red and green leaf lettuce hydroponically in a Mediterranean greenhouse, supplying three different levels of nitrogen (12 mM, 3 mM, 0.75 mM), either in full or reduced (-50%) radiation intensity. In both red and green lettuce, we found clear effects of the nitrogen treatments on growth characteristics, phenolic and photosynthetic compounds, nitrogen, nitrate and carbon concentration of the plants. Interestingly, the concentrations of all main flavonoid glycosides, caffeic acid derivatives, and sucrose increased with decreasing nitrogen concentration, whereas those of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, lactucaxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin decreased. The constitutive concentrations of polyphenols were lower in the green cultivar, but their relative increase was more pronounced than in the red cultivar. The constitutive concentrations of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin were similar in red and green lettuce and with decreasing nitrogen concentration they declined to a similar extent in both cultivars. We only detected little influence of the radiation treatments, e.g. on anthocyanin concentration, and hardly any interaction between radiation and nitrogen concentration. Our results imply a greater physiological plasticity of green compared to the red lettuce regarding its phenolic compounds. They support the photoprotection theory regarding anthocyanins as well as the theory that the deamination activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase drives phenylpropanoid synthesis. PMID:26569488

  16. Effects of precipitation regime and soil nitrogen on leaf traits in seasonally dry tropical forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Roa-Fuentes, Lilia L; Templer, Pamela H; Campo, Julio

    2015-10-01

    Leaf traits are closely associated with nutrient use by plants and can be utilized as a proxy for nutrient cycling processes. However, open questions remain, in particular regarding the variability of leaf traits within and across seasonally dry tropical forests. To address this, we considered six leaf traits (specific area, thickness, dry matter content, N content, P content and natural abundance (15)N) of four co-occurring tree species (two that are not associated with N2-fixing bacteria and two that are associated with N2-fixing bacteria) and net N mineralization rates and inorganic N concentrations along a precipitation gradient (537-1036 mm per year) in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Specifically we sought to test the hypothesis that leaf traits of dominant plant species shift along a precipitation gradient, but are affected by soil N cycling. Although variation among different species within each site explains some leaf trait variation, there is also a high level of variability across sites, suggesting that factors other than precipitation regime more strongly influence leaf traits. Principal component analyses indicated that across sites and tree species, covariation in leaf traits is an indicator of soil N availability. Patterns of natural abundance (15)N in foliage and foliage minus soil suggest that variation in precipitation regime drives a shift in plant N acquisition and the openness of the N cycle. Overall, our study shows that both plant species and site are important determinants of leaf traits, and that the leaf trait spectrum is correlated with soil N cycling.

  17. Nondestructive diagnostic test for nitrogen nutrition of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) based on dualex leaf-clip measurements in the field.

    PubMed

    Cerovic, Zoran G; Ghozlen, Naïma Ben; Milhade, Charlotte; Obert, Mickaël; Debuisson, Sébastien; Le Moigne, Marine

    2015-04-15

    Crop nitrogen status is a major issue for crop yield and quality. It is usually assessed by destructive leaf or petiole tissue analysis. A quantitative nondestructive optical estimation of N sufficiency would be a great leap forward toward precision crop management. We therefore calibrated three optical indices against leaf nitrogen content: chlorophyll (Chl), epidermal flavonols, and the nitrogen balance index (NBI), which is the ratio of the former two indices. NBI was the best estimator of leaf N content measured by the Dumas or Kjeldahl method with a root-mean-square error smaller than 2 mg of N g(-1) dry weight, followed by Chl (3 mg g(-1)) and flavonols (4 mg g(-1)). This allowed us to propose the threshold values for the Dualex optical indices that characterize nitrogen supply to grapevines: the first is the threshold below which N supply to the vine can be considered deficient, and the second is the threshold above which N supply is excessive. For a putative optimal N content of 30 mg g(-1) < x < 40 mg g(-1), these thresholds are 30 μg cm(-2) < x < 40 μg cm(-2) for Chl and 11 < x < 18 for NBI at flowering. At bunch closure, for N thresholds of 22 < x < 32, Chl is 29 < x < 37 and NBI is 8 < x < 11, in respective units. These values should be verified and refined in the future for various growth regions and cultivars using the specified protocol. The sample size should be 36-60 leaves from a fixed node position, preferably node no. 5 from the tip of the shoot. An alternative to the use of the NBI would be to discard leaves that are not light exposed by checking their flavonol content and to deduce the N sufficiency directly from the Chl values.

  18. The nutritional relationship linking sulfur to nitrogen in living organisms.

    PubMed

    Ingenbleek, Yves

    2006-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) coexist in the biosphere as free elements or in the form of simple inorganic NO3- and SO4(2-) oxyanions, which must be reduced before undergoing anabolic processes leading to the production of methionine (Met) and other S-containing molecules. Both N and S pathways are tightly regulated in plant tissues so as to maintain S:N ratios ranging from 1:20 to 1:35. As a result, plant products do not adequately fulfill human tissue requirements, whose mean S:N ratios amount to 1:14.5. The evolutionary patterns of total body N (TBN) and of total body S (TBS) offer from birth to death sex- and age-related specificities well identified by the serial measurement of plasma transthyretin (TTR). Met is regarded as the most limiting of all indispensable amino acids (IAAs) because of its participation in a myriad of molecular, structural, and metabolic activities of survival importance. Met homeostasis is regulated by subtle competitive interactions between transsulfuration and remethylation pathways of homocysteine (Hcy) and by the actual level of TBN reserves working as a direct sensor of cystathionine-beta-synthase activity. Under steady-state conditions, the dietary intake of SO4(2-) is essentially equal to total sulfaturia. The recommended dietary allowances for both S-containing AAs allotted to replace the minimal obligatory losses resulting from endogenous catabolism is largely covered by Western customary diets. By contrast, strict vegans and low-income populations living in plant-eating countries incur the risk of chronic N and Met dietary deficiencies causing undesirable hyperhomocysteinemia best explained by the downsizing of their TBN resources and documented by declining TTR plasma values. PMID:16702334

  19. The relationship between Pepper mottle virus source leaf and spread of infection through the stem of Capsicum sp.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J F

    2002-09-01

    Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV) systemically infects Capsicum sp. in a typical source-to-sink manner with movement through the stem occurring in a predictable pattern. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the inoculated leaf as a source of inoculum and the spread of PepMoV infection through the stem. C. annuum 'Early Calwonder' plants were mechanically inoculated onto the first leaf with PepMoV and sets of 30 plants had their inoculated leaves removed each day from 1 through 7 days post-inoculation (dpi) with the inoculated leaves tested for infection by ELISA at the time of excision. Beginning at 2 dpi, PepMoV infection in the stem of plants with the inoculated leaf excised and plants of a nonexcision control treatment was determined using immuno-tissue blot analysis. PepMoV was detected in inoculated leaves beginning at 3 dpi with the percentage of infected leaves increasing each day through 7 dpi. PepMoV was first detected in the stem of inoculated plants of the 3 dpi excision treatment. The accumulation and extent of spread of infection in the stem was similar for plants that had their inoculated leaf removed at a time preceding detection by ELISA to plants in the nonexcision control treatment. These findings suggest that once virus is allowed to enter the stem from the inoculated leaf, subsequent spread of infection through the stem is a process independent from the source leaf. PMID:12209317

  20. High frequency of leaf swallowing and its relationship to intestinal parasite expulsion in "village" chimpanzees at Bulindi, Uganda.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Matthew R; Huffman, Michael A

    2012-07-01

    Self-medication by great apes to control intestinal parasite infections has been documented at sites across Africa. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) swallow the leaves of certain plant species whole, without chewing. Previous studies demonstrated a relationship between chimpanzee leaf swallowing and expulsion of nematode worms (Oesophagostomum sp.) and tapeworms (Bertiella sp.) in dung. We investigated the relationship between leaf swallowing and parasite expulsion in chimpanzees inhabiting a fragmented forest-farm mosaic at Bulindi, Uganda. During 13 months whole undigested leaves occurred in chimpanzee dung at a considerably higher frequency (10.4% of dungs) than at other sites (0.4-4.0%). Leaf swallowing occurred year-round and showed no pronounced seasonality. Chimpanzees egested adults of multiple species of Oesophagostomum (including O. stephanostomum) and proglottids of two tapeworms-Bertiella sp. and probably Raillietina sp. The latter may not be a true infection, but the byproduct of predation on domestic fowl. Compared to previous studies, the co-occurrence of whole leaves and parasites in chimpanzee dung was low. Whereas the presence of leaves in dung increased the probability of adult nematode expulsion, no association between leaf swallowing and the shedding of tapeworm proglottids was apparent. Anthropogenic habitat changes have been linked to alterations in host-parasite interactions. At Bulindi, deforestation for agriculture has increased contact between apes and people. Elevated levels of leaf swallowing could indicate these chimpanzees are especially vulnerable to parasite infections, possibly due to environmental changes and/or increased stress levels arising from a high frequency of contact with humans. Frequent self-medication by chimpanzees in a high-risk environment could be a generalized adaptation to multiple parasite infections that respond differently to the behavior. Future parasitological surveys of apes and humans at Bulindi are needed

  1. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TOTAL NITROGEN AND PLANKTONIC CHLOROPHYLL IN LONG ISLAND SOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used data collected by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection's Long Island Sound Water Quality Monitoring Program to examine spatial and temporal trends in concentrations of total nitrogen and chlorophyll in the water column and in the relationship between the...

  2. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TOTAL NITROGEN AND PLANKTONIC CHLOROPHYLL IN LONG ISLAND SOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used data collected by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection's Long Island Sound Water Quality Monitoring Program to examine spatial and temporal trends in concentrations of total nitrogen and chlorophyll in the water column and in the relationship between the...

  3. LOAD-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS FOR NITROGEN AND CHLOROPHYLL A IN COASTAL EMBAYMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is conducting research to develop relationships between nitrogen loads and responses of submerged aquatic vegetation, dissolved oxygen, and food webs in coastal systems. We present an overview of the research program; then we describe in d...

  4. Relationship between nitrogen concentration, light, and Zostera marina habitat quality and survival in southeastern Massachusetts estuaries.

    PubMed

    Benson, Jennifer L; Schlezinger, David; Howes, Brian L

    2013-12-15

    The relationship of eelgrass survival and habitat quality to water column nitrogen level, phytoplankton biomass, particulate matter, bottom light intensity, and light attenuation was quantified at 70 sites within 19 Massachusetts estuaries through 4 growing seasons (2007-2009, 2011). Sites included a range of eelgrass habitat quality, from stable productive eelgrass beds, to degraded beds, to areas that have lost all eelgrass coverage. Survival of transplanted eelgrass culms was used as a bio-indicator of habitat quality. Habitat quality based upon both changes in stability of eelgrass coverage and transplant survival was positively related to light intensity and percent transmittance. Transplant survival was consistent with habitat designations based upon long-term changes in eelgrass coverage, with lowest light coinciding with areas that lost eelgrass in earlier decades. Bottom light declined in proportion to increases in total nitrogen levels, phytoplankton biomass, and water column particulates determined from long-term water quality data. Field surveys indicated that eelgrass survival required bottom light ≥100 μE/m(2)/s and healthy eelgrass existed where tidally-averaged total nitrogen was less than 0.34 mg/L, equivalent to a mid-ebb tide water-column total nitrogen of <0.37 mg/L. Traditional sampling of water column nitrogen at mid-ebb tide was found to slightly overestimate the average nitrogen level over a complete tidal cycle. However, since long-term, ebb-tide and tidally-averaged total nitrogen are correlated, it is possible to use the monitoring average to guide management until tidally-averaged TN becomes available. Nitrogen thresholds that support eelgrass communities provide a fundamental tool for managing this habitat and for selection of transplant sites aimed at accelerating restoration of this resource under increasing nitrogen loading of the coastal zone.

  5. Relationship of ozone exposure and leaf ontogeny to susceptibility of eastern cottonwood to four pests

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine if ozone exposure would alter the susceptibility of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) to four common pests (biotic stresses) which exploit leaf resources in different ways. Two clones of P. deltoides were exposed to 0.20 ppm ozone, or charcoal-filtered air, for five hours in greenhouse or field exposure chambers. Forty hours after ozone exposure, leaf material was exposed to Melampsora medusae Thum. (biotrophic rust fungus), Marssonina brunnea (Ell. and Ev.) P. Magn. (necrotrophic fungus), Plagiodera versicolora Laich. (chewing insect) or Chaitophorus populicola Thomas (sucking insect) in a series of leaf disk, intact leaf, or whole-plant bioassays. Plant growth parameters were also measured before and after exposure. The ozone dose did not result in changes of plant growth, or in the production of foliar lesions on any leaves which were bioassayed.

  6. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Poorter, Lourens

    2009-03-01

    Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found in forests under different climatic control. Here, adult leaf and metamer traits were measured for 39 tree species from a tropical moist semi-evergreen forest (1580 mm rain yr(-1)) and 41 species from a dry deciduous forest (1160 mm yr(-1)) in Bolivia. Twenty-six functional traits were measured and related to species regeneration light requirements.Adult leaf traits were clearly associated with shade tolerance. Different, rather than stronger, shade adaptations were found for moist compared with dry forest species. Shade adaptations exclusively found in the evergreen moist forest were related to tough and persistent leaves, and shade adaptations in the dry deciduous forest were related to high light interception and water use.These results suggest that, for forests differing in rainfall seasonality, there is a shift in the relative importance of functional leaf traits and performance trade-offs that control light partitioning. In the moist evergreen forest leaf traits underlying the growth-survival trade-off are important, whereas in the seasonally deciduous forest leaf traits underlying the growth trade-off between low and high light might become important.

  7. Light, temperature, and leaf nitrogen distribution in the tropical rain forest of Biosphere 2 and their importance in the mathematical models for global environmental changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tohda, Motofumi

    1997-01-01

    As the environmental changes occur throughout the world in rapid rate, we need to have further understandings for our planet. Since the ecosystems are so complex, it is almost impossible for us to integrate every factor. However, mathematical models are powerful tools which can be used to simulate those ecosystems with limited data. In this project, I collected light intensity, canopy leaf temperature and Air Handler (AHU) temperature, and nitrogen concentration in the leaves for different profiles in the rainforest mesocosm. These data will later be put into mathematical models such as "big-leaf" and "sun/shade" models to determine how these factors will affect CO2 exchange in the rainforest. As rainforests are diminishing from our planet and their existence is very important for all living things on earth, it is necessary for us to learn more about the unique system of rainforests and how we can co-exist rather than destroy.

  8. Dorsoventral asymmetry of photosynthesis and photoinhibition in flag leaves of two rice cultivars that differ in nitrogen response and leaf angle.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Etsushi; Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Araki, Takuya; Ueno, Osamu

    2014-08-01

    Rice is believed to show photosynthetic symmetry between adaxial and abaxial leaf sides. To verify this, we re-examined dorsoventral asymmetry in photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and anatomical traits in flag leaves of two Oryza sativa cultivars that differ in nitrogen (N) response and in leaf angle: 'Akenohoshi', a cultivar that can adapt to low-N (LN), with low leaf angle (more erect leaves), and 'Shirobeniya', a cultivar that is unable to adapt to LN, with higher leaf angle. Plants were grown under standard-N (SN) and LN conditions. LN leaves of both cultivars became more erect than SN, but LN Akenohoshi still had more erect ones than Shirobeniya. Contrary to results of previous studies, leaves of both cultivars showed an asymmetry in photosynthetic rate between adaxial and abaxial sides (higher on the adaxial side) under SN. SN leaves of both cultivars showed lower susceptibility to photoinhibition on the adaxial side than on the abaxial side. However, leaves of Akenohoshi showed less asymmetry in these traits under LN than under SN, whereas leaves of Shirobeniya had similar degrees of asymmetry in these traits under both SN and LN. Both cultivars also showed dorsoventral asymmetry in anatomical traits of mesophyll tissue regardless of N level, but the degree of asymmetry was lower in LN Akenohoshi. These data reveal that rice leaves exhibit dorsoventral asymmetry in photosynthetic and anatomical features, and that the degree of asymmetry varies with cultivar and N level. It is suggested that lower leaf angles (particularly in Akenohoshi) in the presence of LN represent a light acclimation to prevent photoinhibition.

  9. Using plant traits to explain plant-microbe relationships involved in nitrogen acquisition.

    PubMed

    Cantarel, Amélie A M; Pommier, Thomas; Desclos-Theveniau, Marie; Diquélou, Sylvain; Dumont, Maxime; Grassein, Fabrice; Kastl, Eva-Maria; Grigulis, Karl; Laîné, Philippe; Lavorel, Sandra; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Personeni, Emmanuelle; Schloter, Michael; Poly, Franck

    2015-03-01

    It has long been recognized that plant species and soil microorganisms. are tightly linked, but understanding how different species vary in their effects on soil is currently limited. In this study, we identified those. plant characteristics (identity, specific functional traits, or resource acquisition strategy) that were the best predictors of nitrification and denitrification processes. Ten plant populations representing eight species collected from three European grassland sites were chosen for their contrasting plant trait values and resource acquisition strategies. For each individual plant, leaf and root traits and the associated potential microbial activities (i.e., potential denitrification rate [DEA], maximal nitrification rate [NEA], and NH4+ affinity of the microbial community [NHScom]) were measured at two fertilization levels under controlled growth conditions. Plant traits were powerful predictors of plant-microbe interactions, but relevant plant traits differed in relation to the microbial function studied. Whereas denitrification was linked to the relative growth rate of plants, nitrification was strongly correlated to root trait characteristics (specific root length, root nitrogen concentration, and plant affinity for NH4+) linked to plant N cycling. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) that commonly serves as an indicator of resource acquisition strategies was not correlated to microbial activity. These results suggest that the LES alone is not a good predictor of microbial activity, whereas root traits appeared critical in understanding plant-microbe interactions.

  10. Land surface phenology in eastern United States watersheds: relationship between remote sensing metrics, stream chemistry, snow cover, and leaf and bird phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. A.; Baker, M.; Weller, D.; Jordan, T.

    2006-12-01

    Remote sensing of terrestrial land surfaces has long promised an unprecedented ability to regularly and consistently monitor patterns of vegetation phenology, which in turn implied an ability to develop prognostic phenology models and/or directly to force seasonality within climate models. Within the last five years, though, research has shown that land surface phenology, which is the integral signal of atmospheric, snow, soil, cloud, and vegetation, can be dramatically different than vegetation phenology alone. Consequently, there is a strong need to understand the usually unique relationship between remotely sensed land surface phenology and a continuum of ground-based processes. Here, using a network of watersheds in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions of the Chesapeake Bay, we conducted a four-part analysis for the 1997 to 1999 period. First, using a recently developed land surface phenology technique designed to represent a continuum, rather than a specific event (i.e. the start of the growing season), we calculated the daily percent above threshold (PAT), a metric of the percent of the watershed above a locally assigned greenness threshold. Second, we assembled a collection of measured leaf and hummingbird phenology and snow cover data. Third, we obtained weekly measurements of stream flow, total nitrogen (N), organic N, Kjeldahl N, ammonium, nitrate, total phosphorous, organic phosphorous, and phosphate. Fourth, as the stream chemistry data was collected irregularly across watersheds, we then calculated weekly average PAT and stream chemistry values. We found that for these watersheds, observed patterns of PAT increase were unrelated to snow cover and coincident with a continuum of ground-measured leaf phenology and hummingbird appearance. The spring increase in PAT also was consistently related to reductions in nitrate load, but not to other water chemistry measurement, suggesting an interaction between vegetative N demand and stream nitrate.

  11. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, ammonia was produced by 15 companies at 26 plants in 16 states in the United States. Of the total ammonia production capacity, 55% was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas. US producers operated at 66% of their rated capacity. In descending order, Koch Nitrogen, Terra Industries, CF Industries, Agrium and PCS Nitrogen accounted for 81% of the US ammonia production capacity.

  12. Modelling the relationship between CO2 assimilation and leaf anatomical properties in tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Berghuijs, Herman N C; Yin, Xinyou; Ho, Q Tri; van der Putten, Peter E L; Verboven, Pieter; Retta, Moges A; Nicolaï, Bart M; Struik, Paul C

    2015-09-01

    The CO2 concentration near Rubisco and, therefore, the rate of CO2 assimilation, is influenced by both leaf anatomical factors and biochemical processes. Leaf anatomical structures act as physical barriers for CO2 transport. Biochemical processes add or remove CO2 along its diffusion pathway through mesophyll. We combined a model that quantifies the diffusive resistance for CO2 using anatomical properties, a model that partitions this resistance and an extended version of the Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry model. We parametrized the model by gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf anatomical measurements from three tomato cultivars. There was generally a good agreement between the predicted and measured light and CO2 response curves. We did a sensitivity analysis to assess how the rate of CO2 assimilation responds to changes in various leaf anatomical properties. Next, we conducted a similar analysis for assumed diffusive properties and curvature factors. Some variables (diffusion pathway length in stroma, diffusion coefficient of the stroma, curvature factors) substantially affected the predicted CO2 assimilation. We recommend more research on the measurements of these variables and on the development of 2-D and 3-D gas diffusion models, since these do not require the diffusion pathway length in the stroma as predefined parameter.

  13. Modelling the relationship between CO2 assimilation and leaf anatomical properties in tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Berghuijs, Herman N C; Yin, Xinyou; Ho, Q Tri; van der Putten, Peter E L; Verboven, Pieter; Retta, Moges A; Nicolaï, Bart M; Struik, Paul C

    2015-09-01

    The CO2 concentration near Rubisco and, therefore, the rate of CO2 assimilation, is influenced by both leaf anatomical factors and biochemical processes. Leaf anatomical structures act as physical barriers for CO2 transport. Biochemical processes add or remove CO2 along its diffusion pathway through mesophyll. We combined a model that quantifies the diffusive resistance for CO2 using anatomical properties, a model that partitions this resistance and an extended version of the Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry model. We parametrized the model by gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf anatomical measurements from three tomato cultivars. There was generally a good agreement between the predicted and measured light and CO2 response curves. We did a sensitivity analysis to assess how the rate of CO2 assimilation responds to changes in various leaf anatomical properties. Next, we conducted a similar analysis for assumed diffusive properties and curvature factors. Some variables (diffusion pathway length in stroma, diffusion coefficient of the stroma, curvature factors) substantially affected the predicted CO2 assimilation. We recommend more research on the measurements of these variables and on the development of 2-D and 3-D gas diffusion models, since these do not require the diffusion pathway length in the stroma as predefined parameter. PMID:26259196

  14. [Relationships between decomposition rate of leaf litter and initial quality across the alpine timberline ecotone in Western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Deng, Chang-chun; Chen Ya-mei; He, Run-lian; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The relationships between litter decomposition rate and their initial quality of 14 representative plants in the alpine forest ecotone of western Sichuan were investigated in this paper. The decomposition rate k of the litter ranged from 0.16 to 1.70. Woody leaf litter and moss litter decomposed much slower, and shrubby litter decomposed a little faster. Then, herbaceous litters decomposed fastest among all plant forms. There were significant linear regression relationships between the litter decomposition rate and the N content, lignin content, phenolics content, C/N, C/P and lignin/N. Lignin/N and hemicellulose content could explain 78.4% variation of the litter decomposition rate (k) by path analysis. The lignin/N could explain 69.5% variation of k alone, and the direct path coefficient of lignin/N on k was -0.913. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the contribution rate of the first sort axis to k and the decomposition time (t) reached 99.2%. Significant positive correlations existed between lignin/N, lignin content, C/N, C/P and the first sort axis, and the closest relationship existed between lignin/N and the first sort axis (r = 0.923). Lignin/N was the key quality factor affecting plant litter decomposition rate across the alpine timberline ecotone, with the higher the initial lignin/N, the lower the decomposition rate of leaf litter. PMID:27111995

  15. [Relationships between decomposition rate of leaf litter and initial quality across the alpine timberline ecotone in Western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Deng, Chang-chun; Chen Ya-mei; He, Run-lian; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The relationships between litter decomposition rate and their initial quality of 14 representative plants in the alpine forest ecotone of western Sichuan were investigated in this paper. The decomposition rate k of the litter ranged from 0.16 to 1.70. Woody leaf litter and moss litter decomposed much slower, and shrubby litter decomposed a little faster. Then, herbaceous litters decomposed fastest among all plant forms. There were significant linear regression relationships between the litter decomposition rate and the N content, lignin content, phenolics content, C/N, C/P and lignin/N. Lignin/N and hemicellulose content could explain 78.4% variation of the litter decomposition rate (k) by path analysis. The lignin/N could explain 69.5% variation of k alone, and the direct path coefficient of lignin/N on k was -0.913. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the contribution rate of the first sort axis to k and the decomposition time (t) reached 99.2%. Significant positive correlations existed between lignin/N, lignin content, C/N, C/P and the first sort axis, and the closest relationship existed between lignin/N and the first sort axis (r = 0.923). Lignin/N was the key quality factor affecting plant litter decomposition rate across the alpine timberline ecotone, with the higher the initial lignin/N, the lower the decomposition rate of leaf litter.

  16. Convergence in relationships between leaf traits, spectra and age across diverse canopy environments and two contrasting tropical forests

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Jin; Chavana-Bryant, Cecilia; Prohaska, Neill; Serbin, Shawn P.; Guan, Kaiyu; Albert, Loren P.; Yang, Xi; van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.; Garnello, Anthony John; Martins, Giordane; et al

    2016-07-06

    Leaf age structures the phenology and development of plants, as well as the evolution of leaf traits over life histories. Furthermore, a general method for efficiently estimating leaf age across forests and canopy environments is lacking.

  17. Effects of understory vegetation and litter on plant nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), N:P ratio and their relationships with growth rate of indigenous seedlings in subtropical plantations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Hui, Dafeng; Ren, Hai; Liu, Zhanfeng; Yang, Long

    2013-01-01

    Establishing seedlings in subtropical plantations is very important for forest health, succession and management. Information on seedling nutrient concentrations is essential for both the selection of suitable indigenous tree species to accelerate succession of the established plantation and sustainable forest management. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of nitrogen ([N]), phosphorus ([P]), and N:P ratio in leaves, stems and roots of seedlings of three indigenous tree species (Castanopsis chinensis, Michelia chapensis and Psychotria rubra) transplanted with removing or retaining understory vegetation and litter at two typical subtropical forest plantations (Eucalyptus plantation and native species plantation). We also measured the relative growth rate (RGR) of seedling height, and developed the relationships between RGR and leaf [N], [P] and N:P ratio. Results showed that treatments of understory vegetation and associated litter (i.e. removal or retained) generally had no significant effects on leaf [N], [P], N:P ratio and RGR of the transplanted tree seedlings for the experimental period. But among different species, there were significant differences in nutrient concentrations. M. chapensis and P. rubra had higher [N] and [P] compared to C. chinensis. [N] and [P] also varied among different plant tissues with much higher values in leaves than in roots for all indigenous species. RGR of indigenous tree seedlings was mostly positively correlated with leaf [N] and [P], but negatively correlated with leaf N:P ratio. Considering the low [P] and high N:P ratio observed in the introduced indigenous tree seedlings, we propose that the current experimental plantations might be P limited for plant growth.

  18. Effects of understory vegetation and litter on plant nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), N:P ratio and their relationships with growth rate of indigenous seedlings in subtropical plantations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Hui, Dafeng; Ren, Hai; Liu, Zhanfeng; Yang, Long

    2013-01-01

    Establishing seedlings in subtropical plantations is very important for forest health, succession and management. Information on seedling nutrient concentrations is essential for both the selection of suitable indigenous tree species to accelerate succession of the established plantation and sustainable forest management. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of nitrogen ([N]), phosphorus ([P]), and N:P ratio in leaves, stems and roots of seedlings of three indigenous tree species (Castanopsis chinensis, Michelia chapensis and Psychotria rubra) transplanted with removing or retaining understory vegetation and litter at two typical subtropical forest plantations (Eucalyptus plantation and native species plantation). We also measured the relative growth rate (RGR) of seedling height, and developed the relationships between RGR and leaf [N], [P] and N:P ratio. Results showed that treatments of understory vegetation and associated litter (i.e. removal or retained) generally had no significant effects on leaf [N], [P], N:P ratio and RGR of the transplanted tree seedlings for the experimental period. But among different species, there were significant differences in nutrient concentrations. M. chapensis and P. rubra had higher [N] and [P] compared to C. chinensis. [N] and [P] also varied among different plant tissues with much higher values in leaves than in roots for all indigenous species. RGR of indigenous tree seedlings was mostly positively correlated with leaf [N] and [P], but negatively correlated with leaf N:P ratio. Considering the low [P] and high N:P ratio observed in the introduced indigenous tree seedlings, we propose that the current experimental plantations might be P limited for plant growth. PMID:24386340

  19. Effects of Understory Vegetation and Litter on Plant Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), N∶P Ratio and Their Relationships with Growth Rate of Indigenous Seedlings in Subtropical Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Hui, Dafeng; Ren, Hai; Liu, Zhanfeng; Yang, Long

    2013-01-01

    Establishing seedlings in subtropical plantations is very important for forest health, succession and management. Information on seedling nutrient concentrations is essential for both the selection of suitable indigenous tree species to accelerate succession of the established plantation and sustainable forest management. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of nitrogen ([N]), phosphorus ([P]), and N∶P ratio in leaves, stems and roots of seedlings of three indigenous tree species (Castanopsis chinensis, Michelia chapensis and Psychotria rubra) transplanted with removing or retaining understory vegetation and litter at two typical subtropical forest plantations (Eucalyptus plantation and native species plantation). We also measured the relative growth rate (RGR) of seedling height, and developed the relationships between RGR and leaf [N], [P] and N∶P ratio. Results showed that treatments of understory vegetation and associated litter (i.e. removal or retained) generally had no significant effects on leaf [N], [P], N∶P ratio and RGR of the transplanted tree seedlings for the experimental period. But among different species, there were significant differences in nutrient concentrations. M. chapensis and P. rubra had higher [N] and [P] compared to C. chinensis. [N] and [P] also varied among different plant tissues with much higher values in leaves than in roots for all indigenous species. RGR of indigenous tree seedlings was mostly positively correlated with leaf [N] and [P], but negatively correlated with leaf N∶P ratio. Considering the low [P] and high N∶P ratio observed in the introduced indigenous tree seedlings, we propose that the current experimental plantations might be P limited for plant growth. PMID:24386340

  20. Use of an inexpensive chlorophyll meter to predict Nitrogen levels in leaf tissues of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissue nitrogen is also an important indicator of plant health and can be a useful predictor of plant vigor and susceptibility to disease and pests. Hence, knowing nitrogen content may aid in determining establishment success of plants used in restoration programs, including those destined for aqua...

  1. Changes in leaf area, nitrogen content and canopy photosynthesis in soybean exposed to an ozone concentration gradient.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shimpei; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    Influences of ozone (O3) on light-saturated rates of photosynthesis in crop leaves have been well documented. To increase our understanding of O3 effects on individual- or stand level productivity, a mechanistic understanding of factors determining canopy photosynthesis is necessary. We used a canopy model to scale photosynthesis from leaf to canopy, and analyzed the importance of canopy structural and leaf ecophysiological characteristics in determining canopy photosynthesis in soybean stands exposed to 9 concentrations of [O3] (37-116 ppb; 9-h mean). Light intensity and N content peaked in upper canopy layers, and sharply decreased through the lower canopy. Plant leaf area decreased with increasing [O3] allowing for greater light intensity to reach lower canopy levels. At the leaf level, light-saturated photosynthesis decreased and dark respiration increased with increasing [O3]. These data were used to calculate daily net canopy photosynthesis (Pc). Pc decreased with increasing [O3] with an average decrease of 10% for an increase in [O3] of 10 ppb, and which was similar to changes in above-ground dry mass production of the stands. Absolute daily net photosynthesis of lower layers was very low and thus the decrease in photosynthesis in the lower canopy caused by elevated [O3] had only minor significance for total canopy photosynthesis. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the decrease in Pc was associated with changes in leaf ecophysiology but not with decrease in leaf area. The soybean stands were very crowded, the leaves were highly mutually shaded, and sufficient light for positive carbon balance did not penetrate to lower canopy leaves, even under elevated [O3].

  2. Changes in leaf area, nitrogen content and canopy photosynthesis in soybean exposed to an ozone concentration gradient.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shimpei; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    Influences of ozone (O3) on light-saturated rates of photosynthesis in crop leaves have been well documented. To increase our understanding of O3 effects on individual- or stand level productivity, a mechanistic understanding of factors determining canopy photosynthesis is necessary. We used a canopy model to scale photosynthesis from leaf to canopy, and analyzed the importance of canopy structural and leaf ecophysiological characteristics in determining canopy photosynthesis in soybean stands exposed to 9 concentrations of [O3] (37-116 ppb; 9-h mean). Light intensity and N content peaked in upper canopy layers, and sharply decreased through the lower canopy. Plant leaf area decreased with increasing [O3] allowing for greater light intensity to reach lower canopy levels. At the leaf level, light-saturated photosynthesis decreased and dark respiration increased with increasing [O3]. These data were used to calculate daily net canopy photosynthesis (Pc). Pc decreased with increasing [O3] with an average decrease of 10% for an increase in [O3] of 10 ppb, and which was similar to changes in above-ground dry mass production of the stands. Absolute daily net photosynthesis of lower layers was very low and thus the decrease in photosynthesis in the lower canopy caused by elevated [O3] had only minor significance for total canopy photosynthesis. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the decrease in Pc was associated with changes in leaf ecophysiology but not with decrease in leaf area. The soybean stands were very crowded, the leaves were highly mutually shaded, and sufficient light for positive carbon balance did not penetrate to lower canopy leaves, even under elevated [O3]. PMID:27261884

  3. Interspecific variation of photosynthesis and leaf characteristics in canopy trees of five species of Dipterocarpaceae in a tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Kenzo, Tanaka; Ichie, Tomoaki; Yoneda, Reiji; Kitahashi, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yoko; Ninomiya, Ikuo; Koike, Takayoshi

    2004-10-01

    Photosynthetic rate, nitrogen concentration and morphological properties of canopy leaves were studied in 18 trees, comprising five dipterocarp species, in a tropical rain forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. Photosynthetic rate at light saturation (Pmax) differed significantly across species, varying from 7 to 18 micro mol m(-2) s(-1). Leaf nitrogen concentration and morphological properties, such as leaf blade and palisade layer thickness, leaf mass per area (LMA) and surface area of mesophyll cells per unit leaf area (Ames/A), also varied significantly across species. Among the relationships with leaf characteristics, Pmax had the strongest correlation with leaf mesophyll parameters, such as palisade cell layer thickness (r2 = 0.76, P < 0.001) and Ames/A (r2 = 0.73, P < 0.001). Leaf nitrogen concentration and Pmax per unit area also had a significant but weaker correlation (r2 = 0.46, P < 0.01), whereas Pmax had no correlation, or only weakly significant correlations, with leaf blade thickness and LMA. Shorea beccariana Burck, which had the highest P(max) of the species studied, also had the thickest palisade layer, with up to five or more layers. We conclude that interspecific variation in photosynthetic capacity in tropical rain forest canopies is influenced more by leaf mesophyll structure than by leaf thickness, LMA or leaf nitrogen concentration.

  4. Relationships between Nitrate and Dissolved Organic Nitrogen and Watershed Characteristics in a Rural Temperate Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2002-05-01

    Global models have been developed to predict nitrate export, a main component of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export, based on human population density and human activity. Controls on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) export are largely unknown. We tested several global nitrate models and examined potential sources of riverine DON in the Lamprey River basin (479 km2) located in rural southeastern New Hampshire, and 11 of its sub-catchments. Dissolved organic nitrogen dominated total N export. Export of nitrate and DON from the Lamprey was 0.53 and 1.28 kg/ha/yr respectively. Mean annual nitrate and DON concentration in the Lamprey was 0.11 and 0.30 mg/L respectively. The global nitrate models over predicted (>200% difference) nitrate export for the Lamprey and all its sub-catchments except for the smallest most populated catchment. Population density (R2>0.89, p<0.00001) and riparian percentage agriculture (R2>0.90, p<0.00001) showed strong positive relationships with nitrate concentration and export. Dissolved organic nitrogen was not related to factors that control inorganic nitrogen (human population density or percentage agriculture). Non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC) concentration and export (R2>0.84, p<0.0001), percentage wetland (R2=0.79, p<0.001) and riparian carbon storage (R2=0.84, p<0.0001) all showed strong positive relationships with DON. We conclude from the results of this study that human population density and activity are the main factors controlling DIN export and that wetlands and riparian soils are main sources of DON.

  5. The Effect of Rates and Times of Nitrogen Fertilizer on N Accumulation and Remobilization Efficiency at Flag Leaf in Two Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum.durum) Cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, A.; Sarvestani, Z. Tahmasebi; Bagheri, A. R.; Abad, H. Heidari Sharif

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the physiological basis of absorption and transportation of nitrogen by plants has specific importance. In this experiment, a bread cultivar and durum wheat cultivar, were treated with different rates and times of nitrogen application, by using split factorial with on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications at Shiraz region during 2004-2005. Main plots were consisted of two levels of cultivars (Falat and Yavaros) and sub plots included nitrogen rates (40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1) and times of nitrogen application (T1 = all N fertilizer at planting, T2 = 1/2 at planting+1/2 during booting stage and T3 = 1/3 at planting+1/3 during booting stage+1/3 at heading stage). The results showed that there were significant differences between cultivars in flag leaf nitrogen content in maturity stage, N remobilization and its efficiency from flag leaf to grains and also grain protein percentage. Durum wheat was more efficient in nitrogen remobilization and therefore, had a higher grain protein percentage. Increasing in rates and times of nitrogen application had significant effect on most of the measured traits. There were significant interactions between cultivars, rates and times of N application, indicating that durum wheat was more efficient in N remobilization from flag leaf to the grain. It appeared that, N remobilization efficiency was the main factor affecting the grain protein percentage, under the conditions of low N absorption and drought after flowering, in this experiment.

  6. Effects of growth irradiance, nitrogen nutrition and watering regime on photosynthesis, leaf conductance and isoprene emission in leaves of Post Oak, Quercus stellata

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, P.; Archer, S.; Guenther, A. Texas A M Univ., College Station )

    1994-06-01

    Seedlings of Post Oak (Quercus stellata), the dominant woody species of oak savannas of east-central Texas, were grown outside in College Station, TX from April to November 1993. Plants were randomly placed in one cell of a 3 [times] 2 [times] 2 factorial experiment, employing 3 nitrogen fertilization (25, 100 and 225 ppm NH[sub 4]NO[sub 23]), 2 light levels (70% and 20% of full sun) and 2 watering regimes (to maintain 80-100% or 30-50% of field capacity). In November, net photosynthesis, leaf conductance and leaf isoprene emission rates at 30[degrees]C and PPFD=1000 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] were determined for two mature leaves on each of four plants from eight growth treatments and data were analyzed stastically. For plants grown under the lower watering regime, photosynthesis and isoprene emission increased with both increasing PPFD and nitrogen (effects significant at p<0.01). For plants grown at 70% full sun, effects of nitrogen treatment on photosynthesis, conductance and isoprene emission were significant (p<0.0001) while effects of watering treatment were not significant (p<0.2). Although watering treatment did not lead to significant differences between treatments, in a short-term drying experiment conducted on four plants, isoprene emissions increased through the drying period in previously well-watered plants, but decreased in previously droughted plants. Measurements were also made on two leaves to determine the effects of varying PPFD and temperature on rates of isoprene emission.

  7. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 12 companies at 27 plants in 15 states in the United States during 2011. Sixty-one percent of total U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2011, U.S. producers operated at about 84 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Four companies — CF Industries Holdings Inc.; Koch Nitrogen Co.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 77 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity.

  8. Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis) 12

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Rodney; Felton, Mark; Karp, Frank; Kjonaas, Robert

    1981-01-01

    The camphor content of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves increases as the leaves expand, and the increase is roughly proportional to the number of filled peltate oil glands which appear on the leaf surface during the expansion process. 14CO2 is more rapidly incorporated into camphor and its direct progenitors in expanding leaves than in mature leaves, and direct in vitro measurement of the key enzymes involved in the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphor indicates that these enzymes, including the probable rate-limiting cyclization step, are at the highest levels during the period of maximum leaf expansion. These results clearly demonstrate that immature sage leaves synthesize and accumulate camphor most rapidly. Images PMID:16661761

  9. Relationship between leaf optical properties, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment changes in senescing Acer saccharum leaves.

    PubMed

    Junker, Laura Verena; Ensminger, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    The ability of plants to sequester carbon is highly variable over the course of the year and reflects seasonal variation in photosynthetic efficiency. This seasonal variation is most prominent during autumn, when leaves of deciduous tree species such as sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) undergo senescence, which is associated with downregulation of photosynthesis and a change of leaf color. The remote sensing of leaf color by spectral reflectance measurements and digital repeat images is increasingly used to improve models of growing season length and seasonal variation in carbon sequestration. Vegetation indices derived from spectral reflectance measurements and digital repeat images might not adequately reflect photosynthetic efficiency of red-senescing tree species during autumn due to the changes in foliar pigment content associated with autumn phenology. In this study, we aimed to assess how effectively several widely used vegetation indices capture autumn phenology and reflect the changes in physiology and photosynthetic pigments during autumn. Chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment content of green, yellow, orange and red leaves were measured to represent leaf senescence during autumn and used as a reference to validate and compare vegetation indices derived from leaf-level spectral reflectance measurements and color analysis of digital images. Vegetation indices varied in their suitability to track the decrease of photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content despite increasing anthocyanin content. Commonly used spectral reflectance indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index and photochemical reflectance index showed major constraints arising from a limited representation of gradual decreases in chlorophyll content and an influence of high foliar anthocyanin levels. The excess green index and green-red vegetation index were more suitable to assess the process of senescence. Similarly, digital image analysis revealed that vegetation

  10. Relationship between leaf optical properties, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment changes in senescing Acer saccharum leaves.

    PubMed

    Junker, Laura Verena; Ensminger, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    The ability of plants to sequester carbon is highly variable over the course of the year and reflects seasonal variation in photosynthetic efficiency. This seasonal variation is most prominent during autumn, when leaves of deciduous tree species such as sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) undergo senescence, which is associated with downregulation of photosynthesis and a change of leaf color. The remote sensing of leaf color by spectral reflectance measurements and digital repeat images is increasingly used to improve models of growing season length and seasonal variation in carbon sequestration. Vegetation indices derived from spectral reflectance measurements and digital repeat images might not adequately reflect photosynthetic efficiency of red-senescing tree species during autumn due to the changes in foliar pigment content associated with autumn phenology. In this study, we aimed to assess how effectively several widely used vegetation indices capture autumn phenology and reflect the changes in physiology and photosynthetic pigments during autumn. Chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment content of green, yellow, orange and red leaves were measured to represent leaf senescence during autumn and used as a reference to validate and compare vegetation indices derived from leaf-level spectral reflectance measurements and color analysis of digital images. Vegetation indices varied in their suitability to track the decrease of photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content despite increasing anthocyanin content. Commonly used spectral reflectance indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index and photochemical reflectance index showed major constraints arising from a limited representation of gradual decreases in chlorophyll content and an influence of high foliar anthocyanin levels. The excess green index and green-red vegetation index were more suitable to assess the process of senescence. Similarly, digital image analysis revealed that vegetation

  11. Spur behaviour in almond trees: relationships between previous year spur leaf area, fruit bearing and mortality.

    PubMed

    Lampinen, Bruce D; Tombesi, Sergio; Metcalf, Samuel G; DeJong, Theodore M

    2011-07-01

    In mature almond (Prunus dulcis) orchards, the majority of crop is borne on spurs (short, proleptic shoots) that can live for several years and can produce from one to five fruits. Previous research has led to the hypothesis that spur longevity is related to spur light exposure, cropping and age. However, limited quantitative data are available to substantiate these hypotheses. The objective of this study was to determine spur characteristics that were most highly correlated with spur productivity and longevity in mature, bearing almond trees. Previous year spur leaf area was strongly related to spur viability and flowering; the greater the leaf area in the previous year, the higher the probability of spur survival into the next year and the higher the probability for the spur to bear one or more flowers. Previous year bearing also appeared to influence viability and return bloom, especially in spurs with low leaf area. These results suggest that spur source-sink balance is basic to the life cycle of almond spurs. Furthermore, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that spurs are semi-autonomous organs with respect to carbohydrate balance for much of the growing season. Finally, this information provides general thresholds for maintaining spur viability and productivity that will be useful for developing and evaluating tree training systems and orchard management practices.

  12. Scaling relationships between leaf mass and total plant mass across Chinese forests.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shanshan; Li, Yan; Wang, Genxuan

    2014-01-01

    Biomass partitioning is important for illustrating terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux. West, Brown and Enquist (WBE) model predicts that an optimal 3/4 allometric scaling of leaf mass and total biomass of individual plants will be applied in diverse communities. However, amount of scientific evidence suggests an involvement of some biological and environmental factors in interpreting the variation of scaling exponent observed in empirical studies. In this paper, biomass information of 1175 forested communities in China was collected and categorized into groups in terms of leaf form and function, as well as their locations to test whether the allocation pattern was conserved or variable with internal and/or environmental variations. Model Type II regression protocol was adopted to perform all the regressions. The results empirically showed that the slopes varied significantly across diverse forested biomes, between conifer and broadleaved forests, and between evergreen and deciduous forests. Based on the results, leaf form and function and their relations to environments play a significant role in the modification of the WBE model to explore more accurate laws in nature.

  13. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia is the principal source of fixed nitrogen. It was produced by 17 companies at 34 plants in the United States during 2003. Fifty-three percent of U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock.

  14. A Role for Glutamine Synthetase in the Remobilization of Leaf Nitrogen during Natural Senescence in Rice Leaves.

    PubMed

    Kamachi, K; Yamaya, T; Mae, T; Ojima, K

    1991-06-01

    Changes in the levels of cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) and chloroplastic glutamine synthetase (GS2) polypeptides and of corresponding mRNAs were determined in leaves of hydroponically grown rice (Oryza sativa) plants during natural senescence. The plants were grown in the greenhouse for 105 days at which time the thirteenth leaf was fully expanded. This was counted as zero time for senescence of the twelfth leaf. The twelfth leaf blade on the main stem was analyzed over a time period of -7 days (98 days after germination) to +42 days (147 days after germination). Total GS activity declined to less than a quarter of its initial level during the senescence for 35 days and this decline was mainly caused by a decrease in the amount of GS2 polypeptide. Immunoblotting analyses showed that contents of other chloroplastic enzymes, such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and Fd-glutamate synthase, declined in parallel with GS2. In contrast, the GS1 polypeptide remained constant throughout the senescence period. Translatable mRNA for GS1 increased about fourfold during the senescence for 35 days. During senescence, there was a marked decrease in content of glutamate (to about one-sixth of the zero time value); glutamate is the major form of free amino acid in rice leaves. Glutamine, the major transported amino acid, increased about threefold compared to the early phase of the harvest in the senescing rice leaf blades. These observations suggest that GS1 in senescing leaf blades is responsible for the synthesis of glutamine, which is then transferred to the growing tissues in rice plants. PMID:16668201

  15. Leaf anatomy and its implications for phylogenetic relationships in Taxaceae s. l.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Balkrishna; Lee, Chunghee; Heo, Kweon

    2014-05-01

    The comparative study on leaf anatomy and stomata structures of six genera of Taxaceae s. l. was conducted. Leaf anatomical structures were very comparable to each other in tissue shape and their arrangements. Taxus, Austrotaxus, and Pseudotaxus have no foliar resin canal, whereas Amentotaxus, Cephalotaxus, and Torreya have a single resin canal located below the vascular bundle. Among them, Torreya was unique with thick-walled, almost round sclerenchymatous epidermal cells. In addition, Amentotaxus and Torreya were comprised of some fiber cells around the vascular bundle. Also, Amentotaxus resembled Cephalotaxus harringtonia and its var. nana because they have discontinuous fibrous hypodermis. However, C. fortunei lacked the same kind of cells. Stomata were arranged in two stomatal bands separated by a mid-vein. The most unique stomatal structure was of Taxus with papillose accessory cells forming stomatal apparatus and of Torreya with deeply seated stomata covered with a special filament structure. Some morphological and molecular studies have already been discussed for the alternative classification of taxad genera into different minor families. The present study is also similar to these hypotheses because each genus has their own individuality in anatomical structure and stomata morphology. In conclusion, these differences in leaf and stomata morphology neither strongly support the two tribes in Taxaceae nor fairly recognize the monogeneric family, Cephalotaxaceae. Rather, it might support an alternative classification of taxad genera in different minor families or a single family Taxaceae including Cephalotaxus. In this study, we would prefer the latter one because there is no clear reason to separate Cephalotaxus from the rest genera of Taxaceae. Therefore, Taxaceae should be redefined with broad circumscriptions including Cephalotaxus. PMID:24496502

  16. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 15 companies at 25 plants in 16 states in the United States during 2006. Fifty-seven percent of U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2006, U.S. producers operated at about 72 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies, Koch Nitrogen, Terra Industries, CF Industries, PCS Nitro-gen, and Agrium, in descending order, accounted for 79 percent U.S. ammonia production capacity. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  17. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 13 companies at 23 plants in 16 states during 2009. Sixty percent of all U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana. Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2009, U.S. producers operated at about 83 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies — Koch Nitrogen Co.; Terra Industries Inc.; CF Industries Inc.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 80 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity. U.S. production was estimated to be 7.7 Mt (8.5 million st) of nitrogen (N) content in 2009 compared with 7.85 Mt (8.65 million st) of N content in 2008. Apparent consumption was estimated to have decreased to 12.1 Mt (13.3 million st) of N, a 10-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  18. Leaf area and foliar biomass relationships in northern hardwood forests located along an 800 km acid deposition gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, A.J.; Pregitzer, K.S. ); Reed, D.D. )

    1991-09-01

    The canopies of northern hardwood forests dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were examined at five locations spanning 800 km along an acid deposition and climatic gradient in the Great Lakes region. Leaf area index (LAI) calculated from litterfall ranged from 6.0 to 8.0 in 1988, from 4.9 to 7.9 in 1989, and from 5.3 to 7.8 in 1990. The data suggest that maximum LAI for the sites is between 7 and 8. Insect defoliation and the allocation of assimilates to reproductive parts in large seed years reduced LAI by up to 34%. Allometric equations for leaf area and foliar biomass were not significantly different among sites. They predicted higher LAI values than were estimated from litterfall and could not account for the influences of defoliation and seed production. Canopy transmittance was a viable alternative for estimating LAI. Extinction coefficients (K) of 0.49 to 0.65 were appropriate for solar elevations of 63{degree} to 41{degree}. Patterns of specific leaf area (SLA) were similar for the sites. Average sugar maple SLA increased from 147 cm{sup 2}g{sup {minus}1} in the upper 5 m of the canopy to 389 cm{sup 2}g{sup {minus}1} in the seeding layer. Litterfall SLA averaged 196 cm{sup 2}g{sup {minus}1} for all species and 192 cm{sup 2}g{sup {minus}1} for sugar maple. Similarity among the sites in allometric relationships, maximum LAI, canopy transmittance, and patterns of SLA suggests these characteristics were controlled primarily by the similar nutrient and moisture availability at the sites. A general increasing trend in litter production along the gradient could not be attributed to N deposition or length of growing season due to year to year variability resulting from insect defoliation and seed production.

  19. Proteins associated with heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass as affected by foliar application of nitrogen, cytokinins, and an ethylene inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Huang, Bingru

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress causes premature leaf senescence in cool-season grass species. The objective of this study was to identify proteins regulated by nitrogen, cytokinins, and ethylene inhibitor in relation to heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants (cv. Penncross) were foliar sprayed with 18 mM carbonyldiamide (N source), 25 μM aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, ethylene inhibitor), 25 μM zeatin riboside (ZR, cytokinin), or a water control, and then exposed to 20/15°C (day/night) or 35/30°C (heat stress) in growth chambers. All treatments suppressed heat-induced leaf senescence, as shown by higher turf quality and chlorophyll content, and lower electrolyte leakage in treated plants compared to the untreated control. A total of 49 proteins were responsive to N, AVG, or ZR under heat stress. The abundance of proteins in photosynthesis increased, with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase affected by all three treatments, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein by AVG and N or Rubisco activase by AVG. Proteins for amino acid metabolism were upregulated, including alanine aminotransferase by three treatments and ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase by AVG and N. Upregulated proteins also included catalase by AVG and N and heat shock protein by ZR. Exogenous applications of AVG, ZR, or N downregulated proteins in respiration (enolase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehygrogenase) under heat stress. Alleviation of heat-induced senescence by N, AVG, or ZR was associated with enhanced protein abundance in photosynthesis and amino acid metabolism and stress defense systems (heat shock protection and antioxidants), as well as suppression of those imparting respiration metabolism.

  20. Remote sensing of leaf N to improve carbon assimilation prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loozen, Yasmina; Rebel, Karin; Karssenberg, Derek; de Jong, Steven; Wassen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Predicting and understanding carbon assimilation by terrestrial vegetation remains fundamental in the context of climate change. Carbon and nitrogen cycles are linked as nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth. In this respect the N cycle is integrated into vegetation models predicting vegetation carbon uptake. However plant traits within the N cycle, such as leaf nitrogen, are lacking at large scales, which complicates the calibration and optimization of the N cycling modelling modules. Remote sensing techniques could offer the possibility to detect leaf N concentration at continental scales. In fact, it has already been used to sense leaf N at local, e.g. in agricultural oriented applications, as well as at regional scales. The objective of this study is to enhance the availability of leaf N estimates in forested ecosystems at European scale using remote sensing products. European forest leaf N data were obtained from the TRY database. The MERIS Terrestrial chlorophyll Index (MTCI) Level 3 product as well as two reflectance bands in the NIR region (band centers at 865 and 885nm) both from MERIS aboard ENVISAT (ESA) were used to study statistical relationship with leaf N data. In a first step, we analyzed 1892 Catalonian (NE Spain) forest plots using a linear regression method. The regressions results between leaf N and either MTCI or NIR bands were significant (p< 0.001). The R-square for the regression between leaf N and MTCI was equal to 0.13. The method performed better for broadleaves deciduous plots (R-square = 0.11) than for needleleaves or broadleaves evergreen plots. The relationship between leaf N and MTCI was also higher for the plots sampled during summer (R-square = 0.28 in July) than for the plots sampled during the rest of the year. In a second step the method will be applied on and will include more diverse forest types at the European level.

  1. Quantitative response relationships between nitrogen transformation rates and nitrogen functional genes in a tidal flow constructed wetland under C/N ratio constraints.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Wei; Ji, Guodong

    2014-11-01

    The present study explored treatment performance and nitrogen removal mechanisms of a novel tidal flow constructed wetland (TF CW) under C/N ratios ranging from two to 12. High and stable COD (83-95%), [Formula: see text] (63-80%), and TN (50-82%) removal efficiency were simultaneously achieved in our single-stage TF CW without costly aeration. Results showed that a C/N ratio exceeding six was required to achieve complete denitrification without [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] accumulation in the system. Molecular biological analyses revealed aerobic ammonia oxidation was the dominant [Formula: see text] removal pathway when the C/N ratio was less than or equal to six. However, when the C/N ratio was greater than six, anammox was notably enhanced, resulting in another primary [Formula: see text] removal pathway, in addition to the aerobic ammonia oxidation. Quantitative response relationships between nitrogen transformation rates and nitrogen functional genes were established, and these relationships confirmed that different nitrogen transformation processes were coupled at the molecular level (functional genes), and collaboratively contributed to nitrogen removal in the TF CW. Specifically, [Formula: see text] transformation rates were collectively determined by amoA, nxrA, anammox, narG, nirS, nirK, and nosZ; and TN removal was influenced primarily by amoA and anammox.

  2. [Relationship between Fe, Al oxides and stable organic carbon, nitrogen in the yellow-brown soils].

    PubMed

    Heng, Li-Sha; Wang, Dai-Zhang; Jiang, Xin; Rao, Wei; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Guo, Chun-Yan; Li, Teng

    2010-11-01

    The stable organic carbon and nitrogen of the different particles were gained by oxidation of 6% NaOCl in the yellow-brown soils. The relationships between the contents of selective extractable Fe/Al and the stable organic carbon/nitrogen were investigated. It shown that amounts of dithionite-citrate-(Fe(d)) and oxalate-(Fe(o)) and pyrophosphate extractable (Fe(p)) were 6-60.8 g x kg(-1) and 0.13-4.8 g x kg(-1) and 0.03-0.47 g x kg(-1) in 2-250 microm particles, respectively; 43.1-170 g x kg(-1) and 5.9-14.0 g x kg(-1) and 0.28-0.78 g x kg(-1) in < 2 microm particles, respectively. The contents of oxalate-(Al(o)) and pyrophosphate extractable (Al(p)) were 0.08-1.34 g x kg(-10 and 0.11-0.47 g x kg(-1) in 2-250 microm particles, respectively; 2.96-6.20 g x kg(-1) and 0.38-0.78 g x kg(-1) in < 2 microm particles, respectively. And amounts of selective extractable Fe are generally higher in paddy yellow-brown soils than in arid yellow-brown soils, and that of selective extractable Al are lower in the former than in the latter. Amounts of the stable organic carbon and nitrogen, higher in paddy yellow-brown soils than in arid yellow-brown soils, were 0.93-6.0 g x kg(-1) and 0.05-0.36 g x kg(-1) in 2-250 microm particles, respectively; 6.05-19.3 g x kg(-1) and 0.61-2.1 g x kg(-1) in < 2 microm particles, respectively. The ratio of the stable organic carbon and nitrogen (C(stable)/N(stable)) were 9.50-22.0 in 2-250 microm particles and 7.43-11.54 in < 2 microm particles, respectively. The stabilization index (SI(C) and SI(N)) of the organic carbon and nitrogen were 14.3-50.0 and 11.9-55.6 in 2-250 microm particles, respectively; 53.72-88.80 and 40.64-70.0 in < 2 microm particles, respectively. According to SI, it is lower in arid yellow-brown soils than in paddy yellow-brown soils. The organic carbon and nitrogen are advantageously conserved in paddy yellow-brown soil. An extremely significant positive correlation of the stable organic carbon and nitrogen with selective

  3. [Distribution of transferable nitrogen in Poyang Lake sediments and its response to the variation of River-Lake relationship].

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong-yan; Zhang, Mian-mian; Ni, Zhao-kui; Wang, Sheng-rui

    2015-01-01

    Amounts and distributions of total transferable nitrogen and different transferable nitrogen forms were studied in the sediments of Poyang Lake with different regimen, in order to reveal the influence of the water level change caused by the River-Lake relationship change on the potential release risks of nitrogen. The results showed that: (1) the contents of the total nitrogen (TN) were between 389 and 3865 mg x kg(-1), and the spatial distribution showed an overall downward trend in the "Five River", the "Hu Xin" and the northern regions; the contents of the transferable total nitrogen (TTN) were between 319.36 and 904.56 mg x kg(-1) and contributed 52% to the TN, and its spatial distribution trend was the same as that of TN. (2) The content of transferable nitrogen followed the order of SOEF-N approximately = SAEF-N > WAEF-N > IEF-N. (3) The dry period advanced and the low water level continued to decline as a result of the change in River-Lake relationship of the Poyang Lake, leading to the prolonged outcropped time of sediments and the increased area, causing the different contents of transferable nitrogen in the sediments at different elevations. The transferable nitrogen content of the sediments in the whole lake during the wet period was lower than that during the dry period. The content of transferable nitrogen followed the order of 12-13 m elevation sediment > 11-12 m elevation deposition material > 10-11 m elevation sediments. The higher the elevation, the longer the sediments were exposed, and the higher the transferable nitrogen content. (4) With the increase of elevation, all forms of N contents increased. The increase of IEF-N and SOEF-N contents as well as their percentages in total transferable nitrogen was relatively small, while the increase of WAEF-N and SAEF-N contents as well as their percentages in total transferable nitrogen was relatively large. If the river-lake relationship changes further, the elevation in the dry period will further

  4. Mercury concentrations and pools in four Sierra Nevada forest sites, and relationships to organic carbon and nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrist, D.; Johnson, D. W.; Lindberg, S. E.

    2009-05-01

    This study presents data on mercury (Hg) concentrations, stochiometric relations to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), and Hg pool sizes in four Sierra Nevada forest sites of similar exposure and precipitation regimes, and hence similar atmospheric deposition, to evaluate how ecosystem parameters control Hg retention in ecosystems. In all four sites, the largest amounts of Hg reside in soils which account for 94-98% of ecosystem pools. Hg concentrations and Hg/C ratios increase in the following order: Green Needles/Leavesrelationships between Hg and organic C. Mineral soil layers show strong positive correlations of Hg to C across all sites and soil horizons (r2=0.83), but Hg concentrations are even more closely related to N with a similar slope to that observed in litter (r2=0.92). Soil N levels alone explain over 90% of Hg pool sizes across the four Sierra Nevada forest sites. This suggests that soil organic N and C groups provide sorption sites for Hg to retain atmospheric deposition. However, the patterns could be due to indirect relationships where high soil N and C levels reflect high ecosystem productivity which leads to corresponding high atmospheric Hg deposition inputs via leaf litterfall and plant senescence. Our results also show that two of the sites previously affected by prescribed burning and wildfires show significant depletion of above-ground Hg pools but that belowground Hg pools

  5. Mercury concentrations and pools in four Sierra Nevada forest sites, and relationships to organic carbon and nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrist, D.; Johnson, D. W.; Lindberg, S. E.

    2009-02-01

    This study presents data on Hg concentrations, stochiometric relations to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), and Hg pool sizes in four Sierra Nevada forest sites of similar exposure and precipitation regimes, and hence similar atmospheric deposition, to evaluate how ecosystem parameters control Hg retention in ecosystems. In all four sites, the largest amounts of Hg reside in soils which account for 94-98% of ecosystem pools. Hg concentrations and Hg/C ratios increase in the following order: Green Needles/Leaves < Dry Needles/Leaves < Oi litter < Oe litter < Oa litter. Stochiometric relations show negative correlations between Hg and C (r2=0.58) and N and C (r2=0.64) in decomposing litter, but a positive correlation between litter Hg and N (r2=0.70). These inverse relations may reflect preferential retention of N and Hg over C during decomposition, or may be due to older age of decomposed litter layers which are exposed to longer-term atmospheric Hg deposition in the field. The results indicate that litter Hg levels depend on decomposition stage and may not follow generally observed positive relationships between Hg and organic C. Mineral soil layers show strong positive correlations of Hg to C across all sites and soil horizons (r2=0.83), but Hg concentrations are even more closely related to N with a similar slope to that observed in litter (r2=92%). Soil N levels alone explain over 90% of Hg pool sizes across the four Sierra Nevada forest sites. This suggest that soil organic N and C groups provide sorption sites for Hg to retain atmospheric deposition. However, the patterns could be due indirect relationships where high soil N and C levels reflect high ecosystem productivity which leads to corresponding high atmospheric Hg deposition inputs via leaf litterfall and plant senescence. Our results also show that two of the sites previously affected by prescribed burning and wildfires show significant depletion of above-ground Hg pools but that belowground Hg pools remain

  6. Spectroscopic determination of leaf nutritional, morpholgical, and metabolic traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbin, Shawn P.

    Terrestrial ecosystems, particularly forests, play an important role in the global carbon and water cycles. Remote sensing observations are invaluable to the study of vegetation patterning, ecosystem functioning, and dynamics. This research examined the relationships between leaf optical properties and important leaf structural, biochemical, and metabolic traits that describe the photosynthetic capacity, recalcitrance, and nutrient dynamics of plant canopies. This was done utilizing leaf-level reflectance spectroscopy in conjunction with traditional chemometric statistical techniques designed to handle high-dimensionality data, specifically partial least-squares regression (PLSR). A suite of leaf biochemical and morphological traits were estimated with high accuracy and precision using measurements of dried and ground leaf material with a portable spectroradiometer in conjunction with PLSR modeling. An important result from this study was that a single model could be developed to accurately estimate the variation in leaf traits, including nitrogen and carbon content, lignin, fiber and cellulose, isotopic nitrogen-15, and leaf mass per area, across species, growth environments, throughout the vertical profile of a canopy, and with leaf lifespan. A residual analysis of the model prediction errors showed no significant biases observed by tree species, canopy position, or leaf age. Fresh-leaf reflectance spectroscopy was used to identify the linkages between leaf photosynthetic metabolism and leaf optical properties within controlled and natural environments, and across diverse plant species. Two key parameters controlling photosynthetic rates - the maximum rates of RuBisCO carboxylation (Vcmax) and RuBP regeneration ( Jmax) --- were directly estimated using leaf spectra and concurrent gas-exchange measurements. The models for each variable captured the pronounced temperature sensitivity of plants, and integrated the significant variability in metabolism across species

  7. Relationship between the Relative Limitation and Resorption Efficiency of Nitrogen vs Phosphorus in Woody Plants

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Luying; Chen, Yahan; Fang, Jingyun

    2013-01-01

    Most previous studies have ascribed variations in the resorption of a certain plant nutrient to its corresponding environmental availability or level in tissues, regardless of the other nutrients’ status. However, given that plant growth relies on both sufficient and balanced nutrient supply, the nutrient resorption process should not only be related to the absolute nutrient status, but also be regulated by the relative limitation of the nutrient. Here, based on a global woody-plants dataset from literature, we test the hypothesis that plants resorb proportionately more nitrogen (or phosphorus) when they are nitrogen (or phosphorus) limited, or similar proportions of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) when co-limited by both nutrients (the relative resorption hypothesis). Using the N:P ratio in green foliage as an indicator of nutrient limitation, we found an inverse relationship between the difference in the proportionate resorption of N vs P and this foliar N:P ratio, consistent across species, growth-forms, and vegetation-types globally. Moreover, according to the relative resorption hypothesis, communities with higher/lower foliar N:P (more likely P/N limited) tend to produce litter with disproportionately higher/lower N:P, causing a worsening status of P/N availability; this positive feedback may somehow be counteracted by several negative-feedback mechanisms. Compared to N, P generally shows higher variability in resorption efficiency (proportion resorbed), and higher resorption sensitivity to nutrient availability, implying that the resorption of P seems more important for plant nutrient conservation and N:P stoichiometry. Our findings elucidate the nutrient limitation effects on resorption efficiency in woody plants at the global scale, and thus can improve the understanding of nutrient resorption process in plants. This study also suggests the importance of the foliar N:P ratio as a key parameter for biogeochemical modeling, and the relative resorption

  8. State factor relationships of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen losses from unpolluted temperate forest watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, S.S.; Hedin, L.O.

    2007-01-01

    We sampled 100 unpolluted, old-growth forested watersheds, divided among 13 separate study areas over 5 years in temperate southern Chile and Argentina, to evaluate relationships among dominant soil-forming state factors and dissolved carbon and nitrogen concentrations in watershed streams. These watersheds provide a unique opportunity to examine broad-scale controls over carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in the absence of significant human disturbance from chronic N deposition and land use change. Variations in the ratio dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to nitrogen (DON) in watershed streams differed by underlying soil parent material, with average C:N = 29 for watersheds underlain by volcanic ash and basalt versus C:N = 73 for sedimentary and metamorphic parent materials, consistent with stronger adsorption of low C:N hydrophobic materials by amorphous clays commonly associated with volcanic ash and basalt weathering. Mean annual precipitation was related positively to variations in both DOC (range: 0.2-9.7 mg C/L) and DON (range: 0.008-0.135 mg N/L) across study areas, suggesting that variations in water volume and concentration may act synergistically to influence C and N losses across dry to wet gradients in these forest ecosystems. Dominance of vegetation by broadleaf versus coniferous trees had negligible effects on organic C and N concentrations in comparison to abiotic factors. We conclude that precipitation volume and soil parent material are important controls over chemical losses of dissolved organic C and N from unpolluted temperate forest watersheds. Our results raise the possibility that biotic imprints on watershed C and N losses may be less pronounced in naturally N-poor forests than in areas impacted by land use change and chronic N deposition. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Relationship between the relative limitation and resorption efficiency of nitrogen vs phosphorus in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Luying; Chen, Yahan; Fang, Jingyun

    2013-01-01

    Most previous studies have ascribed variations in the resorption of a certain plant nutrient to its corresponding environmental availability or level in tissues, regardless of the other nutrients' status. However, given that plant growth relies on both sufficient and balanced nutrient supply, the nutrient resorption process should not only be related to the absolute nutrient status, but also be regulated by the relative limitation of the nutrient. Here, based on a global woody-plants dataset from literature, we test the hypothesis that plants resorb proportionately more nitrogen (or phosphorus) when they are nitrogen (or phosphorus) limited, or similar proportions of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) when co-limited by both nutrients (the relative resorption hypothesis). Using the N:P ratio in green foliage as an indicator of nutrient limitation, we found an inverse relationship between the difference in the proportionate resorption of N vs P and this foliar N:P ratio, consistent across species, growth-forms, and vegetation-types globally. Moreover, according to the relative resorption hypothesis, communities with higher/lower foliar N:P (more likely P/N limited) tend to produce litter with disproportionately higher/lower N:P, causing a worsening status of P/N availability; this positive feedback may somehow be counteracted by several negative-feedback mechanisms. Compared to N, P generally shows higher variability in resorption efficiency (proportion resorbed), and higher resorption sensitivity to nutrient availability, implying that the resorption of P seems more important for plant nutrient conservation and N:P stoichiometry. Our findings elucidate the nutrient limitation effects on resorption efficiency in woody plants at the global scale, and thus can improve the understanding of nutrient resorption process in plants. This study also suggests the importance of the foliar N:P ratio as a key parameter for biogeochemical modeling, and the relative resorption

  10. Ubiquitin ligase ATL31 functions in leaf senescence in response to the balance between atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen availability in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Shoki; Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Lu, Yu; Morita, Yoshie; Sato, Takeo; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2014-02-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are essential elements for metabolism, and their availability, called the C/N balance, must be tightly coordinated for optimal growth in plants. Previously, we have identified the ubiquitin ligase CNI1/ATL31 as a novel C/N regulator by screening plants grown on C/N stress medium containing excess sugar and limited N. To elucidate further the effect of C/N balance on plant growth and to determine the physiological function of ATL31, we performed C/N response analysis using an atmospheric CO2 manipulation system. Under conditions of elevated CO2 and sufficient N, plant biomass and total sugar and starch dramatically increased. In contrast, elevated CO2 with limited N did not increase plant biomass but promoted leaf chlorosis, with anthocyanin accumulation and increased senescence-associated gene expression. Similar results were obtained with plants grown in medium containing excess sugar and limited N, suggesting that disruption of the C/N balance affects senescence progression. In ATL31-overexpressing plants, promotion of senescence under disrupted CO2/N conditions was repressed, whereas in the loss-of-function mutant it was enhanced. The ATL31 gene was transcriptionally up-regulated under N deficiency and in senescent leaves, and ATL31 expression was highly correlated with WRKY53 expression, a key regulator of senescence. Furthermore, transient protoplast analysis implicated the direct activation of ATL31 expression by WRKY53, which was in accordance with the results of WRKY53 overexpression experiments. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of C/N balance in leaf senescence and the involvement of ubiquitin ligase ATL31 in the process of senescence in Arabidopsis.

  11. Influence of atmospheric [CO2] on growth, carbon allocation and cost of plant tissues on leaf nitrogen concentration maintenance in nodulated Medicago sativa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereyra, Gabriela; Hartmann, Henrik; Ziegler, Waldemar; Michalzik, Beate; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel; Trumbore, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Plant carbon (C) allocation and plant metabolic processes (i.e. photosynthesis and respiration) can be affected by changes in C availability, for example from changing atmospheric [CO2]. In nodulated plants, C availability may also influence nitrogen (N) fixation by bacteriods. But C allocation and N fixation are often studied independently and hence do not allow elucidating interactive effects. We investigated how different atmospheric [CO2] (Pleistocene: 170 ppm, ambient: 400 ppm and projected future: 700 ppm) influence plant growth, allocation to nodules, and the ratio of photosynthesis-to-respiration (R:A) as an indicator of C cost in Medicago sativa inoculated with Ensifer meliloti. M. sativa grew c. 38% more nodules at 400 ppm and 700 ppm than at 170 ppm. However, ratios of above- and belowground plant biomass to nodule biomass were constant over time and independent of atmospheric [CO2]. Total non-structural carbohydrate concentrations were not significantly different between plants grown at 400 and 700 ppm, but were four to five-fold higher than in 170 ppm plants. Leaf level N concentration was similar across treatments, but N-based photosynthetic rates were 82% and 93% higher in leaves of plants grown at 400 and 700 ppm, respectively, than plants grown at 170 ppm. In addition, leaf R:A was greater (48% or 55%) in plants grown at 170 ppm than plants grown at 400 and 700 ppm. Similarly, the greatest proportion of assimilated CO2 released by root respiration occurred in rhizobial plants growing at 170 ppm. Our results suggest that C limitation in nodulated Medicago sativa plants did not influence C allocation to nodule biomass but caused a proportionally greater allocation of C to belowground respiration, most likely to bacteriods. This suggests that N tissue concentration was maintained at low [CO2] by revving up bacteriod metabolism and at the expense of non-structural carbohydrate reserves.

  12. Arabidopsis thaliana ggt1 photorespiratory mutants maintain leaf carbon/nitrogen balance by reducing RuBisCO content and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Dellero, Younès; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Jossier, Mathieu; Hodges, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic and physiological analyses of glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (GGT1) mutants were performed at the global leaf scale to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their photorespiratory growth phenotype. Air-grown ggt1 mutants showed retarded growth and development, that was not observed at high CO2 (3000 μL L(-1) ). When compared to wild-type (WT) plants, air-grown ggt1 plants exhibited glyoxylate accumulation, global changes in amino acid amounts including a decrease in serine content, lower organic acid levels, and modified ATP/ADP and NADP(+) /NADPH ratios. When compared to WT plants, their net CO2 assimilation rates (An ) were 50% lower and this mirrored decreases in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) contents. High CO2 -grown ggt1 plants transferred to air revealed a rapid decrease of An and photosynthetic electron transfer rate while maintaining a high energetic state. Short-term (a night period and 4 h of light) transferred ggt1 leaves accumulated glyoxylate and exhibited low serine contents, while other amino acid levels were not modified. RuBisCO content, activity and activation state were not altered after a short-term transfer while the ATP/ADP ratio was lowered in ggt1 rosettes. However, plant growth and RuBisCO levels were both reduced in ggt1 leaves after a long-term (12 days) acclimation to air from high CO2 when compared to WT plants. The data are discussed with respect to a reduced photorespiratory carbon recycling in the mutants. It is proposed that the low An limits nitrogen-assimilation, this decreases leaf RuBisCO content until plants attain a new homeostatic state that maintains a constant C/N balance and leads to smaller, slower growing plants. PMID:26216646

  13. Arabidopsis thaliana ggt1 photorespiratory mutants maintain leaf carbon/nitrogen balance by reducing RuBisCO content and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Dellero, Younès; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Jossier, Mathieu; Hodges, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic and physiological analyses of glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (GGT1) mutants were performed at the global leaf scale to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their photorespiratory growth phenotype. Air-grown ggt1 mutants showed retarded growth and development, that was not observed at high CO2 (3000 μL L(-1) ). When compared to wild-type (WT) plants, air-grown ggt1 plants exhibited glyoxylate accumulation, global changes in amino acid amounts including a decrease in serine content, lower organic acid levels, and modified ATP/ADP and NADP(+) /NADPH ratios. When compared to WT plants, their net CO2 assimilation rates (An ) were 50% lower and this mirrored decreases in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) contents. High CO2 -grown ggt1 plants transferred to air revealed a rapid decrease of An and photosynthetic electron transfer rate while maintaining a high energetic state. Short-term (a night period and 4 h of light) transferred ggt1 leaves accumulated glyoxylate and exhibited low serine contents, while other amino acid levels were not modified. RuBisCO content, activity and activation state were not altered after a short-term transfer while the ATP/ADP ratio was lowered in ggt1 rosettes. However, plant growth and RuBisCO levels were both reduced in ggt1 leaves after a long-term (12 days) acclimation to air from high CO2 when compared to WT plants. The data are discussed with respect to a reduced photorespiratory carbon recycling in the mutants. It is proposed that the low An limits nitrogen-assimilation, this decreases leaf RuBisCO content until plants attain a new homeostatic state that maintains a constant C/N balance and leads to smaller, slower growing plants.

  14. C:N:P stoichiometry and leaf traits of halophytes in an arid saline environment, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lilong; Zhao, Guanxiang; Li, Meng; Zhang, Mingting; Zhang, Lifang; Zhang, Xinfang; An, Lizhe; Xu, Shijian

    2015-01-01

    Salinization is an important and increasingly prevalent issue which has broad and profound effects on plant survival and distribution pattern. To understand the patterns and potential drivers of leaf traits in saline environments, we determined the soil properties, leaf morphological traits (specific leaf area, SLA, and leaf dry matter content, LDMC), leaf chemical traits (leaf carbon, C, nitrogen, N, and phosphorus, P, stoichiometry) based on 142 observations collected from 23 sites in an arid saline environment, which is a vulnerable ecosystem in northwest China. We also explored the relationships among leaf traits, the responses of leaf traits, and plant functional groups (herb, woody, and succulent woody) to various saline environments. The arid desert halophytes were characterized by lower leaf C and SLA levels, higher N, but stable P and N:P. The leaf morphological traits were correlated significantly with the C, N, and P contents across all observations, but they differed within each functional group. Succulent woody plants had the lowest leaf C and highest leaf N levels among the three functional groups. The growth of halophytes might be more limited by N rather than P in the study area. GLM analysis demonstrated that the soil available nutrients and plant functional groups, but not salinity, were potential drivers of leaf C:N:P stoichiometry in halophytes, whereas species differences accounted for the largest contributions to leaf morphological variations. Our study provides baseline information to facilitate the management and restoration of arid saline desert ecosystem.

  15. C:N:P Stoichiometry and Leaf Traits of Halophytes in an Arid Saline Environment, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lilong; Zhao, Guanxiang; Li, Meng; Zhang, Mingting; Zhang, Lifang; Zhang, Xinfang; An, Lizhe; Xu, Shijian

    2015-01-01

    Salinization is an important and increasingly prevalent issue which has broad and profound effects on plant survival and distribution pattern. To understand the patterns and potential drivers of leaf traits in saline environments, we determined the soil properties, leaf morphological traits (specific leaf area, SLA, and leaf dry matter content, LDMC), leaf chemical traits (leaf carbon, C, nitrogen, N, and phosphorus, P, stoichiometry) based on 142 observations collected from 23 sites in an arid saline environment, which is a vulnerable ecosystem in northwest China. We also explored the relationships among leaf traits, the responses of leaf traits, and plant functional groups (herb, woody, and succulent woody) to various saline environments. The arid desert halophytes were characterized by lower leaf C and SLA levels, higher N, but stable P and N:P. The leaf morphological traits were correlated significantly with the C, N, and P contents across all observations, but they differed within each functional group. Succulent woody plants had the lowest leaf C and highest leaf N levels among the three functional groups. The growth of halophytes might be more limited by N rather than P in the study area. GLM analysis demonstrated that the soil available nutrients and plant functional groups, but not salinity, were potential drivers of leaf C:N:P stoichiometry in halophytes, whereas species differences accounted for the largest contributions to leaf morphological variations. Our study provides baseline information to facilitate the management and restoration of arid saline desert ecosystem. PMID:25798853

  16. 50 year trends in nitrogen use efficiency of world cropping systems: the relationship between yield and nitrogen input to cropland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassaletta, Luis; Billen, Gilles; Grizzetti, Bruna; Anglade, Juliette; Garnier, Josette

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) is crucial for crop productivity. However, nowadays more than half of the N added to cropland is lost to the environment, wasting the resource, producing threats to air, water, soil and biodiversity, and generating greenhouse gas emissions. Based on FAO data, we have reconstructed the trajectory followed, in the past 50 years, by 124 countries in terms of crop yield and total nitrogen inputs to cropland (manure, synthetic fertilizer, symbiotic fixation and atmospheric deposition). During the last five decades, the response of agricultural systems to increased nitrogen fertilization has evolved differently in the different world countries. While some countries have improved their agro-environmental performances, in others the increased fertilization has produced low agronomical benefits and higher environmental losses. Our data also suggest that, in general, those countries using a higher proportion of N inputs from symbiotic N fixation rather than from synthetic fertilizer have a better N use efficiency.

  17. Relationship between sodium influx and salt tolerance of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, S.K.; Reddy, B.R.; Thomas, J.

    1987-08-01

    The relationship between sodium uptake and cyanobacterial salt (NaCl) tolerance has been examined in two filamentous, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing species of Anabaena. During diazotrophic growth at neutral pH of the growth medium, Anabaena sp. strain L-31, a freshwater strain, showed threefold higher uptake of Na+ than Anabaena torulosa, a brackish-water strain, and was considerably less salt tolerant (50% lethal dose of NaCl, 55 mM) than the latter (50% lethal dose of NaCl, 170 mM). Alkaline pH or excess K+ (more than 25 mM) in the medium causes membrane depolarization and inhibits Na+ influx in both cyanobacteria (S.K. Apte and J. Thomas, Eur. J. Biochem. 154:395-401, 1986). The presence of nitrate or ammonium in the medium caused inhibition of Na+ influx accompanied by membrane depolarization. These experimental manipulations affecting Na+ uptake demonstrated a good negative correlation between Na+ influx and salt tolerance. All treatments which inhibited Na+ influx (such as alkaline pH, K+ above 25 mM, NO3-, and NH4+), enhanced salt tolerance of not only the brackish-water but also the freshwater cyanobacterium. The results indicate that curtailment of Na+ influx, whether inherent or effected by certain environmental factors (e.g., combined nitrogen, alkaline pH), is a major mechanism of salt tolerance in cyanobacteria. (Refs. 27)

  18. Relationship between carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for lower trophic ecosystem in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, M. N.; Ishii, R.; Tadokoro, K.; Smith, S. L.; Wada, E.

    2012-12-01

    To examine the relationship between carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) along food chains, we analyzed using the data from the Oyashio waters at the western North Pacific (samples collected from March to October 2009), the warm-core ring 86-B derived from the Kuroshio extension region (preserved samples), and previously published data from the Gulf of Alaska and Antarctic Ocean. The statistical analysis suggested a common slope of δ15N versus δ13C (Δδ15N/Δδ13C) among regions. We attribute this similarity to common physiological aspects of feeding processes (e.g., kinetic isotope effects inherent in the processes of amino acid synthesis). We also compared seasonal differences seasonal in Δδ15N/Δδ13C for the euphotic layers of the Oyashio waters. The Δδ15N/Δδ13C slope of the food chain during the spring bloom differs from its common value in other seasons. If we could better understand both carbon and nitrogen trophic fractionation within ecosystems, the stable isotope ratios may help to elucidate migratory behavior of higher trophic levels such as fishes in marine ecosystems as well as frame work of biogeochemical cycles in question.

  19. [The analysis of the causes of variability of the relationship between leaf dry mass and area in plants].

    PubMed

    Vasfilov, S P

    2011-01-01

    The lamina dry mass: area ratio (LMA - Leaf Mass per Area) is a quite variable trait. Leaf dry mass consists of symplast mass (a set of all leaf protoplasts) and apoplast mass (a set of all cell walls in a leaf). The ratio between symplast and apoplast masses is positively related to any functional trait of leaf calculated per unit of dry mass. The value of this ratio is defined by cells size and their number per unit of leaf area, number of mesophyll cells layers and their differentiation between palisade and spongy ones, and also by density of cells packing. The LMA value is defined by leaf thickness and density. The extent and direction of variability in both leaf traits define the extent and direction of variability in LMA. Negative correlation between leaf thickness and density reduces the level of LMA variability. As a consequence of this correlation the following pattern emerges: the thinner a leaf, the denser it is. Changes in the traits that define the LMA value take place both within a species under the influence of environmental factors and between species that differ in leaf structure and functions. Light is the most powerful environmental factor that influences the LMA, increase in illumination leading to increase in LMA. This effect occurs during leaf growth at the expense of structural changes associated with the reduction of symplast/apoplast mass ratio. Under conditions of intense illumination, LMA may increase due to accumulation of starch. With regard to the majority of leaf functions, the mass of starch may be ascribed to apoplast. Starch accumulation in leaves is observed also under conditions of elevated CO2 concentration in the air. Under high illumination, however, LMA increases also due to increased apoplast contribution to leaf dry mass. Scarce mineral nutrition leads to LMA increase due to lowering of growth zones demands for phothosyntates and, therefore, to increase in starch content of leaves. High level of mineral nutrition during

  20. Spectral characterization of biophysical characteristics in a boreal forest: Relationship between Thematic Mapper band reflectance and leaf area index for Aspen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G.; Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Carnes, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Results from analysis of a data set of simultaneous measurements of Thematic Mapper band reflectance and leaf area index are presented. The measurements were made over pure stands of Aspen in the Superior National Forest of northern Minnesota. The analysis indicates that the reflectance may be sensitive to the leaf area index of the Aspen early in the season. The sensitivity disappears as the season progresses. Based on the results of model calculations, an explanation for the observed relationship is developed. The model calculations indicate that the sensitivity of the reflectance to the Aspen overstory depends on the amount of understory present.

  1. Spectral characterization of biophysical characteristics in a boreal forest - Relationship between Thematic Mapper band reflectance and leaf area index for Aspen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Carnes, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Results from analysis of a data set of simultaneous measurements of Thematic Mapper band reflectance and leaf area index are presented. The measurements were made over pure stands of Aspen in the Superior National Forest of northern Minnesota. The analysis indicates that the reflectance may be sensitive to the leaf area index of the Aspen early in the season. The sensitivity disappears as the season progresses. Based on the results of model calculations, an explanation for the observed relationship is developed. The model calculations indicate that the sensitivity of the reflectance to the Aspen overstory depends on the amount of understory present.

  2. Inverse relationship between splenomegaly and stem cell compartment size in mice treated with nitrogen mustard.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R H; Sharp, J G; Zajic, G H; Anderson, R W

    1977-04-01

    Following the administration of similar doses of nitrogen mustard (4 mg/kg) to different strains of mice, wide variations in the subsequent degree of splenomegaly were observed, implying strain differences in the role of the spleen in the compensatory erythropoietic response to haematopoietic stress. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether or not these differences were related to the size of the haematopoietic stem cell compartment size in the various strains of mice. Groups of 4 different strains of mice (Swiss Webster, A/J, C57BL/6J and CS1/ASH) were injected i.v. with nitrogen mustard (4 mg/kg body weight) and autopsied at regular intervals up to 20 d post-injection. At autopsy, the wet weight of the spleen was determined. Subsequently, groups of the same 4 strains of mice were exposed to single doses of wholebody gamma-irradiation in the range of 500-900 rads. 9 d after gamma-irradiation the mice were autopsied, their spleens removed, and the number of endogenous spleen colonies determined. The greatest degree of splenomegaly was observed in the C57BL/6J mice. The Swiss Webster mice showed no splenomegaly during the time period studied. There existed a linear inverse relationship between the maximum degree of splenomegaly observed and the dose of wholebody gamma-irradiation required to completely eliminate endogenous spleen colonies. This data is in accord with the hypothesis that there exists an inverse relationship between the extent of splenomegaly observed following haematopoietic stress and the haematopoietic stem cell compartment size.

  3. Quantitative Relationships between Photosynthetic, Nitrogen Fixing, and Fermentative H2 Metabolism in a Photosynthetic Microbial Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Albert, Daniel B.; Bebout, Brad M.; Turk, Kendra A.; DesMarais, David J.

    2004-01-01

    The ultimate potential of any microbial ecosystem to contribute chemically to its environment - and therefore, to impact planetary biogeochemistry or to generate recognizable biosignatures - depends not only on the individual metabolic capabilities of constituent organisms, but also on how those capabilities are expressed through interactions with neighboring organisms. This is particularly important for microbial mats, which compress an extremely broad range of metabolic potential into a small and dynamic system. H2 participates in many of these metabolic processes, including the major elemental cycling processes of photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, sulfate reduction, and fermentation, and may therefore serve as a mediator of microbial interactions within the mat system. Collectively, the requirements of energy, electron transfer, and biomass element stoichiometry suggest quantitative relationships among the major element cycling processes, as regards H2 metabolism We determined experimentally the major contributions to 32 cycling in hypersaline microbial mats from Baja California, Mexico, and compared them to predicted relationships. Fermentation under dark, anoxic conditions is quantitatively the most important mechanism of H2 production, consistent with expectations for non-heterocystous mats such as those under study. Up to 16% of reducing equivalents fixed by photosynthesis during the day may be released by this mechanism. The direct contribution of nitrogen fixation to H2 production is small in comparison, but this process may indirectly stimulate substantial H2 generation, by requiring higher rates of fermentation. Sulfate reduction, aerobic consumption, diffusive and ebulitive loss, and possibly H2-based photoreduction of CO2 serve as the principal H2 sinks. Collectively, these processes interact to create an orders-of-magnitude daily variation in H2 concentrations and fluxes, and thereby in the oxidation-reduction potential that is imposed on microbial

  4. Nitrogen isotope relationships between crops and fertilizer: implications for using nitrogen isotope analysis as an indicator of agricultural regime.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Alison S; Kelly, Simon D; Jickells, Timothy D

    2005-07-13

    The effect of fertilizer type, amount of fertilizer applied, growing medium, and water type on the nitrogen-15 content of carrots, tomatoes, and lettuces has been investigated. Crops grown using synthetic nitrogen fertilizer were isotopically lighter than those grown using pelleted chicken manure. For example, for equivalent amounts of nitrogen applied, carrots grown with ammonium nitrate fertilizer had delta15N values between 3 per thousand and 4 per thousand lower than those grown using pelleted chicken manure. Plants grown in peat-based compost were generally found to be isotopically lighter than those grown in composted bark based compost. Results suggest that nitrate content and the delta15N of the nitrate in irrigation water may also influence crop delta15N. Wider implications of using crop delta15N more generally as an indicator of whether synthetic nitrogen fertilizers have been applied to a crop and the possible application and limitations of using crop delta15N as an indicator of agricultural regime (organic/conventional) are discussed. PMID:15998145

  5. Relationship between ammonia stomatal compensation point and nitrogen metabolism in arable crops: current status of knowledge and potential modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Massad, Raia Silvia; Loubet, Benjamin; Tuzet, Andrée; Cellier, Pierre

    2008-08-01

    The ammonia stomatal compensation point of plants is determined by leaf temperature, ammonium concentration ([NH4+]apo) and pH of the apoplastic solution. The later two depend on the adjacent cells metabolism and on leaf inputs and outputs through the xylem and phloem. Until now only empirical models have been designed to model the ammonia stomatal compensation point, except the model of Riedo et al. (2002. Coupling soil-plant-atmosphere exchange of ammonia with ecosystem functioning in grasslands. Ecological Modelling 158, 83-110), which represents the exchanges between the plant's nitrogen pools. The first step to model the ammonia stomatal compensation point is to adequately model [NH4+]apo. This [NH4+]apo has been studied experimentally, but there are currently no process-based quantitative models describing its relation to plant metabolism and environmental conditions. This study summarizes the processes involved in determining the ammonia stomatal compensation point at the leaf scale and qualitatively evaluates the ability of existing whole plant N and C models to include a model for [NH4+]apo.

  6. Exobasidium maculosum, a new species causing leaf and fruit spots on blueberry in the southeastern USA and its relationship with other Exobasidium spp. parasitic to blueberry and cranberry.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Marin Talbot; Turner, Ashley N; Brannen, Phillip M; Cline, William O; Richardson, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus) is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA. To determine whether this disease is caused by a new species of Exobasidium, we studied the morphology and phylogenetic relationship of the causal fungus compared with other members of the genus, including the type species E. vaccinii and other species that parasitize blueberry and cranberry (V. macrocarpon). Both scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy were used for morphological characterization. For phylogenetic analyses, we sequenced the large subunit of the rDNA (LSU) from 10 isolates collected from leaf or fruit spots of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum), highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium interspecific hybrid) from Georgia and North Carolina and six isolates from leaf spots of lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium) from Maine and Nova Scotia, Canada. LSU was sequenced from isolates causing red leaf disease of lowbush blueberry and red leaf spot (E. rostrupii) and red shoot (E. perenne) of cranberry. In addition, LSU sequences from GenBank, including sequences with high similarity to the emerging parasite and from Exobasidium spp. parasitizing other Vaccinium spp. and related hosts, were obtained. All sequences were aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results indicated that the emerging parasite in the southeastern USA differs morphologically and phylogenetically from other described species and is described herein as Exobasidium maculosum. Within the southeastern USA, clustering based on host species, host tissue type (leaf or fruit) or geographic region was not detected; however, leaf spot isolates from lowbush blueberry were genetically different and likely represent a unique species.

  7. Global poplar root and leaf transcriptomes reveal links between growth and stress responses under nitrogen starvation and excess.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Zhou, Jing; Li, Hong; Shi, Wenguang; Polle, Andrea; Lu, Mengzhu; Sun, Xiaomei; Luo, Zhi-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) starvation and excess have distinct effects on N uptake and metabolism in poplars, but the global transcriptomic changes underlying morphological and physiological acclimation to altered N availability are unknown. We found that N starvation stimulated the fine root length and surface area by 54 and 49%, respectively, decreased the net photosynthetic rate by 15% and reduced the concentrations of NH4+, NO3(-) and total free amino acids in the roots and leaves of Populus simonii Carr. in comparison with normal N supply, whereas N excess had the opposite effect in most cases. Global transcriptome analysis of roots and leaves elucidated the specific molecular responses to N starvation and excess. Under N starvation and excess, gene ontology (GO) terms related to ion transport and response to auxin stimulus were enriched in roots, whereas the GO term for response to abscisic acid stimulus was overrepresented in leaves. Common GO terms for all N treatments in roots and leaves were related to development, N metabolism, response to stress and hormone stimulus. Approximately 30-40% of the differentially expressed genes formed a transcriptomic regulatory network under each condition. These results suggest that global transcriptomic reprogramming plays a key role in the morphological and physiological acclimation of poplar roots and leaves to N starvation and excess.

  8. Scale dependence in the effects of leaf ecophysiological traits on photosynthesis: Bayesian parameterization of photosynthesis models.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaohui; Dietze, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Relationships between leaf traits and carbon assimilation rates are commonly used to predict primary productivity at scales from the leaf to the globe. We addressed how the shape and magnitude of these relationships vary across temporal, spatial and taxonomic scales to improve estimates of carbon dynamics. Photosynthetic CO2 and light response curves, leaf nitrogen (N), chlorophyll (Chl) concentration and specific leaf area (SLA) of 25 grassland species were measured. In addition, C3 and C4 photosynthesis models were parameterized using a novel hierarchical Bayesian approach to quantify the effects of leaf traits on photosynthetic capacity and parameters at different scales. The effects of plant physiological traits on photosynthetic capacity and parameters varied among species, plant functional types and taxonomic scales. Relationships in the grassland biome were significantly different from the global average. Within-species variability in photosynthetic parameters through the growing season could be attributed to the seasonal changes of leaf traits, especially leaf N and Chl, but these responses followed qualitatively different relationships from the across-species relationship. The results suggest that one broad-scale relationship is not sufficient to characterize ecosystem condition and change at multiple scales. Applying trait relationships without articulating the scales may cause substantial carbon flux estimation errors. PMID:23952643

  9. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUMMER CONCENTRATIONS OF TOTAL NITROGEN AND CHLOROPHYLL A IN TEN COASTAL SYSTEMS IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have examined relationships between summer (JuneAugust) average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations in the near-shore Mid-Atlantic Bight and nine bays and estuaries in the eastern United States: Boston Harbor/Massachusetts Bay, Long I...

  10. SPATIAL AND TEMPROAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TOTAL NITROGEN AND PALNKTONIC CHLOROPHYLL IN LONG ISLAND SOUND: HOW STABLE ARE THEY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our purpose is to examine seasonal and year-to-year variability of relationships between concentrations of total nitrogen and chlorophyll in the water column of an estuary. Understanding this variability gives guidance to those developing methods to assess risk of eutrophication ...

  11. Relationships between nitrogen transformation rates and gene abundance in a riparian buffer soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Osmond, Deanna L; Graves, Alexandria K; Burchell, Michael R; Duckworth, Owen W

    2012-11-01

    Denitrification is a critical biogeochemical process that results in the conversion of nitrate to volatile products, and thus is a major route of nitrogen loss from terrestrial environments. Riparian buffers are an important management tool that is widely utilized to protect water from non-point source pollution. However, riparian buffers vary in their nitrate removal effectiveness, and thus there is a need for mechanistic studies to explore nitrate dynamics in buffer soils. The objectives of this study were to examine the influence of specific types of soluble organic matter on nitrate loss and nitrous oxide production rates, and to elucidate the relationships between these rates and the abundances of functional genes in a riparian buffer soil. Continuous-flow soil column experiments were performed to investigate the effect of three types of soluble organic matter (citric acid, alginic acid, and Suwannee River dissolved organic carbon) on rates of nitrate loss and nitrous oxide production. We found that nitrate loss rates increased as citric acid concentrations increased; however, rates of nitrate loss were weakly affected or not affected by the addition of the other types of organic matter. In all experiments, rates of nitrous oxide production mirrored nitrate loss rates. In addition, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was utilized to quantify the number of genes known to encode enzymes that catalyze nitrite reduction (i.e., nirS and nirK) in soil that was collected at the conclusion of column experiments. Nitrate loss and nitrous oxide production rates trended with copy numbers of both nir and 16s rDNA genes. The results suggest that low-molecular mass organic species are more effective at promoting nitrogen transformations than large biopolymers or humic substances, and also help to link genetic potential to chemical reactivity. PMID:22996400

  12. Relationships between nitrogen transformation rates and gene abundance in a riparian buffer soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Osmond, Deanna L; Graves, Alexandria K; Burchell, Michael R; Duckworth, Owen W

    2012-11-01

    Denitrification is a critical biogeochemical process that results in the conversion of nitrate to volatile products, and thus is a major route of nitrogen loss from terrestrial environments. Riparian buffers are an important management tool that is widely utilized to protect water from non-point source pollution. However, riparian buffers vary in their nitrate removal effectiveness, and thus there is a need for mechanistic studies to explore nitrate dynamics in buffer soils. The objectives of this study were to examine the influence of specific types of soluble organic matter on nitrate loss and nitrous oxide production rates, and to elucidate the relationships between these rates and the abundances of functional genes in a riparian buffer soil. Continuous-flow soil column experiments were performed to investigate the effect of three types of soluble organic matter (citric acid, alginic acid, and Suwannee River dissolved organic carbon) on rates of nitrate loss and nitrous oxide production. We found that nitrate loss rates increased as citric acid concentrations increased; however, rates of nitrate loss were weakly affected or not affected by the addition of the other types of organic matter. In all experiments, rates of nitrous oxide production mirrored nitrate loss rates. In addition, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was utilized to quantify the number of genes known to encode enzymes that catalyze nitrite reduction (i.e., nirS and nirK) in soil that was collected at the conclusion of column experiments. Nitrate loss and nitrous oxide production rates trended with copy numbers of both nir and 16s rDNA genes. The results suggest that low-molecular mass organic species are more effective at promoting nitrogen transformations than large biopolymers or humic substances, and also help to link genetic potential to chemical reactivity.

  13. Relationship between leaf antioxidants and ozone injury in Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' under environmental conditions in São Paulo, SE - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Marisia P.; Ferreira, Mauricio L.; Sant'Anna, Silvia M. R.; Domingos, Marisa; Souza, Silvia R.

    Previous studies have reported that the extent of leaf injury in Nicotiana tabacum "Bel-W3" exposed to environmental conditions in the city of São Paulo is influenced by weather conditions. This influence may occur by means of antioxidant responses. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate whether daily antioxidant responses to environmental variations interfere on the progression of leaf injury on plants of this cultivar during their exposure in a state park of São Paulo and to determine a linear combination of variables, among antioxidants and environmental factors, which mostly explain this visible response. Plants were exposed at the mentioned site for 14 days in four different experiments. During each experiment, three plants were daily sampled to determine the accumulated percentage of leaf area affected by necrosis and antioxidant responses (concentrations of total ascorbic acid (AA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidases (POD)). Ozone concentrations and weather conditions were also daily measured. Pearson correlations and multivariate analyses assessed the relationship between biological and environmental variables. Leaf injury appeared between the 3rd and 6th days of exposure and increased over the exposure periods. The daily concentrations of AA tended to decrease with time of exposure in all experiments, but the activity of SOD and POD oscillated during plant exposure. Positive correlations were observed between AA or SOD and O 3 concentrations, as well as negative correlations between AA and air temperature. The increasing percentage of leaf necrosis across the whole period was explained by decreasing levels of AA 2 days before injury estimation and by higher O 3 concentrations 5 days before ( R2 = 0.36; p < 0.001). The use of N. tabacum Bel-W3 as a bioindicator can be restricted by leaf antioxidant responses to both atmospheric contamination and weather conditions.

  14. A genetic relationship between nitrogen use efficiency and seedling root traits in maize as revealed by QTL analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengcheng; Chen, Fanjun; Cai, Hongguang; Liu, Jianchao; Pan, Qingchun; Liu, Zhigang; Gu, Riliang; Mi, Guohua; Zhang, Fusuo; Yuan, Lixing

    2015-06-01

    That root system architecture (RSA) has an essential role in nitrogen acquisition is expected in maize, but the genetic relationship between RSA and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) traits remains to be elucidated. Here, the genetic basis of RSA and NUE traits was investigated in maize using a recombination inbred line population that was derived from two lines contrasted for both traits. Under high-nitrogen and low-nitrogen conditions, 10 NUE- and 9 RSA-related traits were evaluated in four field environments and three hydroponic experiments, respectively. In contrast to nitrogen utilization efficiency (NutE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (NupE) had significant phenotypic correlations with RSA, particularly the traits of seminal roots (r = 0.15-0.31) and crown roots (r = 0.15-0.18). A total of 331 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected, including 184 and 147 QTLs for NUE- and RSA-related traits, respectively. These QTLs were assigned into 64 distinct QTL clusters, and ~70% of QTLs for nitrogen-efficiency (NUE, NupE, and NutE) coincided in clusters with those for RSA. Five important QTLs clusters at the chromosomal regions bin1.04, 2.04, 3.04, 3.05/3.06, and 6.07/6.08 were found in which QTLs for both traits had favourable effects from alleles coming from the large-rooted and high-NupE parent. Introgression of these QTL clusters in the advanced backcross-derived lines conferred mean increases in grain yield of ~14.8% for the line per se and ~15.9% in the testcross. These results reveal a significant genetic relationship between RSA and NUE traits, and uncover the most promising genomic regions for marker-assisted selection of RSA to improve NUE in maize.

  15. A genetic relationship between nitrogen use efficiency and seedling root traits in maize as revealed by QTL analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengcheng; Chen, Fanjun; Cai, Hongguang; Liu, Jianchao; Pan, Qingchun; Liu, Zhigang; Gu, Riliang; Mi, Guohua; Zhang, Fusuo; Yuan, Lixing

    2015-01-01

    That root system architecture (RSA) has an essential role in nitrogen acquisition is expected in maize, but the genetic relationship between RSA and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) traits remains to be elucidated. Here, the genetic basis of RSA and NUE traits was investigated in maize using a recombination inbred line population that was derived from two lines contrasted for both traits. Under high-nitrogen and low-nitrogen conditions, 10 NUE- and 9 RSA-related traits were evaluated in four field environments and three hydroponic experiments, respectively. In contrast to nitrogen utilization efficiency (NutE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (NupE) had significant phenotypic correlations with RSA, particularly the traits of seminal roots (r = 0.15–0.31) and crown roots (r = 0.15–0.18). A total of 331 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected, including 184 and 147 QTLs for NUE- and RSA-related traits, respectively. These QTLs were assigned into 64 distinct QTL clusters, and ~70% of QTLs for nitrogen-efficiency (NUE, NupE, and NutE) coincided in clusters with those for RSA. Five important QTLs clusters at the chromosomal regions bin1.04, 2.04, 3.04, 3.05/3.06, and 6.07/6.08 were found in which QTLs for both traits had favourable effects from alleles coming from the large-rooted and high-NupE parent. Introgression of these QTL clusters in the advanced backcross-derived lines conferred mean increases in grain yield of ~14.8% for the line per se and ~15.9% in the testcross. These results reveal a significant genetic relationship between RSA and NUE traits, and uncover the most promising genomic regions for marker-assisted selection of RSA to improve NUE in maize. PMID:25873660

  16. Leaf morphology of 40 evergreen and deciduous broadleaved subtropical tree species and relationships to functional ecophysiological traits.

    PubMed

    Kröber, W; Heklau, H; Bruelheide, H

    2015-03-01

    We explored potential of morphological and anatomical leaf traits for predicting ecophysiological key functions in subtropical trees. We asked whether the ecophysiological parameters stomatal conductance and xylem cavitation vulnerability could be predicted from microscopy leaf traits. We investigated 21 deciduous and 19 evergreen subtropical tree species, using individuals of the same age and from the same environment in the Biodiversity-Ecosystem Functioning experiment at Jiangxi (BEF-China). Information-theoretic linear model selection was used to identify the best combination of morphological and anatomical predictors for ecophysiological functions. Leaf anatomy and morphology strongly depended on leaf habit. Evergreen species tended to have thicker leaves, thicker spongy and palisade mesophyll, more palisade mesophyll layers and a thicker subepidermis. Over 50% of all evergreen species had leaves with multi-layered palisade parenchyma, while only one deciduous species (Koelreuteria bipinnata) had this. Interactions with leaf habit were also included in best multi-predictor models for stomatal conductance (gs ) and xylem cavitation vulnerability. In addition, maximum gs was positively related to log ratio of palisade to spongy mesophyll thickness. Vapour pressure deficit (vpd) for maximum gs increased with the log ratio of palisade to spongy mesophyll thickness in species having leaves with papillae. In contrast, maximum specific hydraulic conductivity and xylem pressure at which 50% loss of maximum specific xylem hydraulic conductivity occurred (Ψ50 ) were best predicted by leaf habit and density of spongy parenchyma. Evergreen species had lower Ψ50 values and lower maximum xylem hydraulic conductivities. As hydraulic leaf and wood characteristics were reflected in structural leaf traits, there is high potential for identifying further linkages between morphological and anatomical leaf traits and ecophysiological responses.

  17. Linking Xylem Hydraulic Conductivity and Vulnerability to the Leaf Economics Spectrum—A Cross-Species Study of 39 Evergreen and Deciduous Broadleaved Subtropical Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Zhang, Shouren; Ehmig, Merten; Bruelheide, Helge

    2014-01-01

    While the fundamental trade-off in leaf traits related to carbon capture as described by the leaf economics spectrum is well-established among plant species, the relationship of the leaf economics spectrum to stem hydraulics is much less known. Since carbon capture and transpiration are coupled, a close connection between leaf traits and stem hydraulics should be expected. We thus asked whether xylem traits that describe drought tolerance and vulnerability to cavitation are linked to particular leaf traits. We assessed xylem vulnerability, using the pressure sleeve technique, and anatomical xylem characteristics in 39 subtropical tree species grown under common garden conditions in the BEF-China experiment and tested for correlations with traits related to the leaf economics spectrum as well as to stomatal control, including maximum stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit at maximum stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficit at which stomatal conductance is down-regulated. Our results revealed that specific xylem hydraulic conductivity and cavitation resistance were closely linked to traits represented in the leaf economic spectrum, in particular to leaf nitrogen concentration, as well as to log leaf area and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio but not to any parameter of stomatal conductance. The study highlights the potential use of well-known leaf traits from the leaf economics spectrum to predict plant species' drought resistance. PMID:25423316

  18. Linking xylem hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to the leaf economics spectrum--a cross-species study of 39 evergreen and deciduous broadleaved subtropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Zhang, Shouren; Ehmig, Merten; Bruelheide, Helge

    2014-01-01

    While the fundamental trade-off in leaf traits related to carbon capture as described by the leaf economics spectrum is well-established among plant species, the relationship of the leaf economics spectrum to stem hydraulics is much less known. Since carbon capture and transpiration are coupled, a close connection between leaf traits and stem hydraulics should be expected. We thus asked whether xylem traits that describe drought tolerance and vulnerability to cavitation are linked to particular leaf traits. We assessed xylem vulnerability, using the pressure sleeve technique, and anatomical xylem characteristics in 39 subtropical tree species grown under common garden conditions in the BEF-China experiment and tested for correlations with traits related to the leaf economics spectrum as well as to stomatal control, including maximum stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit at maximum stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficit at which stomatal conductance is down-regulated. Our results revealed that specific xylem hydraulic conductivity and cavitation resistance were closely linked to traits represented in the leaf economic spectrum, in particular to leaf nitrogen concentration, as well as to log leaf area and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio but not to any parameter of stomatal conductance. The study highlights the potential use of well-known leaf traits from the leaf economics spectrum to predict plant species' drought resistance.

  19. Chronic nitrogen deposition alters tree allometric relationships: implications for biomass production and carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Inés; Zak, Donald R; Burton, Andrew J; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2016-04-01

    As increasing levels of nitrogen (N) deposition impact many terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the potential effects of higher N availability is critical for forecasting tree carbon allocation patterns and thus future forest productivity. Most regional estimates of forest biomass apply allometric equations, with parameters estimated from a limited number of studies, to forest inventory data (i.e., tree diameter). However most of these allometric equations cannot account for potential effects of increased N availability on biomass allocation patterns. Using 18 yr of tree diameter, height, and mortality data collected for a dominant tree species (Acer saccharum) in an atmospheric N deposition experiment, we evaluated how greater N availability affects allometric relationships in this species. After taking into account site and individual variability, our results reveal significant differences in allometric parameters between ambient and experimental N deposition treatments. Large trees under experimental N deposition reached greater heights at a given diameter; moreover, their estimated maximum height (mean ± standard deviation: 33.7 ± 0.38 m) was significantly higher than that estimated under the ambient condition (31.3 ± 0.31 m). Within small tree sizes (5-10 cm diameter) there was greater mortality under experimental N deposition, whereas the relative growth rates of small trees were greater under experimental N deposition. Calculations of stemwood biomass using our parameter estimates for the diameter-height relationship indicated the potential for significant biases in these estimates (~2.5%), with under predictions of stemwood biomass averaging 4 Mg/ha lower if ambient parameters were to be used to estimate stem biomass of trees in the experimental N deposition treatment. As atmospheric N deposition continues to increase into the future, ignoring changes in tree allometry will contribute to the uncertainty associated with aboveground carbon storage

  20. Chronic nitrogen deposition alters tree allometric relationships: implications for biomass production and carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Inés; Zak, Donald R; Burton, Andrew J; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2016-04-01

    As increasing levels of nitrogen (N) deposition impact many terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the potential effects of higher N availability is critical for forecasting tree carbon allocation patterns and thus future forest productivity. Most regional estimates of forest biomass apply allometric equations, with parameters estimated from a limited number of studies, to forest inventory data (i.e., tree diameter). However most of these allometric equations cannot account for potential effects of increased N availability on biomass allocation patterns. Using 18 yr of tree diameter, height, and mortality data collected for a dominant tree species (Acer saccharum) in an atmospheric N deposition experiment, we evaluated how greater N availability affects allometric relationships in this species. After taking into account site and individual variability, our results reveal significant differences in allometric parameters between ambient and experimental N deposition treatments. Large trees under experimental N deposition reached greater heights at a given diameter; moreover, their estimated maximum height (mean ± standard deviation: 33.7 ± 0.38 m) was significantly higher than that estimated under the ambient condition (31.3 ± 0.31 m). Within small tree sizes (5-10 cm diameter) there was greater mortality under experimental N deposition, whereas the relative growth rates of small trees were greater under experimental N deposition. Calculations of stemwood biomass using our parameter estimates for the diameter-height relationship indicated the potential for significant biases in these estimates (~2.5%), with under predictions of stemwood biomass averaging 4 Mg/ha lower if ambient parameters were to be used to estimate stem biomass of trees in the experimental N deposition treatment. As atmospheric N deposition continues to increase into the future, ignoring changes in tree allometry will contribute to the uncertainty associated with aboveground carbon storage

  1. Responses of two summer annuals to interactions of atmospheric carbon dioxide and soil nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The competitive relationship between Chenopodium album L. (C{sub 3}) and Amaranthus hybridus L. (C{sub 4}) was investigated in two atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and tow soil nitrogen levels. Biomass and leaf surface area of Amaranthus plants did not respond to CO{sub 2} enrichment. Only in high nitrogen did Chenopodium plants respond to increased CO{sub 2} with greater biomass and leaf surface area. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was higher in Amaranthus than in Chenopodium in all treatments except for the high-nitrogen high-CO{sub 2} treatment. Under conditions of high nitrogen and low CO{sub 2}, Chenopodium was a poor competitor, but competition favored Chenopodium in high nitrogen and high CO{sub 2}. In low nitrogen and high CO{sub 2}, competition favored Chenopodium on a dry weight basis, but favored Amaranthus on a seed weight basis, reflecting early senescence of Chenopodium. In low nitrogen and high CO{sub 2}, competition favored Amaranthus on a dry weight basis, but favored Chenopodium on a seed weight basis. Physiological aspects of the growth of Chenopodium and Amaranthus were studied. Acclimation to elevated CO{sub 2} occurred at the enzyme level in Chenopodium. Under conditions of high nitrogen and no competition, individual Chenopodium plants responded to elevated CO{sub 2} with greater biomass, leaf surface area, and maximum net photosynthetic rates. In high nitrogen, leaf nitrogen, soluble protein, and RuBP carboxylase activity of Chenopodium decreased and NUE increased when grown in elevated CO{sub 2}. In low nitrogen without competition, Chenopodium showed no significant response to CO{sub 2} enrichment. Amarantus grown in high and low nitrogen without competition showed no significant changes in leaf nitrogen, soluble protein, carboxylase activity, chlorophyll, or NUE of in response to CO{sub 2} enrichment.

  2. Remote sensing of forest canopy and leaf biochemical contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Matson, Pamela A.; Card, Don H.; Aber, John D.; Wessman, Carol; Swanberg, Nancy; Spanner, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Recent research on the remote sensing of forest leaf and canopy biochemical contents suggests that the shortwave IR region contains this information; laboratory analyses of dry ground leaves have yielded reliable predictive relationships between both leaf nitrogen and lignin with near-IR spectra. Attention is given to the application of these laboratory techniques to a limited set of spectra from fresh, whole leaves of conifer species. The analysis of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer data reveals that total water content variations in deciduous forest canopies appear as overall shifts in the brightness of raw spectra.

  3. Intraspecific growth and functional leaf trait responses to natural soil resource gradients for conifer species with contrasting leaf habit.

    PubMed

    Walters, Michael B; Gerlach, John P

    2013-03-01

    Interspecific relationships among species mean leaf traits, performance and species resource/climate distributions help provide the foundation for a predictive, functionally based plant ecology. Intraspecific responses of leaf traits and performance to resource gradients and how these vary among species may be equally important but have received less attention. Here, we examine relationships between proxies of soil resource availability, leaf traits and growth (height at 25 years, SI25) for winter deciduous Larix decidua Mill. and evergreen Pinus resinosa Ait. trees distributed over soil resource gradients in the Great Lakes region of North America. We predicted that (i) leaf trait responses to soil resources within species will be similar to reported distributions of mean leaf traits over soil resource gradients among species; (ii) soil resource-related variation in leaf traits can help explain SI25; and (iii) SI25 will be greater for Larix than Pinus at higher soil resources and greater for Pinus than Larix at lower soil resources and this pattern will be associated with species differences in leaf trait responses to soil resources. Among the measured leaf traits (live N, Mg, Ca, K, P, and Mn, litter N, N resorption, carbon isotope discrimination, specific leaf area, lifespan), soil resources only impacted live and litter N for both species and K for Pinus. In turn, only the leaf traits responsive to soil resources affected SI25 in the expected manner. Larix had greater SI25 than Pinus across soil resource gradients and both species had similar growth and leaf trait sensitivities to resources. In summary: (i) several leaf traits reported to be associated with performance and edaphic distributions across species were, within species, unresponsive to nitrogen and water availability and unrelated to growth; (ii) leaf N showed high plasticity to soil resources and this plasticity was functionally relevant to growth over its entire range of response; (iii) large

  4. [Temporal-spatial distribution of agricultural diffuse nitrogen pollution and relationship with soil respiration and nitrification].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ouyang; Cai, Guan-Qing; Huang, Hao-Bo; Geng, Xiao-Jun

    2014-06-01

    The soil respiration, nitrification and denitrification processes play an important role on soil nitrogen transformation and diffuse nitrogen loading. These processes are also the chains for soil circle. In this study, the Zhegao watershed located north of Chaohu Lake was selected to explore the interactions of these processes with diffuse nitrogen pollution. The BaPS (Barometric Process Separation) was applied to analyze the soil respiration, nitrification and denitrification processes in farmland and forest. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) simulated the temporal and spatial pattern of diffuse nitrogen loading. As the expanding of farmland and higher level of fertilization, the yearly mean loading of diffuse nitrogen increased sustainably from 1980-1995 to 1996-2012. The monthly loading in 1996-2012 was also higher than that in the period of 1980-1995, which closely related to the precipitation. The statistical analysis indicated that there was a significant difference between two periods. The yearly averaged loading of the whole watershed in 1996-2012 was 10.40 kg x hm(-2), which was 8.10 kg x hm(-2) in 1980-1995. The variance analysis demonstrated that there was also a big difference between the spatial distributions of two periods. The forest soil had much higher soil respiration than the farmland soil. But the farmland had higher nitrification and denitrification rates. The more intensive nitrogen transformation in the farmland contributed to the less diffuse nitrogen loading. As the nitrification rate of farmland was higher than denitrification rate, agricultural diffuse nitrate nitrogen loading would increase and organic nitrogen loading would reduce. The analysis of soil respiration, nitrification and denitrification is helpful for the study of soil nitrogen circle form the aspect of soil biology, which also benefits the control of agricultural diffuse nitrogen pollution.

  5. [Leaf photosynthetic potential in canopy layers of un-thinned and thinned apple orchards].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-xiang; Wei, Qin-ping; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Lian-xin; Wang, Cui-ling; Sun, Xie-ping; Song, Kai

    2009-12-01

    Through the comparison of leaf photosynthetic potential and of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), leaf nitrogen concentration (Nl), and mass per unit leaf area (Ml) in different canopy layers of un-thinned orchard (UOD) and thinned orchard (TOD), this paper studied the effects of UOD rebuilding on the use efficiencies of PAR and nitrogen, and their relationships to the fruit yield and quality. Thinning obviously improved the radiation environment in canopy. The radiation distribution in TOD canopy was more uniformly than that in UOD canopy, and the invalid space with relative PAR (PARr) less than 30% in TOD approached to zero, while the minimum mean PARr in UOD was 17%, and the space under 0. 3 of relative canopy height was invalid. The leaf photosynthetic efficiency in TOD was notably improved. Comparing with that in UOD, the photsynthetic rate (Pn) at the middle and bottom of the canopy in TOD was increased by 7.8% and 10.2%, respectively. Meanwhile, the photosynthetic potential parameters such as maximum carboxylation rate (Vmax) and maximum electron transfer rate (Jmax) also increased remarkably in TOD. The leaf photosynthetic potential had significant correlation with Nl, and the Nl was strongly correlated with PARr. As a result, leaf photosynthetic potential and PARr could be estimated according to the spatial distribution of relative leaf nitrogen concentration (Nlr).

  6. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  7. Leaf traits and associated ecosystem characteristics across subtropical and timberline forests in the Gongga Mountains, Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tianxiang; Luo, Ji; Pan, Yude

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of how leaf characteristics might be used to deduce information on ecosystem functioning and how this scaling task could be done is limited. In this study, we present field data for leaf lifespan, specific leaf area (SLA) and mass and area-based leaf nitrogen concentrations (N(mass), N(area)) of dominant tree species and the associated stand foliage N-pool, leaf area index (LAI), root biomass, aboveground biomass, net primary productivity (NPP) and soil available-N content in six undisturbed forest plots along subtropical to timberline gradients on the eastern slope of the Gongga Mountains. We developed a methodology to calculate the whole-canopy mean leaf traits to include all tree species (groups) in each of the six plots through a series of weighted averages scaled up from leaf-level measurements. These defined whole-canopy mean leaf traits were equivalent to the traits of a leaf in regard to their interrelationships and altitudinal trends, but were more useful for large-scale pattern analysis of ecosystem structure and function. The whole-canopy mean leaf lifespan and leaf N(mass) mainly showed significant relationships with stand foliage N-pool, NPP, LAI and root biomass. In general, as elevation increased, the whole-canopy mean leaf lifespan and leaf N(area) and stand LAI and foliage N-pool increased to their maximum, whereas the whole-canopy mean SLA and leaf N(mass) and stand NPP and root biomass decreased from their maximum. The whole-canopy mean leaf lifespan and stand foliage N-pool both converged towards threshold-like logistic relationships with annual mean temperature and soil available-N variables. Our results are further supported by additional literature data in the Americas and eastern China.

  8. Leaf herbivory and decomposability in a Malaysian tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Hiroko; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2008-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence that similar suites of plant traits may affect leaf palatability and leaf litter decomposability. However, the possible association between leaf herbivory and litter decomposition rates across species in species-diverse natural ecosystems such as tropical rain forests remains unexplored, despite its importance in estimating the herbivory effects on carbon and nutrient cycling of ecosystems. We found no strong association between leaf herbivory and litter decomposition rates across 40 tree species in a Malaysian tropical rain forest, even though the leaf and litter traits were tightly correlated. This is because the leaf and litter traits related to herbivory and decomposition rates in the field were inconsistent. Leaf toughness accounted for only a small part of the variation in the herbivory rate, whereas a number of litter traits (the leaf mass per area, lignin to nitrogen ratio, and condensed tannin concentration) accurately predicted the decomposition rate across species. These results suggest that herbivory rate across species may not be strongly related to single leaf traits, probably because plant-herbivore interactions in tropical rain forests are highly diverse; on the other hand, plant-decomposer interactions are less specific and can be governed by litter chemicals. We also investigated two factors, phylogeny and tree functional types, that could affect the relationship between herbivory and decomposition across species. Phylogenetic relatedness among the species did not affect the relationship between herbivory and decomposition. In contrast, when the plants were segregated according to their leaf emergence pattern, we found a significant positive relationship between herbivory and decomposition rates for continuous-leafing species. In these species, the condensed tannin to N ratios in leaves and litter were related to herbivory and decomposition rates, respectively. However, we did not observe a similar trend for

  9. Relationship between efficiency of nitrogen utilization and isotopic nitrogen fractionation in dairy cows: contribution of digestion v. metabolism?

    PubMed

    Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Fouillet, H; Huneau, J F; Fanchone, A; Doreau, M; Nozière, P; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2016-02-01

    Animal tissues are naturally 15N enriched relative to their diet and the extent of this difference (Δ15Nanimal-diet) has been correlated to the efficiency of N assimilation in different species. The rationale is that transamination and deamination enzymes, involved in amino acid metabolism are likely to preferentially convert amino groups containing 14N over 15N. However, in ruminants the contribution of rumen bacterial metabolism relative to animal tissues metabolism to naturally enrich animal proteins in terms of 15N has been not assessed yet. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of rumen and digestion processes on the relationship between Δ15Nanimal-diet and efficiency of N utilization for milk protein yield (milk N efficiency (MNE); milk N yield/N intake) as well as the relationship between the 15N natural abundance of rumen bacteria and the efficiency of N use at the rumen level. Solid- and liquid-associated rumen bacteria, duodenal digesta, feces and plasma proteins were obtained (n=16) from four lactating Holstein cows fed four different diets formulated at two metabolizable protein supplies (80% v. 110% of protein requirements) crossed by two different dietary energy source (diets rich in starch v. fiber). We measured the isotopic N fractionation between animal and diet (Δ15Nanimal-diet) in these different body pools. The Δ15Nanimal-diet was negatively correlated with MNE when measured in solid-associated rumen bacteria, duodenal digesta, feces and plasma proteins, with the strongest correlation found for the latter. However, our results showed a very weak 15N enrichment of duodenal digesta (Δ15Nduodenal digesta-diet mean value=0.42) compared with that observed in plasma proteins (Δ15Nplasma protein-diet mean value=2.41). These data support the idea that most of the isotopic N fractionation observed in ruminant proteins (Δ15Nplasma protein-diet) has a metabolic origin with very little direct impact of the overall digestion process on

  10. Relationship between efficiency of nitrogen utilization and isotopic nitrogen fractionation in dairy cows: contribution of digestion v. metabolism?

    PubMed

    Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Fouillet, H; Huneau, J F; Fanchone, A; Doreau, M; Nozière, P; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2016-02-01

    Animal tissues are naturally 15N enriched relative to their diet and the extent of this difference (Δ15Nanimal-diet) has been correlated to the efficiency of N assimilation in different species. The rationale is that transamination and deamination enzymes, involved in amino acid metabolism are likely to preferentially convert amino groups containing 14N over 15N. However, in ruminants the contribution of rumen bacterial metabolism relative to animal tissues metabolism to naturally enrich animal proteins in terms of 15N has been not assessed yet. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of rumen and digestion processes on the relationship between Δ15Nanimal-diet and efficiency of N utilization for milk protein yield (milk N efficiency (MNE); milk N yield/N intake) as well as the relationship between the 15N natural abundance of rumen bacteria and the efficiency of N use at the rumen level. Solid- and liquid-associated rumen bacteria, duodenal digesta, feces and plasma proteins were obtained (n=16) from four lactating Holstein cows fed four different diets formulated at two metabolizable protein supplies (80% v. 110% of protein requirements) crossed by two different dietary energy source (diets rich in starch v. fiber). We measured the isotopic N fractionation between animal and diet (Δ15Nanimal-diet) in these different body pools. The Δ15Nanimal-diet was negatively correlated with MNE when measured in solid-associated rumen bacteria, duodenal digesta, feces and plasma proteins, with the strongest correlation found for the latter. However, our results showed a very weak 15N enrichment of duodenal digesta (Δ15Nduodenal digesta-diet mean value=0.42) compared with that observed in plasma proteins (Δ15Nplasma protein-diet mean value=2.41). These data support the idea that most of the isotopic N fractionation observed in ruminant proteins (Δ15Nplasma protein-diet) has a metabolic origin with very little direct impact of the overall digestion process on

  11. Non-stationary Concentration-Discharge Relationships for Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sediment for Nine Major Tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Ball, W. P.

    2015-12-01

    Derived from river water-quality monitoring data, concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships are a powerful tool for understanding nutrient and sediment dynamics. Here we first present a brief review of C-Q relationships documented in the scientific literature. Major categories of observed relationships for nutrient and sediment include: (a) "dilution" patterns (i.e., negative C-Q relationships), particularly for point-source dominated rivers; and (b) "concentration" patterns (i.e., positive C-Q relationships), particularly for nonpoint-source dominated rivers. In the second part of our work, we present a comprehensive evaluation of riverine C-Q patterns for multiple water-quality constituents for the nine major non-tidal tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Specifically, we have analyzed concentration data sets of total nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphate, and suspended sediment for the period between the 1980s and 2015. Separation of the monitoring data into non-overlapping decadal periods revealed clear non-stationarity in C-Q relationships for many of the selected site-constituent combinations. These temporal changes in C-Q relationships generally reflected changes in dominant watershed sources of nutrients and sediment (e.g., reduction in point-source dominance for total nitrogen in the Patuxent River due to technology upgrade at wastewater treatment plants) and are consistent with trends observed in previous research. The findings also highlight the potential pitfalls of assuming stationary C-Q relationships when estimating riverine concentrations and fluxes or analyzing their trends.

  12. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN OVER-ENRICHMENT ON SOME PLANT-SOIL RELATIONSHIPS AND MICROBIAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salt marshes of similar geomorphology and hydrology with varying watershed nitrogen loads were examined for differences in plant structure, soil characteristics, and
    denitrification. We observed landward encroachment of the low marsh Spartina alterniflora, and the displacement...

  13. Asymmetrical effects of mesophyll conductance on fundamental photosynthetic parameters and their relationships estimated from leaf gas exchange measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most previous analyses of leaf gas exchange measurements assumed an infinite value of mesophyll conductance (gm) and thus equaled CO2 partial pressures in the substomatal cavity and chloroplast. Yet an increasing number of studies have recognized that gm is finite and there is a drawdown of CO2 part...

  14. Transcriptional reprogramming and stimulation of leaf respiration by elevated CO2 concentration is diminished, but not eliminated, under limiting nitrogen supply.

    PubMed

    Markelz, R J Cody; Lai, Lisa X; Vosseler, Lauren N; Leakey, Andrew D B

    2014-04-01

    Plant respiration responses to elevated CO2 concentration ( [CO2 ] ) have been studied for three decades without consensus about the mechanism of response. Positive effects of elevated [CO2 ] on leaf respiration have been attributed to greater substrate supply resulting from stimulated photosynthesis. Negative effects of elevated [CO2 ] on leaf respiration have been attributed to reduced demand for energy for protein turnover assumed to result from lower leaf N content. Arabidopsis thaliana was grown in ambient (370 ppm) and elevated (750 ppm) [CO2 ] with limiting and ample N availabilities. The stimulation of leaf dark respiration was attenuated in limiting N (+12%) compared with ample N supply (+30%). This response was associated with smaller stimulation of photosynthetic CO2 uptake, but not interactive effects of elevated CO2 and N supply on leaf protein, amino acids or specific leaf area. Elevated [CO2 ] also resulted in greater abundance of transcripts for many components of the respiratory pathway. A greater transcriptional response to elevated [CO2 ] was observed in ample N supply at midday versus midnight, consistent with reports that protein synthesis is greatest during the day. Greater foliar expression of respiratory genes under elevated [CO2 ] has now been observed in diverse herbaceous species, suggesting a widely conserved response.

  15. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Kevin A; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M; Dawson, Todd E; Franks, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem-leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO₂ concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO₂ concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO₂ on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem-leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO₂ assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand.

  16. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, Kevin A.; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M.; Dawson, Todd E.; Franks, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem–leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO2 concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO2 on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem–leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO2 assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  17. Relationship between peroxyacetyl nitrate and nitrogen oxides in the clean troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Salas, L. J.; Ridley, B. A.; Shetter, J. D.; Donahue, N. M.

    1985-01-01

    The first study is presented in which the mixing ratios of peroxyactyl nitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, as well as those of peroxypropionyl nitrate and O3 and relevant meteorological parameters, were measured concurrently at a location that receives clean, continental air. The results show that, in clean conditions, nitrogen oxides present in the form of PAN can be as much or more abundant than the inorganic form. In addition, PAN can be an important source of peroxyacetyl radicals which may be important to oxidation processes in the gas as well as liquid phases.

  18. Relationships between stomatal behavior, xylem vulnerability to cavitation and leaf water relations in two cultivars of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea; Farinelli, Daniela; Palliotti, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Current understanding of physiological mechanisms governing stomatal behavior under water stress conditions is still incomplete and controversial. It has been proposed that coordination of stomatal kinetics with xylem vulnerability to cavitation [vulnerability curve (VC)] leads to different levels of isohydry/anisohydry in different plant species/cultivars. In this study, this hypothesis is tested in Vitis vinifera cultivars displaying contrasting stomatal behavior under drought stress. The cv Montepulciano (MP, near-isohydric) and Sangiovese (SG, anisohydric) were compared in terms of stomatal response to leaf and stem water potential, as possibly correlated to different petiole hydraulic conductivity (k(petiole)) and VC, as well as to leaf water relations parameters. MP leaves showed almost complete stomatal closure at higher leaf and stem water potentials than SG leaves. Moreover, MP petioles had higher maximum k(petiole) and were more vulnerable to cavitation than SG. Water potential at the turgor loss point was higher in MP than in SG. In SG, the percentage reduction of stomatal conductance (PLg(s)) under water stress was almost linearly correlated with corresponding percentage loss of k(petiole) (PLC), while in MP PLg(s) was less influenced by PLC. Our results suggest that V. vinifera near-isohydric and anisohydric genotypes differ in terms of xylem vulnerability to cavitation as well as in terms of k(petiole) and that the coordination of these traits leads to their different stomatal responses under water stress conditions.

  19. Leaf-age and soil-plant relationships: key factors for reporting trace-elements hyperaccumulation by plants and design applications.

    PubMed

    Losfeld, Guillaume; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Mc Coy, Stéphane; Grison, Claude; Jaffré, Tanguy

    2015-04-01

    Relationships between the trace-elements (TE) content of plants and associated soil have been widely investigated especially to understand the ecology of TE hyperaccumulating species to develop applications using TE phytoextraction. Many studies have focused on the possibility of quantifying the soil TE fraction available to plants, and used bioconcentration (BC) as a measure of the plants ability to absorb TE. However, BC only offers a static view of the dynamic phenomenon of TE accumulation. Accumulation kinetics are required to fully account for TE distributions in plants. They are also crucial to design applications where maximum TE concentrations in plant leaves are needed. This paper provides a review of studies of BC (i.e. soil-plant relationships) and leaf-age in relation to TE hyperaccumulation. The paper focuses of Ni and Mn accumulators and hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia who were previously overlooked until recent Ecocatalysis applications emerged for such species. Updated data on Mn hyperaccumulators and accumulators from New Caledonia are also presented and advocate further investigation of the hyperaccumulation of this element. Results show that leaf-age should be considered in the design of sample collection and allowed the reclassification of Grevillea meisneri known previously as a Mn accumulator to a Mn hyperaccumulator. PMID:25138558

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF NITROGEN LOADING - RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS FOR ESTUARINE WATERS USING AN EMPIRICAL COMPARATIVE SYSTEMS APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Atlantic Ecology Division (AED) has initiated a multi-year research program to develop empirical nitrogen load-response models for embayments in southern New England. This is part of a multi-regional effort to develop nutrient load-response models for the Gulf of Mex...

  1. Relationships between applied nitrogen fertilizer and postharvest propertied of sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the impact of nitrogen fertilizer rate on changes in processing quality of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) during postharvest storage. Based upon averages over three environments, seven fertilizer rates, and two storage intervals (30 and 90 days), each additional 43.2 kg ha-1 of nit...

  2. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NITROGEN OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRICAL GENERATING UNITS IN THE U.S. AND METEOROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from electrical generating units (EGUs) in the northeast US have declined dramatically during the past few years as a result of a series of air quality rules (RACT rule, Clean Air Act Amendments Title IV, and the NOx SIP call)....

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF NITROGEN LOADING-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS FOR ESTUARINE WATERS USING AN EMPIRICAL COMPARATIVE SYSTEMS APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that human activities have dramatically changed the amounts, distribution, and movement of major nutrient elements (nitrogen-N and phosphorus-P) in the landscape and have increased nutrient loading to receiving waters. Some of these changes affect use o...

  4. RELATIONSHIPS OF NITROGEN LOADINGS AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS WITH PLANT STRUCTURE IN NEW ENGLAND SALT MARSHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen enrichment is hypothesized to cause competitive displacement of dominant plants in New England salt marshes. In this Narragansett Bay, RI, field survey, we examined the vascular plant species richness and the extent, density, and height of Spartina species in ten marshe...

  5. Reactive nitrogen partitioning and its relationship to winter ozone events in Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, R. J.; Edwards, P. M.; Bates, T. S.; Cohen, R. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Gilman, J. B.; Holloway, J.; Kercher, J.; Koss, A.; Lee, L.; Lerner, B.; McLaren, R.; Quinn, P. K.; Roberts, J. M.; Stutz, J.; Thornton, J. A.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Williams, E.; Young, C. J.; Yuan, B.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-08-01

    High wintertime ozone levels have been observed in the Uintah Basin, Utah, a sparsely populated rural region with intensive oil and gas operations. The reactive nitrogen budget plays an important role in tropospheric ozone formation. Measurements were taken during three field campaigns in the winters of 2012, 2013, and 2014, which experienced varying climatic conditions. Average concentrations of ozone and total reactive nitrogen were observed to be 2.5 times higher in 2013 than 2012, with 2014 an intermediate year in most respects. However, photochemically active NOx(NO+NO2), remained remarkably similar all three years. Roughly half of the more oxidized forms of nitrogen were composed of nitric acid in 2013, with nighttime nitric acid formation through heterogeneous uptake of N2O5 contributing approximately 6 times more than daytime formation. The nighttime N2O5 lifetime between the high-ozone year 2013 and the low-ozone year 2012 is lower by a factor 2.6, and much of this is due to higher aerosol surface area in the high ozone year of 2013. A box-model simulation supports the importance of nighttime chemistry on the reactive nitrogen budget, showing a large sensitivity of NOx and ozone concentrations to nighttime processes.

  6. Relationships of Modeled Nitrogen Loads with Marsh Fish in the Narragansett Bay Estuary, Rhode Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human population and associated watershed development has risen steadily since the 1850s in Rhode Island, USA. With these increases, human-derived wastewater has also risen dramatically, resulting in increasing watershed nitrogen loads to estuarine systems. In this study, we...

  7. Leaf traits within communities: context may affect the mapping of traits to function.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jennifer L; Cornwell, William K

    2013-09-01

    The leaf economics spectrum (LES) has revolutionized the way many ecologists think about quantifying plant ecological trade-offs. In particular, the LES has connected a clear functional trade-off (long-lived leaves with slow carbon capture vs. short-lived leaves with fast carbon capture) to a handful of easily measured leaf traits. Building on this work, community ecologists are now able to quickly assess species carbon-capture strategies, which may have implications for community-level patterns such as competition or succession. However, there are a number of steps in this logic that require careful examination, and a potential danger arises when interpreting leaf-trait variation among species within communities where trait relationships are weak. Using data from 22 diverse communities, we show that relationships among three common functional traits (photosynthetic rate, leaf nitrogen concentration per mass, leaf mass per area) are weak in communities with low variation in leaf life span (LLS), especially communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous woody species. However, globally there are few LLS data sets for communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous species, and more data are needed to confirm this pattern. The context-dependent nature of trait relationships at the community level suggests that leaf-trait variation within communities, especially those dominated by herbaceous and deciduous woody species, should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24279259

  8. Congruence of intraspecific variability in leaf traits for two co-occurring estuarine angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Ainley, Lara B; Vergés, Adriana; Bishop, Melanie J

    2016-08-01

    Studies seeking to identify sources of variability and trade-offs in leaf traits have done so by assembling large databases of traits, across species and time points. It is unclear to what extent interspecific patterns derived in such a manner apply to intraspecific variation, particularly at regional scales, and the extent to which interspecific patterns vary temporally. We tested the hypothesis that the leaf traits of two foundation species, the mangrove Avicennia marina and the eelgrass Zostera muelleri, would display similar patterns of intraspecific variability across gradients of latitude and estuarine condition, that match previously reported interspecific patterns, and that persist through time. We found intraspecific patterns of decreasing carbon to nitrogen ratio and mechanical elasticity, and increasing nitrogen content with latitude that were consistent between the two plant species, and with previously reported interspecific patterns for other groups of species. Specific leaf area, leaf toughness and total phenolics, by contrast, displayed species-specific patterns that varied markedly through time. Relationships between estuarine condition and leaf traits were highly variable temporally, and also displayed markedly different patterns of intraspecific variability between the two species. Our study highlights the considerable within-species variation in leaf traits that should be accounted for in regional to biome scale analyses. Although some intraspecific patterns mirrored those found across species, at global scales, the considerable variability in other leaf traits between species and through time highlights the need to better understand the drivers and constraints of this intraspecific variation. PMID:27098661

  9. Congruence of intraspecific variability in leaf traits for two co-occurring estuarine angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Ainley, Lara B; Vergés, Adriana; Bishop, Melanie J

    2016-08-01

    Studies seeking to identify sources of variability and trade-offs in leaf traits have done so by assembling large databases of traits, across species and time points. It is unclear to what extent interspecific patterns derived in such a manner apply to intraspecific variation, particularly at regional scales, and the extent to which interspecific patterns vary temporally. We tested the hypothesis that the leaf traits of two foundation species, the mangrove Avicennia marina and the eelgrass Zostera muelleri, would display similar patterns of intraspecific variability across gradients of latitude and estuarine condition, that match previously reported interspecific patterns, and that persist through time. We found intraspecific patterns of decreasing carbon to nitrogen ratio and mechanical elasticity, and increasing nitrogen content with latitude that were consistent between the two plant species, and with previously reported interspecific patterns for other groups of species. Specific leaf area, leaf toughness and total phenolics, by contrast, displayed species-specific patterns that varied markedly through time. Relationships between estuarine condition and leaf traits were highly variable temporally, and also displayed markedly different patterns of intraspecific variability between the two species. Our study highlights the considerable within-species variation in leaf traits that should be accounted for in regional to biome scale analyses. Although some intraspecific patterns mirrored those found across species, at global scales, the considerable variability in other leaf traits between species and through time highlights the need to better understand the drivers and constraints of this intraspecific variation.

  10. Relationship between photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antolín, M Carmen; Fiasconaro, M Laura; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-10-15

    Sewage sludge has been used as N fertilizer because it contains some of inorganic N, principally as nitrate and ammonium ions. However, sewage sludge addition to legumes could result in impaired nodule metabolism due to the presence of inorganic N from sludge. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effects of sewage sludge on growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Aragón). Plants were grown in pots with a mixture of perlite and vermiculite (2:1, v/v). The experiment included three treatments: (1) plants inoculated with rhizobia and amended with sewage sludge at rate of 10% (w/w) (RS); (2) plants inoculated with rhizobia without any amendment (R); and (3) non-inoculated plants fed with ammonium nitrate (N). N(2)-fixing plants had lower growth and sucrose phosphate synthase activity but higher photosynthesis than nitrate-fed plants because they compensated the carbon cost of the rhizobia. However, sewage sludge-treated plants evidenced a loss of carbon sink strength due to N(2) fixation by means of decreased photosynthetic capacity, leaf chlorophylls and N concentration in comparison to untreated plants. Sewage sludge did no affect nodulation but decreased nodule enzyme activities involved in carbon and N metabolisms that may lead to accumulation of toxic N-compounds. PMID:20591568

  11. Estimating relationships among water use, nitrogen uptake and biomass production in a short-rotation woody crop plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Short-rotation woody crop has been identified as one of the best feedstocks for bioenergy production due to their fast-growth rates. However, the biomass production, nutrient uptake, and water use efficiency under adverse environmental condition are still poorly understood. In this study, a computer model was developed to undertake these issues using STELLA (Structural Thinking and Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation) software. Two simulation scenarios were employed: one was to quantify the mechanisms of water use, nitrogen uptake and biomass production in a eucalypt plantation under the normal soil conditions, the other was to estimate the same mechanisms under the wet and dry soil conditions. In general, the rates of evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration (ET), and root water uptake were in the following order: ET > root uptake > leaf transpiration > soil evaporation. A profound discrepancy in water use was observed between the wet and dry soil conditions. Leaching of nitrate-N and soluble organic N depended not only on soil N content but also on rainfall rate and duration. The yield of biomass from the eucalypt was primarily regulated by water availability in a fertilized plantation.

  12. Relationship between photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and the photochemical reflectance index of mango tree: merging data from different illuminations, seasons and leaf colors.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jen-Hsien; Jhaung, Lee-Hau; Lin, Rong-Jhih; Chen, Hong-Yi

    2010-04-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of chlorophyll concentration and seasonal temperature on the relationship between photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) of leaves under different light intensity, mango (Mangifera indica), a low-temperature-sensitive species, was used for the study. From early winter to summer, we selected several days to measure chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf spectral reflectance of mango leaves with dark green to yellow green colors, under natural sunlight from predawn to sunset and under six levels (0, 200, 400, 800, 1200 and 2000 mumol m(-2) s(-1)) of artificial illumination. When leaves were exposed to light, both PRI and PSII efficiency decreased with the increase in illumination, yet the PSII efficiency-PRI relationship varied with temperature and leaf color. Both predawn PRI and the X-intercept of the PSII efficiency-PRI regression equations were higher in dark green leaves and on the day with higher minimum air temperature, and lower on opposite conditions. These were due to the influence of chlorophyll on the reflection of wavebands for detecting PRI, and leaves retained a higher degree of epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle pigments in cold predawn. Therefore, when data obtained at different seasons and with different leaf colors were pooled for analysis, PRI was not closely related to PSII efficiency. Yet, either in the darkness of predawn or under a given level of illumination, PSII efficiency always showed a significant positive correlation with PRI, with data from different leaf colors and seasons merged for statistics analysis. Because both the intercept and slope of the PSII efficiency-PRI equation showed a negative regression with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), an empirical regression model, i.e., PSII efficiency = c + d . PPF + e . (PPF)(2) + f . PRI + g . PPF . PRI, could be fitted for multiple regression analysis. Based on the close correlation between the estimated and measured

  13. Organic carbon and nitrogen in the surface sediments of world oceans and seas: distribution and relationship to bottom topography

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1980-06-01

    Information dealing with the distribution of organic carbon and nitrogen in the top sediments of world oceans and seas has been gathered and evaluated. Based on the available information a master chart has been constructed which shows world distribution of sedimentary organic matter in the oceans and seas. Since organic matter exerts an influence upon the settling properties of fine inorganic particles, e.g. clay minerals and further, the interaction between organic matter and clay minerals is maximal, a relationship between the overall bottom topography and the distribution of clay minerals and organic matter should be observable on a worldwide basis. Initial analysis of the available data indicates that such a relationship does exist and its significance is discussed.

  14. Reactive nitrogen partitioning and its relationship to winter ozone events in Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, R. J.; Edwards, P. M.; Bates, T. S.; Cohen, R. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Gilman, J. B.; Holloway, J.; Kercher, J.; Koss, A. R.; Lee, L.; Lerner, B. M.; McLaren, R.; Quinn, P. K.; Roberts, J. M.; Stutz, J.; Thornton, J. A.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Williams, E.; Young, C. J.; Yuan, B.; Zarzana, K. J.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    High wintertime ozone levels have been observed in the Uintah Basin, Utah, a sparsely populated rural region with intensive oil and gas operations. The reactive nitrogen budget plays an important role in tropospheric ozone formation. Measurements were taken during three field campaigns in the winters of 2012, 2013 and 2014, which experienced varying climatic conditions. Average concentrations of ozone and total reactive nitrogen were observed to be 2.5 times higher in 2013 than 2012, with 2014 an intermediate year in most respects. However, photochemically active NOx (NO + NO2) remained remarkably similar all three years. Nitric acid comprised roughly half of NOz ( ≡ NOy - NOx) in 2013, with nighttime nitric acid formation through heterogeneous uptake of N2O5 contributing approximately 6 times more than daytime formation. In 2012, N2O5 and ClNO2 were larger components of NOz relative to HNO3. The nighttime N2O5 lifetime between the high-ozone year 2013 and the low-ozone year 2012 is lower by a factor of 2.6, and much of this is due to higher aerosol surface area in the high-ozone year of 2013. A box-model simulation supports the importance of nighttime chemistry on the reactive nitrogen budget, showing a large sensitivity of NOx and ozone concentrations to nighttime processes.

  15. Photosynthesis at an extreme end of the leaf trait spectrum: how does it relate to high leaf dry mass per area and associated structural parameters?

    PubMed Central

    Hassiotou, Foteini; Renton, Michael; Ludwig, Martha; Evans, John R.; Veneklaas, Erik J.

    2010-01-01

    Leaf dry mass per area (LMA) is a composite parameter relating to a suite of structural traits that have the potential to influence photosynthesis. However, the extent to which each of these traits contributes to variation in LMA and photosynthetic rates is not well understood, especially at the high end of the LMA spectrum. In this study, the genus Banksia (Proteaceae) was chosen as a model group, and key structural traits such as LMA, leaf thickness, and density were measured in 49 species. Based on the leaf trait variation obtained, a subset of 18 species displaying a wide range in LMA of 134–507 g m−2 was selected for analyses of relationships between leaf structural and photosynthetic characteristics. High LMA was associated with more structural tissue, lower mass-based chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations, and therefore lower mass-based photosynthesis. In contrast, area-based photosynthesis did not correlate with LMA, despite mesophyll volume per area increasing with increases in LMA. Photosynthetic rate per unit mesophyll volume declined with increasing LMA, which is possibly associated with structural limitations and, to a lesser extent, with lower nitrogen allocation. Mesophyll cell wall thickness significantly increased with LMA, which would contribute to lower mesophyll conductance at high LMA. Photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and the nitrogen allocation to Rubisco and thylakoids tended to decrease at high LMA. The interplay between anatomy and physiology renders area-based photosynthesis independent of LMA in Banksia species. PMID:20484320

  16. Within-city contrasts in PM composition and sources and their relationship with nitrogen oxides.

    PubMed

    Minguillón, M C; Rivas, I; Aguilera, I; Alastuey, A; Moreno, T; Amato, F; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2012-10-26

    The present work is part of the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente -'Environment and Childhood') project, which aims at assessing the adverse effects of exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and early in life. The present study was performed in the city of Sabadell (Northeast Spain) at three sampling sites covering different traffic characteristics, during two times of the year. It assesses time and spatial variations of PM(2.5) concentrations, chemical components and source contributions, as well as gaseous pollutants. Furthermore, a cross-correlation analysis of PM components and source contributions with gaseous pollutants used as a proxy for exposure assessment is carried out. Our data show the influence of traffic emissions in the Sabadell area. The main PM sources identified by Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) were similar between the two seasons: mineral source (traffic-induced resuspension, demolition/construction and natural background), secondary sulphate (higher in summer), secondary nitrate (only during winter), industrial, and road traffic, which was the main contributor to PM(2.5) at two of the sites. The correlation of concentrations of nitrogen oxides was especially strong with those of elemental carbon (EC). The relatively weaker correlations with organic carbon (OC) in summer are attributed to the variable formation of secondary OC. Strong correlations between concentration of nitrogen oxides and PM(2.5) road traffic contributions obtained from source apportionment analysis were seen at all sites. Therefore, under the studied urban environment, nitrogen oxides can be used as a proxy for the exposure to road traffic contribution to PM(2.5); the use of NO(x) concentrations being preferred, with NO and NO(2) as second and third options, respectively.

  17. Age-related effects on leaf area/sapwood area relationships, canopy transpiration and carbon gain of Norway spruce stands (Picea abies) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany.

    PubMed

    Köstner, B; Falge, E; Tenhunen, J D

    2002-06-01

    Stand age is an important structural determinant of canopy transpiration (E(c)) and carbon gain. Another more functional parameter of forest structure is the leaf area/sapwood area relationship, A(L)/A(S), which changes with site conditions and has been used to estimate leaf area index of forest canopies. The interpretation of age-related changes in A(L)/A(S) and the question of how A(L)/A(S) is related to forest functions are of current interest because they may help to explain forest canopy fluxes and growth. We conducted studies in mature stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. varying in age from 40 to 140 years, in tree density from 1680 to 320 trees ha(-1), and in tree height from 15 to 30 m. Structural parameters were measured by biomass harvests of individual trees and stand biometry. We estimated E(c) from scaled-up xylem sap flux of trees, and canopy-level fluxes were predicted by a three-dimensional microclimate and gas exchange model (STANDFLUX). In contrast to pine species, A(L)/A(S) of P. abies increased with stand age from 0.26 to 0.48 m(2) cm(-2). Agreement between E(c) derived from scaled-up sap flux and modeled canopy transpiration was obtained with the same parameterization of needle physiology independent of stand age. Reduced light interception per leaf area and, as a consequence, reductions in net canopy photosynthesis (A(c)), canopy conductance (g(c)) and E(c) were predicted by the model in the older stands. Seasonal water-use efficiency (WUE = A(c)/E(c)), derived from scaled-up sap flux and stem growth as well as from model simulation, declined with increasing A(L)/A(S) and stand age. Based on the different behavior of age-related A(L)/A(S) in Norway spruce stands compared with other tree species, we conclude that WUE rather than A(L)/A(S) could represent a common age-related property of all species. We also conclude that, in addition to hydraulic limitations reducing carbon gain in old stands, a functional change in A(L)/A(S) that is related to

  18. The neuroprotective properties of the Ginkgo biloba leaf: a review of the possible relationship to platelet-activating factor (PAF).

    PubMed

    Smith, P F; Maclennan, K; Darlington, C L

    1996-03-01

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) is an ancient Chinese tree which has been cultivated and held sacred for its health-promoting properties. There is substantial experimental evidence to support the view that Ginkgo biloba extracts have neuroprotective properties under conditions such as hypoxia/ischemia, seizure activity and peripheral nerve damage. Research on the biochemical effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts is still at a very early stage. One of the components of Ginkgo biloba, ginkgolide B, is a potent platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist. Although the terpene fraction of Ginkgo biloba, which contains the ginkgolides, may contribute to the neuroprotective properties of the Ginkgo biloba leaf, it is also likely that the flavonoid fraction, containing free radical scavengers, is important in this respect. Taken together, the evidence suggests that Ginkgo biloba extracts are worthy of further investigation as potential neuroprotectant agents.

  19. [Flag leaf photosynthetic characteristics, change in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and their relationships with yield of winter wheat sowed in spring].

    PubMed

    Xu, Lan; Gao, Zhi-qang; An, Wei; Li, Yan-liang; Jiao, Xiong-fei; Wang, Chuang-yun

    2016-01-01

    With five good winter wheat cultivars selected from the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Southwest China as test materials, a field experiment in Xinding basin area of Shanxi Province was conducted to study the photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of flag leaf at different sowing dates, as well as the correlations between these indices and yield for two years (2013-2014). The results showed that the difference in most fluorescence parameters except chlorophyll content among cultivars was significant. The correlations between these fluorescence parameters and yield were significant. The variation coefficient of chlorophyll (Chl) content was low (0.12-0.17), and that of performance index based on absorption (PIabs) was high (0.32-0.39), with the partial correlation coefficients of them with grain yield from 2013 to 2014 ranged in 0.70-0.81. Under the early sowing condition, the grain yield positively correlated with PIabs at flowering and filling stages and chlorophyll content at grain filling stage, but negatively correlated with the relative variable fluorescence at I point (Vi) at grain filling stage. About 81.1%-82.8% of grain yield were determined by the variations of PIabs, Chl, and Vi. Wheat cultivars had various performances in the treatments with different sowing dates and a consistent trend was observed in the two experimental years. Among these 5 cultivars, Yangmai 13 was suitable for early sowing, with the flag leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), Chl, most fluorescence parame-ters, and grain yield showed obviously high levels. In conclusion, under early sowing condition chlorophyll content at grain filling stages, PIabs at flowering and filling stages, and Pn were important indices for selecting wheat cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency.

  20. [Flag leaf photosynthetic characteristics, change in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and their relationships with yield of winter wheat sowed in spring].

    PubMed

    Xu, Lan; Gao, Zhi-qang; An, Wei; Li, Yan-liang; Jiao, Xiong-fei; Wang, Chuang-yun

    2016-01-01

    With five good winter wheat cultivars selected from the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Southwest China as test materials, a field experiment in Xinding basin area of Shanxi Province was conducted to study the photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of flag leaf at different sowing dates, as well as the correlations between these indices and yield for two years (2013-2014). The results showed that the difference in most fluorescence parameters except chlorophyll content among cultivars was significant. The correlations between these fluorescence parameters and yield were significant. The variation coefficient of chlorophyll (Chl) content was low (0.12-0.17), and that of performance index based on absorption (PIabs) was high (0.32-0.39), with the partial correlation coefficients of them with grain yield from 2013 to 2014 ranged in 0.70-0.81. Under the early sowing condition, the grain yield positively correlated with PIabs at flowering and filling stages and chlorophyll content at grain filling stage, but negatively correlated with the relative variable fluorescence at I point (Vi) at grain filling stage. About 81.1%-82.8% of grain yield were determined by the variations of PIabs, Chl, and Vi. Wheat cultivars had various performances in the treatments with different sowing dates and a consistent trend was observed in the two experimental years. Among these 5 cultivars, Yangmai 13 was suitable for early sowing, with the flag leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), Chl, most fluorescence parame-ters, and grain yield showed obviously high levels. In conclusion, under early sowing condition chlorophyll content at grain filling stages, PIabs at flowering and filling stages, and Pn were important indices for selecting wheat cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency. PMID:27228602

  1. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Chonggang; Fisher, Rosie; Wullschleger, Stan D; Wilson, Cathy; Cai, Michael; McDowell, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions

  2. Molecular Mechanics Study of Enzymatic Relationships in a Group of Nitrogenous Compounds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Alan Douglas

    Molecular mechanics using the MMX parameterization was used to model a series of nitrogen containing compounds to determine their lowest energy conformations. Measurements of dihedral angles and atomic distances were then correlated with results of enzymatic reactions on the nitrogen containing compounds. A preferred conformation of the compounds was found which allowed enzymatic action. Repeating the modeling of the compounds with the PM3 semi-empirical technique confirmed the preferred conformation. Practicum two. The Industrial Practicum report on "Development of polysaccharide derivatives for industrial Uses." Since many polysaccharides are inexpensive, this exploratory project was designed to prepare derivatives of carbohydrates and evaluate their industrial uses. Derivatives of dextran, carboxymethyl cellulose, and cellulose were prepared using three reaction schemes. Periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate followed by reductive amination was used with several amines. Linking various amines to carbohydrates through epichlorohydrin was performed. Reacting carbohydrates with 2-oxazolidinone was explored. Uses of the derivatives were explored. Practicum one. The study on "Thermochemistry of strained cycloalkenes: Experimental and computational studies." Pulsed time-resolved photoacoustic calorimetry in combination with quantum yield determinations revealed the relaxed triplet energy of 1-phenylcyclooctene and the energy of geometric isomerization of cis-1-phenylcyclooctene. Computational approaches for modeling strained cycloalkenes were evaluated against the experimental results.

  3. Thermodynamics of the hydrogen bonding of nitrogen-containing cyclic and aromatic compounds with proton donors: The structure-property relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakipov, I. T.; Varfolomeev, M. A.; Kirgizov, A. Yu.; Solomonov, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    Enthalpies of dissolution are measured at infinite dilution of nitrogen-containing cyclic (pyrrolidine, piperidine) and aromatic compounds (aniline, N-methylaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, N-methylimidazole, pyridine, 2-, 3-, 4-methylpyridine, pyrrole, N-methylpyrrole) in chloroform and dichloromethane, and vice versa ( T = 298.15 K). The enthalpies of hydrogen bonds in the above systems are calculated. Relationships between resulting thermochemical data and the structure of nitrogen-containing cyclic and aromatic compounds are explored.

  4. Factors modulating cottongrass seedling growth stimulation to enhanced nitrogen and carbon dioxide: compensatory tradeoffs in leaf dynamics and allocation to meet potassium-limited growth.

    PubMed

    Siegenthaler, Andy; Buttler, Alexandre; Grosvernier, Philippe; Gobat, Jean-Michel; Nilsson, Mats B; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2013-02-01

    Eriophorum vaginatum is a characteristic species of northern peatlands and a keystone plant for cutover bog restoration. Understanding the factors affecting E. vaginatum seedling establishment (i.e. growth dynamics and allocation) under global change has practical implications for the management of abandoned mined bogs and restoration of their C-sequestration function. We studied the responses of leaf dynamics, above- and belowground biomass production of establishing seedlings to elevated CO(2) and N. We hypothesised that nutrient factors such as limitation shifts or dilutions would modulate growth stimulation. Elevated CO(2) did not affect biomass, but increased the number of young leaves in spring (+400 %), and the plant vitality (i.e. number of green leaves/total number of leaves) (+3 %), both of which were negatively correlated to [K(+)] in surface porewater, suggesting a K-limited production of young leaves. Nutrient ratios in green leaves indicated either N and K co-limitation or K limitation. N addition enhanced the number of tillers (+38 %), green leaves (+18 %), aboveground and belowground biomass (+99, +61 %), leaf mass-to-length ratio (+28 %), and reduced the leaf turnover (-32 %). N addition enhanced N availability and decreased [K(+)] in spring surface porewater. Increased tiller and leaf production in July were associated with a doubling in [K(+)] in surface porewater suggesting that under enhanced N production is K driven. Both experiments illustrate the importance of tradeoffs in E. vaginatum growth between: (1) producing tillers and generating new leaves, (2) maintaining adult leaves and initiating new ones, and (3) investing in basal parts (corms) for storage or in root growth for greater K uptake. The K concentration in surface porewater is thus the single most important factor controlling the growth of E. vaginatum seedlings in the regeneration of selected cutover bogs.

  5. Assessing the relationship among urban trees, nitrogen dioxide, and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Rao, Meenakshi; George, Linda A; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Shandas, Vivek; Dinno, Alexis

    2014-11-01

    Modeled atmospheric pollution removal by trees based on eddy flux, leaf, and chamber studies of relatively few species may not scale up to adequately assess landscape-level air pollution effects of the urban forest. A land use regression (LUR) model (R(2) = 0.70) based on NO2 measured at 144 sites in Portland, Oregon (USA), after controlling for roads, railroads, and elevation, estimated every 10 ha (20%) of tree canopy within 400 m of a site was associated with a 0.57 ppb decrease in NO2. Using BenMAP and a 200 m resolution NO2 model, we estimated that the NO2 reduction associated with trees in Portland could result in significantly fewer incidences of respiratory problems, providing a $7 million USD benefit annually. These in-situ urban measurements predict a significantly higher reduction of NO2 by urban trees than do existing models. Further studies are needed to maximize the potential of urban trees in improving air quality.

  6. Assessing the relationship among urban trees, nitrogen dioxide, and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Rao, Meenakshi; George, Linda A; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Shandas, Vivek; Dinno, Alexis

    2014-11-01

    Modeled atmospheric pollution removal by trees based on eddy flux, leaf, and chamber studies of relatively few species may not scale up to adequately assess landscape-level air pollution effects of the urban forest. A land use regression (LUR) model (R(2) = 0.70) based on NO2 measured at 144 sites in Portland, Oregon (USA), after controlling for roads, railroads, and elevation, estimated every 10 ha (20%) of tree canopy within 400 m of a site was associated with a 0.57 ppb decrease in NO2. Using BenMAP and a 200 m resolution NO2 model, we estimated that the NO2 reduction associated with trees in Portland could result in significantly fewer incidences of respiratory problems, providing a $7 million USD benefit annually. These in-situ urban measurements predict a significantly higher reduction of NO2 by urban trees than do existing models. Further studies are needed to maximize the potential of urban trees in improving air quality. PMID:25103043

  7. No evidence for leaf-trait dissimilarity effects on litter decomposition, fungal decomposers, and nutrient dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frainer, André; Moretti, Marcelo S; Xu, Wenjing; Gessner, Mark O

    2015-02-01

    Biodiversity and ecosystem-functioning theory suggest that litter mixtures composed of dissimilar leaf species can enhance decomposition due to species trait complementarity. Here we created a continuous gradient of litter chemistry trait variability within species mixtures to assess effects of litter dissimilarity on three related processes in a natural stream: litter decomposition, fungal biomass accrual in the litter, and nitrogen and phosphorus immobilization. Litter from a pool of eight leaf species was analyzed for chemistry traits affecting decomposition (lignin, nitrogen, and phosphorus) and assembled in all of the 28 possible two-species combinations. Litter dissimilarity was characterized in terms of a range of trait-diversity measures, using Euclidean and Gower distances and dendrogram-based indices. We found large differences in decomposition rates among leaf species, but no significant relationships between decomposition rate of individual leaf species and litter trait dissimilarity, irrespective of whether decomposition was mediated by microbes alone or by both microbes and litter-consuming invertebrates. Likewise, no effects of trait dissimilarity emerged on either fungal biomass accrual or changes during decomposition of nitrogen or phosphorus concentrations in individual leaf species. In line with recent meta-analyses, these results provide support for the contention that litter diversity effects on decomposition, at least in streams, are less pronounced than effects on terrestrial primary productivity.

  8. How Universal Is the Relationship Between Remotely Sensed Vegetation Indices (VI) and Crop Leaf Area Index (LAI)?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Yanghui; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Zipper, Samuel C.; Roman, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Global LAI-VI relationships are statistically significant, crop-specific, and mostly non-linear. This research enables the operationalization of large-area crop modeling and, by extension, has relevance to both fundamental and applied agroecosystem research.

  9. Effects of Applied Nitrogen Amounts on the Functional Components of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Mari; Takahashi, Makoto; Katsube, Takuya; Koyama, Akio; Itamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-21

    This study investigated the effects of applied nitrogen amounts on specific functional components in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves. The relationships between mineral elements and the functional components in mulberry leaves were examined using mulberry trees cultivated in different soil conditions in four cultured fields. Then, the relationships between the nitrogen levels and the leaf functional components were studied by culturing mulberry in plastic pots and experimental fields. In the common cultured fields, total nitrogen was negatively correlated with the chlorogenic acid content (R(2) = -0.48) and positively correlated with the 1-deoxynojirimycin content (R(2) = 0.60). Additionally, differences in nitrogen fertilizer application levels affected each functional component in mulberry leaves. For instance, with increased nitrogen levels, the chlorogenic acid and flavonol contents significantly decreased, but the 1-deoxynojirimycin content significantly increased. Selection of the optimal nitrogen application level is necessary to obtain the desired functional components from mulberry leaves. PMID:27579496

  10. [Characteristics and Coupling Relationship of Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Transformation During In-situ Mineralization Cultivation in Forestlands in the Mountain Area of Southern Ningxia].

    PubMed

    Ni, Yin-xia; Huang, Yi-mei; Niu, Dan; Zhao, Tong; Yan, Hao; Jiang, Yue-li

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to investigate the characteristics and relationship between soil carbon and nitrogen transformation of artificial forestlands, which is one type of vegetation restoration in the mountain area of Southern Ningxia. Soil samples were collected every two months in a year from three forestlands, and the characteristics of soil organic carbon, dissolved carbon, microbial biomass carbon, organic nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen, soil ammonification, nitrification and mineralization rates, microbial immobilization rates and coupling of soil carbon and nitrogen were studied by the in-situ closed-top PVC tube incubation methods. The results showed that: in the process of in-situ incubation, the most obvious changes of carbon and nitrogen were in 61-120 days which was mainly affected by soil moisture; There were significantly positive correlations between the soil organic carbon and the total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass nitrogen, dissolved carbon and dissolved nitrogen; Transformation rates of soil organic carbon had significant effects on the soil ammonification, nitrification and microbial immobilization rates. It can be well simulated by model of linear regression equation; Microbial quotient, MBN/SON were significantly increased in soil of Caragana korshinskii land. Net nitrification rates, net mineralization rates in Caragana korshinskii land were significantly higher than that in Prunus davidiana and Prunus mandshurica lands.

  11. Response of the enzymes to nitrogen applications in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and their relationships with fiber strength.

    PubMed

    Wang, YouHua; Feng, Ying; Xu, NaiYin; Chen, BingLin; Ma, RongHui; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the response of key enzymes to nitrogen (N) rates in cotton fiber and its relationship with fiber strength, experiments were conducted in 2005 and 2006 with cotton cultivars in Nanjing. Three N rates 0, 240 and 480 kgN/hm(2), signifying optimum and excessive nitrogen application levels were applied. The activities and the gene expressions of the key enzymes were affected by N, and the characteristics of cellulose accumulation and fiber strength changed as the N rate varied. Beta-1,3-glucanase activity in cotton fiber declined from 9 DPA till boll opening, and the beta-1, 3-glucanase coding gene expression also followed a unimodal curve in 12-24 DPA. In 240 kgN/hm(2) condition, the characteristics of enzyme activity and gene expression manner for sucrose synthase and beta-1,3-glucanase in developing cotton fiber were more favorable for forming a longer and more steady cellulose accumulation process, and for high strength fiber development.

  12. Light drives vertical gradients of leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum) forest.

    PubMed

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2014-02-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA, g m(-2)) is an essential trait for modeling canopy function due to its strong association with photosynthesis, respiration and leaf nitrogen. Leaf mass per area, which is influenced by both leaf thickness and density (LMA = thickness × density), generally increases from the bottom to the top of tree canopies, yet the mechanisms behind this universal pattern are not yet resolved. For decades, the light environment was assumed to be the most influential driver of within-canopy variation in LMA, yet recent evidence has shown hydrostatic gradients to be more important in upper canopy positions, especially in tall evergreen trees in temperate and tropical forests. The aim of this study was to disentangle the importance of various environmental drivers on vertical LMA gradients in a mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest. We compared LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness relationships with height, light and predawn leaf water potential (ΨPre) within a closed and an exposed canopy to assess leaf morphological traits at similar heights but different light conditions. Contrary to our expectations and recent findings in the literature, we found strong evidence that light was the primary driver of vertical gradients in leaf morphology. At similar heights (13-23 m), LMA was greater within the exposed canopy than the closed canopy, and light had a stronger influence over LMA compared with ΨPre. Light also had a stronger influence over both leaf thickness and density compared with ΨPre; however, the increase in LMA within both canopy types was primarily due to increasing leaf thickness with increasing light availability. This study provides strong evidence that canopy structure and crown exposure, in addition to height, should be considered as a parameter for determining vertical patterns in LMA and modeling canopy function.

  13. Light drives vertical gradients of leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum) forest.

    PubMed

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2014-02-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA, g m(-2)) is an essential trait for modeling canopy function due to its strong association with photosynthesis, respiration and leaf nitrogen. Leaf mass per area, which is influenced by both leaf thickness and density (LMA = thickness × density), generally increases from the bottom to the top of tree canopies, yet the mechanisms behind this universal pattern are not yet resolved. For decades, the light environment was assumed to be the most influential driver of within-canopy variation in LMA, yet recent evidence has shown hydrostatic gradients to be more important in upper canopy positions, especially in tall evergreen trees in temperate and tropical forests. The aim of this study was to disentangle the importance of various environmental drivers on vertical LMA gradients in a mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest. We compared LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness relationships with height, light and predawn leaf water potential (ΨPre) within a closed and an exposed canopy to assess leaf morphological traits at similar heights but different light conditions. Contrary to our expectations and recent findings in the literature, we found strong evidence that light was the primary driver of vertical gradients in leaf morphology. At similar heights (13-23 m), LMA was greater within the exposed canopy than the closed canopy, and light had a stronger influence over LMA compared with ΨPre. Light also had a stronger influence over both leaf thickness and density compared with ΨPre; however, the increase in LMA within both canopy types was primarily due to increasing leaf thickness with increasing light availability. This study provides strong evidence that canopy structure and crown exposure, in addition to height, should be considered as a parameter for determining vertical patterns in LMA and modeling canopy function. PMID:24531298

  14. Effects of current-year and previous-year PPFDs on shoot gross morphology and leaf properties in Fagus japonica.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kyoko; Ishida, Atsushi; Uemura, Akira; Matsumoto, Yoosuke; Terashima, Ichiro

    1998-07-01

    We investigated how shoot gross morphology and leaf properties are determined in Fagus japonica Maxim., a deciduous species with flush-type shoot phenology, in which all leaves are produced in a single flush at the start of each season. We examined relationships between current-year shoot properties and local light environment in a 14-m tall beech tree growing in a deciduous forest. Leaf number (LN), total leaf area (TLA), and total leaf length (SL) of the current-year shoot increased with increasing photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). Leaf thickness, dry mass per leaf area and nitrogen content on a leaf area basis increased, whereas the chlorophyll/N ratio decreased with increasing PPFD. To separate the effects of current-year PPFD from those of previous year(s), we artificially shaded a part of the uppermost leaf tier. Reciprocal transfers of beech seedlings between controlled PPFD regimes were also made. Characteristics of shoot gross morphology such as LN, TLA and SL were largely determined by the PPFD of the previous year. The exception was the length of the longest "long shoots" with many leaves, in which elongation appeared to be influenced by both previous-year and current-year PPFD. In contrast, leaf properties were determined by current-year PPFD. The ecological implications of our findings are discussed.

  15. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle and its Relationship to Oxygenation of the Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catling, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    There is no evidence that the partial pressure of atmospheric nitrogen (pN2) changed greatly in the Phanerozoic but the Precambrian is different. Some suggest that Archean pN2 was higher because it would pressure broaden absorption lines of greenhouse gases and counteract a fainter young Sun [1]. However, analysis of raindrop imprints and fluid inclusions indicate that pN2 was no more than ~0.5-1.2 bar [2, 3] while basalt vesicles show pN2 < 0.5 bar at 2.7 Ga [4]. Low pN2 suggests that the Archean N cycle operated differently than today, which is unsurprising given the absence of O2. The coupling of the N cycle to oxygenation can be understood by comparing modern and ancient fluxes. Today, the long-term N source is from volcanism and metamorphism as well as oxidative weathering of organics. The geologic sink is the burial of organic matter, with minor subduction. But in the Archean, ammonium would have been the dominant N species in seawater. NH4+ substitutes for K+ in seafloor phyllosilicates. NH4+ in silicates can be stable under igneous and metamorphic conditions. Thus, the subduction sink should have been larger. Moreover, the N source from oxidative weathering was absent. With a more efficient geologic sink than today and smaller relative degassing, the steady-state pN2 would be lower. Nitrogen levels can be modeled and with plausible fluxes, Archean pN2 is lower. Once O2 becomes available, nitrifying chemoautotrophs make nitrate and the sink via ammonium declines. A speculative possibility is that oxidized sediments after the Great Oxidation raised the redox state in subduction zones. Higher oxygen fugacity would lead to more N2 degassing [5]. In any case, pN2 changes need not have been monotonic. [1] Goldblatt C. et al. (2009) Nat Geosci 2, 891-896. [2] Som S. M. et al. (2012) Nature 484, 359-362. [3] Marty B. et al. (2013) Science 342, 101-104. [4] Som S. M. et al. (2015), submitted. [5] Mikhail S., Sverjensky D. A. (2014) Nat Geosci 7, 816-819.

  16. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  17. Leaf nutrient contents and morphology of invasive tamarisk in different soil conditions in the lower Virgin River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, S.; Acharya, K.; Tateno, R.; Yamanaka, N.

    2012-12-01

    Invasive plants can alter ecosystem nitrogen (N) cycling. To increase our understanding of nutrient use strategy of invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) on an arid riparian ecosystem, we examined leaf nutrient contents and morphology of Tamarix ramosissima and its relationship with soil properties in the lower Virgin River floodplain, Nevada, U.S. Leaves were collected in three different locations; near the river, near the stand edge (60-70 m from the river edge) and at 30-40 m from the river edge in the summer of 2011. Leaves were analyzed for carbon (C) and N contents, and specific leaf area (SLA). Soil samples at 10-20 cm depths and under the canopy were also collected for soil water, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and inorganic nitrogen (NO3- and NH4+) analysis. Results suggested that tree size and SLA increased with decreasing distance from the river, whereas C isotope discrimination did not differ among the samples based on distance from the river. Nitrogen content per unit mass and N isotope discrimination (δ15N) were significantly higher in the trees near the river. Soil NO3- and total inorganic N had positive relationships with δ15N in leaves, which suggests that leaf δ15N may be influenced by N concentrations on the soil surface. Negative correlations were found between soil EC and leaf N contents, suggesting that high soil salinity may decrease Tamarix leaf N and thus limit tree growth.

  18. Relationship between ozone, meteorological conditions, gas exchange and leaf injury in Nicotiana tabacum Bel-W3 in a sub-tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Daiane T.; Meirelles, Sérgio T.; Moraes, Regina M.

    2012-12-01

    The city of São Paulo is located in a subtropical region whose climate exhibits few defined seasons as well as frequent oscillations in temperature and rainfall throughout the year. In addition to interfering with physiological processes, these peculiar climatic dynamics influence the formation of O3 and its influx into leaves, causing species used as bioindicators in temperate climates to be ineffective here. This study evaluated gas exchange variations in CO2 and H2O and leaf injuries induced by O3 in Nicotiana tabacum Bel-W3 in relation to oscillations in environmental conditions. Plants were exposed to an O3-polluted environment for fifteen periods of fourteen days each throughout 2008. Gas exchange and O3 were higher during the summer and winter but were highly variable in all seasons. Severe injuries occurred during the winter and spring, with significant variation in this parameter being observed throughout the year. An analysis of biotic and abiotic variables revealed complex relationships among them, with great importance of meteorological factors in plant responses. We conclude that under unstable climatic conditions, the relationship between O3 flux and injury is weak, and the qualitative character of biomonitoring is further confirmed.

  19. Relationships between annual plant productivity, nitrogen deposition and fire size in low-elevation California desert scrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rao, Leela E.; Matchett, John R.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Johns, Robert; Minnich, Richard A.; Allen, Edith B.

    2014-01-01

    Although precipitation is correlated with fire size in desert ecosystems and is typically used as an indirect surrogate for fine fuel load, a direct link between fine fuel biomass and fire size has not been established. In addition, nitrogen (N) deposition can affect fire risk through its fertilisation effect on fine fuel production. In this study, we examine the relationships between fire size and precipitation, N deposition and biomass with emphasis on identifying biomass and N deposition thresholds associated with fire spreading across the landscape. We used a 28-year fire record of 582 burns from low-elevation desert scrub to evaluate the relationship of precipitation, N deposition and biomass with the distribution of fire sizes using quantile regression. We found that models using annual biomass have similar predictive ability to those using precipitation and N deposition at the lower to intermediate portions of the fire size distribution. No distinct biomass threshold was found, although within the 99th percentile of the distribution fire size increased with greater than 125 g m–2 of winter fine fuel production. The study did not produce an N deposition threshold, but did validate the value of 125 g m–2 of fine fuel for spread of fires.

  20. Vegetation biomass, leaf area index, and NDVI patterns and relationships along two latitudinal transects in arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kelley, A. M.; Jia, G.; Ping, C.; Michaelson, G.; Leibman, M. O.; Kaarlejärvi, E.; Khomutov, A.; Kuss, P.; Moskalenko, N.; Orekhov, P.; Matyshak, G.; Forbes, B. C.; Yu, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Analyses of vegetation properties along climatic gradients provide first order approximations as to how vegetation might respond to a temporally dynamic climate. Until recently, no systematic study of tundra vegetation had been conducted along bioclimatic transects that represent the full latitudinal extent of the arctic tundra biome. Since 1999, we have been collecting data on arctic tundra vegetation and soil properties along two such transects, the North American Arctic Transect (NAAT) and the Yamal Arctic Transect (YAT). The NAAT spans the arctic tundra from the Low Arctic of the North Slope of Alaska to the polar desert of Cape Isachsen on Ellef Ringnes Island in the Canadian Archipelago. The Yamal Arctic Transect located in northwest Siberia, Russia, presently ranges from the forest-tundra transition at Nadym to the High Arctic tundra on Belyy Ostrov off the north coast of the Yamal Peninsula. The summer warmth indices (SWI - sum of mean monthly temperatures greater than 0°C) range from approximately 40 °C months to 3 °C months from south to north. For largely zonal sites along these transects, we systematically collected leaf area index (LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI - PSII hand-held spectro-radiometer), and vegetation biomass (clip harvests). Site-averaged LAI ranges from 1.08 to 0 along the transects, yet can be highly variable at the landscape scale. Site-averaged NDVI ranges from 0.67 to 0.26 along the transects, and is less variable than LAI at the landscape scale. Total aboveground live biomass ranges from approximately 700 g m-2 to < 50 g m-2 along the NAAT, and from approximately 1100 g m-2 to < 400 g m-2 along the YAT (not including tree biomass at Nadym). LAI and NDVI are highly correlated logarithmically (r = 0.80) for the entire dataset. LAI is significantly related to total aboveground (live plus dead) vascular plant biomass, although there is some variability in the data (r = 0.63). NDVI is

  1. Global scale analysis and evaluation of an improved mechanistic representation of plant nitrogen and carbon dynamics in the Community Land Model (CLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, B.; Riley, W. J.; Koven, C. D.; Randerson, J. T.; Mu, M.; Kattge, J.; Rogers, A.; Reich, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    In many ecosystems, nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for plant growth and productivity. However mechanistic representation of nitrogen uptake linked to root traits, and functional nitrogen allocation among different leaf enzymes involved in respiration and photosynthesis is currently lacking in Earth System models. The linkage between nitrogen availability and plant productivity is simplistically represented by potential photosynthesis rates, and is subsequently downregulated depending on nitrogen supply and other nitrogen consumers in the model (e.g., nitrification). This type of potential photosynthesis rate calculation is problematic for several reasons. Firstly, plants do not photosynthesize at potential rates and then downregulate. Secondly, there is considerable subjectivity on the meaning of potential photosynthesis rates. Thirdly, there exists lack of understanding on modeling these potential photosynthesis rates in a changing climate. In addition to model structural issues in representing photosynthesis rates, the role of plant roots in nutrient acquisition have been largely ignored in Earth System models. For example, in CLM4.5, nitrogen uptake is linked to leaf level processes (e.g., primarily productivity) rather than root scale process involved in nitrogen uptake. We present a new plant model for CLM with an improved mechanistic presentation of plant nitrogen uptake based on root scale Michaelis Menten kinetics, and stronger linkages between leaf nitrogen and plant productivity by inferring relationships observed in global databases of plant traits (including the TRY database and several individual studies). We also incorporate improved representation of plant nitrogen leaf allocation, especially in tropical regions where significant over-prediction of plant growth and productivity in CLM4.5 simulations exist. We evaluate our improved global model simulations using the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) framework. We conclude that

  2. Indoor-outdoor relationships of airborne particles and nitrogen dioxide inside Parisian buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molle, Romain; Mazoué, Sophie; Géhin, Évelyne; Ionescu, Anda

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated passengers' exposure to traffic air pollution inside the articulated buses of the line 91 in Paris during 10 working days in May, 2010. Twenty articulated buses were studied on 32 routes in order to determine the influence of the sampling position on the pollutant concentrations. This parameter is still poorly known for the rigid buses and is even less known for the articulated ones. However this parameter must be studied for articulated buses because the greater length may cause a pollutant concentration gradient in the cabin. Portable devices were used to measure pollutants in the presence of passengers from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m. and from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m., time periods corresponding to the peak traffic and travellers. PM2.5 mass concentration, particle number concentration between 0.3 and 20 μm and nitrogen dioxide concentration were simultaneously measured on three positions inside the buses (front, middle and rear) in order to study the spatial distribution of these compounds. These measurements inside the buses were compared to the outdoor concentrations at the same moment of the day provided by the Parisian air quality monitoring network; they were also compared to the results of a previous monitoring campaign performed in 2008. The results obtained during the 2010 campaign revealed that in-cabin NO2 mean concentrations were 1.5-3.5 times higher than the outside concentration levels; a maximum concentration of 234 ± 40 μg m-3 was found in the rear position (location of the engine and exhaust gas). Mean in-cabin PM2.5 mass concentrations varied from one week to another one, but they were globally the same at the three positions inside the instrumented buses. In order to determine the impact of outdoor levels, correlations have been calculated between the results measured inside the buses and those measured by the outdoor air monitoring stations. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.29 for NO2 data whereas the highest Pearson

  3. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Foliar Nitrogen Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  4. Leaf economics of evergreen and deciduous tree species along an elevational gradient in a subtropical mountain

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Kundong; He, Chengxin; Wan, Xianchong; Jiang, Debing

    2015-01-01

    The ecophysiological mechanisms underlying the pattern of bimodal elevational distribution of evergreen tree species remain incompletely understood. Here we used leaf economics spectrum (LES) theory to explain such patterns. We measured leaf economic traits and constructed an LES for the co-existing 19 evergreen and 15 deciduous species growing in evergreen broad-leaved forest at low elevation, beech-mixed forest at middle elevation and hemlock-mixed forest at high elevation in Mao'er Mountain, Guangxi, Southern China (25°50′N, 110°49′E). Leaf economic traits presented low but significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting trait similarity between closely related species. After considering the effects of phylogenetic history, deciduous species in general showed a more acquisitive leaf strategy with a higher ratio of leaf water to dry mass, higher leaf nitrogen and phosphorous contents, higher photosynthetic and respiratory rates and greater photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency. In contrast, evergreen species exhibited a more conservative leaf strategy with higher leaf mass per area, greater construction costs and longer leaf life span. With the elevation-induced decreases of temperature and soil fertility, both evergreen and deciduous species showed greater resource conservation, suggesting the increasing importance of environmental filtering to community assembly with increasing elevation. We found close inter-specific correlations between leaf economic traits, suggesting that there are strong genetic constraints limiting the independent evolution of LES traits. Phylogenetic signal increased with decreasing evolutionary rate across leaf economic traits, suggesting that genetic constraints are important for the process of trait evolution. We found a significantly positive relationship between primary axis species score (PASS) distance and phylogenetic distance across species pairs and an increasing average PASS distance between evergreen and deciduous species

  5. Leaf economics of evergreen and deciduous tree species along an elevational gradient in a subtropical mountain.

    PubMed

    Bai, Kundong; He, Chengxin; Wan, Xianchong; Jiang, Debing

    2015-06-08

    The ecophysiological mechanisms underlying the pattern of bimodal elevational distribution of evergreen tree species remain incompletely understood. Here we used leaf economics spectrum (LES) theory to explain such patterns. We measured leaf economic traits and constructed an LES for the co-existing 19 evergreen and 15 deciduous species growing in evergreen broad-leaved forest at low elevation, beech-mixed forest at middle elevation and hemlock-mixed forest at high elevation in Mao'er Mountain, Guangxi, Southern China (25°50'N, 110°49'E). Leaf economic traits presented low but significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting trait similarity between closely related species. After considering the effects of phylogenetic history, deciduous species in general showed a more acquisitive leaf strategy with a higher ratio of leaf water to dry mass, higher leaf nitrogen and phosphorous contents, higher photosynthetic and respiratory rates and greater photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency. In contrast, evergreen species exhibited a more conservative leaf strategy with higher leaf mass per area, greater construction costs and longer leaf life span. With the elevation-induced decreases of temperature and soil fertility, both evergreen and deciduous species showed greater resource conservation, suggesting the increasing importance of environmental filtering to community assembly with increasing elevation. We found close inter-specific correlations between leaf economic traits, suggesting that there are strong genetic constraints limiting the independent evolution of LES traits. Phylogenetic signal increased with decreasing evolutionary rate across leaf economic traits, suggesting that genetic constraints are important for the process of trait evolution. We found a significantly positive relationship between primary axis species score (PASS) distance and phylogenetic distance across species pairs and an increasing average PASS distance between evergreen and deciduous species with

  6. Extending the generality of leaf economic design principles in the cycads, an ancient lineage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Cao, Kun-Fang; Sack, Lawren; Li, Nan; Wei, Xue-Mei; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Cycads are the most ancient lineage of living seed plants, but the design of their leaves has received little study. We tested whether cycad leaves are governed by the same fundamental design principles previously established for ferns, conifers and angiosperms, and characterized the uniqueness of this relict lineage in foliar trait relationships. Leaf structure, photosynthesis, hydraulics and nutrient composition were studied in 33 cycad species from nine genera and three families growing in two botanical gardens. Cycads varied greatly in leaf structure and physiology. Similarly to other lineages, light-saturated photosynthetic rate per mass (Am ) was related negatively to leaf mass per area and positively to foliar concentrations of chlorophyll, nitrogen (N), phosphorus and iron, but unlike angiosperms, leaf photosynthetic rate was not associated with leaf hydraulic conductance. Cycads had lower photosynthetic N use efficiency and higher photosynthetic performance relative to hydraulic capacity compared with other lineages. These findings extend the relationships shown for foliar traits in angiosperms to the cycads. This functional convergence supports the modern synthetic understanding of leaf design, with common constraints operating across lineages, even as they highlight exceptional aspects of the biology of this key relict lineage. PMID:25622799

  7. Extending the generality of leaf economic design principles in the cycads, an ancient lineage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Cao, Kun-Fang; Sack, Lawren; Li, Nan; Wei, Xue-Mei; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Cycads are the most ancient lineage of living seed plants, but the design of their leaves has received little study. We tested whether cycad leaves are governed by the same fundamental design principles previously established for ferns, conifers and angiosperms, and characterized the uniqueness of this relict lineage in foliar trait relationships. Leaf structure, photosynthesis, hydraulics and nutrient composition were studied in 33 cycad species from nine genera and three families growing in two botanical gardens. Cycads varied greatly in leaf structure and physiology. Similarly to other lineages, light-saturated photosynthetic rate per mass (Am ) was related negatively to leaf mass per area and positively to foliar concentrations of chlorophyll, nitrogen (N), phosphorus and iron, but unlike angiosperms, leaf photosynthetic rate was not associated with leaf hydraulic conductance. Cycads had lower photosynthetic N use efficiency and higher photosynthetic performance relative to hydraulic capacity compared with other lineages. These findings extend the relationships shown for foliar traits in angiosperms to the cycads. This functional convergence supports the modern synthetic understanding of leaf design, with common constraints operating across lineages, even as they highlight exceptional aspects of the biology of this key relict lineage.

  8. Asymmetrical effects of mesophyll conductance on fundamental photosynthetic parameters and their relationships estimated from leaf gas exchange measurements.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Gu, Lianhong; Dickinson, Robert E; Pallardy, Stephen G; Baker, John; Cao, Yonghui; DaMatta, Fábio Murilo; Dong, Xuejun; Ellsworth, David; Van Goethem, Davina; Jensen, Anna M; Law, Beverly E; Loos, Rodolfo; Martins, Samuel C Vitor; Norby, Richard J; Warren, Jeffrey; Weston, David; Winter, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Worldwide measurements of nearly 130 C3 species covering all major plant functional types are analysed in conjunction with model simulations to determine the effects of mesophyll conductance (g(m)) on photosynthetic parameters and their relationships estimated from A/Ci curves. We find that an assumption of infinite g(m) results in up to 75% underestimation for maximum carboxylation rate V(cmax), 60% for maximum electron transport rate J(max), and 40% for triose phosphate utilization rate T(u) . V(cmax) is most sensitive, J(max) is less sensitive, and T(u) has the least sensitivity to the variation of g(m). Because of this asymmetrical effect of g(m), the ratios of J(max) to V(cmax), T(u) to V(cmax) and T(u) to J(max) are all overestimated. An infinite g(m) assumption also limits the freedom of variation of estimated parameters and artificially constrains parameter relationships to stronger shapes. These findings suggest the importance of quantifying g(m) for understanding in situ photosynthetic machinery functioning. We show that a nonzero resistance to CO2 movement in chloroplasts has small effects on estimated parameters. A non-linear function with gm as input is developed to convert the parameters estimated under an assumption of infinite gm to proper values. This function will facilitate gm representation in global carbon cycle models. PMID:24117476

  9. Asymmetrical effects of mesophyll conductance on fundamental photosynthetic parameters and their relationships estimated from leaf gas exchange measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ying; Gu, Lianhong

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide measurements of nearly 130 C3 species covering all major plant functional types are analyzed in conjunction with model simulations to determine the effects of mesophyll conductance (gm) on photosynthetic parameters and their relationships estimated from A/Ci curves. We find that an assumption of infinite gm results in up to 75% underestimation for maximum carboxylation rate Vcmax, 60% for maximum electron transport rate Jmax, and 40% for triose phosphate utilization rate Tu. Vcmax is most sensitive, Jmax is less sensitive, and Tu has the least sensitivity to the variation of gm. Due to this asymmetrical effect of gm, the ratios of Jmax to Vcmax, Tu to Vcmax, and Tu to Jmax are all overestimated. An infinite gm assumption also limits the freedom of variation of estimated parameters and artificially constrains parameter relationships to stronger shapes. These findings suggest the importance of quantifying gm for understanding in-situ photosynthetic machinery functioning. We show that a nonzero resistance to CO2 movement in chloroplasts has small effects on estimated parameters. A nonlinear function with gm as input is developed to convert the parameters estimated under an assumption of infinite gm to proper values. This function will facilitate gm representation in global carbon cycle models.

  10. Empirical Relationship Between Leaf Biomass of Red Pine Forests and Enhanced Vegetation Index in South Korea Using LANDSAT-5 TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusso, A.; Lee, J.; Son, Y.; Son, Y. M.

    2016-06-01

    Research on forest carbon (C) dynamics has been undertaken due to the importance of forest ecosystems in national C inventories. Currently, the C sequestration of South Korean forests surpasses that of other countries. In South Korea, Pinus densiflora (red pine) is the most abundant tree species. Thus, understanding the growth rate and biomass evolution of red pine forest in South Korea is important for estimating the forest C dynamics. In this paper, we derived empirical relationship between foliage biomass and the no blue band enhanced vegetation index (EVI-2) profile using both field work and multi-temporal Landsat-5 TM remote sensing data to estimate the productivity of forest biomass in South Korea. Our analysis combined a set of 84 Landsat-5 TM images from 28 different dates between 1986 and 2008 to study red pine forest development over time. Field data were collected from 30 plots (0.04 ha) that were irregularly distributed over South Korea. Individual trees were harvested by destructive sampling, and the age of trees were determined by the number of tree rings. The results are realistic (R2&thinsp=&thinsp0.81, p < 0.01) and suggest that the EVI-2 index is able to adequately represent the development profile of foliage biomass in red pine forest growth.

  11. The relationship of hyper-spectral vegetation indices with leaf area index (LAI) over the growth cycle of wheat and chickpea at 3 nm spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.

    2006-01-01

    Hyperspectral ratio and normalized difference vegetation indices were computed from the 3 nm bandwidth ground-based spectral data taken in 400-950 nm wave length region over the crop growth cycle (CGC) of wheat and chickpea. Synthesized broad band Landsat TM-RVI, TM-NDVI and TM-SAVI were also computed using this narrow bandwidth spectral observations. Regression analysis was carried out for these indices with leaf area index (LAI) for wheat and chickpea over CGC and the r2 values were found poor in 0.2-0.53 range for wheat and in 0.41-0.82 range for chickpea. Significant relationship with LAI were found for wheat ( r2 in 0.86-0.97 range) when growth and decline phases were analyzed independently. Here, r2 values for chickpea were less than that for wheat. The high difference in rate of change of slope for hRVI is a good discriminator for high ET (wheat) and low ET (chickpea) crops. To find out the potential hyperspectral ratios and normalized difference indices that could provide strong relationship with LAI, a correlation-based analysis was carried out for LAI with all the possible combinations of ratios and normalized difference indices in 400-950 nm region (at 3 nm spectral interval) independently for growth and decline phases of LAI and found that in addition to traditional near-IR and red pairs, the pairs within near-IR, near-IR and visible extending to near-IR were also significantly related to LAI.

  12. The relationship between leaf rolling and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in apoplastic and symplastic areas of Ctenanthe setosa subjected to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Saruhan, Neslihan; Terzi, Rabiye; Saglam, Aykut; Kadioglu, Asim

    2009-01-01

    The ascorbate-glutathione (ASC-GSH) cycle has an important role in defensive processes against oxidative damage generated by drought stress. In this study, the changes that take place in apoplastic and symplastic ASC-GSH cycle enzymes of the leaf and petiole were investigated under drought stress causing leaf rolling in Ctenanthe setosa (Rose.) Eichler (Marantaceae). Apoplastic and symplastic extractions of leaf and petiole were performed at different visual leaf rolling scores from 1 to 4 (1 is unrolled, 4 is tightly rolled and the others are intermediate forms). Glutathione reductase (GR), a key enzyme in the GSH regeneration cycle, and ascorbate (ASC) were present in apoplastic spaces of the leaf and petiole, whereas dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), which uses glutathione as reductant, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), which uses NAD(P)H as reductant, and glutathione were absent. GR, DHAR and MDHAR activities increased in the symplastic and apoplastic areas of the leaf. Apoplastic and symplastic ASC and dehydroascorbate (DHA), the oxidized form of ascorbate, rose at all scores except score 4 of symplastic ASC in the leaf. On the other hand, while reduced glutathione (GSH) content was enhanced, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content decreased in the leaf during rolling. As for the petiole, GR activity increased in the apoplastic area but decreased in the symplastic area. DHAR and MDHAR activities increased throughout all scores, but decreased to the score 1 level at score 4. The ASC content of the apoplast increased during leaf rolling. Conversely, symplastic ASC content increased at score 2, however decreased at the later scores. While the apoplastic DHA content declined, symplastic DHA rose at score 2, but later was down to the level of score 1. While GSH content enhanced during leaf rolling, GSSG content did not change except at score 2. As well, there were good correlations between leaf rolling and ASC-GSH cycle enzyme activities in the leaf (GR and DHAR

  13. The relationship between leaf rolling and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in apoplastic and symplastic areas of Ctenanthe setosa subjected to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Saruhan, Neslihan; Terzi, Rabiye; Saglam, Aykut; Kadioglu, Asim

    2009-01-01

    The ascorbate-glutathione (ASC-GSH) cycle has an important role in defensive processes against oxidative damage generated by drought stress. In this study, the changes that take place in apoplastic and symplastic ASC-GSH cycle enzymes of the leaf and petiole were investigated under drought stress causing leaf rolling in Ctenanthe setosa (Rose.) Eichler (Marantaceae). Apoplastic and symplastic extractions of leaf and petiole were performed at different visual leaf rolling scores from 1 to 4 (1 is unrolled, 4 is tightly rolled and the others are intermediate forms). Glutathione reductase (GR), a key enzyme in the GSH regeneration cycle, and ascorbate (ASC) were present in apoplastic spaces of the leaf and petiole, whereas dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), which uses glutathione as reductant, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), which uses NAD(P)H as reductant, and glutathione were absent. GR, DHAR and MDHAR activities increased in the symplastic and apoplastic areas of the leaf. Apoplastic and symplastic ASC and dehydroascorbate (DHA), the oxidized form of ascorbate, rose at all scores except score 4 of symplastic ASC in the leaf. On the other hand, while reduced glutathione (GSH) content was enhanced, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content decreased in the leaf during rolling. As for the petiole, GR activity increased in the apoplastic area but decreased in the symplastic area. DHAR and MDHAR activities increased throughout all scores, but decreased to the score 1 level at score 4. The ASC content of the apoplast increased during leaf rolling. Conversely, symplastic ASC content increased at score 2, however decreased at the later scores. While the apoplastic DHA content declined, symplastic DHA rose at score 2, but later was down to the level of score 1. While GSH content enhanced during leaf rolling, GSSG content did not change except at score 2. As well, there were good correlations between leaf rolling and ASC-GSH cycle enzyme activities in the leaf (GR and DHAR

  14. Seasonal variations in compound-specific leaf-wax lipid δD values and their relationship to environmental factors and plant physiological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachse, D.; Gleixner, G.; Buchmann, N.; Kahmen, A.

    2008-12-01

    Lipids are present in high concentrations in the leaf waxes of deciduous plants and are the final products of plant biosynthesis. Their hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) should therefore provide a time- integrated value of the leaf water used for biosynthesis and in turn the environmental and physiological factors determining leaf water enrichment. Due to the stability of lipids, their stable isotopic composition in soils and sediments could become a powerful tool to asses (paleo)hydrologic conditions. However, the relative importances of plant physiology and climatic influences as well as the timeframe over which the lipid δD value integrates these factors have not been investigated systematically. Here we explore how changes in environmental parameters and plant physiological processes over a growing season are recorded in compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios of individual leaf-wax lipids. We sampled soil water, leaf water at dawn and midday, water vapor for hydrogen isotopic analysis, leaves for lipid analysis and recorded a number of environmental parameters (temperature, relative humidity, vapor pressure deficit among others) and plant physiological data (stomatal conductance, transpiration, photosynthetic rate) weekly over the two month growing season of wheat grass. We analyze the relative importance of plant physiological processes and environmental factors in determining leaf water enrichment and the leaf wax lipid isotopic composition. The isotopic composition of soil water and leaf water at dawn showed similar trends and increased over the growing season with short-term variations of about 40‰. Leaf wax lipid δD values varied only on the order of 20‰ over the growing season following a similar trend as soil water and leaf water at dawn. We observe a 20‰ decrease in lipid δD values only a week after a significant 40‰ decrease in the soil and leaf water isotopic composition, due to a strong rain event. These results suggest, that leaf

  15. The Use of Leaf Functional Traits for Modeling the Timing and Rate of Canopy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoy, P.; Mackay, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Leaves vary in their habit, with some being short lived and possessing high intrinsic photosynthetic rates and others being long lived with lower photosynthetic capacity. Longer lived leaves will thus tend to cost more to produce and be able to assimilate carbon over a longer period of time. The timing and seasonality of forest canopies is a cost benefit strategy for the exploitation of favorable environmental conditions and avoidance of unfavorable conditions. Because of the selective pressure for plants to gather a return on leaf investment in relation to their leaf habit we propose that there is a relationship between plant functional traits and the timing and rate of canopy development. In a recent study it was shown that errors in predicted canopy dynamics could be reduced via a single parameter (τ) which modified the timing and rate of canopy development (Savoy & Mackay 2015). If τ is related to underlying mechanisms of plant physiology then it should vary predictably. To test this we will first examine the relationship between τ and observable biophysical variables which vary in ecologically meaningful ways. Then we will develop a model based on leaf traits which will regulate the timing and rate at which vegetation reaches peak rates of assimilation. The model will then be tested at eddy covariance sites which span a range environmental conditions. Preliminary results demonstrate a strong relationship (R2 = 0.58) between estimated values of τ and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio, which is important for representing the costs of leaf construction and nitrogen investment into photosynthetic machinery of leaves. By developing a canopy seasonality model based on plant functional traits and rooted in the framework of leaf economics it is possible to have a more flexible and generalized model. Such a model will be more adept at making predictions under novel environmental conditions than purely correlative empirical models.

  16. Impact of plant architecture versus leaf quality on attack by leaf-tying caterpillars on five oak species.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Robert J; Lill, John T

    2010-05-01

    Because shelter-building herbivorous insect species often consider structural features of their host plants in selecting construction sites, their probability of attack is likely to be a function of some combination of plant architectural traits and leaf quality factors. We tested the hypothesis that plant architecture, in the form of the number of touching leaves, influences interspecific variation in attack by leaf-tying caterpillars in five species of sympatric Missouri oaks (Quercus). We compared colonization on control branches, in which both architecture and leaf quality were potentially important, with colonization on experimental branches for which we controlled for the effects of architecture by creating equal numbers of artificial ties. Colonization of artificial ties was highly correlated with natural colonization on neighboring control branches, suggesting that leaf quality factors and not architecture influenced interspecific variation in attack by leaf-tying caterpillars. Of the leaf quality factors measured (water, protein-binding capacity, nitrogen, specific leaf area, pubescence, and toughness), nitrogen was the most explanatory. With the exception of white oak, natural leaf tie colonization was positively correlated with nitrogen availability (ratio of nitrogen to protein-binding capacity), and negatively correlated with protein-binding capacity of leaf extracts. Both host plant species and subgenus oak influenced the community composition of leaf-tying caterpillars and the non-tying symbionts colonizing the ties. Host plant differences in leaf nitrogen content were positively correlated with pupal weight of one of two caterpillar species reared on all five host plant species. Thus, interspecific differences in nitrogen, nitrogen availability, and protein-binding capacity of leaf extracts are the best predictors at this time of interspecific differences in attack by leaf-tying caterpillars, in turn affecting their success on individual host plants

  17. Leaf P increase outpaces leaf N in an Inner Mongolia grassland over 27 years.

    PubMed

    Mi, Zhaorong; Huang, Yuanyuan; Gan, Huijie; Zhou, Wenjia; Flynn, Dan F B; He, Jin-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have been intensively explored in short-term experiments, but rarely at longer timescales. Here, we investigated leaf N : P stoichiometry over a 27-year interval in an Inner Mongolia grassland by comparing leaf N : P concentration of 2006 with that of 1979. Across 80 species, both leaf N and P increased, but the increase in leaf N lagged behind that of leaf P, leading to a significant decrease in the N : P ratio. These changes in leaf N : P stoichiometry varied among functional groups. For leaf N, grasses increased, woody species tended to increase, whereas forbs showed no change. Unlike leaf N, leaf P of grasses and forbs increased, whereas woody species showed no change. Such changes may reflect N deposition and P release induced by soil acidification over the past decades. The interannual effect of precipitation may somewhat have reduced the soil available N, leading to the more modest increase of leaf N than of leaf P. Thus, leaf N : P stoichiometry significantly responded to long-term environmental changes in this temperate steppe, but different functional groups responded differently. Our results indicate that conclusions of plant stoichiometry under short-term N fertilization should be treated with caution when extrapolating to longer timescales.

  18. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

  19. High Resolution Spectrometry of Leaf and Canopy Chemistry for Biochemical Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, M. A.; Peterson, D. L.; Acevedo, W.; Matson, P.

    1985-01-01

    High-resolution laboratory spectrophotometer and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were used to analyze forest leaf and canopy chemistry. Fundamental stretching frequencies of organic bonds in the visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared are indicative of concentrations and total content of nitrogen, phosphorous, starch and sugar. Laboratory spectrophotometer measurements showed very strong negative correlations with nitrogen (measured using wet chemistry) in the visible wavelengths. Strong correlations with green wet canopy weight in the atmospheric water absorption windows were observed in the AIS data. A fairly strong negative correlation between the AIS data at 1500 nm and total nitrogen and nitrogen concentration was evident. This relationship corresponds very closely to protein absorption features near 1500 nm.

  20. Assessing the contribution of leaf respiration to the carbon economy of tropical rainforest tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, Lasantha; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine; Xiang, Shuang; Atkin, Owen

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most important biomes in terms of annual primary productivity; hence, assessing their sensitivity to potential shifts in global and regional temperatures patterns is a necessary step to model future local, regional, and global carbon cycling. However, how the changes in future climate including increased temperatures in short- and long-term basis might impact on the carbon cycling in these tropical rainforests is little studied and remain poorly understood. Given this, this study examined the impact of short and long term changes in temperature on leaf respiration in tropical lowland rainforest located in Far North Queensland, Australia. We quantified how leaf respiration responded to short-term changes in temperature and associated leaf chemical and structural traits in 16 tropical rainforest tree species at two canopy heights; upper and lower level of the tree canopy. Further we measured rates of photosynthesis (A) and leaf respiration (R) both in the dark and light, and relationships between those traits and associated leaf structural and chemical traits. Four of these species were subsequently exposed to three different growth temperatures of 25° C, 30° C and 35° C under controlled environment conditions and ability of leaf respiration to acclimate to new temperature regimes was examined. In the field, upper canopy leaves showed higher rates of leaf respiration in darkness and in light than lower canopy leaves at a given set temperature (28° C). Moreover, at any given leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf nitrogen [N] and leaf phosphorus [P] value, rates of respiration were higher in upper canopy leaves (compared to lower canopy leaves). The short-term temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration (Q10) was found to be constant around 1.89 at 25° C irrespective of species or canopy position. Three out of four species subjected to different long-term growth temperatures under control environment conditions exhibited some

  1. The relationship between BOD:N ratio and wastewater treatability in a nitrogen-fixing wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Slade, A H; Thorn, G J S; Dennis, M A

    2011-01-01

    A BOD:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 is often used as a benchmark for nutrient addition in nutrient limited wastewaters. The impact of varying nitrogen levels, whilst maintaining phosphorus constant, was studied in a simulated aerated lagoon (BOD:N of 100:0; 100:1.3; 100:1.8; 100:2.7 and 100:4.9). A synthetic wastewater was prepared using methanol, glucose and acetate as the combined carbon source, ammonium chloride as the nitrogen source and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate as the phosphorus source. Nitrogen levels did not impact organic carbon removal, but did strongly influence floc structure. With no supplemental nitrogen, growth was dispersed. Increasing the nitrogen level increased filamentous growth, with a marked change in filamentous species occurring between a BOD:N ratio of 100:1.8 and 100:2.7. Nitrogen fixation occurred at a BOD:N ratio of 100:0; 100:1.3 and 100:1.8, with nitrogen loss at BOD:N ratios of 100:2.7 and 100:4.9. At a BOD:N ratio of 100:4.9, ammonium discharge was significantly greater (1.8 mg/L) than at the lower nitrogen levels (0.04 - 0.18 mg/L). Phosphorus behaviour was more variable, however significantly more phosphorus was discharged at the lowest nitrogen level than at the highest (p<0.05). Based on readily available nitrogen, the BOD:N ratio at which nitrogen fixation no longer occurred was around 100:1.9.

  2. Distribution patterns of nitrogen micro-cycle functional genes and their quantitative coupling relationships with nitrogen transformation rates in a biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honglei; Ji, Guodong; Bai, Xueyuan

    2016-06-01

    The present study explored the distribution patterns of nitrogen micro-cycle genes and the underlying mechanisms responsible for nitrogen transformation at the molecular level (genes) in a biotrickling filter (biofilter). The biofilter achieved high removal efficiencies for ammonium (NH4(+)-N) (80-94%), whereas nitrate accumulated at different levels under a progressive NH4(+)-N load. Combined analyses revealed the anammox, nas, napA, narG, nirS, and nxrA genes were the dominant enriched genes in different treatment layers. The presence of simultaneous nitrification, ammonium oxidation (anammox), and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were the primary factors accounted for the robust NH4(+)-N treatment performance. The presence of DNRA, nitrification, and denitrification was determined to be a pivotal pathway that contributed to the nitrate accumulation in the biofilter. The enrichment of functional genes at different depth gradients and the multi-path coupled cooperation at the functional gene level are conducive to achieving complete nitrogen removal. PMID:26954310

  3. Distribution patterns of nitrogen micro-cycle functional genes and their quantitative coupling relationships with nitrogen transformation rates in a biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honglei; Ji, Guodong; Bai, Xueyuan

    2016-06-01

    The present study explored the distribution patterns of nitrogen micro-cycle genes and the underlying mechanisms responsible for nitrogen transformation at the molecular level (genes) in a biotrickling filter (biofilter). The biofilter achieved high removal efficiencies for ammonium (NH4(+)-N) (80-94%), whereas nitrate accumulated at different levels under a progressive NH4(+)-N load. Combined analyses revealed the anammox, nas, napA, narG, nirS, and nxrA genes were the dominant enriched genes in different treatment layers. The presence of simultaneous nitrification, ammonium oxidation (anammox), and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were the primary factors accounted for the robust NH4(+)-N treatment performance. The presence of DNRA, nitrification, and denitrification was determined to be a pivotal pathway that contributed to the nitrate accumulation in the biofilter. The enrichment of functional genes at different depth gradients and the multi-path coupled cooperation at the functional gene level are conducive to achieving complete nitrogen removal.

  4. The role of sugars in integrating environmental signals during the regulation of leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Wingler, Astrid; Purdy, Sarah; MacLean, Jamie A; Pourtau, Nathalie

    2006-01-01

    Although leaf senescence results in a loss of photosynthetic carbon fixation, the senescence-dependent release of nutrients, especially of nitrogen, is important for the growth of young leaves and for reproduction. Environmental regulation of senescence is therefore a vital factor in the carbon and nitrogen economy of plants. Leaf senescence is a highly plastic trait that is affected by a range of different environmental factors including light, nutrient supply, CO2 concentration, and abiotic and biotic stress. In this review, the focus is on the impact of environmental conditions on sugar accumulation and sugar signalling during senescence. By signalling a high availability of carbon relative to nitrogen in the old leaves, sugar accumulation can trigger leaf senescence. Sugar-induced senescence is therefore particularly important under low nitrogen availability and may also play a role in light signalling. Whether or not sugars are involved in regulating the senescence response of plants to elevated CO2 remains unresolved. Senescence can be delayed or accelerated in elevated CO2 and no clear relationship between sugar accumulation and senescence has been found. Plasticity in the response to environmental factors, such as daylength and sugar accumulation, varies between different Arabidopsis accessions. This natural variation can be exploited to analyse the genetic basis of the regulation of senescence and the consequences for growth and fecundity. Different evolutionary strategies, i.e. early senescence combined with a high reproductive effort or late senescence combined with a low reproductive effort, may be an important adaptation of Arabidopsis accessions to their natural habitat.

  5. The structure-function relationship for alumina supported platinum during the formation of ammonia from nitrogen oxide and hydrogen in the presence of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Adams, Emma Catherine; Merte, Lindsay Richard; Hellman, Anders; Skoglundh, Magnus; Gustafson, Johan; Bendixen, Eva Charlotte; Gabrielsson, Pär; Bertram, Florian; Evertsson, Jonas; Zhang, Chu; Carlson, Stefan; Carlsson, Per-Anders

    2016-04-28

    We study the structure-function relationship of alumina supported platinum during the formation of ammonia from nitrogen oxide and dihydrogen by employing in situ X-ray absorption and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Particular focus has been directed towards the effect of oxygen on the reaction as a model system for emerging technologies for passive selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides. The suppressed formation of ammonia observed as the feed becomes net-oxidizing is accompanied by a considerable increase in the oxidation state of platinum as well as the formation of surface nitrates and the loss of NH-containing surface species. In the presence of (excess) oxygen, the ammonia formation is proposed to be limited by weak interaction between nitrogen oxide and the oxidized platinum surface. This leads to a slow dissociation rate of nitrogen oxide and thus low abundance of the atomic nitrogen surface species that can react with the adsorbed hydrogen species. In this case the consumption of hydrogen through the competing water formation reaction and decomposition/oxidation of ammonia are of less importance for the net ammonia formation. PMID:27039829

  6. Responses of leaf respiration to temperature and leaf characteristics in three deciduous tree species vary with site water availability.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D; Tissue, D T; Schuster, W S; Brown, K J; Griffin, K L

    2001-06-01

    We measured responses of leaf respiration to temperature and leaf characteristics in three deciduous tree species (Quercus rubra L., Quercus prinus L. and Acer rubrum L.) at two sites differing in water availability within a single catchment in the Black Rock Forest, New York. The response of respiration to temperature differed significantly among the species. Acer rubrum displayed the smallest increase in respiration with increasing temperature. Corresponding Q(10) values ranged from 1.5 in A. rubrum to 2.1 in Q. prinus. Dark respiration at ambient air temperatures, expressed on a leaf area basis (Rarea), did not differ significantly between species, but it was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in trees at the wetter (lower) site than at the drier (upper) site (Q. rubra: 0.8 versus 1.1 micromol m(-2) s(-1); Q. prinus: 0.95 versus 1.2 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). In contrast, when expressed on a leaf mass basis (R(mass)), respiration rates were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in A. rubrum (12.5-14.6 micromol CO(2) kg(-1) s(-1)) than in Q. rubra (8.6-9.9 micromol CO(2) kg(-1) s(-1)) and Q. prinus (9.2-10.6 micromol CO(2) kg(-1) s(-1)) at both the lower and upper sites. Respiration on a nitrogen basis (R(N)) displayed a similar response to R(mass). The consistency in R(mass) and R(N) between sites indicates a strong coupling between factors influencing respiration and those affecting leaf characteristics. Finally, the relationships between dark respiration and A(max) differed between sites. Trees at the upper site had higher rates of leaf respiration and lower A(max) than trees at the lower site. This shift in the balance of carbon gain and loss clearly limits carbon acquisition by trees at sites of low water availability, particularly in the case of A. rubrum.

  7. Hyperspectral imaging for mapping of total nitrogen spatial distribution in pepper plant.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke-Qiang; Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiao-Li; Shao, Yong-Ni; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) hyperspectral imaging was employed to determine the spatial distribution of total nitrogen in pepper plant. Hyperspectral images of samples (leaves, stems, and roots of pepper plants) were acquired and their total nitrogen contents (TNCs) were measured using Dumas combustion method. Mean spectra of all samples were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in hyperspectral images. Random frog (RF) algorithm was implemented to select important wavelengths which carried effective information for predicting the TNCs in leaf, stem, root, and whole-plant (leaf-stem-root), respectively. Based on full spectra and the selected important wavelengths, the quantitative relationships between spectral data and the corresponding TNCs in organs (leaf, stem, and root) and whole-plant (leaf-stem-root) were separately developed using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). As a result, the PLSR model built by the important wavelengths for predicting TNCs in whole-plant (leaf-stem-root) offered a promising result of correlation coefficient (R) for prediction (RP = 0.876) and root mean square error (RMSE) for prediction (RMSEP = 0.426%). Finally, the TNC of each pixel within ROI of the sample was estimated to generate the spatial distribution map of TNC in pepper plant. The achievements of the research indicated that hyperspectral imaging is promising and presents a powerful potential to determine nitrogen contents spatial distribution in pepper plant.

  8. Plant Trait-Species Abundance Relationships Vary with Environmental Properties in Subtropical Forests in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, En-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Scott X.; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes) environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA), leaf N concentration (LN), and total leaf area per twig size (TLA) were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests. PMID:23560114

  9. Plant trait-species abundance relationships vary with environmental properties in subtropical forests in eastern china.

    PubMed

    Yan, En-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Scott X; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes) environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA), leaf N concentration (LN), and total leaf area per twig size (TLA) were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests. PMID:23560114

  10. Empirical relationship between eelgrass extent and predicted watershed-derived nitrogen loading for shallow New England estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, James S.; Rego, Steven A.

    2010-12-01

    Seagrasses provide important ecological services that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being and the environment. Excess nitrogen inputs are a major cause of eelgrass loss in the marine environment. Here we describe the results of a study aimed at quantifying the extent of eelgrass as a function of predicted watershed-derived nitrogen loading for small-to-medium-sized shallow estuaries in New England. Findings confirm that reduced extent of eelgrass corresponds to increased loading of nitrogen to this class of estuary. At lower levels of nitrogen loading (≤50 Kg ha -1 yr -1), eelgrass extent is variable and is likely controlled by other ecosystem factors unrelated to water quality. At higher loading rates, eelgrass coverage decreases markedly, with essentially no eelgrass at loading levels ≥100 Kg ha -1 yr -1.

  11. Variation in the carbon and oxygen isotope composition of plant biomass and its relationship to water-use efficiency at the leaf- and ecosystem-scales in a northern Great Plains grassland.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Lawrence B; Farquhar, Graham D

    2014-02-01

    Measurements of the carbon (δ(13) Cm ) and oxygen (δ(18) Om ) isotope composition of C3 plant tissue provide important insights into controls on water-use efficiency. We investigated the causes of seasonal and inter-annual variability in water-use efficiency in a grassland near Lethbridge, Canada using stable isotope (leaf-scale) and eddy covariance measurements (ecosystem-scale). The positive relationship between δ(13) Cm and δ(18) Om values for samples collected during 1998-2001 indicated that variation in stomatal conductance and water stress-induced changes in the degree of stomatal limitation of net photosynthesis were the major controls on variation in δ(13) Cm and biomass production during this time. By comparison, the lack of a significant relationship between δ(13) Cm and δ(18) Om values during 2002, 2003 and 2006 demonstrated that water stress was not a significant limitation on photosynthesis and biomass production in these years. Water-use efficiency was higher in 2000 than 1999, consistent with expectations because of greater stomatal limitation of photosynthesis and lower leaf ci /ca during the drier conditions of 2000. Calculated values of leaf-scale water-use efficiency were 2-3 times higher than ecosystem-scale water-use efficiency, a difference that was likely due to carbon lost in root respiration and water lost during soil evaporation that was not accounted for by the stable isotope measurements. PMID:23862667

  12. Variation in the carbon and oxygen isotope composition of plant biomass and its relationship to water-use efficiency at the leaf- and ecosystem-scales in a northern Great Plains grassland.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Lawrence B; Farquhar, Graham D

    2014-02-01

    Measurements of the carbon (δ(13) Cm ) and oxygen (δ(18) Om ) isotope composition of C3 plant tissue provide important insights into controls on water-use efficiency. We investigated the causes of seasonal and inter-annual variability in water-use efficiency in a grassland near Lethbridge, Canada using stable isotope (leaf-scale) and eddy covariance measurements (ecosystem-scale). The positive relationship between δ(13) Cm and δ(18) Om values for samples collected during 1998-2001 indicated that variation in stomatal conductance and water stress-induced changes in the degree of stomatal limitation of net photosynthesis were the major controls on variation in δ(13) Cm and biomass production during this time. By comparison, the lack of a significant relationship between δ(13) Cm and δ(18) Om values during 2002, 2003 and 2006 demonstrated that water stress was not a significant limitation on photosynthesis and biomass production in these years. Water-use efficiency was higher in 2000 than 1999, consistent with expectations because of greater stomatal limitation of photosynthesis and lower leaf ci /ca during the drier conditions of 2000. Calculated values of leaf-scale water-use efficiency were 2-3 times higher than ecosystem-scale water-use efficiency, a difference that was likely due to carbon lost in root respiration and water lost during soil evaporation that was not accounted for by the stable isotope measurements.

  13. Optimisation modelling predicts leaf trait variation and response to elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, D. A.; McMurtrie, R. E.; Norby, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    The capacities of a plant to obtain the resources it requires and the efficiencies of use of those resources are important determinants of the rate of plant carbon production. Such capacities and efficiencies rely strongly on plant traits, across all relevant scales of plant function (molecular to whole plant). Within inherent (genetic) constraints to the expression of plant traits by any one plant species, a plant would do well to adjust its traits in such a way as to maximise production. We test this hypothesis using a simple plant carbon-nitrogen model applied to a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment on sweetgum forest at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. The sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) stand, exposed to ambient atmospheric CO2 or air enriched with CO2 to 550 ppm since 1998, has shown a positive response of net primary productivity (NPP) to elevated CO2 compared to the ambient control. Experiments like this one have been conducted to gauge the response of the biosphere to the significant increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. In this study we use optimisation modelling to maximise photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and output corresponding optimal leaf traits, including (on a per unit leaf area basis): leaf nitrogen content (N), leaf mass (LMA), maximum rate of CO2 assimilation (Amax), average rate of CO2 assimilation (A), and leaf respiration (R). The optimal leaf traits change under a diminishing light level with canopy depth. Integration over canopy depth provides an estimate of canopy total carbon (carbon allocated to leaves), carbon production, canopy carbon export (carbon allocation to wood, fine roots and reproductive structures), and plant N demand to support a canopy comprised of optimal leaves. Thus, simulated plant N demand depends on leaf traits and light level. When simulated plant N demand exceeds N availability, leaf area adjustment occurs, which has impacts on canopy total carbon, carbon production, and canopy carbon export (plant

  14. An Innovative Way to Monitor Leaf Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnello, A.; Paredes, K.; Trinh, U.; Saleska, S. R.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    structure (750nm-1000nm), (b) leaf pigments (~550nm) and leaf water concentration (1400nm-2300nm), and (c) leaf physical structure (750nm-1000nm) and leaf water concentration (1400nm-2300nm). Preliminary results showed that (1) among the key leaf traits, leaf shrinkage is the only trait that showed a consistent correlation with relative age order across the samples; (2) a power function best modeled the interspecies relationship between leaf shrinkage and leaf age (R2 = 0.81, p-value < 0.01, 22 data points for 7 species); (3) a strong correlation was found between the predicted leaf age using the species specific power functions of leaf shrinkage and true leaf age (R2= 0.96, p-value < 0.01), suggesting that leaf shrinkage could be a useful trait for prediction of absolute leaf age in the future. In the next step, we will integrate leaf shrinkage based leaf age prediction with hyperspectral VI framework, aiming to derive some reliable VIs which can be universal for leaf aging prediction among all the species.

  15. Assessment of an apparent relationship between availability of soluble carbohydrates and reduced nitrogen during floral initiation in tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Thomas, J. F.; Tolley-Henry, L.; Rideout, J. W.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Daily relative accumulation rate of soluble carbohydrates (RARS) and reduced nitrogen (RARN) in the shoot, as estimates of source strength, were compared with daily relative growth rates (RGR) of the shoot, as an estimate of sink demand, during floral transformation in apical meristems of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'NC 2326') grown at day/night temperatures of 18/14, 22/18, 26/22, 30/26, and 34/30 C. Source strength was assumed to exceed sink demand for either carbohydrates or nitrogen when the ratio of RARS/RGR or RARN/RGR was greater than unity, and sink demand was assumed to exceed source strength when the ratio was less than unity. Time of floral initiation, which was delayed up to 21 days with increases in temperature over the experimental range, was associated with intervals in which source strength of either carbohydrate or nitrogen exceeded sink demand, while sink demand for the other exceeded source strength. Floral initiation was not observed during intervals in which source strengths of both carbohydrates and nitrogen were greater than or less than sink demand. These results indicate that floral initiation is responsive to an imbalance in the relative availabilities of carbohydrate and nitrogen.

  16. Biological and Geographical Sources of Variation in Leaf Economic and Hydraulic Traits Throughout the Los Angeles Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibsen, P.; Arps, S.; Shiflett, S. A.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf functional traits act as driving forces on each other, as well as being driven by abiotic factors. Leaf Nitrogen Content (LNC), Specific Leaf Area (SLA) and maximum conductance to water vapor (gwmax) are well researched, yet their relationship to each other and the climate is still not fully understood. Urban setting provides a unique look into trait relationships because of the high plant biodiversity, distribution of plants outside their native climate conditions, well-watered conditions that remove a key abiotic factor and soil nutrient availability varies due to atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We predict owing to these conditions, both LNC and gwmax will increase in across the climate gradient of the LA area. Ten tree species were sampled from green spaces across the L.A Megacity in three geographic areas of focus: coastal (Irvine), inland (Riverside) and desert (Palm Springs), exhibiting a gradient of increasing MAT, and nitrogen deposition peaking inland. Leaf samples were processed for N, and gwmax was quantified through stomatal characteristics. LNC increased between the coastal and inland region (mean diff. -0.324; p=0.007). For two case study species, gwmax in the genus' Jacaranda and Pyrus show a contrasting positive and negative correlation with LNC (Jacaranda: p=0.037, Pyrus: p<.001). The varying relationship of N and gwmax may show that economic and hydraulic traits tradeoffs are dependent on the evolutionary characteristics of the species (Drought deciduous sub-tropical Jacaranda's large compound leaves, and average sampled SLA: 94.05; winter deciduous temperate Pyrus' simple leaf with average SLA: 61.78). The increase in N along one section of the gradient, but not the other, potentially shows the driving force of the N deposition may outweigh the forces of MAT. If the variation in driving forces behind economic and hydraulic traits can be identified, there will be a significant increase in the predictive power of how urban vegetation responds

  17. Leaf Dynamics of Panicum maximum under Future Climatic Changes.

    PubMed

    Britto de Assis Prado, Carlos Henrique; Haik Guedes de Camargo-Bortolin, Lívia; Castro, Érique; Martinez, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Panicum maximum Jacq. 'Mombaça' (C4) was grown in field conditions with sufficient water and nutrients to examine the effects of warming and elevated CO2 concentrations during the winter. Plants were exposed to either the ambient temperature and regular atmospheric CO2 (Control); elevated CO2 (600 ppm, eC); canopy warming (+2°C above regular canopy temperature, eT); or elevated CO2 and canopy warming (eC+eT). The temperatures and CO2 in the field were controlled by temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) and mini free-air CO2 enrichment (miniFACE) facilities. The most green, expanding, and expanded leaves and the highest leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaves day(-1)) and leaf elongation rate (LER, cm day(-1)) were observed under eT. Leaf area and leaf biomass were higher in the eT and eC+eT treatments. The higher LER and LAR without significant differences in the number of senescent leaves could explain why tillers had higher foliage area and leaf biomass in the eT treatment. The eC treatment had the lowest LER and the fewest expanded and green leaves, similar to Control. The inhibitory effect of eC on foliage development in winter was indicated by the fewer green, expanded, and expanding leaves under eC+eT than eT. The stimulatory and inhibitory effects of the eT and eC treatments, respectively, on foliage raised and lowered, respectively, the foliar nitrogen concentration. The inhibition of foliage by eC was confirmed by the eC treatment having the lowest leaf/stem biomass ratio and by the change in leaf biomass-area relationships from linear or exponential growth to rectangular hyperbolic growth under eC. Besides, eC+eT had a synergist effect, speeding up leaf maturation. Therefore, with sufficient water and nutrients in winter, the inhibitory effect of elevated CO2 on foliage could be partially offset by elevated temperatures and relatively high P. maximum foliage production could be achieved under future climatic change. PMID:26894932

  18. Leaf Dynamics of Panicum maximum under Future Climatic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Britto de Assis Prado, Carlos Henrique; Haik Guedes de Camargo-Bortolin, Lívia; Castro, Érique; Martinez, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Panicum maximum Jacq. ‘Mombaça’ (C4) was grown in field conditions with sufficient water and nutrients to examine the effects of warming and elevated CO2 concentrations during the winter. Plants were exposed to either the ambient temperature and regular atmospheric CO2 (Control); elevated CO2 (600 ppm, eC); canopy warming (+2°C above regular canopy temperature, eT); or elevated CO2 and canopy warming (eC+eT). The temperatures and CO2 in the field were controlled by temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) and mini free-air CO2 enrichment (miniFACE) facilities. The most green, expanding, and expanded leaves and the highest leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaves day-1) and leaf elongation rate (LER, cm day-1) were observed under eT. Leaf area and leaf biomass were higher in the eT and eC+eT treatments. The higher LER and LAR without significant differences in the number of senescent leaves could explain why tillers had higher foliage area and leaf biomass in the eT treatment. The eC treatment had the lowest LER and the fewest expanded and green leaves, similar to Control. The inhibitory effect of eC on foliage development in winter was indicated by the fewer green, expanded, and expanding leaves under eC+eT than eT. The stimulatory and inhibitory effects of the eT and eC treatments, respectively, on foliage raised and lowered, respectively, the foliar nitrogen concentration. The inhibition of foliage by eC was confirmed by the eC treatment having the lowest leaf/stem biomass ratio and by the change in leaf biomass-area relationships from linear or exponential growth to rectangular hyperbolic growth under eC. Besides, eC+eT had a synergist effect, speeding up leaf maturation. Therefore, with sufficient water and nutrients in winter, the inhibitory effect of elevated CO2 on foliage could be partially offset by elevated temperatures and relatively high P. maximum foliage production could be achieved under future climatic change. PMID:26894932

  19. Elm leaf beetle performance on ozone-fumigated elm. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, J.H.; Hall, R.W.; Townsend, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Leaves (1986) from elm hybrids ('Pioneer', 'Homestead', '970') previously fumigated in open-top chambers with ozone or with charcoal-filtered air (CFA) were evaluated for water and nitrogen content or were fed to adult elm leaf beetles (ELB), Xanthogaleruca = (Pyrrhalta) luteola (Muller), to determine host suitability for beetle fecundity and survivorship. ELB females fed ozone-fumigated leaves laid significantly fewer eggs than females fed CFA-fumigated leaves. Leaf nitrogen or water content was unaffected. Hybrid '970' (1988) was fumigated with CFA or with ozone concentrations to determine effects on ELB fecundity, leaf consumption, and survivorship. Significantly fewer eggs were laid at the higher concentration of ozone. Because higher levels of ozone are found in urban areas and because municipalities often replace American elms, Ulmus americana L., with Dutch elm disease-resistant elm hybrids that are susceptible to ELB defoliation, it is important to explore the relationships between ozone sensitivity of elm and susceptibility to ELB herbivory before recommending replacement use of these elms to municipal arborists. The study was conducted to determine whether ozone pollution influences host quality of elm for ELB and how ELB fecundity, leaf consumption rate, and survivorship are affected.

  20. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  1. Possible Roles of Strigolactones during Leaf Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yusuke; Umehara, Mikihisa

    2015-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a complicated developmental process that involves degenerative changes and nutrient recycling. The progress of leaf senescence is controlled by various environmental cues and plant hormones, including ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, cytokinins, and strigolactones. The production of strigolactones is induced in response to nitrogen and phosphorous deficiency. Strigolactones also accelerate leaf senescence and regulate shoot branching and root architecture. Leaf senescence is actively promoted in a nutrient-poor soil environment, and nutrients are transported from old leaves to young tissues and seeds. Strigolactones might act as important signals in response to nutrient levels in the rhizosphere. In this review, we discuss the possible roles of strigolactones during leaf senescence. PMID:27135345

  2. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants’ regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES

  3. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.

  4. On the relationship between radiation-stimulated photoluminescence and nitrogen atoms in p-4 H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. A.; Ber, B. Ya.; Bogdanova, E. V.; Seredova, N. V.; Kazantsev, D. Yu.; Kozlovski, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) appearing in p-4 H-SiC upon its electron irradiation has been studied. A model that accounts for the dependence of the PL intensity on the irradiation dose is suggested. The conclusion is drawn that nitrogen-radiation defect donor-acceptor pairs are PL activators.

  5. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DISSOLVED NITROGEN AND LANDUSE/LANDCOVER AT TWO SPATIAL SCALES IN THE CALAPOOIA RIVER WATERSHED, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Calapooia River, a major tributary to the Willamette River in Oregon, provides an outstanding opportunity to study dynamics of dissolved nitrogen (DN) in a multiple landuse watershed. The watershed is typical of many found in the Willamette basin, with National Forest land i...

  6. Empirical Relationship Between Eelgrass Extent and predicted Watershed-derived Nitrogen Loading for Shallow New England Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrasses provide important ecological services that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being and the environment. Excess nitrogen inputs are a major cause of losses of eelgrass in the marine environment. In this paper we describe the results of a field-based empirical s...

  7. Leaf age dependent changes in within-canopy variation in leaf functional traits: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ülo

    2016-05-01

    Within-canopy variation in leaf structural and photosynthetic characteristics is a major means by which whole canopy photosynthesis is maximized at given total canopy nitrogen. As key acclimatory modifications, leaf nitrogen content (N A) and photosynthetic capacity (A A) per unit area increase with increasing light availability in the canopy and these increases are associated with increases in leaf dry mass per unit area (M A) and/or nitrogen content per dry mass and/or allocation. However, leaf functional characteristics change with increasing leaf age during leaf development and aging, but the importance of these alterations for within-canopy trait gradients is unknown. I conducted a meta-analysis based on 71 canopies that were sampled at different time periods or, in evergreens, included measurements for different-aged leaves to understand how within-canopy variations in leaf traits (trait plasticity) depend on leaf age. The analysis demonstrated that in evergreen woody specie